Citation
China mission year book

Material Information

Title:
China mission year book
Added title page title:
China Christian Year Book
Creator:
MacGillivray, D ( Donald ), 1862-
Christian Literature Society for China
National Christian Council of China
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
Christian Literature Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions, Medical -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Directories -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
亞洲 -- 中國
Coordinates:
35 x 103 ( China )

Notes

Bibliography:
Inc. indices.
General Note:
Issues for 1920-1922, 1927, 1930, 1933/4, 1935/6 were not published. After 1925 continues as "China Christian year book".
General Note:
Editors: 1910-1915 D. MacGillivray;

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
353641 ( aleph )
X192075321 ( oclc )

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Full Text
THE
CHINA CHRISTIAN
YEAR BOOK
1926
(FOURTEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA "MISSION"
YEAR BOOK)
Issued under arrangement between the Christian Literature
Society for China and the National Christian Council of
China under the Direction of the following Editorial Board
appointed by the National Christian Council
Rev. K. T. Chung Dr. D. W. Lyon
Rev. E. H. Cressy Dr. D. MacGillivray
Miss Lily Haas Dr. J. L Maxwell
Rev. Carleton Lacy Dr. W. W. Peter
Dr. R. Y. Lo Dr. E. W. Wallace
Rev. E. C. Lobenstine Miss Helen Thoburn
EDITOR
Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D.D.
Editor, Chinese Recorder.
SHANGHAI
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY
J 926




PREFACE
rpiiE China "Mission" Year Book appears tliis jrear as the China
JL "Christian" Year Book. This change of titte is indicative
of a change in emphasis. Up till recently., tlie Christian
Movement in China has, of necessity, been mission'-centHg. It is
now becoming China Christian-centric. This process of change
has not proceeded very far nor does it move very'fast when all
phases and types of Christian work in China are considered.
Nevertheless a new fulcrum for Christian work in China is being
placed in position. Adjustment thereto is proceeding as rapidly
as possible.
This year the Editorial Board has attempted to i nclude-more
articles of a general and survey type than formerly. Success in
this regard is not all that was planned or desired. Tile Christian
Movement is somewhat less coherent than it was a few years ago.
To this must be added the influence of the social and political
upheaval apparent everywhere but particularly in those centres
which feel most the impact of the West and are most easily affected
by revolutionary influences. School work has been more disturbed
than any other type of work. In view, therefore, of the excep-
tional difficulties abounding special thanks are due to the many
writers and friends who assisted in the preparation < f the articles
in this Year Book. Especially do we appreciate the generous help
of those who answered a number of questionaries sent out by
different writers.
In this Year Book a number of features stand out which need
only be mentioned here.
(1) The outstanding characteristic of the Christian Movement
and its present environment is a changing mind. As a result a
considerable proportion of space in this Year Book is given up to
opinions on the present situation and existing problems. These
opinions, however, have their source in experience that is widely
scattered and in close contact with "interior" as well as "port
city" conditions. Opinions, however, stand out in this volume
rather more than programs or achievements. As regards Christian
work this changing mind reveals itself in an experimental attitude
wherever spiritual life is in evidence.
Much work is going on in spite of existing chaotic
conditions. A number of reconstructive beginnings are apparent.
Little is being done in the way of securing political stability or
governmental reform. In education, however, as well as in the
study of social problems much effort of a fundamentally recon-
structive nature is in evidence. A number of experiments in
meeting problems of the religious life and religious education are


iv
PREFACE
also found here and there. Such reconstructive efforts are essential
to the laying of the foundations upon which more general social
welfare and stability must be built. Some definite efforts to meet
the anti-Chirstian Movement have also emerged. The Y. M. C. A.,
at its Convention held in Tsinan in August, 1920, planned its
message to this particular end. Books and articles by Chinese
Christians, aiming to interpret the Christian Movement, have also
appeared. Some Chinese educators are also drawing attention to
the necessity of including religion in educational programs and in
the life of students.
(3) The chief note struck with regards to Christianity, where
there is articulation at least, is the desire to understand and follow
Christ's way of life. This includes another promising sign that,
in spite of the comparative lack of cohesion in the Christian
Movement as a whole, there is a slowly growing desire and effort to
promote Cliirstian fellowship as distinct from and above the claims
and efforts of ecclesiastical, denominational or theological unity.
It is felt by some that this higher and freer Christian fellowship is
possible even though intellectual and ecclesiastical unity is hardly
a practical question at the present time.
(4) All the above movements are influenced to some extent by
the increasing articulation of the Chinese consciousness about its
indigenous problems and the rising impulse of what is called the
"Chinese religious genius." This latter impulse is seen in a
widespread questioning as to the relation of Christianity to China's
religious history and experience. However one may interpret or
value these, the fact remains that in the immediate future Christian
workers will have to reckon with them and indeed learn to value
and utilize them as far as possible.
Difficulties galore confront Christian workers in China. For
many of the situations no precedents exist. They will have to be
made. This fact is slowly emerging in the consciousness of Christ-
ian workers both Chinese and Western. To some extent the
intensity of feelings which marked 1925 has subsided. A growing
desire and determination to solve existing problems in a Christlike
way promises much for the future.


CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE iii
CONTENTS v
CONTRIBUTORS ix
PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINA
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTINTERPRETATIVE IN-
TRODUCTION EDITOR. xiv
PART I. THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NA-
TIONAL AFFAIRS.
Chapter
I. The Protestant Christian Movement and
Political Events
Harley Farnsworth MacNair 1
II. Missionaries and Special Privilege
Harold Balme 25
III. Some Historical Points Concerning The So-
Called "Unequal Treaties."
J. J. Heeren 35
IV. China's Position at the Institute op Pacific
Relations ..............................L. T. Chen 45
V. Christianity tn the Treaties Between China
and Other Nations.........E. C. Lobenstine 51
PART II. RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND ACTIVITY.
VI. Trends in China's Religious Life...Gilbert Reid 71
VII. The Present Chinese Attitude towards
Christianity...........................Y. K. Woo 80
VIII. Chinese Christian Unions ...............Z. K. Zia 8ti
IX. The Greek Orthodox Church in China
Y. Y. Tsu 89


vi
CONTENTS
Chapter Page
PART III. CHURCH LIFE AND ACTIVITIES.
X. Cooperative Christian Activities tn China
in 1925 ........................Eugene E. Barnett 94
XI. Special Problems in Evangelism
Frank Rawlinson 116
XII. Changes in Chinese Church............T. C. Ban 132
XIII. Support op Christian Work Compared with
that op Chinese Ceremonies and
Practices..............................A.J. Bowen 138
.XIV. The Growth of Intercommunion ...A. R. Kepler 144
PART IV* MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES.
XV. The Present Strength, Distribution and Age
op the Missionary Body .........S.J.Mills 151
XVI. Tendencies in Mission Policy as Shown in
Mission Reports op 1925
Warren H. Stuart 154
XVII. The Changing Function op the Missionary
Logan H. Roots 162
XVIII. Missionary Work as Seen at the Institute op
Pacific Relations ...............E. J. Stuckey 174
XIX. The Relation of Mission and Church
E. C. Lobenstine 178
XX. Critical Moments in the History of Chris-
tianity in China ...............H. F. MacNair 196
PART V. EDUCATION AND STUDENTS*
XXI. Christian Education in 1925
Edward Wilson Wallace 224
XXII. Recent Developments in Chinese "Government
Education..............................Fong F. Sec. 236
XXIII. Experiments in Religious Education
C. S. Miao 242
XXIV. Chinese Classics in School Textbooks
Tseu Yih-zan 247
XXV, Economic Status of Christian Schools and
Economic Strength of China.,.A. J. Bowen 253


CONTENTS
vii
Chapter Page
XXVI. Educational Conditions a*d Student Life
T. Z. Koo 260
XXVII. Evangelistic Work in Colleges and Univer-
sities.......................................T. L. Shen 274
XXVIII. National Association for the Advancement
of Education ..............................P. Ling 281
XXIX. The China Foundation for the Promotion of
Education and Culture........................... 289
PART VI. SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS.
XXX. The Public Attitude to Labor in China
J. B. Tayler 296
XXXI. Cooperative Credit in China ......Y. S. Djang 303
XXXII. Reforming Farm Life............John H. Reisner 308
XXXIII. China Famine Fund Balance Committee
John H. Reisner 315
XXXIV. Recent Anti-Opium Activities
K. T. Chung and Garfield Huang 326
PART VII. MEDICAL AND HEALTH WORK.
XXXV. Medical Missions 1925 and After
James L. Maxwell 339
XXXVI. The Nurses' Association of China
Nina D. Gage 351
XXXVII. Modern Chinese Physicians and Practice
Wu Lien Teh 355
PART VIII. LITERATURE.
XXXVIII. Main Tendencies in Literary Circles
William Hung 364
XXXIX. New Trends in Literature......J. Wesley Shen 370
XL. Phonetic Systems .....................John Darroch 376
XLI. Some Books and Articles on Chhna (English)
Frank Rawlinson 380


viii
contents
Chapter Page
XLII. Chinese Christian Publications, 1925, Li-
brary op the National Christian Council 399
XLII I. Some Classified Devotional and Inspira-
tional Literature with Annotations 418
XLIY. Philosophical and Religious Thought in-
China.................................F. R. Millican 423
PART IX. OBITUARIES, 470
PART X. APPENDICES.
I. Amended Constitution op the Kwangtung
Divisional Council op the Church op
Christ in China...................................... 474
II. Resolutions op National Students' Union in
re Christianity....................................... 480
III. Actions of Mission Organizations in re Ex-
trality and toleration clauses ............ 483
IV. Notes on Missionary Property Titles in
China ...........................A. L. Warnshuis 535


CONTRIBUTORS
(FIGURES IN PARATHESES INDICATE DATES OF
FIRST ARRIVAL IN CHINA)
Page
Balme, Harold, F.R.C.S., D.P.H., L.R.C.P. (1906) Missionaries
and Special Privilege.
English Baptist. President, Shantung Christian Uni-
versity. Formerly Vice-Chairman, National Christian
Council ........................ 25
Barnett, Eugene E., B.A. (1910) Cooperative Christian,
Activities in China in 1925.
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Foreign Depart-
ment, National Council Y.M.C.A.s of U.S. and Canada.
Secretary, National Committee, Y.M.C.A.s of China ... 94
Bau, T. C. Changes in Chinese Church.
Hangchow Baptist Church. Secretary, Chekiang-Shang-
hai Baptist Convention............ ... ... 132
Bowen, Arthur John, B.A., L.L.D. (1897) Support of Christian
Work Compared Vith that of Chinese Ceremonies and
Practices. Economic Status of Christian Schools and
Economic Strength of China.
Methodist Episcopal. President, University of Nanking. 138,253
Chen, L. T., B.A. (Yale) China's Position at the Institute
of Pacific Relations.
Methodist Church. Secretary, City Division, National
Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China... ...... ... ... 45
Chung, K. T., B.A. Recent Anti-Opium Activities.
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretary, National Chris-
tian Council. General Secretary, National Anti-Opium
Association...... ... ......_ ...... ... 326
Darroch, John, D. Lltt., O.B.E. (1887) Phonetic Systems.
General Agent of Religious Tract Society, London, for
China and Korea ... ......... ......... 376


X
CONTRIBUTORS
Page
Djang, Y. S., B.A. (Cornell) Cooperative Credit in China.
Acting Executive Secretary, China International Famine
Relief Commission .................. 303
Fong F. Sec, B.L., M.A., LL.D. Recent Developments in
Chinese Government Education.
Cantonese Union Church, Shanghai. Chief English
Editor, The Commercial Press. Chairman, National
Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China. President, Chinese
Y.M.C.A., Shanghai. President, Daily Vacation Bible
Schools of China. Vice-President, The Chinese Mission
to Lepers ........................ 236
Gage, Nina D., M.A., R.N. (1908) The Nurses' Association
of China.
Yale Foreign Missionary Society. Dean, Hunan-Yale
School of Nursing, Changsha. Chairman, Education
Committee, Nurses' Association of China. President,
International Council of Nurses. Member of Council on
Hospital Administration, China Medical Association ... 351
Heeren, J. J., M.A., B.D., Ph.D. (1911) Some Historical
Points Concerning the So-Called 'Unequal Treaties.'
American Presbyterian (North). Head of Department of
History and Political Science, Shantung Christian Uni-
versity, Tsinan .................. ... 35
Huang, Garfield, B.D. Recent Anti-Opium Activities.
Chinese Christian Church of South tfukien. Secretary,
National Anti-Opium Association of China (allocated by
National Christian Council) ............... 326
Hung, William, M.A., S.T.B. Main Tendencies in Literary
Circles.
Methodist. Dean, College of Arts & Sciences for men,
Yenching University, Peking............... 364
Kepler, A. R., A.B. (1901) The Growth of Intercommunion.
American Presbyterian Mission. Executive Secretary,
Provisional General xVssembly of the Church, of Christ in
China........................... 144
Koo, T. Z., B.A. Educational Conditions and Student
Life.
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Associate General Secre-
tary, Y.M.C.A. National Committee. National Student
Executive Secretary, Y.M.C.A. National Committee.
Executive Secretary, Student Volunteer Movement ... 260


CONTRIBUTORS
xi
Page
Ling, P., A.B., M.A., Ph.D. National Association for the
Advancement of Education.
Chinese Independent Church. Sometime Commissioner
of Education of Honan. Sometime Dean of Nankai
University, Tientsin. Director of Research of the
National Association for the Advancement of Education. 281
Lobsnstine, Rev. E. C. (1898) Christianity in the Treaties
Between China and Other Nations. The Relation of
Mission and Church.
American Presbyterian, North. Secretary of the
National Christian Council, Shanghai ... ... 51, 178
MacNafr, Harley Farnsworth, Pb.D. (1912) The Protestant
Christian Movement and Political Events. Critical
Moments in the History of Christianity in China.
American Church Mission. Professor of History and
Government, St. John's University, Shanghai ...... 1, 196
Maxwell, James L., -M.D., B.S. (London' University) (1901)
Medical Missions 1925 and After.
English Presbyterian. Secretary, China Medical Asso-
ciation. Editor, China Medical Journal ... ... ... 339
Miao, C. S., A.B., M.A., Ph.D., B.D. Experiments in
Religious Education.
North # Shanghai Baptist Church. Secretary of the
Council of Religious Education, China Christian Educa-
tional Association............ ......... 242
MHlfcan, F. RB.A. (1907) Philosophical and Religious
Thought tn China.
American^ Presbyterian, North. Principal, Union Middle
School, Ningpo, until July, 1926, now vice-principal with
Chinese principal ...' ...... ...... ... ... 423
Mills, S. J., A.B. (1911) The Present Strength, Distribution,
and Age of the Missionary Body.
American Presbyterian, North. Dean of Department of
Missionary Training, University of Nanking,'Nanking... 151
Rawlmson, Frank, M.A., D.D. (1902) Present Charac-
teristics of the China Christian Movement. Special
Problems in Evangelism. Some Books and Articles on
China (English). .
A.B.C.F.M. Editor, The Chinese Recorder and China
Christian Year Book ............ XIV, 116, 380


xii

Page
Reid, Gilbert M. A:, D.D. (1882) Trends in China's Religious
Life.
PriesbyWian Church of China. Director, International
Institute of China..................... 71
Reisner, Jotih H., B.A.; MIS.A. (1914) Reforming Farm Life.
China Famine Fund Balance Committee.
American Presbyterian, North. Co-Dean, College of
Agriculture and Forestry, University of Nanking, and
Co-Director of Agricultural Experimental Stations. 308, 315
Roots, Bishop Logan H., M.X., D.D, (1896) The Changing
Function of the Missionary.
American Church Mission. Bishop, Hankow District.
Hon. Secretary, National Christian Council ...... 162
Shen, T. L., B.S. Evangelistic Work in Colleges and
Universities.
Allen Memorial Church, Shanghai. Student Secretary,
National Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China.......... 274
Shen, J;"Wesley, B.D; New Trends in Literature.
Methodist, South. Acting General Secretary, National
Christian Literature Society ... ............ 370
Stuart; Warren H.,; B.A,, M.A., B.D;, D.D. (1907) Tendencies
in Mission Policy as Shown in Mission Reports of 1925.
American Presbyterian, North. Professor of Old Testa-
ment, Nanking Theological Seminary, Nanking ...... 154
Stuckey, E. J., O.B.E., B.Sc., M.B., B.S. (1905) Missionary
Work as Seen at the Institute of .Pacific Relations.
London Missionary Society. Medical Superintendent of
the Mackenzie Memorial Hospital, Tientsin ... ... 174
Tayler, J. B., M.Sc. (1906) The Public Attitude to Labor
in China.
London Missionary Society. Professor, Yenching Uni-
versity, Peking ..................... 290
Tseu Yih-zani Hslis Tsaf, B.A. Chinese Classics in School
Textbooks.
Methodist, South. Dean, English Department, Univer-
sity of Shanghai. Dean, School of English, Commercial
Press Correspondence Schools, Shanghai ......... 247


contributors
xiii
Page
Tsii, Y. Y., P.D., MA., Ph.D. The Greek Orthodox
Church in China.
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretary of Religious
Work, Peking Union Medical College. Member of
Clergy of Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, Diocese of North
China........................... 89
"Wallace, Edward Wilson, B.A., M.A., B.D.> D.D. (1906)
Christian Education in 1925.
Canadian Methodist. Associate General Secretary,
China Christian Educational Association......... 224
Wamshuis, Rev. A. L., D,D. Notes on Missionary Prop-
erty Titles in China.
Sometime missionary to China in connection with the
Reformed Church in Amoy: sometime Evangelistic
Secretary of the China Continuation Committee: now a
secretary of the International Missionary Council ... 535
Woo, Y. K. The Present Chinese Attitude Towards
Christianity.
Methodist, South. Executive Secretary, Publication
Department, National Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China ... 80
Wu, Lien Teh, M. A., M.D. (Cambridge) LL.D., Sc.D. Modern
Chinese Physicians and Practice.
Head of the Manchurian Plague Prevention Service,
Harbin. Physician Extraordinary to the President of
China. Editor in Chief, National Medical Journal of
China........................... 355
Zia, Z. K.t M.A. Chinese Christian Unions.
Presbyterian Church. x Formerly editor, The Young
People's Friend. A member of the staff of the Christian
Literature Society....................................86


PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINA
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT.
Interpretative Introduction
Editor.
The China Christian' Movement is in a state
of flux. Its appearance varies with the angle
from which it is viewed. For the nonce its
problems stand out more than its achievements. Wide-
spread and intense mental activity obscures to some extent
other phases of Christian activity. Change is writ large over
much of Christian work. Just what the changes will be
none would dare prophesy. Looked at from the viewpoint
of its environment everything is chaotic. China's political
future eannot be forecast with any certainty. China has
not yet found her political mind. The Christian Movement
is the recipient of criticism from merchant -Westerner in
China and from the Chinese, both within and without the
Church. Critical scrutiny is the keynote of the general
public attitude towards the Christian Church. Never-
theless the situation shows signs of promise. For in spite
of the chaotic environment and the flood of criticism,
constructive efforts are being put forth, both within and
without the Christian Church, that though comparatively
small in extent are yet of much greater significance than
the small amount of public attention given to them invests
them with. To these constructive beginnings further
attention will be given later in this article.
The numerical strength of the Christian
Strength Movement is at present unknown. It has not
Unknown been gauged statistically since the survey
volume appeared in 1922. In all probability
the numerical rate of increase has slowed np. Whether
this be so or not there is no doubt that the Christian
Movement has never occupied so much the attention of the
General
Situation


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
Chinese people and stirred their mind so deeply as now.
The Christian Movement has become a living reality in the
Chinese mind.
Chinese Christians may be divided into, two
of Ghines"PS grollPs- First there is the inarticulate mass.
Christians3 ^ frequently assumed that this
inarticulate mass of Chinese Christians thinks
differently from the second and numerically small group
of articulate Christians. As a matter of fact this inarticulate
mass is practically an unknown quantity. The probabili-
ties are that as they wake up they will follow the lead of
the articulate group. In any event we are inclined to
think of the future of the Chinese Church in terms of the
comparatively small articulate group of Chinese Christians,
and to look for the developments, that are taking place
where they are active, to appear elsewhere within the next
decade. Since the mass of Chinese Christians is inarticulate
one cannot safely generalize as to their characteristics and
possibilities. What is said hereafter, therefore, as to the
characteristics of the Christian Movement in China will
concern itself of necessity mainly with those of the
articulate Chinese Christian group.
Two Two tendencies mark this articulate group
Tendencies of of Chinese Christians. In the first place they
Articulate are self-conscious. This heads up in a desire
Christians self-determining. In the second place
ris ans there is a movement towards reorganization of
thought and work: this is still mainly a matter of mental
readjustment. Independent Chinese Church movements
seem to be on the increase. During 1925 a large number of
Christian Unions sprang up, mainly with a view to the
organization of Christian public opinion with regards to
present treaty issues. In South China particularly the
reorganization of Christian work under pressure from
Chinese Christians has made rapid progress. All these are
signs of the new articulation of Chinese Christians. The
impulse to this articulation is from within not from
without the Chinese Christian heart and mind. This is its
most significant feature. It is a most promising movement
of life. It is this impulse that will in time move the still


XXviii
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
inarticulate mass also. For this reason we said that the
future of the Christian Church in China must be measured
in terms of the group of articulate and live Christians.
This beginning of the articulation of the
Factors11111611 Chinese Christian forces is in large part due
to certain factors in the changing environ-
ment. The Christian Church has in many places been
subjected to tremendous environmental pressure. Under
such circumstances readjustment was inevitable. Of some
of these factors it is well to remind ourselves.
May30 The events of May 30 (1925) in Shanghai
have been called China's 14 Boston Tea Party/'
The sequel at Canton in June is an occurrence of similar
import. No matter how Westerners may interpret or
explain these events, the fact remains that they served as
a reagent to precipitate and crystallize the Chinese nationa-
listic spirit. In this process of crystallization the mind of
the Chinese Christians participated. The rapidity of
response to these events varied somewhat with the distance
from the places of their occurence. The response was
nevertheless nation-wide. Within about two months, for
instance, these events were known on the edge of Tibet,
with the result that there was talk even there of action
against local foreigners. Feelings that had been slowly
developing since 1900 suddenly sprang into the forefront of
attention. A wave of nationalism surged around and
through the Church. Where the pressure was sufficently
strong it showed in a feeling among Chinese Christians that
they must win respect for the Church by making it self-
directing and by moving towards self-expression. This,
among other things, while to some extent a matter of
strategy, was much more an effort to realize spiritual
freedom.
, Reference is frequently made to the in-
InfhiSceiSt fluence of Communists or Bolsheviks in bring-
ing about the changed situation that now
confronts the Christian Church. Communistic influences
have been very apparent in Canton and to some extent in
Swatow. But even there they were not the only or
dominant influence. Communistic activities were noted in


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT

other places also. Mr. T. Z. Koo says that there was a
well-organized and active movement among the schools.
It was, howrever, only small. Certainly, taking the whole
Christian Movement into account, Communism as such does
not loom up as a dominant factor, though it is far from
being a negligible influence. But it has not been a primary
influence in the environmental pressure which has made
itself felt in the life of the Christian Church. This fact is
borne out by the loss of prestige and influence which fell
to Chen Tu Hsiu, once most popular, as a result of his full
and open advocacy of communistic principles. The
primary influence has been nationalism. Politically and
outside the Church it centers in a desire to win autonomy
which the Chinese consider to some extent they have lost.
Inside the Church it is motivated by the desire to realize
the spiritual freedom which Chinese Christians have been
taught is their Christian privilege. In addition China is
trying to fit into a changing world. The political and
social flux that is whirling around within China is part of
a world flux outside.
One result of this external pressure to
ChrSian Work ^e Christian Church in China is
Shifting subjected, and the impulse to self-direction
within the heart of the Chinese Church itself,
is that the focus of Christian work in China has shifted.
The driving impulse of Christian work in China has until
quite recently had its source and base in the West. That
was unavoidable. The hope of those who have given
lavishly to set up the Christian Religion in China has been
that its moving impulse would find its center in China.
The process of centering Christian work in China has been
going on for a long time. It is not too much to say that
the events of the last year or two have made this hope a
reality. The fulcrum of Christian work in China is now in
China. It is true that until the inarticulate mass also puts
its hands to the lever it may wabble somewhat. Neverthe-
less the impulse to the Christianization of China is now
to some extent a Chinese impulse. The Chinese Church
is indigenous to the extent that the Christian impulse now
moves within the Christian Church in China, The Chinese


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
ChiiTch is beginning to make its own response to the
Christian Message. A need is thus felt for the formulation
of a Chinese Christian aim as over against the effort to
carry out the aim of Western Christian Churches. The
Chinese Christian mind is beginning to express itself.
Western Christian workers in China are endeavoring to
ascertain what that mind is. Slowly, but none the less
surely, the Chinese Christian heart is realizing its own
direct responsibility to God. In line with the above are
the efforts of Western Christian leaders to ascertain along
what lines Chinese Christian leaders think the Christian
Church should move. One retarding factor is the absence
of any comprehensive coordinating objective in the mind
of all Christian workers in China. Such an objective
cannot be suddenly produced. And we may expect that
the Christian Movement in China will move somewhat
slowly until the Chinese Christian mind has found itself,
the Western Christian understands that mind and both
together find a coordinating objective. It is not part of the
purpose of this article to attempt to forecast that objective.
Christian work in China then, taken as
Condition of a whle probably been slowed up
Christian Workas a result of nationalistic agitation and
militaristic activities. Yet in many centres
it has gone on much as usual. Here and there Christian
property has been sequestered either by militarists or
radically minded Chinese. Occasionally Christian worship
has been interfered with. But with few exceptions the
missionaries have remained at their posts, though often
with considerable misgiving. A brief reference will be
made to some outstanding characteristics of the various
types of Christian work now being carried on.
. In some centers evangelistic work has come
^Evan cHstic'' almost to a standstill, but in most of them
Work 8C S the Gospel has been preached as usual.
Comprehensive evangelistic campaigns are
not the order of the day. Where such campaigns are
carried on they are local. Here and there one hears of
unusual evangelistic work by Chinese evangelists. In
addition to the traditional method of special evangelistic


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT

appeals for life decisions there is now .appearing a new
evangelistic emphasis. In contrast with the holding of
special meetings, the effort in this connection is to induce
prolonged thought and meditation about matters religious,
jfiming at the setting up of a religious life-bent without
pressing for a definite moment of public decision. Ill
other words this new emphasis seeks to reduce to a
minimum all emotional pressure on non-Christians with
a view to leading them spontaneously, through personal
rather than public influences, to espouse the Christian
way of living. This emphasis is more noticeable among
student workers than elsewhere. In general the Christian
Message receives a cordial hearing. The evangelistic
opportunity has suffered little contraction. In contrast,
however, to this willingness to listen to the Christian
Message is a decided increase in hesitancy to accept it. This
seems to be more in evidence among students but is by no
means entirely a matter of students alone. It is one
result of the critical scrutiny now being given to all things
foreign and religious. It is also to some extent an indirect
response to the same attitude of critical scrutiny towards
things religious now sweeping all over the world. It
indicates perhaps a more careful weighing of the Christian
Message, which in turn promises a greater depth of
conviction when that Message is finally accepted.
Educational work has felt more than any
Educational other tyPe of Christian work in China the
Work present waves of criticism and nationalism.
This is perhaps due to the facts that
schools are an important opinion-forming factor, that
the Chinese are more vitally interested in education
than in religion as such and that in the mission schools
extra-national influences are felt in essentially extra-
nationalistic and contrasting types of education. Further-
more, the students have been the main strength of
the nationalistic movement in China. The churches, on
the other hand, are much less under foreign control than
the schools. For a while after the agitations of 1925
it looked as though Christian schools would suffer
tremendously. Actually the number of students in


Six characteristics of christian movement
Christian schools did decrease and the number in
government schools go up during the year. Intensively,
however, the work in Christian schools seems to have
benefited by the weeding out of a considerable number of
students whose lesser interest was studying and whose
major interest was agitation.
Ncw, Various and numerous educational organiza-
Regulations tions have passed resolutions anent the
position of Christian education. As a result
the Ministry of Education passed certain r_ew regulations
for schools which were intended to settle the position of
u private n schools, to which class Christian schools belong.
These new educational regulations embodied two major
aims. (1) The securing of educational autonomy, or the
control of schools in China by Chinese. With this
legitimate Chinese desire Christian workers generally found
it easy to get into accord. Having the majority of school
board members Chinese and having a Chinese president or
vice-president who might act as the intermediary between
Chinese educational authorities and Christian schools when
needed, were requirements the missionaries found little
difficulty with. (2). The second major emphasis, that of a
clear-cut separation between religious instruction and
education as such, caused some perturbation and hesitancy
on the part of Qhristian educationists as it seemed that it
might be interpreted to mean that Christian schools must
lay aside their Christian purpose. This difficulty was
found in clause five and the last part of clause six of the
new regulations. "The institution shall not have as its
purpose religious proselytization." "It shall not include
religious courses among the required subjects." L
In February, 1926, the Council of Higher
Christian Education appointed a Commission to take the
to New matter up with the Ministry of Education
Regulations with a view to securing, if possible, an inter-
pretation of the sentences deemed ambiguous.
In the meantime Christian schools were urged to act on the
other regulations. A number of other Christian educational
organizations acted along similar lines. Finalty Dr. T. T.
Lew sent in on June 28, 1926 ii personal petition to the


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
Ministry of Education that an interpretation of the debated
clauses be issued. On July 6, 1926, the Minister of Educa-
tion issued the following interpretation, which is translated
from the Chinese by Dr. T. T. Lew. In answering the
petition for an interpretation of Clause Five of the
Regulations Concerning the Recognition of Schools Established
with Contributions Made by Foreigners, as to whether the
Clause solely emphasizes the aim of the school or whether
it is inconsistent with the freedom of religious faith
and of the propagation of religion, etc., our official answer
is that Clause Five of the said regulations promulgated
means that when an educational institution is established
it should have as its aim the educational' aim which
is formulated and proclaimed by the Ministry. It means
that in the institution there should be no compulsion
on any student to accept any religious faith or to attend
any religious rites and ceremonies. It sets no limitation
whatever upon liberty of religious faith and the liberty of
propagating religion." This interpretation became valid
on the date of its appearance. It seems to' make it clear
that the element of so-called compulsion in relation to
religion must be eliminated from schools. This would
seem, as some Chinese claim, to fit in with the Chinese
religious genius, which leaves the acceptance of religion a
purely voluntary matter even to the extent of reducing
emotional pressure on people to accept it to the minimum.
In schools at least it reduces religious propaganda to
personal influences mainly and to voluntary cooperative
study of Christian truth and. books. This is, of course, a
new situation that calls for a new approach to the whole
problem of religious education. To solve it calls for
creative experimentation.
. Medical work, though the most philan-
IvLdlcaTVorfc fc^roPic in intent and the least propaganda in
method, has yet received some of the hardest
blows the radical elements in China have struck at Christian
work. The long established Canton Hospital and the
Southern Baptist Hospital at Wuchow, Kwangsi, were
forced to close. A Christian doctor was forced out of Kung
Yee Hospital, Canton, even after assurances that changes in


XXviii
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
administration would not affect his position. Yet medical
work has in general proceeded much as usual. Though
devolution in medical work has been behind that of evang-
elistic and educational work there seems practically no move,
outside of the sporadic cases given above, to force the issue
in medical work on general a scale as has happened in
both the other types of work. Since, the article on medical
work in this issue (page 839) was written the missionary
division of The China Medical Association has approved of
comprehensive plans for devolution. This action was
taken on September 7, 1926. (China Medical Journal,
1926, September, page 909). Christian medical work
confronts two problems. (1) Putting itself on a basis
where it can in every case serve to provide models of how
medical work should be carried on. (2) Applying the
principles of modern medicine to those Chinese under
Christian influence or in Christian institutions particularly.
Improvement along these two lines would raise the
educational influence of Christian medical work to its
maximum power.
, At the present moment three aspects of social
Industrial Effort anc* re^orm work stand out from the viewpoint
of Christian interest therein. The National
Christian Council through a special commission is stimulat-
ing interest in industrial problems in about eighteen
centers. Two emphases stand out in the work of this
Commission. First, it acts as an educational stimulant.
It is endeavoring to create interest in industrial conditions
among the Christian forces. Particular effort is being
made to educate the Chinese pastors as to the relation of
their churches to the problem of making a living as it
exists in their own community. Second, it is initiating
research projects into certain phases. of the whole in-
dustrial problem. It is felt that the facts of the situation
must be better understood ere specific and workable
solutions will be discovered.
The second aspect of social work that has
Cammade progress is in conncction with the
anti-narcotic campaign. The Anti-Opium
Association is the direct outcome of the efforts of the


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
National Christian Council. This latter organization is
still assisted financially by the National Christian Council.
It has recently worked out a five-year program and most
of the anti-opium activities are now in the hands of this
Chinese organization.
Neither the Industrial Commission nor the National
Anti-Opium Association has yet succeeded in organizing
in any adequate way the forces within the Christian Church.
It is, however, true that Chinese Christians generally have
responded more freely to the Anti-Opium Movement than
to the movement for industrial reform. The raison d'etre
of the latter is more apparent to the Chinese than that of
the former, for to some extent anti-narcotic ideals are
indigenous. Christian industrial ideals, however, have yet
to be developed. So far it has been possible for Christians
to put forth effort along industrial lines in a small number
of centers only. For these reasons it is easier to secure
Chinese support in an anti-opium campaign than along
lines of industrial reform. The latter movement is still
mainly a foreignized effort.
One other social effort stands out. It is
orFar^Lffc4 not' however, carried on as such by any
national Christian organization, though in
addition to the specific efforts herewith mentioned the
Commission appointed by the National Christian Council
and known as the 44 Commission on Country Church and
Rural Problems,has stimulated much thought and study
along the same line. I refer to the large amount of effort
being put into improving the conditions of farming and
the farmer's life. Investigation of agricultural problems is
being carried on mainly in connection with certain
Christian schools, primarily Nanking University, Yenching
University and Canton Christian College Real and steady
progress is being achieved. In many respects the lead
being taken by Christians is being followed by the Chinese.
The International Famine Relief Commission is also finding
considerable encouragement in its attempt to set up coopera-
tive credit methods among the farmers. The extension of
these efforts to improve farming conditions promises to be


XXviii
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
very rapid in the near future. Like the anti-opium
movement farm improvement is something that the Chinese
readily understand.
. In the field of literature the Christian
Literature forces are still without an adequate program.
Coordination along this line will probably be
achieved only slowly. It is particularly in connection with
Chinese efforts at self-expression through literary agencies
that the missionaries tend towards cleavage in their
thought. The Chinese tend to approach the problem of
Christian literature in an open-minded way allowing free
opportunity for all aspects of Christian thought to express
themselves. The missionaries are divided between such an
open-minded policy and one restricting the output of
literature by Christians to certain definite lines of Christian
belief. Nevertheless the situation has encouraging
features. The National Literature Association (Chinese),
recently organized, is getting under way. Efforts at
producing an independent Chinese Christian literature are
hampered by the dearth of Chinese Christian writers.
Indeed just now even in non-Christian literary circles not
much of moment is being produced. The Christian Litera-
ture Society and the China Tract Society are both
producing special literature to meet the needs of the times.
It is to be hoped that the strain in the missionary mind
anent the Chinese literary interpretation of Christianity
will soon ease off. For in spite of the encouraging amount
of literature now being produced it is only through a
united and nation-wide program that the tremendous need
can be met.
General As ects ^ £enera,l aspects of Christian work in
China may be mentioned at this section of
this interpretative introduction. The educational wing
of the Christian Movement is strongest in organization.
Through the various regional sections of the China Christian
Educational Association the educational leaders are in a
most favorable position to tap the minds of educational
workers and render national service to the Christian Church
through the Christian school. In national organization the


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
literature interests are probably weakest. Both of these
lines of work have particular significance for the Chinese
mind.
. (. In general Christian work in China is in a
State1oitinaI transitional stage. It is passing from being
Christian Work Western-centric to being Chinese-centric. As
a result there is a decided pause in program
making. Adequate programs will not be forthcoming
until the Chinese Christian mind is clarified and better
understood by Western Christian workers. Christian work
in China is entering into a period of experimentation.
Christian workers are entering a creative period. In every
direction earnest search is being made for new methods to
suit the new conditions. One encouraging feature of the
situation is the effort being made to get close to the actual
conditions and problems of Chinese life. It is from this
angle that Christian work in China is becoming Chinese-
centric. The chief problem before all Christian workers is
so to naturalize Christian effort in China that the Christian
religion may be free to make its unique contribution
to China.
, The relationships of Christians to one
Relationships antber is an important aspect of their
message. Weak Christian relationships tend
to put the power of the Christian religion to secure
spiritual unity into a bad light. When Christianity was
judged mainly by local groups with regard to local
activities this was not such an important matter. But how
that Christianity is being viewed as a whole and in terms of
a national movement it is. How far then do Christians in
China move together? How far have they been able to
carry on Christian fellowship as apart from ecclesiastical
and theological unity ?
. The recent Withdrawal of the Chinai Inland
Christian Mission from the National Christian Council
Council bas drawn attention to that body. It is
evident that the National Christian Council
cannot in the divided state of the theological Christian


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
mind stand for any one theological position. Theologically
the relationship of Christians might be described as one of
watchful neutrality. At times this puts a strain upon
Christian amity. There is not at present in China any
dominating theological trend. It is, of course, theological
questions which have caused the strain anent Christian
literature. Happily educational work has been able to
avoid serious trouble with questions of this nature.
The chief function of the National Christian
N^C ^ Council is that of a clearing house for Christian
opinion in China. But here two difficulties
appear which it has not yet been able to overcome. In the
first place Western Christian opinion in China is very
divergent. This is, of course, particularly true with regard
to the question of the political status of Christianity in
China. The National Christian Council has not, therefore,
yet been able to formulate what might be taken as the
general opinion of Christians in this regard. The resolu-
tions given in Appendix III indicate that the majority of
the missionaries feel that the present treaty position of
Christianity should be revised. They differ widely, how-
ever, as to whether such revision should be unconditional
or not. In the second place the National Christian Council
has not been able to form close and effective relationships
with the Chinese Church at large. On the one hand,
therefore, it has not been able to solve the problem of
coordinating Christian activity in certain forms of Christian
work and on the other it is unable to formulate the general
opinion of the Chinese Christians on any matter of Christian
concern. The chaotic condition of the country is one
explanation of this lack of coordination. Another is the
unsolved difficulty of finding how it might represent the
Chinese Church. The third is the difficulty of securing an
adequate Chinese staff. Theological questions also have, to
some extent, prevented cooperation in Christian thought
and service. The problem of national Christian relation-
ships, like that of national political relationships, is in a
state of flux. The National Christian Council, however, is
moving toward a solution of the problem of being China-
centric.


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT

Christian Unity The Problem of Christian Unity is likewise
m a state ot suspension, lne Presbyterians
and the Anglicans have attained a high degree of denomina-
tional integration. The Methodists and Lutherans have
also made some progress in this direction. The Congrega-
tional groups, however, have not attained as high a degree
of national organization in China as their home groups
have long since achieved. Interdenominational Christian
relationships are in a state of suspension. Of late years
less is said about interdenominational Christian unity than
was the case some years since. The move to unite the
Congregationalists and the Presbyterians has no J; yet been
consummated. Here and there are strong interdenomina-
tional movements, the most promising one being that in
South China. But there is no movement towards 4'Christian
unity" in China that is national numerically or in
any other way. Christian comity in the sense of intercom-
munion and interchange of members between churches of
different creeds is receiving little emphasis at present and
interdenominational' ecclesiastical unity is hardly a practical
question. In this respect Christianity in China is following,
at least so far as foreign influence is concerned, denomina-
tional tendencies at the home base. In other words,
theologically and ecclesiastically speaking, Christian rela-
tionships in China are not moving in any particular
direction. And as regards cooperation in thought. and
service, while much is being done, there is no objective that
is serving to coordinate the Christian forces nationally. All
this emphasizes the point already made that the Christian
forces in China lack an adequate objective when looked at
as a whole. It is a necessary aspect of this period of
transition.
As to the relation of the mission and the
Church*and chlirch the same thing is true. The convic-
tion is gaining ground that the mission should
be absorbed into the Church in some way. In some cases
this has been done. But in most cases the mission is still
an entity to be reckoned with and in some cases is
apparently looked on as an organization Avhich is to run
indefinitely parallel to the Chinese Church, In a few cases


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
Chinese Christian groups, with the approval of the mission-
aries, are making their own appeal for aid direct to the
boards at home. While it is assumed by most missionaries
that the mission will pass out of existence, the time when
that contingency will eventuate is for many still very
remote and there is no one dominating plan whereby it
might be realized. In general, however, the missions are
endeavoring to become China-centric. There is a tendency
for the deciding voice of Christian work in China to pass
into the hands of Christian workers in China.
The relation of the missionary to the
Mbs^nar Chinese Church and Christian work in China
is a very complex one. To some extent he
shares in the criticism aimed at things foreign in general.
There are tendencies to a cleavage in thinking between him
and Chinese Christians. To this reference will be made
again later. I am sometimes told that there is in some
places a wide gulf between Chinese Christians and their
foreign colleagues. This gulf/ however, does not loom up
in. the mind of the missionaries. And it is undoubtedly
true that Chinese Christians still earnestly desire and
expect the missionaries to help them. That they must
take a subordinate position in Christian institutions is also
evident. With this fact missionaries do not in general find
any particular difficulty. Strain in the missionary mind
does, however, appear when Christian truth is concerned.
This is, of course, often a matter of denominational or
somewhat limited interpretations of Christian truth.
.. The Y.M.C.A. in China has adopted the
wXoutIOn principle for foreign assistance of Christian
Control work in China of Cooperation Without
Control.'' In addition to the necessity of
taking the position of a cooperator without control there
are other elements in the preseiit situation in China which
will increasingly affect the status of the missionary. Some
of these are as follows:-(1) The policy of substituting
qualified Chinese in positions formerly held by missionaries,
the number of which qualified Chinese is rapidly increasing.
(?) It appears likely that there will be a decrease in the.
U$e of English in schools that might affect the number of


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
missionaries called for in that respect. (3) The administra-
tion of funds will pass more and more into Chinese hands.
That would release considerable missionary energy.
Whether in view of these changes a lesser or greater number
of missionaries will be needed is an unsettled question.
Certainly it seems as though missionaries will still be called
on for special and expert assistance. General work will tend
to pass out of their hands. There is, however, frequent
reference both by Chinese and missionaries to the need for
missionaries in pioneering effort of all kinds. One would
anticipate that home mission work on the part of the
Chinese Church would help meet this need to a considerable
extent. Perhaps the chief thing about the relation of the
missionary to the Chinese Church is that, while he is
undoubtedly still wanted, his function is not at present
clearly defined. If Christianity in China is to become
internationaly minded and not a nationalistic movement
there will need to be a permanent interchange of Christian
experience between the East and the West. From this
viewpoint the missionary must needs become a permanent
medium of exchange between Western and Chinese
churches. The implications involved in that approach,
however, have not yet been formulated.
Christian 8encral it may be said that the necessity
Cooperation national Christian cooperation in China is a
conviction held by the majority of Christians
there. The urgency of a closer Christian fellowship is also
recognized. The inevitableness of Christian cooperation
and fellowship between Christians in China and the West
is likewise an emerging conviction. These relationships
in actual practice, however, still leave much room for
development. The terms in which they will be carried on
in China will have to be China-centric. Perhaps when
that is fully achieved more rapid progress will be possible.
Intellectual outstanding characteristic of the
Revolution Christian Movement in China is its relation
and response to China's intellectual revolution.
The Chinese when awake are rethinking their position in
the world and the relation of their own cultural values
to the valvies of other peoples, problems of which they haye


XXviii
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
become aware during the last quarter of a century or so.
The Christian Church where it is awake is experiencing
an intellectual revolution of its own. It is beginning to
rethink its own position and the relation of Christian
values to those of its own. Chinese Christians are in a
critical and selective mood. They do not want to lose
what the last century of missionary effort has brought to
them. They feel a growing sense of proprietorship and
responsibility. They desire the privilege of spiritual
self-direction. These they look on as the foundations
of the Christian Movement. They want them put in their
proper place. All other questions should be settled in the
light of these foundation principles.
In its relation to the Christian Movement
Intellectual intellectual revolution moves along certain
Activity defined lines. These are (l) Critical
scrutiny, (2) Mental uncertainty, and (3)
Beginnings of cleavage in thought between Chinese and
Western Christians. These are by no means discouraging
factors. The criticism is evidence that the Chinese are
more acutely aware than ever before of the presence and
significance of the Christian Movement in China. The
mental uncertainty indicates that they are beginning to
choose for themselves. The beginnings of cleavage mean
that the Chinese Christian mind is beginning to move in a
self-chosen direction. Altogether these aspects of the
Christian intellectual revolution indicate that the Chinese
Christians have come upon certain difficulties in connection
with Christianity which are causing that mental activity
which always ensues when difficulties are met and choices
have to be made.
Criticism of Chinese criticism of Christianity has been
Christianity widespread and at times virulent. It has
come from all quarters, much of it from
Christians. It has been directed more against institutional
Christianity than against the personality of Christ. Many
of the articles criticizing Christianity show that there has
been study of the Christian religion by non-Christians
from the viewpoint of its history as well as from the
viewpoint of its theology. This criticism seercis to head


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
up in three points. First, there is the conjunction of
Christianity in treaties and in Western civilization with
un-Christian interests. For instance the diplomatic status
of the Christian religion in China is defined in the same
treaties that legalized the opium traffic. Missionaries are
not charged with being interested in promoting the
narcotic traffic. But the conjunction of these opposing
interests in the same documents is not understood. It
seems to imply that the right?? of religious propaganda
and the narcotic traffic depend in part on the same
support. This implies some sort of relation of the
Christian religion to military force. Christian workers do
not often talk like militarists but their relation thereto
under the circumstances is obscure.
y > ii .. This leads naturally to the second out-
Is Christianity ... ... . % . .. ..
"Imperialistic"? standing criticism of Christianity. its
conjunction with imperialistic policies and
documents gives some basis for the criticism that
Christianity is imperialistic also. Missionaries have often
been credited with being in some subtle way the emissaries
of their governments. The grounds of this criticism are
too complex for treatment here. Its main idea, however,
is clear enough. Western powers have in various and
devious ways projected their diplomatic influence and
power into the life of China for their own commercial
and diplomatic ends. Christianity has moved along parallel
lines. The various Christian groups through their boards
have projected their influence and authority into the
life of China for philanthropic and religious ends. While
Christianity has not been generally imperialistic in aim
it has copied somewhat the imperialistic method. There
is a widespread feeling among the Chinese, furthermore,
that many missionaries have acted in an imperialistic
manner. The solution is the same in both cases, an actual,
as over against an anticipated or potential autonomy.
This criticism has not yet been successfully answered or
the grounds for it cleared awayt
Cultural criticism is perhaps not so loudly
Exploitation proclaimed as the charge that Christianity is
imperialistic. It originates apparently with


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
the students and concerns more the influence of Christian
schools. This third criticism centers in the charge of
cultural exploitation brought by students against the
Christian Movement. This charge implies that those who
make it feel that the attempt is being made to supplant
their own cultural values with those from other lands.
This looks like an attempt to bring about cultural
uniformity in terms of Western or "White7' culture. This
criticism is due in part to over-emphasis on the backward-
ness and superstitious attitudes of the Chinese people and
an underemphasis on their ethical and cultural values. It
is a somewhat vague but perhaps quite proper reaction of
the Chinese ego against what looks like an assumption
that the chief need in fitting themselves for their place
in the family of nations is to absorb Western culture.
Here again the grounds of the criticism are too complex
for treatment. Perhaps the quickest cure for this natural
uprising of the Chinese ego is to substitute the psychology
of sharing in place of that of handing down something
from what is deemed a superior plane of civilization.
Such a substitution of psychological attitudes is now
slowly taking place. The evidence for this is seen in the
frequent reference thereto in various Christian conferences.
Christians all over the world need to share what they
have in order that together they may produce a real
Christian culture.
Mental Criticism may of course be ignored on the
Uncertainty theory that it will wear itself out. It may.
All the signs, however, point to its being
continued in China. It should be answered. There is still
another aspect of the relation of the intellectual revolution
to the Christian Movement that must needs be diagnozed
and treated. This is a widespread mental uncertainty
about the Christian Message and work. Sometimes it
amounts to mental confusion. This mental uncertainty
is seen to some extent amongst Chinese Christians and
those engaged in evangelistic work. It is more in evidence
in the attitude of non-Christians towards the Christian
Church and work. Students also in addition to being
mentally confused about Christianity and the church are


XXXViii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
marked by indiffercncc towards all religion or a rat-ion?
alistic opposition thereto. This opposition shows itself in
objection to religion per se and through criticism of
" superstitious n practices. Both these rationalistic ten-
dencies are especially directed against the Christian Church
because in addition to being deemed a part of religious
superstition it is also foreign. Two questions seem to give
rise to this mental uncertainty about the Christian religion ?
First. What does the Christian religion mean ? Second,
What is the place and function of the Church in the life
of China?
All this means that Chinese Christians and
rIm'o s and those under the influence of Christian teaching
Ethical Culture are being stirred by the criticisms aimed at
Christianity, the revival of interest in indi-
genous faiths and the wave of rationalism apparent
everywhere. There is no satisfactory answer to the
question frequently raised by Chinese Christians as to the
relation of Christianity to China's religious and ethical
culture. In many quarters it is felt that ancestral worship
contains elements that should be assimilated into Christian
practice. There is a decided tendency to retain its
commemorative aspects. Many Chinese Christians seem to
be aware of the similarities of emphases between Chris-
tianity and their ancient faiths but do not clearly see the
unique aspects of Christianity. This tends to obscure, for
them the significance of the Christian religion. Further-
more, when the Christian religion is attacked Christian
leaders lack in many cases answers to the attacks. We
have also heard this mental uncertainty given -as an
explanation of the lack of aggressive conviction on the part
of theological students.
To all the above must be added the diver-
Missfonary gent thought and emphasis
Thought among the missionaries. Lacking a knowledge
of the historical background of the contro-
versies between Western Christians, the Chinese fail to
understand their significance. The Western Christian
mind (this is of course more apparent at present in the
Protestant as over against the Roman Catholic section of


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
Christianity) thus appears to be divisive and individualistic.
The Chinese mind seems to tend more towards the synthetic
and the coordinating principle of harmony. These diverg-
ing tendencies among the missionaries help, when known,
to obscure the essential Christian values. The meaning of
the Christian religion is not clear. That is one of the
outstanding characteristics of its present position. It is also
evident that as regards the relation of Western churches to
Christian work in China, the relation of the missionary to
the Chinese Church and to funds which come from the
West, policies that often contrast sharply with each other
are being openly advocated. And whatever their >jdeas on
the various problems involved Chinese Christians,have no
coordinated agency whereby they may express sych ten-
dencies in their minds as may be prevalent. It would be
an interesting experiment to have a really representative
group of Chinese Christians get together and endeavor to
find out their own mind on the meaning and work of the
Christian religion for China. We shall probably not get by
the present widespread hesitancy to accept the Christian
Message until something like that is done. The Christian
Movement has already moved beyond the position it held
when the National Christian Conference was convened in
1922. It is at least evident that Western Christians cannot
think for Chinese Christians. It is equally evident that
Chinese Christians are beginning to think for themselves.
The mental uncertainty mentioned above is also evidence
that they have not yet thought through their problems.
It is logical to expect that, parallel with the
alava'cta01 widesPread criticism of Christianity and the
Thought mental uncertainty emerging in the minds of
Chinese Christians about the meaning of the
Christian religion and arising out of the wave of nationalism
and the interest in China's indigenous culture, we shall find
the beginnings of cleavage between Chinese and Western
Christians as regards certain aspects of the Christian
Movement. Here .we are dealing only with beginnings. In
spite of the keenness of the desire of many Chinese
Christians for autonomy there are relatively few instances
in which Chinese Christians have tried to force the


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
situation. Even in the case of the mission schools, where
the Chinese desire for autonomy has been most in evidence,
there are very few instances where the Chinese have forced
the situation beyond a considerate discussion of the issues
involved. Even in objecting to what is taken to be
"compulsion" as regards religious education there has
been little effort to use any other pressure than that of
public opinion. And yet there are the beginnings of cleavage
between missionaries and Chinese Christians in thinking
and attitudes along several lines. By the 44 beginnings of
cleavage in thought and attitude I mean a tendency for
the majority of the articulated Chinese Christians to move
in a different direction from certain tendencies among the
missionaries. The points where such cleavage is indicated
need perhaps be listed only. (1) The Chinese Christian
mind tends away from theological controversy. This does
not mean that there is no difference of opinion among
Chinese Christians in this regard. It does mean that they
seem to be able to move together without attempting to
force on each other any particular theological position. (2)
In general the articulate Chinese Christians want the treaty
relationships of Christianity changed and Christianity in
China put into direct relation to their own government and
people. (3) Chinese Christians find it easier to consider
the removal of all compulsion in religious education
than the majority of the missionaries. They seem to think
of the Christian appeal as being one of personal influences
only and this embodied primarily in attractive lives. (4)
They seem also to desire greater freedom in expressing
their Christian faith through literature than many of their
Western colleagues feel it safe to permit. (5) There is also
a decided tendency among educated Chinese Christians to
relate Christianity to and attempt to express it in terms of
China's own religious experience and genius. For instance,
a book has recently appeared in Chinese with the title,
"The Idea of God in Chinese History." The author is Mr.
Wong Yeh Sing of Nanking Theological Seminary. He
shows what the best Chinese ideas of God have been,
indicates their similarity to Christian ideas and urges that
such ideas must be recognized and utilized by Christians


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
in the building up of the Christian religion in China. This
attitude meets with sympathy on the part of a section of
the missionaries also. (6) As to Christian Unity it seems
evident that if left alone Chinese Christians would achieve
a closer Christian relationship than denominationalism has
yet done.
Now whether these beginnings of cleavage
No Wide-spread in thoilght anci attitude will enlarge or be
surmounted before they become serious it is
difficult to say. There is little to indicate that a wide-
spread split between Western Christian workers and their
Chinese colleagues is imminent. Such tendencies to
cleavage do, however, increase the difficulties of national
Christian relationships, especially where theological or
ecclesiastical questions may or do directly or indirectly
influence the situation.
These tendencies to divergence of thought
ofLifementS between Chinese and Western Christians
should not be taken as a cause for discourage-
ment. They are indeed movements of life within the Chinese
Church. They are self-centered Chinese responses to the
call of Christ and the problems which surround the Chinese
Church. This statement is in somewhat sharp contrast to
a fairly wide feeling among the missionaries that the
Chinese Christians lack spiritual vitality. This feeling,
however, lacks definiteness. Different missionaries look on
Chinese Christians from different viewpoints. There is no
norm whereby one might know how to detect spiritual
vitality when it exists or to test its intensity when its
existence is recognized. Some think of it in terms of
devotion, in practical service to their fellows, others in
terms of devotional faithfulness in certain religious
practices. This feeling on the part of the missionaries
is probably a reaction to a weakness in the Chinese
conviction about Christianity. Such a weakness of convic-
tion correlates with the mental uncertainty already men-
tioned. It is probably true to say that, generally speaking,
Chinese Christians have not the same intensity of deno-
minational or theological conviction which characterizes
their Western colleagues. That is not the same, however,


XXXViii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
as a lack of spiritual vitality. The fact is that mental
alertness with regard to the implications of Christian
principles, self-consciousness as to personal religious needs
and responsibilities, and an earnest desire for. spiritual
autonomy and a Christian experience which shows itself
in dissatisfaction with one's present experience and a wish
to have it personal instead of transmitted, are all signs of
spiritual vitality. Looked at from this viewpoint there
are signs of a growing and real spiritual vitality in the
Chinese Church. We may thus interpret Chinese criticism
of Christianity, their mental hesitancy to accept it, and
their tendency to diverge from traditional emphases as
evidences of a revival of spiritual vitality among
Chinese Christians. That is one of the most encouraging
characteristics of the Christian Movement in China at the
present time. The Christian dynamic has taken root in
the Chinese mind and heart.
The Christian Movement is at the center
Keconstructive , . , ,
Beginnings of a maelstrom ot changes and movements,
all of which arc stirring it with increasing
momentum. It is sharing in an intellectual movement,
a large part of which is manifesting itself in criticism of
the Christian Movement itself. Interdenominational and
national Christian relationships in China are neither
sufficiently close nor vital to permit of the free flowing of
the Christian dynamic.; These aspects of the situation
in which the Christian Movement now finds itself, if viewed
by themselves, are somewhat depressing. But neither the
chaotic environmental changes, the criticism nor the partial
damming up of the sluices of Christian relationships
have stopped effort either within or without the Christian
Church. Some of these efforts, being put forth as they are
in the face of chaos and disruption, are most significant
for both the future of China and the Christian Movement
therein. Thus another and a promising characteristic of
the Christian Movement in China is a number of
reconstructive beginnings which are in evidence. These are
all attempts to meet and measure the problems of China
at close quarters with a view to finding solutions natural
to the situation rather than the super-imposition of any


XXXViii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
imported ready-made solutions. To a few of these
attention will now be drawn.
Educational Outside of and generally independent of
Reconstruction the Christian Church there are certain
reconstructive movements which are in the
main educational. The Mass Education Movement aims
directly at reducing the percentage of illiteracy. It is an
attempt to put the weapons of acquiring knowledge within
the hands of the masses. It is now a national movement
with headquarters in Peking, with Christians in the lead.
In general it has been supported with enthusiasm by all
classes. Students in particular have given freely of time
and effort to make it go. The National Association for
the Advancement of Education is investigating educational
conditions and problems in China in a most thorough
way. The aim of this Chinese association is to work out
a scheme of education adapted to China using therein
every educational device and principle that has proved
worthwhile elsewhere. These efforts are hindered by
the chaotic condition of the national finances, a large
proportion of which find their way into the hands of the
militarists. Nevertheless educational tests and standards
adapted to China are being evolved. More progress seems
to be evident in this connection than in any other line
of effort.
Educational significance of these efforts at educa-
Need tional reform and adaptation looms up
vividly when the actual educational need
is estimated. If the school population is to bear the
same relation to the total population that it does in
the United States then the 25% of the population which
would comprise the school population in China would
mean about 100,000,000 students of all ages. Professor
Twiss, who made an investigation on behalf of the National
Association for the Advancement of Education, estimates
seventy-five or eighty million.* About 1922 there were
three types of schools in China. (1) Privateold style
*Science and Education in China, Twiss, page 63.


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
largely. (2) Governmentmodern. (3) Mission. On the
highest estimates available about 13.5% of the school
population were in these schools and hence getting some
sort of education. Professor Twiss makes the proportion of
the school population actually acquiring some education
about the same as this, though his basic figures vary from
those given above. Now if it be assumed that on an
average each teacher would have fifty pupils (Professor
Twiss makes it twenty-five!) there is needed something
like two million teachers. To start a program that means
an improved educational system, that will eventuate in
this army of teachers and will help build up an educated
public opinion and train the ChiQese in citizenship, has
more significance for China at present than movements for
the reform of the government. The urgency of con-
centrated attention on this need is seen in the fact that in
China only about 3.3% of the total population is getting an
education as over against 12-13% in Japan and 26.2% in
the United States. The combined population of both
modern government and mission schools is only about
1.5% of the total population. Thus concentrated study
given to educational problems in China is an evidence of
foresightedness and farsightedness that promises well for
the future of China.
Educational reconstructive beginnings, therefore, are
appearing along two lines. First, in regards to the
improvement of educational methods and second, in
regards to the increase of educational facilities. In all
this educational reorganization Christian educators are
taking a prominent part.
IncJ. The Anti-Opium Campaign now in the
Organizations hands of the National Anti-Opium Associa-
tion is embarking on a large scale educational
effort also. It is concentrating on the. building up of an
informed public opinion as the only means whereby this
evil can be effectually subdued. Within the year a
national organization has been set up for dealing with
the problem of leprosy in China, which has its own
Chinese secretary. Modern trained Chinese doctors are
also beginning to make their efforts felt. They have their


xl
XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
own national association and publish their own medical
journal. Their efforts are backed up to a remarkable
degree by the rapidly growing and efficient Nurses'
Association of China. This latter organization is not yet,
however, as fully controlled by the Chinese as the other
movements mentioned. In all of these movements, also,
Christian leadership is taking its full share.
international None of these efforts are adequate to the
Cooperation needs they face. But they are blazing paths
that will be travelled by multitudes in the
near future and all of them are reconstructive forces that
will in time overcome the disruptive elements now so
prominent in the life of China. One aspect of all these
educational efforts demands special mention. it has
special meaning in these days of anti-foreign agitation.
Through all of them runs the freest and most cordial
international cooperation, particularly in connection with
educational investigation and reform. In many ways foreign
experts and missionaries give of their time and thought
to'these movements. '1 hey might well be called inter-
national exchanges of experience and constructive effort,
for through them international cooperation is being built
up and international amity strengthened.
Within the circle of the Christian forces
rTh hi these reconstructive beginnings show first in
Movements certain movements to fuse Christians into
a more vital Christian relationship and,
second, through certain efforts to approach more directly
and intimately the actual problems confronting the Chinese
people and in which the Christian Church should be
active in finding solutions. None of these movements ^e
embodied in national organizations as yet. They aiv
movements, so to speak, from the bottom up and nc*
from the top down. They are potentialities that may y >t
work out in nation-wide organizations. Most of the
Christian groups in. the oldest center of Christ "an work
in China, Kwangtung province, are federated, 'ihe same
thing is true of Swatow also. In these centers Christians
have found a way to express their Christian life together.
They are working out a model Christian relationship that


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT

should be carefully studied by all Christians in China.
They are autonomous without being spiritually isolated.
Their autonomy leaves the road open for the fullest
cooperation between them and Western Christians. Fur-
thermore, nearly every community where there is more
than one Christian group is cultivating Christian fellow-
ship through some kind of a federation or union organiza-
tion. This is particularly true of the Chinese Christians
and also to a lesser extent of missionaries. These com-
munity movements towards Christian fellowship are not
ecclesiastical nor theological. They are functional. They
are movements for cooperative thinking and to some extent
for cooperative effort. They are a natural development
from community contacts and needs. They are not
coordinated nationally, it would seem, however, that in
the next national Christian conference they should, to some
extent, find expression through representation. At present
they are largely undeveloped potentialities. The many
retreats conducted under the aegis of the National Christian
Council during recent years also belong in this list of
reconstructive beginnings of Christian relationships.
Devolution Another reconstructive beginning along the
line of Christian relationships is the rapid
momentum now being attained by devolution. By "de-
volution I understand the passing over of Christian work
to Chinese leadership. This devolution, of course, is
appai leaders. It is not so much a matter of official actions
by "boards, missions or other Christian groups as it is a
feature of the rapidly increasing influence of Chinese
Christian leadership in the various forms of Christian
^work. In the third issue of the China "Mission" Year
i'Rook there was only one Chinese writer. In this issue
Nearly fifty percent of the articles are contributed by
Chinese-Christians. This growing expression and influence
of the (-Jhinese Christian mind is the most marked evidence
of the iapid acceleration of devolution now going on. In
South China, particularly in Canton and Swatow (among
the-Baptists), the Chinese Christian mind has become the
dominating factor. The necessary readjustments by the


XXviii
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
boards concerned is still pending. The Y.M.C.A. and
Y.W.C.A. have probably gone further in making the
necessary adjustments in this process of devolution. The
anti-opium campaign has, as has already been observed,
passed under the direction of Chinese leadership. Educa-
tional policy in connection with Christian schools is passing
into the hands of the Chinese. The last meeting of the
Council of Higher Education appointed an advisory
committee of Chinese educationalists to work out a scheme
whereby Christian schools might render their fullest service
in China. This was deemed the most significant action of
their meeting which took place early last summer. Re-
organization to embody this fact of devolution will still
take time for consideration. It will, however, follow
inevitably. The Chinese are showing the road to devolution.
Their foreign colleagues are readjusting their often cumber-
some machinery to suit this change as rapidly as they
become conscious of it. As regards the terms, also, of
religious education the same fact is apparent.
The last but perhaps not quite so easily
Study recognizable reconstructive beginning is in
the increasing number of serious attempts
being made to understand the problems of Christian work
as they are in China and to relate the Christian Church
directly thereto. Some only of these can be mentioned.
Nanking Theological Seminary sent a class for two weeks
into a country district where not only was much practical
service rendered but where the members thereof where
enabled to study at first hand the problems of the rural
church. This is a most encouraging effort to tie Christian
workers up with the actual problems they must solve.
Others are thinking along the same line. This particular
experiment might well, however, serve as a model, Then
in conferences a direct attempt is being made to link the
church up with the problems of the farmer. A creative
effort' is being put forth to develop an effective rural
church. Nanking University has done some promising
work along this line. Shantung Christian University,
also, is planning a settlement in connection with their
theological department which aims to study directly the


XXviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
same relationship of the church to rural needs. A recent
issue of the Cheeloo Magazine, the publication issued by
Shantung Christian University, contains the result of a
scientific study of the relation of Christian teaching to
conduct. The conclusions drawn were, of course, only
tentative. But the experiment coupled with other efforts
to improve the methods of religious education indicates a
new beginning full of promise.
S irit of None of the above efforts are the outcome
Investigation the work of any national organization.
They are natural approaches to actual
conditions. One national organization, the Industrial
Commission of the National Christian Council, is utilizing
the same approach in starting investigations into actual
problems of making a living. All the above direct attacks
on problems before the Christian forces are marked by a
desire for and spirit of investigation. Another outstanding
characteristic of the Christian Movement in China thus
becomes apparent. It is the effort to investigate anew
the Christian problem in China. Particularly though not
exclusively in connection with student evangelism the
same spirit of investigation and experiment is seen.
The majority of evangelistic workers still seem contented
with the more traditional methods. All the above
reconstructive beginnings also mean that scientific methods
are being increasingly applied to Christian problems.
Breaking up of way summalT and in conclusion it
Christian Mind may be said that most of the changes taking
place or being called for in Christian work in
China, together with the mental attitudes, the beginnings
of cleavage in thought and reconstructive effort are part
of a breaking up of the Christian mind in the face of an
accumulation of difficulties and demands for readjustment.
On the Chinese side this is due to two factors. First, an
almost nation-wide resentment against the manner and
methods of the Western impact upon China. Second, the
welling up of the Christian dynamic through the Chinese
Christian heart and mind. This breaking up of traditional
attitudes and programs is preparatory to a resetting of the


XXviii
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
Christian aim in China. This is being approached in a
spirit of investigation and experimentation.' This spirit
the missionaries to a large extent approve. They recognize
the inevitability of readjustment. The details of this
readjustment are not, however, near being generally
settled. The various beginnings in reconstruction do not
yet settle the lines along which this readjustment must
move in the future.
The future of the Christian Movement in
Christian China no one who is wise will attempt to
Movement forecast. Its roots have struck deep down
into Chinese life even though numerically
it is still weak. The greatest promise for its future is
found in the vital way the Chinese mind and heart is
responding to its implications. It has in large measure
become China-centric. The immediate need is to complete
this process. It is indigenous to the extent that Chinese
Christians are beginning to direct it. It is coming to grips
with the Chinese mind and religious genius. This of
course means struggle to some extent. But this struggle
is in itself proof that the Chinese mind has passed the
period of easy acquiescence and is entering the period
of vital response to the Christian Message. The China-
centric movement in the Chinese Church will continue.
The beginnings of Chinese Christian autonomy will grow.
And lasting solutions to the problems of the Christian
church in China will be found as fast as, and in proportion
to,, the articulation of the Chinese Christian mind. For
that reason, while they do not represent adequately the
whole Chinese Christian mind, we need to keep our eyes
on the articulate Chinese Christian leaders. They are the
forerunners of the Christian Church in China tomorrow.
In them may be discerned the most significant character-
istics of the Christian Movement in China to-day and
probably to-morrow.
Chief Need Problems are strewn all around the
Christian Movement. It is almost impossible
to say which is the most important or most difficult. One
need, however, seems to link together most of what has


CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT xlv
been said. It is the need of continued thinking and
digging into the actual problems. It is the need of a
patient faith and a faithful pa.tience in understanding the
task before Christian workers and a conviction that no
matter what the difficulties along the way God will work
out in China the building up of a people who know Him
and are energized by faith in Him.




PART I
THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND
NATIONAL AFFAIRS
CHAPTER I
THE PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT
AND POLITICAL EVENTS
Harley Farnsworth MacNair
The object of this paper is to present
certain aspects of the Christian movement in
China as affected by the political and military
ft is not to summarize the political events
themselves or to comment upon them except as they have
to do with the Christian movement of the present day.
It may at first sight appear not a little absurd, if not
impertinent, for one whose work is done within the
shadow of the largest treaty port in China to attempt
the presentation of a topic having to do with China as a
whole. So it appeared to the writer when he was asked
to undertake the task: only the suggestion by the editor
of the Year Book that a questionnaire be sent to various
centres so that first hand information might be obtained,
overcame the writer's reluctance to undertake the sum-
mary. The main sources for the paper are, accordingly,
some forty-five answers received from more than a
dozen of the twenty-one provinces. In addition various
newspaper accounts, which have not always been accredited
at their face value, and certain materials which have
within recent months appeared in The Chinese Recorder
have been used. The preparation of the study has not been
devoid of the elements of humor, although evidence of these
may be sadly lacking in the study itself. For example,
one saintly and long-suffering missionary replied to the
Object and
Sources
situation.


2
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
request for information as to the Christian movement
within his area by enclosing a newspaper clipping in
which occurs the following selection: "The Lord knows
we have had war enough, and none have felt it more
keenly than the merchant and missionary in their isolated
regions, where for months on end they have been
surrounded by a looting, robbing, raping rabble of armed
coolies. But this very thing has in every instance
increased and cemented the friendship between the
merchant, the missionary and the native. True, there are
always a few missionaries as well as merchants living in
the great cities and treaty ports, who like to blow their
horns and advertise their wares or lack of wares, brains
or lack of brains Another element of humor,
and of interest to a student of history, was to be found in
the ways in which writers from the same area would differ
in their estimates of, for example, the effects of the
disturbed conditions upon Christian work in their area.
The element of relativity was very strong as a rule; if
sweeping statements occur hereafter, the reader is advised
to bear in mind this introductory statement.
Effect on Christian Work in your area been
Religious Work affected one way or another by the political
situation during the past year? If so,
specifically how?
To judge from the reports current in foreign and
native newspapers and magazines, as well as the remarks
one hears constantly of the upset conditions to be found
all over China, one would expect that this question
would have been answered almost unanimously in the
affirmative. As a matter of fact more than one-fourth
of the replies indicated that religious work had been
affected very little or not at all. One writer from Laian
Hsien in Anhwei said: We are a small conservative
city with very little public or political opinion. The
students demonstrated a little after the May 30th incident;
but I question if anything would have happened had not
agitators come up from Nanking. I was away at the
time. Two weeks ago I returned here after an absence
of three and one-half months. Everybody seems glad


51 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS

to see me back again. My answers to your question
are as follows: <4 No." A school-master clergyman from
Anking, in the same province, agrees in general with
this reply, adding: "The spirit in all the schools is
good this term, and in my own the religious feeling
is better than I have ever seen it." From Foochow
in Fukien it is reported that 44 within the metro-
politan area there has been no noticeable effect of
political changes upon our church work," but that in
the country districts banditry has handicapped church
work. The concluding remarks of this writer are
significant also: 44 From reading of rather a wide sort
I am inclined to believe that Shanghai newspaper
reports to the contrary notwithstanding Fukienese
Christians and their schools are just about as peaceful
and well off as those of any section. Perhaps to say
c Northern Fukienese; would be more accurate because
there has been considerable trouble in the southern end
of the province. They are unpleasantly close to Swatow
with its communistic bosses. We have had opposition
here, but not any violence following the Shanghai
outbreak."
Some Disturbed hand there has been' con-
centres siderable difficulty in Manchuria because of
the rivalry of Chang Tso-Jin and the Christian
General Feng, and because of the May 30th incident in-
Shanghai. Disgust with Feng and his coup d'etat at least
temporarily weakened Christian work in Harbin. But
from Kansu it is reported that the coming of Feng's
soldiers has aided rather than hindered the work. Two
other aspects of this question are interesting: first, that
evangelistic work has been considerably less affected in
general than educational work; second, that several have
reported that Christian work has been favorably instead of
deleteriously affected by the up-set conditions: the aid
rendered by Christians both native and foreignin
the face of difficulty has strengthened the hold of
Christianity in places where it has hitherto been relatively
weak. A tendency to establish 44independent" churches
is also to he noted; whether this is for good or for evil


4
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
cannot at present be stated, but it would seem as if such
a movement must result in considerable good. From
Kweichow, Kwangtung and West China reports came of
trouble made for British mission institutions, schools and
churches, with a falling off of attendance due largely to
fear. In general it is clear that work in urban areas has
suffered considerably more than that in rural districts.
Feeling *eyu aware any anti-foreign or
Unorganized anti-Christian feeling in your district?
There is clearly a kinship between questions One and
Two, nevertheless the replies showed that they are by
no means identical. In any consideration of the terms
anti-foreign, anti-Christian, Bolshevistic and Soviet, it
must be clearly borne in mind that there has been a
regrettable tendency on the part of many to confuse terms.
Whether a Chinese is 44 anti-foreign "or 44 anti-Christian "
or 44 Bolshevist or 44 strongly nationalist or 14 patriotic "
has to do very largely with the viewpoint of the one who
arrogates to himself the position of judge. Subjectivity
enters as strongly into a consideration of this question as
relativity did in the question first considered.
About one half of those who contributed information
indicated that there were noticeable or definite indications
of anti-foreign or/and anti-Christian feeling. From this
one must conclude either that the missionaries are not
competent observers and judges of such feelings on the
part of the Chinese, or that there is no such widespread
feeling among the people as is indicated by current rumors
and reports. From Shensi, for example, comes the
statement that 44 there have been attempts made to stir up
both anti-foreign and anti-Christian feeling but with very
poor success." As is to be expected, a distinction is made
between groups of the people: those who report such
feelings almost unanimously refer to students and, in a
few cases, radicals, but add that the cooler-headed ones,
the upper classes, and the officials generally are opposed. In
country districts such feelings appear to be conspicuously
lacking. From Kansu it was reported that closer coopera-
tion on the part of foreigners and natives in the


5 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS

administration of a certain C. I. M. school had resulted
which in itself would seem a good thing. From Kirin it
was remarked that there was little or no anti-foreign
feeling expressed, only a desire for autonomy. It is
apparent that such feelings are considerably less noticeable
than they were last summer: whether they have dis-
appeared or merely gone underground cannot be known
until warm weather comes again.
On the other side comes a replv from
Fenelhfreign Changsha in Hunan: 411 There is a very
Organised definite anti-foreign and anti-Christian spirit
abroad in Hunan. It is rather well organized
through the 'student union' and 'Wash Away Our Shame'
society, consisting of students and a class of ruffians and
rowdies. It is also fostered by communist, Marxian, and
anarchist societies." A report of the anti-Christian activities
in Changsha dated December 26,1925, and published in the
North China Daily News (Shanghai) on January 5, 1926,
referred to parades, threats, loud talk, handbills .
many attempts to intimidate students in Christian schools
into leaving, but no serious violence, and contained the
following interesting translation of "the most serious
handbill": "Labourers, Farmers, Students, Merchants
and all who are oppressed! We do not fear the imperialism
shown in machine guns, in the customs conference held by
the allied powers, in the unequal treaties. What we do
fear is the subtle, invisible, cultural invasion of Chris-
tianity, because it brings with it the deceptive instruments
of tenderness and philanthropy. It is these activities that
destroy our nation, weaken our place among peoples,
make us insensitive, so that we think 4 even the thief is
our father.' A hundred thousand foreign soldiers in
Shanghai cannot kill our patriotism, the murdering of men
at Shameen cannot destroy our purpose to save China.
But this subtle Christianty! Its imperialistic, cultural
invasion can cause a hundred thousand of our youth to
become infected. First the heart dies, then our bodies die
later. Christianity is a superstition that kills the heart,
kills so that no blood is seen. Of course we fear it!
Fellow-countrymen! Do you think these foreign im-


6
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
perialists would send all this gold into our land for the
building up of schools, for the establishment of churches
and hospitals, without some scheme for gain? That is a
false belief Schools are the camps of cultural invasion.
Churches are slave-making factories. Hospitals, too, are
centres of invasion. See the evil before your eyes What
school omits the reading of the Christian Bible, fails
to observe Christian ceremonial, to pray, to baptize, and to
carry on all these church affairs ? In the interior, 100, all
these preachers with their praise and prayer are really
fooling the country people, bringing in capitalistic in-
fluence, serving to unite bandits, secretly importing
machine guns! In some places, as in Hupeh province,
they cut off a piece of land every day. 'They make sport
of our boys and girls.
" Fellow-countrymen If we all become Christians and
all China becomes Christianized, then imperialism will
become like a great sword and an executioner's axe
throughout the land, plundering our homes and cutting
us to pieces. We must organize, must unite, must oppose
this force with all our might.
" Our motto must be: Oppose Cultural Invasion. Beat
down the imperial dogs, i.e. Christianity. Save the
oppressed, i.e. the Students in Christian Schools.
Christian School Students! Leave those schools where
you suffer!"
, From Yenchow in Shantung came a remark
Church:Feelin ^at the people were quite too busy saving
their goods and their lives from the military
to have time for anti-foreign feelings. An educator in Nan-
king replied: Not so much anti-foreign as anti-missionary
and not so much anti-missionary as anti-Christian-Church.
There is a feeling abroad that missionaries and the mission
churches are in league with western imperialism and that
mission schools are hindering the progress of nationalism
and nationalistic education." And another educator in
the same city added that there was more such feeling
" than has been noticeable any time in the past twenty
years." Another report from the same city says:
4 4 Anti-Christian feeling seems to exist chiefly in the


7 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS

Bolshevist groups which are in three government schools
Southeastern University, Waterways College and Tsung-yin
Middle School. It came to the front in desultory
half-hearted and unpopular demonstrations at Christmas
time, mostly ending in a fizzle. In a neighboring city,
Taipinghsien in Anhwei, about 80 students broke up a
celebration on Christmas night, smashing seats and window-
glass. Police finally quelled disorder. The Methodist
district superintendent (Chinese) has settled up the
matter. The general population seems not to be anti-
Christian. One worker returning from country districts
reports that they have not heard of the agitation." In
Kiangsi there seems to have been some anti-foreign rather
than anti-Christian agitation within the past few months.
No serious import, however, is attached to the small amount
of trouble felt in that province.
A writer from Chengtu in Szechwan says :
Mhi ^ 44 There is considerable anti-Christian feeling
around us; and during the summer it was
rampant. For several weeks some of our Christian
teachers and preachers were on a proscribed list, but so
long as Yang Sen was in control none of them were
molested. At the beginning of the fall term posters were
pasted up near the West China Union University warning
all and sundry that if they entered the institution they
would be regarded as void of manliness. This anti-
Christian feeling is quieter just now (January 27) but it still
exists. I do not think that there is any great amount of
anti-foreign feeling in this part of the province; but in the
neighborhood of Chungking and other Szechwan river
ports it is intense." A Chinese pastor in West China
says : Yes, I am aware of anti-foreign and anti-Christian
feeling in this area, especially in big centres like Chengtu
and Chungking." From Kweiyang in Kweichow one
gentleman concedes, not without a sense of humor
certainly: "There is probably more or less anti-foreign
and anti-Christian feeling, but so far as can be seen the
people generally are quite friendly to us and indifferent to
the Gospel." It is noteworthy that even in the places
where anti-foreign and anti-Christian feeling is evident, it


8
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
has manifested itself harmlessly in most cases: there has
been, with a few exceptions, little action, and even where
action has taken place, such as in the case of school-
strikes, it has not always been possible to separate matters
of school policy from those of larger concern. Often the
trouble is caused by a small group of malcontents over some
purely local incident or condition and not as a result of any
real movement as such. And in such cases, for example
that of the attempt on the part of a self-seeking group
in Swatow to take over the property and control of the
Anglo-Chinese (Presbyterian) College, the reporter in the
North China Daily Neivs for March 3, 1926, says: It is
needless to say that most of the students had nothing to do
with the matter, nor that the Christian boys in the
institution have been hard put to it in these circumstances.
The whole thing has been arranged by a small coterie led
by this usurping principal, under shelter of the clamor
against British imperialism,' and with the fear of the
strike-boycott committees with their imported gangs of
pickets hanging over the heads of any who dared to make
the mildest protest."
Political "Can you summarize the trend of political
Tendencies thought in your area, as far as the intel-
ligentsia are concerned ?, e.g. Is there any
sympathy with the idea of monarchical restoration, or
with Communism ? Is there any noticeable anti-military
feeling ?
Any trend toward monarchical restoration is chiefly
conspicuous by its absence; less than half-a-dozen writers
mentioned interest in monarchical thought. It would
appear, however, that a certain amount of this is to be
found in the north-western provinces of Kansu and Shensi.
A letter from Lanchow in the former province has this
sentence: "Many country literati still favor monarchy."
Another from Hanchungfu in Shensi is still more explicit:
"There is decidedly strong sympathy with the idea of
monarchical restoration, the ordinary man in the street,
and the farmer, looking around timidly, says in a
whisper, 1 Give us back our Emperor and all will be right.'
If the idea were taken up seriously the whole country


9 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS

would probably be with it. There are a few who are
drawn to Bolshevism, but in utter ignorance of what it
means. Anti-military feeling is always burning, the
people have suffered and are still suffering too much,
not to hate the sight of a soldier.''"
From Foochow comes this statement: There are
those who, if a strong monarch who could bring order
out of confusion were in sight, would not object to a
restoration of the monarchy, but they see no parti-
cular hope in this direction now. I have found no great
enthusiasm for Communism though there is doubtless a
group of radicals who might use the Soviet cause and
money to ride to positions of power if they had a chance.
I do not believe that even they have any convictions
in favor of Communism that are based on either intel-
lectual or moral grounds. Once they were in power they
probably would discard that vehicle and carry on in the
usual way. There is a lot of opposition to the military
government and it is given very* slightly concealed
expression in all quarters, but it is based on the military
promotion of opium, starving the government schools
almost out of existence, and the fact that the military are
from the north, like foreigners, and have done practically
nothing of a constructive nature since arriving in Fukien
under Sun Chuan Fang. The taxation has increased from
twenty to fifty fold within the past 3 years since Li Hou Chi
was driven out. The general tone of political thinking is
decidedly pessimistic.These remarks may be taken as
typical of reports from practically all the provinces heard
from. From Kiangyin in Kiangsu comes another typical
remark: 11 As to the political feelings of the educated-classes,
I think I can say that they would be willing to welcome any
change in government that would give peace and security
to the people. I have not heard of any communistic
tendencies, and the only Communistic agitator who has
spoken out in the neighborhood was arrested and put in
jail. The people are all thoroughly disgusted with the
present military regime in the country, but do not know
what to do to relieve themselves of this curse." Another
letter from the same city mentioned the public decapi-


10
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
tation of the Communistic agitator and the exposure
of his head.
Communistic Bearing in mind the reports in contem-
Influence porary newspapers and magazines, one would
expect to find considerable pro-Communistic
thought in various parts of the country, expecially in
and around Canton. But, generally speaking, this is not
so. 44 There are so many movements that it is difficult to
judge their significance or relative importance. The main
question has seemed to be that of Communism. It has a
considerable following, but has been vigorously debated
with an increasing confidence on the part of those who
oppose The head of a well-known institution in
Kwangtung writes in a like strain: 44 The general feeling,
and this is certainly more true with the intelligentsia than
even with the common people, is. opposed to Communism.
I believe myself that such Communistic ideas as are put
forward are largely for political purposes rather than any
real interest in Communism/' Another well informed
observer in the same area says: 441 need hardly say there
is a strong anti-imperialist spirit in all classes of people.
This does not manifest itself in indiscriminate hostility to
foreigners.. Russians are, openly at least, in high favor,
Germans are beyond suspicion. Americans are recognized
as doing much good work, but American business men are
believed in the main to hold the British opinion as to
Chinese readiness for equality and Americans are generally
thought of as tainted with the dangerous disease of
capitalism. Communist writers in the newspapers keep
continually before the public the menace of international
banking controlled from Wall Street. The U.S. Govern-
ment is generally regarded as only half sincere in its
professions of friendship for China and its diplomacy.is
mistrusted. Frenchmen are ardently dislikedthe leased
territory of Kwangchowan is being brought more to public
notice by the extension to its borders of the picket system,
by which the strike organization is seeking to reduce
Hongkong by cutting off supplies. The Japanese are now
being subjected to a definite boycott on the general lines
of the anti-British boycott. Notwithstanding all this,


11 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS

individual foreigners are not molested and find shopping
and sight-seeing as agreeable as ever Far from there
being any sympathy with any restoration of monarchy, the
Kuomintang Congress, which has just (the end of January)
completed its 19-day session, declared its opposition to
both the Provisional Constitution of 1912 and the Tsao
Kun constitution. This party controls the entire province
the first time it has been under unified control in many
years. It also has increasing influence in Kwangsi.
That province is under independent military control but
has adopted the Nationalist government flag and professes
similar views. South Fulden is also affected by Kuomin-
tang influence. The party demands the summoning of a
National People's Congress to form a new constitution. It
is ready to cooperate with General Feng and the Kuomin-
chun but is bitterly hostile to all other groups. Com-
munism as a spirit and a driving force has great strength
in Kwangtung. The Communists are within the party and
have stamped it unmistakably with their characteristics
zeal, discipline, anti-religious bigotry and terminology.
Their power is increasing. On the other hand none of the
distinctly communist policies have been put into operation.
The powerful Russian political adviser, who has just had
his term renewed for another three years, has declared to
many interviewers that China is not ripe for communism,
and that all Russia wants is a strong and independent
China which will be a friend to her. Other Russians
admit more selfish aims. For the time being the men in
real control are devoting all energies to the work of
organization and consolidation. Communism is being
talked by lesser persons and the enthusiasm of these
doctrinaires is being utilized. However, there has been
no more confiscation, radical taxation or establishment of
government monopolies than may be duplicated in the
practice of more than one Western government which is
regarded as being safe and sane. The taking over of the
Kung Yee private hospital was arbitrary and restitution
does need to be made."
A .... So much for Communism. There is a
Anti-militarism . , .. . . ,,
monotonous regularity to be noted m the


12
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS
remarks concerning anti-militarism. Whether it is voiced
clearly or not, there can be no doubt that this feeling exists
practically throughout the country. A study of the replies
received can hardly fail to impress one with the fact that
most of the political thought in China at present is of a
strongly nationalistic turn. It is not primarily pro-
monarchy, pro-communist, or even pro-republican, nor is
it mainlyin most places at leastanti-foreign : it is
anti-special privileges, anti-unequal-treaties and distinctly
China-for-the-Chinese.
Through what channels does political opin-
A endes ion exPress itself ?
The answers to this query were for the most
part brief, and may be summarized as briefly. In many parts
of the country there are no public channels open for expres-
sion. Private conversation, tea-shop talk, a daily press which,
outside of the treaty ports, is generally well muzzled, occa-
sional placards or posters, some public lectures by students
where the military permit them, resolutions of student bodies,
and occasional pronouncements of Chambers of Commerce
these constitute the main channels. And these, as just
mentioned, are often clogged. One writer from Wusih in
Kiangsu says: "Political opinion, when it is expressed
and when it represents in any way the real opinion of the
mature men of the district, is expressed through the
Chamber of the Elders of the county, who represent their
townships by a sort of common consent without any
apparent formal election."
c lT What if any Soviet or Bolshevist influences
Soviet Iniluences -i o
are to be observed m your area?
In connection with this subject one may again be
somewhat surprised at the considerable number of sup-
posedly well-informed workers in close contact with the
Chinese who report that there is little or no Bolshevist
influence to be observed in their areas. "These influences
are mostly hearsay and not very real." (Nanking)
"Bolshevistic influence here is making no headway, except
among the Russians." (Harbin, Manchuria) "None"
(Kirin) "None, except through literature of which a
goodly supply flows through. (Foochow) Practically


13 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
110 Soviet or Bolshevist agencies are apparent in Foo-
chow. There is doubtless a lot of literature imported
from Shanghai, and possibly Canton, and it has been
reported that Soviet agents have come to Foochow from
Canton, but so far nothing definite has been heard from
them in Foochow. (January 17, 1926). "Practically
nil." (Lanchow, Kansu) Soviet advisers have worked
with the government, exercising great influence. They
have given no evidence of trying to set up a Soviet state.
(Canton) This is a question difficult to answer. There
have been the wildest rumors as to the number of Russians
in and about Canton. It is doubtful whether the number
has ever been over 100. It is also significant that even
Hongkong has ceased to harp on Canton as being 'Red.'
The general opinion seems to be that such Russians as are
here have been political, economic and military advisers
and have done a useful piece of work for the Chinese.
When I say general opinion I mean Chinese opinion. I
think it would be found that a great many foreigners
would not agree with this. Those who do not agree,
however, may be somewhat limited in their sources of
information." (Canton) We do not believe there is
any marked Soviet or Bolshevist influence here (Kiu-
kiang, Kiangsi) One Li Ming Middle School is frankly
Kuomintang." (Nanchang) There is not a great
amount of Bolshevist influence abroad; there may be a
steady burrowing underground, but it does not make much
noise nor does it come up to the surface to breathe very
often." (Chengtu) "From the acts of some of the
students, and one kind of paper, it seems there is
Bolshevic influence, but not much." (Chinese cor-
respondent from Chengtu) "Soviet influences are not
prominent..." (Ta Chuh, Szechuan) I am not in touch
with any influences which I would like to define by the
term you use in this question. There may be much
extreme opinion. One would be disappointed in the
Chinese if there were not. One does not tind it possible to
trace much of this to Russian propaganda, neither can one
deny the possibility of such propaganda." (Nanking).


14
CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATtONAL AEtfAlftS
Several correspondents refer to apparent
SchookfSm fn influence of Bolshevism in the schools, and to
the probability that the Soviet Ambassador
in Peking is dispensing funds and information. From
Shensi comes the statement: 4'There have, to my
knowledge, been two visits of Russian Bolshevists to the
Middle School of this place. [Hanchungfu] They were
evidently expected to be entertained at the school. There
are, I am sure, native agents at work, and I have seen
correspondence with distant places on these things."
From Changsha: 4 4 It is generally understood that the
present head-quarters of the Communist party or some
form of extreme Bolshevistic society is at Changsha. We
found that in the industrial work of the Y. M. C. A. there
was among the laborers a definite division. The Marxians
opposed the Anarchists and were afraid that the
laborers' school in the Y. M. C. A. might get a teacher
whose sympathies might lean the other way, so asked to be
allowed to put an observer in the class-room to censor the
teacher. Of course the request was refused." No un-
biased observer can deny that there are certain or rather
uncertain. Bolshevistic influences at work in China, but
neither can he deny that much of what is heard is nothing
more than the cry of 4< Wolf, Wolf."
Bolshevism and Have Bolshevist influences been directed
Christianity against Christian work?
In Harbin an attempt was made, but it failed. At
Yenchow, in the Land of the Sages, students passed
through posting up posters at the shrines and sacred
places, but no Bolshevistic influences were felt during
1925 on the Church work of that area. In Foochow,
whatever effects of Bolshevism have been noted, have been
considered to have a good effect on the Christian work
by way of contrast, one supposes, as well as by separating
the sheep from the goats! From Canton: 44 Some at anj7
rate of the Soviet representatives have attempted to be
4 fair,' or even neutral." And 44 There was a great deal of
fear of serious anti-Christian demonstrations during
Christmas week. A group of Christians saw Mr. Borodin,
the principal Russian political adviser, and were agreeably


15 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
surprised by the attitude he took. It is common belief
that he exerted his influence to suppress any violent
anti-Christian measures. Certainly Christmas passed off
quite peacefully and in accord with the principles Mr.
Borodin had expressed to the Chinese." In Kiangsi it
has been felt that anti-Christian influence was being
exerted by Bolshevists, in Nanchang and in other centres.
The same is felt in various Christian centres in Szechwan.
A letter dated December 29, from Nanking, has this to say :
"A few days ago there was an anti-Christian parade in
Nanking. The slogans were anti-church, anti-mission-
school, and pro-China, but nothing different from what we
might expect in America if foreigners were in positions of
leadership in churches and schools. Another report from
the same city adds: "A Nanking University student
reports that before Christmas their funds were getting low,
so they had to stage a demonstration in order to get a re-
mittance of Moscow funds through Shanghai headquarters.
They put up posters denouncing imperialism, mission
schools, etc., paraded, speechified, and tore down Christmas
decorations in places." From Yangchow in Kiangsu it is
reported that 4 4 there has been persecution of the Christian
students in government institutions, but I should not
attribute it to any Russian influence." From Kiangyin in
the same province a certain amount of 44 unrest among
the students is referred to but no effect has been felt by
Christian workers. In Wusih there have been few, if any,
evidences of Bolshevist anti-Christian work, although there
is evidence of a distinct anti-Christian movement itself:
posters as bad as those used in the Boxer period have been
sent to Christian leaders, but the people of the county
seem quite unaffected. A bishop in Honan says, 44 So far
we have not noticed such influences directed against
Christian work." The report from Kweiyang says, 44 Not
that I know of. If so, it has been so hidden that folks are
hardly aware of it." About the only conclusion to which
one can come from a consideration of these answers is that
although, as is well known, there is on foot a very con-
siderable anti-Christian, movement, there is comparatively
little to indicate that there is much direct responsibility to
be attached to Bolshevism; that there is some direct


16 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
influence of this kind one cannot doubt, and that a good
deal of the responsibility is to be traced indirectly to the
Bolshevists appears clear, it is, however, no more correct
to attribute the anti-Christian movement to the Bolshevists
than it is to attribute the growth of a national spirit
to them.
Treaty Rights your wor^ affected by your Treaty
Rights? What would be the effect upon
your work were these rights to be withdrawn ?
The answers to these questions were on the whole
rather surprising and extremely interesting. A few felt
that their work was favorably affected by the treaty rights
and felt doubtful as to whether the results of doing away
with them would be favorable. Some felt that abolition
of the rights would affect their work unfavorably at first,
but the majority appeared to feel that the rights either do
not affect their work or that they affect the work dele-
teriously, and that the removal of such would be good on
the whole. "The facts show that it was God's way of
opening up the country to His servants," writes one
worker from Shensi. "I doubt if the officials or people
know anything about treaty rights. We have never
claimed them nor been dependent upon them, and J don't
think the possession or non-possession of them would have
made any practical difference to us in the future, but for
the modern agitators, probably under the influence of the
Bolsheviks." As to the effect of removal of such rights
the same writer gives this somewhat hesitating answer:
"Difficult to say; will depend, not upon the law of the
land, but upon the amount of evil in the particular man
we may have to deal with. Our schools and preaching
halls will perhaps have to be closed; chapels and churches
may have to be licensed, inspected, taxed, etc.,i etc. Our
home and class-rooms, etc., will certainly be appropriated
and abused by the military (indeed this is so now to some
extent). Taxation and oppression is pretty certain. But
this is all man-made framework, and is of comparatively
little importancein fact its destruction may have good
results; but the work of God will not be stopped; it may,
in the old-fashioned way, flourish amidst persecution and


17 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
loss and bring blessing to the land, and God will be
glorified."
Letters from those connected with the Y. M. C. A. and
Y. W. C. A. work throughout the country indicate that
these organizations are less affected by the matter of treaty
rights than many of the Church organizations. The reason
for this is that these two Associations have gone a very
considerable way toward turning over their work both
administration and property to the Chinese. As to the
methods pursued in doing this, lack of space prevents a
discussion in this paper. Those who may be interested in
this particular problem might do well to apply to the
national headquarters of these Associations for infor-
mation.
The attitude taken by the Methodist missionaries in
several areas in China is pronouncedly advanced: witness
the Resolutions* passed by them in a Conference at Kuling
in 1925, and at another conference at Chengtu on the
Church and International Relations. Whether for good or
ill, for better or worse, they have evidently made up
their minds on the matter and have taken a stand publicly
against special rights and privileges. The concluding
paragraphs of the report of the Chengtu Conference are
worth quoting: 44And we further desire to record Our
conviction that the so-called 'toleration clauses' in the
treaties regarding the propagation of Christianity in China
have ceased to serve any practical purpose, and tend to
associate the propagation of Christianity with foreign
governments. We, therefore, ask that all such references
be stricken from the treaties, that Christianity may be
placed upon the same basis as other religions under the
Chinese government's guarantee of religious liberty.
44 And finally be it resolved that we individually and
collectivel^'pledge ourselves to work for and to pray for
the abrogation of all harmful treaties, or their modification
in such manner as will assure to China her full national
sovereignty, compatible with the claims of international
justice, and the equitable considerations of all those
* See Appendix 2.


18 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
interests which contribute to the well-being of the peoples
of China and the peace of China and other countries."
Needless to say that, like the early Christians, the
Methodists have been freely criticised for taking such
actions as those mentioned. Perhaps their stand would
have been stronger, too, had they not used the phrase
"have ceased to serve any practical purpose," the implica-
tion being that the action taken is based rather upon ex-
pediency than upon morals. Another missionary in Cheng-
tu, however, differs from the viewpoint just presented.
He answers: Yes, we are able still to secure some
measure of protection because of our treaty rights and
thus we can move about with greater freedom than the
Chinese. We can also keep the soldiery out of our
churches, schools and hospitals. It is fortunate that these
rights still are existent." A Chinese Christian also in
Chengtu remarks interestingly enough, "The change of
treaty rights may help to increase the friendly attitude
toward Christianity and Christian work, but it will be
hard on foreigners and church property."
How the foreign missionary appears in some districts to
the common people" even yet is set forth by the follow-
ing statement from Chefoo: "In the country the folk
believe strongly that all missionaries are in the pay of
their Governments and are agents of such for imperialistic
purposes, no matter how we live or what we say." But
apparently this idea is not based on treaty rights since the
same writer adds: "Our own work is not in the least
affected by Treaty Rights." Although, considering that a
change in these rights would not affect his work, the same
writer says, Outside Chinese might perhaps be a little
less suspicious."
Changing ^ne wor^er in Wusih feels quite as strongly
Treaty Rights opposed to changes in treaty rights as some
others who have been quoted feel in favor of
abolishing them. I do not feel that my treaty rights
militate in the least against my work. This is the opinion
of everyone that I have talked to 011 the subject. I do not
think that the Chinese Christians here would be for our
giving up our treaty rights. It is my. opinion that if a


19 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
secret ballot could be taken of the whole body of literate
Chinese Christians, or the whole body literate and illiterate
for that matter, on the question as to whether they wanted
the treaties revised, they would be found to be over-
whelmingly against the revision. They simply do not
dare to say that they are against the revision. One of
them, a college man, told me that it has been impossible
to express one's real opinion on these subjects without
being subjected to violent persecution and probably to
being beaten .... If China had a government or even
the semblance of one, and any courts or even the sem-
blance of courts, my work would probably be little
affected by a change in these treaty rights. As things are,
and seem likely to remain indefinitely, I think that it is
likely that if our treaty rights are taken away, it will not
be long until we shall be subjected to a great deal of
annoyance from the powerful scoundrels and blackmailers
who prey on the Chinese in one way or another .... I
think that a mission hospital would be in constant trouble
and mission doctors in a good deal of danger from
scoundrels who would stir up people to prosecute the
doctors whenever operative cases did not turn out well. .
I do not believe that the Chinese Christians want to turn
us over and subject us to this sort of thing. They all
know how rotten their society is, and I cannot imagine
that they would be so ungenerous, even if I had not seen
evidence that they really do not want the treaties revised."
Somewhat different in tone from the Wusih writer is
another from Lanchow in Kansu who replies that he feels
that in a general way his work suffers from his treaty
rights by the fact that the Chinese among whom he works
regard Christian work as foreign and resent it as such.
" Personally I favor a change. It would result probably
in some difficulty at first in case of intransigeant mis-
sionaries." An interesting comment upon the letter just
quoted is that from another well-known Christian worker,
also in the province of Kiangsu: "1" have to confess,
however, to being quite sceptical as to the significance of
Chinese reticence on these questions and their real think-
ing. That does not mean to say, of course, that the
Chinese with whom Mr. Blank conversed did not sincerely


20
christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
agree with him. Mr. Doe of the Y.M.C.A. could give you an
illuminating experience or two. He recently visited some
town in where the missionaries declared the Chinese
Christians either were not interested in these political
issues or desired no change. As a matter of fact, an open
discussion blew the lid off. Some of the missionaries were
surprised at this denouncement! When it comes to the
Toleration Clauses Chinese Christian opinion is less de-
finite. A group of ministers in Hangchow recently
wrote urging caution in securing their removal, and I
have heard of one or two other places where the Christians
apparently take that attitude. On the other hand a quite
representative group of Chinese Christian leaders at the
Conference with Dr. Mott were a unit in urging the abro-
gation of inequalities in the Treaties and the Toleration
Clauses. It was quite a revelation to listen to them. If you
do not mind my saying so, I expect an outsider could go
to Wusih and gather the Chinese around him and find
that many of them had very intense feelings on the
subject."
In concluding the discussion of this subject
Christians and one can no khan to attention to
Extrality page 7 of the January, 1926, Chinese Recorder,
which, under the caption of THE CHINESE
CHRISTIAN FINDS FREEDOM, says:
"Conflicting reports come in as to the psychological
attitude of Chinese Christians towards 4 treaty protection.'
Some Chinese Christian leaders aver that it has very little
influence in the Christian Church. Others declare that in
many places Chinese Christians desire a continuance of
the present treaties until conditions are more settled. It is
a fact that Christians and non-Christians sometimes seek
cover for themselves and their valuables under the mis-
sionaries' flags. That is a very human and understandable
move. But it raises again the vital question, does this
possibility of extra-national protection for Chinese help or
harm the Christian cause ? To that question no answer as
representing any considerable group of Christians in China
is at present available. It ought to be answered. And
only Christians in China can answer it. Yet in spite of


21 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts

this uncertainty there are Chinese Christians who are
starting on another road. A group of Chinese Christians
in Moukden, the members of the Kiangsi Conference of
the Methodist Episcopal Church and 5,000 Baptists
in the Swatow district, have declared that Christianity
in China should cease to depend upon 4 treaty protection,'
and should depend on the religious liberty now included
in the Chinese constitution. Furthermore, these Chinese
Christians see that with Chinese spiritual autonomy goes of
necessity reliance on spiritual, not temporal, forces."
Political From conditions in your neighborhood are
Progress yu aware of any political progress, or work-
ing towards a goal ?
The answers to this question were for the most part
like the poet Burns' 44short and simple annals of the poor."
There was a discouragingly large number of 44 No's."
From Shensi: 44 Nothing of the kind. Poverty, suffering,
greed, lawlessness, oppression, ignorance,working to-
wards the goal of national ruin and God's judgment."
From Shantung: 44 Very little progress observable toward
a political goal. On the contrary much apathy and
bewilderment." 44None whatever. Votes are still sold.
Justice is as uncertain as ever." One ray of light is found
in that province: 4 4 In a small way there is local political
progress towards a more democratic government of the
city (Chefoo) through the Chinese Chamber of Commerce,
which is a representative body."' From Foochow: <4None"
44 In general none." From Chengtu : 44 No, there is no
political progress; and the only goal that one can see any
of the leaders working towards is that of their own selfish
aggrandizement and enrichment at the expense of the
common people." 44 No, I do not see any marks of political
progress. Disorder, confusion, distrust, jealousy, and the
forward selfish aims on the part of the ruling military
faction are the chief characteristics evident just now."
But the Chinese reporter from this same city of Chengtu
takes a more hopeful view: 44 There is the wide awakening
of the national feeling. People are more educated. There
is more opportunity for people to express their opinion."
From Chungking: 44 No." From Suiting: 44 There is no


22
christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
political progress in Suiting neighborhood and the only
goal seems to be to make as much money as possible in
the shortest possible time." From Yangchow in Kiangsu:
"Not in the slightest." From Kiangyin in the same
province: "I am sorry to report that I see few if any
signs of political progress in this neighborhood. There is
general dissatisfaction with the present state of affairs
and that is about all. However, dissatisfaction with the
present state is indeed the first step in progress toward a
change." From Wusih, also in Kiangsu: "There is no
political progress here except perhaps a small attempt on
the part of the local gentry to try to persuade the governor
general to establish a regular system of taxation in place
of his irregular levies. A writer from Hangchow in Che-
kiang says: "None whatever. The present day political
leaders are looked upon by the populace as grasshoppers
and parasites." Another reports from the same city:
" The only political progress which I see is the increase of
the spirit of nationalism which finds a certain amount
of anti-foreign agitation to be the easiest method of
strengthening such nationalistic spirit. When nationalism
sees its goal of juster international relations in view it will
work far more vigorously than ever before toward a better
internal reconstruction." A religious leader in Honan
says: "Absolutely 110 political progress of the right kind,
and 110 working towards a national democratic goal,the
'working' is entirely selfish in its aim and method."
From Taikang in the same province: Hopeless muddle
bleeding of the people." From Tientsin: Most Chinese
have lost hope. Trust neither politicians nor military."
From Peking: "One would be optimistic to say that
he detects any political progress in the shifting of events
during the last few years in the neighborhood of Peking.
Many predict that this will continue for an indefinite
period. Others are inclined to think that ultimately the
people driven to desperation will take direct action against
their military oppressors, probably uniting in support of
some man who treats them better than the others do."
Political Ho e see S^ams of political
o ica ope gunsj1ine through the clouds of military


23 christian movement and nattonal aetfalfts
darkness explain their optimism on the ground that
public opinion is being gradually formed, and where it
already exists it is being stirred in the way of national
thinking as contrasted with provincial thinking; some see
considerable progress in education in spite of general
Jack of funds; some see local progress in municipal or
provincial affairs. Writers from Canton are more hopeful
than those in most other centres. One says; 44 Yes. The
local government has been making progress against great
odds in a concerted program of centralization." Another
says: "There has been very definite political progress
in and around Canton during the past three months.
The civil government is stronger than it has been at
any time since the Revolution. There has been greater
consolidation in various departments of the government.
Financially the government is better off than it has been
for years. Taxes are being paid into the Treasury, and
the military being paid from the Treasury instead of
paying themselves from the taxes. There seems to be a
definite and effective move for good government."
In general conclusion one may say, as a result of
studying the answers sent in from many parts of the
country, from reading the local papers and from talking
with those who are interested in the Christian movement
in China, that Christian work is being affected a good
deal directly and a great deal indirectly, and that in many
cases the effect is for good rather than for evil; that there
is much less evidence of Bolshevism being the cause for
this than the development of a new nationalistic spirit,
which shows evidence of being on the increase rather
than on the wane; that there is a very definite move on
the part of many foreign Christian workers in China to
change their legal status and their administrative status
in Christian work; there is a desire on the part of the
native workers to hold more responsible positions, which
desire is generally being met by the foreign workers. It
is clear that there is a strong anti-Christian movement,
which tends to grow stronger rather than weaker; however,
this movement, far from weakening Christianity, tends rather
to strengthen it. Persecution always has been good for the


24 christian movement and national affairs
Church in the long run, since it serves to keep it awake
to its duties, and brings out the best in those who are
sincere and shows up those who are not. To the present
much Jess effect has been felt than one would suppose
from a casual reading of newspapers either in China or
abroad. Lastly, whatever political progress is being made
is largely invisible. That such progress is being made in a
general way is fairly clear from the statements above, but
such progress is underground to a considerable extent.
On the whole it appears to the writer that the outlook for
Christianity is exceedingly bright, despite civil war,
treachery and confusion, which are undoubtedly rampant
throughout large parts of the country.


CHAPTER II
MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE
Harold Balme
Significant mos^ burning questions in China
jssae during the past year, in relation to the work
of missions, has been that of Treaty Rights
and Special Privilege. Until comparatively recent years,
this problem never came within the range of public
consciousness. The great majority of missionaries went
out to China with little or no thought that they would
be participants in special rights not usually accorded to
residents in a foreign country, and with no desire to
occupy a privileged position. Various factors have,
however, now helped to focus attention upon this question,
and the outcry against the unequal treaties", as they
are commonly called, is spreading through the whole
country. The Anti-Christian Movement, and other
kindred organisations, have openly attacked missions on
the score of their association with these treaties, and have
accused them of exerting a denationalising influence upon
their converts, whom they stigmatise as the running
dogs of Imperialism.Propaganda of every type has
cast suspicion upon the motivation of Christian education.
The developing race-consciousness of the Chinese people,
with its natural demand for racial equality, has challenged
the missionary forces to declare their attitude on the
whole race question. Meanwhile an increasing and
influential section of the Chinese church is definitely
stating that they no longer wish to enjoy special protection,
guaranteed under treaties with Western powers, and is
asking pertinently whether the missionaries are prepared
to share with them the possible difficulties and dangers of
this new position.
In view of this situation, it is incumbent upon all
of us to try and clear our minds as to what, exactly, are


26
missionaries and special privilege
the special privileges which we as missionaries enjoy in
China, and whether or not they should be abandoned.
What Privileges Do Missionaries Enjoy?
Let us attempt, in the first place, to enumerate the
special privileges which affect us or our work. In doing
so it is of the highest importance that they should be
separated into the three very distinct groups to which they
severally belong. Failure to keep this classification clear
has been responsible for much of the misunderstanding
that has arisen on this subject. They are as follows:
1. Privileges customary to international law, and apart
altogether from special Treaty rights or concessions.
As foreigners living in a country which claims to
observe the obligations of international law, every resident
in China, be he missionary or merchant, is entitled to
(a) Protection of life and property, guaranteed by the
central and local government authorities of the
country in which he lives, and regulated by
passport conditions.
(b) The right of appeal to his consular and diplomatic
representatives in all cases of injury or alleged
injustice.
Statements have frequently appeared during the last
few months, suggesting that if extra-territorial rights are
once given up, no protection will remain for the missionary
or his property. This suggestion is due to an entire mis-
apprehension. In countries where there is no extraterri-
toriality at all foreign residents enjoy the same right to claim
diplomatic protection as we do. Extra-territorial rights
merely mean that if a foreigner possessing such privileges
becomes the defendant in a civil or criminal suit instituted
by a national of the country in which he lives, he can
claim to be tried by his own courts and under his own
law, that, and nothing more. It has nothing whatever
to do with his right of appeal to his consul for protection
against attack or against injustice, nor does it affect his
right to demand safety for his person and his belongings
from the local authorities of the country in which he lives.


missionaries and special privilege
3lb
Such rights will always remain his under international
law, and are not in any way dependent upon extra-
territoriality or other "special privileges."
2. Special privileges secured by treaty, of a non-reciprocal
character, and shared with all felloiv-nationals.
The treaties which China has concluded at various
times with Western powers, as the result of war or other
causes, have conferred upon the nationals of such powers
certain privileges to which they would not otherwise be
entitled, and which are not reciprocal. Under the
operation of the "most-favoured-nation" clause, any
privileges secured in such a way by one Power are
automatically claimed by the nationals of all others who
come under the working of this clause. These special
privileges include the following:
(a) Extra-territorial rights.
(b) Foreign control of certain portions of Chinese
territory (known as the Concessions and Inter-
national Settlements), with exemption from
Chinese taxation.
(c) Foreign control of China's external tariff, and
of the Maritime Customs.
(d) The right to maintain foreign troops and gunboats
at certain stations.
The foreign missionary shares indirectly in all these
privileges to a greater or less extent.
(a) By means of extra-territoriality he can claim to
be tried by his own consul, if sued by a Chinese litigant
or accused of a criminal offence. This privilege the
surrender of which by missionaries is so much feared in
some quarters has, as a matter of fact, only been
claimed by missionaries in a very few instances, as it is
a most rare occurrence for them to be concerned in civil
or criminal suits. The fact of their possessing these
extra-territorial rights may, however, have protected them
against false accusations and may be a safeguard against
expropriation or illegal taxation. In this connection it is
worthy of remembrance that if, as the result of the giving


28
missionaries and special privilege
up of extra-territoriality, a missionary should find himself
falsely accused of an offence, his right of appeal to his
consul for protection against injustice would still remain.
(b) He can build residences or mission institutions
in' the Concessions, thereby escaping Chinese taxation or
Chinese control.
(c) He can purchase certain foreign goods more
cheaply in China than in his own country, by virtue of
the low fixed tariff.
(d) In times of danger he can flee to a foreign
gunboat, if he so desire, or to a guarded legation.
3. Special privileges peculiar to missionaries and not shared
by their non-missionary felloiv-nationals.
This group of special privileges includes those granted
under the so-called 44 Toleration Articles" appearing in
certain treaties, the most explicit of which is the Treaty of
1903 between China and the United States. They may be
summarised as follows:
(a) The right of travel and residence in the interior,
away from the Open Ports.
(b) The right of purchase or lease of property in the
interior, away from the Open Ports.
(c) Protection of Christian converts from persecution.
(d) Exemption of Christian converts from taxes
levied for temple support or other religious
observances countrary to their faith.
These privileges, it should be noted, are peculiar to
Christianity, and are not guaranteed by treaty to
other 44 foreign-introduced religions, such as Buddhism,
Mohammedanism, etc. The Japanese included similar
privileges for teachers of Buddhism and Shintoism amongst
their famous 44 Twenty-One Demands", but this came
under the group to which China strenuously objected, and
which was subsequently withdrawn.
Arguments Against Retention of Special Privilege.
Having thus stated in detail the various privileges
which foreign missionaries in China enjoy, it may now be


missionaries and special privilege
3lb
well to consider the arguments which have been brought
forward in favour of their abandonment. Such abandon-
ment, let us again repeat, would not of course affect the
first of the above three groups. That group comes under
ordinary international usage, and not under the heading
of "special privilege."
The following reasons may be advanced in favour of
the surrender by missionaries of any claim to special
privilege:
1. The missionary cause is essentially a spiritual
adventure, depending for its success upon the blessing of
God and the goodwill and friendship of the people among
whom it is carried on. It is neither connected with
foreign governments, nor should it in any way depend
upon their protection and support. Foreign missionaries
have always been ready to penetrate into countries where
no special treaty privileges obtained, and beyond the reach
of the armed forces of their country. They came to China
long before there was any thought of such privileges.
They will stay in China, if the country still needs them,
long after all such privileges are withdrawn. Any
suggestion of dependence upon special and non-reciprocal
treaty rights would therefore appear to be opposed to the
whole tradition of the missionary movement and to the
true spirit of Christianity.
In this connection the remarks of Dr. David Yui at
the Conference Higher Education last February, demand
serious thought. He said: "In the present agitation for
the abolition of extraterritoriality and the so-called tolera-
tion clauses in China, what are some of the oft-repeated
questions on the lips and in the writings of not a few of
our missionaries? We shall try to name a few in the order
of importance given. Property. Personal safety of mis-
sionaries. Protection of Christian converts. These are,
doubtless, important questions which we should not ignore.
We must study them and find out proper and adequate
provisions. But should we not ask whether the aboli-
tion of extraterritoriality and of the toleration clauses
would offer greater opportunities for the spiritual develop-
ment of the Christian Movement in China, or hinder it? "


30
missionaries and special privilege 3lb
2. So long as missionaries and their converts enjoy
special privileges not shared by the teachers of other
religions, they are subject to implications which may
prove to be increasingly detrimental to their influence and
success. It is difficult for them to clear themselves of the
charge of being a 14 foreign-protected religion" whilst they
continue to enjoy these special privileges.
3. It has always been the privilege and duty of
missionaries, in times of persecution and danger, to offer
such protection as they are capable of to those who are in
peril around them, whether Christian or non-Christian,
but would it not be far better for the missionary to share
in the dangers to which his Chinese friends are exposed,
than to invite them to share in special privileges
guaranteed by foreign force? Religious liberty has already
been included under each draft constitution that has so
far been prepared for the Republic, and it is probable that
it has now found a permanent place in the country's
policy. Would it not, therefore, be better for the strength
and independence of the Christian Church for her members
to take their stand under that provision or even to share
the risks of religious persecution than to rely upon
foreign intervention ?
4. There is abundant evidence of a growing desire on
the part of a great number of Chinese Christian leaders to
be free from the implications of a foreign-protected religion.
Missionaries are thus faced with the alternative of sharing
that position, and the possible dangers that may be
associated with it, by the surrender of special privileges,
or of running the risk of creating a serious and ever
widening breach between the missionary movement and
the Chinese Church.
Objections to Abandonment of Special Privilege.
Let us now consider the objections which have been
raised against any expression of willingness, on the part
of missionaries, to surrender all claim to special privilege
in China. The most important of these ^re probably the
four following:


missionaries and special privilege
3lb
1. That conditions in the interior are such that mission work
still requires, for its prosecution, the additional protection
afforded by the treaties.
Although usually stated in this form, the experience
of the past year would suggest that missionary work in the
interior, during a period of acute anti-foreign sentiment,
has not necessarily been more difficult or more dangerous
than on the coast, in fact it would almost appear as if
the centers where foreign treaty rights were most in
evidence have been the chief points of attack. Apart
from this, however, it is perfectly clear that neither
extra-territoriality nor any other special privilege has
provided immunity against such risk, and so long as
these non-reciprocal advantages continue to be a source
of irritation and resentment to a powerful section of
Chinese opinion, there is every reason to fear that they
may be more of a danger than a protection. The real
protection of missionaries and their work has always
depended, under God, upon the friendly feeling of those
whom they serve, and anything which is utilised as a
means for disturbing or effacing that friendly sentiment
will in the long run prove a liability rather than an asset.
2. That in view of the disordered condition of the country, no
change in the status quo is advisable for the present.
It will probably be agreed by all that it would have
been far more satisfactory if this whole question of treaty-
revision could have been considered dispassionately two or
three years ago, before the outbreak of the recent anti-
foreign disturbances. Unfortunately there has been a long
and disastrous delay in giving effect to the recommenda-
tions of the Washington Conference, and meanwhile
suspicion and hostility have deepened in certain quarters,
and the political condition of the country has gone from
bad to worse. This, however, is no argument for still
further delay, nor is there any reason to suppose that the
agitation on behalf of racial equality, and the demand for
the abolition of unilateral treaty privileges, will grow less
with the lapse of time. Everything points to the contrary.
Governments may continue to change as rapidly as they
have been doing of late, but it is hard to imagine that any


32
missionaries and special privilege 3lb
government will ever hold office which is committed to any
modification of this growing demand.
So long as these unilateral treaties remain, the special
privileges enjoyed by foreigners, to which China has no re-
ciprocal equivalent, will continue to be a cause of irritation
and resentment. The question of the advisability of resting
the special rights of missions upon treaties whose continued
existence is regarded by many Chinese as a sign of national
humiliation is therefore liable to become more acute,
rather than less, with each succeeding year.
3. That this vhole question of Treaty revision is a political
matter, in ivhich missionaries, by the nature of their
calling, should take no part.
This argument, in my opinion, fails to take sufficient
count of two important points.
In the first place, missionaries, like all other foreign
residents, are in actual enjoyment of these special
privileges, some of which are not even enjoyed by their
fellow-nationals; and now that their retention is challenged
by the public opinion of an influential section of the
country, they cannot escape their share of responsibility
for expressing a definite opinion as to whether or not they
are willing to see them abandoned.
In the second place, the privileges accorded under the
"Toleration Clauses"*)" were secured by missionaries, and
for missionaries. Dr. Wells Williams, who took so large
a part in obtaining these concessions, narrates in his
"Life and Letters" that on returning from Peking to
Shanghai, after the signing of the treaty, he found that
amongst the missionaries there was as much disappoint-
ment as gratification, for the hopes of everyone had been
raised to an undue and exaggerated height by the rumours
which preceded us."* It would seem therefore to be a
somewhat untenable position to suggest that missionaries
may enjoy for fifty or sixty years special privileges secured
through meddling in politics," but may take no steps
fFor the "Toleration Clauses" see Chaf>ter V, China Christian
Year Book, 1926.
*Life & Letters of S. Wells Williams, page 281.


missionaries and special privilege 3lb
to indicate their willingness to give up the concessions
so obtained.
4. That missionaries only form one part of the foreign
community and should not take any action ivhich may
embarrass the other section.
This argument has been well discussed by Mr. Roger
Greene in a recent letter to the Peking and Tientsin
Times." Speaking as one who is neither a missionary nor
merchant, and is therefore in a peculiar position to
consider this question from an unbiassed standpoint, Mr.
Greene writes:
" Modern governments are largely dependent, in
the formation of their policies, on free expression of
opinion by the varied interests among their people,
and it seems to me well, therefore, that both
missionaries and business men should state frankly
their view on the important international questions
which affect them, with due consideration of the
probable fact that neither side can present the whole
picture, and recognizing that there is room for an
honest difference of opinion. I think we may trust
our diplomatic representatives to face the facts thus
presented and to do their best to work out with the
Chinese authorities a practical solution that will
satisfy all reasonable aspirations of the Chinese people
with the least possible injury to the legitimate and
permanent interests of foreigners."*
Business men have every right to state frankly
whether, in their opinion, an abandonment of special
treaty privileges at this present time would be detrimental
to the large interests which they serve, and they have not
hesitated to avail themselves of that right. Missionaries,
who are responsible for interests no less important, enjoy
a similar right; and if it is urged that action on the part
of the one group may be embarrassing to the interests of
the other, it must also be remembered that unwillingness
to act, on the part of the one, may be no less prejudicial to
the other's responsibilities.
*" Peking and Tientsin Times," February 26th, 1926.


34
missionaries and special privilege 3lb
Actions Taken by Missionary Organizations
During the past few months action has been taken,
with striking unanimity, by the Mission Boards of Great
Britain, the United States and Canada, and by a large
number of mission groups in China, with regard to the
question of special privilege.*!" The resolutions passed by
these various bodies, although differing in wording, give
expression to a unanimous desire to give up any special
privileges to which China is not a fully consenting partner.
They offer no suggestions as to any particular method by
which extraterritoriality should be abolished, whether
summarily, or by successive stages, nor as to the
conditions which may regulate the maintenance of religious
liberty and service and the protection of life and property.
These, and all similar questions, they have left for the
mutual agreement of China and the Powers, meeting on
terms of absolute equality. They have, however, gone on
record that so far as the interests for which they as
trustees are concerned, they do not wish to retain any
privileges which China herself would not freely accord.
It may be urged that this action involves an element
of risk, though in this connection it should not be
forgotten that inaction may involve no less risk. It is not,
however, a question of expediency but of principle, and
where a spiritual principle is concerned, the Church in the
past has never been deterred by considerations of danger.
The fundamental question is as to whether the. surrender
of special privilege is the right and Christian course to
follow. It is in the strong conviction that this is the case
that the missionary organizations, and a vast number
of missionaries who share this view, have now taken
action.
tSee Appendix II, China Christian Year Book, 1926.


CHAPTER III
SOME HISTORICAL POINTS CONCERNING THE
SO-CALLED < UNEQUAL TREATIES'
J J Heeren
From the current Chinese point of view the foreign
merchant and the foreign missionary are great barriers to
China's progress; undoubtedly, not because they are
aliens, but because they enjoy privileges in China that
they could not enjoy in countries like Japan and Siam,
states in full possession of their sovereign rights.' The
following paragraphs are supplementary to what has
already appeared in the Chinese Recorder* on the subject
of the treaties.
One of the most important things to remember is that
the commercial intercourse of the West with China was
greatly accelerated by the discovery of America, the
repercussions of which were soon felt in various parts of
Asia. In 1493 Pope Alexander VII's 14 demarcation line "
assigned to Portugal all lands discovered to the east of this
line. The result was that the Portuguese became the
modern pioneers of the Far East. In 1517 they seized
St. John's Island, south of Canton, and in 1557 the
Portuguese occupied the present city of Macao, which
became and remained the great commercial port of South
China until the rise of Hongkong. The Spaniards first
came, to China, from Manila, in 1575; the Dutch, in 1622;
in 1637 a fleet of nine ships belonging to the East India
Company (British) came to Macao and Canton, and in
1653 a Russian embassy came overland to ask for commer-
cial privileges.
During all these-centuries until 1689 the merchants
from abroad did not enjoy in China any treaty privileges.
"(See Chinese Recorder, November, 192o, pp. 705, 716, 719,
December, 1925, pp. 810: 1926, January, pp. 45. February, pp. 103.
May, pp. 322.)


36
concerning the 4' unequal treaties''
In 1689, however, the Treaty of Nerchinsk, Article VI,
provided the elements of reciprocal extraterritoriality for
Russian and Chinese subjects living near the Siberian
border. In the next century the Treaty of the Frontier
(1727), Article IV, allowed a maximum of 200 Russian
merchants to come to Peking once every three years, and
Article V gave these Russians the right to have in Peking
an Orthodox church with four priests, where they might
practise, but not propagate, the rites of their own religion.
These provisions, however, are so different from the
privileges conferred by the more modern treaties that they
throw little or no light upon present problems.
From the standpoint of the foreign merchant the first
great document was the Treaty of Nanking, signed August
29, 1842, which opened Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo
and Shanghai to foreign trade and called for a "fair and
regular Tariff of Export and Import Customs and other
dues." The British Treaty of 1843 fixed this tariff rate at
5 per cent ad valorem. Fifteen years later, on the basis of
Article XXVI of the Treaty of Tientsin, most of the duties
were made specific, "by reason of the fall in the value of
various articles of merchandise." In other words, in 1842
China had to agree to a fair and regular tariff "; in 1843
she had to accept a 5 per cent duty; and in 1858, because
a fall in prices had made the 1843 duties more than 5 per
cent, she was compelled to agree to a new schedule. Not
only were the rates lowered in 1858, but there was added
an enlarged list of duty-free goods, such as foreign tobacco,
foreign cigars, beer, wine, spirits and other articles
intended for consumption by the foreigners. On the basis
of 4 most favored treatment new treaties embodying the
advantages of the re.yis.ed British schedules were made with
the United States, Russia and France. Except in the case
of opium, these schedules for water-borne goods underwent
no revision until 1902. Even then, to use the words of
Senator Underwood, "All the duties remained subject to
the restrictions of the early treaties,and even now the
" export duties which are still in force are the specific
duties contained in the schedule of 1858."
What has been said above refers to goods reaching


37 concerning the 4' unequal treaties''

China by water. In 1862, however, Russia made an agree-
ment with China that Russian goods coming overland to
Tientsin should pay one-third less than the ordinary duty;
in 1867 France got the privilege of a three-tenths reduction
for goods coming overland from Tonkin; in 1894 England
secured a similar reduction for English goods coming
overland from Burma; in 1896 Russia got the one-third
reduction for all Russian imports and for Chinese exports
shipped on the Siberian Railway; and finally, in 1913 Japan
got (and still gets) a reduction of one third on all Japanese
goods coming from or through Korea into Manchuria.
In 1918 the fourteen Treaty Powers revised the
schedules with the intention of giving China an effective
five per cent, as called for by the treaties. The next great
event in China's tariff history is the Washington Con-
ference, which authorized the raising of China's tariff to Vi-
per cent in the case of ordinary goods and to 10 per cent in
the case of luxuries. At Washington, however, the Powers
did not contemplate giving China tariff autonomy and
they assumed that if China ever wanted to raise her tariff
as high as 12J per cent, she would first have to abolish
likin, 44 transit dues in lieu of likin" and 44 all other
taxation on foreign goods."
At this point two important questions emerge:
1. Have the powers, aside from technical treaty
privileges mostly the result of wars, the inherent right to
still withhold from China the right of tariff autonomy ?
Although the Tariff Conference has agreed to give China
autonomy,* the various governments have still to ratify
this agreement. "Tariff autonomy said .Dr. Koo at the
Washington Conference, 44 is a sovereign right enjoyed by
all independent states. Its free exercise is essential to the
well-being of the state. The existing treaty provisions, by
which the levy of customs' duties, transit dues, and other
imports is regulated, constitute not only a restriction on
China's freedom of action, but an infringement of her
sovereignty. Restoration to her of tariff autonomy would
only be recognition of a right which is hers and which she
relinquished against her will."
*To ta,ke a,ffect on a

86
concerning the 4' unequal treaties''
2. In case the Powers do not ratify the Peking
agreement, is it worth China's while, from an economic
point of view, to give up a domestic tax in order to be
allowed to increase her tariff duties to 12J per cent in
accordance with the British, American and Japanese
treaties of 1902 and 1903, when the developing alignment
of Powers in the Far East will very probably enable her
before many years to regain tariff autonomy without
having to ask the Treaty Powers what they wish done
about the likin ? Although in 1922 China was willing to
give up likin by January 1, 1924, in return for a 12j per
cent customs tariff, the Powers were not sufficiently
farsighted to accept the offer, and China has now refused
to do anything of the sort. The Chinese Government
has agreed to delay tariff autonomy until January 1,
1929, but has refused to make autonomy conditional
upon the abolition of likin. In this stand the Chinese
seem morally justified. Any transit tax, to be sure, is a
" commercial nuisance," and China's own economic
welfare demands the abolition of likin, but as long as
foreign goods are not discriminated against and the taxes
are in accordance with China's laws, the Powers seem to
have no moral justification, aside from the treaties called
in question, for telling China how she is not to tax. The
right to levy domestic taxes is as much a sovereign power
as that of tariff autonomy.
Now, let us turn from the treaty privileges that
benefit the merchant to those that protect the missiona.ry.
Christianity has been preached in China for many
centuries. In the seventh century Syrian missionaries
came to found the Nestorian Church; towards the end
of the thirteenth century Pope Nicholas IV appointed John
de Monte Corvino Archbishop of Peking; about 1580 there
came to China Matthew Ricci, the great Jesuit, and 1807
saw the coming of Robert Morrison, the Protestant pioneer.
Before 1858, however, the missionary in China received
no formal treaty protection. It is true that after 1557
the colony of Macao was a sort of haven of refuge for
Roman Catholic missionaries, especially the Jesuits, when
persecutions drove them out of the interior, but s\ich


39 concerning the 4' unequal treaties''

protection was not the result of treaties. Although in
1692 the Emperor K'ang Hsi issued his famous Edict of
Toleration, his successor rescinded the decree in 1724.t
Accordingly, in 1727, the Treaty of the Frontier, as
already indicated, gave the Russians certain limited
religious privileges. In 1844, Article XVII of the American
treaty gave the citizens of the United States the right
to construct at any of the open ports both "hospitals and
churches." In 185.1 China promised Russia, in Article
XIV of the Koulclja Treaty, not to interfere with the
religious provisions of the religious services of Russian
subjects in China. But all these provisions of the treaties
relating to religion were of minor importance.
The treaties of 1858-1860 with France, Great Britain,
Russia and the United States laid the foundations for
most of the existing privileges, which were continued
and at some points amplified by the treaties resulting from
the Boxer Rebellion.
In the evolution of this policy of protecting foreign
missionaries and native converts, the history of missions
in China differs from that of Japan. In China Mission
Boards secured the treaty privilege of purchasing land in
the interior and of building thereon, and their foreign
workers secured, or possibly took, the right of residing
in the interior; in Japan, however, missionaries went
to the interior with no other legal authorization than their
passports. What protected missionaries, mission work, and
mission converts in Japan, after the initial persecutions,
was not so much treaty privileges as the realization on
the part of Japan that a narrow or hostile policy towards
Christian missions or Christianity in general would rob
Japan of the confidence of the Christian nations.
In China, however, things took a different course.
In part due to the network of treaties referred to, it was
possible to build up in China a missionary work of
unparalleled magnitude; but these very treaty privileges
enjoyed by the missionaries, as well as the indemnities
often exacted* when mission property had been destroyed
f A more stringent decree was issued in 1733. Ed.
*See Chinese Recorder, May, 1926, page 367.


40
concerning the 4' unequal treaties''
or when missionaries had been killed, have undoubtedly
had no small part in convincing many of the intelligent.
Chinese, including some of those who are Christians, that
foreign missionary work and the imperialistic-economic
designs of foreign governments have a sinister connection.
In Shantung, for example, many educated Chinese seem
absolutely convinced that the seizure of Kiaochow Bay,
for which the killing of two missionaries furnished a
suitable excuse, is but a glaring example of a policy pursued
more or less by all the Western Powers. The fact that
many, if not most, of the native converts are now taking
the side of the Chinese nationalists rather than that of the
foreign missionaries seems fully to justify Tyler Dennet in
saying, in his "Americans in Eastern Asia," 4'much harm
and little good has come from governmental patronage
and protection of missionary work."
As in the case of tariff control and missionary
protection, so in the case of extraterritoriality we find a
gradual development. In general, the early traders,
although often reckless adventurers, were subject to
Chinese Jaw, unless they were Portuguese doing business
in Macao. In the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689)., as already
indicated, and in the Treaty of the Frontier (1727) Russia
and China agreed to a crude kind of extraterritoriality
that was reciprocal and not unilateral.
British merchants, however, alleging that justice was
insecure, seem always to have been reluctant to submit to
Chinese laws and Chinese courts, with the result that on
August 28, 1833, the English Parliament passed An Act
to Regulate the Trade to China and India," Article VI
of which authorized the establishment of a court for
British subjects in China. Although the court was not
actually established at this time, the Act was a concrete
effort to put into practice extraterritorial jurisdiction.
The Treaty of Nanking, 1842, made no mention of the
grant of extraterritorial jurisdiction"; but in 1843 the
"General Regulations of Trade," especially Article XIII,
for the five newly opened ports definitely conceded the
principle. This grant received amplification and greater
precision in Articles XXI and XXV of the American


concerning tiie unequal treaties}'
41
Treaty of Wanghia, signed July 3, 1844. Upon these
foundations were reared the British Supreme Court for
China and Korea and the United States Court for China.
On the basis of the most favored nation clauses
all the leading Powers secured the right of extraterritorial
jurisdiction. In 1902 and;1903, however, Great Britain, the
United States and Japan promised to give China 44 every
assistance" in reforming her judicial system, and when
these reforms had been carried out to relinquish their
44 extraterritorial rights." At the Washington Conference
these three Powers in addition to Belgium, the Netherlands,
Italy, France and Portugal made a similar promise.
In the meantime, however, this privilege of extraterri-
torial jurisdiction had assumed a new aspect. By means
of Articles 128, 129,132 and 282 of the Treaty of Versailles,
the Allied and Associated Powers compelled Germany to
give up her Kiaochow Lease, the Shantung Railway with
its coal mines, the German concessions in Hankow and
in Tientsin, her share of the Boxer Indemnity and her
right of extraterritoriality, as well as all other treaty
privileges she had enjoyed in China. In her agreement
with China, dated May 20, 1921, Germany confirmed
these losses and she accepted the following 44 Judicial
Guarantee". 44 Law suits of Germans in China shall be
tried in the modern courts, according to the modern codes,
with the right to appeal, and in accordance with the
regular legal procedure. During the period of litigation
the assistance of German lawyers and interpreters who
have been duly recognized by the court, is permitted."
By the Treaty of St. Germain, to which China is a party,
The Powers compelled Austria likewise to give up all her
privileges in China. In other words, by the end of 1919
the Powers themselves had shattered their own unity in
the Far East by depriving Germany and Austria of all
their treaty privileges. Henceforth there were to be
in China Powers with and Powers without the special rights
of extraterritoriality.
But the old phalanx of Powers, which for so many
years secured from China practically everything it wanted,
was made still more decrepit by the defection of Russia,


42
c0ncerninc4 the unequal treaties''
the international outcast." In the Russo-Chinese Agree-
ment of June 17, 1924, Articles 3 and 4, Russia and China
agreed: 1. To annul the "conventions, treaties, agree-
ments, protocols, contracts, etc." between China and the
Czarist Government, and to replace them with new
treaties, agreements, etc., on the basis of equality, reci-
procity and justice."
2. To consider 44 null and void" all 44 treaties,
agreements, etc., concluded between the former Czarist
Government and any third party or parties affecting the
sovereign rights or interests of China."
3. To conclude no "treaties or agreements which
prejudice the sovereign rights or interests of either
contracting party." Article 10 gives up the Russian
concessions; Article 11 renounces "the Russian portion of
the Boxer Indemnity'7; Article 12 relinquishes "the
rights of extraterritoriality and consular jurisdiction," and
Article 13 concedes to China the right of tariff autonomy.
In short, with a stroke of the pen, as it were, Russia gave
up privileges in riotous prodigality.
Closely related to the problem of extraterritoriality
are the foreign concessions and settlements, or "areas
reserved for foreign residence," where foreign communities
enjoy local self-government. It is especially desirable to
call attention to these little "foreign cases," because many
of the recent collisions between foreign authorities and the
Chinese occurred either within such settlements and con-
cessions or near their borders. The origin of these areas is
to be found in the five ports opened in 1842 by the Treaty
of Nanking, while Article VII of the Supplementary Treaty
of 1843 definitely says that "ground and houses" are to
be "set apart" for merchants in Canton, Foochow, Amoy,
Ningpo and Shanghai. Technically there are four kinds
of these special areas:
1. Concession. This is a piece of ground conveyed
in perpetuity to a lessee state. Hankow is an example of
this type.
2. International Settlement. This is a place, like
Shanghai, where foreigners have the right to organize


43 concerning the 4' unequal treaties''

themselves into a municipality but where they do not hold
a lease to the land.
3. International Settlement by Sufferance. This is a
place, like Chefoo, where without any formal agreement "
foreigners have bought land and acquired the tacit right
to govern themselves as a municipality" but without
having an official status.
4. Voluntary Settlement. These are settlements
that have been voluntarily opened by the Chinese, and
consequently all the administrative and police powers
remain in the hands of the Chinese. Changsha and Tsinan
are examples of this type.
In his Studies in Chinese Diplomatic History Prof.
Hsia sums up the case, from the Chinese point of view,
against settlements and concessions in these words, "From
what has already been said, it must be obvious that the
restoration of these municipal powers is exceedingly
desirable; legally, they have no justification, and from the
point of view of equity China's claim for their abolition is
incontestable." Although there are things to be said on
the other side, a thoroughly modernized China, undoubt-
edly, will eventually eliminate these special areas.
Although extraterritoriality and settlements and
concessions are closely related, they do not necessarily
stand and fall together. It is conceivable that the settle-
ments and concessions would remain, while extraterritorial
jurisdiction outside of these areas would be abolished.
On the other hand, it would also be possible to do away
with these special municipal areas and to leave the
foreigners subject to the laws and courts of their own
countries. The probability, however, is that revision or
abolition of the one will bring with it abolition or revision
of the other.
Twenty-five years ago the Powers as one solid phalanx
stormed the walls of the Forbidden City and imposed their
will on a helpless country. To-day that unity is shattered,
and a new alignment is evolving. Russia is on the side of
China. Germany and Austria are standing on the "diplo-
matic side-lines," secretly hoping to be the gainers


44 concerning the 4' unequal treaties''
commercially, while their former enemies, more or less
reluctantly, abandon their leases, concessions, settlements,
indemnities and other special privileges. Japan seems
to have definitely tried to take the lead at the Tariff
Conference in the giving up of special privileges hoping thus
to become the accepted leader of the peoples of the Far
East. In short, the old days seem gone forever, and the
treaties which are the heritage of those days seem destined
to be soon abrogated or at least to be revised.
PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
44 Treaties, Conventions, etc. between China and
Foreign States "; by the Maritime Customs (Second
Edition).
44 Treaties and Agreements with and concerning China:
189-4-1919": by John V. A. MacMurray: Oxford
Univ. Press.
44 Modern Chinese History"; by H. F. MacNair: Com-
mercial Press.
44 Studies in Chinese Diplomatic History": by Ching-
Lin Hsia: Commercial Press.
44The Status of Aliens in China": Vi Kyuin Wellington
Koo: Columbia University.
44 Foreign Rights and Interests in China": by Westel
W. Willoughby: The Johns Hopkins Press.
44 International Law": by L. Oppenheim (Third Edition);
Longmans Green and Co.
44Les Anciennes Missions de la Compagnie de Jesus en
Chine (1552-1814)": by J. de la Serviere, S. J.:
Zi-Ka-Wei.
4 4 La Hierarchie Catholique en Chine, en Coree et au
Japon (1307-1914)": by P. Joseph de Moidrey, S. J.,
Zi-Ka-Wei.
II Cartas de China": by p# otto Maas, 0. F. M.: Sevilla.
" Conference on the Limitation of Armament: Washing-
ton: Nov. 12, 1921Feb. 6, 1922": Government
Printing Office.


CHAPTER itf
CHINA'S POSITION AT THE INSTITUTE ClF
PACIFIC RELATIONS
L. T. Chen
Genesis of Pacific Relations held ill
Institute Honolulu on June 30th-July 14th, 1925^
was the first of a series of unofficial gatherings
of fairminded individuals of the peoples in the Pacific
basin. Nine national groups were represented and 111 men
and women of prominence in various walks of life were
involved in this first experiment of trying to create an
understanding on some of the pressing problems we have in
common by a candid and frank exchange of views and
opinions. Its purpose was not to multiply occasions for
diplomatic skill, or to create opportunities for wilful pro-
paganda, but to facilitate personal acquaintances and to
make possible firsthand study of the real situation as it
exists in each country. In other words, a desire for friend-
ship and a knowledge of facts were the sole objects of the
gathering.
p 4 This meeting of the Pacific groups was the
urpose culmination of the thinking of many people
for several years. In 1919, when people had just realized
the folly and cruelties of the World War, questions were
raised as to whether or not the relations in the Pacific could
not be built on a different foundation from those around
the Mediterranean. If political intrigues, racial prejudices
and national hatreds produced the catastrophe of 1914,
what are we to expect when the same forces are brought
into play, more intensified, in another field of economic
struggle and competition? While the history of Pacific
Relations is still young and much of it is in the making,
can we not avoid the mistakes of the past and usher in a
new era in international politics? While national policies
in the past have been largely the creation of politicians, is


46
institute of pacific relations
it not time for us to try to make them the result of
intelligent public opinion ?
Growth Such was the dream then, and even now
of idea it has not far exceeded that stage. But a
beginning has been made. Originally only a
Y.M.C.A. conference wTas suggested. Then it was enlarged
to be a conference of the Church, and finally it was thought
that in order to give adequate discussion to the problems
that now exist the views of people of all beliefs should be
presented. A conference on Problems of the Pacific
Peoples was finally called, which was later changed to the
Institute of Pacific Relations, for the purpose of indicating
the educational emphasis of the conference.
q .. The provisional committee of the Institute
in China was organized in February, 1925,
composed of representatives of the leading educational and
commercial bodies in Shanghai, such as the General
Chamber of Commerce, the Kiangsu Educational Associa-
tion, the Shanghai Bankers' Association, the'Cotton Mill
Owners' Association and the National Committees of the
Y. M. and Y. W. C. A. An executive Committee was
elected consisting of the following men:
Chairman: Dr. David Z. T. Yui, General Secretary
of the National Committee of the Y.M.C.A.'s of China.
Vice Chairman: Mr. S. U. Zau, Director of Shanghai
General Chamber of Commerce.
Treasurer: Mr. Fong Cho-Pab, Vice Chairman of
Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce.
Secretary: Mr. Jabin Hsu, Associate Editor of the
China Press.
Dr. Huang Yen Pei, Vice-Chairman of the Kiangsu
Educational Association.
Mr. King Chu, Dean of Kwanghua University.
Mrs. C. Y. Tong, President of the Shanghai Women's
Club.
Under this committee Mr. L. T. Chen served as
Executive Secretary.
The following men and women participated at the
Institute in Honolulu:
Dr. L. N. Chang, Attorney, Hankow.


47 institute of pacific relations

Dr. S. T. Wen, Former Commissioner of Foreign Affairs
at Shanghai.
Dr. Ta Chen, Professor in Tsinghua College, Peking.
Mr. T. Z. Koo, Secretary World Stadent Christian
Federation, Geneva.
Mr. Hin Wong, Editor and Publicist, Canton.
Miss Y. T. Law, Secretary of the Y. W. C. A., Canton.
Miss C. Y. Wang, Dean.of Chen Hua Girls School,
Soochow.
Mr. Y. C. Yen, Director National Association for Mass
Education, Peking.
Mr. S. U. Au-Yang, Secretary of the Bureau of
Economic Information, Shanghai.
Mr. K. F. Lum, Secretary Y. M. C. A., Honolulu.
Prof. S. C. Lee, Professor in the University of Hawaii,
Honolulu.
Mr. L. T. Chen, Secretary of the National Committee
Y. M. C. A.'s of China, Shanghai.
China's It would seem natural that China's problems
Problems should occupy a very prominent place in the
agenda of the gathering. Upon the successful
solution of her problems depends so largely the future
welfare of not only the Pacific basin but, indeed, of the
whole world. The wa.y in which China is dealt with in
the family of nations and the extent to which her national
aspirations are satisfied will determine in an unmistakable
way the course of events in years to come. Should this
virile and dissatisfied nation have redress for the injustices
of the past, or must they prove themselves worthy followers
of Mars before they can claim the respect that is
due them? In other words, will moral persuasion become,
or military prowess remain, the determinant of the
conduct of nations ?
Main Issues Four big issues relating to China received
thorough discussion, namely the abolition of
extraterritoriality, the restoration of tariff autonomy, the
treatment of Chinese residents abroad, and the question of
foreign loans to China.


48
institute of pacific relations
Industrializa Curious to say, what seemed of tremendous
tjon " interest to the other groups loomed very
small in the minds of the Chinese members
at the Institute. Thus how to industrialize China sq as to
attract foreign investment was a very insistent question
which the Chinese did not discuss with zeal. Some
attributed this lack of interest to a lack of technical
knowledge, but the plain fact is that the Chinese members
did not feel it worthwhile to spend time on discussing how
to enrich the coffers of foreign capitalists. Not that the
development of China's industry is of little importance, but
that the development of China's life is of greater import-
ance. How can China develop her industry is a more vital
question to her than how can other nations enlarge their
investments. The humour of the discussion of this issue
was that the Chinese members made it very clear that the
people of China would like to see the Powers stop making
any loans to China at present; that would be one way of
ending China's internecine strifes. On the other hand the
other nationals stated in equally unmistakable terms that
China's credit is so bad now that it is impossible to float a
loan for China, and then in the same breath they asked
what are the conditions for making loans that would be
acceptable to the Chinese people!
, . On the question of immigration to foreign
mm g 1* lands, all that was asked for was that the
Orientals be given equal treatment with the Occidentals.
The most stubborn opposition to this came from some
American individuals. The attendants from Australia
and New Zealand and even Canada seemed more quiescent
and conciliatory. Some of these latter groups pledged
themselves definitely to work for this. It was conceded
that the test for immigrants should be made a real
educational one rather than be allowed to remain a means
of racial discrimination. Among the Americans, however,
this was an issue over which there seemed a complete split.
It was freely admitted by some that ideals and practices
cannot agree and that religious teachings should always be
accepted with reservations. It is a disappointment that
reasoning does not seem,, as revealed in this Institute, to
haye the power to le

49 institute of pacific relations

Tafi{{ On the question of tariff autonomy it was
Autonomy difficult to arrive at a general agreement.
The injustice and handicap of tariff restric-
tions were commonly admitted, and there was a strong
sentiment in favor of China's regaining control of her
tariff rates.
Extrality hottest debate came when the abolition
of extraterritoriality was discussed. After
the Chinese members had recounted the progress that
China has made in the promulgation of modern codes of
law, the establishment of modern law courts, and the
erection of modern prisons, they made it clear that in
extraterritoriality lies the cause of all the irritations
between Chinese people and foreign residents in China.
So long as this system continues no normal development is
possible. It gives rise to legal inequalities and bitter
feelings. While the attitude among other members was
that its abolition is not a matter of principle but of facts,
the Chinese showed that the biggest and the most important
of all the facts in the situation is the resentment of the
Chinese people against this unfair practice. This point
was driven home by a presentation of the facts and
implications of the May 30th affair in Shanghai, so that a
motion was passed that the sentiment in favor of the
abolition of extraterritoriality be expressed in a resolution.
This was unique, because the Institute was held with the
clear understanding that no resolutions or any other kind
of formal commitments were to be made during the whole
gathering. The resolution was not introduced, but this
fact is worth mentioning to indicate the conviction the
Institute had on this subject.
£esujts A successful gathering was held, the results
of which are to be measured by the moral
convictions resulting from a frank and friendly exchange
of opinions, rather than any public announcements or
formal resolutions. Candor and forbearance, frankness
and courtesy, reasonableness and tolerance were the
characteristics of all the members who came as strangers
one to another, but parted as friends and fellow-workers
for a new order of things. A permanent organization


50
INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS
was evolved with headquarters in every country around
the Pacific, each uniting under its banner the fnirminded
men and women who believe that individual goodwill has
a basic place in the solution of the national and racial
conflicts with which the safety of mankind is threatened.
An international mind and an international outlook on life
is the consummate object that the Institute of Pacific
Relations has in view.


CHAPTER V
CHRISTIANITY IN THE TREATIES BETWEEN
CHINA AND OTHER NATIONS
E. C. Lobenstine
Extracts from the Treaties, Government Edicts and
Diplomatic Correspondence taken from:
" Treaties Between the Empire of China and
Foreign Powers, together with Regulations for the
Conduct of Foreign Trade, etc." by W. F. Mayers.
" International Relations of the Chinese Empire,"
by H. B. Morse.
Treaties and Agreements with and Concerning
China," by John V. A. MacMurray.
''Foreign Rights and Interests in China," by
W. W. Willoughby.
I Legal Status of Missionaries in Mission Work.
II Holding of Property by Missions.
IIT Status of Chinese Converts to Christianity.
IV Extraterritoriality.
I. Legal Status of Missionaries in Mission Work.
1. Great Britain Treaty of Tientsin, 1858:
"rVeztizs." "The Christian religion, as professed by
pp. J2-J3.* Protestants or Roman Catholics, inculcates
Art. VIII the practice of virtue, and teaches man to do
as he would be done by. Persons teaching
it or professing it, therefore, shall alike be entitled to the
protection of the Chinese authorities; nor shall any such,
peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending against
the laws, be persecuted or interfered with."
2. French Treaty of Tientsin, 1858: "La
^Treati's religion Chretienne ayant pour object essentiel
pp. 62-63.* de porter les hommes a la vertu, les
Art. XIII membres de toutes les communions Chretiennes
jouiront d'une entiere securite pour leurs


52
christianity in tpie treaties
personnes, lcurs proprietes, et le libre exercise de leurs
pratiques religieuses, et une protection efficace sera donnee
aux missionaires qui serendrorit pacifiquement dans
l'interieur du pa.ys, munis des passeports reguliers dont it
est parle dans Particle VIII."
" Aucune entrave ne sera apportee par les autorites
de Pempire chinois au droit qui est reconnu a tout individu
on Chine cPembrasser, s'il le veut, le Christianisme et
d'en suivre les pratiques sans etre passible d'aucune peine
infligee pour ce fait.
"Tout ce qui a ete precedemment ecrit, proclame on
publie en Chine par ordre du gouvernement contre le
culte Chretien, est completement abroge, et reste sans
valeur dans toutes les provinces de Pempire."
3. Belgium Treaty of Peking, 1858: Same as first two
clauses of the French Treaty of Tientsin, 1858.
4. United Siates of America at Tientsin,
"Treaties 1858: "The PrinciPles ot> fche Christian
92. Art. XXIX religion, as professed by the Protestant and
Roman Catholic churches, are recognized as
teaching men to do good, and to do to others as th would have others to do to them. Hereafter, those who
quietly profess and teach these, doctrines shall not be
harrassed or persecuted on account of their faith. Any
person, whether citizen of the United States or Chinese
convert, who according to these tenets peaceably teaches
and practises the principles of Christianity, shall in no case
be interfered with or molested."
5. Russian Treaty of Tientsin, 1858; "Le
''Treatiesp Gouvernement Chinois, ayant reconnu que la
103. Art. VIII* doctrine. Chretienne facilite Tetablissement
de Pordre et de la concorde entre les homines,
promet de ne pas persecuter ses sujets Chretiens pour
Pexercice des devoirs de leur religion; ils jouiront de la
protection accordee a tous ceux qui prefessent les autres
croyances tolerees dans 1'Empire.
"Le Gouvernement Chinois considerant les missionaires
Chretiens comme des hommes de bien qui ne cherchent
pas d'avantages materiels, leur permettra de propager
le Christianisme parmi ses sujets, et ne leur empechera pas


53 christianity in tpie treaties

de circuler dans l'interieur de l'Empire. Un nombre fixe
de missionaire partant des villes on port's ou verts sera
muni de passeports signes par les autorites Russes."
6. German Treaty of Tientsin, 1858: "Ceux
^treaties" p suivent et enseignent la religion
j20. Art. X chretienne jouiront en Chine d'une pleine
et entiere protection pour leur personnes,
leurs proprietes et l'exercise de leur culte."
7. French Convention at Peking, 1860:
treaties'' Conforme'ment a i'Edit Imperial rendu le
73. Art. VI vingt Mars, mil huit cont quarante-six, par
P august Emporeur Tao-Kouang, les etablisse-
ments religieux et de bienfaisance qui ont ete confisquees
aux Chretiens pendant les persecutions dont ils ont ete
]es victim es, seront rend us a leurs proprietaires par
l'entremise du Ministre de France en Chine, auquel le
gouvernement Imperial les fera delivrer, avec les cimetieres
et les autres edifices qui en dependaient."
Translation of Chinese text of above article: "It
shall be promulgated throughout the length and breadth
of the land, in the terms of the Imperial Edict of the
20th February, 1846, that it is permitted to all people
in all parts of China to propagate and practise the
'teachings of the Lord of Heaven,' to ,meet together for
the preaching of the doctrine, to build churches and to
worship; further, all such as indiscriminately arrest
(Christians) shall be duly punished; and such churches,
schools, cemeteries, lands, and buildings, as were owned
on former occasions by persecuted Christians, shall be paid
for, and the money handed to the French Representative
at Peking, for transmission to the Christians in the
localities concerned. It is, in addition, permitted to
French Missionaries to rent and purchase land in all the
provinces, and to erect buildings thereon at pleasure."
M 8. Portuguese Treaty at Tientsin, 1862:
"Treaties" p Catholic religion has for its essential
164. Art.SLII object the leading of men to virtue. Persons
teaching it and professing it shall alike
be entitled to efficacious protection from the Chinese


54
christianity in tpie treaties
authorities; nor shall such persons pursuing peaceably
their calling and not offending against the laws be
prosecuted or interfered with."
9. Danish Treaty of Tientsin, 1868: "Danish
"Treaties." p. su^iects wll profess or teach the Christian
145. Art. VIII* Religion shall be entitled to the protection of
the Chinese authorities; nor shall any such
persons, peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending
against the law, be persecuted or interfered with."
10. Italian Treaty of Peking, 1866: Same as
^Treaties." p Punish Treaty with this addition: "Nessun
173. Art. VIII impedimento sara posto dalle autorita Chinese
a che tale otale altro suddito dell' Impero
possa, so lo vuole, abbracciare la religione Christiana e
seguirne pubblicamente i riti."
11. Treaty of Holland at Tientsin, 1868:
"Treaties." p. Netherlands missionaries of the Christian
151. Art. IV # religion intent upon the peaceful propagation
of the gospel in the interior of China, shall
enjoy the protection of the Chinese authorities. Natives
wishing to embrace Christian tenets shall not. be hindered
or molested in any way, so long as they commit no offence
against the laws."
12. Opinion of American Minister, Denby,
*U S For on the legal status of missionaries. "Upon this
Reis.* 1888 pt P0"^ missionaries in the interior) we can
1. p. 271. # do no better than to quote the view of
American Minister Denby. Writing in
1888, he says:
Willoughby, 'Leaving the treaties out of consideration,
"Foreign what, then, is a fair conclusion from the
Rights and actual condition of things in China?
Chhia"S ia ^ wou^d seem to be this: 'The Imperial
199-200 PP* Government leaves the question of permanent
residence to be solved by the local authorities
and the people. If the foreigner can procure toleration
in any locality, and is suffered without objection to locate
therein, he, by degrees, may acquire vested rights, which
his own government and the Imperial Government also


Full Text

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THE CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK 1926 (FOURTEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA "MISSION'' YEAR BOOK) Issued under arrangement between the Christian Literature Society for China and the National Christi11n Council of China under the Direction of the following Editorial Board appointed by the National Christian Council Rev. K. T. Chung Dr. D. W. Lyon Rev. E. H. Cressy Dr. D. MacGillivray Miss Lily Haas Dr. J. L. Maxwell Rev. Carleton Lacy Dr. W.W. Peter Dr. R. Y. Lo Dr. E. W. Wallace Rev. E. C. Lobenstlne Miss Helen Thoburn EDITOR Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D.D. Editor, Chinese Recorder. SHANGHAI CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 1926

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PREFACE 'fHE China" .Mission" Year Book. appear~ this l'.enr !ls ~he.Ch!na "Christian" Year Book. Tins change of title 1s md1cat1ve of a change in emphasis. Up till i-ecen~ly .. -the Qhristinn Movement in China has, of necessity, been miEsionce_nHic:. It is now becoming China Christian-centric. This pr9c:iiss of cb;mge has not proceeded very far nor does it move ver:f f-U:st when nil phases and types of Christian work in China are considered. Nevertheless a new fulcrum for Christian work iri Chi;r1a is -being placed in position. A
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PREFACE 'fI-IE China "Mission" Year Book_ appears this Y.Car :is ~he.Ch~nn "Christian" Year Book. Tins change of title 1s md1cnt1ve of a change in emphasis. Up till i-ecentHy .. 1!i~ {ihristian Movement in Chinn has, of necessity, been miEsionce.iitHc:. It is now becoming China Christinn-centric. This pr.9.'~s.s nf ch!l,nge has not proceeded very far nor does it move veryJast when nil phases and types of Christian wo!k. in Ch~lill: are .con~id~r.ed. Nevertheless a new fulcrum for Chnstrnn work 111. Clu.rin 1s -bemg placed in position. Arljustment thereto is proce~ding nii rapidly as possible. '.l'his year the JWitorial Board has nttemptecl to include.more articles of a general and survey type than formerly .. Success in this regard is not nil that was planned or desired.. The Christian Movement is somewhat less coherent than it was a few years ago. To this must be added the influence of the social and political upheaval apparent everywhere but particularly in those centres which feel most the impact of the "Test and are most easily affected by revolutionary influences. School work has been more disturbed than any other type of work. In view, therefore, of the exceptional difficulties abounding special thanks are due to the many writers and friends who assisted in the preparation f the articles in this Year Book. Especially do we appreciate the generous help of those who answered a number of questionaries sent out by different writers. In this Year Book a number of features stand out which need only be mentioned here. (l} The outstanding characteristic of the Christian Movement and its present environment is a changing miiid. As a result n considerable proportion of space in this Year Book is given up to opinions on the present situation nn_d existing problems. These opinions, however, have their source in experience that is widely scattered and in close contact with "interior" ns well ns "port city" conditions. Opinions, however, stand out in this volume rather more than programs or achievements. As regards Christian work this changing mind reveals itself in an experiiirnntal attitude wherever spiritual life is in evidence. (2) Much work is going on in spite of existing chaotic conditions. A number of 1econstn1ct1'.te beginni,i:gs arc apparent. Little is being clone in the way of securing political stability or governmental reform. In education, however, as well ns in the study of social problems much effort of a fundamentally reconstructive nature is in evidence. A number of experiments in 1.neeting problems of the religious life and religious education nre

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IV PREFACE also found here and there. Such reconstructive efforts are essential to the laying of the foundations upon which mo.re general social welfare and stability must be built. Some definite efforts to meet the anti-Chirstian Movement ham also emerged. The Y. M. C. A., nt its Convention held in Tsinan in August, 1926, planned its message to this particular end. Books and articles by Chinese Christians, aiming to interpret the Christian Movement, have also appeared. Some Chinese educators are al8o drawing attention to the necessity of including religion in educational programs and in the life of students. (8) The chief note struck with regards to Christianity, where there is articulation at least, is the desire to understand and follow Ch1i8t'a way of life. This includes another promising sign that, in spite of the comparative lack of cohesion in the Christian Movement as a whole, there is a slowly growing desire and effort to promote Chirstian fellowship as distinct from and above the claims and efforts of ecclesiastical, denominational or theological unity. It is felt by some that this higher and freer Christian fellowship is possible even though intellectual and ecclesiastical unity is hardly a practical question at the present time. (4) All the above movements are influencrd to some extent by the increasing articulation of the Chinese .consciousness about its indigenous problems and the rising impulse of what is called the "Chinese religious genius." This latter impulse is seen in a widespread questioning as to the relation of Christianity to China's religious history and experience. However one may interpret or value these, the fact remains that in the immediate future Christian workers will have to reckon with them and indeed learn to value and utilize them as far as possible. Difficulties galore confront Christian workers in China. For many of the situations no precedents exist. They will have to be made. This fact is slowly emerging in the consciousness of Christian workers both Chinese and Western. To some extent the intensity of feeliugs which marked 1925 has subsided. A growing desire and determination to solve existing problems in a Christlike way promises much for the future.

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PREFACE CONTE~TS CONTRIBUTORS CONTENTS PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINA CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT-INTERPRETATIVE INPAGE iii v ix TRODUCTION -EDITOR, xiv PART .I. THE CHRIST.IAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL .~FFAIRS. Cha.,te,r I. THE PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN MovEM,EN'l' AND POI,ITICAL EVENTS .. Harley Farnsworth MncNriir 1 !I. MISSION ARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE Hnrold Balme 25 III. SoME HISTORICAL PornTs OoNCERNJNG THE SoCAI;LED "UNEQUAL TnEA'rms." J. J. Heeren 35 IV. CHINA'S POSITION A'r THE INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS .............................. L. T. Chen 45 v. CHRISTIANITY JN rHE TREATms BETWEEN C:nINA AND OTHER NATIONS ......... E. C. Lobenstine 51 PART 11, ~fil:,~G;IOUS THOU,G~T ANp AC'TIV,ITY, VI. '.rRENDS IN CHINA'S RELIGIOUS L1FE ... Gilbert Reid 71 VII. THE PRESENT CHINESE .A.T'rITUDE TOWARDS Crrn1sT1ANrrY ........................... Y. K. woo 80 vnr. curnEsE cnRisTIAN UN10Ns ............... z. K. Zia s6 IX. THE GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH IN .CHINA Y. Y. Tsu 89

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vi CONTENTS Chapter PAGl!l PART III. CHURCH LIFE AND ACTIVITIES. X. Coor1m.vrrvE OrrnrsrrAN AC'rrvrrrns IN OnrNA IN Hl25 ........................ Eugene E. Bnrnett 94 XL Sr1WIAL PROBLEMS IN EvAXGELISM Frank Rawlinson 116 XII. CHANGES IN CmNESE CuuRcH ............ T. C. Ban 132 XIII. Surron1 OF CHRISTIAN WonK ColIPARED wrrH THAT OF CHINESE CBRlil!ONIES AND PnAc'ricEs .......................... A. J. Bowen 138 .XIV. Tm~ GROWTH OF lNrBRcmncuNION A. R. Kepler 144 PART IV. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES. xv. THE PRESENT 8'rn1rnG1'H, DISTIUBU'l'ION AND Am~ OF ri-rn MISSIONARY BoDY ......... S. J. Miu.s 151 XVI. TllNDENCIES IN MrssION Poi.rcY AS SHOWN IN MISSION RIIPOR'l'S OF 1925 Warren H. SruART 154 :X:VII. THE CHANGING FuNc-rroN OF 'l'HE MISSIONARY Logan H. Roots 162 XVIII. MrnsIONARY' ,vonK AS S1mN A'l' THJt lNsTrruTB oF _PACIFIC RELATIONS ............... E. J. Stuckey 174 XIX. THE RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH E. C. LonENSTINB 178 xx. CRrrrcAL MoMEN'rS IN THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA ............... H. F. MacNair 196 PART V. EDUCATION AND STUDENTS. X:X:I. xxn. XXIII. XXIV. xxv. CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 192!'i Edward Wilson Wallace RECEN'l' DEVELOPMEN'J'S IN C!UNESE"GOVJ'lRNMl::NT EDUCA1'ION ................. : ............ Fong F. Sec. EXPBRIMENTS IN RELIGIOUS EDUCA'l'ION C. S.Miao CHINBSE CLASSICS IN Scnoor. TEX'J'BOOKS Tseu Yih-zan EcoNomc STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS AND EcoNoMrc STRENGTH 01, CHINA.,.A. J. Bowen 224 236 242 247 253

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CONTEN-1'8 vii Cbapter PAGE XXVI. EoucATTONAL CONDITIONS Al>D STUDENT LIFE T. Z. Koo 260 XXVII. EvANGELIB'ric ,vonx IN Cou.EGEs AND UNIVERsrTIES ....................................... T. L. Shen 274 XXVIII. NATIONAL AssocIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION ............................. P. LING 281 XXIX. THE CnrNA :FouNDA'I'ION h'OR 'I'HE PROMOTION OF EDUCA1'ION AND C~LTURE ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ll89 PART VI, SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS, xxx. THE Pulll.IC A-rTITUDE ro LABOR IN CHINA J.B. Tayler 296 xxxr. CooPEI!A'rIVE CREDI'.!' IN CHINA ...... Y. 8. Djang 303 XXXII. REFORMrNG FA1m LIFE ............ John H. Reisner 308 XXXIII. CmNA FAMINE FUND BALANCE ColIMITI'EE John H. Reisner 315 XXXIV. RECEN'l' ANTI-0PIU11I ACTIVITIES K. T. Chung and Garfield Huang 326 PART VII, MEDICAL AND HEAL TH WORK. xxxv. l\h:nICAL MISSIONS 1925 AND AI'Tlm James L. Maxwell 339 XXXVI. Tim NunsEs' AssoCIATION 01, CHINA Nina D. Gage 351 XXXVII. MODERN CHINESE PHYSICIANS AND PRACTICE Wu Lien Teh 355 PART VIII. LITERATURE. XXXVIII. MAIN T1rnDENCIES IN LITERARY CmcLES William Hung 364 XXXIX. NEw TRENDS IN LITERATURE._ ..... J. ,vesley Shen 370 XL. PrroNETIC SYl:l'l'Ellts .................... John Darroch 376 XLI. 80111E BooKS AND ARr1cr.Es oN CmJ>A (ENGLISH) Frank Rawlinson 380

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CONTENTS Chapter PAGE XLH. CHINESE C1iRlSTIAN PullI,ICATION',17 1925, LrBRARY OF THE NATION AI. CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 390 XLIII. SOME CLASSIFIED DEVOTIONAL AND INBPIRA-'l'ION AL LITERATURE WI'fH AN!ITOTATlONS 418 XLIV. Pirtl.OSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS THOUGHT IN CHINA ................................. F. R. lVIillican 423 PART IX. OBITUARIES. PART X. APPENDICES. L AMENDED CoNSTITU'rION OF THE KWANGTUNG DIVISIONAL COUNCIL OF rHE CHURCH OP 470 CHRIS'r IN CHINA........................ .............. 474 ll. RESOLUTIONS OF NATIONAL STUDENTS' UNION IN RE CHRISTIANITY....................................... 480 III; Ac-r1o~s oF Mrss10N ORGANIZATIONS IN RE ExTltALITY AND TOLERATION CLAUSES ............ 483 IV. NoTES oN MrsstoNARY PROPERTY TITLES IN CiuN.~ ............... : ........... A. L. Warnshuis 535

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CONTR~BUTORS (FIGURES IN PARATHESES INDICATE DATES OF FIRST ARRIVAL I~ CHINA) PAGEBalme, Harold, F.R.c.s., D.P.H., L.R.C.P. (1906) MISSIONARIES AND SPECUI. PRIVILEGE. English Baptist. President, Shantung Christian Uni versity. Formedy Vice-Chairman, National Christian Council 25 Barnett, Euge11e E., B,A, (1910) OooP.ERATIV~ U1mI!\TI.A:I:\ AcTIViTIES IN CHINA r~ 1925. Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Foreign Department, National Council Y.M.C.A.s of U.S. and Canada. Secretary; ~ational C~mmittee, Y.M;C.A.s of China 94 Bau, T. C. CHANGES IN CHINESE CHURCH. H9:ngcho_w Baptist C_hurch. Secret~ry, Chekiai:i.~-Sb\1:1:\g~ .. hai Baptist Convention ... ... ... ... ... ... 132 Bowen, Arthur John, a.A., L.L.D. (1897) SUPl'OR'!' OF. CHRISTU.N WoRK Co~!PARED 'IVITH THAT OF CHINESE CEREMONIES Al:iD PRAC-rICES ECONOMIC STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS AND EcoNomc STRENGTH oF CHINA. Methodist Episcopal. President, University of Nanking.13f!, 253 Chen, L, T .. B;A, (Yale) CHq;rA's PoSI'!'ION: AT THE INB'l'lTUTE OF p ACIFIC.RELA'l'IONS. ... Methodist Church. Secretary, City Division, National Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China... ... ... .. '... 45 Chung, K. T,, B.A. RECENT ANTI-OPIUM Acr1v1TIES. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretar;v, National Christian Council. General Secretary, National Anti-Opium Association ... 326 Darroch, John, D. Litt., o.B.E. (1887) PHONETIC SYSTEMS. Gener~! Agent of Religious Tract Soci~ty, London, for Uhiria and Korea .. .. ... ... 376

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x CONTRIBUTORS PAGE Djang, Y. S,, B.A. (CORNELL) CooPERATIVE CREDIT IN CrnNA. Acting Executive Secretary, China International Famine Relief Commission 303 Fong F. Sec, B.L., M.A., LL.D, RECEN'r DEVELOP~IIrnTs IN OmNESE GovERNMEN'r EDUCATION. Cantonese Union Church, Shanghai. Chief English Editor, The Commercial Press. Chairman, National Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China. President, Chinese Y.M.C.A., Shanghai. President, Daily Vacation Bible Schools of China. Vice-President, The Qhinese Mission to Lepers 230 Gage, Nina D., M.A., R.N. (1908) 'l'nE NuRsEs' AssocIA'rrnN OF.CHINA. Yale Foreign Missionary Society. Dean, Hunan-Yale School of Nursing, Changsha. Chairman, Education Committee, Nurses' Association of China. President, International Council of Nurses. Member of Council on Hospital Administration, China Medical Association 351 Heeren, J. J., M.A., B.Q., Ph.D. (1911) SolIE HIS'!'ORICAL PoIN'rS CONCERNING THE So-CALLED 'UNEQUAL TREATIES.' American Presbyterian (North). Head of Department of History and Political Science, Shantung Christian University, Tsinan 35 Huang, Garfield, B.D. RECEN'r ANTI-0Prulll AcnvITrns. Chinese Christian Church of South Fukien. Secretary, National Anti-Opium Association of China (allocated by National Christian Council) 326 Hung, William, M.A., S.T.B. MAIN TENDENcrns IN LrrERARY CIRCLER. Methodist. Denn, College of Arts & Sciences for men, Yenching University, Peking ... 364 Kepler, A. R., A.B. (1901) Tim GnowrH OF INTERCOllllllUNION. American Presbyterian Mission. Executive Secretary, Provisional General Assembly of the Church.of Christ in China... 144 Koo, T. z., B.A. EDUCATIONAL CoNnrrIONS AND STUDEN'r LIFE. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Associate General Secretary, Y.M.C.A. National Committee. National Student Executive Secretary, Y.M.C.A. National Committee. Executive Secretary, Student Volunteer -Movement 260

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CONTRIBUTORS Ling, P., A.B., M.A., Ph.D. NATIONAL AssocI,V!'JON FOR THE ADVANCEMENT m' EDUCATION. xi PAGE Chinese Independent Church.Sometime Commissioner of Education of Honan. Sometime Dean of Nankai University, Tientsin. Director of Research of the National Association for the Advancement of Education. 281 Lobenstine, Rev. E. C. (1898) Cr-rRIHl'IANITY IN THE TREA'l'IES BErwErn CHINA AND OrHER NA'rIONS. THE RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH. American Presbyterian, North. Secretary of the National Christian Council, Shanghai 51., 178 MacNalr, Harley Farnsworth, Ph.D. (1912) Trrn PROTESTANT CHRIRTIAN MoVEMl!N'!' .~ND. PoLI'J.'ICAL .EVEN'l'S. CRI'!'ICAI. MolrnNTS IN TUJI HrsTORY 0~' CHRIS'r.IANITY tN CHINA. A rnerican Church Mission. Professor of History and Government, St. John's University, Shanghai .. : 1, 196 Maxwell, James L., -M.D., B.S. (LONDO!\ UNIVtmsrrY) (1901) MEDICAL MISSIONS 1925 AND AFrER. lfoglish Presbyterian. Secretary, China Medical Asso-ciation. Editor, China Medical Journal ... .... ... 339 Miao, C. S., A.B., M.A., Ph.D., B.b. EXPERIMENTS IN RELIGIOUS F]ouC.\.'rION. North Shanghai Baptist Church. Secretary of the Council of Reiigious Education, China Christian Educa-tional Association... 242 Millican, F, R., B.A. (1907) PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS THOUGHT JN CHINA. American Presbyterian, North. Principal, Union Middle School, Ningpo, until July, 1926, now vice-principal with Chinese principal .. ;' 423 Mills, S. J., A.B. (1911) THE PRESENT Sm1rnGTH, DISTRIBUTION, AND AGE OF THE MISSIONARY BODY. American Presbyterian, North. Dean of Department of Missionary Training, University of Nanking,Nimking'... 151 Rawlinson, Frank, M.A., D.D. (1902) PRESENr CnARAC~ 'J.'ERIS'rICS OF THE CHINA CHRIST[AN MOVEMENT. SPECIAL PROBLEM:-! IN EVANGl~LISM. SOl!E BOOKS AND AR'!'ICLES ON CHINA (ENGLISII) A..B.C.F.M. Editor, The Chinese Recorder and China Christian Year Book XIV, 116, 380

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iii Reid, Gffberf,M.A;, D.D. (1882) TREl'iDs IN CHINA'S RELIGIOUS LIFE. P.AGB Presbyt~rian Church of China; Director, International Institute of Chinn ... ... ... 71 ~eisner", JofihH;; !J~.A;;wi;s;A:. (1914) REFdk~tlNG FAR~r Ln'E, CHINA FAMINE FUND BAL.ANCE CoMMUTEE. American P~esbyterian, North. Co-Dean, College oi Agriculture and Jt'orestry, University of Nanking, and Co-Direct.or of Agricultural Experimental Stations. 308, 31-5 Roots, Bishop Logan H., M:A., D.D. (1896) THE CH.ANGING FUNCTION OF 'fHE MISSION.ARY. A1nerican Church Mission. Bishop, Hankow District. Hon. Secretary, National Christian Council ... ... 1112 Shen, T. L;, B,S. Ev.ANGELISTJC ,voRK JN Cou,1mEs .AND UNIVERSITIES. Allen Memorial Church, Shanghai. Student Secretary, National Committee, Y.M.C.A. of China. ... ... ... 274 Shen, J;Wesley, B.D~ Ni,v TRENDS IN'LITERA'rURE. Methodist, South; Acting General Secretary, National Christian Literature Society .. .. 370 Stuart;:-Warreh 1-i~-~ a;.A'.~. M.A., B;D;, p;p,' {1907) TENDJrnCIES IN MISB!Pl:< PotICY AS SHOWN IN MISSION REPORTS_ oF 1925. American Presbyterian, North. Professor.of Oid Testament, Nanking Theological Seminary, Nanking ... Stuckey,. _E, J., 0,B,E., B,,Sc,, M,B,, B.S, (1905) MISl!IO:i;"_ARY WORK AS SEEN AT rnli INSTiTur'.E OF 1'.'l:c1FIC RELA'riqNs; London Missionary Society. Medical Superintendent of the Mackenzie Memorial Hospital, Tientsin li4 Tayler, J, B., M.Sc. (1906) THE Pu.auc ATTITUDE To LABOR IN CHIN.~. London Missionary Society. Professor, Yenching Uni-versity, Peking 21J(i Tseu Yih0zan; Hsiu Tsai; e.A. CHINESE CLASSICS IN SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS. Methodist, South. Dean, English Department, University of-1:lhanghai. Dean, School of English, Commercial Press Correspondence Schools, Shanghai 247

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CON'fRIBUTORS Tsu, Y. Y., P.D., M.A., Ph.D. Tim GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH IN CHINA. xiii PAGE Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretary of Religious Work, Peking Union Medical College. Member of Clergy of Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, Diocese of North China... 89 Wallace, Edward Wilson, B.A., M.A., B.D., D.D. (1906) CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925. Canadian Methodist. Associate General Secretary, China Christian Educational .Association ... 224 Warnshuis, Rev. A. L., o.o. NOTES ON MISSIONARY PRoPEll'rY TITLl'!S r.s CHINA. Sometime missionary to China in connection with the_ Reformed Church in Amoy: sometime_ Evangelistic Secretary of the China Continuation Committee: now a secretary of the International Missionary Council 535 Woo, Y. K. THE PRESENT CHINESE ATTITUDE TowAm>s CHRISTJANI1'Y. Metl1odist, South. Executive Secretary, Publication Department, National Committee, Y.M.C.A.. of China ... 80 Wu, Lien Teh, M.A., M.D. (Ca~bridge) LL.D., Sc.D. Jl;ioDERN CHINESE PHYSICIANS AND PRACl'ICE. Head of the Manchurian Plague Prevention Service, Harbin. Physician Extraordinary to the -President of China. :Fditor in Chief, National Medical Journal of Chinn... 355 Zia, z. K .. M.A. CHINESE CHRISTIAN UNIONS. Presbyterian Church. Formerly editor, The Young People's Friend. A member of the staff of the Christian Literature Society ... ... ... ... ... ... 86

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PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINA CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT. Interpretative Introduction Editor. General Situation The China Christian l\:Iovement is in a state of flux. Its appearance varies with the angle from which it is viewed. For the nonce its problems stand out more than its achi.evements. Wide sprea
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CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT XV Chinese people and stirred their mind so deeply as now. The Christian l\Iovement has become a living reality in the Chinese mind. Two Groups of Chines~ Christians Chinese Christians may be divided into two groups. First there is the inartfrulate mass. It is quite frequently assumed thnt this inarticulate mass of Chinese Christians thinks differently from the second and numerically smalJ gro'up of articulate Christians. As a matter of fact this inarticulate mass is practically an unknown quantity. The probnbilities am that as they wake up they will follow the lead of the articulate group. In any event we are inclined to think of the future of the Chinese Church in terms of the comparatively small articulate group of Chinese Christians, and to look for the developments, that are taking place where they are active, to appear elsewhere within the next decade. Since the mass of Chinese Christians is inarticulate one cannot safely generalize as to their characteristics and possibilities. What is said hereafter, therefore, as to the characteristics of the Christian Movement in China wilI concern itself of necessity mainly with those of the articulate Chinese Christian group. Two Two tendencies mark this articulate group Tendencies of of Chinese Christians. In the first place they Articulate are self-conscious. This heads up in a desire Chinese to be self-determining. In the second place Christians there is a movement towards reorganization of thought and work: this is still mainly a matter of mental readjustment. Tndependent Chinese Church movements seem to be on the increase. During 1925 a large number of Christian Unions sprang np, mainly with a view to the organization of Christian public opinion with regards to present treaty issues. In South China particularly the reorganization of Christian work under pressure from Chinese Christians has made rapid progress. All these a.re signs of the new articulation of Chinese Christians. The impulse to this articulation is from within not from without the Chinese Christian heart and mind. This is its most significant feature. It is a most promising movement of life. It is this impulse that will in time move the still

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xvi CHARACTERISTICS OF CBRIS'rJAN MOVEMENT inarticulate mass aJi:io. For this reason we said that the future of the Christian Climch in China must be measured in terms of the group of articulate and live Chri'3tians. This beginning of the articulation of the Environmental Chinese Christian forces is in large part due Factors t t f t th h o cer am ac ors 1n e c angmg environment. The Christian Church has in many places been subjected to tremendous environmental pressure. Under such circumstances readjustment was inevitable. Of some of these factors it is well to remind ourselves. The events of May 30 (1925) in Shanghai May30 have been called China's" Boston Tea Party/' 'fhe sequel at Canton in June is an occurrence of similar import. No matter how Westerners may interpret or explain these events, the fact remains that they served as a reagent to precipitate and crystallize the Chinese nationalistic spirit. In this process of crystallization the mind of the Chinese Christians participated. The rapidity of response to these events varied somewhat with the distance from the places of their occurence. The response was nevertheless nation-wide. Within about two months, for instance, these events were known on the edge of Tibet, with the result that there was talk even there of action against local foreigners. Feelings that had been slowly developing since 1900 suddenly 1,prang into the forefront of attention. A wave of nationalism surged around and through the Church. Where the pressure was sufficently strong it showed in a feeling among Chinese Christians that they must win .respect for the Church by making it self directing and by moving towards self-expression. This, among other things, while to some extent a matter of strategy, was much more an effort to realize spiritual freedom. Communist Influence Reference is frequently made to the in fluence of Communists or Bolsheviks in bring ing about the charigcd situation that now confronts the Christian Church. Communi:itic influences have been very apparent in Canton and to some extent in Swatow. But even there they were not the only or dominant infitlence. Communistic activities were noted in

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OHARAOTF:RIS'fICS OF OI-I~ISTIAN M.9VEM.E:!il"T xvii other places also. Mr. T. Z. Koo says that there was a well-organized and active movement among the schools. It was, however, only small. Certainly, taking the w~ole Christian Movement into account, Communism as such does not loom up as a dominant factor, though it, is far from being a negligible influence. But it has not been a priri1ary influence in the environmental pressure which has made itself felt in the life of the Christfan Church. 'fhis fact is borne out by the loss of prestige and influence which. fell to Chen Tu Hsiu, once most popular, as a result of his fnlJ and open advocacy of communistic principles. The primary influence has been nationalism. Politically and outside the Church it centers in a desire to win autonomy which the Chinese consider to some extent they havidost: Inside the Church it is motivated by the desire to realize the sphitual freedom which Chinese Christians have been taught is their Christian privilege. In addition China is trying to fit into a changing world. The pol1tfoal and social flux that is whirling around within China is part of a world flux outside. One result of this external pressure to FCohc1;stiof W k which the Christian Church in China is ris an or b' t d d h. 1 lf d' Shifting su Jee e an t e 1mpu se to se uect10n within the heart of the Chinese Church itself, is that the focus of Christian work in China has shifted. The driving impulse of Christian work in China has until quite recently had its source and base in the West. That was unavoidable. The hope of those who have given lavishly to set up the Christian Religion in China has been that its moving impulse would find its center in China. The process of centering Christian work fa Chiiia has been going on for a long time. It is not too much to say that the events of the last year or two have made this hope a reality. The fulcrum of Christian work in China is now in China. It is true that until the inarticulate mass also puts its hands to the lever it may wabble somewhat. Neverthe~ less the impulse to the Christianization of China is now to some extent a Chinese impulse. The Chinese Church is indigenous to the extent that the Christian impulse now moves within the Christian Church in Chi~1a. The ChiJ;1ese_

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xviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT Church is beginning to make its own response to the Christian Message. A need fa thus felt for the formulation of a Chinese Christian aim as over against the effort to carry out the aim of Western Christian Churches. The Chinese Christian mind is beginning to expreHs itself. western Ch1istian workers in China are endeavoring to ascertain what that mind is. Slowly, but none the less surely, the Chinese Christian heart is realizing its own direct responsibility to God. In line with the above are the efforts of Western Christian leaders to ascertain along what lines Chinese Ch1istian leaders think the Christian Churah should move. One retarding factor is the absence of any comprehensive coordinating objective in the mind of all Christian workers in China. Such an objective cannot he suddenly produced. And we may expect that the Christian Movement in China will move somewhat slowly until the Chinese Christian mind has found itself, the Western Christian understands that mind rmd both together find a coordinating objective. It is not part of the purpose of this article to attempt to forecast that objective. Christian work in China then, taken as gi:d~ti~n of a whole, has pro?abl~ _been slo.wed up Christian Work as a result of nat10nahst1c ag1iat10n and militaristic activities. Yet in many centres it has gone on much as usual. Here and there Christian property has been sequestered either by militarists or radically minded Chinese. Occasionally Christian worship has been inte1fered with. But with few exceptions the missionaries have remained at their posts, though often with considerable misgiving. A brief referenee will be made to some outstanding characteristics of the various types of Christian work now being carried on. In some centers evangelistic work has come Condition of almost to a standstill but in most of them "Evangelistic" Work the Gospel has been preached as usual. Comprehensive evangelistic campaigns are not the 01der of the day. Where such campaigns are carried on they are local. He1e and there one hears of unusual evangelistic work by Chinese evangelists. In addition to the traditional method of special evangelistic

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISl'IA~ .MOVEMEN:'r xix appeals for life decisions there is now appearing. a. new evangelistic emphasis. In contrast with the holding of special meetings, the effort in this connection is to induce prolonged thought and meditation about matters religious, :timing at the setting up of a religious life-bent without pressing for a definite moment of public decision .. 11) other words this new emphasis seeks to reduce to a minimum all emotional pressure on non-Christians 'with a view to leading them spontaneously, through pe1sonal rather than public influences, to espouse the Chdstian way of living. This emphasis is mo1e noticeable among student workers than elsewhere. In general the Christian Message receives a cordial hearing. The "evangelistic opportunity" has suffered little contraction. In contrast, however, to this willingness to listen to the Christian Message is a decided increase in hesitancy to accept it. This seems to be more in evidence among students but is by no means entirely a rriattei of students alone. It is on~ result of the critfoal scrutiny now being given to all things foreign and religious. It is also to some extent an indirect response to the same attitude of critical scrutiny towards things religious now sweeping all over the world. It indicates perhaps a more careful weighing of the Christian Message, which in turn promises a greater depth of conviction when that Message is finally accepted. Condition ol Educational Worlc Educational work ha'l felt more than any other type of Christian work in China the p_resent waves of criticism and nationalism. This is perhaps due to the facts i:rrat schools are an important opinion-forming factor, that the Chinese are more vitally interested in education than in religion as such and that in the mission schools extra-national influences are felt in essentially extra nationalistic and contrasting types of education. Fnrthe1~ more, the students have been the main strength of the nationalistic movement in China. The churches, on the other hand, are much less under foreign control than the schools. For a while after the agitations of 1925 it looked as though Christian schools would suffer tremendowily. Actually the number of students in

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xx CF.i:AliAdTiillus~tcs OJf CHRISTIAN ru:ovEME~r Christian schools did decrease and the number rn governi:nent schools go up during the year. Intensively' however, the work in Christian schools seems to have benefited by. the weeding out of a cons1dera.ble number of students whose lpsser interest was studying and whose niajor interest was agitation. New Regulations Various and numerous educational organiza tions have passed resolutions anent the position of Christian ec1ucation. As a result the Ministry of Education passed certain r.ew regulations for schools which were intended to settle the position of "private" schools, to which class Christian schools belong. 'fheRe new educational regulations embodied two major ~ims. (1) 'fhe securing of educational autonomy, or the control of schools in China by Chinese. With this legitimate Chinese desire Christian workers generally found it easy to get into accord. Having the majority of school board members Chinese and having a Chinese president or vice-president .who might act as the intermediary bet\veen Chinese educa~ioil.al authorities and Christian schools when npeded, were requirements the missionaries found little difficulty with. (2) The second major emphasis, that of a clear-cut separation between 1eligious instruction and education as such, caused some pertnrbation and hesitancy on the part of Qhristian educatiouists as it seemed that it might be interpreted to n:iean that Christian schools must lay aside their Christian purpose. 'fhis difficulty was found in clause five and the last part of clause six of the new regulations. "The institution shall not have as its purpose religious proselytization." "It shall not include religious courses among the required subjects." Chri;tian Attitude to Ne:w. Regulations In February, 1926,. the Council of Higher Edqcation appointed a Co~mission to take the matter up with the Ministry. of Education with a view to securing, if possible, an inter pretation of the seiitences deemed ambiguous. In the meantime Christian schools weie urged to act on the other regulations. A number of other Christian educational organizations acted a.long simila1 lines. Finally Dr. 'I'. 'f. Lew sent in on June 28, 1926 .a personal petition to the

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dHARAdTERtsTlds ()~~ CHiiiSTIAN ii.fovl!i:MENT xxi Mii1ist:ry of Education that an ihterpr~tatlon of the d'ehited clauses be issued. 011 Julr 6, .1926, the Mfoister of J~dricatio11 issued the follo,virig interpretation, which is translated froni the Chinese by Dr. T. T. Lew. In ans'weririg the petitio1i. for an interpreta'ti011 of Clause Five: of the Regiilat-ions Concerning the Recognit-ion of Sch'ools Establ-ished w-ith Oont1ibutfons Made by F'oreigriers, :is to whether .the Clause solely emphasizes the aiin of the school or Whether it is inconsistent with the freedom of :relig'ious faith and of the propagation of religion, etc., our ofilciRl answer is that Clause Five of the said regttla.tioris' proinulga.ted means that when an educational ins'titution is estii.blislied it should have as its aim the ed'ucatfonal' aim which is formulated and proclaimed by the Mlnistry. It m~ans that in the institution there should be no comprilsiori on any student to accept any religiot1s faith or to at'tend any religiOl1S rites and ceremonies. It sets no limitat1on whatever upon liberty of rt1ligious faith and the liberty of propa.gatlng religion;" This interpretil.tion. became valid on the date of its appearance. It seems to' make it clear that the element of so~called compulsion in relation to religion must be eliminated froni schools. This would seem, as some Chinese claim, to fit fo ,~ith the Chin.ese religi0tis genius, which leaves the acceptance of reHgion a purely voluntary matter even to the extent of redticing emotiopal pressure on people to accept it to the minimum. In schoi)ls at least it reduces religious propagauda to personal influences mainly and to voluntary cooperative study of Chrfatian truth and books. This is, of cour8e, a: new situation that calls for a new approach to the whole problem of religious education. To solve it calls for creative expedmentation. Condition O Me?,ic.al work, though the m0st phpa'!l Medical W~rk throp1c m mtent and _the least propagand1~ 1,n; method, has yet received some of the hardest blows the radical elements in China 'have struck at Ch1istia.n work. The long established Canton Hospital and the Southern Baptist Hospital at Wuchow, Kwangsi, were forced to close. A Christian doctor was forced out of Kung Yee Hospital, Canton, even after assurances that changes in

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xxii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMEN'r administration would not .affect his position. Yet medical work has in geneml proceeded much as usual. Though devolution in medical work has been behind that of evang elistic and educational work there seems practically no move, outside of the sporadic cases given above, to force the issue in medical work on :.liS general a scale as has happened in both the other types of work. Since. the article on merlical work in this issue (page 339) was written the missionary division of 'l'he China Medical Association has approved of comprehensive plans for devolution. This action was taken on September 7, 1926. (China Medical Journal, 1926, September, page 909). Christian medical w01k confronts two problems. (1) Putting itself on a basis where it can in every case serve to pwvide models of how medical work should be carried on. (2) Applying the principles of modern medicine to those Chinese under Christian influence or in Christian institutions pa1ticu]arly. Improvement along these two lines would raise the educational influence of Christian medical work to its maximum power. At the present moment three aspects of social Christian and reform work stand out from the viewpoint Industrial Effort f Ch t th Th N t" l o r1stian rnteres erem. e a 10na Christian Council through a special commission is stimulating interest in industrial problems in about eighteen centers. 'fwo emphases stand out in the work of this Commission. First, it acts as an educational stimulant. It is endeavoring to create interest in industrial conditions among the Christian forces. Particular effort is being made to educate the Chinese pastora as to the relation of their churches to the problem of making a living as it exif3ts in their own community. Second, it is initiating research projects into certain phases. of the whole industrial problem. It is felt that the facts of the situation must be better understood ere specific and workable solutions will be discovered: Anti.Narcotic Campaign Association The second aspect of social work that has made progress is in connection with the anti-narcotic campaign. The Anti-Opium is the direct outcome of the efforts of the

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT xxiii National Christian Council. This latter organization is still assisted financially by the National Christian Council. It has recently worked out a five-year program and most of the anti-opium activities are now in the hands of this Chinese organization. Neither the Industrial Commission nor the National Anti-Opium Association has yet succeeded in organizing in any adequate way the forces within the Christian Chmch. It is, howeve1, true that Chinese Christians generally have responded more freely to the Anti-Opium Movement than to the movement for industrial reform. The raison d'etre of the latter is more apparent to the Chinese than that of the former, for to some extent anti-narcotic ideals are indigenous. Christian industrial ideah.;, however, have yet to be developed. So far it has bf'en possible for Christians to put forth effort along industrial lines in a small number of centers only. For these reasons it is easier to secure Chinese support in an anti-opium campaign than along lines of industrial reform. The latter movement is still mainly a foreignized effort. One other social effort stands out. It is Improvement not, however, carried on as such by anv. of Farm Life national Christian organization, though in addition to the specific efforts herewith mentioned the Commission appointed by the National Christian Council and known as the Commission on Country Church and Ruml Problems," has stimulated much thought and study along the same line. I refer to the large amount of effort being put into improving the conditions of farming and the farmer's life. Investigation of agricultural problems is being carried on mainly in connection with certain Christian schools, primarily Nanking University, Yenching University and Canton Christian College Real and steady pl'Ogress is being achieved. In many respects the lead being taken by Christians is being followed by the Chinese. The International Famine Relief Commission is also findirig considerable encouragement in its attempt to set up coopera tive credit methods among the farmers. The extension of these efforts to improve farming conditions promises to be

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xxiy CHARACTE~ISTICS OF CHRISTIAN 11,[0V]jJMl!:NT very rapid in the near future. Like the anti-opium movement farm improvement is something that the Chinese rea~ily understand. Christian Literature In the field of literature the Christian forces are still without ail adequate program. Coordination along this line will probably be achieve_d only slowly. It i3 puticularly in. connection with Chipese efforts at self-expression through literary agencies that the missionaries tend t.owards cleavage in their thought. The Chinese tend to approach the problem of Christian literature in an open.minded way allowing free opportunity for all aspects of Christian thought to express themselves. 'he missionaries are divided between such an open-minded policy and' one restricting the output of literature by Christians to ~ertain definite lines of Christian belief. Nevertheless the situation has encouraging features. The National Literature Association (Chinese), recently organized, is getting under way. Efforts at producing' an independent Chinese Christian literature are hampered by the dearth of Chinese Christian writers. Indeed just now even in non-Christian literary circles not niuch of moment is being produced. The Christian Literature Society and the China Tract Society are both producing special literature to meet the needs of the times. It is to be hoped that the strnin in the missionary mind anent the Chinese literary interpretation of Christianity will soon e.ase off. For in spite of the encouraging am.ount of literature now being produced it is only through a united and nation-wide program that the tremendous need can be met. Gi:neral Aspects A few general aspects of Christian work in China may be mentioned at .this section of this interpretative introduction. The ed1icational wing of the Christian Movement is strongest in organization. Through the various regional sections of the China Christian ];Cducational .Association the educational leaders are in a most favorable position to tap the minds of educational workers and render national service to the Ch1istian Church through t~e <.1l;iristian school, fo national organization the

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CHARACTERtsri:ds OF CltR1STiAN MOVE~ENT xxv literature interests are probably weakest .. Both of these lines of work have particular significance for the Chinese mind. In general Christian work in Cb,ina is in a Transitional transitional stage. It is passing from being State of \" t t b Ch' t A Christian Work ,' estern-cen nc o emg rnese-cen ric. s a result the1e is a decided pause in program making. Adequate programs will not be forthcoming until the Chinese Christian mind is clarified and better understood by Western Christian workers. Christian work in China is entering into a period of experimentatjon. Ch1istian workers are entering a creative period. In every direction earnest search is beirig made for new methods to i:mit the new conditions. One encouraging feature 6f the situation is the effort being made to get close to the actual conditions and problems of Chinese life. It is from this angle that Christian work in China is b'ecoining Chinese centric. The chief problem before all Christian w:orkers is so to naturalize Christian effort in China that the Christian religi01i may be free to make its unique contribution to China. The relationships of Christians to one Christian f h Relationships another IS an Important" aspect o t e1r message. Weak Christian relationships tend to put the power of the Chrii;tian religion to secure spiritual unHy into a bad light. When Christianity was judged mainly by local groups with rega1d to focal activities this ,vas not such an important matter. But i1ow that Christianity is being viewed as a whole and in terms of a national movement it is. How far then do Christians iri China move together? How far hav~ they been able to carry on Christian fellowship as apart from ecclesias't'ical and theological unity ? National ~hristian Council cannot in The recent \vithdrawal of the China Inland Mission from the National Christian Council has drawn attention to that body. It is evident that the National Christian Council the divided state of the theological Christian

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xxvi CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTlAN' MOVEM:EN'r mind stand for any one theological position. 'fheologically the relationship of Christians might be described as one of watchful neutrality. At times this puts a strain upon Christian amity. There is not at present in China any dominating theological trend. It is, of course, theological questions which have caused t.he strain anent Christian literature. Happily educational work has been able to avoid serious trouble with questions of this nature. Function of N.C.C. The chief function of the National Christian Council is that of a clearing house for Christian opinion in China. But here two difficulties appear which it has not yet been able to overcome. In the first place Western. Christian opinion in China is very divergent. This is, of course, particularly true with regard to the question of the political status of Christianity in China. The National Christian Council has not, therefore, yet been able to formulate what might be taken as the general opinion of Christians in this regard. The resolu tions given in Appendix Ill indicate that the majority of the missionaries feel that the present treaty position of Christianity should be revised. They differ widely, how ever, as to whether such revision should be unconditional or not. In the second place the National Christian Council has not been able to form close and effective relationships with the Chinese Church at large. On the one hand, therefore, it has not been able to solve the problem of coordinating Christian activity in certain forms of Christian work and on the other it is unable to formulate the general opinion of the Chinese Christians on any matter of Christian concern. 'fhe chaotic condition of the country is one explanation of this lack of coordination. Another is the unsolved difficulty of finding how it might represent the Chinese Church. The third is the difficulty of securing an adequate Uhinese staff. Theological questions also have, to some extent, prevented cooperation in Ch1istian thought and service. The problem of national Christian relation ships, like that of national political relationships, is in a state of flux. The National Christian Council, however, is moving toward a solution of the problem of being China. centric.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT xxvii eh i t u 't The problem of Christian Unity is likewise r s 1an n1 y f TI p b m a state o suspension. 1e res yterians and the Anglicans have attained a high degree of denomina tional integration. The Methodists and Lnt,berans have also made some progress ip this direction. The Congrega tional groups, however, have not attained as high a deg1:ee of national organization in China as their home groups have long since achieved. Interdenominational Christian relationships are in a state of rnspeniion. Of late years less is said about interdenominational Christian unity than was the case some years since. The move to unite the Congregationalists and the Presbyteria11s has not yet been consummated. Here and there are strong interdenomina tional movements, the most promising one being that in South China. But there is no movement towards "Christian unity in China that is national numerically or in any other way. Christian comity in the sense of interconi munion and interchange of members betvveen churches of different !)reeds is receiving li~~le emphasis at present and interdenominational ecclesiastical unity is hardly a practical question. In this respect Christianity in China is following, at least so far as foreign influence is concerned, ~enomina tional tendencies at the home base. In other words, theologically _and ecclesiastically speaking, Christian rela tionships in China are not moving in any particular direction. And as 1egards cooperation in thought, and service, while much is being done, there is no objective that is serving to coordinate the Christian forces nationally. All this emphasizes the point already made that the Christia.i1 forces in China lack an adequa.te objective when looked at as a whole. It is a necessary aspect of this period of transition. Mission and Church As to the relation of the mission and the church the same thing is tl'Ue. 'fhe convic tion is gaining ground that the mission should be absorbed into the Church in s0me way. In some cases this has been done. But in most cases the mission is still an entity to be reckoned with and in some cases is apparently looked on as an organization which is to run indefinitely parallel to the Chinese Church, In a few cases

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xxviii CBARACT;ER~;i.'lCS OF CHRISTIAN MOV;EM,ENT Chinese Christian groups, with the approval of the mission aries, are rnaking their own appeal for aid direct to the boards at home. While it is assumed by most rnissionaries that the mission will pass out of existence, the time when that contingency will event\;iate is for many still very remote and there is no one dominating plan whereby it might be realized. In general, however, the missions are erideavoring to become China-centric. 'fhere is a tendency for: the deciding voice of Christian work in China to pass into the hands of Christ.ia.n :workers in China. Po~ition of Missionary The relation of the missionary to the Chinese Church and Christian work in China is a very complex one. To some extent .he shares in the criticism aimed at things foreign in general. 'l'here are tendencies to a cleavage in thinking between him and Chi.nese Christians. 'fo this reference will be made again later. I am sometimes told that there is in some places a wide gulf between Chinese Christians and their foreign colleagues. This gulf; however, does not loom up in. the mind of the missionaries. Ana it is undoubtedly true that Chinese Christians still earnestly desire and expect the missionaries to help them. That they must take a subordinate position in Christian institutions is also evident. With this fact missionaries do not in general find any particular difficulty. Strain in the missionary mind does, however, appear when Christian truth is concerned. 'l'his is, of course, often a matte1 of denominational or somewhat limited interpretations of Christian truth. Cooperation Without Confroi 'fhe Y.M.C.A. in China has adopted the principle for foreign assistance of Christian work iri China of Cooperation Without Control.'' In addition to the necessity of taking the posj~ion of a coop~r~tor without control there are other elemei:its in the pr!:)sexit situation in China which will incr~asingly affect the status of the missionary. Some of thes.e are as lollows: -(1) The policy of rn bstituting quaJified Qhinese in positions formerly held by missionaries, the number of .wllich qualified Chinese is rapidly increasing. (~) It ,appears likely that there will be a decreas!:l in the. uae of ;Englis.h in scho.ols that might affect the number of

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CHARACTERIS'fICS OF CHRISTJ::AN MqVEMENT xxix missionaries called for in that respect. (3) The administration of funds will pass more and more into Chinese hands. That would release considerable m1ss10nary energy. Whether in view of these changes a lesser or greater numper of missionaries will be needed is an unsettled question. Certainly it seems as though missionaries will still be called on for special and expert assistance. General work will tend to pass out of their hands. There is, however, frequent reference both by Chinese and missionaries to the need for missionaries in pioneering effort of all kinds. One would anticipate that home mission work on the part of the Chinese Church would help meet this need to a considerable. extent.. Perhaps the chief thing about the relation of the missionary to the Chinese Church is that, while he is undoubtedly still wanted, his function is not at present clearly defined. If Christianity in China is to become internationaly minded and not a nationalistic movement there will need to be a permanent intercha:nge of Christian experience between the. East and the West. From this viewpoint the missionary must needs become a permanent medium of exchange between Western and Chinese churches. The implications involved in that approach, however, have not yet been formulated. Christian In general it may be said that t.he necessity Cooperation of national Christian cooperation in China is a conviction held by the majority of Christians there. The urgency of a closer Christian fellowship is also recognized. The inevitableness of Christian cooperation and fellowship between Christians in China and the West is likewise an emergint coiwiction. These' relatim)ships in actual practice, however, still leave much room for development. The terms in which they will be carried on in China will have to be China-centric. Perhaps when that is fully achieved more rapid progress wfll be possible. Intellectua 1 :R.evolution The outstanding characteristic of the Christian Movement in China is its relation and response to China's intellectual revolution. The Chinese when awake are rethinking their position in the world and the relation of their own cultural values to the valu.es of other :peo:ples, :problems of whic.h ther h~w

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XXX CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMF.NT hecome aware during the 111.st quarter of a century or so. The Christian Church where it iR awake is experiencing an intellectual revolution of its own. It is beginning to reth_ink its own position and the relation of Christian valueH to those of its own. Chinese Christians are in a critical and selective mood. They do not want to lose what the last century of missiona1y effort has brought to them. They feel a growing sense of proprietorship and responsibility. They desire the privilege of spiritual self-direction; These they look on as the foundations of the Christian Movement. They want them put in their proper place. All other questions ~hould be settled in the light of these foundation principles. Lines of Intellectual Activity In its relation to the Christian Movement the intellectual revolution moves along certain well defined lines. These are (I) Critical scrutiny, ( 2) Mental uncertainty, and (3) Beginnings of cleavage in thought between Chinese and \Vestern Christiai1s. These are by no means discouraging factors. The criticism is evidence that the Chinese nre more acutely aware than ever before of the presence and significance of the Chri,:tian Movement iQ China. The mental uncertainty indicates that they are beginning to choose for themselves. The beginnings of cleavage mean that the Chinese Christian mind is beginning to move in a self-chosen direction. Altogether these aspects of the Chrietian intellectual revolution indicate that the Chinese Christians have come upon certain difficulties in connection with Christianity which are causing that mental activity which always ensues when difficnlties are met and choices have to be made. Criticism of ~hristianity Chinese criticism of Christian.ity has been widespread and at times virulent. It has come from a!l quarters, much of it from Christians. It has been directed more against institutional Christianity than against the personality of Ch1ist. Many of the articles criticizing Christianity show that there has been study of the Christian religion by non-Chri;;tians from the viewpoint of its history as well as from the view:point of its theolog;v. '.fhis criticis1ri seelr)s to heaq

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dHARAdTERIS'.rICS OF dHR!ST!AN MOVEMENT xxxi up in three points. First, there is t.he conjunction of Christianity in treaties and in Western civilization with un-Christian interests. For instance the diplomatic status of the Christian religion in China is defined in the same treaties that legalized the opium traffic. Missionaries are not charged with being interested in promoting the narcotic traffic. But the conjunction of these opposing interests in the same documents is not understood. It seems to imply that the "right" of religious propaganda and the narcotic traffic depend in part on the same support. This implies some sort of relation of thA Christian religion to military force. Christian workers do not often talk like militarists but their rela.tion thereto under the circumstances is obscure. I eh I tl 't This leads naturally to the second Ollt-s r s ant Y d' 't' f Ch t' "lmpirialistlc"? stan mg en 1c1sm o r1s 1amty. J ts conji.mction with imperialistic policies and documents gives some basis for the criticism that Christianity is imperialistic also. Missionaries have often heen credited with being in some subtle way the emissaries of their governments. The grounds of this criticism are too complex fo1 treatment here. Its main idea, however, is clear enough. western powers have in various and devious ways projected their diplomatic influence and power into the life of China for their own commercial and diplomat-ic ends. Christianity has moved along parallel lines. The variouR Christian groups through their boards have projected their influence and authority into the life of China for philanth1op,ic and 1el-ig-ious ends. While Christianity has not been generally imperialistic in. aim it has copied somewhat the imperialistic method. There is a widespread feeling among the Chinese, furthermore, that many missionaries have acted in an imperialistic manner. The solntion is the same in both cases, an actual. as over against an anticipated or potential autonomy. This criticism has not yet been snccessful]y answered m the grounds for it cleared away, Cultural The third criticism is perhaps not so loudly Exploitation proclaimed as the charge that Christianity is imperialistic. It originates apparently with

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xxxii CHARACTERISTICS cw CHRISTIAN "MOVEMEN'f the sttideiits and concerns lYJOre the influence of Christian schools; Thi~ third criticism centers in the charge of ciilttiral exploitation brought by students against the Christian Movement. This charge implies that those who make it feel that the attempt is being made to supplant their own cultural values with those from other lands. 'l'his looks like an attempt to bring about cultural uniformity iri terms _of Western or "White" culture. This criticism is d,ue in part to over-emphasis on the backward ness and superstitious attitudes of the Chinese people and an underemphasis on their ethical and cultural values. It is a somewhat vagi.1e but perhaps quite proper reaction of the Chinese ego against what looks like an assumption that the chief need in fitting themselves for their place in the family of .nations is to abi'lorb Western culture. Here again the grounds of the criticism are too complex for treatment. Perhaps the quickest cure for this natural uprising of the Chinese ego is to .mbstitute the psychology of sharing in place of that of handing down something from what is deemed a superior plane of civilization. Such a sub~titution of psychological attitudes is now slowly taking place. The evidence for .this is seen in the frequent reference thereto in various Christian conferences. Christians all over the world need to share what they have in order that together they may produce a real Christian culture. Mental Criticism may of course be ignored on the Uncertainty theory that it will wear itself out. It niay. All the signs, however, point to its being continued iri China. It should be answered. 'l'here is still another aspect of the relation of the intellectual revol.ution to the Christian Movement that must needs be diagnozed arid treated. This is a widespread mental uncertainty about the Christian Message and work. Sometimes it i),moi:m_ts to mental confusion. 'l'his mental uncertainty is seen to some extent amongst Chinese Christians and those engaged in evangelistic work. It is more in evidence in the attitude of non-Christians towards the Christian Church and work. Students also in addition to being mentally confused about Christianity arid the church are

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CUARAC'l'ERl8T !CS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT xxxiii mn.rkcd by indifference towards n.ll religion or a ration, aliHtic opposition thereto. 'l'his opposition shows itself in objection to religion per se and through criticism of ":.;uperRtitious" practices. Both these rationalistic ten dencies are especially directed against the Christian Church becanse in addition to being deemed a pa.rt of religious superstition it is also foreign. Two questions seem to give rise to this mental uncertainty about the Christian religion? First, What does the Chrjstian religion mean ? Secoud, What is the place and function of the Church in the life of China? All this means that Chinese Christians and CRh11"1;1a1's d those under the influence of Christian teaching e 1g ous an b ] b h l Ethical Culture are emg stirrec y t e cntimsms aimec at Christianity, the revival of interest in incli genous faiths and the wave of rationalism apparent everywhere. There is no satisfactory a'nswer to the question frequently raised by Chinese Chdstians as to the relation of Christianity to China's religious and ethical culture. In many quarters it is felt that ancestral worship contains elements that should be assimilated into Christian prnctice. There is a decided tendency to retain its commemorative aspects. Many Chinese Christi~.ns seem to be aware of the similarities of emphases between Chris tianity and their ancient faiths but do not clearly see the unique aspects of Christianity. This tends to ob~cure, for them the significance of the Christian religion. Furthermore, when the Christian religion is attacked Christian leaders lack in many cases answers to the attacks. We have also heard this mental uncertainty given -as. an explanation of the lack of aggressive conviction CH). the part of theological students. Divergent Missionary Thought To all the above. must be added the divergent tendencies in thought and emphasis among the missionaries. Lacking a knowledge of the historical background of the contro versies between Western Christians, the Chinese fail to understand their significance. The Western Christian mind (this is of course more apparent at present. in the P\otestant a,s. over a$ainst the Roiuan Catholic sectio11 of

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xxxiv CHARACTERISTIC'S OF CHRIS'fIAN MOVEMENT Christianity) thus appears to he divisive and individualistic. The Chinese mind seems to tend more towards the synthetic and the coordinating principle of harmony. 'l'he!'le diverging tendencies among the missionnries help, when known, to obscure the essential Christian values. The meaiiing of the Christian religion is not clear. That is one of the outstanding characteristics of Hs present position. It ie also evident that as regards the relat.ion of Western churches to Christian work in China, the relation of the missionary to the Chinese Church and to funds which come from the West, policies that often contrast sharply with each other are being openly advocated. And whatever their Jdeas on the varions problems involved Chinese Christians,/rn.ve no coordinated agency whereby they may expres:-1 Sii-lch ten dencies in their minds as may be prevalent. It ,vould be an interesting experiment to have a really representative group of Chinese Christians get together n,nd endeavor to find out their own mind on the meaning and work of the Christian mligion for China. We shall probably not get by the present widespread hesitancy to iwcept the Christian Message until something like that is done. The Christian Movement has already moved beyond the position it held when the National Christian Conference was convened in 1922. It is at least evident that Western Christians cannot think for Chinese Christians. It is equally evident that Chinese Christians are beginning to think for themselves. The mental uncertainty mentioned above is also evidence that they have not yet thought through their problems. Beginnings of Cleavage In Thought It is logical to expect that, parallel with the widespread criticism of Christianity and the mental uncertainty emerging in the minds of Chinese Christians about the meaning of the Christian religion and arising out of the wave of nationalism and the interest in China's indigenous culture, we shall find the beginnings of cleavage between Chinese and Western Christians a.s regards certain aspects of the Christian Movement. Here .we are dealing only with beginnings. In spite of the keenness of the desire of rrmny Chinese Christians for autonomy there are relatively few instances which Chinese Christians have tried to fofce t:\w

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CHARACTF.RISTICS OF CHRISTIAN '.MOVEMENT xxxv situation. Even in the cnse of the mission schools, where the Chinese desire for autonomy has been most in evicience, there are very few instances where the Chinese have forced the situation beyond a considerate discussion of the issues involved. Even in objecting to what is taken to be "compulsion ns regards religions education there has been little effort to use any other pressure than that of public opinion. Ancl yet there are the beginnings of cleavage between misBionaries and Chinese Christians in thinking and attitudes along several lines. By the beginnings of cleavnge in thought and attitude'' I mean a tendency for the mnf!:irity of the articulated Chinese Christians to move in a different direction from certain tendencies among the mission'i.ries. The points where such cleavnge is indicated need p~rhn.ps be listed only. (1) The Chinese Christian mind tends away from theological controversy. This does not mean that there is no difference of opinion among Chinese Christians in this regard. It does mean that they seem to be able to move together without attempting to force on each other any particular theological position. (2) In general the nrticu]ate Chinese Christians want the treaty relationships of Christianity changed and Christianity in China put into direct relation to their own government nnd people. (3) Chinese Christians find it easier to consider the removal of all compulsion in religious education than the majority of the missionaries. They seem to think of the Christinn appeal as being one of personal influences only and this embodied primarily in attractive lives. (4) They seem also to desire greater freedom in expressing their Christian faith through literature than many cif their Western colleagues feel it safe to permit. (5) There is also a decided tendency among educated Chinese Christians to relate Christianity to and attempt to express it in terms of China's own religious experience and genius. For instance, a book hns recently appeared in Chinese with the title, "The Idea of God in Chinese History." The author is Mr. Wong Yeh Sing of Nanking Theological Seminary. He shows what the best Chinese ideas of God have been, indicates their similarity to Christian ideas and urges that such idea,s must be recognized and utilized by Christians

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xxxvi CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT in the building np of the Christian religion in China. This n.ttitnde meets with sympathy on the part of a section of the rnissiona.ries also. (G) As to Christinn Unity it Reems evident that if left alone Chinese Christinns wonlcl achieve a closer Christifl.n relationHhip than dcnorninationalism has yet done. Now whether these beginnings of cleavage No. Wide-spread in thought and attitude will enlarge or be Split dbf h l ... snrmonnte e ore t ey )ecome serious 1t 1s difficult to say. There is little to indicate that a wide spread split between Western Christian workers and their Chinf'se colleagues is imminent. Such tendencies to cleavnge do, however, increase the difficulties of national Christian relationships, especially where theological or ecclesiastical questions may or do directly or indirectly influence the situation. Movements of.Life These tendencies to divergence of thonght between Chinese and Western Christians should not be taken as a cause for discouragement. They are indeed movements of life within the Chinese Church. 'rhey are self-eentered Chinese responses to the call of Christ and the problems which surround the Chinese Church. This statement is in somewhat sharp contrast to a fairly wide feeling among the missionaries that the Chinese. Christians lack spiritual vitality. This feeling, however, lacks definiteness. Different missionaries look on Chinese Christians from different viewpoints. There is no norm whereby one might know how to detect spiritual vitality when it exists or to test itH intensity when its existence is recognized. Some think of it in terms of devotion. in practical service to their fellows, others in terms of devotional faithfulness in certain religious practices. This feeling on the part of the missionaries is probably a reaction to a weakness in the Chinese conviction about Chrietianity. Such a weakness of conviction correlates with the mental uncertainty already mentioned. It is probably true to say that, generally speaking, Chiriese Christians have not the same intensity of denominational or theological conviction which characterizes their Western collea~ues. That is not the same, however,

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UHARAC'l'EnIS'l'ICS OF 01-IIUS'f.IAN MOVEMEN'f xxxvii as a lack of spiritual vitality. The fact is that mental alertness with regard to the implications of Christian principlcR, :,.;elf-consciousness as to personal religious needs and responsibilities, and an earnest desire for. spiritual autonomy and a Christian experience which shows itself in dissatisfaction with one's present experience and a wish to have it personal instead of transmitted, are all signs of spiritu:d vitality. Looked at from this viewpoint there are signs of a growing and real spiritual vitality in the Chinese Church. We may thus interpret Chinese criticism of Christianity, their mental hesitancy to accept it, and their tendency to diverge from traditional emphases as evidences of a revival of spiritual vitality among Chinese Christians. That is one of the most encouraging characteri:4ics of the Christ.ian Movement in China at the present time. The Christian dynamic has taken root in the Chinese mind nnd heart. Reconstructive The Christian Movement is at the center Beginnings of a maelstrom of changes and movements, all of which arc stirring it with increasing momentum. It is sharing in an intellectual movement, a large part of which is manifesting itself in criticism of the Christian Movement itself. Interdenominational and national Christian relationships in China are neither sufficiently close nor vital to permit of the free flowing of the ChriRtian dynamic:; These aspects of the situat_ion in which the Christian Movement now finds itself, if viewed by themselves, are somewhat depressing. But neither the chaotic environmental changes, the criticism nor the partial damming up of the sluices of Christian relationships have stopped effort either within or without the Christian Church. Somo of these efforts, being put forth as they are in the face of chaos and disrnption, are most significant for both the future of Chiim and the Christian Movement therein, Thus another and a promising characteristic of the Christian Movement in China is a number of iecon8triictive beyinninys which are in evidence. These are all attempts to meet and measure the problems of China at close quarters with a view to finding solutions natural to the situation rather than the super-imposition of any

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xxxviii CHARACTERISTICS OF CHJHSTiAN MOVEMENT imported ready-made sohitions. To a few of thEse attention will now be drawn. Ed t 1 Outside of and generallv independent of uca 1ona h Ch h h. Reconstruction t e Chr1st1an urc t ere are certam reconstructi ve movements which are in the main educational. The Mass ll:dncation Movement aims directly at reducing the percentage of iJliteracy. It is an attempt to put the weapons of acquiring knowledge within the hands of the masses. It is now a national movement with headquarters in Peking, with Christians in the lead. In general it has been ~upported with enthusiasm by all classes. Students iu particular have given freely of time and effort to make it go. The National Association for the Advancement of Education is investigating educational conditions and problems in China in a most thorough way. The aim of this Chinese association is to work out a scheme of education adapted to China using therein every educational device and principle that has proved worthwhile elsewhere. These efforts are hindered by the chaotic condition of the national finances, a large proportion of which find their way into the hands of the militarists. Nevertheless educational tests and standards adapted to China are being evolved. More progress seems to be evident in this connection than in any other line of effort. Educational The significance of these efforts at eel uca-Need tional reform and adaptation looms up vividly when the actual educational need is estimated. If the school populatio11 is t<) bear the same relation to the total popubtion that it doe8 in the United States then the 25 % of the population which would comprise the school population in China would mean about 100,000,000 i:;tudents of all ages. Professor Twiss, who made an investigation on behalf of the National Association for the Advancement of Education, estimates seventy-five or eighty million.* About UJ22 there were three types. of schooh; in China. (1) l'riva.te-old 8tyle *Science and Education in China, Twiss, pnge 63.

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CHAHACTEIUSTiCS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMEN'.r xxxix largely. (2) Government-niodcrn. (3) Mission. On the highest estimates available about 13.5% of the school population were in these schools and hence getting some sort of education. Professor Twiss makes the proportion of the school population actually acquiring some education about the same as this, though his basic figures vary from those given above. Now if it be assumed that on an average each teacher would have fifty pupils (Professor Twiss makes it twenty-five!) there is needed something like two million teachers. To start a program that means an improved educational system, that will eventuate in this army of teachers and will help build up an educated public opinion and train the Chinese in citizenship, has more significance for China at present than movements for the reform of the government. The urgency of con centrated attention ou this need is seen in the fact that in China only about 3.3% of the total population is getting an education as over against 12-13% in Japan and 26.2% in the United States. The combined population of both modern government and mission schools is only about 1.5 % of the total population. Thus concentrated stt1dy given to educational problems in China is an evidence of foresightedness and farsightedness that promises well for the future of China. Educational reconstructive begimiings, therefore, are appearing along two lines. ]first, in regards to the improvement of educational methods and second, in regards to the increase of educational facilities. In ail this educational reorganization Christian educators are taking a prominent part. I d The Anti-Opium Campaign now in the n ,g,mous h 1 f h N 1 A t' 0 A Organizations am s o t e at10na n 1-p1um ssocrn. tion is em barking on a large scale educational effort also. It is concentrating on the building up of an informed public. opinion as the only means whereby this evil can be effectually subdued. Within the year a national organization has been set up for dealing with the problem of leprosy in China, which has its own Chinese secretary. Modern trained Chinese doctors are also beginning to make their efforts felt. They have their

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X 1 CHARAC'l'ElUS'flCS OF CHRISTIAN l.lIOVEMEN'f own national association anrl publish their own medical journal. Their effort.s are backed up to a rornarlrnhlc rlegrcc by the r11.pidly growing anrl cflicient Ntrn;e8' Association of China. This latter organization is not yet, however, as fully controlled by the Chinese as the oLher movements mentioned. In all of these movcmcnte, al8o, Christian learlership is taking its full share. International None of these efforts are adequate to the Cooperation needs they face. But they are blaiing patl:s that will be travelled by multitudes in ti,ie near fot\.uc and all of them are reconstructi ve forces tha.t ,vill in time overcome the disruptive elements now so prominent in the life of China. One aspPct of all these education,d efforts demanrls special mention. It has special meaning fo these days of anti-foreign agitation. Through all of them runs the freest and most cordial international cooperation, particularly in connection with educational investigation and reform. In many ways forign e'xperts an:d missionaries give of their tiine and thought to' these movements. 'I hey might well be called intl'r national exchanges of experience and constructive effort, for through them international cooperation is being built up and ii1Lcrnational amity strengthened. Ney; Relat!o11ship Movements Within the circle of the Christian forces these reconstructive beginnings Rhow first in certain movements to fnse Christians into a more vital Christian relationshir and, second, through certain efforts to approach more l~irectly and intimately the actual problems confronti11g the Chinese people and in which the Christian Church should be active in finding solutions. None of these movements. ~,e em bod ierl in national organizations as yet. They ar,. inovement!:', so to speak, from the bottom up and nr:, from the top down. They are potentialitim; that may y it work out in nation-wide organizations_ Most, of the Christian groups in. the oldest center of Christ Ml work in China, K wangtung province, are federated. '.i..'lie sa.11JC thing is true of Swatow alSfJ_ In the:oe centers \Jhristians have found a way to express their Christian life together. They are working out a model Christian relationship that

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CHARAC'l'ERIS'l'ICS OF CHlllS1'IAN MOVEMENT xli should be cn,refully studied by all Christians in China. 'l'lwy are n.utonornous without being spiritually isolafoci. Their autonomy leaves the road open for the fullest coopemtion between them and WeKtern Christians. ]fnr th"ermore, nea.r]y every community where there i1::1 more than one Christian group is cultivating Christian fellowship through some kind of a federation or union organiza tion. This is particularly true of the Chinese Christians and :'tlso to a lesser extent of missionaries. These com dunity movements towards Christian fellowship are not ecclesiastical nor theological. They are functional. They are movements for cooperative thinking a.nd to some extent for cooperative effort. They are a natural development from comnrnnity contacts a11d needs. They are not coordinated nationally. It wonld seem, however, that in the next national Christian conference they should, to some extent, find expression through n'presentation. At present thr,y are largely undeveloped potentialities. The many ret,reats conducted under the aegis of the National Christian Council during recent years nlso belong in this list of reconstructive beginnings of Christian relationships. Another reconstructive beginning along the Devolutioa line of Christian relationships is the rapid momentum now being attained by devolution. By "devolution I understand the passing over of Christian work to Chinese leadership. This devolution, of course, is appa1cent mainly among the group of articulate Chinese leadcta. It is not 1:0 much a 1natter of official actions by boards, missions or other Christian groups as it is a feature of the rapidly increasing influence of Chinese Ohristiun leadership in the various forms of Christian iwork. In the third issue of the China "Mission" Year J.13'ook there was only one Chinese writer. In this issue ;:;early fifty percent of the articles are contributed by Chinese-Christians. This growing expreesion and influence of the Ohinese Christian mind is the most marked eddence of the fapid accelcra.tio11 of devolution now going on. In South China, particularly in Canton and Swatow (a.mong the-Baptists), the Chinese UhriHtian mind has become the dominating factor. The necessary readjustments by the

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xlii CHARACTERISTICS OF CI-IRJSTiAN MOVEMENT boards concerned is still pending. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. have probably gone further in making the necessary adjustments in this process of devolution. The anti-opium campaign has, as has already been observed, passed under the direction of Chinese leadership. Educational policy in connection with Christian schools is passing into the hands of the Chinese. The last meeting of the Council of Higher Education appointed an advisory committee of Chinese educationalists to work out a scheme whereby Christian schools might render their fullest service in China. This was deemed the most significant action of their meeting which took place early last summer. He organization to embody this fact of devolution will still take time for consideratio11. It will, hl)wevcr, follow inevitably. The Chinese are showing the road to rlevolution. Their foreign colleagues are readjusting their often cumbersome machinery to suit this change as rapidly as they become conscious of it. As regards the terms, also, of religious education the same fact is apparent. Scientific Study The last but perhaps not quite so easily recognizable reconstructive beginning is in the increasing number of serious attemp!s being made to under:;;tand the problems of Christian work as they are in China and to relate the Christian Church directly thereto. Some only of these can be mentioned. Nanking Theological Seminary sent a class for two weeks into a country district where not only was much practical service rendered but where the members thereof where enabled to study at first hand the problems of the rural church. This is a most encouraging effort to tie Christian workers up with the actual problems they must solve. Others are thinking along the same line. This particular experiment might well, however, serve as a model, Then in conferences a direct attempt is being ma.de to link the church up with the problems of the farmer. A creative effort is being put forth to develop an effective rura.l church. Na.nking University has done some promising work along this line. Shantung Christian University, also, is planning a settlement in connection with their theological department which aims to study direetly the

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CiIARACTEIUSTiCS OF CHRISTJAN i\-IOVEMENT xliii same relationship of the church to rural needs. A recent issue of the Cheeloo Magazine, the publication issued by Shantung Christian University, contains the result of a scientific study of the relation of Christian teaching to conduct. The conclueions drawn were, of course, only tentative. But tlw experiment coupled with other efforts to improve the me.thods of religious education indicates a new beginning full of promise. None of the above efforts are the outcome Spirit of Investigation of the work of any national organization. They are natural approaches to actual conditions. One national organization, the Industrial Commission of the National Christian Council, is .. utilizing the same approach in starting investigations into actual problems of making a living. All the above direct attacks on problems before the Christian forces are marked by a desire for and spirit of investigation. Another outstanding characteristic of the Christian Movement in China thus becomes apparent. It is the effort to investigate a.new the Christian problem in China.. Particularly though not exclusively in connection with student evangelism the same spirit of investigation and experiment is eeen. The majority of evangelistic workers still seem contented with the more traditional methods. All the above reconstructfve bl'ginnings also mean that scientific methods are being i11creasingly applied to Christian problems. B k f By way of summary and in conclusion it rea mg up O b "d Christian Mind may e sa1 that most of the changes takmg place or being called for in Christian work in China, together with the mental attitude!'l, the beginnings of cleavage in thought and reconstructive effort a.re part of a breaking up of the Christian mind in the face of an accumulation of difficulties and demands for readjustment. On the Chinese sido this is due to two factors. First, an almost nation-wide resentment against the manner a.nd method:,; of the Wo::itcrn impact upon China. Second, the welling up of the Christian dynamic through the Chinese Christ.ian heart and mind. This breaking up of traditional attitudes and programs is preparatory to a resetting of the

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xliv CHAUACTElUS'l'ICS OF CIIUIS'l'IAN MOVl~MEN'l' Christi:m aim in China.. This is being approached in .a spirit of investigation and experimentation.' Thfa spirit themissionaries to a large extent approve. They recog.niie the inevit.ability of reacljust.ment. The details of this readjustment are not, however; t1ear being generally settled. The various beginnings in reconstruction do not yet settle the lines ahmg which this readjustment must move in the future. Future of Christian Move1nent 'l'he future of the Christian Movement in China no one who is wise will attempt to forecast. Its roots have struck cleep down into Chinese life even though numerically it is still weak. The greatest promise for its future i8 found in the vital wa.y the Chinese mind and heart is responding to it8 implications. It has in large measure become China-centric. The immediate need is to complete this process. It is indigenous to the extent that Chinese Christians are beginning to direct it. It is coming to grips with the Chinese mind and religious genius. This of course means struggle to some extent. But this struggle is in itself proof that the Chinese mind has passed the period of easy acquiescence and is entering the period of vital response to the Christian Message. The China. centric movement in the Chinese Church will continue. The beginnings of Chinese Christian autonomy will grow. And lasting solutions to the problems of the Christian church i,n China will be found as fa.et as, and in proportion to, the articulation of the Chinese Christian mind. For that reason, while they do not represent adequately the whole Chinese Christian mind, we need to keep our eyes on the articulate Chinese Christian leaderR. They are the forerunners of the Christian Church in China tomorrow. In them may be discerned the most significant character istics of the Christian Movement in China to-day and probably to-morrow. Chief Need Probhmis a.re strewn all around the Christian Mornment. It is almost impossible to say which is the most important or most difficult. One need, however, seems to link together most of what has

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT xlv been said. It is the need of continued thinking and digging into the nctun.l problems. lt iH the neerl of a patient faith nnrl a faithful patience in understanding the task hefore Christian workers anrl n conviction that no matter what I he difiiculties along the way Goel will work out in China the building up of a people who know Him nnd are energized by faith in Him.

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PART I THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS CHAPTER I THE PROTEST ANT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND POLITICAL EVENTS Harley Farnsworth MacNair Object and Sources The object of this paper is to present certain aspects of the Christian movement in China as affected by the political and military situation. [t is not to summarize the political eventR themselves or to comment upon them except as they have to
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2 CHRIS'l'IAN MOVEMENT AND NA'rIONAL AFFAIRS request for information as to the Christian movement wir.hin his area by enclosing a newspaper clipping in which occurs the following selection: "The Lord knows we have had ,var enough, and none have felt it more keenly than the merchant and missionary in their isolated regions, where for months on end they have been surrounded by a looting, robbing, raping rabble of armed coolies. But this very thing has in every instance increased and cemented the friendship between the merchant, the missionary and the native. True, there are always a few missionaries as well as merchants living in the great cities and trea.ty ports, who like to blow their horns and advertise their wares or lack of wares, brains or lack of brains ... .'' Another element of hnmor, and of interest to a student of history, was to be found in the ways in which writers from the same area would differ in their estimates of, for example, the effects of the disturbed conditions upon Christian work in their area. The element of relativity was very strong as a rule; if sweepl.ng statements occur hereafter, the reader is advised to bear in mind this introductory statement. Eff t Has Christian Work in .your area been ReU~ii:S Work affected one way or another by the political situation during the past year? If so, specifically how? To judge from the reports current in foreign and native newspapers and magazines, as well as the remarkH one hears constantly of the upset conditions to be found all over China, one would expect that this question would have been answered almost unanimously in the affirmative. As a matter of fact more than one-fourth of the replies indicated that religious work had been affected very little or not at all. One writer from Laian Hsien in Anhwei said: "We, are a. small conservative city with very little public or political opinion. The students demonstrated a little after the May 30th incident; but I question if anything would have happened had not agitators come up from Nanking. I was away at the time, Two weeks ago I returned here after a.n absence of three and one-ha.If months. }ijverybody seems glad

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OHRISTIAN MOVEMEN'.1' AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS 3 to see me back again. My answers to your question are as follows: "No." A school-master clergyman from Anking, in the same p1ovince, agrees in general with this reply, adding: "The spirit in all the schools is good this term, and in my own the religious feeling is better than I have ever seen it." From Foochow in Fukien it is reported that within the metropolitan area there has been no noticeable effect of political changes upon our church work," but that in the country
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4 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS cannot at present be stated, but it would seem as if such a movement must result in considerable good. From Kweichow, K wangtung and West China reports came of trouble made for British mission institutions, schools and churches, with a falling off of attendance due largely to fear. In general it is clear that work in urhan areas has suffered considerably more than that in rural districts. Anti-Foreign Are you aware of any anti-foreign or Feeling Oh f 1 d" t ? Unorganhed antinst1an ee mg 111 your JS rrnt There is clearly a kinship between questions One and Two, nevertheless the replies showed that they are by no means identical. In any consideration of the terms anti-foreign, anti-Christian, Bolshevistic and Soviet, it must be clearly borne in miud that there has been a regrettable tendency on the part of many to confuse terms. Whether a Chinese is "anti-foreign" or "anti-Christian" or "Bolshevist" or "strongly nationalist" or ''patriotic" has to do very largely with the viewpoint of the one who arrogates to himself the position of judge. Subjectivity enters as strongly into a consideration of this question as relativity did in the question first considered. About one half of those who contributed information indicated that there were noticeable or definite indications of anti-foreign or/and anti-Christian feeling. From this one must conclude either that the missionaries are not competent observers and judges of such feelings on the part of the Chinese, or that there is no such widespread feeling among the people as is indicated by current rumors and reports. From Shensi, for example, comes the statement that "there have been attempts made to stir up both anti-foreign and anti-Christian feeling but with very poor succesti." As is to be expected, a distinction is made between groups of the people: those who report such feelings almost unanimously refer to students and, in a few cases, radicals, but add that the cooler-headed ones, the upper classes, and the officials genetally are opposed. In country districts such feelings appear to be conspicuously lacking. From Kansu it was reported that closer coopera tion. on the part of foreigners and natives in the

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CHRIS'.rIAN MOVEMEN'f AND NA'rIONAL AFFAIRS 5 administration of a certain C. I. l\L school had resulted which in itself would seem a good thing. From Kirin it was remarked that there was little or no anti-foreign feeling expressed, only a desire for autonomy. It is apparent that such feelings are considerably less noticeable than they were last summer: whether they have dis appeared or merely gone underground cannot be known until warm weather comes again. Anti-Foreign Feeling Organized On the other side comes a reply from Changsha in Hunan: '' There is a very definite anti-foreign and anti-Christian spirit abroad in Hunan. It is rather well organized through the 'student union' and 'Wash Away Our Shame' society, consisting of students and a class of ruffians and rowdies. It is also fostered by. communist, Marxian, and anarchist societies." A report of the anti-Christian activities in Changsha dated December 26, 1925, and published in the North Oh-inn Daily New.~ (Shanghai) on January 5, 1926, referred to "paradeR, threats, loud talk, handbills ... many attempts to intimidate students in Christian schools into leaving, but no SPrious violence, and contained the following interesting translation of "the most serious han
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6 CHRIS'l'IAN MOVEMENT AND NA'rIONAL AFFAIRS perialists would send all this gold into our land for the building up of schools, for the establishment of churches and hospitals, without some scheme for gain? That is a false belief! Schools are the camps of cultural invasion. Churches are slave-making factories. Hof'pitals, too, are centres of invasion. See the evil before your eyes! What school omits the reading of the Christian Bible, fails to observe Christian ceremonial, to prHy, to baptize, and to carry on all these church affairs? In the interior, too, all these preachers with their praise and prayer are really fooling the country people, bringing in capitalistic influence, serving to unite bandits, secretly importing machine guns! In some places, as in Hnpeh province, they cut off a piece of land every day. They make sport of our boys and girls. "Fellow-countrymen! If we all become Christians and all China becomes Christianized, then imperialism will become like a great sword and an executioner's axe throughout the land, plundering our homes and cutting us to pieces. We must organize, must unite, must oppose this force with all our might. "Our motto must be: -Oppose Cultural fnvasion. Beat down the imperial dogs, i. e. Christianity. Save the oppressed, i. e. the Students in Christi:m Schools. Christian School Students! Leave those schools where you suffer '' From Yenchow in Shantung came a remark Anti-Chmti~n that the people were quite too busy saving Church Feeimg h d I h 1 f th "l't t eu goo s anc t eu 1ves rom e 1111 1 ary to have time for anti-foreign feelings. An educator in Nanking replied: "Not so much anti-foreign as anti-missionary and not so much anti-missionary as anti-Christian-Church. 'There is a feeling abroad that missionaries and the mission churches are in league with western imperialism and that mission schools are hindering the progress of nationalism and nationalistic education." And another educator in the same city added that there was more such feeling "than has been noticeable any time in the past twenty years." Another report from the same city says: Anti-Ch:i;istian f~eling seem13 to e)l:ist chi!ifly in tlw

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CHRIS'L'IAN MOVEMENT AND NA'l'IONAL AF.l!'AJRS 7 Bolshevist groups which are in three government schoolsSoutheastern University, Waterways College and Tsung-yin Middle School. It came to the front in desultory half-hearted and unpopular demonstrations at Christmas time, mostly ending in a fizzle. In it neighboring city, Taipinghsien in Anhwei, about 80 students broke up a celebration on Christmas night, smashing seats and windowgla.ss. Police finally quelled disorder. The Methodist district snperintendent (Chinese) has settled up the matter. The general population seems not to be antiChristian. One worker returning from country districts reports that they have not heard of the agitation." In Kiangsi there seems to have been some anti-foreign ra.ther than anti-Christian agitation within the past few months. No serious import, however, is attached to the small amount of trouble felt in that province. A writer from Chengtu in Szechwan says: Anti.-Chrrstian "There is considerable anti-Christian feeling Feelrng d d d h aroun us; an urmg t e summer 1t was rampant. For several weeks some of our Christian teachers and preachers were on a proscribed list, but so long as Yang Sen was in control none of them were_ molested. At the beginning of the fall term posters were pasted up near the West China Union University warning all and sundry that if they entered the institution they would be regarded as void of manliness. This antiChristian feeling is quieter just now (January 27) but it still exists.. I do not think that there is any great amount of :inti-foreign feeling in this part of the province; but in the neighborhood of Chungking and other Szechwan river ports it is intense." A Chinese pastor in West China says: "Yes, I am aware of anti-foreign and anti-Christian feeling in this area, especially in big centres like Chengtu and Chungking." From Kweiyang in Kweichow one gentleman concedes, not without a sense of humor certainly: "There is probably more or less anti-foreign and anti-Christian feeling, but so far as can be seen the people generally are quite friendly to us and indifferent to the Gospel." It is noteworthy that even in the places where anti-foreign and anti-Christinn feeling is evident, it

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8 CHRIS'rIAN MOVEMEN'f AND NA'fIONAL Al!'FAI'.RS has manifested itself harmlessly in most cases: there has been, with a few exceptions, little action, and even where action has taken place, such as in the case of schoolstrikes, it has not always been possible to separate matters of school policy from those of larger concern. Often the trouble is caused by a small group of malcontents over some purely local incident or condition and not as a result of any real movement as such. And in such cams, for example that of the attempt on the pa.rt of a self-seeking group in Swatow to take over the property and control of the Anglo-Chinese (Presbyterian) College, the reporter in the North China Dail11 News for March 3, 1926, says: "It is needless to say that most of the students hn.d nothing to do with the matter, nor that the Christian boys in the institution have been hard put to it in these circumstances. The whole thing has been arranged by a small coterie led by this usurping principal, under shelter of the clamor against 'British imperialism,' and with the fear of the strike-boycott committees with their imported gangs of pickets hanging over the heads of any who dared to make the mildest protest." Political Tendencies "Can you summarize the trend of political thought in your area. as far as the intelligentsia are concerned?, e.g. Is there any sympathy with the ide,t of monarchical restoration, or with Communism? Is there any noticeable anti-military feeling? Any trend toward monarchical restoration is chief-ly conspicuous by its absence; less than half-a-dozen 1vriters mentioned interest in monarchical thought. It would appear, however, that a certain amount of this is to be found in the north-western provinces of Kansu and Shensi. A letter from Lanchow in the formEr province has this sentence: "Mn.ny country literati still favor monarchy." Another from Hanchungfn in Shensi is still more explicit: "There is decidedly strong sympathy with the idea. of monarchical restoration, the ordinary man in t.he street, and the farmer, looking around timidly, ea.ys in a whisper, 'Give us back our Emperor and all will be right.' If the idea were taken up seriously the whole country

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OHRIS'l'IAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS 9 would probably be with it. 'fhere are a few who are drawn to Bolshevism, but in utter ignorance of what it mean8. Anti-military feeling is always burning, the people have suffered -and are still suffering too much, not to hate the sight of a soldier.': From Foochow comes this statement: "There are those who, if a strong monarch who could bring order out of confusion were in sight, would not object to a restoration of the monarchy, but they see no particular hope in this direction now. I have found no great enthusiasm for Communism though there is doubtless a group of radicals who might use the Soviet cause ancl money to ride to positions of power if they had a chance. I do not believe that even they have any convict.ions in favor of Communism that are based on either intellectual or moral grounds. Once they were in power they probably would discard that vehicle and carry on in the usual way. There is a lot of opposition to the military government and it is given very. slightly concealed expression in all quarters, but it is based on the military promotion of opium, starving the government schools almost out of existence, and the fact that the military are from the north, like foreigners, and have done practically nothing of a constructive nature since arriving in li,ukien under Sun Chuan Fang. The taxation has increased from twenty to fifty fold within the past 3 years since Li Hou Chi was driven out. The general tone of political thinking is decidedly pessimistic.:' These remarks may be taken as typical of reports from practic-ally all the provinces heard from. From Kiangyin in Kiangsu comes another typical remark: "As to the political feelings of the educated-classes, I think I can say that they would be willing to welcome any change in government that would give peace and security to the people. I have not heard of any communistic tendencies, and the only Communistic agitator who has spoken out in the neighborhood was arrested and put in jail. The people are all thoroughly disgusted with the present military regime in the country, but do not know what to do to relieve themselves of this curse." Another letter from the !'lame city mentioned the public decapi-

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10 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS tation of the Communistic agitator and the exposure of his head. Communistic Beaiing in mind the reports in contem-lnfluence porary newspapers and magazines, one would expect to find considerable pro-Communistic thought in various parts o"f the country, expecially in and around Canton. But, generally speaking, this is not so. There are so many movements that it is difficult to judge their significance or relative importance. The main question has seemed to be that of Communism. It has a considerable following, but has been vigorously debater] with an increasing confidence on the part of those who oppose ... The head of a well-known institution in Kwangtung writes in a like strain: "The general feeling, and this is certainly more true with the intelligentsia than even with the common people, is. opposed to Communism. I believe myself that such Communistic ideas as are put forward are largely for political purposes rather than any :real interest in Communism." Another well informed observer in the same area says: '' I need hardly say there is a strong anti-imperialist spirit in all classes of people. This does not manifest itself in indiscriminate hostility to foreigners .. Russians are, openly at least, in high favor, Germans are beyond suspicion, Americans are recognized as doing much good work, but American business men are believed in the main to hold the British opinion as to Chinese readiness for equality and Americans are generally thought of as tainted with the dangerous disease of capitalism. Communist writers in the newspapers keep continually before the public t,he menace of international banking controlled from Wall Street. The U.S. Government is generally regarded as only half sincere in its professions of friendship for China and its diplomacy .is mistrusted. Frenchmen are arclent]y disliked--the leased territory of Kwangchowan is being brought more to public notice by the extension to its borders of the picket system, by which the strike organization is seeking to reduce Hongkong by cutting off supplies. The Japanese are now being subjected to a definite boycott on the general lines of the anti-British boycott. Notwithstanding all this;

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OHRISTIAN MOVEMEN'.r AND NA'.rIONAL AFFAIRS 11 individual foreigners are not molested and find shopping and sight-seeing as agreeable as ever :B'ar from there being any sympathy with any restoration of monarchy, the Kuomintang Congress, which has just (the end of January) completed its 19-day session, declared its opposition to both the Provisional Constitution of 1912 and the Tsao Kun constitution. This party controls the entire province -the first time it has been unde1 unified control in many years. It also has increasing influence in Kwangsi. That province is under indepencleiit military control but has adopted the Nationalist government flag and professes similar views. South Fukien is also affected by Kuomintang influence. The party demands the summoning of a National People's Congress to form a new constitution. It is ready to cooperate with General Feng and the Kuominchun but is bitterly hostile to all other groups. Communism as a spirit and a driving force has great strength in Kwangtung. The Communists are within the party and have stamped it unmistakably with their characteristicszeal, discipline, anti-religious bigotry and terminology. Their power is increasing. On the other hand none of the distinctly communist policies have been put into operation. The powerful Russian political adviser, who has just had his term renewed for another three years, has declared to many interviewers that China is not ripe for communism, and that all Russia wants is a strong and independent China which will be a friend to her. Other Russians admit more selfish aims. For the time being the men in real control are devoting all energies to the work of organization and consolidation. Communism is being talked by lesser persons and the enthusiasm of these doctrinaires is being utilizP.d. However, there has been no more confiscation, radical taxation or establishment of government monopolies than may be duplicated in the practice of more than one western government which is regarded as being safe and sane. The taking over of the Kung Yee private hospital was arbitrary and restitution does need to be made." Anti-militarism So tmuch for Communism. There is a mono onous regularity to be noted in the

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12 CHRISTtAN i\IOVEMEN'r AND NArtoNAL Al!'l!"'AtRS remarks concerning anti-militarism. Whether it is voiced clearly or not, there can be no doubt that this feeling exists practically throughout the country. A study of the replier:: received can hardly fail to impress one with the fact that most of the political thought in China at present is of a strongly nationalistic turn. It is not primarily promonarchy, pro-communist, or even pro-republican, nor is it mainly-in most places at least-anti-foreign : it is anti-special privileges, anti-unequal-treaties and distinctly China-for-the-Chinese. Through what channels does political opinion express itself? Political Agencies The answers to this query were for the most part brief, and may be summarized as briefly. In many parts of the country there are no public channels open for expression. Private conversation, tea-shop talk,a daily press which, outside of the treaty ports, is generally well muzzled, occasional placards or posters, some public lectures by students where the military permit them,rernlutions of student bodies, and occasional pronouncements of Chambers of Commercethese constitute the main channels. And these, as just mentioned, are often clogged. One writer from Wusih in Kiangsu says: "Political opinion, when it is expressed and when it represents in any way the real opinion of the mature men of the district, is expressed through the Chamber of the Elders of the county, who represent their townships by a sort of common consent without any apparent formal election." s t I fl What if any Soviet or Bolshevist influences ovie n uences are to be observed in your area? In connection with this subject one may again be somewhat surprised at the considerable number of supposedly well-informed workers in close contact with the Chinese who report that there is little or no Bolshevist influence to be observed in their areas. "These influences are mostly hearsay and not very real." (Nanking) "Bolshevistic influence here is making no headway, except among the Russians." (Harbin, Manchuria) "None" (Kirin) "None, except through literature of which a goodly supply flows through. (Foochow) Practically

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dHRtsrtAN MOVEMEN'r AND NA'liiONAL Al<'FAIRS 13 no Soviet or Bolshevist agencies a.re apparent in Foo chow. There is doubtless a lot of literature imported from Shanghai, and possibly Canton, and it has been reported that Soviet agents have come t.o Foochow from Canton, but so far nothing definite has been heard from them in Foochow. (January 17, 1926). "Practically nil." (Lanchow, Kansn) "Soviet advisers have worked with the government, exercising great influence. They have given no evidence of trying to set up a Soviet state. (Canton) This is a question difficult to answer. 'fhere have been the wildest rumors as to the number of Russians in and about Canton. It is doubtful whether the number has ever been over 100. It is also significant that even Hongkong has ceased to harp on Canton as being 'Red.' The general opinion seems to be that such Russians as are here have been political, economic and military advisers and have done a useful piece of work for the Chinese. When I say 'general opinion' I mean Chinese opinion. I think it would be found that a great many foreigners would not agree with thie. Those who do not agree, however, may be somewhat limited in their sources of information." (Canton) We do not believe there is any marked Soviet or Bolshevist influence here" (Kiukiang, Kiangsi) One Li Ming Middle School is fra.nkly Kuomintang." (Nanchang) "There is not a great amount of Bolshevist influence abroad; there may be a steady burrowing underground, but it does not make much noise nor does it come up to the surface to breathe very often." (Chengtu) "}f'rom the acts of some of the students, and one kind of paper, it seems there is Bolshevic influence, but not much." (Chinese correspondent from Chengtu) Soviet influences are not prominent ... (Ta Chuh, Szechuan) "I am not in touch with any influences which I would like to define by the term you use in this question. There rna.y be much extreme opiniou. One would be disappointed in the Chinese if there were not. One does not tind it possible to trace much of this to Russian propaganda, neither can one deny the possibility of such propaganda." (Nanking).

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i4 CHRIST.IAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL Al!'l!'A'l:'.8s Several correspondents refer to apparent Bolshevism in influence of Bolshevism in the schools, and to Schools the probability that the Soviet Ambassador in Peking is dispensing funds and information. From Shensi comes the statement: "There have, to my knowledge, been two visits of Russian Bolshevists to the Middle School of this place. [Hanchnngfu] They were evidently expected to be entertained at the school. There are, I am sure, native agents at work, and I have seen correspondence wit,h distant places on these things." From Changsha: It is generally understood that the present head-quarters of the Communist party or some form of extreme Bolshevistic society is at Changsha. We found that in the industrial work of the Y. M. C. A. there was among the la borers a definite division. The Marxians opposed the Anarchists and were afraid that the laborers' school in the Y. M. C. A. might get a teacher whose sympathies might lean the other way, so asked to be allowed to put an observer in the class-room to censor the teacher. Of cour;5e the request was refused." No unbiased obiJerver can deny that there are certain -or rather uncertain Bolshevistic influences at work in China, but neither can he deny that much of what is heard is nothing more than the cry of Wolf, Wolf." Bolshevism and Have Bolshevist influences been directed Christianity against Uhristian work? In Harbin an attempt was made, but it failed. At Yenchow, in the Land of the Sages, students pasoed through posting up posters at the shrines and sacred places, but no Bolshevistic influences were felt during 1925 on the Church work of that area. In Foochow, whatever effects of Bolshevism have been noted, have been considered to have a good effect on the Christian work -by way of contrast, one supposes, as well as by separating the sheep from the goats! From Canton: "Some at any rate of the Soviet representatives have attempted to be '"fail:,' or even neutral." And "There was a great deal of fear of serious anti-Christian demonstrations during Christmas week. A group of Christians saw Mr. Borodin, the principal Russian political adviser, and were agreeably

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CHRIS'rIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS .15 surprised by the attitude he took. It is common belief that he exel'tecl his influence to suppress any violent anti-Christian measures. Certainly Christmas passed off quite peacefully and in accord with the principles Mr. Borodin had expressed to the Chinese." In Kiangsi it has been felt that anti-Christian influence was being exerted by Bolshevists, in Nanchang and in other centres. The same is felt in various Christian centres in Szechwan. A letter dated December 29, from Nanking, has this to say: A few days ago there was an anti-Christian parade in Nanking. The slogans were anti-church, a.nti-mission school, and pro-China., but nothing different from what we might expect in America if foreigners were in positions of leadership in churches and schools. Another report from the same city adds: "A Nanking Universit.y student reports that before Christmas their funds were getting low, so they had to stage a demonstration in order to get a re mittance of Moscow funds through Shanghai headquarters. They put up posters denouncing imperialism, mission schools, etc., paraded, speechified, and tore down Christmas decorations in places." From Yangchow in Kiangsu it is reported that there has been persecution of the Christian students in government institutions, but I should not attribute it to any Russian influence.'' From Kiangyin in the same province a certain amount of unrest among the students is referred to but no effect has been felt by Christian workers. In Wusih there have been few, if any, evidences of Bolshevist anti-Christian work, although there is evidence of a distinct anti-Christian movement itself: posters as bad as those used in the Boxer period have beert sent to Christian leaders, but the people of the county seem quite unaffected. A bishop in Honan says, "So far we have not noticed such influences directed against Christian work." The report from Kweiyang says, "Not that I know of. If so, it has been so hidden that folks are hardly aware of it." About the only conclusion to which one can come from .a consideration of these answers is that although, as is well known, there is on foot a very con siderable anti-Christian movenient, there is comparatively little to indicate that there is much direct responsibility to be attached to_ Bolshevism; that there is some direct

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16 CHRISTIAN MOVEMEN'f AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS influence of this kind one cannot doubt, and that a good deal of the responsibility is to be traced indirectly to the Bolshevists appears clear. lt is, however, no more correct to attribute the anti-Christian movement to the Bolshevists than it is to attribute the growth of a national spirit to them. T at Ri ht Is your work affected by your Treaty re Y g s Rights? What would be the effect upon your work were these rights to be withdrawn? The answers to these questions were on the whole rather surprising and extremely interesting. A few felt that their work was favorably affected by the treaty rights and felt doubtful as to whether the results of doing away with them would be favorable. Some felt that abolition of the rights would affect their work unfavorably at first, but the majority appeared to feel that the rights either do not affect their work or that they affect the work deleteriously, and that the removal of such would be good on the whole. "The facts show that it was God's way of opening up the country to His servants," writes one worker from Shensi .. "I doubt if the officials or people know anything about treaty rights. We have never claimed them nor been dependent upon them, and I don't think the possession or non-possession of them would have made any practical difference to us in the future, but for the modern agitators, probably under the influence of the Bolsheviks." As to the effect of removal of such rights the same writer gives this somewhat hesitating answer: "Difficult to say; will depend, not upon the law of the land, but upon the amount of evil in the particular man we may have to deal with. Our schools and preaching halls will perhaps have to be closed; chapels and churches may have to be licensed, inspected, taxed, etc.,, etc. Our home and class-rooms, etc., will certainly be ap~ropriated and abused by the military (indeed this is so now to some extent). 'l'axation and oppression is pretty certain. But this is all man-made framework, and is of comparatively little importance -in fact its destruction may have good results; but the work of God will not be stopped; it may, in the old-fashioned way, flourish amidst persectltion and

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CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS 17 loss and bring blessing to the land, and God will be glorified." Letters from those connected with the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. work throughout the country indicate that these organizations are less affected by the matter of treaty rights than many of the Church organizations. The reason for this is that these two Associations have gone a very considerable way toward turning over their work -both administration and property to the Chinese. As to the methods pursued in doing this, lack of space prevents a discussion in this paper. Those who may be interested in this particular problem might do well to apply to the national headquarters of them Associations for infor mation. The attitude taken by the Methodist missionaries in several areas in China is pronouncedly advanced: witness the Resolutions* passed by them in a Conferenee at Kuling in 1925, and at another conference at Chengtu on the Church and International Relations. Whether for good or ill, for better or worse, they have evidently made up their minds on the matter and have taken a stand publicly against special rights and privileges. The concluding paragraphs of the report of the Chengtu Conference are worth quoting: "And we further desire to record clur conviction that the so-called 'toleration clauses' in the treaties regarding the propagation of Christianity in China have ceased to serve any practical purpose, and tend to associate the propagation of Christianity with foreign governments. We, therefore, ask that all such references be stricken from the treaties, that Christianity may be placed upon the same basis as other religions under the Chinese government's guarantee of religious liberty. "And finally be it resolved that we individually and collectively.pledge ourselves to work for and to pray for the abrogation of all harmful treaties, or their modification in such manner as will assure to China her full national sovereignty, compatible with the claims of international justice, and the equitable considerations of all those See Appendix 2.

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18 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS interests which contribute to the well-being of the peoples of China and the peace of China and other countries." Needless to say that, like the early Christians, the Methodists have been freely criticised for taking such actions as those mentioned. Perhaps their stand would have been stronger, too, had they not used the phrase "have ceased to serve any practical purpose,': the implica tion being that the action taken is based rather upon expediency than upon morals. Another missionary in Chengtu, however, differs from the viewpoint just presented. He answers: '' Yes, we are able still to secure some measure of protection because of our treaty rights and thus we can move about with greater freedom than the Chinese. We can also keep the soldiery out of our churches, schools and hospitals. It is fortunate that these rights still are existent." A Chinese Christian also in Chengtu remarks interestingly enough, "The change of treaty rights may help to increase thPfriendly attitude toward Christianity and Christian work, but it will be hard on foreigners and church property.'' How the foreign missionary appears in some districts to the common people" even yet is set forth QY the following statement from Chefoo: "In the country the folk believe strongly that all missionaries are in the pay cif their Governments and are agents of such for imperialistic purposes, no matter how we live or what we say." But apparently this idea is not based on treaty rights since the same writer adds: "Our own work is not in the least affected by Treaty Rights." Although, considering that a change in these rights would not affect his work, the same writer says, Outside Chinese might perhaps be a little less suspicious." Changing One worker in Wusih feels quite as strongly Treaty Rights opposed to changes in treaty rights as some others who have been quoted feel in favor of abolishing them. I do not feel that my treaty rights militate in the least against my work. This is the opinion of everyone that I have talked to on the subject. I do not think that the Chinese Christians here would be for our giving up our treaty rights. It is my opinion that if a

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CHRIST:CA~ MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS 19 secret ballot could be taken of the whole body of literate Chinese Christians, or the whole body literate and illiterate for that matter, on the question as to whether they wanted the treaties revised, they would be found to be over whelmingly against the revision. They simply do not dare to say that they are against the revision. One of them, a college man, told me that it has been impossible to express one's real opinion on these subjects without being subjected to violent persecution and probably to being beaten If China had a government or even the semblance of one, and any courts or even the sem blance of courts, my work would probably be little affected by a change in these treaty rights. As things are, and seem likely to remain indefinitely, I think that it is likely that if our treaty rights are taken away, it will not be long until we shall be subjected to a great deal of annoyance from the powerful scoundrels and blackmailers who prey on the Chinese in one way or another I think that 11, mission hospital would be in comtant trouble and mission doctors in a good deal of danger from scoundrels who would stir up people to prosecute the doctors whfmever operative cases did not turn out well. ... I do not believe that the Chinese Christians w:tnt to turn us over and subject us to this sort of thing. They all know how rotten their society is, and I cannot imagine that they would be so ungenerous, even if I had not seen evidence that they really do not want the treaties revised." Somewhat different in tone from the Wusih writer is another from Lanchow in Kansu who replies that he feels that in a general way his work suffers from his treaty rights by the fact that the Chinese among whom he works regard Christian work as "foreign and resent it as such. "Personally I favor a change. It would result probably in some difficulty at first in case of intransigeant missionaries." An interesting comment upon the letter just quoted is that from another well-known Christian worker, also in the province of Kiangsu: I have to confess, however, to being quite sceptical as to the significance of Chinese r~ticence on these questions and their real thinking. That does not mean to say, of course, that the Chinese \Vith whom Mr. Blank conversed did not sincerely

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20 dHRiSTIAN MOVEMEN'f AND NA'.l.'iONAL AFlfAiRS agree with him. Mr. Doe of the Y.M.C.A. could give you an illuminating experience or two. He recently visited some town in ... where the missionaries declared the Chinese Christians either were not interested in these political issues or desired no change. As a matter of fact, an open discussion blew the lid off. Some of the missionaries were surprised at this denouncement When it comes to the Toleration Clauses Chinese Christian opinion is less de finite. A group of ministers in Hangchow recently wrote ... urging caution in securing their removal, and l have heard of one or two other places where the Christians apparently take that attitude. On the other hand a quite representative group of Chinese Christian leaders at the Conference with Dr. Mott were a unit in urging the abrogation of inequalities in the Treaties and the 'foleration Clauses. It was quite a revelation to listen to them. If you do not mind my saying so, I expect an outsider could go to Wusih and gather the Chinese around him and find that many of them had very intense feelings on the subject." Chinese Christians and Extrality In concluding the discussion of this subject one can do no better than to call attention to page 7 of the January, 1926, Chinese Recorder, which, under the caption of THE CHINESE CHR[STI.AN FINDS FREEDOM, says: "Conflicting reports come in as to the psychological attitude of Chinese Christians towards 'treaty pr0tection.' Some Chinese Christian leaders aver that it has very little influence in the Christian Church. Others declare that in many places Chinese Christians desire a continuance of the present treaties until conditions are more settled. It is a fact that Christians and non -Christians sometimes seek cover for themselves and their valuables under the missionaries' flags. That is a very human and understandable move. But it raises again the vital question, does this possibility of extra-national protection for Chinese help or harm the Christian cause? To that question no answer as representing any considerable group of Christians in China is at present available. It ought to be answered. And only Christians in China can answer it. Yet in spite of I

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dHRISTlAN MOVEMENT AND NA'.rIONAL AFFAIRS 21 this uncertainty there are Chinese Christians who are starting on another road. A group of .Chinese Christians in Moukrlen, the members of the Kiangsi Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and 5,000 Baptists in the Swatow district, have declared that Christianity in China should cease to depend upon 'treaty protection,' and should depend on the religious liberty now included in the Chinese constitution. Furthermore, these Chinese Christians see that with Chinese spiritual autonomy goes of necessity reliance on spiritual, not temporal, forces." Political Progress From conditions in your neighborhood are you a.ware of any political progress, or working towards a goal ? The answers to this question were for the most part like the poet Burns' "short and simple annals of the poor." There was a discouragingly large number of "No's." From Shensi: '' Nothing of the kind. Poverty, suffering, greed, lawlessness, oppression, ignorance,-working to wards the goal of national ruin and God's judgment." From Shantung: "Very little progress observable toward a polit,ical goal. On the contrary much apathy and bewilderment." "None whatever. Votes are still sold. Justice is as uncertain as ever." One ray of light is found in that province: '' In a small way there is local political progress towards a more democratic government of the city (Chefoo) through the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, which is a representative body." From Foochow: "None" In general none." From Chengtu : No, there is no political progress; and the only goal that one can see any of the leaders working towards is that of their own selfish aggrandizement and enrichment at the expense of the common people." "No, I do not see any marks of political progress. Disorder, confusion, distrust, jealousy, and the forward selfish aims on the part of the ruling military faction are the chief characteristics evident just now." But the Chinese reporter from this same city of Chengtu takes a more hopeful view: There is the wide a wakening of the national feeling. People are more educated. There is more opportunity for people to express their opinion." From Chungking: "No." From Suiting: "There is no

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22 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NA'.r!ONAL AFFAIRS political progress in Suiting neighborhood and the only goal seems to be to make as much money as possible in the shortest possible time." F'rom Yangchow in Kiangsu: "Not in the slightest." From Kiangyin in the same province: "I am sorry to report that I see few if any signs of political progress in this neighborhood. There is general dissatisfaction with the present staie of affairs and that is about all. However, dissatisfaction with the present state is indeed the first step in progress toward a change." From Wusih, also in Kiangsu: "There is no political progress here except perhaps a small attempt on the part of the local gentry to try to persuade the governor general to establish a regular system of taxation in place of his irregular levies. A writer from Hangchow in Chekiang says: "None whatever. The present day political leaders are looked upon by the populace as grasshoppers and parasites.'' Another reports from the same city : The only political progress which I see is the increase of the spirit of nationalism which finds a certain amount of anti-foreign agitation to be the easiest method of etrengthening such nationalistic spirit. When nationalism sees its goal of juster international relations in view it will work far more vigorously than ever before to.ward a better internal reconstruction." A religious leader in Honan says: "Absolutely no political progress of the right kind, and no working towards a national democratic goal,-the 'working' is entirely selfish in its aim and method." From Taikang in the same province: Hopele~s muddlebleeding of the people." From Tientsin: "Most Chinese have lost hope. Trust neither politicians nor military." From Peking: '' One would be optimistic to say that he detects any pul1twa.l progress in the shifting of events during the last few years in the neighborhood of Peking. Many predict that this will continue for an indefinite period. Others are inclined to think that ultimately the people driven to desperation will take direct action against their military oppressors, probably uniting in support of some man who treats them better than the others do." p l't" 1 H The few who see gleams of political O r rca ope sunshine through the clouds of m.iiitary

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CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAms 23 darkness explain their optimism on the ground that public opinion is beiug gradually formed, and where it already exists it is being stirred in the way of national .thinking as contrasted with provincial thinking; some see considerable progress in education in spite of general lack of funds; some Ree local progress in municipal or provincial affairs. Writers from Canton are more hopeful than those in most other centres. One irnys; "Yes. The local government has been making progress against great odds in a concerted program of centralization." Another says: "There has been very definite political progress in and around Canton during the past three months. The civil government is stronger than it has been at any time since the Revolution. There has been greater consolidation in various departments of the government. Financially the government is better off than it has been for years. Taxes are being paid into the Treasury, and the military being paid from the Treasury instead of paying themselves from the taxes. There seems to be a definite and effective move for good governm~nt." I In general conclusion one may say, as a result of studying the answers sent in from many parts of the country, from reading the local papers and from talking with those who are interested in the Christian movement in China, that Christian work is being affected a good deal directly and a great deal indirectly, and that in inany cases the effect is for good rather than for evil; that there is much less evidence of Bolshevism being the cause for this than the development of a new nationalistic spirit, which shows evidence of being on the increase rather than on the wane; that there is a very definite move on the part of many foreign Christian workers in China to change their legal status and their administrative status in Christian work; there is a desire on the part of the native workers to hold more responsible positions, which desire is generally being met by the foreign workers. It is clear that there is a strong anti-Christian movement, which tends to grow stronger rather than weaker; however, this movement, far from weakening Christianity, tends rather to strengthen it. Persecution always has been good for the

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24 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL AFFAIRS Church in the long run, since it serves to keep it awake to its duties, and brings out the bP.st in those who are sincere and shows up those who are not. To the present much less effect has been felt than one would suppose from a casual reading of newspapers either in China or abroad. Lastly, whatever political progress is being made is largely invisible. That such progress is being made in a general way is fairly clear from the statements above, but such pro!?ress is underground to a considerable extent. On the whole it appears to the writer that the outlook for Christianity is exceedingly bright, despite civil war, treachery and confusion, which are undoubtedly rampar:t throughout large parts of the country.

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CHAPTER II MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE Harold Balme Significant Issue One of the most burning questions in China during the past year, in relation to the work of missions, has been that of Treaty Rights and Special Privilege. Until comparatively recent years, this problem never came within the range of public consciousness. The great majority of missionaries went out to China with little or no thought that they would be participants in special rights not usually accorded to residents in a foreign country, and with no desire to occupy a privileged position. Various factors have, however, now helped to focus attention upon this question, and the outcry against the "unequal treaties", as they are commonly called, is spreading through the whole country. The Anti-Christian Movement, and other kindred organisations, have openly attacked missions on the score of their association with these treaties, and have accused them of exerting a denationalising influence upon their converts, whom they stigmatise as the "running dogs of Imperialism.'' Propaganda of every type has cast suspicion upon the motivation of Christian education. The developing race-comociousness of the Chinese people, with its natural demand for racial equality, has challenged the missionary forces to declare their attitude on the whole race question. Meanwhile an increasing and influential section of the Chinese church is definitely stating that they no longer wish to enjoy special protection, guaranteed under treaties with "\Vestern powers, and is asking pertinently whether the missionaries are prepared to share with them the possible difficulties and dangers of this new position. In view of this situation, it is incumbent upon all o_f us to try and clear our minds as to what, exactly, are

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26 MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE the special privileges which we as missionaries enjoy rn China, and whether or not they should be abandoned. WHAT PRIVILEGES Do MrssIONARrns ENJOY? Let us attempt, in the first place, to enumerate the special privileges which affect us or our work. In doing so it is of the highest importance that they should be separated into the three very distinct groups to which they severally belong. Failure to keep this classification clear has been responsible for much of the misunderstanding that has arisen on this imbject. They are as follows:-1. Privileges customa,y to international law, and apart altogether frorn special Treaty rights or concessions. As foreigners living in a country which claims to observe the obligations of international hw, every resident in China, be he missionary or merchant, is entitled to (a) Protection of life and property, guaranteed by the central and local government authorities of the country in which he lives, and regulated by passport conditions. (b) The right of appeal to his consular and diplomatic representatives in all cases of injury or alleged injustice. Statements have frequently appeared during the last few months, suggesting that if extra-territorial rights are once given up, no protection will remain for the missionary qr his property. This suggestion is due to an entire misapprehension. In countries where there is no extraterritoriality at all foreign residents enjoy the same right to claim diplomatic protection as we do. Extra-territorial rights merely mean that if a foreigner possessing such privileges becomes the defendant in a civil or criminal suit instituted by a national of the country in which he lives, he can claim to be tried by his own courts and under his own law,-that, and nothing more. It has nothing whatever to do with his right of appeal to his consul for protection against attack or against injustice, nor does it affect his right to demand safety for his person and his belongings from the local authorities of the country in which he lives.

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MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE 27 Such rights will always remain his under international law, and are not in any way dependent upon extraterritoriality or other "special privileges." 2. Special privileges secured by treaty, of a non-reciprocal characte1, and shared with all fellow-nationals. The treaties which China has concluded at various times with Western powers, as the result of war or other causes, have conferred upon the nationals of such powers certain privileges to which they would not otherwise be entitled, and which are not reciprocal. Under the operation of the "most-favoured-nation" clause, any privileges secured in such a way by one Power are automatically claimed by the nationals of all others who come under the working of this clause. These special l)rivileges include the following:-(a) Extra-territorial rights. (b) Foreign control of certain portions of Chinese territory (known as the Concessions and International Settlements), with exemption from Chiiiese taxation. (c) Foreign control of China's external tariff, and of the Maritime Customs. (d) The right to maintain foreign troops and gunboats at certain stations. The foreign missionary shares indirectly in all these privileges to a greater or less extent. (a) By means of extra-territoriality he can claim to be tried by his own consul, if sued by a Chinese.litigant or accused of a criminal offence. This privilege -the surrender of which by missionaries is so much feared in some quarters has, as a matter of fact, only been claimed by missionaries in a very few instances, as it is a most rare occurrence for them to be concerned in civil or criminal suits. The fact of their possessing these extra-territorial rights may, however, have protected them against false accusations and may be a safeguard against expropriation or illegal taxation. In this connection it is worthy of remembrance that if, as the result of the giving

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28 MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE up of extra-territoriality, a missionary should find himself falsely accused of an offence, his right of appeal io his consul for protection against mjustice would still remain. (b) He can build residences or mission institutions in the Concessions, thereby escaping Chinese taxation or Chinese control. (c) He can purchase certain foreign goods more cheaply in China than in his own country, by virtue of the low fixed tariff. (d) In times of danger he can flee tQ a foreign gunboat, if he so desire, or to a guarded legation. 3. Special privileges peculiar to missionmies and not shared by the-ii-non-missionary fellow-nationals. 'fhis group of special privileges includes those granted under the so-called "Toleration Articles" appearing in certain treatie!:', tlw most explicit of which is the Treaty of 1903 between China and the United States. They may be summarised as follows:-(a) (b) (c) (d) The right of travel and residence in the interior, away from the Open Ports. The right of purchase or lease of property in the interior, away from the Open Portfl. Protection of Christian converts from persecution. Exemption of Christian converts from taxeR levied for temple support or other religious observances countrary to their faith. These privileges, it should be noted, are peculiar to Christianity, and are not guaranteed by treaty to other "foreign-introduced" religions, such as Buddhism, Mohammedanism, etc. The Japanese included similar priYileges for teachers of Buddhism and Shintoism amongst their famous "Twenty-One Demands", but this came under the group to which China strenuously objected, and which was subsequently withdrawn. ARGUMEN'fS AGAINST RETENTION" OF SPECIAL PRIVILEGE. Having thus stated in detail the various privileges which foreign missionaries in China enjoy, it may now be

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MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE 29 well to consider the arguments which have been brought forward in favour of their abandonment. Such abandonment, let us again repeat, would not of course affect the first of the above three groups. That group comes under ordinary international usage, and not under the heading of" special privilege." The following reasons may be advanced in favour of the surrender by missionaries of any claim to special privilege:-1. The missionary cause is essentially a spiritual adventure, depending for its success upon the blessing of God and the goodwill and friendship of the people among whom it is carried on. It is neither connected with foreign governments, nor should it in any way depend Llpon their protection and support. Foreign missionaries have always been ready to penetrate into countries where no special treaty privileges obtained, and beyond the reach of the armed forces of their country. They came to China long before there was any thought of such privileges. They will _stay in China, if the country still needs them, long after all such privileges are withdrawn. Any suggestion of dependence upon special and non-reciprocal treaty rights would therefore appear to be opposed to the whole tradition of the missionary movement and to the true spirit of Christianity. In this connection the remarks of Dr. David Yui at the Conference Higher Education last February, demand serious thought. He said: "In the present agitation for the abolition of extraterritoriality and the so-called tolera tion clauses in China, what are some of the oft-repeated questions on the lips and in the writings of not a few of our missionaries? We shall try to name a few in the order of importance given. Property. Personal safety of mis sionaries. Protection of Christian converts. These are, doubtless, important questions which we should not ignore. We must study them and find out proper and adequate prov1s10ns. But .. should we not ask whether the aboli tion of extraterritoriality and of the toleration clauses would offer greater opportunities for the spiritual development of the Christia.n Movement in China, or hinder it?

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30 MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE 2. So long as missionaries and their converts enjoy special privileges not shared by the teachers of other religions, they are subject to implications which may prove to be increasingly detrimental to their influence and success. It is difficult for them to clear themselves of the charge of being a "foreign-protected religion" whilst they continue to enjoy these special privileges. 3. It has always been the privilege and duty of missionaries, in times of pereecution and danger, to offer such protection as they are capable of to those who are in peril around them, whether Christian or non-Christian, but would it not be far better for the missionary to share in the dangers to which his Chinese friends are exposed, than to invite them to share in special privileges guaranteed by foreign force? Religious liberty has already been includerl under each draft constitution that has so far been prepared for the Republic, and it is probable that it has now found a permanent place in the country;s policy. would it not, therefore, be better for the strength and independence of the Christian Church for her members to take their stand under that provision -or even to share the risks of religious persecution -than to rely upon foreign intervention? 4. There is abundant evidence of a growing desire on the part uf a great number of Chinese Christian leaders to be free from the implications of a foreign-protected religion. Missionaries are thus faced with the alternative of sharing that position, and the possible dangers that may be associated with it, by the surrender of special privileges, or of running the risk of creating a serious and ever widening breach between the missionary movement and the Chinese Church. OBJECTIONS TO ABANDONMENT OF SPECIAL PRIVILEGE. Let us now consider the objections which have been raised against any expression of willingness, on the part of missionaries, to surrender all claim to special privilege in China. The most important of these ~re :probabl;v the fotlr following;-

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l\IISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PlUVIJ,E!iE 31 1. 1'hat conditions in the interior aie su.ch that rnission work stW requires, for it,'l proserntion, the addit-ional protection afforded by the treaties. Although usually stated in this form, the experience of the past year would suggest that missionary work in the interior, during a period of acute anti-foreign sentiment, has not necessarily been more difficult or more dangerous than on the coast,--in fact it would almost appear as if the centers where foreign treaty rights were most in evidence have been the chief points of attack. Apart from this, however, it is perfectly clear that neither extra-territoriality nor any other special privilege has provided immunity against such risk, and so long as these non-reciprocal advantages continue to be a source of irritation and resentment to a powerful section of Chinese opinion, there is every reason to fear that they may be more of a danger than a protection. The real protection of missionaries and their work has always depended, under God, upon the friendly feeling of those whom they serve, and anything which is utilised as a means for disturbing or effacing that friendly sentiment will in the long run prove a liability rather than an asset. 2. That in view of the disordered condition of the country, no change in the statu.s quo is advi~able for the present. It will probably be agreed by all that it would have been far more satisfactory if this whole question of treatyrevision could have been considered dispassionately two or three years ago, before the outbreak of the recent antiforeign disturbances. Unfortunately there has been a long and disal'trous delay in giving effect to the recommendations of the Washington Conference, and meanwhile suspicion and hostility have deepened in certain quarters, and the political condition of the country has gone from bad to worse. Thie, however, is no argument for still further delay, nor is there any reason to suppose that the agitation on behalf of racial equality, and the demand for the abolition of unilateral treaty privilegf's, will grow less with the lapse of time. Everything points to the contrary. Governments may continue to change as rapidly as they have been doing of late, but it is hard to imagine that any

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32 MISSIONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE government will ever hold office which is committed to any modification of this growing demand. So long as t.hese unilateral treaties remain, the special privileges enjoyed by foreigners, to which China has no reciprocal equivalent, will continue to be a cause of irritation and resentment. The question of the advisability of resting the special rights of missions upon treaties whose continued existence is regarded by many Chinese as a sign of national humiliation is therefore liable to become more acute, rather than less, with each succeeding year. 3. That tMs ?l'hole question of Treaty revision fa a political matter, in which m.iss-ionaries, by the natme of their calling, should take no pa1t. This argument, in my opinion, fails to take sufficient count of two important points. In the first place, missionaries, like all other foreign residents, are in actual enjoyment of these special privileges, some of which are not even enjoyed by their fellow-nationals; and now that their retention is challenged by the public opinion of an influential section of the country, they cannot escape their share of responsibility for expressing a definite opinion as to whether or not they are willing to see them abandoned. In the second place, the privileges accorded under the "Toleration Clauses "t were secured by missionaries, and for misRionaries. Dr. Wells "Williams, who took so large a part in obtaining these concessions, narrates in his '.,' Life and Letters" that on returning from Peking to Shanghai, after the signing of the treaty, he found that amongst the missionaries "there was as much disappoint ment as gratification, for the hopes of everyone had been raised to an undue and exaggerated height by the rumours which preceded us."* It would seem therefore to be a somewhat untenable position to suggest that missionaries may enjoy for fifty or sixty years special privileges secured through meddling in politics," but may take no steps +For the "Toleration Clauses" see Chapter V, China Christian Year Book, 1926. *Life & Letters of S. Wells Williams, page 281.

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MJSSlONARIES AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGE 38 to indicate their willingness to give up the concessions so o bta.ined. 4. '1.'hat missioiiaries only form one part of the foreign coinmiinity rind should not take any action which may embarrass the other section. This argument has been well discussed by Mr. Roger Greene in a recent letter to the '' Peking and Tientsin Times." Speaking as one who is neither a missionary nor merchant, and is therefore in a peculiar position to consider this question from an unbiassed stanclpoint, Mr. Greene writes:" Modern governments are largely dependent, in the formation of their policies, on free expression of opinion by the varied interests among their people, and it seems to me well, therefore, that both missionaries and business men should state frankly their view on the important international questions which affect them, with due consideration of the probable fact that neither side can present the whole picture, and recognizing that there is room for an honest rlifferencc of opinion. I think we may t,rnst our diplomatic representatives to face the facts thus presented and to do their best to work out with the Chinese authorities a practical solution that wiU satisfy all reasonable aspirations of the Chinese people with the least possible injury to the legitimate and permanent interests of foreigners. lit,: Business men have every right to state frankly whether, in their opinion, an abandonment of special treaty privileges at this present time would be detrimental to the large interests which they serve, and they have nqt hesitated to ava.il themselves of that right. Missionaries, who are responsible for interests no less important, enjoy a similar right; and if it is urged that action on the part of the one group may be embarrassing Lo the interests of the other, it must also be remembered that unwillingness t,o act, on the pa.rt of the one, may be no less prejudicial to the other's responsibilities. *" Peking and 'rientsin Times," February 26th, 1926.

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34 MISSIONARIES AN"D SPECIAL PRIVILEG.E ACTIONS TAKEN BY MISSIONARY ORGANIZATIONS During the pa.st few months action has been taken, with striking unanimity, by the lVfo;sion Boards of Great Britain, the United States and Canada, ancl by a large number of mis~ion groups in China, with regard to the question of special privilege.i-The resolutiom; passed by these various bodies, although differing in wording, give expression to a unanimous desire to give up any special privileges to which China is not a fully consenting partner. They offer no suggestions as to any particular method by which extraterritoriality should be abolished,-whether summarily, or by successive stages-, nor as to the conditions which may regulate the maintenance of religious liberty and service and the protection of life and property. These, and all similar questions, they have left for the mutual agreement of China and the Powers, meeting on terms of absolute equality. They have, however, gone on record that f'O far as the interests for which they a~ trustees are concerned, they do not wish to retain any privileges which China herself would not freely accord. It may be urged that this action involves an element of risk, though in this connection it should not be forgotten that inaction may involve no leRs risk. It is not, however, a question of expediency but of principle, and where a spiritual principle is concerned, the Church in the past has never been deterred by considerations of danger. The fundamental question is as to whether the. surrender of special privilege is the right and Christian course to follow. It is in the strong conviction that this is the case that the missionary organizations, a.nd a vast number of missionaries who share this view, have now taken action. tSee Appendix IT, China Christian Year Book, HJ26,

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CHAPTER III SOME HISTORICAL POINTS CONCERNING THE SO-CALLED 'UNEQUAL TREATIES' J. J. Heeren From the current Chinese point of view the foreign nwrchant and the foreign missionary arc great barriers to China's progress; undonbterlly, not because they are n.liens, but because they enjoy privileges in China that they could not enjoy in countries like .Japan and Siam, Rtates in full possession of their sovereign rightR.' The following parngrnplrn are supplementary to what has already appeared in the Chinese Recorder* on the subject of the treaties. One of the most important things to remember is that the commercial intercouree of the West with China was greatly accelerated by the discovery of America, the repercussions of which were soon felt in various parts of Asia. In 1493 Popp. Alexander VII's "demarcation line" assigned to Portugal all lands discovered to the east of this line. The result was that the Portuguese became the modern pioneers of the Far East. In 1517 they seized St. John's falr,ml, south of Canton, anc1 in 1557 the Portuguese occnpie
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36 CONCEUNING .'.rHE "uNRQUAJ. 'l'IlEATIFs" In 1689, however, the Treaty of Nerchinak, Article VI, provided the elements of reciprocal extraterritoriality for Russian and Chinese subjects living near the Siberian border. In the next centmy the Treaty of the Frontier (1727), Article IV, allowed a maximum of 200 Russian merchants to come to Peking once every three years, and Article V gave these Russians the right to have in Peking an Orthodox church with four priests, where they might practise, but not propagate, the rites of their own religion. These provisions, however, are so different from the privileges conferred by the more modern treaties that they throw liUle or no light upon present problems. From the standpoint of the foreign merchant the first great document was the Treaty of Nanking, signed August 29, 1842, which opened Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai to foreign trade and called for a "fair and regular 'l'ariff of Export and Import Customs and other dues." The British Treaty of 1843 fixed this ta.riff rate at 5 per cent ad va(orem. Fifteen yea1s later, on the basis of Article XXVI of tl1e Treaty of Tientsin, most of the duties were made srecific, "by reason of the fall in the value of various articles of merchandise." In other words, in 1842 China had to agree to a fair and regular tariff ; in 1843 she had to accept a 5 per cent duty; and in 1858, because a fall in prices had made the 1843 duties more than 5 per cent, she was compelled to agree to a new schedule. Not only were the rates lowered in 1858, but there was added an enlarged list of duty-free goods, such as foreign tobacco, forei~n cigars, beer, wine, spirits and other articles jntf.nq..ed for consumption by the foreigners. On the basis of 'molt favored tl'.ea.tment new treaties embodying the advantages of the re.vis.eel British schedules were made with the United Stat.es, Russia and France. ltxcept in the case of opium, these schedules for water-borne goods underwent no revision until 1902. Even then, to use the words of Senator Underwood, 11 All the duties remairn,d subject to the restrictions of the early treaties/' and even now the "export duties which are still in force are the specifi.9 duties contained in the schedule of 1858." What has been said above refers to goods reaching

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CONCERNJN(~ 'J'HE "UNEQUAL 'l'REA'l'IES" 37 China hy water. In 1862, however, Russia made an agree ment with China that Russian goods coming overland to 'l'ientsin should pay one-third leAs than the ordinary duty; in 1867 France got the privilege of a three-tenths reduction for goods coming overland from Tonkin; in 1894 England secured a siniilar reduction for English goods coming overland from Burma; in 1896 Russia got the one-third reduction for all Russian imports and for Chinese exp.oits shipped on the Siberian Railway: and finally, in 1913 Japan got (and still gets) a reduction of one third on all Japanese goods coming from or through Korea into Manchuria. Jn 1918 the fourteen Treaty Powers revised the schedules with the intention of giving China an effective five per cent, as called for by the treaties. The next great event in China's taril:i history is the Washington Con ference, which authorized the raising of China's tariff to 7t per cent in the case of ordinary goods and to 10 per cent in the case of luxuries. At Washington, however, the Powers did not contemplate giving China tariff autonomy and they assumed that if China ever wantecl to raise her tariff as high as 12! per cent, she would first have to abolish likin, "transit dues in lieu of likin" and "all other taxation on foreign gr.ods.'' At this point two important questions emerge: 1. Have the powers, aside from technical treaty privileges mostly the result of wars, the inherent right to still withhold from China the right of tariff autonomy? Although the Tariff Conference has agreed to give China autonomy,* the various governments have still to ratify this agreement. "Tariff autonomy" said .Dr. Koo at the Washington Conference, "is a sovereign right enjoyed by all independent states. Its free exercise is essential to the well-being of the state. The existing treaty provisions, by which the levy of customs' duties, transit dues, and other imports is regulated, constitute not only a restriction on China's freedom of action, but an infringement of her sovereignty. Restoration to her of tariff autonomy 1-vould only be recognition of a right which is hers and which she relinquished against her will." *To ta,ke a,ffect ori a,nd a,fter Ja,nua,ry 1, Hl~fl,

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38 CONCERNING THE 11 UNEQUAL TREATIES'' 2. In case the Powers do not ratify the Peking agreement, is it worth China's while, from an economic point of view, to give up a domestic tax in order to be allowed to increase her tariff duties to 12i per cent in accordance with the British, American and Japanese treaties of 1902 and 1903, when the developing alignment of Powers in the Far East will very probably enable her before many years to regain tal'iff autonomy without having to ask the Treaty Powers what they wish done about the likin? Although in 1922 China was willing to give up likin by January 1, 1924, in return for a I2i per cent customs tariff, the Powers were not sufficiently farsighted to accept the offer, and China has now refused to do anything of the sort. The Chinese Government has agreed to delay tariff autonomy until January I, 1929, but has refused to make autonomy conditional upon the abolition of likin. In this stand the Chinese seem mora1ly justified. Any transit tax, to be sure, is a commercial nuisance," and China's own economic welfare demands the abolition of lilcin, but as long as foreign goods arc not discriminated against and the taxes are in accordance with Chiua's laws, the Pow.ers seem to have no moral justification, aside from t.he treaties called in question, for telling China how she is not to tax. The right to levy domestic taxes is as much a sovereign power as that of tariff autonomy. Now, let us turn from the treaty privileges that benefit the merchant to those that protect the missionary. Christianity has been preached in China for many centuries. In the i"eventh century Syrian missionaries came to found the N estorian Ch nrch; towards the end of the thirteenth century Pope Nicholas IV appointed John de Monte Corvino Archbishop of Peking; about 1580 there came to China Matthew Ricci, the great Jesuit, and 1807 saw the coming of Robert Morrison, the Protestant pioneer. Before 1858, however, the missionary in China received no formal treaty protection. It is true that after 15.57 the colony of Macao was a sort of haven of refuge for Roman Catholic missionaries, especially the Jesuits, when :persecutions drove the:rn oi1t of the interior1 but s1,.1ch

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CONCERNiNG THE u UNEQUAL TREA'fiES" 39 protection was not the result of treaties. Although in 1692 the Emperor I{'ang Hsi issued his famous Ji:clict of Toleration, his successor rescinded the decree in 1724. t Accordingly, in 1727, the Treaty of the Frontier, as alrcn.rly indicated, gave the Russians certain limited religions privifoges. In 1844, Article XVII of the American treaty gave the citizens of the United States the right to construd at any of the open ports both "hospitals and churches." In 1851 Chinn promised Russia, in Article XIV of the Kouldja Treaty, not to interfere with the religious provisions of the religious services of Russian subjects in China. But all these provisions of the treaties relating to religion were of minor importance. The treaties of 1858-1860 with France, Great Britain, Russia and the United States laid the foundations for most of the exiRting privileges, which were continued and at some points amplified by the treaties resulting from the Boxer Rebellion. In the evolution of this policy of protecting foreign missionaries and native convert~. the history of missions in China differs from that of Japan. In China Mission Bon.rds secured the treaty privilege of purchasing land in the interior and of building thereon, and their foreign workers secured, or possibly took, the right of resitling in the interior; in Japan, however, missi
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40 CONCERNING 'l'HE '1UNEQUAL 'l'Rl!)ATIESli or when missionaries had been killed, have undoubtedly had no small part in convincing many of the intelligent Chinese, including some of those who are Christians, that foreign missionary ,vork and the imperialistic-economic designs of foreign governments have a sinister connection. In Shantung, for example, many educated Chinese seem absolutely convinced that the seizure of Kiaochow Hay, for which the killing of two missionaries furnished a suit11,ble exeuse, is but a glaring example of a policy pursued more or less hy all the W e8tern Powers. The fact that many, if not most, of the rnitive converts are now taking the side of the Chinese nationalists rather than that of the foreign missionaries seems fully to justify Tyler Dennet in saying, in his "Americans in Eastern Asia,n "much harm and little good has come from governmental patronage and protection of mission11ry work." As in the case of ta.riff control and missionary protection, so in the case of extraterritoriality we find a gradual development. In general, the early traders, although often reckless ad venturers, were subject to Chinese law, unless they were Portuguese doing business in Macao. In the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689)., as already indicated, and in the Treaty of the !frontier (1727) Russia and China agreed to a crude kind of extraterritoriality that was reciprocal and not unilateral. 'Rritish merchants, however, alleging that justice was insecure, seem always to have been reluctant to submit to Chinese laws and Chinese courts, with the result that on August 28, 1833, the English P11rliament passed "An Act to Regulate the Trade to China ancl India," Article VI of which authorized the establishment of a court for British subjects in China. Although the court was not actually established at this time, the Act was a concrete effort to put into practice extra.territorial jurisdiction. The Treaty of Nanking, 1842, made no mention of the grant of extraterritorial jurisdiction; bnt in 1843 the "General Regulations of Trade," especially Article XIII, for the five newly opened ports definitely conceded the principh,. This grant received amplification and greater precision in Articles XXI and XXV of the American

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CONCERNING THE II UNEQUAL TREATIE811 41 Treaty of Wanghia, signed July 3, 1844. Upon these foundations were reared the British Supreme Court for China and Korea and the United States Court for China. On the basis of "the most favored nation clauses all the leading Powers secured the right of extraterritorial jurisdiction. In 1902 and;1903, however, Great Britain, the United States and Ja pan promised to give China every assistance" in reforming her judicial system, and when these reforms had been carried out to relinquish their "extraterritorial rights." At the Washington Conference these three Powers in addition to Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, France and Portugal made a similar promise. In the meantime, however, this privilege of extraterritorial jurisdiction had assumed a new aspect. By means of Articles 128, 129, 132 and 282 of the Treaty of Versailles, the Allied and Associated Powers compelled Germany to give up her Kiaochow Lease, the Shantung Railway with its coal mines, the German concessions in Htmkow and in Tientsin, her share of the Boxer Indemnity and her right of extraterritoriality, as well as all other treaty privileges she had enjoyed in China. In he1 agreement with China, dated May 20, 1921, Germany eonfirmed these losses and she accepted the following "Judicial Guarantee". "Law suits of Germans in China shall be tried in the modern courts, according to the modern codes, with the right to appeal, and in accordance with the regular legal procedure. During the period of litigation the assistance of German Ja"vyerH and interpreters who have been duly recognized by the court, is permitted." By the Treaty of St. Germain, to which China is a party, The Powers compelled Austria likewise to give up all her privileges in China. In other words, by the end of 1919 the Powers themselves had shattered their own unity in the Far 1ast by depriving Germany and Austria of all their treaty privileges. Henceforth there were to be in China Powers w-ith and Powers wilhoitl the special rights of extra.territoriality. But the old phalanx of Powers, which for so many years secured from China practically everything it wanted, was made still more decrepit by the defection of Rt1ssia,

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42 CONCERNING THE "UNEQUAL TREATIES" the international outcast." In the Russo-Chinese Agreement of June 17, 1924, Articles 3 and 4, Russia and China agreed: 1. To annnl the "conventions, treaties, agreements, protocols, contracts, etc." between China and the Czarist Government, and to replace them with new treaties, agreements, etc., on the basis of equality, reci procity and justice." 2. To consider null and void all treaties, agreements, etc., concluded between the former Czarist Government and any third party or parties affecting the sovereign rights or interests of China." 3. To conclude no "treaties or agreements which prejudice the sovereign rights or interests of either contracting party." Article 10 gives up the Russian concessions; Article 11 renounces "the Russian portion of the Boxer Indemnity"; Article 12 relinquishes "the rights of extraterritoriality and consular jurisdiction," and Article 13 concedes to China the right of tariff autonomy. In short, with a stroke of the pen, as it were, Russia gave up privileges in riotous prodigality. Closely related to the problem of extraterritoriality are the foreign concessions and settlements, or areas reserved for foreign residence," where foreign communities enjoy local self-government. It is especially desirable to call attention to these little "foreign cases," because many of the recent collisions between foreign authorities and the Chinese occurred either within such settlements and con cessions or near their borders. The origin of these areas is to be found in the five ports opened in 1842 by the Treaty of Nanking. while Article VII of the Supplementary Treaty of 1843 definitely s11.ys that "ground and houses are to be "set apart" for merchants in Canton, Foochow, Amoy, Ningpo and Shanghai. Technically there are four kinds of these special areas: 1. Concession. This is a piece of ground conveyed in perpetuity to a lessee state. Hankow is an example of this type. 2. International Settlement. This is a place, like Shanghai, where foreigners have the right to organize

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CO~OERNING '.L'I-IE II UNEQOAL .'l'REA'.L'iES l, 43 themselves into a municipality but where they do not hold a lease to the land. 3. International Settlement by Sufferance. This is a place, like Chefoo, where "without any formal agreement" foreigners have bought land and "acquired the tacit right to govern themselves as a municipality" but without having an official status. 4. Voluntary Settlement. These are settlements that have been voluntarily opened by the Chinese, and consequently all the administrative and police powers remain in the hands of the Chinese. Changsha and 'rsinan are examples of this type. In his "Studies in Chinese Diplomatic History '' Prof. Hsia sums up the case, from the Chinese point of view, against settlements and concesRions in these words, "From what has already been said, it must be obvious -that the restoration of these municipal powers is exceedingly desirable; legally, they have no justification, and from the point of view of equity China's claim for their abolition is incontestable." Although there are things to be said on the other side, a thoroughly modernized China, undoubtedly, will eventually eliminate these special areas. Although extraterritoriality and settlements and concessions are closely rnlated, they do not necessarily stand and fall together. It is conceivable that the settle ments and concessions would remain, while extraterritorial jurisdiction outside of these areas would be abolished. On the other hand, it would also be possible to do away with these special municipal areas and to leave the foreigners subject to the laws and courts of their own countries. The probability, however, is that revision or abolition of the one will bring with it abolition or revision of the other. Twenty-five years ago the Powers as one solid phalanx stormed the walls of the Forbidden City and imposed their will on a helpless country. To-day that unity is shattered, and a new alignment is evolving. Russia is on the side of China. Germany and Austria are standing on the "diplomatic side-lines,'' secretly hoping to be the gainers

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44 CONCERNiNll THE '' UNEQUAL 'J'HEA'l'iES 11 commercially, while their former enemies, more or less reluctantly, ab!l.ndon their leases, concessions, settlements, indemnities and other special privileges. .Japan seems to have definitely tried to take the lead at the Tariff Conference in the giving up of special privileges hoping thus to become the accepted leader of the peoples of the Ji'ar East. In short, the old days seem gone forever, and the treaties which are the heritage of those days seem destined to be soon abrogated or at least to be revised. PAR'l'IAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 'TREATIES, CONVENTIONS, ETC. BETWEEN CHINA AND FOREIGN STATES"; by the Maritime Customs (Second Edition). '' 'TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS WITH AND CONCERNING CHINA: 189.4-1919 ": by John V. A. l\facMurray: Oxford Univ. Press. "l\foDERN CHINESE HISTORY"; by H. F. MacNair: Com. mercial Press. STUDIES IN CHINESE DIPLOMATIC HISTORY": by ChingLin Hsia: Commercial Pres:,1. "'THE STATUS OF ALIENS IN CHINA": Vi Kyuin Wellington Koo: Columbia University. "FoREIGN RIGHTS AND INTEREs.rs IN CHINA": by Westel W. Willoughby: The Johns Hopkins Press. "INTERNATIONAL L,,Aw": by L. Oppenheim ('Third l~dition); Longmans Green and Co. "LES ANCIENNES l\frssIONS DE LA COMPAGNIE D.E J:fusus EN CHINE (1552-1814) ": by ,J. de la Serviere, S. J.: Zi-Ka-Wei. "LA HrERARCHIE CATHOLIQUE EN CHINE, EN CoREE ET AU JAPON (1307-1H14)": by P. Joseph de Moidrey, S. J., Zi-Ka-Wei. "CARTAS DE CHINA'': by P. Otto Maas, 0. F. M.: Sevilla. "CoNFERI
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CHAPTER IV CHiNA;S POSITION AT THE INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS L. T. Chen Genesis of Institute The Institute of Pacific Relations held 1.h Honolulu on ,June 30th-July 14th, 19251 was the first of a series of unofficial gatherings of fairminded individuals of the peoples in the Pacific basin. Nine national groups were represented and 111 men and women of prominence in various walks of life were involved in this first experiment of trying to create ah understanding on some of the pressing problems we have in common by a candid and frank exchange of views and opnuons. Its purpose was not to multiply occasions for diplomatic skill, or to create opportunities for wilful pro paganda, but to facilitate personal acquaintances and to make possible firsthand study of the real situation as it exists in each country. In other words, a desire for friend ship and a knowhidge of facts were the sole objects of the gathering. This meeting of the Pacific groups was the Purpose culmination of the thinking of many people for several years. In 1919, when people had just realized the folly and cruelties of the World War, questions were raised as to whether or not the relations in the Pacific could not be built on a different foundation from those around the Mediterranean. If political intrigues, racial prejudices and national hatreds produced the catastrophe of 1914, what are we to expect when the same forces are brought into play, more intensified, in another field of economic struggle and competition? While the history of Pacific Relations is still young and nrnch of it is in the making, can we not avoid the mistakes of the past and usher in a. new era in international politics? While national policies in the past have been largely the creation of' politicians, is

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46 INS'l'I'l'U'rE 0]' P AOIFIO UELA'l'l ONS it not time for us to try to make them the result of intelligent public opinion? Growth of Idea Such was the dream then, and even now it has not far exceeded that stage. But a bcginnii1g has been made. Originally only a Y.M.C.A. conference was suggested. Then it was enlarged to be a conference of the Church; and finally it was thought that in order to give adequate discussion to the problems that now exist the views of people of all beliefs should be presented. A conference on Problems of the Pacific Peoples was finall.r called, which was later changed to the Institute of Pacific Relntions, for the purpose of indicating the educational emphasis of the conference. The provisional committee of the Institute Organization in China was organized in February, 19:.!5, compose1l of representatives of the leading educational aud commercial bodie8 in Shanghai, such aR the Cleneral Chamber of Commerce, the K1angsu Educational As:;ocia tion, the Shanghai Bankers' Association, the Cotton l\lill. Owners' Association and the National Committees of the Y. M. and Y. W. C. A. An executive Committee was elect.eel consisting of the following men: Chairman: Dr. Dn.vid Z. T. Yni, General Secretary of the National Committee of the Y.M.C.A.'s of China. Vice Chairman: Mr. S. U. Zau, Director of Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce. Treasurer: Mr. ll'ong Cho-Pah, Vice Chairman of Shanghai General Chnmber of Commerce. Secretary: l\fr. Ja bin Hsu, Associate Editor of the China Press. Dr. Huang Yen Pei, Vice-Chairman of the Kiangsn ]td ucational Association. Mr. King Chu, Dean of Kwanghua University. l\frs. C. Y. Tong, President of the Shanghai Women's Club. Under this committee Mr. L. T. Chen served a8 Executive Secretary. The following men and women participated at the Institute in Honolulu: Dr. L. N. Chang, Atto~ney, Hankow.

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JNSTT'rUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 47 Dr. S. T. Wen, Ii'ormer Commissioner of ll'oreign Affairs nt Shanghai. Dr. Ta Chen, Professor in Tsinghua College, Peking. l\Ir. T. Z. Koo, Secretary World Stncient Christian Federation, Geneva. l\Jr. Hin Wong, Editor and Publicist, Canton. Miss Y. 'l'. Law, Secretary of the Y. W. C. A., Canton. Miss C. Y. Wang, Dean of Chem Hua Girls School, Soochow. Mr. Y. C. Ye11, Director National Association for l\fass Education, Peking. Mr. S. U. An-Yang, Secretary of the Bureau of Economic Information, Shanghai. Mr. K. F. Lum, Secretary Y. M. C. A., Honolulu. Prof. S. C. Lee, Professor in the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Mr. L. T. Chen, Secretary of the National Committee Y. M. C. A.'s of China, Shanghai. China's Problems It wrJUld seem natural that China's problems should occupy a very prominent place in the agenda of the gathering. Upon the successful solution of her problems depends so largely the futme welfare of not. only the Pacific basin but, imlee_d, of the whole world. The way in which China is clen.lt with i11 the family of nations ancl the extent to which her nationa.l aspirations are sathified will determine in an unmistakable way the course of events in years to come. Should this virile and dissatisfied nation have redress for the injustices of the past, or must they prove themselves wortl'y followers of Mars before they can claim the respect that is due them? In other words, will moral persuasion become, or military prowess remain, the determinant of the conduct of nations? Four big issues relating to China received Main Issues thorough discussion, namely the abolition of extraterritoriality, the restoration of tariff autonomy, the treatment of Chinese residents abroad, and the question of forelgn loans to China.

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48 INSTITU'l'E OF PACIFIC HELA'l'JONS lndustrializaCurious to say, what seemed of tremendous tion interest to the other groups loomed very small in the minds of the Chinese members at the Institute. Thus how to indiistrialize China SQ as to attract foreign investment was a very insistent question which the Chinese did not discusc.; with zeal. Some attributed this Jack of interest to a lack of technical knowledge, hut the plain fact is that the Chinese members did not feel it worthwhile to spend time on discussing how to enrich the coffers of foreign capitalists. Not that the development of China's indiistry is of little importance, but that the development of China's life is of greater import ance. How can China develop her industry is a more vital question to her than how can other nation8 enlarge their investments. The humour of the discussion of this issue was that the Chinese members made it very clear that the people of China would like to see the Powers stop making any loans to China at present; that would be one way of ending China's internecine strifes. On the other hand the other nationals stated in equally unmistakable terms that China's credit is so bad now that it is impossible to float a loan for China, and then in the same breath they asked what are the conditions for making loans that would be acceptable to the Chinese people! On the question of immigration to foreign lmmigratio1! lands, all that w11.s asked for was that the Orientals be given equal treatment with the Occidentals. The most stubborn opposition to this came from some American individuals. The attendants from Australia and New Zealand and even Canada seemed more quiescent and conciliatory. Some of thesfl latter groups pledged themselves definitely to work for this. It was conceded that the test for immigrant.s should be made a real educational one rather than be allowed to remain a means of racial discrimination. Among the Americans, however, this was an issue over which there seemed a complete split. It was freely admitted by some that ideals and practices cannot agree and that religious teachings should always he accepted with reservations. It is a disappointment that reasoning does not seem,.as revealed in this Institute, to have the :power to le11,d thinking to 11, .finish!

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INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 48 Tariff Autonomy On the question of tariff autonomy it was not difficult to arrive at a general agreement. 'fhe injnstice and handicap of tariff restric tions were commonly admitted, and there was a strong sentiment in favor of China's regaining control of her tariff rates. The hottest debate came when the abolition Extrality of extraterritoriali ly was discussed. After the Chinese members had recounted the progress that China has made in the promulgation of modern codes of law, the establishment of modern law courts, and the erection of modern prisons, they made it clear that in extraterritoriality lies the came of all the irritations between Chinese people and foreign residents in China. So long as this system continues no normal development is possible. It gives rise to legal inequalities and bitter feelings. While the attitude among other members was that its abolition is not a matter of principle hut of facts, the Chinese showed that the biggest and the most important of all the facts in the situation is the resentment of the Chinese people against this unfair practice. This point was driven home by a presentation of the facts and implications of the May 30th affair in Shanghai, i,o that a motion was passed that the sentiment in favor of the abolition of extraterritoriality be expressed in a resolution. This was unique, because the Institute was held with the clear understanding that no resolutions or any other kind of formal commitments were to be made during the whole gathering. The resolution was not introduced, but this fact is worth mentioning to indicate the conviction the Institute had on this subject. A successful gatheringwas held, the results Results of which are to be measured by the moral convictions resulting from a frank and friendly exchange of opinions, rather than any public announcements or formal resolutions. Candor and forbearance, frankness and courtesy, reasonableness and tolerance were. the characteristics of all the members who came as strangers one to another, but parted as friends and fellow-workers for a i1ew order of things. A permanent organization

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50 DfSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS was evolved with headquarters in every count.ry around the Pacific, each uniting under its banner the fairminded men and women who believe that individual goodwill has a basic place in t.he solution of the national and racial conflicts with which the safety of mankind is threatened. An international mind and an international outlook on life is the consummate object that the Institute of Pacific Relations has in view.

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CHAPTER V CHRISTIANITY IN THE TREATIES BETWEEN CHINA AND OTHER NATIONS E. C. L'.lbenstine Extracts from the Treaties, Government Edicts and Diplomatic Correspondence taken from: Treaties Between the Empire of China and Foreign Powers, together with Regulations for the Conduct of Foreign Trade, etc." by W. F. Mayers. "International Relations of the Chinese Empire," 1,y H. B. Mor,;e. "TreatieH awl AgreementH with and Concerning Chimt," by .John V. A. l\facl\forra.y. )i'oreign Rights and llltcrests in China,'' by W.W. Willoughby. I Legal Status of Miesionaries in Mission Work. II Holding of Property by Missions. llf Status of Chinese Converts to Christianity. IV Extraterritoriality. I. Legal Statns of Missionaries in JV!issfon Work. Mayers, "Treaties.'' pp. J2-J3. Art. VIII 1. Great Britw:n Trenty of Tie1,tsin, 1858: "The Christian religion, as professed by Protestants or Roman Catholics, inculcates the practice of virtue, and teaches man to do as he would be donn by. Persons teaching it or professing it, therefore, shall alike be entitled to the protection of the Chinese authorities; nor sh,tll any such, peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending against the laws, be persecuted or interfered with." Mayers, 'Treaties.'' PJJ 62-63. Ari. XIII 2. French Treaty of Tient.~in, 1858: "La religion Chretienne ayant pour object e3sentiel de porter Jes hommes ii, la vertu, Jes membres de toutes Jes communions Chretiennes jouirout d'une m1tiare securite pour leurs

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UHRIS'l'IANi'l'Y IN nm 'l'REA:riEs personnes, leurs proprietes, et le libre exercise de letli's pratiques religieuses, et une protection efficace sera donnee aux missionaires qui serendrorit pacifiquement clans l'interieur du pays, munis des passeports reguliers dont it est parle clans l'article VIII." "Aucune entrave ne sera apportee par les autorites de !'empire chinois au droit qui est reconnu a tout individu on Chine d'embrasser, s'il le vent, le Christianisme et d'en suivre les pratiques sans etre passible d'aucune peine infligee pour ce fa.it. "Tout ce qui a ete precedemment ecrit, proclame OU publie .en Chine par ordrc dn gonvernement contre le culte Chretien, est completement abroge, et reste sans valeur dans toutes les provinces de l'empire/' 3. Belgimn Treaty of Peki'flg, 18/j8: Same as first two c-lauses of the French Treaty of Tientsin, 18,58. 4. United S:ntes of Americrt at T-ients-in, !f!Tayersti ,, 1858: "The principles of the Christian rea 1es. P 1 f d b l p d 92. Art. XXIX re 1g10n, as pro esse y t ie rotestant an Roman Catholic churches, are recognized as teaching men to do good, and to do to others as th, y would have others to do to them. Hereafter, those who quietly profess and teach these. doctrines shall not be harrassed or persecuted on account of their faith. Any person, whether citizen of the United States or Chinese convert, who according to these tenets peaceably teaches and practises the principles of Christianity, shall in no case be interfered with or molested." 5. Russ-ian 'l'rea.ty of Tientsin, 1858: "Le ~Tyer~! ,, Gouvernement Chinois, ayant reconnu que la l03.rAr~~5vnf doctrine; Chret.ienne fa~ilite l'etablissement de l'ordre et de la concorde entre les hommes, promet de ne pas persecuter ses sujets Chretiens pot'ir l'exercice des devoirs de leur religion; ils jouiront de la prot~ction accordee a tous ceux qui prefessent les autres croyances tolerees clans l'Ernpire. "Le Gouvernement Chinois considerant les missionaires Chretiens comme des hommes de bien qui ne cherchent pas d'avantages materiels, leur permettra de propager le Christianisme par mi ses sujets, et ne leur empechera pas

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CHIUSTIANI'fY JN THE '.l'REATIES de circuler dans l'interieur de l'Empire. Un nombre tixe de missionaire partant des villes ou ports ouverts sera muni de passeports signes par Jes autorites Russes." 6. German Treaty of T'/'.e11.tsin, 1858: "Ceux r;ITayerEt! ,, qui suivent et enseignent la religion rea ies. p. h 't' t Ch' d' 1 i20. Art. X c re ienne JOUiron en me une p eme et entiere protection pour leur personnes, leurs proprietes et !'exercise de leur culte." 7. French Oon1:ention at Peking, 186a: Mayers, "C f t l'Ed't I 1 d I "Treaties.'' P ont oMrmemen.1 ha 't 1 t mperia r~n u e 73. Art. VI vmg ars, m1 m con quarante-s1x, par l'august Emporeur Tao-Kouang, les etu.blis~e ments religieux et de bienfaisance qui ont ete confo!quees aux Chretiens pendant Jes persecutions dont ils ont ete Jes victimes, seront rendus a leurs proprietaires par I'entremise du Minidtre do France en Chine, auquel le gouvernement Imperiu.l les fem delivrer, avec Jes cimetieres et les autres edifices qui en dependaient." Translation of Chinese text of above article: "It shall be promulgated throughout the length and breadth of the land, in the terms of the Imperial Edict of the 20th February, 1846, that it is permitted to all people in all parts of China to propu.gate and practise the 'teachings of the Lord of Heaven,' to .meet together for the preaching of the doctrine, to build churches and to worship; further, all such as indiscriminately arrest (Christians) shall be duly punished; and such churches, schools, cemeteries, lands, and buildings, as were owned on former occasions by persecuted Christians, shall be paid for, and the money handed to the French Representative at Peking, for tram1mission to the Christians in the localities concerned. It is, in addition, permitted to French Missionaries to rent and purchase land in all the provinces, and to erect buildings thereon at pleasure." M 8. Portiiguese Treaty at Tientsin, 1862: "Tayrertsi, ,, "The Catholic religion has for its essential ea es. p. b' h I d' f t P i64. Art. LII o Ject t e ea mg o men o virtue. ersons teaching it and professing it shall alike be entitled. to efficacious protection from the Chinese

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54 CHRIS'l'IANI'l'Y IN '.L'HE 'l'REA'l'IEB authorities; nor shall such persons pursuing peaceably their calling and not offending against the laws be prosecuted or interfered with." M 9. Danirih 1're1J,ty of T-ientsin, 186.':J: "Danish .. .;.::::ies,, P subjects who profess or teach the Christian l45. Art. VIII Religion shall be entitled to the protection of the Chinese authorities; nor shall any such persons, peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending against the law, be persecuted or interfered with.'' Mayers, "Treaties.'' P J73. Art. VIII 10. Italian Treaty of Peking, 1866: Same as Danish Treaty with this addition: "Nessun impedimento sani posto dalle autoritii Chinese a che tale otale altro suddito dell' Impero possa, so lo vuole, abbracciare la religione christia.na e seguirne pubblicamente i riti." M 11. 1'rmty of Holland at Tientsin, 186$: ayers, N th 1 d f tl Ch t" "Treaties.''p. .e. er.ans m1ss10nanes o ie ns~an JSJ. Art. IV re.hg10n rntent upon the peaceful propagation of the gospel in the interior of China, shall enjoy the protection of the Chinese authorities. Natives wif:lhing to embrace Christian tenets shall not be hindered or molested in any way, so long as they commit no offence against the laws." *U.S. For. Rels., J888 pt. J. P 27J. 12. Opinion of American Minister, Denby, on the legal statiis of niissiona,1ies. "Upon this point (of missionaries in the interior) we can do no better than to quote the view of American Minister Denby. Writing m 1888, he says: 'La:lving the treaties out of consideration, what, then, is a fair conclusion from the actual condition of things in Chimt'? 'It would seem to be tpis: 'The Imperial Government leaves the question of permane.nt residence to be solved by the local authorities and the people. If the foreigner can procure toleration in any locality, and is suffered without objection to locate therein, he, by degrees, ma.y acquire vested rights, which his own government and the Imperial Government also Willoughby, "Foreign Rights and Interests i L1 China," PP J99-200

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CHRISTIANITY IN THE TREATIES 55 are bound to secure to him if attacked. If the foreigner is unable by tact and prudence to conciliate the natives so as to secure a permanent residence, he is not strictly entitled to demand either of his own government or the Imperial Government insistence on 11. claim which has no treat.y basis. 'It is claimed, however, that the rights granted under the treaties have been enlurged by the usage and tolerance of the Chinese government, and by special acts, whereby peculiar rights and privileges in certain localities have inured to certain foreigners, and under the favored nation clause, similar rights will be claimed for citizens of the United States. 'The Government of the United States does not undertake to control its citizens in their selection of residences at home or abroad. They have the right to go where they please. They will, while traveling in foreign countries, be protected by the Government. 'Should citizens of the United States locate in the interior of China, the Government of the United States could not, as a matter of treaty stipulation, insist that they have the right to acquire real property, except in localities where this right has been accorded to citizem1 or subjects of other foreign powers. In this last case, under the favore
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56 MacMurray, "Treaties and Agreem~nt,'' p. 7!8 CHRISTIANITY IN 'fRE TREATIES "'Chiria has long ago given her consent to the establishment of Mission stations of the Roman Catholic religion in the various provinces. With the desire of maintaining peaceful relations between ordinary Chinese subjects and the converts, and of facilitating protective measures, the following proposals as to the reception of missionaries by local officials are submitted:-' J. To define the various ranks of missionaries. 'Bishops rank with Governors-General and Governors. They may ask for interviews with these officers. If a Bishop returns to his country or vacates his post on account of sickness, 1,he priest who acts for him can al~o ask for interviews with the Governor-General and Governor. 'Provicaires and Head Priests can ask for interviews with Treasurers, Judges, and Taotais. Other Priests can ask for interviews with Prefects and Magistrates. 'The Chinese officials of all ranks above mentioned will return the courtesy in a<:cordance wit.h the rank of the priest. '2. Bishops must furnish the provincial authorities wil,h a list giving the names of the priests deputed to transact intemational business with the Chinese officials, and of the places where missions are established, so that the provincial authorities can instruct their subordinates to treat with such priests according to these regulations. 'All those priests who ask for interviews, and those specially deputed to transact such business, must be Westerners, but in cases in which the Western Priest connot speak Chinese, a Chinese priest may interpret. '3. In cases in which the. Bishop lives away from the provincial capital, he need not naturally go to the said capital to ask for an interview with the Governor-General or Governor without, cause. On occasions of a change of Governors or Bishops, or of New Year's congratulations, the Bishop may write to the provincial authorities or send his card a.s a matter of courtesy, and the provincial authorities will reciprocate.

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CHRISTIANITY IN '.rHE TREA'l'IES 57 'In cases of change of priests, the newcomer must have a letter from the Bishop, before he can ask for interviews with the Chinese officials as above. 4. In grave cases connected with the m1ss10n Bishops and priests must request the Minister of the nation specially intrusted by the Pope with the protection of Roman Catholic missionaries or the Consul of that nation to arrange th(;) affairs with the Tsung-li-Yamen or the local officials. They may also discuss and arrange the matter in the first instance with the local officials, eo as to avoid complications. The local officials, when applied to in such cases, must at once discuss and arrange the affair in an equitable and friendly manner. '5. The local officials must, ~s occasion arises, exhort and constrain the ordinary Chinese to look upon the converts as comrades, and not to pick quarrels with them. 'The Bishops and priests on their side mu,:t instruct the converts to lead blameless lives, and so preserve the good name of the religion and the respect and goodwill of the non-converts. 'Should lawsuits arise between converts and others, the local authorities must decide the same with impartiality. The priests must not interfere or favour their people. Thus it may be hoped that converts and people will live together on friendly terms. The same day the Imperial assent was given!" 14. (heat Britnin and China, 1902: The ;:1IacMu~ray, missionary question in China being, in the Treaties and f h Ch' G Agreements." op1n1on o t e inese overnment, one P 35! Art. XII requiring careful consideration, so that, if possible, troubles such as have occurred in the past may be averted in the future, Great, Britain agrees to join in a Commission to investigate this que~tion, and, if possible, to devise means for eecuring permanent peace between converts and non,converts, should such a Com mission be formed by China and the Treaty Powers interested.''

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58 Willoughby, "Foreign Rights." pp. 200--20J CHRIS'rIANITY rn 'l'HE rREA'l'iES 15. United States, 'l'1eaty of 190."J. At last, in 1903, in the Sino-American treaty of that year, an express treaty right was granted, not to individuals, but to Missionary Societies" to rent or lease in perpetuity lands and buildings for their missionary purposes in all parts of the Empire. Article XIV of that treaty, after repeating substantially the provision of Article XXJX of the Treaty of 1858, provides: "No restrictions shall be placed on Chinese joining Christian churches. Converts and non-convert!", being Chinese subjects, shall alike conform to the laws of China, and shall pay due respect to those in authority, living together in peace and amity; and the fact of being converts shall not protect them from the consequences of any offence they may have committed before or may commit after their admission into the church, or exempt them from paying legal taxes levied on Chinese subjects generally, except taxes levied and contributions for the support of religious customs and practices contrary to their faith. Missionaries shall not interfere with the exercise by the native authorities of their jurisdiction over Chinese subjects nor shall the native authorities make any distinction hetween converts and non-converts, but shall administer the laws without partiality so that both classes can live together in peace. II Missionary societies of the United States shall be permitted to rent and lease in perpetuity, as the property of such societies, buildings or lands in all parts of the Empire for missionary purposes, and, after the title deeds have been found in order and duly stamped by the local authorities to erect such suit.able buildings as may be required for carrying on their good work." 11 'The new stipulations,' says Hinckley, 'cover the principal missionary difficulties that have arisen since 1850 ... It will be observed that the right of missionaries to reside in the interior is not included in this treaty. The omission may be ascribed to the fact that the privilege has long existed, the only restrictions upon it being made

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CHRISTIANITY IN THE TREATIES 59 by the authorities in remote communities where friendliness may not yet have been manifested.' It may be further observed that the right regarding landholding is to lease in perpetuity and not to acquire a full title." MacMurray, 16. Frum the Twe'flty-one Demands presented p. J234, by Japan to Chinn, ,January 18, 1.915. (Japan-Group V ese Statement) "China to grant to Japanese Art. 7 subjects the right of preaching in China." Willoughby, "Foreign Rights." pp, 420-42J "With reference to the demand by Japan that Japanese hospitals, schools and temples might own land in the interior of China and that Japanese subjects should have the right to carry on religious propnganda in China, the Chinese Government in its 'Official History' rnid that this 'would, in the opinion of the Chinese Government, have presented grave obstacles to the consolidation of the friendly feeling subsisting between the two peoples. The religion of the two countries is identical and, thenfore, the need for a missionary propaganda to be carried on in China by Japanese does not exist. The natural rivalry between Chinese and Japanese followers of the same faith would tend to increase disputes and friction. Whereas Western missionaries live apart from the Chinese com munities among which they labor, Japenese monks would live with the Chinese, and the similarity of their physical characteristics, their religious garb, and their habits of life would 1endcr it impossible to distinguish them for purposes of affording the protection which the Japanese Government would require should be extended to them under the system of extraterritoriality now obtaining in China. Moreover, a general apprehension exists among the Chinese people that these peculiar conditions favoring conspiracies for political purposes might be taken advantage of by some unscrupulous Chinese.' 11 17. Swedish T1eaty, 1908: "The principles MacMu.rray, of the Christian religion as professed by the "T reahes and Agreements." Protestant and Roman Catholic churches, are pp. 745-746 recognized as teaching men to do good and to do to others as they would have others to do them.. Those who quietly profess and teach these doctrine~

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60 C'HRIS'l'TANTTY IN THE 'rFlEA'rTEs shall not be harassed or persecuted on account of their faith. Any person, whether Swedish subject or Chinese convert, who, according to these tenets, peaceably teaches and practises the principles of Christianity shall in no case be interfered with or molested therefor. No restrictions shall be placed on Chinese joining Christian churches. Converts and non-convert8, being Chinese subjects, shall ali!rn conform to the laws of China; and living togetherin peace and amity, shall pay due respect to those in authority. The fact of being a convert shall not protect a Chinese subject from the consequences of any offence he may have committed before or may commit after his admission into the church, or exempt him from paying legal taxes levied on Chinese subjects generally, except taxes and contributions levied for the support of religious customs and practices contrary to their faith. Missionaries shall not interferP. with the exercise by the native authorities of their jurisdiction over Chinese subjects; nor shall the native authorities make any distinction between converts and non-converts, but shall administer the laws without partiality so that both classes may live together in peace. '' Swedish missionary societies shall be permitted to rent and to lease in perpetuity, as the property of such societies, buildings or lands in all parts of the Empire for missionary purposes, and, after the title deeds have been found in order and duly stamped by the local authorities, to erect such suitable buildings as may be required for carrying on their good work." MacMurry, 18. Memmfrtl of the Minist?-y fo1' Ji'o1'eign "Treaties and Aff nirs, and Imperial Rescl'ipt, in 1egiird to the Agreements." Revision of th~ Procedure Gove1'n-ing Intercourse P n7 between the Local 0.fficicils rind Misi!fono1ies. March W, 1908. "A memorial was presented by the former .T:;mng Li Yamen, enclosing five articles on the subject of intercourse between the local officials and missionaries, which was approved by an imperial rescript, dated Kuang Hsu, 25th Year, 2nd Month, 5th day (March 16, 1899),

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C1I-IRlS'l'JANJ'l'Y IN THE 'ffiEATIES 61 "We would note that in the memorial it is stated that when the Archbishops or Bishops apply for an interview with the Viceroys, Governors, ProvinciaJ Judges, Taotais, Prefects, or District Magistrates, the said officials will treat with them according to their respective ranks. "At the time the memorial was presented the Tsung Li Yamen hoped that the procedure which they drew np to goveJ.'.n intercourse between the local officials and missionaries would be of benefit to the church. But the Bishops and others who are preaching the Gospel in China citn not be said to have official rank, and they certainly can not hold the same rank as Vicernys, Governors, and other officials. '' Of late the practice of the local officia.ls, based on treaty, in their relations with the missionaries, does not agree with the conditions which were prevalent at the time. the last regulations were drawn up. Furthermore, since the regulations in question were put into effect, the missionaries and others have constantly made use of the ceremonial customs and insignia of the local ofiicials, thereby causing misunderstandings among the stupid people, Such was certainly not the original intent of the regulations, and it is urgently necessary to draw up a procedure more in accord with present conditions. "We accordingly petition the Throne to cancel the memorial of the Tsung Li Yamen, In future the intercourse between the local officials and the missionaries should be carried on as before, in accordance with the treaties. When the Throne has approved this memorial, this hoard will communicate with the different provinces that they may issue instructions to have the memorial observed. "Reverently sn bmitted to Their Majestie:1, the Impress Dowager and the Emperor. "RESORIPT: Approved. Kuang :ij:su, 34th Year, 2nd Month, 10th day (March 12, 190S) 19. Chinese Jnipe_ri(t_l })diet for P1otect-ion of Miss-ions, October 1, 1917 .I 'I

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62 MacMurray, "Treaties and Agreements." p.,452 property. CHRISTIANITY IN THE TREATIFJS An Edict for the protection of m1<1s10ns in accordance with treaty provisions. It is the duty of all local officials to protect missionaries wherever founrl in China, in respect to their persons, lives, money and "In the last two or three years there have been cases in every province of the burning of the buildings belonging to missionary societies. No locality has been able to keep away from doing injmy to missionaries. we are greatly grieved at this. We are pushing inquiries as to the cause. A large part of the disagreement arising between the missionary societies and the common people is caused by the crookedness of the Yamen underlings. "In times past treaties have been concluded in which it is clearly stipulated that missionaries shall do their duty in preaching their doctrines. Those who practice those doctrines ehould not be oppressively treated nor oh8trncted. If, however, there arises any question coming under the jurisdiction of Chinese law, the local officials must conform to said law in that which they clo. The necessary distinctions are clearly shown. "Let the Viceroys and Governors of all the ProvinceR have printed all the clauses of the treaties concerned with missions and circulate them among their subordinates, to the end that they may be energetically explained to the people and observed by the officials. "The missionaries, on the other hand, must likewise observe treaty stipulations. The people, whet.her in or out of the mission societies arc alike our children and are all amenable to the country's law. So far as infraction of the laws and lawsuits are concerned all the people are on an equality. They shonld on no account be treated with any discrimination. Thus the laws will be respected. "Let it be known forthwith to the common people and to the members of the societies that the relations of each to the others must, accoding to their duty, be ju::t; the officials and their underlings must be upright in their jurisdiction. Let the people and the members of the (:locieties of th,eir own accord m~ke ~n enq of th,eir m,utu,al

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CHRIS'l'IANI'l'Y IN '.rHE 'l'REA'.l'IES 63 anger anrl jealousy. For guard should be taken against these occurrences and on signs of their appearance they should be prevented. '' If the local oflicial8 do not understand the treaty provisions, or if they are negligent or unjust in their administra.tion, or if they are pusillanimous and backward in their actions, then gradually serious trouble will arise. In that case these officials will be sought out and condignly punished. This Decree is for their warning." TI. Holding of Property by .llfissions. Willoughby, ',W. Landholding by Foreigners in China: "Foreign "By Article X[I of the Sino-British Treaty Rights." P J'J3 of 1858 it was provided that: British subjects, whether at the Ports or rtl othe1 2Jlcices, desiring to build or open houses, warehouses, churnhes, hospitals or burial grounds, shall make their agreement for land or buildings they require at the rnte8 prevailing among the people, equitably and without exaction on either side. "The italicized words "or at other places" the Briti8h have construed as meaning only places near the open ports. At times some trouble has arisen by reason of the reilistance of local authorities to the acquiring of lands by foreigners, missionaries and others, at places where they have had, under treaty, the right to acquire lands. In general it has been recognized by foreigners and especially by the missionaries, that deference should be paid to local objections that have any reasonable basis. At times the Chinese authorities have argued that the adequate grounds for refusing permission to a foreigner has been deemed an unreasonable one and as working a virtual nullification of the treaty right.'' 21. Modes of .Acqniring Titles to Real Eatate in Oh-ina: w "The formalities and modes of acqmrrng "Fdlou1.ghb,, titles to real estate bv foreigners were ore: gn l d 1 f l\'r. Rights.'' P J'JS. consH ere m a etter o American Hmster Denby in reply to a series of questions that

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64 CHRJS'l'JANI'l'Y IN 'l'HE TREATffiR had been propounded to him by the Treasurer of the Centn1l China Mission. (U.S. For. Rels. 1911, pp. 82-83), "From this letter we quote the following: 'British consuls issue title deeds only for land situated within the lirnits of British Concessions. All title deeds to property situated outside of these concessions are issued by the Chinese authorities. The consuls of the United States have no authority to issue title deedR to real estate in China. Printed forms of deeds with an English translation, such as are issued by the Taotai at Shanghai, are obtained at the consulate-general, but they a.re only ava.ila ble for property within the jurisdiction of the said Taotai.'" 22. Landholding in Jlfanchnria: "In South J'dlo~ghby, l\Janchnria the rights of foreigners with Foreign d t l d Rights." p. l96. regar to acqmrmg mteres s m an are broader territorially, that is, outside of the Treaty Ports, than they are in other portions of China. This is due to the Sino-Japanese treaty of Hl15, the pertinent provision of which reads as follows: 'Japanese i:'U bjects in South Manchuria may, by negotiation, lease land necessary for erecting 8uitable buildings for trade and manufacture or for prosecuting agricultural enterpriFies. 'Japanese subjects shall be free to reside and travel in South Manchuria and to engage in. business and manufacture of any kind whatsoever.' "These rights, by the favored nation principle have, of course, become available to the nationals of all the other Treaty Powers." Willoughby, "Foreign Rights." pp. J98-l99 23. Specinl P1i-vileges o.f Missionaries: The right generally of foreigners, to lease or acquire title to lands and buildings in China, has been treated in the preceding Section, and it here remains to discuss only the special and additional rights which missionaries possess or have been permitted to enjoy in China with reference to real estate.

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CHEIS'l'IANI'fY IN 'fHE '$EA'_J:'IES 65 "In the Chinese version of the French treaty of 1860 a.re to be found the words 'and it shall be lawful for French missionaries in any of the provinces to lease or buy land and build houses.' But these words are not found in the French text and, as it is expressly stipulated that the French text shall be the authoritative one, no claims have ever been founded upon the words in question. (The Chinese claim that the wqrds were surreptitiously introduced into the Chinese text.. ,Jur,,t how they came to have a place there has never been determined.)" 24. Smnmar.11 by Dr. Well-ington Koo of Willoughby, n1les govern:ing the hold-ina of propert11 by "Foreign Rights." p, 207 foreigners promulgated in 1911 by the Ohirie.se Ji'oreign Office, in consultation with the Legations in Peking: "(1) That property owners shall be free to sell their property and the missions desiring to buy shall not coerce them to sell; (2) that the missions shall, before purchasing any property consult the local officials and request them to make an official survey of the ground and ascertain the records; (3) that after the purchase is made, they shall apply to the authorities for a tax-deed; (4) that the property purchaioed shall always remain the property of the mission, and a tablet shall be erected to record its ownership; (5) that if the mission after purchasing a property should sell it to Chinese, they are prohibited clandestinely to sell it to foreigners; (6) that the local authorities shall forbid the purchase of property in all cases where the property is purchased in the name of a mission, but not to be used for the purposes of the mission, or where it is to be used for foreign merchants for trading purposes." III. Willoughby, "Foreign Rights." pp, 203-205 Status of Oh-inese Converts lo OhriBtianity, 25. "'fhe fogal status of Chinese con v1n-ts to Christianity iA a very simple one though it has, in practice, given rise to a great deal of controversy owing to attempts made by the converts to obtain for themselves special

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66 CHRIS'ftANl'rY nt 'rHE) 'fREA'l'iES protection or immunity from local law and authorities, and, at times, to a similar effort in their behalf upon the part of the foreign missionaries. "As a matter of treaty provision and of Chinese law, a convert to Christianity has no extraterritorial rights whaLsoever. He has exactly the same status and rights as his unconverted fellow nationals. He is, however, guaranteed immunity from discrimination or oppression by the Chinese authorities on account of his religion. And yet, as an almost unavoidable result of human nature, the missionaries have been led to interprnie in behalf of their converts. Morse puts this very well when he says: Morse, "The International Relations of the Chinese Empire." 26. 'With the reservation of the case of persecution most missionaries, certainly most Protestant missionaries, generally accept t.his position; but they cannot always be trusted to temper zeal with discretion and to distinguish what is right from what is lawful. In this lies an element of danger to the missionary and to his cause When the missionary, many miles from the observing eyes of his Consul, transfers a corner of his protecting cloak to his poor Chirn:80 convert, he mny be doing what is right, but it is not lawful; and this is the naked fact underlying many an episode leading to a riot. You cannot eradicate from a mis:'!ionary's mind the belief that a convert is entitled to jm:tice of a quality 8Uperior to that doled out to his unconverted brother; it could not be got out of your mind, or out of mine in a similar case. None of us could endure that a protege of ours should be hn.led away to a J-ilthy prison for a debt he did not owe, and kept there until he had satisfied, not perhaps the fictitious creditor, but at least his custodians who were responsible for his safekeeping. The case is particularly hard when the claim is not for a debt, but for a contribution to the upkeep of the village temple -the throne of heathendom -or of the recurring friendly village feasts held in connection with the temple -counterparts of Feast Da.y and Thanksgiving; and when conversion drives its subject to brE:>ak off all his family ties by refusing to

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CHRIS'J'IANI'l'Y IN THE TREA'l'IES 67 r,ontributc to the maintenance of family ancestral worship and the ancestral shrine, the hardship is felt on all sides by the missionary who cannot decline to support his weaker brother in his struggle against the snares of the devil; by the convert, who is divided between his allegiance to his new faith and the old beliefs which made all that was holy in his former life; by the family, who not only regard their recreant member as an apostate but arc also compelled to maintain the old worship with reduced as::.;essments from reduced members; and by the people and governors of the land, who may iind in such a Rituation a spark to initiate a great conflagration ... ... There are, however, two sides to this question. There are numerous cases, susceptible of proof to the man on the spot but of which it would be difficult to carry conviction to the minds of those at a distance, where the miflsionary undoubtedly intervenes to make capital for his mission and to secure for his followers some tangible aclvantnge from their acceptance of his propaganda. At the other extremity there is the manifest tendency, clearly recognized by all, even the most impartial, but quite incapable of legal demonstration, for the judges of the land in cases where the right is not obviously on one side or the other, to decide e.i; motu sua against the con \ert; ostensibly such decisions are given on as good legal grounds as any case in China is ever decided, but practically the underlying reason is the convert's religion -not the judge's antipathy to the religion itself, but his ingrained feeling that the convert has become less Chinese than the noncon vert .' Wiiioughby, "Foreign Rights.'' pp. 72-74 IV. Extratmitcriality 27. Disadvantages of the Extrat.mitoria.l System to Foreigners in China: To foreigners in China the extraterritorial system presents the following disadvantages: "In the first place, so long as it is maintained it remains practically impossible for the Chinese government ~o o:pen u:p the entire coQntry to trade, man1:1facti;uin~, ancl

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68 CHRISTIANITY IN THE TREATIES residence by the foreigner. It has been found barely feasible to permit missionaries to i:::cttle outside the treaty ports, and, in connection with their work, to engage in industry or trade tu a very small extent, but with regard to all others it is but nn,tural that the Chinese should be unwilling to permit them to establish residences and trading or manufacturing pln.nts away from the Tren.ty Ports as long as they are so largely exen1pted from the operation of the local laws and the jurisdiction of the local courts. This, then, is one of the heavy prices which the foreigner pays in return for the extraterritoriality which he enjoys in China. "In the second place, the extraterritorial system means a multiplicity of courts. Each nation is obliged to maintain tribunals for its own nationals at all of the Treaty Ports. "In the third place, the courts are presiiled over by officials who are not, for the mmit part, trainee{ in the law. This disadvantage is, of cour::;e, not a.bsolntely inherent in the system, but as a practical proposition, it i~ necessary to vest jurisdiction in the consuls, of. w horn it is not feasible to require that they should, before appointment, have become trained in the law and the science of its administration. Great Britain, by the establishment of the Supreme Court for China, and the United States, by the establishment of the United States Court for China, have partially corrected this evil, but only partially, for, after all, these tribunals are able to try only a comparatively small portion of the many cases adjuilicated in China in which British and American citizens are defendants. "Th G "Again, as we have seen, there is great mei/o ;::rndifficulty under the extraterritorial system in eigners in determining what, law shall be applied by the China." Law foreign courts. Finally, also, is the very QR. ua~terlyV 1 serious disadvantage flowing from the fact eview, o. h h 1 XIX (JCJ03) 316 t at t e extraterntor1a courts necess:u1 Y have only a personal jurisdiction, that is, c;>ver the :persons of the c]efendants: This defect is dwelt

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CHRISTIANITY IN 'fHE TREATIES 69 upon by Mr. Latter, from whose illuminating article we have earlier ha.cl occasion to quote. Ho sn.yR: 'In its administration of justice the system fails from two cau'ses: first, from the fact that jmitice is administered by consular, not judicial officers; secondly, from the inherent limitations of the extraterritorial court having merely personal jurisdiction. The British Court in China, for instance, has power only over British subjects in China. H is the sole tribunal in which cases against a British subject in China can be trieci, but it must be noticed its powers are limited to and extend only over that British subject. If, therefore, a Chinaman sues a British subject, the court has no control over that Chinaman. If he perjures himeelf the court cannot punish him, or again, it cannot commit him for contempt of court. The Chinaman can only be prosecuted or punished in a Chinese court and according to Chinese law, and it has been remarked that pcrjnry is to a Chinaman an offence as venial as punning to an Englishman. The only means that foreign courts have of obtaining control over a ChineHe plaintiff is to require him to make a deposit of money as security for costH ... From the same want of control over a plaintiff of another nationality arises another grave Haw in the extra.territorial system. If the defendant has no defence ngainst the plaintiff but has a counterclaim of eqnal or greater amount., the court cannot entertain the counterclaim, however obvious the validity of ihe counterclaim may be. The counterclaim is a claim against a man of anot.her nationality, and can be hea1d only in the court of that nationality, nnd tried according to the law of that nationality ... Another great weakness of the system, also arising from the fa.et that the jurisdiction of the foreign courts is entirely personal, appears in all questions relating to land ... Does the fact that a British subject owns land in China vest that land with all the characteristics of land in England ? It has been tacitly assumed that it does, and lawyers P-mploy the English form of conveyance in transferring land. Hut the assumption is contrary to the theory of English law, which is that the htw which ~ovenis land is the lex loc-i rei

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70 CHRIS'.l'IANITY IN THE 'l'REATIES sitae, that ir,, in this case, the law of China, and is completely at variance with a recent decision of the Privy Council on an appeal from the court of Zanzibar where a similar system of extraterritoriality prevails ... The fact is that the lawyers in Shanghai and other treaty ports in China do not really know what the law applicable to land held by British subjects and other foreigners really is.'

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PART II RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND ACTIVITY CHAPTER VI TRENDS IN CHINA'S RELIGIOUS LIFE Gilbert Reid Timely Book A valuable hook, dealing not only with the Christian movement in China hut with other religious movements, a.n,1 giving information applicable to present conditions, is "The Quest for God in China" by Rev. F. W.S.01N eill of the Irish Presbyterian l\[isbion in Manchuria. This book is based on lectures delivered by .Mr. O'Neill at the Belfast Theological College in 1925. "Anti" Movements During the last year foreign missionaries, as distinct from Chinese Christians, have experienced greater intensity of antagonism than in any other year for the la.st few decades of the missionary cause in China. If the antagonism is not greater than that of past yearf!, it has a.t least been more wide-Hpread and has pret:iented new at:ipectt:i of thought a.nd action ditlicult of approach on the part of the missionary body and the home societies. There has been a mixture of opposition that may be described as anti-Christian, anti-religious, anti-foreign, anti-imperialism and anti-capitalism. If the problems which have arisen are difficult of adjustment on the part of the foreign missionary, they are perhaps equally difficult for Christian Chinese, who on the one ha.nd desire to avoid separation from fellow-believers of other lands, and on the other hand desire a part in China's growing nationalism. Causes for Courage Many have been both perplexed and d isheartenetl by these new and varied forms of antagonism. Though there are "pro"

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72 CHINA)S RELIGiOUS LiJ!'E movements as well as "anti" movements, it is worth while to take note of the latter and thereby take courage in the spread of the kingdom of righteousness. If the forces arrayed against the foreign missionary are indeed great, past experience in the world development should prove convincingly that if one be renJly in the path of duty, thf., forces fighting for him under God's good favor are bound to conquer in the long run. "Where sin abounds, grace doth much more abound". Of the five "anti" movements cited above, there may, very legitimately, be no lessening of opposition to capitalism and imperialism; in fact this very opposition may work for the wider acceptance of Christianity as taught originally by Christ. The strength of the anti-foreign movement, or enmity to some particular foreign country, can be overcome by a cultivation of relations and duties which are mutual, reciprocal and cooperative. The first step on the part of the Chinese is to take the negative position of not being anti-foreign. To be pro-foreign a. positive attitude-lies far ahead, is more diflicult, and this step may never be taken. Foreigners also nave duties in cultivating friendliness to the Chinese, though not necessarily pro-Chinese. To create friendship between Chinese and foreigner,; is a worthy task for every foreigner living in China as well as for every Chinese. Pro-Christian and pro rdigious The other two "anti" movements, that which is anti-Christian and that which is anti-religious, are inter-related. To match them by opposite forces, one does well to consider not only the great Christian Movement in China, but other movements which tend to strengthen and vitalize a general religious sentiment, the spiritual training of personal character, and the moral reform of the government and of all natfonal life. The essential principles of these movements can often be traced back to Christianity. Cooperation between different branches of the Christian Church will of course become more an
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Four .non-Christian Rdigions CHINA'S RELIGIOUS LIFE 73 Besides the Christian religion China to-day has four religions, Confucianism, Taoism, Bnrldhism and Islam. Of these, two are indigenous and two are from abroad; the latter, however, are ceasing to be looked upon as foreign. There are four religions, but not four religious organizations. As an organized force no one of them is equal to the Church of Rome or even to the Protestant bodies as they become more and more unified, or to certain non-church movements like the Y. l\f. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. Whether the Chril:'tian should rejoice at the decadence or disappearance of the~e other religions, or should find pleasure at signs of vitality, will continue to divide the missionary body and also the Chinese Christian community, but whatever the opinion held, it is imp:1rtant to estimate aright the trend of these competing religions faiths, whether backward, forward or dormant. In general none of them as such have shown antagonism to Christianity. Status d No re.port comes from 3:ny part of. C~ina Confucianism cnncernmg efforts to revive Confuman1sm. Not only the political ideas are being discanled, but its underlying religious features have been eliminated in order to make Confncianism a mere system of ethics or a be:iutiful cult. What is regrettable is that its ethical ideal, as applied to the individual, to the family, to. society and to politic;,, is also disappearing. Confucianism, moreover, has under the republic failecl to organize itself, while under the monarchy, being a State Religion, it was a strong, compact organization, permeating t.he whole life of the country. A few years ago there was a movement to estabfoih Confucian Societies or Churches, but lately these have shown no special activity, zeal or even pride of traditioi1. Status of Taoism This other branch of China's ancient faith likewise appears indifferent to the future of its own existence and is content with simply retaining its priesthood ancl temple property. However, many of the Taoist priests stand high in spiritual qualities, though they are not propagandists.

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74 C!HJNA 's RELIGIOUS LIFF. Status of Buddhism Buddhism in its Mahayana form has shown great activity in China as in Japan. It is the one re.ligion that is competing with Christianity, just as in monarchical days Confucianism was the force to be reckoned with. It has adopted some of the methodsof the Christian Church, but in only a few places have the temples organized themselves into one Society. Still less is there a national organization. Each temple is a law unto itself; ecclesiastically it is of the Congregational order, except that the head priest, and not any congregation of :Buddhist adherents, exercises authority. Buddhism of late years has been gaining adherents at thP. great centres, like Peking, Na.nking, Shanghai, Hangchow and Hankow, and this more through the learned exposition of Buddhist philosophy than of religion. Scholarly writers and lecturers have been able to win over a large number of the official class. Where before it was respectable to be called a Confucianist, now it is respectable to be termed a Buddhist. One of the most able of these lecturers is Tai Hsi.i, President of the Buddhist College at Wuchang. For several weeks he gave daily lectures in a. tent erected in the Central Park of Peking. Another noted adherent has been Judge Mei of Tsinan, who unfortunately was executed for his political views towards the f'nd of 1925 by order of General Chang Tsung-chang. New literature iR being constantly produced and is widely circulated. l\fany of the old standard books have been collected into a library in Shanghai by Mr. S. A. Ifardoon. A feature of Buddhism that has always existed is meditation. Last summer a retreat" was held at the home of a prominent Chinese merchant in Shanghai. An Ji:ast-Asian Buddhist Conference took place in Tokyo. Buddhism has thus adopted the preaching-hall idea of Christians, while retaining the "silence" method inherent in both Buddhism and Taoism. Panshen Lama of Tibet Buddhism as found in Tibet is of both the Southern and Northern schools but lacks intellectuality. During the last year it has secured renewed interest among the Chinese and especially Mongols by the visit to Peking of the 'fashi

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CHINA'S REL!<+IOOS LJJiJi] 75 Lama or, as better known, Panshen Lama. Through a special committee of the International Institute it was made possible for him to come in contact with adherents of nine religions on Easter Sunday, when over a thousand persons of every nationality had audience with him in one of the palace courts of the Presidential Palace and joined in a religious song service. Here was presented a striking contrast to the exclusive spirit of Tibet as known through its long history. The Buddhism as practised by ignorant Lamas is of a very different type from that which is now spreading among educated Chinese. The Chief Executive, Tuan Chi-jui, is one of the new adherents of Buddhism, and associated with him is the convert to Christianity, General ll'eng Yu-hsiang. Buddhism in its revived form is tolerant to other religions, though standing aloof from those who are zealous and iconoclastic. M" t th An example of mutual toleration, sympathy B~ddhfsts0 e and respect is that of the Mission to Buddhists carried on in Nanking by a Norwegian missionary, Rev. Karl Reichelt. He left last year on a brief furlough, but the work continues in the care of others until his own return during the present year. The Moslems in China, like the Buddhists, Islam have no national organization, but by custom and tradition they are a compact body by themselves and are zealous for the faith. A minority arc inclined to be liberal towards Christianity, more than to Buddhists and Taoists, who are looked upon as idol-worshippers. This lib,wal spirit during the last year has been counterbalanced by a new form of exclnsivenes;a, which is more political than religious. As the Republic and its flag represent a union of five races, of which the followers of Mohammed are one, the idea has sprung up in different quarters of insisting on a larger representation in the political affairs of the country. Many mosques are establishing schools for Western education as well as for study of the Koran. Christian and Mohammedan Generals Associated with the Christian general, ll'eng Yu-hsiang, in the development of the northwest, ii; the .Mohammedan general from Kansuh, Mah ll'u-hsiang. It is reported

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76 CH!NA's UELlc+IOUS Lll<'E that some of the more const>rvative Moslems of Kansnh resent the rule of the province being placed in the hands of Christians, but thus far the opposition has been nullified by the successful management of Christian administrators. In this connection it is noticeable that the Christian propaganda is carried on within the army and not outside, C f f The more tolerant attitude of Christians on zrences o 1 h 1 d f h h All Religions towarc, ot er re 1g10111sts, an o t ese ot er religionists to each other and to Christians, has no doubt been furthered by conferences of all religions -a permanent Parliament of Religions-as conducted for some twenty ye:~rs by the International hrntitute of China. Several important meetings of this kind have been held in Peking during the year, and a strong Committee has been formed of which persons from eight religions and four religions societies are members, and General Chiang Shao-tsung and Rev. Dr. George D. Wilder are joint chairmen. Probably only a minority of the Christian missionaries look with favor on this liberal mowment, though they agree that it is right to be friends to all, whatever one's form of religion. Several of the societies newly established by the Chinese for the furtherance of morals and religion adrnowledge their indebtedness to these conferences of the International Institute, just as many Christian i,leaR and methods have been drafted into Buddhism. Th us it is that the religious life of the Chinese cannot be limited to any one of hP.r several religions. For centuries and still more to-cla.y they have been eclectic or syncretic, first as to China's three religions and now, as more commonly called, of five religions. As in India there are several reforming Mo~a~ and movements called Samaj, so in China ReI1gmus .1 ll d H Groups Among s11111 ar movements are ea e a m, or a the Chinese Sheh, or a Yuan. There is, however, a difference. In India the,;e societies deal with Hindooism; in China, with Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and to a lesser degree with falam and Christianity. In the China .Mission Year Book for 1924 I made reference to nine of these Societies. Only three of them

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11 cie1:,1erve notice at this time. No new associations have been formed and nothing has been done to counteract directly the anti-Christian movement. The attitude of those we mention is more sympathetic to Christianity than to the agitation in opposition. For this reason, if for no other, Christians would do well to come into contact with such movements and to join with them in those activitie8 that are common to all who are seekers after the truth. The Two Most Active Societies Dnring the yca.r the Tao Yuan or lthical Society (Mr. O'Neill calls it the Open Court) ha.s been very energetic in propagating its principle,: a.nd practices, a.nd next in zeal comes the Wu Shan She or Association for Advancing Righteousness. New Nam?s Thef:le two Societies have latterly made use of a new name which strikes the popular taste. The Tao Yuan has made use of the term, Shih Chieh Hung Wan T1:,1ze Hui (ii!: JR. !.r $ 't't) or the Universal Red Swastika Society. This is an outgrow~h of the Tao Yuan, just as the Red Cross Society is an outgrowth of the Christian Church. One may attach himself to the Swastika SocieLy or the Red Cross Society without binding himself to the tenets of the originating source. The Swastika Society is modelled after the Red Cross Society, and has provided relief for the wounded in war, and for those suffering from flood and famine. By such humanitarian activities the Tao Yuan has been popularized. Members of the Tao Yuan use the Chinese form of the planchette, and believe in messages received from the spirit world; members of the Swastika Society may or may not resort to spiritual communications. This Swastika movement represents the essential idea of the Tao Yuan, namely, cultivation of the inner life and its cutward expression. The Wn Shan Sheh has also adopted a new termino logy, namely, The New Religion of \V orld Salvation (~ -flt Jlfr ;x). In attractive style it has is,,111eci two volumes expounding this new Faith. One volume deals with the significance of the New Salvation Religion, and the other

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its principles and laws. It is called "new reiigion '' because it comes from each of the founders of the Five Great Religions. It h; called "worlrl salvation", becausr each of these religions, especially Christianity, has world salvation as its chief aim. Here, then, i~ a body of men who through the idea of salvation are favorably disposed to Christianity. Pm;sessed with such an idea the members of the Wu Shan She, like the Tao Yuan, find their delight in deeds of mercy. U i f F These two Societies recognize the Five non o ive l' 1 C f 'J' B ddh" Religions se 1g10ns, on ucra111sm, a.01sm, u ism, Islam and Christianity. Other religions are not included as they do not concern the Chinese. Perhaps it is a more accurate statement to say that they recognize the founders of these religions rather than these religions as now organized. They go back to the original source. When I came to China forty odd years ago, the Christian Church was looked upon as inferior to others, especially to Confucianism. Moreover, to mention the name of .Jesus was to dispel an audience. In these new organizations Christianit.y is given an equal place with the older religions of China, and Jesus (which is the. term used more often than Christ) is held in the same respect, as a teacher of spiritual truth, as Confuciu~, Lao Tsze, Sakyanrnni, and Mohammed. It is also interesting to note that the members of these societies a.re familiar with the Bible and the life and teachings of Christ. Their view-point is very different from the anti-Christian agitation. Th S These two Societies trace every thing hack e upreme th F" t C f 1 A Being to e 1rs ause or Jnmeva ncestor (~ iiill.) who is the True Lord or God of Islam and Christianity. The impelling messages from the spirit world are His mandates. Associated with Him is Lii Tsu (g iiill.), one of the eight Taoist Immortals. The Wu Shan She more than the Tao Yuan accords him a high place among the divinities, much like the founders of the Five Religions. Spiritualism Spiritual messages, through use of the planchette, come only from God and these

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CHINA'S RELIGIOUS LIFE 79 predominant spirits of the ages. Their instructions are not concerning doings among the departed, but as to our duty here on earth and the confirmation of truth. No doubt the essential principles of these societies are given a secondary place ''"hile the daily mysterious unfoldings of the planchette hold sway over the mind. So too often minor features of Christianity put in the background the e8f:'ential teachings of Christ. The governor of Shansi, viewing the planchette a8 a supersti t,ion, pla~ed prohibition on the Tao Yuan. This Society was the fhst to be established Th~ Unive~sal a.mong the Chinese. It received its first Ethical Society ir; lllil mm ft impetus from a young prodigy, Ch:ang .Hsi-chang, formerly called Chia.ng Shen T nng (tc iiill' Ji:} or Chiang the inspired or spiritual youth. The prodigy has ceased to be such, ancl continues his ,.itudy of English in Peking. Useful books are being widely distributed,. and dnriug the year this young man and Kang Yu-wei have lectured over the country. This society has taken a leading part in the Confucian rites at Chii-fu, birth-place of Confucius. Like the two Societies mentionecl above it views all the establiPhed religions in a l:'yncretic spirit. Chistianity is discussed with reverence. AC t In estimating the good which foreigners ompara ive Ch' I Estimate have brought to ma, one must a so estimate evil influences from abroa.d. In estimating the progress of Christian missiorn;, one must also eRtimate the strength of counter forces. So a correct judgment concerning the trends of China's religions life can only be formed by taking into consideration the non-religious and unreligious life of the Chinese. Taking such a comparative view, I am inclined to think that among the grown-ups the religious sentiment prevails, while among the student class materialism and agnosticism outstrip the belief in God, immortality and the need of divine salvation. The task before the Christian teacher is thus a \iifficnlt and double. one.

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CHAPTER VII THE PRESENT CHINESE ATTITUDE TOW ARDS CHRISTIANITY Y. K. Woo To do one's work successfully and ef-ficiently one must take pains to study the attitude as well as the actual needs of those for whom the work is intended. Christians shoukl seek to know the present attitude of the Chinese toward Christianity, not only that they may do better work among the Chinese, but that they may bring to light some of the undesirable conditions for which Christianity is either wholly or partin.lly responsible, and that they may strive through self-examination and self-renovation to remedy these conditions. To approach the subject from the negative side, the following attitudes of mind seem to stancl out very clearly among the Chinese. 8ome of these may be caused by misconception or misunderstandings on t.heir pa.rt, :mcl their position, therefore, may be quite indefensible from the scientific standpoint; but they are a present fact neverthe less. They are (1) the antagonistic attitude, (2) the attitude of contempt, (3) the critical attitude, and (4) the attitude of indifference. The Antagonistic Attitude This attitude characterizes those of the nationalistic school. 'rhose of this school used to be rather friencUy toward Christianity-at least they. were tolerant. They had a vague idea that somehow Christianity could be made one of the means to help China. With the dawn of a new national consciousness in them, however, they begin to wonder whether Christianity is 1eally what they once thought it was. They are puzzled to know why China is getting weaker and weaker every day in spite of the growth in the number of Chrii:tians in the

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CHINESE AT'fl'l'UDE 'fOWARDS CHRIS'fIANI'fY 81 country. In the face of fo1eign aggression and foreign military display they are full of doubt concerning the doctrine of love preached by Christians; they suspect that the Christian teachings of the Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of men are simply means employed by the "Christian Powers to fool weaker nations, so that the latter may fall an ea,iy prey to their. exploitation. They Ree t.liat ,Japlm has been "wise enough not to fall under the weakening influence of Christianity," and that to-day Rhe is ranked as one of the leading powers in the world. They claim that China, must maintain her own and do away with all Christian influences before s];ie can emerge as a great nation. Christian education must be stopped; Christian propaganda must be checked; even Christian philanthropies must be accepted with the greatest precau tion and reserve. There are others taking the same attitude, notably those representing one wing of the communistic school. Their ground of opposition to Christianity is its alleged crime of imperialism. 'l'hey are at one with the nationalistic group in adopting an attitude of open antagonism toward Christianity. This is the attitude assumed by the philoJ1c0~~;!~e sophically minded skeptics and thn eminent Chinese scholars who highly esteem the system of thought in ethics and its accomplishments in Chinese civilization. Men of this type bPlieve that Christianity is crude in thinking, superstitious in form, artificial in method and barren in result, and is therefore not worth their study and attention. At times they cite certain accounts in the Bible, or certain ideas in Christian thinking, and deride them with all the philosophical weapons at their disposal. Inasmuch as Christianity in China has produced but a few or no notable Chinese scholars, and since the rank and file of Christians are mostly intellectually mediocre people, they conclude that Christianity at best cannot satisfy the refined and highly educated mind. When they see Christians as individuals, and the Christian Church as an organization, do things contrary to the teach ings they profess to believe, their disgust for Christianity becomes absolute. True, their opposition to Christianity

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82 CHINESE ATTITUDE TOW ARDS C!ERISTIANI'rY is not an aggressive one; but Christianity in their eyes is shorn of all meaning and signilicance in human lives. The Critical This is also called the scientific attitude, or Attitude the attitude of doubt. The modern educated stucients represent this type. They have learned from other countries that the source of power is the knowledge of science and its application. They be come convinced, through contact with leading educators and prominent thinkers from the West, that the great thing in life is knowledge and its attainment. They literally worship science and whatever cannot be proved in a scientific way they do not hesitate to reject. They find there are many things in Christianity that cannot be so proved. Hence they claim that their rejection of Christianity is not because of any prejudice on their part, but because of the irrational nature of Christian doctrinP.s and beliefs. When told that thmie holding modern con ceptions of Christianity can endorse most of their ideas about reHgion and their demands on Christianity, they find it difficult to believe. For the Christianity they eee preached from most of tl1e pulpits does not support such a claim. They conclude, therefore, that most of the so-called modern cnceptions of Christianity are nothing more than what faithful Christian followers choose to read into it, and that these are very different from the concrete ex presRions of Christianity seen in many of the Churches. In other words the main difficulty they find with Christianity, they claim, is the irrational nature of Christian beliefs and teachings. Their doubts as to the origin and efficacy of Christianity therefore remain unshaken and unshakable. Th Att't d f This is the attitude assumed by the overe iueo hl" .. l f Ch"" Indifference w e mmg maJor1ty not on yo non-r1st1ans but also of Christians. Such people would leave Christianity as it is, not caring to bother themselves with either accepting or rejecting it. They think Christianity is uninteresting and of no concern. Sometimes they may run across Christian things; but these things do not leave much impression on them. Is it because they are too worldly and too much absorbed in other things that

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cntNESE AT'ri'l'UDE TOW ARDS CHRIS'riAN1TY 83 they are absolutely dea.d to things Christian, or that Christianitv has become so unattractive and lifeless that it can not ar~use and win their attention'? This is a question Chri1:,tians should answer for themselves. ::-peaking from the positive side the following few points may be mentioned as typieal attitudes of the Chinese toward Christianity. Thero are (1) the attitude of relative rc:opeet, (2) the expectant attitude, (3) the attitude of cooperation and (4) the reformative attitude. The Attitude of Relative Respect This kind of attitude is quite general among well-meaning Chinese. They believe that Christianity, like all other religions, has as its aim and purpose the making of better men. After all that may be said against it, the underlying motive of Christianity, they hold, must be respected. Although they prefer to remain non-Christiam, yet the attitude they ,;how is truly characteri8tic of the spirit of tolerance and broad-mindedne;;s of the Chinese as a pP-ople. Th E t t China has been suffering internally from e xpec an f l b l ld l' Attitude a1n111e, p ague, anc its, so iers, po 1t1cians, poverty and ignorance, and externally from the oppre;;sions and exploitations of foreign Powers. Where can we find the cure for such ills, many of the suffering people naturally inquire. They have tried various methods, but lmve not met with much success. They begin to surmise that Christianity can perhaps achieve better re~ults in allaying their sufferings if it is earnestly practised. So in their despair they turn to Christianity for something better. They have no definite idea as to how Cbristianity shall achieve it; nor do they care to know it. Such an attitude is after all not wholesome, even for Christianity. The Attitude of S_ince the .birth of the Republic a new Cooperation soc1-0.l conscrnusness has been a wakened among thinking Chinese. Some of these are quite influential. They have organized themselves in different ways to better the existing social order. They find one of the important forces in this undertaking i8 the

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84 dHiNESE A'.l.".ri.rVDE TOW ARDS dHRtStIANi'.rY Christian Church and other Christian organizations. So they are quite willing to cooperate with Christianity in matters of this kind. One needs to ask here, what should be the attitude of Christians towards such cooperation? Th R f Of all the attitudes this attitude is by far e e orma-tl 'l'h b h h tive Attitude rn most important. e num er w o s are this attitude may be quite limited, but scattered over all the churches in the country like brilliant stars on a dark night, they are destined to mould the whole fabric of Christianity and of the Christian Chureh in China in the future. They are in perfect accord with George Santayana, who says in his book entitled, "Reason in Religion," The Life of Reason is the seat of all ultimate values, to which every thirig in the world should be subordinated." He states further, "The Life of Reason makes right eternally different from wrong. Religion does the same thing. It makes absolute moral decisions." In the light of this conviction they holrl that many of the Christian beliefs and practices need to be revised, but they believe at the same time that the fundamental Chrbtian truth has a permanent and vit,al contribution to make towards the up-building of the Kingdom of God in t.he lives of men. This attitude is even shared by not a few of the broadminded non-Christian thinkers. Their attitude in a way is similar to the critical attitude in that they give due emphasis to reason even in t.he realm of religious faith. But they differ with the critics in that they care for and show real interest in Christianity. In the belief that Christianity, including all its conceptions of God and ideals for men, is a religion of progress in the course of time, they are devoutly and energetically working for a new chapter in the Christian history of China. The above observations though they are quite inadequate in their presentaLion, and are by no means exhaustive and complete, represent fairly WP.11 the general attitude of the Chinese towards Christianity. Bearing in mind these different attitudes of the Chinese people, what c:m be the future of Christianity in China? This depends very largely upon how thoroughly and how promptly

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CI-Il:NESE A'l"rtTtJDE TOW ARDS CHR1ST1ANi'rY 85 Christianity readjusts itself in its mode of thinking and program of work to cope with the new situation. Some of these attitudes do seem unfavorable to Christianity on the surface, but if we can meet them in the proper way, not only will Christianity itself make a great forward move in thinking and action, but we shall eventually win the friendship of many even of the distinctly antagonistic elements. Is this not reasonable for us to expect of Christianity if Christ.ianity is to become a growing force in the lives of the Chinese and to yield rich and permanent fruitage in the Chinese soil?

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CHAPTER VIII CHINESE C!iRISTIAN UNIONS Z. K. Zia One of the most impressive of the many things that happened in 1925 is the rapid rise of Chinese Christian Unions. Whether or not they performed valuable services I am not prepared to say. Immediately after May 30th, 1925, a handful Origin of Christians in Shanghai organized the first so-called Chinese Christian Union. The organizers were leaders of different denominations. The first general meeting was held in the Cantonese Church. Soon aft.er the organization of the Union in Shanghai a few Christians at Harbin organized a second Union of the same nature. Within a very short time that Union sent a large sum of $2000 to Shanghai as a contribution. A few days later Chinese Christain Unions sprang up far and wide like wild-fire. The Christian Union at Shanghai received announcements and bills from about sixty different places where Chinese Christian Unions were organized. Some of these Unions were formed simply to voice their sentiment against the wrong done to Chinese students and laborers on 1\fay 30th, others were organized for more lasting purposes. It is bold on my part to attempt to point Aims out a single motive as the aim of the various Unions, for there is no one aim commonly agreed upon. li'or some Chinese Christians, out of a sense of shame and humiliation, organized themselves into a Union through which they might express themselves. Others, out of a sense of self-respect and self-reliance sought to pull together to build up a Chinese Church.

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CHINESE CHRISTIAN UNIONS 87 For still others, after failing to induce missionaries to be interested in things that are not directly concerned with the Bible, they proceeded to do what they believed they should do, according to the dictate of their conscience and not according to the dictate of the missionary policy tenaciously held in far away foreign lands. Maybe there were still others who organized Christian Unions to show ihe anti-Christian agitators what the Chinese Christians conld do. Some of the motives were worthy, others may not have been so. It seems to me that the organization of Christian Unions this time was no doubt prompted by the shooting incident in Shanghai on May 30th. If that was the case, I may conclude that these Unions were organized for the purpose of expressing the thoughts of Chinese Christians rather than for establishing permanently an indigenous Church. O iz t There is no central office to correlate the rga11 a 1011s t U 'l'h d six y or more mons. ere 1s no recor of their activities except through occasional reports in Christian periodicals. A few places like Kaifeng, Canton, Wenchow, etc., where the Chinese Christians meant to establish their own churches, may still work hard to hold themselves together and to see their aims realized. Most of these Unions, though still in existence, function bnt little. Centers like Peking, Nan king, etc. are continually pouring out weeklies and bi-weeklies advocating the abolition of unequa.l treaties and the establishment of justice and equality amongst nations, but these papers are probably not under the auspices of the Chinese Christian Unions. The Shanghai Chinese Christian Union is also failing. Attempts have been made to organize a Central Union for the entire nation, but leadership was seemingly lacking. Mistakes may have been niade by the Future Christian Unions, but there is still a great future before them. Their belief that Christianity in order to take hold of China must be guided by the Chinese themselves is correct. Their insistence on the application of Christ's principles to individuals as well as

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88 CHINESE CHRISTIAN UNIONS to national and international affairs has the sympathy of genuine Christians all over the world. Their cry and proteRt may have been considered childish a.nd inaccurate. It came from the bottom of their hearts nevertheless. It may therefore stimulate their hearers as well as themselves to do nobler and juster things.

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CHAPTER IX THE GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH IN CHINA Y. Y. Tsu Early History During the Yuan (Mongol) Dyna8ty, when there was close relationship between China and eastern ll:urope, numerous Russians, including priests of the Greek church, were to be found in Mongolia and China.. But after the fall of that Dynasty little mention was found in hi8torica.l works about Russians in China. In 1685 the Manchus captured a fortified settlement of Rus8ia.ns at Albazin on the Amur, and 25 captives (45 according to another account) were sent to Peking. It was the custom of the l\:Ianch u government to make use of war captives of foreign nationality as members of the Imperial Guard, and these Rns1,ians were incorporated in the Guard and through inter-marriage became in time indistinguishable from other Manchus. The captive, settled in the north-east corner of the Tartar City. With them a priest Vassily Leontyeff (or Maximus Leontieff) came with ikons and images to minister to their spiritual welfare. A Buddhist temple was transformed into a church and dedicated to 8aint, Nicholas. Albazine D~scendants In 1871 descendants of these ancient Albazines numbered 120 members in 23 families, They still formed a separate bodyguard of the Imperial Palace, but in appearance and speech were indistinguishable from other Manchus. Since the establishment of the Republic, they have shared the fate of thel\ianchns,many of them being reduced to poverty. Some of them are still faithful to the Church, but many have lost thernselve,:; in the beliefs of the country. At present about 50 people in Peking are definitely known to be descendants of the Albazines, some have moved to Harbin and other places along the Manchurian-Siberian

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90 GREEi{ OR'l'HODOX CHURdl-1 border, and many are unknown. One of the two priests connected with the Mission in Peking is of Albazine descent. Frmu him we learned that there were five family names among the 25 t)riginal captives, Romanoff, Dubinoff, Yakovleff, Lopatin and Habaroff, and these were transformed into Chinese family names, respectively, Lo, (!ft), Tu (*-!:), Yao (!!!), Lo (m}, and Ho Ck), which have existed to this day. In 1908 some Russian scientists came to China and took anthropometric measurements of the Albazine descendants and found many anatomical peculiarities which differentiate them from other Chinese, although superficially they look alike. Russia House In 1698 tlrn first embassy S<'nt by Russia to China arrived in Peking and was lodged in what was known as Nan-kwan (the South Hostel) or "Russia House" at China's expense. This was the place reserved by China for Russian travelers, traders and missioners, and was called the Nan-kwan (South Hostel) to distinguish it from the other Russian settlement in the north-east corner of the Tartar city known as Pei-kwan (North Hostel). The Nan-lcwan occupied n, part of the present Russian Legation. In 1716 when an ecclesiastical mission arrived, Nan-kwan was converted into a convent for their use. In 1727 a. chapel was built at the expense of the Chinese Government there ancl consecrated in 1732 as the Chapel of "Purification of Mary". Following the Treaty of Tientsin in 1858, the Nan-kwan was taken over by the Russian Foreign Office and entirely rebuilt, but the old chapel remained and it etill stands in the 8oviet Embassy though not used. T at f Up to the Treaty of Tientsin the Russian Tr!nt~; J858 Mission was politico-ecclesiastical. The missions, though ecclesiastical and headed by clericals, were sent out by and represented the Government of Russia. Their maintenance in Peking was provided for by the Chinese government, amounting legally to 1,000 silver rubles and 9,000 catties of rice annually and 600 silver rubles for clothing every three years.

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GREEK OR'l'HODOX CHURCH 91 After the Treaty of Tientsin the political and ecclesia.stical interests were separated, the Russian Foreign Oflice taking over the former and the Holy Synod the latter. The Nan-kwan became the headquarters of the political officers and the Pei-kwan of the ecclesiastical. Later The year 1858 may therefore conveniently Development be regarded as closing the first period of the history of the Greek Orthodox Church in China. It began as a church for war captives, grew with the increase of the Russian population in Peking and north China, was looked upon as a state church, officiaJly representative of the Home Government, and was not active in missionary work among the Chinese people. At the end of the tirst 150 years there were said to be only 200 Chinese Christians, including descendants of the ancient Albazines. The next forty years (1860-1900), after the Church was free of its political duties and connections, was marked by religious and literary activities, :mch as the translation of the Bible, the use of the Chinese language in religious services, which hitherto had been entirely in Slavonic, the compiling of the Chinese-Russian Dictionary and evangelistic work in and around Peking. A flourishing mission stat.ion was established at Tung Ting An about 100 li east of Peking in 1863, which had 75 members in 1871. In 1870 two schools for boys and girls were opened in Peking. 500 Christians were reported for Peking in 1871; from 10-40 new adherents joined the Church every year. The Boxer The nor~h city ecclesiastical establishment Uprising J900 was practwally destroyed by the Boxers. The burning of the fine Chinese and Russian library. was an irretrievable loss. The Mission was soon afterwards rebuilt, and with the consecration of Archimandrite Innocent as the first Bishop in China a new era began. Archimandrite Innocent arrived in China in 1897 and started a vigorous programme of church and missionary work, such as introduction of the monii.stery, starting

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92 GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH business enterprises for the relief of the poor Albazine descendants, senrling preachers into the surrounding country, etc. He was made bishop in 1902 with authority over all churches along the Chinese Eastern Railway, a distance of 3,000 miles. For the next fifteen yea.rs, until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Greek Orthodox Church in China grew in strength and prosperity. In 1916, BiE,hop InnocPnt reported for China a total of 32 mission churches, 17 boys' schools, 3 girls' schools, 1 theological seminary hi Peking, 583 baptisms in HJ15, and 5,587 baptized Chinese members. In Peking there were maintained a meteorological station, a large printing press, a steam Hour mill, a dairy and other thriving tradeK. Bishop Innocent is now above 60 years old, a towering giant in physique and powerfully built. In ecclesiastical administration he is assisted by Bishop Simon who was consecrated three years ago. Aftet the Bolshevik Revolution Like the Home Church in Russia, the Russian Orthodox: Mission in China since the success of the Bolshevik Revolution has fallen on eyiJ days. Except a little printing work and a dairy, all the other enterprises of the Pc-king Mission have ceased, such as the schools, the Hour mill, the soap factory, etc. The Theological Seminary is al~o closed. The Monastery is turned into a dormitory for "White" refugees. Daily services are maintained in one of the three chapels. Work in other parts of China, except in cities like Tientsin, Hankow and Shanghai, where there are large colonies of White Russians, has like,vise been closed down. Of the 5,000 and more Chinese members, no effort is made to keep in touch 'ivith them. The Chinese priest who acted as interpreter fot me said that many of them have fallen away from the church, like seed that grew rapidly bnt could not enciure persecution as described in one of Christ'r,; parables. About 300 members are still attached to the Church in Peking. 'fhe Peking Mission is now supported by the rental of the buildings it owns. As described by Bishop Simon, they used to make budgets, but not now: they get what they can 1:1,nd s:pencl whQ.t they have,

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GREEK OR'l'HODOX CHURCH 93 In reply to a question about the future of Its Future the Russian Orthodox Mission in China, the Bishop f'aid, "Its fate does not rest with itself alone; it will rise or fall with the Gl'
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PART III CHURCH LIFE AND ACTIVITIES CHAPTER X COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES IN CHINA IN J925 Eugene E. Barnett Christianity Friendly Chinese ob~ervers have told us and Activities frequently of late that. Christianity has so far impreBsed China primarily as a Movement of Activities. l\Ieetings, schools, hoBpitals, churches, conferences, social service -it ii; in snch terms as these that China sees Christianity. What do all these activities mean? Whence do they spring? What are they aiming at? We may dismiss as frivolous Bertrand Russell's cynical charge that all our missionary zeal ":'lprings from a super-flex of the itch of activity," but we sr.ould not ignore the fact that our program of rnultifariouR activities is but dimly understood even by many Christians, and that it is grievously misunderstood by niany nonChristians, never more so than now. Diversity of Agencies The problem of how to give unity and meaning to the varied activities of Christianity m China is a complicated one. Involved in it is the problem of unifying, or nt least correlating, the many Christian agencies at work in the country. One hundred and forty different bodies had to be taken into account in alloting representation in the National Christian Conference of 1922. Most of the divisions thus represented are importations from the West, and in many cases the causes which brought them into being have long since been forgotten even in the lands of their birth, save by the church historian, Whatever lingering

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dOOPERA'1'1VE dHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES 95 meaning adheres to them in the West is due largely to social and traditional factors which cannot be transferred to China. For many Christian and non-Christian Chinese, therefore, they serve mainly to emphasize the disunit,v of Western Christians. For the adherents of a religion which is seeking through world-wide missionary endeavor to unify mankind into one Family of God, to continue themselves to be so grPatly divided, is indeed a puzzling and disheartening fact,. Unity in Diversity One should hasten to say, however, that generally speaki11g sectarianiem hi not popular within the Christian Movement in China. Many missionaries and Chineee Christians would gladly see their ,l,mominational groups merged into the larger unity of a Chinese Christian Church. The translation of such desires into concrete realit.y is, however, a baffling undertaking, beset by all sorts of difficulties. It seems likely, therefore, that whatever unity is to be achieved among the Christian forces of China must for some time to come be for the most pa.rt unity in diversity. The purpose of this article is to point out some of the many ways in which a divided Christianity in China contrives in obedience, to its deeper irn,tincts, to live and work together. O i U While federation is the most common form rgan c 11rn11 f C} t" "t Cl h in Kwangtu11g o cooperative iris 1an aet1v1 Y m una., t e past year has witnessed notable instances of growth in organic union. Most important of thc::;e may be mentione<1 the developments which have ta.ken place in K wangtung in the Church of Christ in China, and in the move toward th~ coming together of Presbyterian and kindred churches in a united body, also to be known as the Church of Christ in China. The Kwangtung Divisional Council of the Church of ChriHt in China was organized eight years a.go, uniting seven mission churches. On November 24, 1924, the Inter-Missions Committee, the official representative of the miFsions in matters relating to the nnited church, recommended to t.hat Church (1) the organization of a Board of Home Missions which should administer the funds contributed by the missions

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96 COOPERATtVE CHRtSTIAN ACTtvrrn:s for evangelistic nnd day school work and (2) that missionaries should work under the Church of Christ in China 'on exactly the same ecclesiastical basis as Chineee Christians.'" JBarly in 1925 the educational leaders proposed that this Church organize also a Board of Education to have general administration of the educational work hitherto carried on directly by the missions. It was proposed that the medical work of the Church also be cared for in a similar way. The initiative in all these proposals was taken by the mi:::isionaries. l\leanwhile events were transpiring which convinced the Chinese Church that it must take prompt steps toward undertaking the larger responsibilities placed before it. These events culminated in the incidents of May and June, which placed the Christian l\f ovement of China under deep suspicion because of its Western connections, and threatened to alienate large masses of the people from it. In October twenty-one Chinese and missionary leaders came together for a three days' retreat to give prayerful consideration to the momentous proposals before them, It was not until DecembeT 16, howevPr, t.hat official action was taken by the executive body of the Church formally accr.pting the recommendations mentioned above. The close <)f the year found the Kwangtung Division of the United Church of Christ in China committed to its new policy. No branch of the Christian Church in China has done such advancccl and constructive thinking into the problems of administration in a fully autonomous, united Church, in which provision is made for the full use of contributions in men and money made by sister eh nrches of the West. Sixteen Churches Become One Meanwhile the required two-thirds of the Presbyteries of the Presbyterian Church have approved of the Creedal 8tatement and Basis of Union submitterl to thPm for adoption, and plans are now under way to convene in 1927 the Firet General Asl'!embly of the Church of Christ in China. Sixteen autonomous denominational groups have already voted to join this united Church, and three other denomina0 tions are seriously considering joining it. The General Assembly will include eight synods and of these six are

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COOPERATIVE CHHISTIAN ACTIVITIES 97 alrearly functioning. Sboulrl the three additional denomi nations join the merger, the new Church will occupy eighteen of the twenty-two provinces and will have a membership of.130,000, or about one-t.hird of the Protes tant communicants in China. The Church has opened a National Adminii;trative Office in Nanking, which employs a Chinese general secretary and an executive secretary who is a missionary. Wide scope is provided in the united Church for the self-expression of the severa:l units comprising it.. There is no attempt to force uniformity. The Doctrinal Basis of Union consists of three brief articles, expressing (in the openion of a leader in the movement) "the bed-rock fundamentals of the Christian faith." Freedom is left to the Church gradually to evolve tL more detailed creed based 011 its own further experiei1ce and reflection. Earlier Organic Unions Earlier examples of organic union similar to those cited above are to he found in South Fukicn, in Manchuria, and in the Chung llua Sheng Kung Hui Jn South Fukieri there is only one Church, which includes all the churches formerly associated with the English Presbyterian, the Reformed Church in America, and the London Missions. In Manchuria the Scotch and Irish Presbyterians cooperate in trying to build up one church, not two. Likewise all the Anglican Missions at work in China have for years been relatcrl to one Church, t.he Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. : Varieties of Cooperation Turning from these cases of organic union, one linds himself confronting a very large numJ:>er and variety indeed of more loosely organized cooperative enterprises. These include individual institutimis, local and national professional associations of Christian workers, inter-church committees organized around epecific underta.kings,' more inqlusive local, provincial and national federations, and movements such as the Y. l\L C. A., and Y. W. C. A., all of which transcend denominational li1ies and give expressi0ri:' t'o unity of spirit mid work in spite of disunity in ndme and organization;

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98 COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES Union Institutions Union institutions have become so common as to be taken for granted in many quarters, though there are other centers which still la.g behind in this form of Christian unity. In Nanking, for example, may be found a group of union institutions ,vhich includes the University of Nanking, Ginling College for Women, the Nanking Theological Seminary, the Bible 'l'eachers Training School for Women, and the University Hospital. The colleges and universities fnmish us the la.rgest degree of union. Five American missions cooperate in the University of Na11king. viz; Baptists, North; Disciples of Christ; Methodists, North; Presbyterian8, North; and Presbyterians, South (hospital only). In Shantung Christian University and Yenching (Peking) University we have institutions in the management of which bi;>th American and British missions cooperate. President J .. Leighton Stuart, commenting on the significance of this cooperation in Yenching University, hfts written, "A faculty of heterogeneous elements Chino;,e and Western, European and American, men antl women, representing a wide variety of denominational upbringing and covering almost the entire range of theological opinion -are consciously applying the teachiugs of Jesus to all the mutual relationships of their daily living, and to their administrative problems and institutional activities.'' During the year under review a new union univer;;ity enterprise was consummated in the formal launchiug of Central University, located in Wuchang. This represents a merger of Boone University, Wesley Collc,ge and Griffith John College. The American Episcopal, English Wesleyan, and London Missions cooperate in the undertaking. Associations of Christian Wo~kers: J,Vlisslonaries Professional associations of Christian workers, while voluntary associations of in dividuals rather than formal pieces of corporate union, ~erve none the less both to express and to foster unity of spirit and of work. Loeally, we find missionary associations and pastors' ur~jons fairly common. The missionary associations as a rule unite all the missionaries resident in a given center, though

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COOPERATIVE CHRISTIA:N ACTIVITIES 99 members of several missions well-known for their non. cooperative habit.s arc reported by a number of cities as declining to participate. Most of the missionary associa tions meet monthly in a meeting mainly literary and social in character. In many places the association is used as a forum for interchanging experiC'nce and ideas on mission work and policy. It is frequently the body responsible for weekly or monthly prayer or preaching services in the Jnglish languagP. A number of associations made pro nouncements ovokerl by the situn.tion which followed the events of May 3.0 in Shanghai, In the fall the Peking Association issued a statement on the present situation in China., and called for the speedy abolition of the toleration clauses and for the revision of the unequal treaties. The Shanghai Missionary Association refused to make any such pronouncement; though asked to do so by a local body of Chinese Christians and urged to do so by a. group of its own members. In some cities, as in Nanking and Yunnanfn, misRionary associations have chosen to dis continue their separate existence, rn as to join forces with a more inclusive church council. A similar course is being considered in other cities. In 'l'aiyuanfn the missionaries have organized during the year a book club for cooperative book buying and reading. P t u I A goodly number of cities also report as ors 11 ons t 1 't" 11 th t f pas ors muons, um mg usua y e pas ors o all or most of the denominations in the city. It is in'teresting'to note, however, that the same denominations w11ich fail to participate through their missionaries in missionary associations nre also, found unrepresented by their Chinese workers in pastors unions. The aims of the pastors' associations are VNY similar to those of the mis sionary a:ssocia.tionf', with loss emphasis apparently on purPly cultural activities. Fellowship, prayer, discussion of common problems, and study, seem to be their main objectives. One city reports rather dispnragingly "a monthly meeting mostly eats, tea, and gossip." In Amoy the paetors spend one day a month together in Bible study. In Changsha the organization includes botl;i Chii;iese and Inissiona.ry workel,'S, It n;i.eets one~

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1.00 COOPERA'l'IV,E CHRISTIAN ACTIVITrns a mont4 for supper, after which a paper is read and discussed. The "study of theology" is boldly stated by our correspondent as one of it!-l aims. It seems fitting that this study should find expression h1 tracts .and aiticles written by members of the group and published with funds provided by the local churches (and not by the missions). One notes a tendency in places to merge these associations of pastors also in the more inclusive interchurch councils where these have been formed. Professional associations of Christian ~~giort11l and I Natio,;i.al _Bodies wor rnrs representing wider areas m tern tory ljf Workers are founrl in the regional and national ,,,_ Christian Educational Associations, the China 1\fodicial Association (Missionary Division), and the Nurses' Association of China. The China Christian Educational Association and the China Medical Associatio1i hold periodical meetings, maintain national headquarters, and publish professional journals and other literature. 'l'he Nurses' Association meets once in two years and in Hl25 it sent delegates to the Congress of the International Council of Nurses which met in Helsingfors. Another national organization of Christian workers is the Employed Officers' Association of the Yonng Men's Christian Associations of China .. This Association con far to meet the needs which undoubtedly exist for such an oi,ganization, In these various 11.ssociations embracing Christian worlcers of diff Pr(:lnt countries and of many ecdlesiastical families denominational differences are for g-0tten, comradeship in a common cause is. fostered, common ideals and objectives are built up, and a sense of the underlying unity of the Christian Movement in China ia exprel'lsed and strengthenecJ:

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Chinese ai,d Foreign Participation COOPERATIVE CHRIS'l'IAN ACTIVITIES 101 One gets the impression that Chinese participation comes more easily than missionary participation in h cal cooperative groups, but that the situation is reversed in national movements. An encouraging change is taking place in this latter condition, however, in certain organi zations. This is particula1ly true in the Christian Educa tional Associations, in which Chinese participation and leadership are showing marked increase. In the Employed Officers' Association of the Y. M. C. A. Chinese membership and leadership have from the beginning preponderated. It is a matter of firat rate importance that through these and other national Christian movements, Chinese leadership should find an opportunity to mobilize and express itself. Specialized Inter-Church Groups So much for inter-communion associations of professional Uhristian workers. Mention ~hould now be 1nade of inter-church groups, whi<-h we find organized around a. variety of objectives., Most of these are more or less spontaneous combinations-:----sometimes of churches, sometimes of Christian individuals-organized for some definite and limited purpose. 'fientsin,. for example, reports a Bible study union, an anti-opium society, a committee to reprm;ent the churches in the patriotic movements of last year, and inter-church organizations set up to do relief work among wounded soldiers and war refugees. HankoW: repoits a Friday Club, a Wednesday Club., an nnti-opium committee, two relief committees, anda.girls'.rescue homf:l c:;on~_ucted by the Christians of the city. Peking has m~ii;1tained for a number of years a Christian Student Worlf U:ion, with a Board of Cpntrol composed of repre sentatives of all the Protestant Churches and of the City Y. M: and Y. W. C. A., as well as of the Student Christian' Associ1itions. 'l'he Community Service Groups' Federation is.an organization which unites officially service groups wit_hin the. church bodi.es in Peking, and is representative therefore of the churches rather than of individuals in th.em. .Among the inter-church groups reported by our Chengtu correspondent is a Fellow."hip of ReconcJiiation, a{ ]l'ortni_gl}.~ly Clubj and a Saturday Night Clnb. ~ongko~~:;

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102 COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITI~S has an International Fellowship Group, organized in 1922 under the inspiration of the World's Student Christian Federation Conference, which meets monthly for debates, discussions, and good fellowship. The examples might be imHtiplied. Most common are interdenominational committees or associations (1) to cooperate in anti-opium work, (2) to conduct evangelistic meetings, especially during the week of evangelism, (3) to conduct periodical union prayer services, and ( 4) to take part in various forms of relief work. In this group of organizations should also he mentioned the local industrial committets. In seventeen of the larger cities of China Local Industrial these union industrial committees have been Committees formed. These are more or less formally linked up through the Industrial Committee of the Natfonal Christian Council. In cities where a Church Council exists the industrial committee is appointed by it. Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. secretaries have often taken an influential part in their work. The industrial committees have conducted Bible study groups on the relationship of Christianity to industrial problems; have studied local industries in their cities from the human standpoint; and have worked for definite reforms. Christian em1>loyers in particular have been urged to apply the three minimum standards accepted by the National Christian Conference in 1922. Many of the committees have taken part in the anti-white phosphorus agitation and have brought about the observance of Labor Sunday in their churches. Church Councils One cannot rea.d reports gathered from different parts of the country without being impressed with the fact that, however divided the Christian Church ma.y be in China in matters of "faith and order," Christian churches and individuals of almost all denominational affiliationa are finding themselves drawn together in cooperative enterprises of many different lines. In a number of cities this cooperation has been placed on a more or less permanent and comprehensive basis through the organization of local federations. Dr. Henry T. Hodgkin, in an article published in last year's China Mission Year Book, reported

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COOPERATIVE OHRiSTIAN AOTi:Vi:TiEs i03 the following cities as having local federations with a general aim:-Peking, Tientsin, Nanking, Hangchow, Tsinan, Nanchang, Yunnanfu, Sian, Kaifeng, Moukden, and Kiating. In preparation for this article the writer has received reports of local federations in the following acldit-ional cities:-Taiyuanfu, Wuhu, Hankow, \Vuchang, Changsha, Siangtan, Chengtu, Chungking, Foochow, Swatow Hongkong, and Canton. Several at least of these were organized during the past year. Their These local federations are of two types, one Composition type uniting churches and the other uniting churches and other Christian institutions in the city. Federations of the latter type seem to be in the preponderance. In the Nanking Church Council, for example, there arc represented nine denominations, two union colJeges, a union hospital, several middle schools, and the Young .l\fen's and Young Women's Christian Associations. The Hangchow federation was started as a federation of churches, was later modified so as to include the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., and still later revised its constitution so as to make it include other Christian institutions. It now includes the China Inland Mission, the Church Missionary Society, the Northern and Southern Presbyterian and the Northern Baptist Missions; twelve churches affiliated with the above five missions; the C. l\I. S. Hospital; the Hangchow Christian College; the C. M. S. Medical College; Wayland Academy; the Union Girls' School; the Mary Vaughan High School; and the Young Men's and Women's Christian Associations. Their Work The activities conducted by these local federations vary greatly. They include the promotion of the Week of Evangelism and of the Week of Prayer, tract preparation and distribution, Sunday School teachers' normal training, Daily Vacation Bible Schools, anti-opium work, child welfare work, thrift campaigns, retreats, various forms of relief and reform work, health campaigns, better homes campaigns, prison preaching, army evangelistic work, joint meetings for prayer, fellowship and discussion, etc. Two cities report union cemeteries as one of the responsibilities of their

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104 COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVi'.riEs inter-church federations! The most important lines of activity reported by the Nanking Church Council in 1925 were:-the promotion of Daily Vacation Bible Schools, union evangelistic meetings, union meetings for fellowship and for the deepening of the spiritual life, anti-opium .work, famine relief, and relief work for wounded soldiers and war refugees. The main activities reported by the Peking Christian Union for UJ25 include the Week of Prayer; mass meetings of Christians following the Shanghai incidents of May 30 aud the issuing in English and Ch-inese of pronouncements thereon; cooperative help given to Korean Christian churches; a memorial service for those killed in the patriotic uprising of last i;iummer; cooperation with the anti-opium movement; and the pro1i1otion of a model home movement. The Hangchow Union Committee (Christian Council) maintains standing .sub-committees on (1) Evangelism, (2) Sunday Schools, (3) Christian Homes, (4) Tracts, (5) Festivals, (6). Social Reform, (7) Local Church History, (8) Social Service, (9) .Daily Vacation Bible. Schools, a~d (10) H.ome Mission_s. The outstanding work reported by the Chungking Christian Council has been the initiation of a Christian daily newspaper. N E h. [n reviewing the programs of these local ew mp as1s f d t 1 d .h b 1 t f Needed e era 10ns as revea e rn _t' e a. ove 1s s o activities carried on by them, one is impressed by their emphasis on irork. One wonders whether the times do not call for a shift in this emphasis. Under the attacks of the anti-Christian movement many Christians have found themselves groping. for a more articulate faith. Not a few Christian leaders have been affected; it is not that they have lo;;t their faith, but that they do lack the urge to proclaim a faith when, they feel nnprepai:ed to give reasons for the faith. that is .in the1n. A leading Chinese member of one of the most active local federations in the country said recently to me, "We .have been so active spreading ourselves over the city in .a multitude of activities that we have neglected the .inner life of the'Church members .themselves. Our most important task in. the present situation is .to inform and

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COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES 105 strengthen and enrich the lives of our present body of Christians." Is not this a work which can better be done cooperatively than separately? Skilled workers in religious education are rare; when found in a given church should they not be placed at the service of all the churches? An article appeared in an American periodical a year n,go entitled, "Can Fishermen Feed Sheep?" The author pointed out that Christ not only called his disciples to become "fi,;hers of men," but also sent them ont with .the commission, "Feed my sheep)' The. churches of China in their zeal to "catch fish should not neglect. te "feed theiisheep," and this responsibility should be met by them in their joint as well as in their individual programs. Local and National Federation l\fay I make one more observation before leaving the subject of local Christian federa tions. I am inclined to think that we have not yet assigned to :them the importance they deserve in their relationship to the larger problem of national unity in the Christian movement. We can achfeve national unity (much more, international unity) only as we achieve unity in the individual localities where -individual Christians live. A man cannot be good in general without being good in the particular attitudes, acts, and habits of his life. No more can we create a national Christian movement in China except as we have local Christian communities which can be linked together .in the larger whole. Moreover, if we cannot thus Christianize the Church, locally and nationally, (i. e. by .achieving within it unity of spirit and world may Go<;l have pity on the Church as it tries to Christianize the community and the nation! Provincial Federations The p1ovincial church federations have had a checkererl career, The idea of federating the chur~h forces at work in each of the several provinces received considerable emphasis in the Centenary Conference of 1907. When the writer reached China three years later the idea was still being pushed. The results of these earlier efforts have been meager. Provincial federations then organized still survive i.n

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106 COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES Chekiang and Kiangsu Provinces. Almost their sole activity for years has been an annual conference attended by a corporal's guard of preachers and missionaries. So far as one can see their sole claim to survival has been the opportunity they have thus offered for a handful of fellow-workers of different communionR and localities to come together for two or three days of fellowship. A far .more vital program is that carried on by the North Fukien Christian Council, organized more recently, which in 1925 conducted a conference on religious education, conducted a four days' retreat for Christian teachers, con ducted another retreat of pastors and Christian workers to study the anti-Christian movement, and in other ways helped the church leaders to think and act together. The union concert of prayer, the union ev.a.ngelistic work, and the work done in connection with the anti-opium, anti narcotic, and international famine relief committee, by the churches in the city of Foochow are also carried on under the auspices of the North Fukien Christian Council. Like wise the local union work done in Changsha and Siangtan are reported as under the auspices of the Hunan Christian Council. Hunan Christian Council The Hunan Christian Council organized in 1924 held its second annual meeting in June, 1925. Preparation for the meeting was made by commissions which conducted studies on designated subjects, prepared reports, and presented their findings to the annual conference for discussion and action. The subjects thus dealt with in the Council's program in 1925 we)'.e Christian Education, Medical Work, Evangelistic Work, Social Service Work, and Literary Wodr. Szec;hwan Christian Council An interesting instance of mission devolu tion on a provincial scale is to be seen in West China in the gradual transfer of functions from the West China Mission Advisory Board to the Szechwan Christian Council. The former body, now completing its twenty-fifth year, has served a useful purpose. Its object was "to promote a spirit of harmony and cooperation among the different

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CJOOPERATIVE CJHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES 107 missions at work in West China, to suggest such arrange ments as shall tend to the speedier and more complete occupation of the entire field, and to consider and advise upon any questions which may arise relating to the division of the field or to mission policy general}y." Among the fruits of this Board may be mentioned the West China Union University and the West China Educational Association. But for the complications of "home connections" and "home support" it is thought likely that this Board would have years ago moved definitely and resolutely toward organic church union in West China. The Board continues to collect and publish various statistics regarding mission affairs in Szechwa.n, but the main body of its functions has already b_een transferred to the Szechwan Christian Council. 'l'his Council was organized several years ago and is made up of representatives of Chinese Churches and other Christian organizations (not including missions). It has the right of way in initiating matters which caJl for the cooperation and joint action of the various Protestant churches. It is the natural clearing-house for matters promoted nationally by the National Christian Council. The West China Christian Conference held in January 1925 was in a sense "a miniature National Christian Conference of 1922." The themes it stressed were. The Indigenous Church,, Christian EduC'ation, Evangelism, Work for Women,,an:d Better Homes. It gre:itly helped cooperative work throughout the province ge.i'forally as well as in particularly Chengtu, where it met. In a meeting of the local church federation PLocalf vsi. 1 U its held in Peking during the latter part of 1925 rov nc a n one of the Chmese pastors strongly advocated the pooling of the work carried by all the churches and missions of the city in one united effort, not only in church work but also. in the medical and educational fields. 'rhere are six denominations at work in Peking, and the membership of one of them is equal to the combined. membership of the other five. A missionary connected with this largest denomination stated that if the Chinese members of his church desired to enter into such a union.

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ioS dooPERA
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(,'t)OI'ERATIVE CHRIS'l'IAN ACTIVI'l'IES 109 liiade in it of men and money provided 'by missions? A good deal of obscurity exists as to whether the Oouncil is .national or international, and this obscurity has been emphasized by the events following last May 30. One might well make a case for the need of both sorts of agencies in China at the present time, but we believe the effective ness of the Council would be served by. a clearer under- standing as to which of the two types of 'agency it is to be. Ho 1 1 Another problem which after four years W nc usive feems still to call for the council's consideration is that of whether 01 not it should continue to seek at all costs to be all-inclusive of all parts of the Protestant Christian Movement, or should it rather encourage greater freedom in Chrit
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110 COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTl:vrrtES tional affiliations. The year saw marked progress in the growth of the Young \Vornen's Association as a Chinese organi:1,ation and as a national movement. The special politieal and economic diflicultie;; prevailing throughout out the year, while reducing somewhat its program, served to strengthen its foundations as a united movement of Chinese Chri;;tian women. In the summer a Chinese student was sent for the first time as a fraternal delegate to a Japanese Y. M. C. A. conferfnce and the president of the National Committee of the China Y. W.C. A.'s was sent as a delegate to the first national convention of the Y. W. C. A.'s of Japan. (The first national c011vention of the Y. W. C. A. 's of China was held in 1923.) Thus a growing sense of national consciommess in the movement in China has been accompanied by a gratifying realization of relationship and responsibility to the world-wide movement of which it is a part. As regards the outstanding international issue of 1925, the matter of treaties, the Y. W. c: A. as a Chinese rather than a mission organization, naitt1rally found itself in accord with the natioual aspira tiori'8 of the Chinese people. The resig1rntion of Miss Rosalee Venable as national general secretary in fa vor of Miss 'l'irig Shu Ching, who took office on the first day of 1926 a~ first Chinese general secretary, further emphasized the na~ional character of the organization. Tbt'Y:M.C.A. The Young Mcn'.s Chri~tian Associa~ion has long been a medmm of mter-commumon, fellowship and cooperation and an influence and ally in various forms of inter-church activities in China. It con tinues to exert its influence in this direction through both its two hundred student and its forty-one city branches as well as through its national committee. As in other countries the student associations have been premier agencies for promoting interdenominational fellowship, for in them and especially in their summer conferences, the future leaders of the churches have come to know each other :rnu to work together. On the boards of directors and committees of the city associations leaders of all the local churches have worked together as one undivided team. The one hundred and five members of its national

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COOPRHATIVE CHltISTJAN AC'rrvrrJF.s 111 committee represent many denominations and all parts of the country. Ifs periodical conferences of S('Cretaries and members furnish opportunities for Christian workers to transcend the limitations of denominational, provincial, and other affiliations, and accustom them to thinking in terms of the underlying oneness of the Christian movement in China. In the summer of 1925 a special conference of general executives of the associations met in Shanghai for two weeks to consider anew their policies and programs in the light of the strong nationalistic and anti-Christian movements which had arisen. One hundred men were present, half of them Chinese and half secrPtaries loaned by movements abroad. The utmost brotherliness prevailed and great progress was made in clarifying issues. The conference re-emphasized (1; the Chinese, (2) the Christian, (3) the lay, and (4) the youth characte1 of the movement. The rapidly growing Chinese chnracter and leadership of the movement is precludiug neither the need nor the desire for further cooperat.ion from abroad. At the same time the assumption of increasing responsibility by Chinese executives as well as directors is serving to strengthen the movement as a united fellowship of men and boys throughout the country. Patriotic Christian Unions Reference should be made to one other type of cooperative Christian activity which sprang into heing all over China during the summer of Hl2.5. These were Christian Unions organized after the events of May 30 in Shanghai to express the pntriotic loyalty of Chinese Christians, and to enable them to deal unitedly with the national and international issues which during the past year have absorbed so much of the attention of the country. 'l'he shooting of students engaged in patriotic demonstratiops by the foreign police of Shanghai brought to a focus the already wide-spread resentment of the country towards foreign aggression and foreign control in China. Even before this event had transpired, one heard on all sid~s demands for the revision of the "unequal treaties." The Christian movement was insistently charged with being a veiled agency of Western imperialism. Smoldering

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112 COOPERATIVE CHRTS'rIAN ACTIVITIES resentment burst into flames as the news of the shooting in Shanghai was flashed over the country. The Chinese Church found itself in an alarming predicament. While innocent of involvement in the aggressions of Western governments on the integrity of China, it was deeply hivolved with the churches and with missionaries of those countries. This fact made it liable to great mis understanding and suspicion in the eyes of non-Christian Chinese. In addition to sharing the patriotic feelings a:ri.d aspirations of their fellow-countrymen, the Chinese Ohristians were also. moved by perfectly natural and proper inotives of self-defence to express themselves on behalf of th,eir country. In Shanghai a mass meeting of Christians of all churches was held on the second day following May 30. Vigorous demands for the redreF>sing of China's wrongs were adopted and forwarded by wire to national and provincial authorities and published in the public press~ A Chinese Christian Union was organized which contj:ri.ued for some weeks to carry on an active effort in cooperation with the general patriotic movement. Similar unions sprang up in other cities all over the 'country. 'fhese unions issued manifestoes !l,gainst the unequal treaties and the toleration eiauses, raised money for the patriotic strikers' fund, sought to secure and disseminate correct information regarding events taking place in di:fferen.t parts of the country, and in some cases undertook to study the. problems involved in the whole 'situation. Considerable use was made of a series of text ,books prepared by. the Association Press in its Citizenship Training Series on the "unequal treaties," consular jurisdiction and extra-territoriality, and tariff autonomy, and tracts and pamphlets were prepared on similar subjects by local unions. The close of th
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COOPERATIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES 113 Christian. Movement? The writer believes that both the so-called nationalistic and the anti-Christian movements are largely patriotic in motive. How will this affect the development of the Christian Church in China? One cannot fail to see that certain reactions of the Church to these movements have so far been actuated more :by nationalistic sentiment than by Christian motives, thoi1gh l am inclined to think that the Chinese Church has at least shown as much restraint' in this regard as did the churches of the West under a similar test during the Great War. At the same time, I feel sure that in these attacks from without, the Church of Christ in China is finding an unexpected and powerful ally in its effm;t to become a naturalized Chinese movement. Chinese leaders are seeing vivirlly the necessity of their taking over more rapidly responsibilities which in many cases have been carried too long by their foreign teachers and colleagues. Both Chinese and missionary workers are realizing more fully the importance of magnifying the central position which must be assig1ied to the Chinese Church, and the necessity of transferring to it with increased rapidity the func tions which have hitherto been performed by missions, admittedly exotic and temporary in their character. Correspondents from fourteen important mission oenters report that in their judgment the nationalistic and antiChristian movements in general and the repercussions of May 30 in particular are proving influential in increasing the sense of solidarity among Chinese Christians. Weak Christians are being weeded out. Strong Christians are being made stronger. Divided Christians a.re being drawn closer together. An unhappy aspect of the situatioi1 is that in more than one center the sen,se of unity among the Chinese Christians is being accompanied by a threatened breach between Chinese and foreign workers, though other notable examples exist showing that the relations of Chinese and foreigners can be strengthened rather than weakened in a united Chinese Christian enterprise. Chi d Mr. Liang Chi-chiao, in his Development Har:o:~zatlon of Social and Political Thought in the Chin Dynasty, devotes a chapter to the principle of

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114 COOPEUA'rIVE CHRISTIAN ACTIVITIES unification or harmonization in Chinese history. During that creative period in Chinese cultme all the great thinlrers, he claims, stood for this principle of llocial and political life, in contrast to a policy of "rights and of uncompromising struggle to maintain:_ them. Many of them .stood valiantly for this principle; at a time of great civil strife and of struggle between neighboring 4dngdoms. During their lives they seemed to fail, but what they advocated came subsequently profoundly to affect Chinese thought and life. In consequence kingdom after kingdom was assimilated until we have the China we khow, one peopl~ occupying an area equal to that of Europe with its sad complex of nationalitie8. Peoples as different from each other as Germany and France have long ag-0 become assimilated in[China's cultural and political unity, while those two unhappy countries of Europe continue to magnify their differences and periodically to engage in bloody conflict to maintain them. To subordinate these .differences to a larger and more inclusive unity, he exclaims, would be regarded by many \Vest,irners as immomlity. Yet, even at the risk of being relmfl'ed for it, (he adds) Jet us cherish this priceless boOtl in our heritage and seek to share it with the rest of the world! Chinese Ideal, Christian Principle, and Church Unity It is unquestionably true that Western civilization has so far 'impressed many thoughtful Chinese as an unhappy thing of discord and confusion. Unfortunately Christianity itself has not wholly escaped making, though in less degree, a like impression. The process of unification, harmonization, amalgamation into one culture which has markcrl the history of China has come about, says Mr. Lian.g, by the magnifying of those things which unite rather than the things which d'i'll"ide. Some may feel disposed to qualify Mr. Lian g's statement of the facts, though generally speaking they seem to the write1 fully jstified, but few will question the principle of unification which he enunciates. It is unfortunate that Christianity has had to come to China trailing so many divisive labels from the West. It is fortunate, however, that so many within the churches agree that this is so,

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COOPERATIVE UHRi'l'fIAN ACTiVITIES 115 and seem determined to magnify the things which they hold in common, and not the things which originally gave them separ.tc existence. 'fhc principle of unity, of harmony, of brotherhood, is inherent in the Gospel of Jesus Christ as well as in the social and spiritual heritage of China. These two influences converging in the Christian enterprise in China have already produced large re!ll1lts in unity of spirit and in cooperative undertakings, some of which we have tried in the preceding paragraph~. to sketch. Allowed free play, they should produce a united Christian Movement in China worthy of becoming an example and inspiration to the world.

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CHAPTER Xl SP;ECIAL PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISM Frank Rawlinson In ot_der to gathet information 011 the Sources situation as it confronts what is known as ... evangelistic 'work" _in China, we sent out about one hundred letters. About thirty-eight per cent of the recipients replied. These thirty-eight replies and some other information, therefore, are the basis of this article. The writers lived in about thirty different places as widely separated as Canton, Kansu, Peking, Hankow, Manchuria and Chengtu, Szechwan. While mm,t of them live in .cities, their experience covers much more territory than their place of residence. One, for instance, states that his reply covers a group of thirty-five churches. Others have even larger groups of churcheR and areas in miml than this. About one-third of the letters cam
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l'ROBLE~IS OF EVANGELISM 117 did not disclose any common idea as to what "evangelism" is, though most of the writers were apparently thinking in terms of the personal delivery of a message usually in oral form and had the preacher and the church primarily in mind. But the letters show wide diversity of opinion as to the expressional activities which are expected and achieved through the delivery of this message as regards Christian workers, Chinese Christians and the Church as an institution. These letters do not; therefore, reveal any convergence of opinion, rather the reverse, as to the program for carrying out the message which is the centre of "evangelism ": nor indeed do they show any agreement as to the contents of this message even when considered from the viewpoint of its oral delivery alone. Apparently the mind of Christians in China as to the evangelistic task is being broken up, in preparation, it is to be hoped, for a clearer understanding and new outlining of that task. For the present it would seem, therefore, that evangelism as such lacks, as one writer indeed -remarks, an adequate objective. That is one of its present problems. It is impossible to tell from these letters what "evangelism'' in China is understood or meant to be. In the attempt to further elucidate the "Special Problems of Evangelism," the following topics will be d{)ait with in the order given. (1) The present Chinese attitude towards the "Christian Message." (2) The evangelistic agent. (3) Some emphases suggested. (4) Some impressions. (5) Outstanding needs. I. THE PRESENT CHINESE ATTITUDE Tow ARDS THE '' CHRISTIAN MESSAGE '1 Willingness to Hear Friendly willingness to listen to the Christian message is widespread. In some cases the attention given is exceptional. A friendly attitude coupled with a sincere desire to under stand is also found in mai1y places. l\Ir. George H. Waters, of the American Baptist 'Mission, Swatow, reports that in 1925 meetings were held in fully fift.y towns or villages within the territory of his mission and that the workers

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1i8 PROBLEMS OF EV ANGELi:sl\r met with "friendly response." Likewise from a dozen points north and south of the Yangtze River in Anhwei Province, within a radius of 250 li ( 1 li = one-third of a miie) of Wuhu, the "response is as usual" which "means a large willingness to listen on the part of the majority.1' From troubled Canton even comes the report that "one colporteur reported sales o"f Scripture portions amounting to 1400 in one month." This was the result of canvassing only part of one district city and a nearby village. In these centres the people listened gladly to expositions of the Scriptures. One Evangelist in the same part of China also visited ten chapels in six weeks, holding small meetings in the shops and homes of the Christians. Both Christians and non-Christians manifested great interest. OLher places report a similar willingness and interest. It would seem, therefore, that in most places evangelistic workers do not lack friendly hearers. In spite of the present widespread disturbance the evangelistic opportunity is still great. There are of course exceptions to this Opposition general attitude of friendliness. The group of Chinese clergy in and around Hankow evidently feel that the church is under suspicion and suffering from 1t loss i:lf reputation. There has been some "persecution, slight and insult" from non-Christians. In and around Sw.atow city the Message is received in a critical spirit, a,;nd th~re is much less freedom in delivering it than formerly. The same thing is true in South China. This critical spirit seems, however, to be less in evidence in rural districts than in some urban cent1es. Another writer reports that after the events of last summer the attitude of the peJple in West China changed from that of respectful attention to that of a critical and unfriendly attitude. This was partly due to the strength and activity of anti-Christian agitators in this particular part of China. In general, however, the anti-Christian Movement does not loom large in the mind of this group of correspondents. It is, however, somewhat more prominent in the Chinese than the Western Christian mind. In general it is taken as a stimulant rather than a setback. The general effect

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PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISM 119 and outcome of the Anti-Christian Movement as regards Christian work and as seen by missionaries is well summarized by the Honan Messenger, March, 1926 as follows: -'' It is not too much to say that .the anti-foreign and anti-Christian movements of 1925 have not only done no harm to the vital interests of the Christian Church in China, but have really furthered them by showing up weaknesses in the edifice we are erecting." Generally speaking it appears to have slackened the momemtum of evangelism to a minor degree only. One by-product is Us effect upon Chinese Christian workers in leading them to break away from mission connections. In some sections of the Honan field of the United Church of Canada, some evangelistic workel'S formerly in the employ of the mission have become leaders in the independent church. The same tendency is seen elsewhere.* A reference or two is made to the eclectic societies as causing a certain amount of hindrance. Jn Shunteh, Chihli, many thousands 'joined these societieB. A certain amount of "veiled antagonism" from Moslems and vegetarians was noted in Hweihsienr Kansu. In and around Wuhu, Anhwei, the influence of local Buddhist Associations and the T'ung Shan She is growing. Under the guise of social reform, these societies have gathered into their membership official, student and merchant classes and caused them to be unwilling to do more than listen to the Gospel Message. One or two refer to the necessity of combating false religious ideas. It was noted, however, that the influence of social customs as factors in inhibiting acceptance of the Christian faith has decreased. Evidence that Christianity has had a direct effect upon native customs and practices is found in the remarlrn connected therewith of the group of Chinese clergy in and around Hankow. A somewhat curious attitude was reported at the Conference of Rural Leaders held in Nanking February 2-5, 1926. Some of the farmers in their magical efforts to get rid of the evil spirits of disease and misfortune tried to d1iie these ei'il spirits into the Ohri8lian Ohiirch. In some places, such as in the case of *See also Chapter XII in this volume.

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120 PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISl\1 the English Presbyterian work in Swatow and the. work of Canadian Methodists in West China, violent and destructive methods were used against Christian WQrk and property. But of active hostility these .letters do not reveal much. Violent opposition to Christianity seems to be local:ized in .mos:t cases and to concern only a minority of the Ohinese people. This is so in spite of the fact that the Anti Chiistian Movement is nation-wide. While th~re is a fairly widespread friendly willingness to hear the Christian l\fossage', Mental Confusion the understanding of it and response to it is by no means equally widespread. A number of the writers of these letters ri.re aware of much confusion in the 'n1ii;i.ds of these willing hearers as to the meaning both of ,vhat they hear and of what being a Christian involves. These letters, which are the basis of this article, do not seem to hMe in mind particularly the student group. This same symptom of mental confusion, however, as regards the contents of the Christian Message is found among students in Christian schools alrn. This uncertainty about the contents of the evangelistic message is another pressing problem. This widespread mental confusion as to the meaning ofthe Message arises in part through the new movements sweeping over China, the new scientific notions that are being heralded abroad and the uncertainty as to the relation of Christianity to the so-called "unequal treaties.'' In addition one finds students inclined to approach Christianity from the viewpoint of their own Chinese philosophy. The group of Chinese clergy in and around Hankow seem to find the causes of this mental conftlsion about Christianity in three situations all of which are clouded with uncertainty. (1) The relation and attitude of Christianity to "imperialis1i1.'' (2) The relation of Christian ideas to China's religious and philosophical systems. (3) The relation of nationalism to international ism. A few direct quotations will throw light on the l!econd of these. '' Most of the Chinese do not understand what Christianity is all about." "The Chinese feel that Christianity is impractical." Such ideals as loving one's enemy, non-resistance and "giving clothes to others I' are

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PROBLEMS OF EV .A.NGELiS:ivi -121 among the impractical things. Such ideas as God's -righteous anger (ii\ 1,1&) and God's excessively absorbing love (tit; ,Ill, z i~ ~), also puzzle them. Another suggests that there should be a revival of old religions, such as Confucinnism, Buddhism and the Tung Shan Society (In] t&ii"d:). "Study the Chinese rites and morality.'' Another says that the old mo,ality has been discarded but no other truth as yet adopted in its place. Another says, "The Chinese are speculative by nature. When they come into contact with Christianity many doubts arise such as, Is there really a God ? Is there really a soul? Affirmative answers to such questions must be accompanied by proof." Thus the various attacks on and uncertainties about Christianity, while they interfere comparatively little with the opportunity to deliver the Message, do affect adversely popular response to and understanding of it. The meaning of Christianity is not clear. The willingness to heed what is willingly heard is thus frustrated to no inconsiderable extent. One (a missionary) finds the difficulty to be in the fact that '' the so-called Gospel preaching is admixed with political and semipolitical reasonings such as one finds mostly in connection with the slogan 'China for Christ'.,: Another suggests that the implications of the Gospel are not clearly stated. In this feeling many others share. And one is aware from various public utterances and private information that there is much obscurity of thought about and presentation of the Christian Message in this regard. In view of the fact that the knowledge of Christianity is now so widespread in China, this in itself constitutes a ,:erious problem. One writer emphasizes the need of separating the non-Christian elements of Western life from the Gospel of Jesus Christ. The need also of building Christian ideals and thought into the actual life of the people is mentioned. The implications of the Gospel for daily life '' need emphasis, says another. Another missionary summarizes this mental confusion in :these words, "They (Chinese) don't understand, and most :'<)f us Christians probably do not either, what a Christian is." As a whole these letters give little hint as to what the

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122 PROBLEMS OF EVANGELiSM: Chinese are looking for in the Gospel. One says '' peace and power;" another, "the salvation of country." But the fact remains that for some reason or other the sp-iritiiaJ. impl-icat-ions of Christianity do not stand out in the Chinese mind. There is obscurity as to its central emphasis the spiritual life. Low Vitality It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that assent to the Christian Message does not bring a vital change in those assenting so often as it, is desired. 'fhis group of correr1pnndcnts intimates that, generally speaking, the spiritual vitality of the Chinese laity fa low. This point, however, is emphasized most by missionaries. This condition is distinctly not related to any particular type of theology or methods of promoting independence. For instance the London Mission working in and around Sia.ochang, Chihli, recently published a report of ten years' effort along the line of eecuring group independence. l\Iuch success has already been attained. But among the deficiencies calling for serious consideration two are concerned clirectly with this problem of a low Chinese Christian vitality. These are: -(a) A lack on the part of very many Christians of any strong personal religion," and (b) "A lack of appl'eciat-ion of the ethical demands of Ohrist.fanity." We need, says anolher, to work out what a Chinese Christian citizen should be doing in his place." Judged by these letters the Christian Messengers are failing in a large measure to put their Message across precisely at the point where it i::l claimed that the Message has a particular and vital contribution the vitalization of the spiritual life. Both those who make exclusively the "evangelistic" emphasis and those who tend to give the "social" emphasis find themselves up against the same lack of vitality. Taken by and large, one feels that the group of Christian workers represented in these letters senses a lack of the urge of mission in Chinese Christians. Of course over against this must be placed the earnest work being carried on by some churches and. organizations (these are not much mentioned in these letters) and the growing influence and activity of the Chinese Home Missionary Society, which is expecting to

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PROBLEMS OF. EVANGELISM 123 hold its first national convention in Peking next summer, and has at present 72 auxiliaries scattered all over the country. It is clear, however, that one problem at present facing evangelism in China is that the Christian Message is, generally speaking, not understood either as to its contents or its individual and social implications. Chin O lo Some further remarks by Chinese Christian ese pm ns workers bearing on the above points will help to make their significance more apparent. The Rev. Liu Ching-wen of Fakumen says, "The people gemrally are willing to hear, but not the upper classes. Particularly indifferent are the scholars, liteiati and student.s, who are sometimes quite opposed." This generalization fits many of the centres from which our correspondents have written. "The anti-Christian Movement," he adds, "is a mark that the old indifference is gone." Furthermore, he says, "the moycment brought about by the mingling of }~astern and Western cultures has stirred up the student classes in a wn.y which will tend to the progress of the Gospel." A group of experienced Chinese evangelists in Tsinan, Shantung, connected with the work of the American Presbyterian Mission, agreed upon a number of statements which are also generally significant. "Ten years ago the masses (of Shantung) thought of Christianity primarily as a foreign religion and of Jesus as a foreign Sage. They now respect it for its known high moral standards, but many are agnostic and do not approve the supernatural element in Chl'istian teaching." "Dming the last five years there has been a noticeable increase in popular information regarding the nature and aims of Christianity. Non-Christians who have had no Christian contacts now frequently ask intelligent questions regarding the person of Christ and Christ'an activities." "City women are markedly more agnostic and r1mdy to abandon old religious customs, also to inquire about Christian practice. New contacts, among the women, show less fear of welcoming Christian visitors." "Large numbers do desire to hear Christian teaching, but the influx of new ideas and mental confusion hinders decision.'' These statements, also, would appear to be fairly typical of the general eituation.

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124 PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISM II. PRORLEMS CONNECTED WITH THE EVANGELISTIC .AGENT Generally speaking, then, opposit-ion to the Christian Message, as arising in the inhibiting influence of customs, the agressiveness of indigenous religions -ancient or modern,-or the organized efforts of avowed anti. Christians, does not loom large in the mind of this group of correspondents. Pressure from this direction is not prominent. But frequent readings of the letters show that most of the writers are oppressed with a sense of the spiritual inadequacy. of those engaged in presenting the message. Parallel with the mental confusion about Christianity existing in many Chinese Christian and non-Christian minds is, as one Chinese pastor puts it, '' the inability of the preachers to meet their own diffici.ilties with the deeper truths and questions, to say nothing of meeting the 'new doctrine contention that all religion is superstition.'' Only one of these writers mentions this particular difliculty. We have heard of it from other sources, however. To no inconsiderable extent the preachers, like the laity, suffer from mental confusion. One of the special problems of evangelism, therefore, is the character and intellectual and spiritual effectiveness of those delivering the message. ., Lack of Dynamic There. are of course, a numbe11 of actfre1 influential and spiritual Christian leader~ But numerically they are utterly inadequate to the need. 'l'his is not a new problem. Evangelistic workers are troubled with the .. want more of everythiug" urge as well as all others. But the chief difficulty does not have to do with the numerical inadequacy of evangel-. istic workers. The low vitality of the spiritual life of a large number of evangelistic workers looms up in the mind of these writers much more than the activity and vitality of the relatively few able and dynamic Chinese Christian, workers. Taken by and large the Chinese evangelistic; workers are :marked by an inadequacy of spiritual dynamic,

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PROBLEMS OF EY ANGELJSM 125 Low Dynamic The different ways in which this significant Shown lack of dynamic is referred. to are suggestive. Here are some. From a group of Chinese workers we have this: They need better Christian character" and "more honest effort." Others speak as follows: "Not many Chinese preachers preach with spiritual power." They "lack spiritual power." "The great ;need is for Chinese who have experience of (;:oct.'' There is a "lowered spiritnal vitality in churches and preachers." "The preaching I hear from our' educated men is not Biblical, human or vital at all.'' "Our preachers and other Christian workers do not make an impression." How far the miRsionaries are responsible for, or share in this spiritual inadequacy, does not appear in these letters. But it is interesting to note that thiR spiritual inadeqnacy of evangelistic workers is not, any more than that of the laity, a matter of any particl;l.Jar type of theology. After thinking and reading over th~se letters the conclusion of the writer of this article is th.at the large majority of Chinese Christian workers lack a sense of mission. The same thing, we have already remarked, is true of the Chinese church in general. One of the chief problems of evangelism is, therefore, as remarked by the group of Chinese Christian workers in. Tsinan, the "securing of consecrated and persistent evan gelists." Or as another more forcefully puts it, we need, "Real live wire, spiritually minded preachers with a sense of mission to the individualand society." Lack in The same Chinese group mentioned. above Training also says that "message and method" are not the chief difficulty .. ''Why the,n," we ask, "are the evangelistic agei-its so lacking in vitality? Apparently the principal cause is found in the manner and content of their training. That somAthing is lackjng in their educational preparation is niost_frequently men tioned as a cause of this low spiritual dynamic. Perhaps impracticality is the lqiynote of this lack. The training given doAs not fit t}iose trained for their actual problems. Graduates from "Bible Schools" and independent Bible ~tqd~ts are 1n,entiqned, br one onlr, as muci~ .. _t1sed bi

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126 PROBLEMS OF EV ANGELISl\l: the Lord." But the same writer also says that Bible School men "may be stereotyped and independent Bible students "may he hardly 'orthodox.' Another says, The average graduate of our mission institutions is far too high and mighty ... to enter into the problems an~ poverty of the masses He has 'a mass of doctrinal top-heaviness which is destined to take a mighty tumble when he meets up with pradical modern theology." Another says that educated men as such lack "spiritual power." In general the training given them, says another, "is too literary"; it is too theoretical. Too many of those sent ont to do evangelistic work lack nnderstanding of the relation of their message to the psychology of their own people. One gets the impression that very little attention is paid either by their instructors or themselves to what is actnally in the minds of those they seek to reach, some of which must needs be patiently corrected and much of which may be built into the Christian way of living. In consequence the personal approach is weak. N D fi it Back of all this is another difficulty. There O e n ion "d d" f d .. of Training IS w1 e 1vergence o :um an opm10n as to what the education of an evangelistic worker should include. For instance one sa,ys, "The greatest emphasis has to be laid on true soul-winning qualities, such as humility, love, true knowledge of the Bible anrl reverence for it, and others which are generally not implied by a man having a diploma from one of the theological institutions." Another, and the other extreme, is, "The preacher needs an education as broad as human need, as high as saving grace, with uplift for the lowest sinner, he should have whole-hearted sympathy with all rightful aspirations of men along the lines of social, political and ~conomic conditions, while al ways preaching Christ a.s the all-sufficient Savior." Yet another intimates that in addition to the literary and academic training preachers now receive there should be a laboratory or case method of training in the rendering of Christian service and delivering the message in a. given community." This feeling of the inadequacy of the educational institutions to furnish evangelistic workers with a vital message does not'

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PROBLEMS OF l!JV ANGELlSM 127 correlate with any particular type of school. The criticism is general. Judgh1g, therefore, from these letters one special pr.oblem of evangelism is the way evangf;)listic workers ar!') trained. 'l'his we have traced back in part to a divergence of aim as to the scope and purpose of their education. In other words the comparatively large lack of dynamic preachers is traced back in large part to something lackin.g in their training. Training of Laitv Reference is also made to the need of more intensive training for those who are willing to accept the message. 'l'he group of Chinese Christian workers in 'I'sinan says, "In order that inqnirers may become convinced and truly gain the Christian life, it is essential that the individuals be befriended more and given suit~ble and adequate instruction, We usually consider them acceptably Christian an
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128 PROBLEMS OF EV ANGELlSM Manchuria is of the opinion that the missionaries need "proper" training and refers especially to their need of studying Chinese religions, comparing them with Christianity to find out the points of similarity and dissimilarity, using Christianity to supply what is lacking in the Chinese faiths." Other Chinese correspondents also mention this need. \Ve have heard it mentionerl elsewhere also. III. SOJ.\,IE EMPHASES SUGGESTED Some Suggestions. A number of suggestions are made also by individuals looking towards either the more adequate meeting of the opportunities or correcting certain existing deficiencies. These are worth listing. One advocates emphasis on the home as the typical Chinese religious institution rather than on an expensive public hall or chapel.'' Two others also refer to this. Another desires that steps be taken to safeguard the Sabbath for spiritual uses." A member of the China Inland Mission recommends that most workers, Chinese and foreign, be withdrawn from the old centres for a part of the year when the weather is suited for travelling in order to work in "the i;egions beyond." For the "smaller stations he also suggests that after being vigorom;ly worked for a year or two, they be left and thereafter regularly visited once every month or two, thus freeing workers for new places part of their time. The morler-,i, presentation of the "fundamentals'' would also help, another thinks. A Christian Training School for Laymen, as carried on by the workers of the American Board at Lintsing, Shantung, is also suggested as a corrective for the lack of thoroughness in grounding from which those willing to receive the message have suffered. And with a view to securing "spiritual mindedness" a missionary writes, Orie sometimes wishes that monasteries could be .provided where Christians could retreat for periods of quiet meditation, prayer, devout. worship and .study.'' Another says we need a thoroughly tested form of public

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PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISM 129 ritual for the reverence of ancestors, thu8 identifying the Church with the better values in the prevalent worship of ancestors.:' Change Theological Courses One other suggestion applies quite aptly to one of the problems generally noted. This calls for ''The modification of our theological courses, so that their graduates will have two things which they do not usually possess:-( 1) Personal experience in every phase of the work they will be required to perform, evangelism, religious education, worship and social service: (2) Some comprehension of the social natur<~ of the church, eome knowledge of the problems involved, and some unrlerstanding of the methods which may be calculatecl to make the church function in a community.'' IV. SOME IMPRESSIONS Varying Emphases In trying to sum up these varying and f'Omewhat divergent remarks on the lack of Rense of mission and dynamic in the Chinese Christians nrnl evangelistic worlrnrR, onc is lead to feel that it can he tracccl hack to a wm1k per:'lnn11l experience of c:;.od as manifei-:ted through and in Chrii4. There ir-: nrn~ aspect of the thinking disclosccl in these thirty-eight letter::; which, in part at least, explains this fact. Throe points of emphasis in the M:esRage are evident. These are, ( l) A group of theological concepts varying with different individuals. (2) Expres:,ional activities also varying in range with different writers. (3) Personal relation to Christ or "touch with God." In con~eqtwnce one cannot say, on the basis of these letters, just what, the central content of the spiritual life, which all agree to be lacking, is or should be. 'l'he Message as delivered. according to theee statements has no one dominnting emphasis. One cannot help but wonder, therefore, whether the chief problem in evangelism is not that of making vital per::;ona1 connectiou lwtween Chl'istiaH workers aut.l Christ.

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130 PROBLEllIS OF EVANGELISM v. THE OU'ISTANDING NEEDS Re-Focus Attention From the above it would follow that the chief need in the training and life of Chris tians and evangelistic workers is to re-focus their religious attention on the central fact in ChristianityChrist and his Message about man's relation to his Father. This should be the central theme of the Message and the religious switch that releases the dynamic that must drive forward all Christian activities. A Chinese worker in Fakumen thus puts this need. "We preachers ought to pay special attention to the life and character of Chri~t. '' A missionary puts the same need in a somewhat different way: "Emphasis 011 Christ as the Way out of the pre.~ent chaos for both in
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PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISM 131 the chief problem of evangeliRm is its weak dynamic. Failure here means that the mission:ny movement is not reproducing the raison d'etre for its presence in China. That is one fact that stands out in these letters. Why is the Christian dynamic not fully reproducing itself in China? Securing an anRwer to that question presents a problem that comprises all the others so far mentioned. To answer and correct it, is the chief need of evangelism in China. These letters do not mention directly the responsibility of the miRsionaries thcmsel VCS for the low spiritual vitality in their.fellow workers that they point out. But nn
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CHAPTER XII CHANGES IN THE CHINESE CHURCH T. C. Bau Although Christianity in China has had more than one hundrec:l year;; of history there has as yet existed no real Chinese Church. 'fhe missionaries from the West brought tlrn Christian Gospel to the Orient, and the people in China receivec:l it all with its western forms. 'fhe songs we sing, the prayers we say, the Scriptures we read and the ways in which we worship are all different from those of our old religions. In polity and worship Christianity has been a foreign religion, and the church a foreign institution. Difference in points of view and in experience of W esterncrs a.nd Chinese, mutual rnisunderst.andi.ngs a.nd mis-interpretation of attitudes and opinions, and lack of sympathy and support have to some extent prevented the full growth and organization of a real ChineRe Church. C i When reforms were made in China in the onsc ousness of New Ne:d, past century along the lmes of poht1cs and education, the Chinese Chmch felt their effect and shared in them. 'fhe national consciousness during the past twenty years has made the people in and out of the church urge readjustment in the organization of Christian institutions as well as in forms of worship. But many missionaries were not generous enough to allow thr. native believers to make new attempts, as their policies were not settled on the field; but by authorities thousands of miles away across the ocean. Their ignorance of Chinese history, literature, religion and civilization in general made them assume an attituc:le of disrespect toward China. It took months and years to train a group of natives to follow organs and pianos :i:nd sing in unfamiliar wayH, and pray with their eyes closed. This unnatural mode of worHhip in the Church did not tend to lead Chinese believerH to see the UhriHtian ~og,

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CHANGES IN THE CHINESE C:EIURCH 133 Through hard attacks from the outside, a1id a growing Helf-consciousness within the (;hurch, topics like "The Indigenous Church," although very often mistranslated or mis-interpreted by both Chinese and missionaries, have been warmly die:cussed. The Chinese people now request reorganization of the Chinese Church and a. better, clearer and more acceptable interpretation of the Christian religion, through the admission of Confucian scholars into the churches and by the introduction and distribution of Christian literature, both translated and original writings, and by quotntions and explanations from Chinese literature and religions in sermons and books. 'fh us Christianity now looks different~ A spirit of sympathy and service on the part of missi<,mary friends and board secretaries, and an attitude of appreciation of need for help on the part of the Chinese Christians, have started a. new movement and opened a new era in the Chinese -Christian Church. T f f Since the support of the Chinese Church rans er o d "t d d d 'h Administration an 1 s act1v1t1es epen e upon e missionary boards in foreign countiies, both in money and workers, policies have naturally been dedded by them. But experience has taught us that unless the Christian religion becomes self-supporting, self-managing and self-propagating, it will not have a solid foundation, no matter how long it exists. By the opening of schools and training of workers, the genera.I administration has been gradually turned over to the native leaders. The mis sionaries arc with good epirit and courtesy transferring their responsibilites to those of their Chinese colleagueB who have proved their capability and readiness to accept such a transfer. The boards have generously instructed their representatives on the fields to take such steps and the functions of the foreign missionaries have undergone a great change within the last few years. Many societies have accepted the principle that it is of no use to keep or to send workers to China who are not willing to take second place in every aspect of Christian work, and leave the first place to the well-trained Chinese leaders, who are more than willing to cooperate with foreigners, whose conception is not to boss their formel" employees,

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134 CHANGES IN THE CHINESE CHURCH The rapid increase of Chinese secretaries and the organization of councils a11d conventions over the whole country are the best signs of the developing readineRs of Chinese workers to take up such tasks and to meet such responsibilities as have up to the present time been in the hands of foreign missionaries. Even general supervision of Christian work is now to some extent in the hands of Chinese. Chinese contributions have focreased abundantly. Chmch buildings are being constructed with Chinese money. Chinese secretaries and pastors are making their own financial reports and budget~. Appropriations from foreign boards for work in the fields are being handled by Chinese executive committees or councils with missionaries a!'l advisors. Steps have been taken to make annual cuts on mission appropriations both for city and country work. Property bought by Chinese Christians is owned by the Chinese Church. The transfer of mission property .to the Chinese Church is under discussion by different denominational leaders. Chinf'se leaders and their churches hold the idea that the independence of the Chinese Church is inseparable from self-support. The only way, .therefore; to secure the autonomy of the Chinese Church and its activities is for the Chinese to maintain their own institutions and worship. Spontaneous expression and propaga .tion are now found in all churches throughout the whole country. A Spirit of Union Christianity came to China from many countries and their missionaries represent many denominations. Although Chinese Church members had been taught to believe and stand traditionally and have been acquainted with those facts, yet they have now grown tired of so many divisions. A great craving for the union of Christian churches in China exists everywhere. Union began in medical and educational work, it is now affecting the church and evangelistic work. Provincial conventions and federations have been in existence in many fields for many years. People are not talking so much now about their.own denomination. Both Chinf'se fl.ncl foreigner8 have :'!eAn that ChriEitin.n effolts in

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CHANGES .IN THE CHINESE CHURCH 135 China should not conflict with but help each other. The organization of churches as in Kwangtung and other provinces under the name of "Chinese Christian Church," in which foreigners and Chinese from many denominations and different nationalities join, is only one of the outstanding si!{llS of the desire for unity in the name of Christ. He
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136 CHANGES IN THE CHINESE CHURCH work in their own way. We rejoice in whatever truths we find in China's old religions which are not contrary to Christian principles. The study of Confucian and other doctrines has affected the Christian believers both in the experience of their lives and in their knowledge of God, and has thus greatly influenced the present situation. Books dealing with Christian truths have been pro duced by Confucian scholars, and many Ohrist.ians have in turn written from their Christian point of view books 011 Buddhism, Confucianism and other religions. Ancestral worship has been adapted and given a Christian content, so that now it take,; on the nature of a memorial service. A number of Christian families have used this method of honoring their ancestOI"s by going twice a year to their graves to hold special services. They feel that these sbrvices do not in any wa.y conflict with their Christian ideas and do open the door for Confncianists more easily to understand and accept Christianity by approaching it along an avenue already familiar to them. The writer l,elieves that there will be more and more Christians who will make this adaptation of ancestral worship, so that it will be a help rather than a hindrance to the development of Christianity in China. Christian festivals are now being introduced. Christ mas andEaster day are very widely observed. Arhor day has taken the place of Ts'ing-ming. There are other da.y8, like "Cleaning Up,: day, taking the place of old Chinese non-Christian festivals. Services are hel
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C!HANC+ER JN 'fHE C!HJNERE (lHURCH 137 to extend the movement to the great land of Mongolia. Contributions are paid in monthly by Christians in all the provinces, and auxiliaries have been organized in China and other neigboring countries. There are also many other home missionary societies running evangelistic work in their own fields. The Christian Literature Association is another new organization for promoting the production of Christian literature, both translations and original writings by native writer!". A definite program has been prepared and put before the public. Hundreds of men and women interested in better literature for the Chinese Church are giving to its support. If Christianity is going to gain a foothold in this great land it must utilize as much as possible the natural resources of the Chinese people. Changes must be made in the Church in order to meet the every-day needs of the Chinese. As long as these do not hinder the growth of the Chinese Church, or the vigor and quality of its spiritual life, we should rejoice in their coming. May God leacl the Chinese Church through these days of changes on the way to perfection, so that the eh nrch of His own people will be enlightened by His Glory and strengthened with Hi:,; Power.

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CHAPTER XIII SUPPORT OF CHRISTIAN WORK COMPARED WITH THAT OF CHINESE CEREMONIES AND PRACTICES A, J. B:iwen Obviously the nature of this topic assigned to me, and the real difficulty of getting accurate information and facts, exposes one to the danger of drawing general conclusions from specific cases. Then practice and customs differ widely in this far-flung field of China, and what might be a fairly accurate statement of the case for the Yangtse valley would not likely af)ply to either south or to north China. Then again we are dealing with very private and personal matters when we look into Chinesl:l ceremonies and practices, and individual status, temperame11t, habits and outward compulsion:'!, and many other controlling elements enter into the problem so vitally, that there is no standard, no uniformity, no general agreement as to what is the right amount for a middle-class man to spend on idol worship or on pastoral support for example. When we consider weddings, funerals and feasts necessarily connected with them, practices differ as widely as incomes and as personalities, so that any statements are of doubtful value for purposes of drawing comparisons. On the side of supporting Christian work we have accurate, actual and trustworthy data. And yet here there are no uniform or standardized practices widely applicable. Then again, nearly every denomination has its own practices and standards, widely differing from other denominations, or even the same denomination in diffirent parts of China. Hence, with all of these limitations and difficulties, we must understand that the generalizations indulged in are always open t.o criticism.

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dOMPARATlVE dosr OF CHRiST!AN WORK 139 We have figures, estimates and judgments from some twenty-five pastors, teachers and students and a few foreign observers, dealing with the comparative costs for middle clas8 Chinese of weddings, funerals, idol anrl temple worship, feasts relating to the foregoing, support of the church, and. relativ!:l costs for non-Christians and for Christians in these_ matters. Wedding Expenses The costs for middle-class non-Christians for wedding expenses aie recorded in figure8 varying from as low as $100 to as high as $1,000. The average for all reporting is $394, and all agree that it is considerably cheaper for Chdstians, the reasons being that a good many n:iiscellaneous items of expense are eliminated, and the matter of face seems to bulk a little less with Christ.ians. Also the Christian family more often gives greater care and thought for the. future home, its comforts, conveniences and sanitation, as well as to greater avoidance of a debt. The non-Christian family is more frequently involved in serious debt in or
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140 COMPARATlVE cosr OF CHRISTlAN WORK Cost to the non Christian groout Cost to the Christian groom A. Engagement. a. Fruits, fresh and dry ... $ 70 .................. $ 55 b. Ring, jewelry, etc. .... 35............ ...... 10 c. Feasts .................... 16.................. 6 d. Miscellaneous ........... 10............ ... 4 Wedding Day. a. Articles for the bride .. 260 .................. 145 b. Feast ....................... 185.................. 85 c. Decorations .............. 70 .................. 140 d. Miscellaneous ........... 80.................. 40 $676 $485 Cost to the nonCh1' istian bride Cost to the Ch1istfrm bride Engagement. a. Sweets ..................... $ 20 .............. .... $ -b. Ring ......... ,.............. .................. 10 c. Feast........................ 6 ................. d. Miscellaneous .. .. 5.................. 2 Wedding Day. a. Clothing, etc ............. 500 .................. 150 b. Feast_., ...................... 60 .................. --c. Miscellaneous ............ 40.................. -B. Engagement. $631 Cost to 11011-Christian $162 Cost to ChrisNan a. Money and ornaments .. -.$200 .................. $200 b. Feast........................ 15 ................. .-. 7 c. Miscellaneous ............ 50.................. -

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COMPARATtVE COST Olt CHRIST-tAN WORK 141 \\'eJding Day. a. Bride's clothing ......... $100 .................. $100 b. It'easts ........................ 100.................. 60 c. Food for relatives and helper.,; .................. 20 ................. d. Bridal sedan and deco-rations ................. 30 ................. 20 c. Singing boys .......... .. 18 ................ .. f. li'easts, midrllemen .... .. 10 ................. 10 g. Bridesmaids, tips, etc .. 24 ................ .. h. Tips, food, officials .... .. 5 ................ .. i. Tea .......................... 10 ................ .. j. Miscellaneous ........... 50 ................. 30 $632 $427 These lists are orily illustrative, and the item!'! given by the two parties differ widely-as they would no doubt in every case. Jn the case of the funerals, the general consensus of opinion is that the Christians spend less, but in both cases the expenses are very heavy. The cost as reported ranges from $50 to $800, and the average for all figures given is $263. The two collaborators quoted P,bove give the itemized details which total as follows: Oosl to non-Oh1isti1Jns (1) $49,5 (2) $301 Cos' to Christians (1) $263 (2) $115 It is pointed out that in adJition to a considerable s,wing of expense clue to the elimination of supcrstitiou:; practices, there is a great saving of time and stra.in for the Christians. Temple Worship As to idol and tempie worship, we have figures ranging from $3, the lowest annual expenditure for middle-class people, to as high as $60, the average for all reported being $20, .which perhaps is not far off. The a.mount for e.1.ch individual or family ma.y not be very large, hut the aggregate for a city and even for a, village for jncense alone is very great,

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142 dOillJ:'.ARA'.rIVE cos.r .OF CHRistiAN WORI{ There waR nearly unanimous ngreemen.t on the part of all 1eporting that non-Christians spend more for religious purposes than Christians do for the Church and their religio.n. The only exceptions mentioned {vere where Christians were especially true and earnt~st, and in these cases it was thought that they gave more than a fairly zealous non-Christian. Not a few of UR ha'.ve heard pastorR urge JtR a reason for .joining the chrch, that the cost would ho ve(y little as compitred with \.Vhat they had been paying as non-Christians, and ther1;iis no doubt a sense in which missionaries ha,,e over-f'?tressed the fact. :that the Gospel is free." ll'or rnrious reasons, I fear we have not sufficiently taught the necessity of systematic and proportional giving, as a part of worship and a fundamental condition of spiritual life and growth. One correspondent writes: "When my mother was a believer in these things (idol and temple worship),. she made a schedule, lists of dates for worshippiiig the inany idols, spirits, ancestors, gods, and posted it inside her closet door. She never missed any." Motives Difterent But it is pointed out that the difference in t}i.eireligious life of the non~Christian,and.Jhe Christian is not so much a cfference in the amount of money involved, as in the essential differenc~ of motive. "The primary motive of the non-Christ.ian to worship .an idol is fear and expectancy, obligation and custom; but. fpr, the Christian, it is a free offering a.nd a spirit of servict,." Another writes thn t while Christians give less, they 'give it voluntarily, while much of the giving of the nun,Chr:istian is practically conipulsory\ due to family .inJ!nence or local customs,: '.Christians also give mnch more tlhan just money, they give much tiine and thought and voluntary service for others. Ag_ain, many of, the .Christians have been somewhat westernized, a.1~d tend t_o be more practical an1l sociAl in their giving, and d9 not give.always stri.~.tly for religious purposes. Moreover, it is pointed out, arid observation, I think, c@mfirms thi~, that. Christians are contributing more' 'and more regularly and mm;e syE'tema.tically tha.n ever before. The economic sta.tus .of most Christians ii:i not high,

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COMPARATIVE C08T OF C!IIRTflTIAN WORK 143 but it is noted that as it rises and the Christian hrcomes mon, intelligent as to the object and pnrposes of the Church, unless prosperity makes him more worldly, he grows appreciably in the grace of giving. This fact, coupled with the added fact that his giving is motivated from within, not from outward compubions, and from love, not from fear, seems to indicate that the financing of the Chinese Church from indigenous sources is only a question of time and education and economic well-being. In organization, expressional activities, human motivation, appeal and mer;sage the Christian Church in China is as yet largely foreign, and the wonder is that it has so large a following and such generous financial support. The deepening, the spiritnalizing, the 'Chinaizing' of the Church is bound in due time to bring forth treasures far in excess of what the native religions arc able to call forth.

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CHAPTER XIV TflE GROWTH OF INTERCOMMUNION A, R. K~pler Value of Survey A periodic stunominations are maintaining in common; it is also of value as an index of the progress in the de-denominationalizing of Protestant Christianity in Uhina, a process which is of interest to us all. It is very difficult to tabulate the growth of intercommunion, as the process is not uniform throughout any communion. In each denomination one will still find some who maintain the obsolescent attitude of cordial aloofness toward all fellowships other than their own; whilst among those sects whose historic attitude has been most exclusive there are many who personally favor unrestricted intercommunion. Spirit of Survey In submitting this survey it is impossible not to be specific if the report is to have value. In referring to the denominations by name it is not done in an invidious spirit. Those of us who plead for 100% intercomniunion need nevertheless to realize the fact that those who cannot travel that way with us are restrained by conscient,ious reasons, reasons which, though they may not seem valid to us, we :;,hould p.everthe less respect. Time did not permit an exhaustive survey. We did not, therefore, seek data from every one of the hundred and more ecclesiastical units that are being rooted in China. ,ve tried to secure information from the score of leading denominations only, whose communicant membership after all composes the n1ajor portion of Chinese Protestant Christianity.

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Unlimited Intercom-munion c-rnowrH OF IN'l'ERCOMMUNION 145 Among these, all Congregational, Methodist and Presbyterian groups, the English Baptist and the American Baptist (North), the Church of Christ in China, which is a union of denominations from among the above, including other communions beside,a, and which is an effort to unite the Protestant Churches in China organically and most of the Churches afliliated with the C.I.M., observe a policy of unlimited intercommunion. In the r~ception of communi cants from other denominations, they make no other requirement than that the applicant provide a letter of transfe1 from the dismis;;ing church testifying he is in good standing. They likewise give to those of their members who request it a letter of transfer to other fellowships. They have no restrictions in administering the Holy Communion to members of other churches, or in receiving communion administered by clergy of other affiliations. They participate in union communion Ser vices when sur:h occasions present themselves. They have a free interchange of pulpits. Thev engage with the other denominations in joint retreats for the deepening of the spiritual life. Lutherans Closed Communion Among the Lutheran bodies, there is a wide variation in practice depending upon the part:cular branch of the Church, or upon the particular individual within the Church. One correspondent writes:-" To speak for the Lutheran Church as a unit is not easy. Not even in those missions which have been instrumental in organizing the Chung Hwa Sin I Hwei (an organization which we hope will some day embraee all Lutherans in China) can there be said to be uniformity of practice. This will be easily understood when it is borne in mind that the missionaries hail from the following countries in Europe: l!'inland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, and from severttl synods in America, all of which retain more or less of the peculiarities carried over from the European national churches from which they have sprung. In their doctrinal basis all Lutherans occupy the !'lame ground, accP.pting as they all do the A ugsburg Confession. But in regard to

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146 GROWTH OF INTERCOMMUNJON qtiestions of ecclesiastical practice there is much divergence." Some of these Lutheran Sects are as absolute in their practices of intercommunion as are the denominations previously named, while there are some that are 100% exclusive. For example, one correspondent reports that special inst,uctions and confirrnat-ion are required from communicants of other denominations who would unite with them; that it is not the practice to give letters of transfer to their mem hers; that not any believer in good and regular standing ma.y receive communion with them; that their members are not encouraged to commune with non-Lutheran bodies; that it is not their custom to participate in union communion services: that they do have restrictions as to exchange of pulpits "; that they do participate in joint retreats for the deepening Of the spiritual life, though not generally favored ; that whilst the attitude in Uhina has been more inclusive than in the Home Church," .. "the present tendency is toward greater strictness in conforming to the practice of our Church." Luth~rans -Opm Communion While the above may be the authorized attitude of some or most of the Lutheran bodies in China -yet within these selfsame exclusive sects of the Lutheran Faith are m1ss10naries who write.-" In some churches the slogan would be: Lutheran altars for Lutheran communicants only,' yet many missionaries, perhaps a majority, would welcome visiting members of other evangelical churches. 'fhe Chinese would go farther than the missionaries in this respect. While it is not the practice of our denomination, as such, to participate in union communion services, individuals would participate as individuals: some missions, perhaps, as missions. The majority, would share in joint retreats; but not an inconsiderable faction among the missionaries would, however, hesitate. Theoretically, I believe in full intercommunion, but were intercommunion to result in laxity as to Christian teaching and life, as some, perhaps, not without reason, fear; it would be harmful. Then, restrictions would be preferable." Never theless, "the Chinese leaders, while accepting the Lutheran

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GROWTH OF iNTERCOMM:t.lNION 147 principles on interchange of membership, would probably in .actual practice be found to incline to greater liberality than the missionaries." Another writes:-" I hold that the ,vhole Chinese Church is in hearty sympathywith intercommunion.Th~ Chinese clergy and laymen tell us often that the foreig11 missionaries with their denominational tendencies are the only. hi11drance to the coming together of the whole Christian Community .throughout China,. Nevertheless; church history shows \ls that denominationalism has been a great influence in the quickening of the life of the Church of Christ." Discipfas The Disciples of Christ, a brotherhood forn1f.ld to do away with sectarianism, is at present by direct fiat .from the "Home Church and irrespective b('tl1e convicti011s of the missionaries or _the C,hinese Christians, obliged to adopt a policy, which permits the reception into their brotherhood of immersed believers only. This sect in all other respects participates in intercommunion observances. The Southern Baptist Convention submitted S. B. C no replies to our several inquiries. It is understood that, denominationally, their practice is to receive no 011!3 into their membership without immersion; to administer commm'ilon.only to immersedbelievers and tq participate. only 'in such communion services as are confined :to'imrnersed believers. They discourage partici~ pation in intercommunion activities, believing that:-"Our points of distinctiveness are where we are'stiong." Within the Anglican Communion, th(l Anglican practice in mat.ters of intercommunion _varie_s in the various dioceses. However, there is no variation from the standard of reception to church-membership .which requires confirmation.by the bishop .. Are their own membera given letters of transfer to other communions? "No, not common,'' says one bishop, the two other bishops replied unequivocally in the aJlirmative. -As _to .the exchange of pulpits/' the. bishop's permissi9n nn1st iii

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148 GlWWTH OF INTERCOMMUNION all cases be secured first. In some of the dioceses the bishop has issued a standing permission. They "gladly participate in joint retreats for the deeprning of the spiritual life, and welcome the occasional reception by non-conformists of the Holy Communion administered by Anglican clergy. On the que0tion of participation in union communion services, or of their members partaking of communion administered by non-conformist clergy, the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui has very clearly stated its position in a specially prepared tract,-" The Lambeth Appeal and Resolution on Reunion." On page 14 we read:-" We may perhaps be allowed to quote from a careful memorandum on this point of intercommunion drawn up by t.he Bishops in China in 1913, (i.e. by the seven Bishops actually in China at the time, four being absent,), for the guidance of our own people, because it will l1elp others to under~tand our attitude. 'Every Diocese of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, while chedshing a spirit of Christian love and i:1f constant prayerfulness towards all who confess the Name of Christ, should exercise patienc,e and self-restraint in this mattn of intercommunion, m'i~il our Lord Himself shall make plain to us all that 'flis time for bestowing such an inestimable blessing has come: thus we may be free to give effect to the desires of our hearts without imperilling the unity which already exists. If any member of the Chiing Hua Sheng Kung Hiii receives the Holy Comintmion in cinothe1 Church w-ithout the Bi:shop's sanction, he is the1eby compromising not onl.11 his own loyalty to h.ia own Chnrch, but ctlso to some extent the loyalty of hi~ Diocese to its own Communion.'" In view of this memorandum by the Bishops, it is encouraging to note that though there iR "corporate" conformity to the dictum -there are not a few (a growing number) departures therefrom in the practicei'l of individ uals among both the clergy and the laity.

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HROWTH OF INTERCOMMU:lil"ION 149 Chines? Opinion The data for this survey have been secured solely from missionary sources. Had we sought instead to diRcover what the Chinese leadership in our several churches think on intercom munion, there would be but one report, it would be unanimous. The replies from Chinese sources unqualifiedly indicate a desire for nothing short of complete, unrestricted intercommunion. To the question,~" From your experience, do you believe that the Chinese Church is inclined to stand for non-communion with other ecclesiastical bodies?" I received only one affirmative reply and that was -" Where so instructed, yes." All the replies, including those of three Anglican bishops, were a categorical ''no." One of the Chinese replied-" no, absolutely no." "I do not believe for a moment,,: writes one, that the Chinese Christian Church, when standing free on its own intelligence, will tolerate non-communion with other ecclesiastical bodies. I have heard Chinese Roman Catho lics, earnest men too, say that they and the Protestants would all be one church in the future. 'l'hese are men who gladly .take communion and have fellowship with ns in our churches now.'' In view of this consensus of opinion, why delay the inevitable, especially since the inevitable in this case brings only what is good and what most of us believe to be the will of Christ ? Necessary Steps Mutual recognition of each other's minis tries, unconditional intercommunion, these must precede any successful effort to unite the divided communions of Evangelical Christianity. "When our Lord hung upon the cross, the soldiers gambled for His robe! What became of that robe? Tradition has woven strange stories about that garment, as it has about the Holy Grail. Suppose by a series of strange providences the robe of Jesus had been miraculously guarded through nineteen hundred years, and had finally become the possession of our beloved Church. At some ~reat conference or assembly, where differing groups are gathered, we see the robe in evidence. Each group claims it for its own. There is bitterness, and there is anger, and there is even violence. Each group makes a rush foi; the

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150 GROWTil: OF' lNTElWOMMUNION robe, -each seizes it, and between them they tear it asunder. The sound of that tear, the shriek of it, is .heard through the whole Christian world. We have come perilously near to doing something worse. To rend the seamless robe which Jesus wore' would be terrihle-but how about rending His Body'?

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PART IV MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES CHAPTER XV THE PRESENT STRENGTH, DISTRIBUTION AND AGE OF THE MISSIONARY BODY S. J. MiUs The figures on which the comparisons in this article are made are based on the lists in the Directory of Protest.ant Missions in China for the year 1918 and 1925; In 1918 there was a total of 6,395 Strength rn1ss10naries. By 1925 this number had grown to 8,158, an increase of 27-1/2% in seven years. It is interesting to note that while the World Missionary Atlas (1925) lists 138 societies worldng in China, the Directory of Protestant Missions (1925) lists 200 different organizations. This would seem to explain in part why the Atlas gives the total number of missionaries in 1925 aR 7 ,663, the Directory as 8, 158. Since 1918, 11 missions have disappeared, 7 missions have joined with other bodies and 21 new missions have been listed. Missions The missions whose names have disappeared Discontinued from the list in the China Mission Year Book between 1918 and 19:25 are as follows:-(1) Angarrack Christian Mission (Japanese). (2) Baptist Missionary Association. (3) Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion. (This mission has recently resumed work in Shanghai). (4) Christian Faith Mission. (5) China New Testament l\Iission. (6) Grace Evangelical Missions. (7) Grace Mission. (8) Hildersheim MisBion for Blind.

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152 THE MISSIONARY RODY (9) Kiel China Mission. (10) Pitts burg Bible Institute Mission. (11) Pentecost Church of Nazerene. N Ml i The following are missions that do not ew ss ons appear in the 1918 China Mission Year Book. I. Missions with stations dat.ed later than 1918. Niqnber of ll1i8siona.ries (1) Good News' Mission 3 (2) Baptist China Dinict Mission 11 (3) Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society 3 (4) Bible Mission 2 (5) Christian Mission to Buddhists 3 (6) Christian Reformed Mission 12 (7) Hephzibah Faith Mission 3 (8) Krinmen Mennonite Brethren 5 (9) Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Protestant Church 2 {10) Missionary Society of Orebro 10 {11) Pai-Hsiang Mission 2 (12) Pentecostal Holiness Mission 9 (13) South China Peniel Holiness Missionary Society 7 (14) South Yunnnn Mission 6 (15) Tibetan Forward Mission 4 (16) Tibetan Tribes' Mission 2 II. Missions whose names appear in the China Mission Year Book since 1918, but with some stations given as having been established earlier than 1918. (1) Church of Nazerene 22 (2) Evangelical Lutheran Mission 1 (3) Mennonite Brethren Church 9 (4) Pentecostal Assemblies of the World 12 (5) Pentecostal Missionaries 36 There were 26 missions in which there was an increase of at least two stations, and 9 missions in which there was a decrease of at least two stations. In 1918 there were 979

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THE :MISSIONARY BODY 153 stations in which missionaries resided, with two others vacant: in 1925, there were 1,133 stations in which mis siol'iaries resided, with 42 extra marked vacant. A large proportion of these vacant stations are connected with the C. I. M. and affiliated missions. Taking the ten large cities, Peking, 'l'ien Distribution tsin, 'fsinan, Na.nking, Shanghai, Hankow, Wuchang, Chengtu, Foochow and Canton, the figures show that there has been an increase in staff in these cities of approximately 54 % as contrasted with the general increase in the whole missionary body of 27-1/2%. These figures would show that there is still a tendency towards urban centralization in the work of the missions. As to the direction in which the general increase in mission stations has taken place, it would seem that all sections of the country have shared in this increase. Of the 8,158 missionaries in the 1925 Age Director.v, 4,(54-7, or 56%, came out to China before or during 1918: 44% of the present missionary staff, therefore, arrivecl in China during the last seven years. It was reported to the National Christian Con ference that 50% of the miRsionaries had arrived.in China during the previous Um years. The turnover in missionary personnel appears to be rather large. Of the total force, 1,306 or 16%, are ordained. According to the 1925 book, 1,392 people, or 1710, were absent that year from China. In 192,5, there were 562 single mP-n, or 6-4/5 % of the total; this is only slightly in excess of the percent.age reported to the National Christian ConfcrencP. There are 2,548 single women, or 31-1/4% o[ the whole; this also is about the same as that reported in the survey volume. In 1925, 58 stations were staffed by women only and there were 29 stations staffed by women only in places where there were members of other missions: i.e. nearly 8% of the stations were staffed by women only. Fifty-six stations, formerly occupied by missions, were vacant in 1925.

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CHAPTER XVI TENDENCIES IN MISSION POLICY AS SHOWN IN MISSION REPORTS OF 1925 Warren H. Stuart Mission Minutes Ploughing through hundreds of pages of mission minutes leaves one with two irnpressions--a i:ense of relief that the ploughing is over arid a sense of gratitude over progress made in the missionary movement. For while the minutes "deal mainly with details of administration which would be hardly intelligible outside our own circle," here and there one comes upon actions of h1terest and significance to a much wider group. Taken in the large, we see real advance, and that mostly in the direction of turning over the enterprise into Chinese Christian hands. Such advance, however, has not been the same at every point. Like a military line it is full of salients intermixed with old sections strongly held. But in every other sen!'!e this military metaphor is a paradox; for foreign missions is the only profession in the world that is working for its own extinction, an.d every advance is a step towards self-effacement. It reminds ime of the game we used to play as children, "losing checkers." Perhaps no single year in all the history of missions in China has seen such sweeping chauges in nH:ntal attitudes as has 1925. The psychological landscape has needed an autoist's eye rather than a pedestrian:s. A rather rapid evolution was already in evidence amongst, thoughtful forward-looking people during the first half of the year; the May 30 ".incident servell to speed up changes till in some quarters they seem like revolution. Background The background of these policy-actions is to be found in the Anti-Christian Movement,

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'l'ENDENCIES m MISSION POLICY 155 race prejudice, unequal treaties," rising nationalism, Bolshevist propaganda, foreign exploitation, superiority and inferiority complexes." The following cures have been suggested by an influential group in Shanghai; good government, education, development of resources, sympathy and love, liberty, an fodigenous church, education of foreigners in Oriental life and culture, organization for bP.tte.r international cooperation. A "fair sample of the missionary itttituclic.i is rieen in the following from the Report of the Christian Literature Society: '' In the ln.st analysis the problem of t:he antis Christian movement must be solved by the indigenous church. All the greater pity that anti-foreign feeling should becloud this great issue and divert its attention from its main task. We believe that where any estrangement between church and mi~sionar-ies has unhappily arisen, this is only a temporary phase. But naturally the movement towards an independent church has been greatly strengthened by the events of the year. The atmosphere is favorable to secession. 'J'he power of purse, usually held by missionaries as trustees for the Home Boards, is more and more 1esented. It is felt on all hands that there is a great lack of effective Chinese leadership able to take over responsibilities, financial and otherwise, from the foreign pastors and doctors. It is alleged that the foreign type of organization gives lit.tle scope for the genius of the Chinese people. Be this as it may, our Society is desirous of providing Chinese workers with a larger opportunity for the exercise of initiative. We are seeking for closer relation with the Chinese churches and leaders. 'l'hns we are pushing a campaign for a sustaining Chinese membership who will nominate Chinese on our Board of Directors, and Chinese ecclesiatical bodies who wish to cooperate with us by giving men or money will be given opportunity to do so, with the privilege of representation on the Board of Directors. We have a Chinese circulation manager who is devoting his time to the cultivation of Chinese churches and pastors."

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156 Missionaries' Children TENDENCIES IN MISSION POLICY An inductive study of such reports as al'e available from the missions shows the follow ing trend_s in mission policy for the past year: 1. Increased attention to the welfare of missionaries' child,.en. This is evidenced in several ways. In several missions a special roster of the children is kept, with such changes as are needed from year to year. The East China Mission (Baptist) conducts at its annual meeting a "chil flren's hour.'' "An historical resume of the children of the mission, from the beginning, was given. Dr. Goddard, the oldest child present, spoke of the children of his day, and either friends or parents reeponded with present news of the succeeding childl'en as their names were called. This service made the children all so real, binding them closer to us, and we hope will be the means of rnaldng them feel that they are a very important part of the mission." Schools for missionary children are found in Shanghai, Hangchow, Nanking, Kuling, Canton, Tunghsien (near Peking) and elsewhere, for which careful provision is being made. Several missions record actions looking towards the placing of capable Bible teachers in these strategic spheres. It would seem that those bom-in-China in the present and future are far better circumstanced than their fellows of a generation ago, for whom Chefoo gave the chance for education this side of the homeland. Rest-Periods More efficiency in the use of rest-periods. Fur-lough study grants are recorded for a number of workers. One mission at least has a furlough study committee to advise as to the best use of such grants. In this connection we may also note an inereasing use of retreats for deepening fellowship in the spiritual life and the attitude of mutual help, rather than that of a majority vote, in the solution of problems. Substitution of Chinese Substitution of highly-qua.lifted Chinese Joi missionaries in all branches of th1 service. We know of many specific instances of this being done, togreat advantage. The Hunan Mission of the American Presbyterian Mission, North, makes it a matter of definite policy:

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TENDENCIES IN MISSION POT,ICY 157 "In view of the availability of well-trained Chinese workers in increasing numbers, and in view of the intensifying 1,pirit of nationalism now abroad, making it more desirable even than heretofore that, all other things being equal, our educational staff should be very largely Chinese, we request that as a matter of policy the Board consider increasing very substantially the amount available from the Substitute Workers' Fund, and decreasing the number of mission aries sent out according as it may see. fit." Similar action was ta.ken by the North China Kung Li Hui (Uongregatio11a1) (Chinese and missionary combined.) In reply to a suggestion from the Kiangan Mission of the American Presbyte1ian Mission, North, the China Council says: It is our jutlgment that in principle and in practical effect the arlmission of Chinese to membership in the China Council is akin to admission to membership in the mission and open to the same objections, chief among which is that the transfer of leading Chinese from church to mission organization would tend to the strengthening of the foreign temporary organhation at the expense of the Church, the permanent organization.-In principle, however, there can be little or no objection to inviting Chinese in for consultation purposes in either mission or council.1 Chlnesi Control Putting adrninistratii:e control into Chinese hands. There is a decided rlrift in this direc tion, particularly with schools and evangelistic funds. Yale-in-China, Yenching, Shantung and Nanking Universitie!:l seem to be taking the lead in this respect, with Boards the majority of whose membership is Chinese. The Council of Higher Education recommends that all colleges at once take steps to carry out the first four of the new regulations, calling for a Chinese president or vice-president and a majority of the directors Chinese. The Shantung Mission of the American Presbyterian Mission, Nort.h, reports that Boards of Directors, the membership of which is more than. one-half Chinese, are working successfully in five institutions besides the university. Four schools above primary grade1 and many of

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158 TENDENCIES IN. MISSION POLICY highe1' primary grade, are under Chinese principal8. The executive faculty of Yi Wen school, Chefoo, has six Chinese and three Ammicans on itH r
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'.rENDENCIES IN MISSION POLICY 159 National Committee. The three big things done this past year, namely the turning over of the budget to the China National Committee as in the nature of a grant, the proposed transfer to the National Committee of the two pieces of property now hekl by the National Board, but which were bought and intended fur the use of the China National Committee's work, and the adoption of the policy that no American money shall be paid for Chinese secretarit>s' salaries a.re certainly in line with this. If t he::;e three things are granted, I do not myself see that we could ask for any further change/' School ,Judging by the reports, this is looked upon Registration as eminently desirable, the only question being whether the advantnge to be ga.ined is worth the price required. This again turns upon the question as to just what the regulations mean. Here we find perhap8 the most crucial problem in missionary circles to-day -"to be or not to be'' registered. Speaking of the colleges, "it is quite certain that registration will be impossible, unless compulsory attendance on religions exercises and required classes in religious iniltruction of a propagandist natme are discontinued." Nothing appears in thn mission minutes that we have seen conceming college registration, hut from what we can learn we hazard the guess that most, if not all, will register under the governmf'nt regulations. As to middle and primary school8, several missions are urging (provincial) registration "if the conditions are advantageous, and there is no sacrifice of principle.:, In a number of places such as Hunan, Nanking, Hangchow, Hainan, etc., diplomas from mission schools have been stamped by provincial authorities a form of government recognition. One mission ~1rges friendly welcome and facilities for all government inspectors visiting the Christian schools. Treaty Revision Many missions and Chinese-foreign: church bodies* have expressed themselves openly in favor of revision, others have reserved their jt1dgment for the Home Board, and others declined to pass $ee Appendix III, China Christian Year Book, 1926.

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160 TENDENCIES IN MISSION POLICY upon "a political question." The following is a fair sample of the motions passed : "We, the undersigned missionarins of the Board of Foreign Missions and the Woman's Foreign l\lissionary Society in the Central China Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, desire to make following statement: 1. We hope that the Conference on Extraterritoriality to be held in Peking in December will deal not only with that question, but will widen its scope to include the revision of treaties so that all discriminations against the Chinese people shall he abolished as soon as reasonably passible. 2. In our opinion it would be beneficial to the Christian Church in China if, in the revision of the treaties, the clauses granting toleration and special privileges to Christians should not be re-enacted. We believe that these clauses are now not only unnecessary, but a source of misunderstanding, and a.re detrimental to the spiritual development of the church. 3. \Ve, as missionaries, depend not upon military pressure or unequal treaties, but solely upon the value of Olll' message and the goodwill of the Chinese people. 4. Our financial support is in no way connected with government funds, nor n.rn we n.gcnts, in n.ny mannur, either of our govnrnment or of the commercial interests of our country. If possible, we desire the official represent,a tives of the United States to make these facts known to the Chinese Government. Further, we would express the hope that in the revised treaty these facts regarding the relation of missionaries to their govrrnments be clearly stated." This p1esents a knotty problem on which Literature mission reports are generally silent. Of any large comprehensive policy there is little evidence only items about some particular book or writer. The need for more literature is keenly felt, and the subject has been much discussed in '' retreats '' for some years past. On the one hand, it is felt that organizations suppling the funds for publishing must hold themselves responsible for all idea,; and points of view going out under their -imprinwt111. On

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'l'E:N"DENClES lN Mtsslo:N" POLICY Hit the other hand, there is felt a desire for free untrammeled expression of Chinese reactions to Christian truth, in indigenous form and s~yle. There ha.s appeared in the past year, in addition to the Christian Literature Society, the Society for the Advancement of Christian Literature, with headquarters in Peking, -a group of younger Chinese writers responsible to no other organization than their own. They now get out a monthly magazine, and contem plate the issuing of several books. As to publishing, the Commercial Press has offered quite liberal terms of finance, royalty and selling opportunity. Miscellaneous On the question of using the British Boxer Indemnity for mission schools, we finri diametrically opposit.e opinions. Agricultural education and the problem of the rural church awaken a keener interest than in former years. The only specific item in. medical policy that we have noticed stresses health campaigns an
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CHAPTER XVII THE CHANGING FUNCTION OF THE MISSIONARY Logan H. Roots In preparing this article I have had the very great help of carefully written replies from a number of representative missionaries and Chinese Christian leaders to the question, "In what respect, if n.ny, do you think the function of the missionary in China is changing? .Medical men anrl teachers as well as evangelists and administrators, laymen as well as clergy, women and men, and those whose experience has been in widely separatt>d parts of China are among those who have thus assisted me. writing from widnly different point::; of Yiew their opinions on the main issues dealt with in this article are for the most part in l:ltriking harmony with one another. This harmony has helped not a little in clarifying and strengthening my own views, which I am glad of this opportunity to record, and leads me to believe that what 1 have written represents a very considerable comernms of opinion. Emergence of Chinese Leadership l. REASONS FOR. CHANGE There are now Chinese Christians of the second or even third gcmeration, me~ and women too, educated and able and eager to take re!:'ponsibility-the best of them equal to any of the missionaries in ability, training and devotion, and with constituencies of Chinese Christian.~ or other friends and supporters rcar1y to follow their lead. The number of such leaders is altogether too small, with the result that these few arc greatly overtaxed. Doubtless there arc also some who want t.o take responsibility and who are not ready for it. Nothing hurts the Church more than to make an unwise choice of leaders, trusting those who are not really sufficiently capable, or

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CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNC'.L'ION 163 who, being capable, are not really conscientious and trm,tworthy. But when all is saiu, there are probably more capable and trustworthy men than we have thus far used: it is manifestly wise and necessary to take risks in securing leader;--;hip; and it iR of the utmost importance that we find and give responsibility to those who are, or may become, capable of bearing it. This means that, in relation to these men, the function of the missionary is changing. The Development of National Consciousness If it was true, as teachers of modern history were. saying forty. years ago, that the most significant change in the modern life of Europe was the development of national self-con sciousness in Germany, it can hardly be an exaggeration to f'a.y that the most Rignificant change in modern international relationships is the development of natimial self-con1miousness in China. Its implications are very. far-reaching, and touch every aspect of both the internal and the international life of China. Not least is it significant for the Christian Movement. Doubtless there are aspects of church life which look as if some of the Chinese desire to control things, while expecting the foreigners or thP rni~siona1y societies to pay the bills. This may actually be the case in some iiistances, but should not bliml UR to the urgent neecl of replacing foreign by Chinese control in the Chureh as soon as possible. F'oreign control exaggerates the foreign a.s.pectR of the Chnrch in China, and in the eyes of patrioti.c Chinese, the foreign aspect of the Church, (either in fact or in repute) injures its standing both for individual Christians and for congregations or larger groups of Christians, Only as the Church can become as truly Chinese in China as it is F~nglish in England, German in Germany or American in America can it overcome this handicap. '.l'o this end Chinese leadership must be encourager!, in order to ensure for the Church both the outward form and the inward spirit which can be recognized as truly Chinese. One of my correspondents, a prominent Chine,ie layman, writes "Give the Chinese a chance to lead and make Christianity in China a Chinese1 not .3, foreign movement,"

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164 CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNCTION Only so can Christianity hope to enter so fully into the life of the nation as to enable it to transcend its national limits and become a constructive element in the international life of mankind. All this simply emphasizes the fact that the function of the. missionary has changed and must continue to change as the national consciousness of the Chinese develops. II. THE KIND OF CHANGE CALLED FOR Mission Pclky The following quotation from the findings of the recent Mott Conference* on Mission Policy indicates the profound change which has al ready taken place in the function of the missionary. "l\1:issionaries of the highest spiritual and intellectual qualities are more than ever needed in China. As to his spirit and attitude, the missionary should be preeminently a man of humble, loving, accommodating spirit; He should, (1) Be willing loyally to serve under Chinese administrative control. (~) Be willing to accept responsibiiity for such administrative tasks as the Chinese Church may assign, and only such tasks. (3) Be eager to yield up administrative postitions to the Chinese more rapidly than the Chinese may express a desire that 'he do so. (4) Minimize official status and emphasize personal service; he should have a passion for friendship.'; Attitude Towards Missionaries It is interesting to see how unmistakably the Chinese express themselves as still wanting missionaries, t and, as one of my correspondents writes, "having great hope, .. that they will meet t-he new demands of the new. times *Shanghai, January, 1926. tSee Chinese Recorder, May Hl26, page 310,

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CHANnINCl MISSIONARY FUNCTION 165 What these demands are the findings set forth with startling vividness. I can hardly imagine any group of responsible people stating the qualifications for missionaries in China in such terms as these prior to 1925. The task of the Christian missionary from abroad may be for from completed, but everything he does will have to be done, if it is to be most effective, with a new orientation. Hitherto his home base,'' meaning thereby the Church in the West which sent him to China, has been the chief factor in determining both his message and his method;_ for "the Chinese Church," as we now think of it, hardly existed, or at any rate had not become to any considerable extent r-:df-conscious until very rel~ently. Henceforth this new creation of our Master's Spirit must occupy the foreground of the Christian enterpri,;e as a whole in China, and be the actual determining factor in the missionary's life and work. Of course he must maintain close touch with his '' home base" and with the great Church outside China; and he must still often perform the functions of pioneer, teacher and leader; but the Chine,;e Church, inspired by the patriotic fervor which only Christ can purify and stir to iti:: most beneficent activity, should determine, at least indirectly, every activity of the Christian forces in China. lVIy correspondents have been almost unanimous about this, and I try in the following pargraphs to indicate how this may be done. III. PrnNIIERING Unreached Centres The days of pioneering are still at hand, with vast regions still unevangelized and especially with the problems of reaching the many untouched classes in country places and in crowded cities still unsolved. One missionary writes "It seems to me that in the very near future the foreign evangelist will need eitl1er to retire, or to move on to unoccupied fields, but under the direction of the native church.'' Another writes: '' It may be desirable fOl" the missiona1ies still l.o pioneer new fields of work and new types of service, but if they do, it should be with the full approval and cooperation

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166 CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNC'l'ION of existing Chinese Christian bodies. One of the most difficult tasks of the Chinese Church is that of assimilating the vast system of "'estern Christian conceptions, met.hods and institutiomi the missionary has already bequeathed it. This burden should not be further increased without assurance that respon~ible Chinese bodies want it, and are prepared to accHpt an increasing share of responsibility for it." In the larger Churches, with their national and provincial as well as local organizations, the place of the missionary will not be difficult to determine. Date of Change A missionary of unusually wide experience in China writes of the change in the function of the missionary:-" The changes are coming rapidly in the older districts, more slowly in the newer, but the trend everywhere is, I believe, similar. Certain missions and churches by their organization make it easier, others make it more difficult, for changes to come, but as far as I have experience, the tendency in all churches and 'missions is in the :-:ame direction. Ordained mission aries, men and women evangelistic workers will take their place side by side with Chinese workers of similar grade and training. They will be members of committees, councils, synods, or general ai;,semblies of their Church, and be eligible for any official position or any form of service to whieh the Church, through its regular channels, may appoint them. They will receive appointment fron1, ancl render their report to, the council or other recognized organization or authority of the Chinese Church." IV. TRAINING, LEADING, DIRECTING Work of Missionary For the past thirty years the characteristic work of the missionary has been more and more that, of training, leading and directing Chinese Christian workers rather than that of doing the work directly himself. This is obviously as it should be in the seconrl stage of the missionary enterprise. Equally obviot1s is it that someone must continue this wmk, and

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CHANGING l\IISS!ONARY FUNCTION 167 that some Chinese have shown themselves fully equal to such responsibilities. This is true in every department of the Church's life and work. Some of the most effective evangelists and paEtors, teachers, physicians and surgeons, nurses and even administrators, as well as thinkers an
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168 CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNCTION The most pathetic and sometimes bitter Criticism criticism of missionary work is that which comes from Chinese who feel that even while the obvious duty and privilege of the missionary was to train and lead, he deliberately withheld the training which even the most gifted and devoted Chinese Christian requires in order to be fit for leadership. The training should be equal to what the missionary has received., Can any missionary hereafter fulfil his calling in China without doing something to see t.hat at least some of the Chinese young men and women of his acquaintance are assisted on their way to the best training the Church anywhere affords its prospective leaders? eh. d There is real danger at the present time inese an f f "b"l" Ch" 1 d Responsibility o orcmg respons1 1 1ty on rnese ea ers before they are ready for it. The more unselfish and generous-minded the missionaries, and the more sensitive all concerned are to the growing national consciousness, the greater will this danger be. An experienced missionary writes, after pointing out the need that missionaries have confidence in the guidance of the Holy Spirit and in the devotion of their Chinese brethren:-" At the 8ame time, we need the wisdom of serpenLs. l\Iuch disappointment and harm to the Church has come in the past through unwise choice of leaders, and the more or less blind trust of individuals. Here too, I think, we need to combine insight i11to character and trust in the good judgment of the Chinese people, who understand the prospective leaders in most cases better than we do." Responsible Chinese leaders are the first to recognize the importance of this point, and in many cases are pleading that difficult tasks .-b.e committed to those best able to perform them, whether foreigners or Chinese. They urge that no false modesty, or self-depreciation, or undue attention to nationalistic f P.eling, induce missionaries to thrust responsibilities on Chinese who are not able to carry them. Such haste hlll'ts those whom it is intended to help, and ultimately tends to postpone the day when capable Chine8e leadership shall come into.its own.

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CHANCIJNG MJSSTONARY FlTNOTJON 169 v. BEING A li'RIEND Missionary as In the earliest stages of m1ss10nary work A Friend being a friend was necessarily but a small part of the missionary's task, for friendship implies a kind of mut.uality which pioneer conditions rarely afford. For many years, however, being a friend has been the primary element in the misiciionary's calling in China.. The time is at hand when, as a missionary writes, "only those who really love the Chinese people and are willing to pay the priee of becoming intimate friends to some of them will be able to stay." The same writer says: "'fhc function of a missionary as an ambassador of Christ remains as before. But he must exercise that function in ways which involve a change of emphasis in method. His efforts to reveal Christianity through inst.itntions must be more indirect than before; he will have a decreasing share in directing the institutions he haR been instrumental in founding; but his relation to them can be as vital as ever, through the vitality he may transmit to those who t.ake over the control of these institutions. He cannot transmit a vitality which is not abounding in his own life, nor can he do it without maintaining a close contact with those he would inspire. I know of no easy method by which either of these conditions can be fulfilled; it seems to me to be in that realm of personal, self-effacing, untiring, i.oyal, service-filled friendship.'' Unofficial Advice Another missionary gives the follo,ving summary of the kind of service which a misRionary can render in friendly contacts with Chinese leaders, groups or organizations:-'' (a) Determining emphasis in thinking or planning. (b) Getting their perspective as regards the whole task and as regards other similar groups.

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170 CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNCTION (c) Information sympathetically given as to results in the past, and in other countries of certain plans or efforts along certain lines. (d) Tact and sympathy in helping them whether as individuals or groups, to make the best of an awkward situation created by mistaker-i. (e) Encouragement and stimulus at any cost to make first things first." All of which is of course dependent on having the skill and experience which is worth communicating, and the friendliness which is an essential eonclition of being able to impart anything. M i The chief service of a friend is that of an 1ss onary an t d b f t l f Interpretor rn~er.pre er an. a earer o spir1 ua g1 ts. A m1ss10nary wntes. Among these 8158 ~issionaries in China surely there are many who by temperament and training and intere5t are capable of becoming skilled interpreters of Christianity to the young and inexperienced Chinese Church. How many of these missionarjes, however, are engaged in this task? Too large a proportion of our missionary workere are engaged primarily in administrative tasks. As active and able administrators they are in constant danger of adding to the external frame.work of Christia,nity, whereas there is a far greater need now of i,trengthening and enriching the inner life of the Church. The disparity between the str,mgth of this inner life and the extent of these outer forms is, I sometimes think, the major problem of the Chinese ehurch. Men who are qualified to make a distinct contribution to the religious thought and life of the Chinese Church should by all means be freed from the exactions of administration, even if some of our imititutional work has to be clm1ed down"! Yet another writes : "In the final resort, however, what appeals to my imagination is not so much the busine,:s side of the question, this particular function or that

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CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNCTION .171 but foreigners going faithfully about the business given them and showing all the time that they live by prayer and succeed in fellowship, without questionable compromises. I am not prepared to specify any sorts of functions except devotion to the religious life. I stress the latter, not from a sense of inherent Western superiority in the practice of the devout life, but because, with a.II our Protest.ant failings in this direc tion, there must be something there that we can give and it seems to me that just there devout Chinese Christians need most of all the stimulus from outside, if the form and content of their prayer life is not to be deleteriou"ly affected by their closer connectioni; with a more crass paganism." And another, similarly: The function of the missionary in China to-day ii; changing, I believe, in this direction, that he will be less of an organizer or administrator, lesi; of a technical instructor or director, more of a seer and spiritual teacher, more of ft. radiant :mint, a revealer of true values." Exchange Professors Still another i;uggel"ts that long, long after executive responsibilities a.re resting on Chinese shoulders'., the missionary may still be needed to fulfil the function of an "exchange professor," and goes on : "Christianity in China must have two main roots, one striking down into the soil made rich by the accumulation, through milleniums of racial history, of individual and national moral and religious experiences, interpreted in verse and prose by China's sages and poets, and another root which strikes through stratum after stratum of Christian experience, the deepest that enriched the Master'i; life in Galilee and Judea, overlaid by the stratum of that first century of creative thinking, fervent feeling, and sacrificial living, and above, the medireval centuries, then Luther, the Puritans, the twentieth century with its sense of international brotherhood,. in this soil lies an histotic

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172. CHANGING MISSIONARY FUNCTION heritage impregnated with something more vital than mere apostolic succession, of which Christianity in China should not be deprived. Can it he received in full measure without close contact with those races to whom these experiences belong? China's contribution to world Christianity needs two hands to carry it, one her own child's, one the hand that natually clasps Western brotherhood in its own because it was born in that family." AsChfnese Christians Think While missionaries are thinking in such terms, the Chinese Christian leaclers are expressing similar thoughts. One of them, writing in Chinese, speaks of the need for direct service by missionaries, but "even more important, for indirect attention, counsel and help." Another writes that the really difficult problem is how to secure team work in getting over the racial differences and other things, like the way money is secured. The demand for true friendship breaks out in a.n appeal to the older missionaries in China to "look after the intellectual and spiritual growth of the Chinese leaders, and help with sympathy." The rock bottom of obvious, but often neglected, fact is voiced in a thoughful letter which closes by saying, "It seems to me that looking toward the future we would benefit by thinking of the missionary's function in terms of a. spiritual or religious contribution." VI. THE 8ucCESSFUL l\1IssIONARY's li'U'fUllE Future of Missionary I cannot close this paper without mentioning the p1oblem of the successful missionary's future. Success means making oneself un necessary in the immediate field where success has been achieved. It is no fanciful danger that the best type of our missionaries may eliminate themselves by training able Chinese successors and then resigning in their favor. No one would regret this if the usefulness of such missionaries in China were at an end: but the presumption is that such success has fitted :the missionary for a still more valuable

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CHANGiNG :r.risstoNARY FUNCTION 173 term of service in a new relationship. It used to be said quite truly by thoughtful Chinese that the missiom; i,,eemed not to know how to retain the services of their best workers. This is still a great danger, and is costing the Church dearly. A similar dangse leaders and the missionaries, acting as equally respomdble members of this Chinese Church. Like every other f'!erious problem, it can be most succei-sfully dealt with in the atmosphere of Christian brotherliness and friendship within the Beloved Community of the Church.

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CHAPTER XVIII MISSIONARY WORK AS SEEN AT THE INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS E." J. Stuckey Differing Viewpoints The Institute of Pacific Relations was called to discu~s some of the problems of inter national importance which are beginning to cause serious unrest in the Pacific basin, and are productive of friction between the different nations of this area. As these questions were discus8ed and the ramificat.iom: traced hack to essential ea.uses, it became increasingly evident that the fundamental difliculty mmally lies in the differing standpoints of East anr!. West. Just before the regular sessions of the Institute were convened, Professor Anesaki, Professor of Religiom; aL Tokio University, passed through Honolulu on his way back to Japan from America. An hour at midday was allotted to him for an address to the members of the Institute, and he took as his subject this fundamental difference of etandpoint of East and West. While the East sets as its ideal the search after contentment and harmony in all the relationships of life, the West eeems to them to have taken as its gods activity, efficiency, "progress'' and speed. Professor Anesaki remarked, "Yes, speed. Hut do you know whither you are going? We do not. Real progress is good ; progress has supplied us with telephones, motor-cars and bombs.'' Weakened Western Prestige 'l'he Orientals confessed with sadness that in the Great War the West had lost prestige throughout the East to an immeasurable extent. Up to that time they had more or less idealised the West and had sought to follow its spirit and methods. But the sight of the white races of the world tearing one another to pieces with every imaginable ferocity

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l\IIS8IONS AT INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATION8 175 and hatred, seemed to them to be the complete negation of the ideals which they had attributed to us, and they are turning back to their own ancient cultures and civrnzations to find a more worthy interpretation of the destiny of mankind. Yet behind all this disillusionment there is the conviction that the East and West are irrevocably bound together, and that the East needs the choicest spirits of our civilization to act as interpreters to them of the culture of the We:;t. The Oriental groups at Honolulu were agreed, that missionaries have an idealistic basis for their message,and that they are best qualified to ad as interpreters of the West_to the East. Oriental Frankness To me one of the amazing features of. the Institute at Honolulu was the extreme frankness of the Oriental groups on every subject touching their relations witfi other peoples. In the sessions which were devoted to "The Missionary as an Interpreter between Peoples," they spoke with a directnei,,s that I have never heard approached in all my twenty years in the East. One and all cxpresi;,ed th@1selves in the warmest appreciation of the personal life, the social life and the home life of the missionaries, as a very great cont.ribution to the life of their own people. A leading Buddhist voiced his admiration of the earnestness and keenness of Christian missionaries in contrast with the laziness of the Buddhist priests. A Korean maintained that with all their defects, missionariei:; were by far the best interpreters between peoples of differing cultures. Limitations of ~ut _they were eq1:1ally ~ut.spok~n on ~he Missionaries lnmtat10ns from which m1ss10nanes suffer. A Chinese Christian leader stressed the fol lowing points:-1. An inadequate knowledge of the native language, which makes it impossible for many to communicate their ideas in any acceptable fashion. 2. The inability of many missionariesto divest themselves of the feeling of national superiority, which

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l 7fl MIS,'HONS AT INSTITUTE OF PACIFrn RELATJONR colours all their actions and attitudes of mind, and effectually prevents a11y really r::ynipathetic approach to the people. 3. The exclusive living of missionaries in missionary compounds, which precludes real intimacy with the people. 4. The failure of many missionaries to take a. com prehensive view of the tmik of the Christian Church. Too often emphasis h;.la.id on thi-1 importance of work in tlrn Cit,je,:, IV hile the gl'f~a.t problem of the rural popula.ticm ifJ neglected. 5. Few missionaries can effectively communicate I.heir phtlosophy of life to others. Indeed many do not seem at all clear in their owri. min
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!\TT!':!RTONR AT INRTTTUTE OF pA(irww REJ,ATTONR 177 I i d A leader of the Japanese Christian Church nexper ence Missionaries spoke of the unfortunate 1mpress10n often produced by missionaries who were sent abroad when they were young and inexperienced even in the essentials of their own national culture. He emphasized the fact that Japan 'does not want the ordinary nian from abroad, but only the men and women who have some distinctive contribution to make. He added, "On the otlrnr ha.nd, some of the Rpecialists who are Rent to us, a.re lacking in the vital element of spirituality." Future of Missionary The Chinese leader in the debate confessed that he used often to wonder whether the time of missionary usefulness in China had not passed. But he gave as his more mature judgment that the missionary is still needed as the interpreter of the West to the ]~ast. He a lrn added his testimony to the power of a devoted spiritual life by telling how the inspira tion which sent hinrnelf arnl others of his classmates into acLive Christia.n service came from a teacher who spent only two years iu China before being invalided home. He remarked, "That man accomplish_ed more in two years than most achieve in a long lifetime." 'rhe dominant note of the debate was that the modern missionary must be the best product of our Western civilization, with some distinctive contribution to make, a wide Rympathy and a genuine humility added to a vital spiritual experience.

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CHAPTER XIX THE RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH Action of "Mott" Conference E. C. Lobenstone "This Conference is of the opinion that 1,he consummation of the missionary task is the establishment of a self-governing, self-propagating and self-supporting Church. That Olmrch should have full freedom in the development of its spir-it'llal Ufe; it sh.oiild have ecclesiastical autonom)I. Neither the Chinese Christians nor the foreign missionaries can be satisfied with anything less than this. "The administration of the whole Christian enterprise, including all those forms which are supported from within and without China, should pass as rapidly as possible to the, Church in China. The 'Mi.ssion' has been CL iisefnl unit of Ohri.~tian wodc. Biit the period of its earl'ler lmge responsibility is cloBin{J. The time schedule for the disappearance of its authority will vary by areas and ecclesiastical organizations. But the, aiithority of the Mission ns an orgnnization of foreigners ,qhould now much more mpidly disappear from the Christian enterprise in Oh-ina." New Note .;f Urgency This statement is significant as expressing the considered opinion of a group of over sixty prominent Christian workers both Chinese and foreign, including the members of the Executive Committee of the National Christian Council, who met to confer with Dr. John R. Mott as Chairman of the International Missionary Council regarding some of the most important matters affecting the progress of Christianity in China to-day. 'l'here is nothing new in the opening sentence. That might have been uttered by most missionaries at any time during the past fifty years. What is new is the note of urgency in speaking of the need of

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RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH ';179 full ecclesiastical autonomy for Chinese Christin,ns, and the expression of the conviction that the authority of the missions as organizations of foreigners is drawing to a close, and that the missions should make way as rapidly as possible for the Chinese churches. Rate of Progress Such a statement could hardly have been made by a conference such as this even a few years ago. It was impossible to prevent its being made after the events of 1925, so deeply have these events stirred the. hearts of Chinese Chrh4ians, making them feel as never before the utter necessity of disso ciating the Christian Move1iient as far as po8Hible from foreign control, if Christianity i8 to be saved in China at thi8 time. That conditions vary widely in different mission8 and !:iections of China is clearly 1;ecognized. It is to be expected, therefore, tht1.t Home missions will make more ra.pirl progress than others in losing their identity in the life of the Church they have been ini;trumental in bringing into being. Gathering of Converts There are in general four stages through which churches pass in their relation to the m1ss10ns. During the first period, converts of .the Christian faith are being gathered together in little groups which are related to one another in some form of church organization, commonly that of the church to which the mission belongs. In this period responsibility for the work rests entirely with the mission. There follows a. period of cooperation Cooperation between church and mission, during which the 'church is developing its leadership and its self consciousness and is given control of certain aspects of the work, generally those that relate to evangelism and the pastoral oversight of Christians. During this period other aspects of the work remain completely under the control of the mission. This is thus a period of dual control and of divided responsibility between church and mission. Self-In the third stage, the church has reached a government larger degree of self-government, or even complete ad ministrativ"1 autqnomy in so fai

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180 RELATiON 01~ MISSION AND CHURCH as that is attainable, while still remammg in a measure dependent 6n Christians in other lands for financial help and for missionary assistance. Cort1j>lete In the fourth and final !:'tage the church is Ind,tpi!!ndence entirely independent of foreign help of any kind, except such as is common between fully autonomous churches of different lands. Independent There are few churches, if any, in China Chutches which may be said to have reached the final stage except in the matter of financial and administrative independence. There are several groups of independent churches. Some of these have developed as a result of a healthy movement for self-government and self-support. Others have been the result of misunderstandings with the missions. It would appear that few of these independent churches have had strength enough, as yet, to make any marked contribution to Christian thought and practice, and to reach out in an aggressive evangelism beyond their own local communities. They are still dependent for their leadership upon the graduates of the mission-supportedand controlled theological colleges and have not, with a few not~ble exceptions, attracted to their pulpits men who have been able to make any original contribution to the religious life of China. MissioNs IN THIRD SrAGE United Church The most significant development of the of Kwangtung past year in the relation of mission and church in China was the issuing by the Executive Committee of the Kwangtung Divisional Council (Synod)"" of. the Church of Christ in China of an appeal to the seven missions which are cooperating in that Church, urging them to recognize the spiritual sovereignty and ecclesiastical autonomy of the Church. The executive body of the_ Church on December 16, 1925 i;tated: "That in our judgement the time has come for the realization of the complete autonomy of the Chinese Church." By the "See AppendiX: I.

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RELATION" oF MlSSION AND CHURCH. 181 autonomy of the Church was meant freedom from outside control-such direction of the activities of the Church and of the work connected with it, as to make them an expression of its own thought and purpose. Admiriistratl e Having reached this decision two lines of Independencev action seemed open to the Church. The first was complete independence.'' '' It was pQssible to form an autonomous church out of the congregations able to maintain financial independence. This would, however, have meant separation from the large number of congregations and institutions receiving foreign aid and under foreign control." A second way that seemed open to the Church was that suggested by the various proposals that had been submitted to her by mission representatives. In them it had been intimated that the mission boardB might be willing to give over to the Church such administration of the work maintained by them as is now exercised by the local mission organizations. The receiving of aid from foreign boards would not, it was thought, militate against the real autonomy sought if it did not carry with it foreign control. Th,~ whole Christian Movement with every phase of Christian work might then be held together and directed by an autonomous Chinese Church." The action of. the executive body of the Chmese Church Church was accompanied by the suggestions Control l d I t f l f wor ce out >Y a comm1 tee o e even, six o whom were missionaries, suggesting methods by which all the work now carried on by the seven cooperating missions might most easily be tranferred to the control of the Church. It is_ hoped in this way "to conserve every interest and to place the work on a permanent basis with the least possible disturbance in the transfer period." The plan contemplates: Mis~ionaries (1) The bringing under the direction of the Church all the staffs of the seven cooperating m1ss10ns. Missionaries are to receive their appointments from the Chinese Church and to be responsible to it for the performance of the work assigned to them. Present assignments are to continue until the next furlough except as

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182 '.RELA'rto~ b:B' Mtssio~ A~D dHURCit circumstances make changes desirable. The time of leaving for furlough is recognized as t.he natural time for considering the missionary's future work. "Appointments will be made by the Executive Committee upon recommendation of a Personnel Committee and shall be subject to the consent of the individual concerned." Requests for new missionaries are to be made, as needed, by the Divisional Council direct to the Boards. It is stated that the Council. VYill naliirally de8ire to consult on all matters related trJ lt ,qfoen Board with the representatives o.f that Board in the field. Bitt the Conncil feels that it can gi-l!e no formal recognition to the mission orgcmization as Bitch." That there is continued need of foreign missionuries is definitely recognized. It is even regarded as desirable that the .'' normal increase" should be continued for a period of ten years .. B d S t "The Council feels that it can take over oar uppor "b"l" f h I 1 d"t" respons1 1 1ty or t e wor c on y on con 1 10n that the mission boards are willing to continue their contributions for the work for a certain number of years." Requests will, therefore, be made for a continuance of these, while at the same time the Church will undertake to increase contributions in China. The hope is expressed that present grants from abroad will not be decreased for a period of five years, and that thereafter should a decrease prove nece"1.sary it will be made gradually. (2) 'l'he missions are to be asked to loan all mission property free of rent until some more permanent arrange-1.nent can be arrived at. Formal loan agreement:; are suggested in order to avoirl future misunderstanding. (3) Administration of all church work will be entrusted to three church boards, each to be in general charge of one department of work-evangelistic, educational, medical. It i;; felt that this plan has the following f~frng Church advantages: it recognizes the church as the O genous channel through which the work is to be carried o~.; }t will remove the stigma that the Christian

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RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH r83 Church in China is a foreign controlled church; it will unify the work of the church and include both independent churches and those in direct relation with the missions; it shonld render rnoie efficient the service of the miseionaries and enable funds contributed to be more efficiently used since they will be arlmini~tered by one body; it will help to make the church more truly indigenous and to Li1id together Christian Chinese all over the world for the furtherance of the church's task. Since the above proposals were drafted by a joint committee of missionaries and Chine,:e, the Church iR a.Rsnre1l in aclvancc of a most sympathetic consideration thereof by the missionaries. United Brethren Mission The United Brethren Mission, which is cooperating in the Unit.ed church, in its annual meeting in 1924, resolved "That as a mis sion and as missionaries we seek to be coura geously progressive in devolving. responsibility upon the Chinese in the administration of church, school and medical work. And that we resolve to make every new enterprise upon which we mn.y enter henceforth a distinctively Chinese enterprise from the ground up.'' In January 1926 the same mission in its annual meeting unanimously approved of the plan submitted by the Executive Committee of the Kwangtung Divisional Council in the following words: "We approve the proposed plan already adopted by the Executive Committee of the Kwangtung Divisional Council for the transfer of administrative functions from the missions to the Chinese Church. In thus approving of the proposed plan, we are simply bringing our policy up to date and into conformity with the present situation in so far as recent developments make it different from what it was a year ago ... In approving the plan, we wish it to be unclerstood .also that our action is dictated by our desire to be loyal to the best principles of missionary statesmanship and of the science of missions, rather than by any constraint imposed upon us from ,vithout by the recent crisis. We are grateful for, and in entire sympathy with, the growing and wholesome church consciousness

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184 TIELA'fJON OF MTSRTON AND CHURCH within the Chinese Church as indicated in the desire of the Chirnise Christian leaders for autonomy and for the exercise of self-direction in spiritual matters." Missio Acti 'l'he New Zealand Presbyterian Mission, the 0 ons London Missionary Society and the United Church of Canada (formerly Canadian Presbyterian Mission) have adopted the resolutions of the Kwangtung Divisional Council with slight reservations. The mission of the American Board in Xwangtung had already been absorbed by the Church. This leaves the Northern Presbyterian Mission as the only oue of the cooperating missions that has not yet acted upon the recommendations of the Divisional Council. Action will be taken in the autumn in connection with the Evaluation Conferences ,; to be held during the visit of a deputation from the Board in New York. This development in Kwangtung is i:,ignificant as it is the most clear-cut and far-reaching proposal of iti; kind that hai; thus far been made to any group of mii:;sions in China. It is the first large body of Christians that is trying to enter upon the third stage in the development of autonomous Chinese churches. The Nationfll Oornrnittee of the Y. M. C. A. Y. M. C. A. Six years ago at the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Y. M. C. A. in Chi,na, the step was taken of appointing only Chinese members on the National Committee, the body responsible for the association movement in China. During the intervening years the International Committee of the Y. M. C. A., New York, which is cooperating with the Association movement in China by maintaining a staff of foreign secretaries and by financial grants, has been represented in China by one of its secretaries, who under the title of "Senior Secretary" was directly responsible to the New York committee. All matters affecting the foreign staff and property for which funds were contributed from abroad came under his superv1s10n. Beginning, however, with January 1, 1926, the office of Senior Secretary was abolished and the foreign staff came under the full control of the Chinese organization.

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RELATION OF. MISSlON AND CHURCH 185 MissIONs SnLL IN THE FrnsT PERIOD Missions in First Stage A considerable number of missions, some of them bodies which have been operating for many years in China, may be regarded as still in the first stage of their development if the ultimate aim of missions is the founding of self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating churches. Some of these missions conceive of their task as one of evange lization only, with little or no responsibility for the development of such churches. It is but natural, there fore, that their missionaries regard themselves ns alone rel'ponsible for the work in which they are engaged. They are little concerned with the development of autonomous Chinese church bodies. Indeed, some even look with concern at any expression of opinion that differs from those which are held in their "home'~ churches, a.nd would regard as something less than success the development of a Chinese leadership which is independent, free and untrammeled in its expression of its own views. The work they are ca.rrying on is mission-centered nml is likely to continue to be so. There are others which must still be classified in this group but for a different reason, namely, that there has not yet been time enough, since they were founded, to train the necessary leadership to make .much progress in thP development of an autonomous Chinese Church possible. MISSIONS IN THE SECOND STAGE l\fost of the missions are somewhere beMissions in Second Stage tween these two groups, in what has been called above the second stage of development. This is frankly a transition period and one during which there is dual control. Missions in this group are traveling toward their goal by Romewhat different roads. It would probably be more accurate to say goals rather than goal, for they are not all agreed that the goal of complete autonomy, including full freedom in matters affecting fait,h and order, is desirable. Some apparently desire to

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186 RELA'ftON OF IIUSStON AND CHURCil mould the churches they have founded into forms of thought and organizations already familiar to themi"elves, and regarding the adequacy of which to meet the needs of the peoples of all lands and at all stages of their development, they seem to have no serious doubts. Others are quite prepared to leave the future entirely in the h3:nds of the Chinese Christians, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, to develop along such lines as they shall deem wise without any limitations to their freedom. Definite progress is being made in most of the missions in this group looking to a larger sharing of responsibility with the Chinese churches. Anglican Group In regard to the Church Missionary Society, Bishop Molony writes: "The C. M. S. Missions in China have for many years been working towards the ideal of an autonomous Chinese Church, and are now rapidly devolving the responsibility for various part.s of the work on the Chinese Church organization which has been created. "In each of the five C. lH. S. Mil"sions in China, Chekiang (commenced 1s,1s), Fukien (IR50), South China (1862), Western China (1892), and Kwangsi and Hunan (1899), there are Diocesan Synods, and they are largely Chinese in their membership. These Synods appoint boards or committees with executive authority over certain classes of work. "For the most part the pas!oral ca1'e of the Christia.n community has passed from the missions to the Church; the missions now only have control of congregations in new or backward areas, and a.re constantly passing over such congregations to the Church as they become strong enough to be a benefit to the Chinese Church. Pastors are appointed by church and not by mhision authority, and arc supported by their own people, generally by a gmnt in aid from the foreign board which diminishes 5% each year. Many pastorates have become completely independent, and strong town pastorates help the weaker rural ones.

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RELA'.rION OF MISSION AND CHURCH 187 "In several dioceses the Evangelistic and Primary School work has been handed over to the Church, and is administered by a board appointed by the Synod, the miHsion board giving an annual block grant, either fixed for a period of years, or upon an annual estimate provided by the evangelistic board of the Synod and approved and sent home by the mission conference. In the diocese of Fukien, where the Chine.:e Church is i,,trongest, the transfor took place some yearR ago and has evolrncl much Chinese liberality in bearing the burden of expanding work. In Chekiang the transfer has been made from January 1, 1926. Women's work has similarly been transferred in Fukien. In Chekiang it is still controlled by the Mission Conference. "Educational worlc in the Higher Institutions is in proceE'S of transfer to Boards, especially constituted for each large institution. Trinity College, Foochow, has established a Board of Chinese Directors. Trinity Middle School, Ningpo, is under the management of a board of three foreignerR and three Chinese directors, subject to the authority of the mission conference. It has a Chinese principal and a foreign vice-principal. 'l'he pre::cnt writer has no information regarding important ec1ucational institutions in the other dioceses. "Med-ical 1i:ork is still under mission control, and it is doubtful whether the Chinese Church will be able to bear the burden of controlling this department of work. We have, however, a number of qualified Chinese doctors who work with the foreign staff, and in two c:u;es a.re in complete control of mission hospitals. "Property. It is the policy in C. M. S. Missions to let all property needed for the worship of Chinese congregations and the residence of the Chinese .pastors belong to the Chinese church from the first. Such properties as belong to the mission a.re being trans ferred to the church. Primary school property will follow shortly,

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188 RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH "Our general policy is one of steady advance in the matter of transfer, and our Chinese leaders are developing a strong feeling of responsibility and administrative power. All we desire is a period of quiet work wherein the spiritual vigor of the Church may be developed, so as healthily to support the material and administrative bnrdemi being placed npon the Chinese Church." In speaking of the advance made in Fukien Diocese, Bishop Hind says, "'fhe missionary conference has steadily decreased in influence, Chinese contributions have steadily risen in amount, the sense of responsibility has been greatly stimulated and the 'anomaly of dual control' has bflen removed-with the exception of the foreign bishop." B ti t G The American Baptist Foreign Missionary ap s roup Society has recently put itself on record as" believing that the administration of Christian work, including the work of the organized missions from America, should be transferred to the indigenous church as rapidly as it is prepared to accept and able to discharge the obligation so incurred. To this end missionaries are urged to welcome and to do their utmost to forward the development of native initiative and responsibility." It feels that the immediate, wholesale transfer of the work is, however, not generally desirable and practicable; and in the meantime the mission is working through committees or boards on which both mission and church are represented, representatives of the church being greatly in the majority. With a view to securing larger liberty for the Chinese Church to shape the future poli<'Y of the work, arrangements are being made to have appropriations to the field made in gross, leaving to the administrative body in China the determination of the proportion of the funds from abroad to be used for diffc~rent phases of the work. The more adequate support of welltrained Chinese and greater freedom to replace mission aries by them has been kept in mind in this new departure. C ti l The American Board Mh;sion in North ongrega ona Oh" h f h I b k Group ma as or t e past twe ve years een see -ing to develop a fully autonomous Chinese body. In doing so it has followed a plan which closely

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RELATION OF MISSION ANDCHURCH 189 resembles but does not exactly parallel the Methodist con ference. The mission as a working organization ceased to exist in 1914. It passed over all its functions to the North China Kung Li Hui, a combination of mission and church. This North China Kung Li Hui is organized through a series of "local associations," "district associations," and a "council.'" The district associations are elected by the local associations, and they in turn elect the council. All departments of mission work without exception were given over into control of the North China Kung Li Hui from the time it was instituted, a:;, were also all mission funds, other than salaries and furlough expenses of missionaries. The local associations were at first composed of all Chinese ordained pastors, preachers, teachers, doctors of a certain standing and of all missionaries who had passed two years of language study. It was found, however, that this tended to give too large an ex-officio representation of employed workers to the loc(Ll associations with a tendency to limit their independence in judgment. Steps have recently been taken to reconstruct these associations, so as to do away entirely with ex-officio membership. This will place the election of all members of the local association in the hands of the local congregation and would seem to give to it full autonomy. L th G The Lutheran Church of China held its first u eran roup General Assembly m the summer of 1920 at Chikungshan. The constituent missions which united in forming this church were the Lutheran United Mission, the Nor;vegian Missionary Society, the Finnish Missionary Society, the Augustana Synod Mission and the Church of Sweden Mission. l1jight other Lutheran Missions were also represented in the meeting. This Chung Hwa Sin I Chiao Hwei is a self-governing Chinese church. Every action is decided by majority vote except questions of confession which the constitution declares "shall be unalterable." Missionaries are members of the local congregation and are represented in the district councils, the synods and the General Assembly. According to the different constitutions of the several synods, all church work may be under the direct control of the Chinese Church if the Chinese

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190 RELATION OF MISSION AND CHURCH leaders and the Chinese church members so desire. In the dist,rict. of Hunan most of the primary school work is con trollfid by the Chinese church leaders, nncl the educational policy of' the church as a whole is determined by the educational board, most of whose members are Chinese. Plans a.re no.w under way for the development of boards of directors for hospitals, middle and normal schools. Rev. J. A. 0. Gotteberg writes: "We are more eager to hand over to the church reRponsibilities than the church is ready to take over." Methodist Group The Methodist mil"sionary societies have no missions in the strict sense. Their "conferences" are a combination of mission and church and have proved a very useful method of steady, gradual development of Chinese leadership in the ad ministration of church matters. There are differences between the episcopally organized churches and those which do not have bishops. It would also appear that the churches established by American missions are more closely related to their general conventions in the West than is true in the case of those established by British missionary societie1,. Since the developmfmt of the Eastern Asia Central Conference a gnater degree of antonomy has been secured by the l\fothodist. churcheR connected with the American Methodist Church, North. Additional powers have bPen given to this Conference by each successive gene1'al conference. Jn this church the finance committeeR of each conference are now appointed by the Conference itself and have full cont10l of all funds from a.broad apart from missionary salaries, etc. The Southern Methodi~t Mission has developed along lines very similar to those of the northern church. At a recent meeting of the Methodist, Episcopal Chnrch, South, it was resolved "That we, the members of the China. l\[is~ion, Methodist Episcopal Chnrch South, reaffirm the .purpose with which onr predecessors inauguraced the ,vork of which we have become a part, namely, to plant the Christian Church in this land. We rejoice in every step toward the realization of that purpose, and we hereby assure oqr Chinese colleagues that, while we recognize that

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'll.ELATION Ol!' MISSION AND CHURCH 191 the initiative belongs to them, we are ready to cooperate with them .whenever they feel that the time is ripe for the org:mization of an autonomous Christian Church in China.n Presbyterian Group From the beginning of its work the Presbyterian mi8sions have proceeded on the principle of the complete autonomy of the Chine8e presbyteries. and synods. Jn most cases ordained mission aries have been full members of the presbyteries, but in the nature of the case have been far .outnumbered by t.heir Chinese fellow presbyters. The presbytery has from the beginning had the full control of t.he pastoral and evangelistic work within its boundaries. In addition, the work of elementary education has either been in its control or under joint committees of the presbytery and the m1ss10n. In recent years there has been a tendency in certain Presbyterian missions to enlarge the functions of these joint committees by including secondary as well as element.ary education. This is a somewhat different development from that of the United Church in South China. The decision of a large proportion of the presbyteries to join with Congregational and Reformed churches in forming the Church of Christ in China is likely to strP.ngthen the presbytery and the synod and, as in Kwangtung, to bring under the control of the synod and presbytery matters now being dealt with either by these joint committees of mission and church, or by the mission alone. Jn fact, the Hainan Misf:lion (Northern Presbyterian) has recently agreed to the appointment by presbytery of an administrative board of six Chinese men and women and five foreign men and women to take complete charge of pa8toral, evangelistic and elementary work and to administer all funds for the purpose .. The above may !'erve a~ typical of the developments pow taking place and of the relationship existing between a large number of churches and missions. Mission Temporary GENERAL REMARKS 1. The past years have seen n steadily growing recognition on the part of many missionaries of the essentially' temporary

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192 RELATlON OF' MlSSION AND CHURC1:t character of the mission and of the necessity of greatly strengthening the Chinese Church body. With this end in view attention is being increasingly given to strengthening the ecclesiastical organizations the missions have creat,ed. The continuance of strong mission bodies to function side by side with the churches and more or less independently of them is coming to be regarded as greatly retarding the growth of the Church. All experiments that are being made by mission bodies in ceasing to function as separate administrative units, and in placing themselves under the control of the Chinese Church, are being watched with growing interest. It would appear from present-clay tendencies that the time is fast approaching when a mission that is not able, after a rea;:onable period of time, to make its contribution by operating through the Chinese Christian community it has bronght into existence, is not developing along sound lines. 2. That this fact is recognized is evidenced F Enlartgied f by the progress being ma.de in mn.ny quarters unc on o I h f t" I h f l Chinese Church to en arge t e unc wns an( aut onty o t 1e Chinef'e Church bodies by bringing directly under their control elementary and, in many cases, secornl ary education in addition to pastoral and evangelistic work, and by relating more closely to the churches than before the entire work of the missions. The delay in bringing the institutional work of the mission into closer relation to the church bodies has been due bot,h to a lack of expressed desire for such control by the church authorities on the one hand, and by a desire not to lay upon the church burdens heavier than she is able to carr;y. It is now, however, no longer possible to dela.y the ~erious consideration of the,;e questions. As a result of the events of recent years Chinese Christians are manifesting a much greater interest in the educational work of the missions than ever before. 'l'he nationalistic and anti-Christian movements on the one hand, and the recent regulations of the Board of Education in Peking on the other, have led to the appointment, in many cases for the first time, of field boards of control for middle schools and to the enlarging of the Chinese membership on college boards.

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RELA'fION Ol!' MISSION ANDCHURCH 193 Mission Hospitals 3. Less progress has been made in relating mission hospitals to the Chinese Christian constituency Yet here also matters are not at a standstill. Definite resolutions on the best ways of linking these institutions more closely to the Chinese community are to be proposed for adoption by the China l\fodical Association at its biennial meeting in Peking in September of this year. The dropping two years ago of the word "Missionary from t.he official title of the China l\Iedical Missionary Association is in line with the trend of the times. 4. There is a noticeable tendency to seek Foreign Contributions for more Chinese guidance in the use made of contributions from abroad, exclusive of mis sionaries, missionary salaries, furlough expenses, etc. Even these latter are in fact being included in all missions where Chinese advice is being sought as to the number, qualification and location of missionaries and as to the desirability or otherwise of their return to the field after furlough. In some of the older societies all money for the ordinary work of the Church is already under the control of predominantly Chinese committees elected by the church and not by the mission authorities. Proposals of the Kwangtung Divisional Council of the Church of Christ in China conterhplate full control by the church in this matter. 5. What effect the bringing of all missionMissionaries aries (not merely clerical missionaries) under and Church the control of the Chinese church bodies will have, it is impossible to predict. The most immediate result of such proposals is to introduce into missionary ranks a large degree of uncertainty as to their future work, involving in the case of many of 'those who are most sympathetic to Chinese aspirations uncertainty as to whether they can help most by remaining in China, or by withdrawing altogether. Future of It seems clear, however, that Chinese opinMissionaries ion is strongly in favor of the continued service of missionarimi, provided they are

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194 RELATION OF l\HSSION AND CHURCH prepared to work under the new conditions. The con ference on the Church in China To-day:::' slated: '' This Conference holds that Christian workers from the West still have a large place in China. It would ask that the boards continue to maintain such missionary forces as arc desired by the Chinese churches." Another hnportant aspect of the situation -:hd~::aries is the large proportion. of women in the missionary body. Women have as yet fonnd little or no place in the ecclesiastical organizations of most churches. It is interesting to note that Chinese have in not a few cases appointed women to church offices. Both the Diocese of Fukien of the Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Kui and the (Presbyterian) Synod of Manchuria have brought women into the official governing bodies of the Church, and there are doubtless others that have doue the same. Should this become a common practice in the Chinese churches of the future, it may have far-reaching effects upon the futnrn of church life, introducing in official councils of the eh urch. a new lay element .. A further important aspect of the situation Hom~ Support is the effect a movement in this general direc-of Missions .11 } I tton w1 mve upon contmuec g1vmg to m1ss10ns. An analysis of the expenditures of one of the largest American missionary sonieties in China shows that 71 % of its expenditures for work in China goes toward the expenses of maintaining its foreign sta.fi, and only 29% toward all other current work (new property not included). Any considerable increase in the proportion of money transferred to the latter class at the expense of the former, however desirable, is likely to result in ,a decrease in the total amount of money available for China, unless such shifting in emphasis is accompanied by cchcation of the 1N est as to the reasons for such change and the need of continued foreign financial support. t *Shanghai, January, 192(l. t (Fur fuller information see Conference on the Church in China To-day, Section IV, I. ll.)

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Ecclesiastical Machinery Foreign RELATION OF MISSION AND C'HURCH 195 6. Any study of the constitutions of the different "Chinese'' churches (e.g. Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hui, Chang Lao Hwei, Chung Hwa Sin I Chiao Hwei, Mei I Mei Hwei, etc. and even the Chung Hwa Chi Tuh Chiao Hwei) cannot but 'leave one with the feeling of the essentially foreign character of the ecclesiastical machinery the missions have ereated, and which many are sincerely convinced they must seek to perpetuate in loyalty to their own religioue conceptions and to the churches that have sent them forth. It is, therefore, not strange that Chinese Christians feel for the most part Jiu.le entr.rndas1n for institutional Christianity as it exists toda.y in-China. Thorn is little or no hope of t.he Christian Church making her fullest contribution to the life of this great :people till Chinese church bodies are free to determin
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CHAPTER XX CRITICAL MOMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA* H. F. MacNair Religious motives have played as great a Motives part in the exchange of culture and the introcl uction of new ideas into the East as they have in Europe and the Western work!, 'l'he cultural effect upon China of the spread of Buddhism, Mohammedanism and Christianity during the past two thousand years can scarcely be over-estimated and they have not been as yet by any means completely evaluated. Early Two of the Christian Apostles-Thomas Missionaries and Bartholemew-are claimed by tradition to have preached the Gospel in India anrl China. The Chaldean breviary of the l\folabar Church declares, "By St. Thomas were the Chinese and the Jijthiopians converted to the truth .... By St. Thomas bath the Kingdom of Heaven taken unto itself wingR and passed even unto China." Arnobius, a Christian writer of the third century, mentions the Seres along with the Medes and Persians as among the races and nations, the most difficult in their manners", whose "flame of human passions" had been subdued by the teachings of Christianity. References to the early spread of this religion are not definite enough, however, to warrant any belief that it, spread in China before the seventh century. Nestorian Tablet The discovery in the year 1625 of the Nestorian Tablet near the city of Sian-fu in Shensi brought to light the first positive proof of the comparatively early introduction of Christianity into A Paper read Before the Shan~hai Mission11,r:y Associ~tion November 3, 1925,

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CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY 197 China which occurred in the early 'l"ang period. The inscription on the Tablet mentioned the arrival in the year 635, during the reign of the emperor T'ai Tsung, of the Monk A-lo-pen, who, by imperial permission, began the preaching of the Gospel. Almost thirteen hundred years have passed since the undoubted introduction of Christianity into this country. It is clear that during this time there must have been 11ot a few of those moments which Shakespeare describes in his famous lines in Julius Caesar: There is a tide in the affairs of men, Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; Omitted, all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries." To certain of these our attention may well be directed in times like the present. I. The history of Christianity in China falls naturally into four periods, viz., the Assyrian Nestorian opening in the Aeventh century; the Catholic Franciscan, anci neo-Assyrian, opening in the thirteenth century; the Catholic .Jesuit, opening in the sixteenth century; :md the modern Catholic and Protestant, opening in the nineteenth century. The Seventh, the Thirteenth, the Sixteenth, and the Nineteenth cent.mies are then the periods of great beginnings as far as Christianity in China is concerned. Each of these periods is worthy of careful study. T'ang Period The T'ang period, particularly that part of it in which Assyrian Christianity entered China, is one of the mo:-;t glorious 11ot alone in the history of China, but even of the world. Europe was at that time in the middle of an age fittingly described as Dmk following the collapse of the Western Roman empire and preceding the development of the Holy Roman Empire founded by Charlemagne. The Neo-Persian empire, the chief seat of the Assyrian Christians, wa8 being attacked and conquered by the Mohammedans; in the very year in which the p.rst Assyrian Ch:ristip.ns reiLCh.ed Ch'an~-an, the

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198 CRITiCAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY T'ang capital, the followers of Islam administered a crushing defeat to the Neo-Persians. In China there was internal peace; strength, wealth, and culture. 1'0 be sure T;ai Tsung (627-650), the second T'ang ruler, who was on the throne at the time of A-lo-pen's arrival, had purchased peaceful accession by the murder of his two brothers who had been plotting to murder him. In the reign of his father, Tai Tsu, the founder of the dynasty, it had been necessary, in order to maintain peace, to cement with gold an alliance with the Turks, but in T'ai Tsung's reign the Turks were weakened by internal division, and the T'ang emperor had been able to retake most of China's earlier possessions in Central Asia. In the days of T'ai Tsung and A-lo-pen the boundaries of Persia and China were coterminous, and China's generals were pressing toward the Caspian Sea. The court at Ch'ang-an was the goal of many embassies: a Mohammedan mission arrived in 628-seven years before that of the Assyrian Christians. The Manicheans came also with their Astronomical works. In 635 appeared the Christians, and from time to time other missions from Nepal, Magadha, and even from distant Constantinople. As one writer has remarked, "The moment was indeed an auspicious one for the introduction of the Christian Gospel.'' That the moment was auspicious is witnessed by the Nestorian monument itself; this famous tablet was unearthed near Sian-fu -the old Ch'ang-an in 1625, after lying in tlrn ground for presumably some seven hundred and eighty years. The inscription reads in part: And behold the1e was a highly virtuous man named A-lo-pen in the Kingdo,m of Ta-Ch'in. Auguring (of the Sage, i.e. Emperor) from the azure sky, he decided to carry the true Sutras (of the True Way) with him, and obi:;erving the course of the winds, he made his way (to China) through difficulties and perils. 'l'hus in the Ninth year of the period named Cheng-kuan A. D. 635 he arrived at Ch 'ang-an. 'l'he Emperor despatched his Minister, Duke Fang Hsuan-ling, with a guard of honour, to the western suburb to meet the visitor and conduct him to the Palace. The Sutras (Scriptures) were translated in the Imperial Library. (l!is Majesty) investigatecl 'The

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CRITICAL MOIIIENT8 lN CHRISTlANlTY 199 Wa11' in his own Forbidden apartments, and being deeply convinced of its correctness and truth, he gave special orders for its propagation."* The evidence of this inscription is confirmed by a second document, a small roll of paper found by M. Paul Pelliot in the year 1908, in a cave near Tun-Huang. This reads in part: "I carefully note with regard to the complete list of religious books that the whoie number of books of the Mother Church of Syria is 5JO, all written in Sanskrit on patra leaves. In the ninth Cheng-kuan year (A. D. 635), in the reign of the Emperor T'ai Tsung of the T'ang dynasty, the Western monk of great virtue, A-lo-pen, reached Chung Hsia (China) and presented a petition to the Ji:mperor in his native language. Fang Hsuan-ling and Wei Cheng interpreted the petition. Afterwards, by Imperial order, the monk of great virtue, Ching-ching, of our Church, obtained the above thirty works. t It is clear from these statements that the first 'period of the propagation of the Gospel in China was not a difficult one for these Christian missionaries from Western Asia. The historic tablet was erected in the year 781. On this it was st.ated that the great emperor Kao Tsung (650-683) ... (had) caused monasteries of the Luminous Religion to be founded in every prefecture. Accordingly, he honoured A-lo-pen by conferring on him the office of the Great Patron and Spiritual Lord of the Empire. The Law (of the Luminous Religion) 8pread throughout -the ten province8, and the empire enjoyed great peace and concord. Monasteries were built in many cities, whilst every family enjoyed the great blessings (of Salvation) .4 Assyrian Christianity Fails There came a tide, however, in the affairs of the Assyrian Christians in China. which they unhappily, to use the phraseology of Shakespeare, "omitted," with the result that *P. Y. Saeki, The Nestorian Monument in China (London, 1915), p. 165. -:-Quoted by A. C. Moule, The Failure of Early Christian Missions to China, The East and The West, Vol. 12 (1914), p. 387. fSaeki, op. cit. p. 167.

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200 dRiTtdAL MOMENTS iN CHRiSTiANiTY all the voyage of their life was bomd in shallows and in miseries." The precise time of this is not, and probably never will be, known -nor whether the error of the T'ang Christians was of a positive or a negative sort, that is to say whether the fault, for fault there certainly was, consist~d in a failure on their part to do what they ought to have done, or in doing what they ought not to have done. Suffice it to say that the Sun of Assyrian Christ.ianity after a brilliant rising in the seventh century disappeared in the ninth century in a cloud so dense that no traces of Christianity as such are to be found in China during the tenth and eleventh centuries. The conclusion of any meteoric career, be it of an individual or of an institution, must ever be of intense interest. Men ask the reason of failure following close on conspicuous success; so it is in the case of the collapse and rlisappearance of Assyrian Christianity in China under the T'ang dynasty. Many reasons have been advanced, but none R~asons for that is entirely satisfactory. The Japanese T angChristian I l S l. d "b h Failure sc 10 ar, ae n, escn es t ese m1ss10naries as standing "before the Emperors of China as the Apostles stood before the Roman governors, whilst the Nestorians, like the Hebrew prophet, Daniel, and the monks of the West in the sub-apostolic age, were the trusted advisers of the Chinese and possibly Japanese Sovereigns!"* Such being the case, why did. not Chritianity survive in China, as it did under the severest of persecutions in the West? To be sure we are told in the inscription on the tablet that at the close of the seventh century "the Buddhists, taking advantage of these circumstances (i.e. the building of monasteries in many cities) exercised a great influence (over t.he Empress Wu), and raised their voices (against the Luminous Religion) in the Eastern Chou, and at the end of the Hsien-t'ien period (712 A. D.) some inferior (Taoist) scholars ridiculerl and derided it, slandering and speaking against it in the Western Hao." But it is shown at once that cooperation on the part of "eminent priests who had forsaken all *Saeki, op: cit. p. 157.

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CRITICAL MOMENTS IN OHRJSTIANITY 201 worldly interests" succeeded in "restoring the great fundamental principles and united together to re-bind the broken ties," and in the next reign (Hsuan-'fsung, 712-755.) imperial favor was as great as under T'ai-Tsung. In 845 -just two hundred ten years after the introduction of the religion into the country -a great religious persecution broke out. This was ahned especially at the Buddhists, but the Christians also suffered. Theemperor Wu 'fsung (8H-84.6) decreed that the Buddhist monks and nuns to the number of two hundred thousanrl should leave the religious and return to secular life, and that the Christian and other foreign monks in numbers between two and three thousand-should also return to secular life. This persecution was serious, but it must be remembered that the Christians suffered many persecutions under the Roman emperors before Constantine was converted to. the Fq.ith. Theories of Tang Christian Failure Into the details of the various theories as to what actually became of the T'ang dynasty Christians, it is not necessary to enter: it is quite possible that some of them became Buddhists, and that both Chinese and .Japanese Buddhism has been profoundly affected by eastern Christianity; it is equally possible that others of these Christians became Mohammedans and continued monotheistic, but not Christian, worship; it is possible also that certain powerful secret societies, such as the Ohin Tan Ohiao and the Pai Lien Oh-iao preserve remnants of the ritual and faith of the Assyrian Christians. It may be, Saeki supposes, that the failure of these Christians was due to the fact "that they did not raise up native workers'' -that as foreign missionariei:! (they) relied on themselves too much'' ; also that "they were cut off from the main stream of the Church after the tenth century; at least they were not reinforced from the main body after the rise of Mohammedanism." It may be also tha:t "the missionaries relied too much upon Imperial favor," and that "they died or were smothered under too much favor from principalities and powers as a state religion so often is." All of these are interesting and even plausible

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202 CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY explanations of the failure, or at least temporary extinction, of the Assyrian Church in China. Merged into hlamand Bllddhism Of the reasons suggested those which seem of most significance have to do with t.he apparent swallowing up of the Christian body by the Moharnmedans and Buddhist~. The author of the inscription on the Sian-fn tablet was one King-tsing, or Ching-ching, a Peniian priest otherwise designated Adam. Now, in a Buddhist work published a few years after th<~ erection of the Nestorian tablet, it has been discovered by 11 mo
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dR1TtdAL MOMENTS rn dtIRlSTIANITY 2Q3 as though to suggest that the three religions are one _in essence. The inscription, however elegant in style, is'very in~dequate as a statement of Christian doctrine, to our view; it is foll of Buddhist, Confucianist, and 'l'aoist terms, and singularly deficient in Christian ones, and the ideas of all four cults are mixed, one might say confused, together."* Of all the reasons suggested for the failure of Assyrian or Nestorian Christianity in Chi.nit, it would appear to us that this last is the most significant; nevertheless it must be admitted that all of these take us as far, and as far only, as the statement earlier made that there was a tide which the T'ang Christians omitted, and that the result wa.s that "all the voyagfl of their life was bound in shallows, and in miseries." II Mongol Period Notwithstanding its failure in China Proper, Christianity continued to spread among the nomad Tatars of Central Asia, and when, in the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongol Kublai Khan became ruler of the Middle Kingdom these eastern Christians again becanie numerous and influential. Kublai Khan was as catholic-minded as had been T'ang_T'ai-Tsung of the seventh century. He was friendly to Christianity, to .Judaism, to Mohammedanism, and to Buddhism. Personally he leaned rather toward Buddhism, but he was more than willing,-he was anxious-that his subjects should be converted to Christianity. There is little doubt that the mother of Kublai Khan was a Christian. This, taken in conjunction with that great ruler's desire to civilize and spread culture among his followers, appears largely responsible for another crucial moment in the history of Christianity in eastern Asia. *Mrs. Samuel Couliug, The Lumiuons Religion, The. Chinese Recorder, Vol. LV, No. 5, (May Hl24) p. 315.

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204 CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRIS'rIANl'rY Roman Catholic Missionades While the Mongols were building up their power in Central Asia, immediately prior to the founding of the Yuan rlynasty in Ch_ina, several unsuccessful attempts were made by missionaries of the Church of Rome to reach China by the overland route. Among these were the Franciscans John of Plano Carpini and William of Rubruquis. Both reached the Mongol court at or near Karaborum about the middle of the thirteenth century, but failed to reach China. Contemporaries of these travellers were the brothers Niccolo and Matteo Polo, merchants of Venice, who, about the year 126,5 reached the court of Kublai Khan. Pleased with their personality and hopeful of obtaining help from the Christians of the West, the Great Khan sent t.hem back to Europe with letters to the Pope "indited in the Tartar tongue." Says Marco Polo himself: "Now the contents of the letter were .to this purport: He begged that the Pope would send as many as an hundred persons of our Christian faith; intelligent men, acquainted with the Seven Arts, well qualified to enter into controversy, and able clearly to prove by force of argument to idolaters and other kinds of folk, that the Law of Christ waH best, and that all other religions were false and naught; and that if they would prove this, he and all under him would become Christians and the Church's liege-men. li'inally, he charged his Jl:nvoys to bring back to him some Oil of the Lamp which burns on the sepulchre of our Lord at Jerusalem."* Brothers Polo After a three years' journey the brothers Polo reached Acre in Syria in April 1269, only to learn that there was a papal interregnum. Pope Clement IV had died in the preceding November and, owing to ecclesiastical politics, his successor, Gregory X, was not elected until almost three years later. Although the new Pope considered the Great Khan's request for missionaries '' to be of great honour ancl ad vantage for the whole of Christendom," he was nevertheless able to send only two Preaching Friars with them on their return *The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Yule-Cordier edition (London, 1921) Vol. 1, pp. 13-14.

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CRITICAL 11-iOMEN'IB iN CHRISTIANITY 205 journey, and these friars, after they had started and had heard of the dangers of the journey, "were greatly frightened, and said that go they never would "-and they did not. 'fhus a unique opportunity to spread the Christian religion in China was irretrievably lost. John of Monte Corvino The Polos after serving Kublai Khan many years in China at length left their patron to return to Venice by way of the sea-route probably early in the year 1292. 'fhree years mirlier Pope Nicholas IV, ambitious for the expansion of Christianit.y and the Church, had sent the Franciscan monk, John of Monte Corvino, who had already served some nine years in Persia, to labor among the Chinese and Mongols. It is possible that the Polos and .John of Monte Corvino met in India; in any case the latter arrived in China within two years of the departure of the Polos. His labors constituted the first successfur attempt on the part of Europea.n Christians to evangelize China. For some thirty-five years this indefatigible missionary worked in the capital of China, where he established two large churches with a membership of several thousand. In the year 1307, Friar John became first Arch-bishop of Peking, and t,henceforward he had assistant bishops and friars to a.id in his great work. Mention has been made previously to the Nestorians presence in China in considerable numbers of Nestorian Christians, the great majority of whom must have been l\fongols and not Chinese. William of Rubrnquis who had failed to reach China had come into touch with the Assyrian Christians of Central Asia a generation before the arrival in Peking of John of Monte Corvino. William was, on the whole, a fairminded and judicious writer; he describes the Nestorians as knowing nothing. "They say their offices, and have sacred books in Syrian, but they do not know the language, so they chant like some monks among us who do not know grammar, and they are absolutely depraved. In the first place, they are usurers and drunkards; i;orne of them who live with the Tartars have several wives like them. When they enter the church they wash their lower parts like

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206 CRi'l'IOAL MOMEN'l'S tN dHR!S'.r!ANl'.rY Saracens; they eat meat on Friday, and have their feasts on that day in Saracen fashion. 'l'he bishop rarely visits these parts, hardly. once in fifty years. When he doeH they have all the male childrnn, even those in the cradle, ordained priests, so rrnarly all the males among them are priests. Then. they marry which is clearly ag1Lirn;t the statuteH of the fathers, and they are bigamists, for when the nrst wife dies these priests t.ake another. Tht,y ui:e Himoniacs and administer no sacrament gmti8. They a.re Holicitous for their wiws and children, and are con :,;eqnently more i11tent on the il'1crease of their wealth than of the faith." Tu be imre, William of Rnbruquis was a Roman Catholic and, consequently, unlikely to be partial to eaf>tern Christians. But it should be remembered that the Catholic writers have as a rule been less critical of the Nestorians than have the Protestants. Had the leaders of the;;e two branches of Christianity in China acted upon the injunction cif the Founder of their religion, that they love one another, and that they may be one even as the Father and the Son are one, and had Christianity survived among them in its pri_stine purity, it is impossible to imagine a limit to what might have been accomplished by Christianity in China and AHia as a whole. That something of this was felt by the ArchbisQbP of "Soltania who wrote a book about the year l3aO, entitlerl 1'he },J15fate mul Gove1"1w.nce. of the Grand Oaan is shown in his stateme.nt that "it is believed that if they (tl1e Nestori1;1,ns) would agree and be at one with the Minor fi'riars and with the other good Christians who dwell in that country, they would convert the whole country, and the emperor likewise to the true faith." But instead of co-operation in maintaining and spreading a religion pure and undenled, we find mutual antagonisms and "peniecutions of the sharp est" on the pai"t of theNestorians directed against Archbishop ,John of Monte Corvino, especially in the early years of his residence in Peking. There were Ncstorian bishoprics at Peking (or Khanbaliq) and at Ning-hsia. on the Yellow River. The Nestorians. did not relish the founding of a Catholic bi:;hopric within their preserve at the national capit.al. 'l'he great missionary of Rome .was

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CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY 207 '' 1nany a tin1~ ... dragged before the judg~1nent seat with ignomil1y and threats of death."*Periclecution, how ever, far from discouraging him spurred him on to greater efforts, with the result that Kha.nhaliq became a metropolitan bishopric: of the Catholic Church, and thousands were convertecl within the city itself and its -environs. Nor was the work of the clevotPd Franciscans limited to the north; with the coming of others, stations were opened in other centres which proRpered till well p:u;t the middle of the fourteenth centuryuntil the Yuan, or Mongol, dynal'lty weakened to its fall. Catholic Christianity Fails l\Iany thouf'ands were conv
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208 CRI'rICAL MOMEN'rf! IN CHRIS'rIANITY foreign themselves. ln those early dangerous days they cheerfully built themselves a house in European style, a thing that bar, caused trouble again and again within quite recent years. The early and later Nestorians even seem to have kept their Syriac services to the end and the Italian John of Monte Corvino set to work teaching little boys Latin; and in his tremendom1 solitude-twelve years without a letter or message from Europe-it was evidently his greatest joy that they sang the services j1ist the same as in his convent at home But the Later Nestorians and the Franciscans were regarded as part of the hated foreign rule of the Mongols. Khubilai had conquered China by force of arms and held it, he and his successors, with difficulty for less than ninety years. Their policy was to give the Chinese no power. All the higher officials throughout the ldnd were foreigners. the country was in a sense overrun with foreign officials, soldiers, merchants, priests, all inevitably as sociated together, in the minds of the subject Chinese, as part of the foreign conqueror's detested rule. And, when the time came, all n.t once thPy went.'':;, How many of the converts of Archbishop John and his assistants were Chinese-in distinction to the l\Iongol converts-is not known. Apparently the number was not great, but grnat or small, with the fall of the Yuan dynasty, Christianity was weakened and its believers were again left in shallows and in miseries. HI. The third great phase of Christianity in Jt:::ifan Period China begins with the ardent desire of St. Francis Xavier to open work in this country, and his arrival on the island of Shangchuen, or St. John's Island, off the southern coast of China in the year 1552. Because of the oppoRition of the Portuguese who feared that trouble with the imperial authorities, which would interfere with commerce, might be created by the opening *The Failure of Early Christian Missions to China, The East and West, Vol. 12 (1914), pp. 383:-410.

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CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY 209 of religious work, St. Francis wa8 prevented from landing on the mainland, and died on the island within sight of the goal of his desires. Not the fir,,t member of the Society of Jesus Ricci to reach the mainland, but the most influential of the group of early and great ,Jesuits whose labora dominate the third great Christian period in China (1552-l744), was the Italian, Matteo Ricci. A momentous.decision in the history of Christianity in the Far l~ast was that of Ricci, when he determined to appeal to the imperial court and the leading officials through the intellect, that is to say, through liternry and scientific channels. In 1601 the zealous a.nd subtle Italian priest was presented to the Ming emperor Shen 'fsung (Wan Li, 1573-1619). To him Ricci was able to offer gifts which included pictures of Christ and the Blessed Virgin, an harpsicon, and a clock which would strike. So favorn.ble was the effect of Ricci upon the emperor, that the support of the latter was won to the extent of contributing to the support of Ricci and his companions, and permitting them to rent a house. For nine years Ricci labored in the capital despite all protests on the part of the Board of Rites. He delved deeply into the classical lore, mastered the language and used it as a medium for acquainting the Chinese officials and litemti with the progress of western lands, their science and religion. 'fhe courtliness and erudition displayed by the early Jesuits in conjunction with their ]earned publications impressed the imperial courts as nothing else could have done, and two hundred conversions were reported within four years including those of three famous scholars who collaborated with Ricci in the translation of Euclid, Aristotle, and other western authors and who produced original works in mathematics, the sciences and the arts. When Ricci died in 1610, the emperor gave land for his burial place outside the city wall-land which was the first eccles'iastical property acquired in China by the missionaries of this era. Ad S h 1 Twenty years after the death of Ricci, a am c aa German .Jesmt, Adam Schaal, became more fofluential even than his great precursor. In the meantime

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210 CRITICAL MOMENTA JN CHRISTIANITY there had been a persecution of the missiomtries and their converts conseq nPnt upon the enmity of the Board of Rites; the friendship of certain scholars--officials who had been converted by Ricci-in conjunction with the knowledge along scientific lines displayed by the priests themselves, saved their work and, by 1G22, the imperial edict against them had been revoked. The last Ming emperor to rule in Peking, Szu 'fsung (Ch'ung Cheng, 1628-1643) appointed Adam Schaal and Jacques Rho to the Astronomical Board about 1630. Some thirty mi;;sion stations in thirteen provinces witness to the labor of those Jesuits who were Rcattered through the country and whose interest13 were protected by their conl'rares at the court of Peking. Schaal who had. shown that he was ac-Missionaries f and Cannon quainted with the process o making cannon, was ordered by the emperor to aid the dynasty by casting cannon to use against the Tatars. The priest did not feel that it was in keeping with his profession to do this, but, rather than risk the position of the Jesuits at court, he establi;;hed a foundry anci succeeded in casting twenty cannon most of which could throw a forty-pound shot. In connection with the question of conscience involved, it is interesting to note that in 1674, on the occasion of the rebellion of Wu San-kuei against the l\fanchus, Pere Verhiest was commanded by K'ang Hsi to follo\V the precedent established by Schaal. Jn obeying the imperial command Verbiest. was criticised by enemies of the Jesuits in Europe, but the Pope commended him for having used the profane sciences for the safety of the people and the advancement of the Faith."* In 1644 Schaal was on the staff of the Ming Catholic and army against the Manchu invaders'. 'l'hilt Ma11ch~1s year was a critical one in the history of Christianity in China, as well as in the political and military history of China itself. Was the work of the *.Hue, Le Christianisme en Chine, Tome T.II, p. 8!1, quoteu by A. H. Rowbotham. '.1.'hc Jesuits at the Court of Peking, The Uhiuese Social nud l'oliticnl Science Heview (Peking) vol. V, No. 4 (Deli. l!ll!l), p. BO!l.

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CRlTiCAl, MOMENTS 1N CHRISTIANlTY 211 Catholic Christians established by Ricci and expanded by his successors now to be destroyed as had been that of the earlier Franciscans who had followed the lead of Archbishop John of Monte Corvino in the last days of tlw l\fongoh,? Bnt no-the Jesuits were as shrewd in 1otatecraft as they were zealous in propagating the faith; they ran with the hare and hunted with the hounds. The Manehu conquerors, anxious to stabilize their position in Uhina, were glad to retain the services of intellectuals of the ability of Hchaal, and Schaal and his companions in the north, who never forgot their position at the Ming court was for a great purpose, saw every reason for continuing their work at the Manchu court, while their colleagues in the f'Outh where, in Kwangtung and Kiangsi, the Mings were for a time able to repulse the 1\fanchus, continued loyally to support the last Ming pretender to the imperial throne. Schaal in Peking was appointed by the Manchus to the Board of Astronomy or l\Iathematics. His position at the court continueq to strengthen his religious propaganda, and .it is ioaid that before long he had twelve thousand converts. In the meantime two other Jesuits, th~ Jesuits Support Austrian Koflier, and the Pole Boym, con Mings tinned; to support the Mings. It is re.ported that hefore their fall, from power' more than one hundred and forty of. the imperial clan, including the widow of Szu 'l'sung's predecessor, had been baptised. ,. The mother, wife, and son o,f. the pretender Yung Lieh, were baptised, and as a last resort it was decided that an embassy seeking assistance should be sent to the Pope and to theCatholic princes of Europe. Boym travelling by sea and land reached Venice at the end of t,he year 1652. At this time the Je:mits were proscribed 1n Venice and the ambassador had been ordered by his superiors to apply to the French Minister in Venice. 'l'hisinaugurated the claim of France to a Protectorate over the Roman Catholic missions of the Far East in imitation of her Protectorate over the Christians in the Mohammedan East-another moment in the history of Christianity in China which is highly significant if not precisely critical. Boym and a Chinese official, who had joined him, were received in audience by the Doge. and Senate of Venice.

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212 CRl'ftdAL MOMENTS iN CHRiS'fiANi'fY They then journeyed on to Rome where they were graciously received by Pope Alexander VII, who, however, was unable to send any aid of a material nature. Here one is reminded of an earlier failure in the latter part of the thirteenth century. Had the Portuguese in Macao, or the Pope and Catholic princes of Europe been able to send help to the Mings, not only the secular but the spiritual history of China would have been quite different. Adam Schaal was succeeded in Peking by Verbiest the Belgian Jesuit Verbieia:t who rose high in the favor of K'n.ng Hsi (1662-1722). The latter first severely tested his knowledge of mathematics, and then made him Director of the Observatory. Verbiest wrote many hooks introducing into China. the scientific knowledge of Europe; like Schaal, as mentioned previously, he cast cannon for his imperial master. Verbiest was followed by the French Jesuit Gerbillon, who, with the Portuguese Jesuit Pereira, was sent to act on behalf of China in negotiating with Russia the first treaty which China signed with a European power, that of Nertf:chinsk in 1689. His success on this mission was rewarded by the publication on March 22, 1692, of the famous imperial edict of tolera.tion which permitted the 'preaching of Christianity without restraint throughout the empire. GerbiJlon himself was appointed to the Presidency of the Board of Mathematics. Five years later K'ang Hsi sent a member of the Society of Jesus to Rome with gifts, and with permission to bring back from France more Christian workers. In 1699 Gerbillon received the crowning encouragement to his Faith-K'ang Hsi granted him permission to build a church within the walls of the Forbidden City itself, and is even reported to have contributed to this laudable enterprise from the imperial exchequer. "Moreover, when, in 1704, floods devastated Shantung, the Emperor, disgusted with the graft shown by his mandarins, turned all the relief work over into the control of the Jesuits."* Surely the Christian Church never had brighter prospects *H. '\V. Hering, A Study of Roman Catholic Missions in China1692-1744. The New China Review, Vol. 3 (Hl21), p. 111.

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CRITICAL .MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY 213 in China than at the opening of the eighteenth century. Never have bright hopes for spiritual conquest been dashed lower by the error of mortal man. Dominican Priests As early as 1631, Dominican priests had begun work in the province of Fukien. Shortly afterward the Franciscans reopened work in China in the same province. The tactics of Christian propaganda pursued by the Jesuits stirred up bitter criticism on the part of the Dominicans and Franciscans who accused the Jesuits of compromising Christianity by their attitude toward Buddhism, Confucianism, and native customs. There ensued the Rites Controversy which raged in China and in Rome with most unchristian bitterness frorh 163.5 to 1716, and which, however necessary it may or may not have been, resulted in the wrecking of Christianity in China in the third period of its propagation. Briefly, this epoch-making dispute among the teachers of this religion in China had to do with the translation into the Chinese language of the term God, and the permission given by the Jesuits to their converts to continue the performance of ancestral and Confucian honors in accordance with the customs of their country. The Rites Controversy, like most of the problems which have caused dispute between East and West, must be studied ultimately as a problem in racial and national psychology. No one who has pondered the rise and fall of Assyrian Christianity in this country can deny that t,he question of determining the correct character in Chinese for the concept of the One Supreme Being, and of deciding whether the hoaors paid to ancestors and to Confucius were religious or only civil in their significance, were vital questions, and that upon their correct solution depended the future of Christianity in China. The method of arriving at their solution formed, however, the crux of the matter, and it was here that a vital error was made which again entailed the. Church in shallows anrl in miseries. The critics of the Jesuits appealed to Rome; the Jesuits appealed to Peking. Rome decided one miy; Peking, in the person of K'ang Hsi, decided the other. It is clear that the Jesuits were ultimately under the spiritual

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214 CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIAN1TY authority of the Pope, who would accept with as little equanimity the decision of an Asiatic ruler in the spiritual sphere as had his predecessors certain decision of l~urope:m emperors and kings; it is equally clear that an Asiatic monarch of the powm and calibre of K'ang Hsi the Great would not bow before the decision of a foreign priest who had never been in China, and who could not, possibly decide linguistic and social disputes on a basis of first-hand information. On each side there was pride based on a sincere belief in unique and nbsolute power. Neither could gauge the mind of the other, inasmuch as standards for such did not exist. The Chinese and Manchus were shocked and irritated at the dispute among these Christians who preached a doctrine of Love, but who would not live and work together in peace and amity. C t K'ang Hsi did not intend to permit his on roversy b 1 I' h ] 1 with K'ang Hsi empire to e sp 1t over re 1g10us or t eo og1ca. disputes among men from outlandish kingdoms; receiving in audience Bishop Maigrot, the Vicar-Apostolic of Fukien, in 1706 he said: We honour Confucius as our master, thereby testifying our gratitude for the doctrine he has le"ft us. We do not pray before the tablets of Confucius or of our ancestors for honour or happiness. These are the throe points upon which you contend. If these opinions are not to your taste, consider that you must leave my empire. Those who have already embraced your religion, perceiving the perpetual conflicts that reign amongst.you, begin to doubt its truth, and the others are rendered every day less disposed to embrace it. For myself I consider you to be persons who are come to Uhina, not to founcl or to establish your religion, but to break down and tL:Moy it. If it should come to nothing, you can only impute it to yourselves."* Missionaries Differ Second only to the Rites Controversy, and, indeed, closely connected with it, were the national differences among the Christian *R. C. Jen kins, The .Jesuits in China an
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CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY 215 missionaries themselves and their relations to the rulers of their homelands. The right of patronage of Catholic missions in China bestowed by the Papacy upon the Portuguese monarchy, and the aid given by Louis XIV of France in founding the ll'rench Jesuit Mission in Peking, caused considerable confusion in the religious work itself, and served to arouse suspicion of the motive~ of the missionarie;; in the minds of K'ang Hsi, Yung Cheng, and Ch'icn Lung. During the course of the Rites Controversy, K'ang Hsi attempted to unite the French and Portuguese .Jesuits in Peking into one Society -but failed. When the emperor ,fosired to avail hiimwlf of the scientific knowledge of the Jesuits in the making of a map of his empire, he did not permit them personally to make the surveys of the frontiers. In The Reflections of K'ang Hsi the great emperor cautions his successors in reference to the aims of the Europeans, evidently having in mind the missionaries as their advance guard "They succeed in wha.tever they undertake, no matter what the difficulty; they are dauntless, clever, and overlook no opportunity. While I. rule, there is nothing for China to fear from them. l treat them well; they are fond of me and seek my pleasure but if our rule should weaken, if we become careless of the Chinese of the southern provinces ... what will become of our empire? n Edict of Barely had a year passed after the death Proscription of K'ang Hsi when his successor, Yung Cheng, issued the edict of 1724 proscribing Christianity throughout the empire, and confiscating the property of the Church. Because of their scientific knowledge the Peking missionaries might remain, but all others were to be banished to Macao.::' Thus did the son of K'ang Hsi evince his fear of the missionaries in the provinces; and every action taken by the Jesuits in Peking, by the Pope in Rome in 1725, and by the ambassador of the king of Portugal sent to Yung Cheng. in 1727 to obtain the rescinding of the decree, so that the *Changed later to Canton, bnt reordere(l by imperial decree in 1732.

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216 CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY misHionaries might continue their labors in the interior, served as oil on the flames of imperial opposition. To the memorial of Pope Benedict XIII, Ynng Cheng replied, "I cannot permit missionaries to live in the provinces. Why does your pope wish them to be in the provinces? If I sent Bonzes to Europe, how would you treat them? As fanatic disturbers of the peace and public mind deserve." ,vhen the mis,iionaries at court proved unremitting in their entreaties for their associates to be permitted to return to the interior, the emperor threatened them with expulsion. Persecution in Fukie11 In 1730 in the province of Fukien a severe persecution of Christianity began; after a lull it broke out again in 1741, and by 1747 it had spread throughout the empire. Three years earlierin 17 44 -the Papal Bull Ex quo singulare was published in China. This arbitrarily ended the Rites Controversy which had been begun by the appeal to Rome in 1635. The Bull positively forbade adherence to the earlier .Jesuit and the imperial interpretation of the Rites, and required unreserved obedience on the part of all Catholic missionaries and converts to the papal interpretation. With proscription by the emperor and persecution by the officials, the masses naturally turned against Christianity. Not all of the priests left the country; some of them returned secretly to their districts in the interior; and, of course, the religion itself did not entirely die out -it was far too deeply rooted for that. But for almost one hundred years it dwindled under persecution and suffered greatly until a new era opened in the nineteenth century. IV. The tardiness of Protestant ChristianR in J807 obeying the Great Command to "Go and make disciples of all the nations'' has often been commented upon in the modern period of missionary endeavor. It was not until 1807 that Dr. Robert Morrison, the first of the Protestant missionaries to China reached Canton eleven hundred and seventy-two years after the arrival of A-lo-pen in Ch'ang-an. The opposition of the Portuguese

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CRl'flCAL M:OM:ENTS iN CHRIS'flANITY 217 traders in Macao to the opening of religious work by St. Francis Xavier and his successors is, perhaps, easier for us to comprehend when we bear in mind that approximately two and a half centuries later the opposition of British corrimercial interests in China made it impossible for Morrison to embark for this country in an East India Company ship, thus forcing him to cross to New York, whence he sailed on an American ship for Canton. Morrison brought with him a letter of introduction from Ja.mes Madison, then Secretary of State, not to the British agents in Canton, but to the American consul. This letter requestecl Consul Carrington to do all that he could for Morrison consistent with the interests of his own country. The latter providecl refuge and entertainment in his own fact'ory, and for months Morrison who dared not acknowl edge his British citizenship was known as an American. Later, as is of course well known, Morrison found employment under, and received aid from, the East India Company.* That the arrival of Morrison constituted a vital moment in the history of China and of Christianity in China, if.1 evidenced by the reported reply of a high official of the Republic of China who, when asked the origin of the revolutionary movement which overthrew the Manchus in 1911, replied that this movement in reality began on the day that Robert Morrison landed in Canton. Edict of Proscription Nullified Despite the significance of the arrival of Morrison in this country, and that of the dozen or so Anglican and Protestant missionary E:ocieties whose members followed in his footsteps, it was not the Protestants who finally b_rought about the nullification of Yung Cheng's edict of 1724. It was the Catholic whose disputes had caused its publication, and it was a Roman Catholic envoy, M. de Lagrene, from King Louis Philippe of France, who succeeded in obtaining its nullification in the yeara 1844-1846. 'fhe interest of Louis XIV in Catholic missions in China had been felt by his successors, interrupted though it had been during the *Of. Tyler Dennett, Americans in Eastern Asia (New York, 1922), p. 04.

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218 CHITWAL MOMENTS IN CHUISTiANI'l'Y revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. The patient faith and persevering labors of the missionaries were a source of encouragement to the French Catholics at home, and rest1lted in aicl which opened new fields of labor to them in China itself. "Let us," said a French writer, who apparently accompanied M. de La.grene in 1844, in our policy and our commerce, imitate the conduct, at once prudent and courageous, of the Catholic missions, which have for more than two centuries exerted such noble efforts in the cause of religion. Protected and proscribed, honored and persecuted by turns, raised to-day to the dignities of the imperial court to be thrown into prison or conducted to execution tomorrow, the missionaries persevered in their glorious task, without, being for a moment dazzled by the prospects of a precarious favour, or cast down by the inflictions of the most fearful hostility .. Their progrei:-:s is slow, but this has not damped their hopes. The faith advances by insensible degrees, but it never recedes. God only knows how many years or how many centuries, how much devotion, and how much martyrdom may be required to complete the work." Rescript of Toleration In response to the representations of l\I. de Lagrene, the emperor Tao IC wang at the end of December 1844, issued a rescript granting toleratiQn to Christianity, and stating that "all natives and foreigners without distinction, who learn and practise the religion of the Lord of Heaven (-i.e.) (Roman Catholicism), and do not excite trouble by improper conduct (may) be exempted from the charge of criminality. As to thorn of the French and other foreign nations, who practise the religion, let them only be permitted to .build Churches at the five ports opened for commercial intercourse.* They must not presume to enter the country to propagate religion." The last provision is distinctly remini¢ of the suspicion a.roused Art. 17 of the American treaty of vVangbia signed almost six months earlier, had permitted the building of Churches in the open ports, but this treaty did not provide a right for missionaries to seek converts.

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CRI'l'ICAL MOMEN'fS IN CHRTS'fIANI'fY 219 in the minds of K'ang Hsi, Yung Cheng and Ch'ien Lung. Anglican and Protestant workers wish eel to enjoy specific permission to carry on their work, and this the Imperial High Commissioner, Kiying, obtained in the following year. I do not understand the lines of distinction between the religious ceremonies of the various nations," .. remarked this tolerant Manchu statesman, "but virtuous Chinese will by no means be punished on account of their religion. No matter whether. they worship images or do not worship images (Is it possible that Kiying had been intolerantly misinformed to the effect that the Roman Catholics "worshipped images"?), there are no prohibitions against them if, when practising their creed, their conduct is good." And early in 1846 another imperial decree ordered the restoration of Church property which had been confiscated almost a century and a quarter earlier. MissfonariEs And Foreign Interests Although the Catholic missionaries had continued the propagation of the faith regardless of proscription and persecution, and in the year 1830 are estimated to have had as many as four bishops andnineteen European priests scattered over tlie empire even to Szechwan with two hundred thousand converts, it remains a fact that both Catholic and Protestant missionaries have been, by force of circumstance in the modern period, bound inextricably by connection with foreign interests of a not purely religious na.tme which interests have themselves been rlivided along national lines. The connection of Christianity with foreign personnel, foreign rights and interests, and foreign governments at the present da.y has aroused criticism on the part of the Chinese, and resulted in considerable heart-searching on the part of Christian workers. Many thoughtful Christians, native and foreign, are of the opinion that the present moment is fully as critical in the history of Christianity in China as a.ny of those touched upon hitherto. Once they were aroused to the opportunities and needs of the China field, Protestant and Anglican missionaries, were as determined to break down barriers which kept them f:rom the interior as had been their Roman Catholic

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220 CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY brethren in earlier centuries; they were, moreover, quite as much inclined to act on the principle that the end justifies the means as had been Pere Ricci and those who had followed in his footsteps, when it came to the use of subterfuge in entering the country. Foreign and Chinese Christians Into the details of the connections which have existed between foreign and Chinese Christian workers and converts on the one side, and non-religious foreign interegts and rights of all classes on the other, there is no need to enter here. Suffice it to say that the part played by extra.territoriality, the special toleration clauses in the treaties, the protection which must be accorded, under modern conceptions of government, to nationals engaged abroad in r.eligious or any other kind of legitimate work by the governments of their home lands; the special claims of France and Germany to protect Catholic mis:::ionaries and their property in the Far East, and the advantage taken of this on several occasions to assume the offensive in military operations or to claim indemnities-all these have lent color to the suspicion felt by many Chinese high and low, since the days of K'ang Hsi, that missionaries, regardless of the good they do along social and educational lines have been, consciously or unconsciously, in reality subtle and effective agents of imperialism. This suspicion was considerably enhanced by Articles Two and Seven of Group V. of the Twenty-One Demands of .January 18, 1915. These articles demandecl that "Japanese hospitals, churches and schools in the interior of China shall be granted the right of owning land," and that China agrees that Japanese suhject8 shall have the right of missionary propaganda (or, of propagating Buddhism) iu China." Considering the position held in Japan by Shintoism and the fact that it was by way of China that Buddhism entered ,Japan, the Chinese may be pardoned for being suspicious of Japan's motives in desiring to propagate Buddhism in this country. Missionaries and Missionaries and other friends of the Gove,n~ents Chinese people realize the error made by those w4o ~itheifalsely, or in sincerit~T of

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CRITICAL MOMENTS IN CHRISTIANITY 221 mind, accuse Christian workers of wittingly being the agents of their respective countries rather than of their God. It is not enough in a time like the present, however, for such workers merely to smile, or shrug their shoulders, or to become righteously indignant with the "stupid people." If they are true missionaries, and not merely the agents of their home governments, they must-unlike the Master in Israel who once consulted Christ-be able to reacl the signs of the time. True, the wind bloweth where it listeth -but it is their task to note the direction from which it b1ows. v Wrong Methods The study of the critical moments in the history of Christianity in this great country which have been touched on here may serve to indicate certain weaknessei! not 'in OhrilJtianity itself, but in the methods 11sed by those who have been its messengers. Whatever good the early and latt~r Assyrian Christians may have done, and certainly it was not small, and whatever mistakes they may have made, that of com promising the purity of Christianity by bringing in alien elements from other religions can with difficulty be forgiven. Christianity as a religion is, if it is anything, absolutely imique-and uniqueness and eclecticism are mutually contradictory and destructi\1e. Assyrian Christianity by its compromises became the salt which had lost its savor; it almost literally-as far as the East is c_oncerned-gained the world, but lost its soul. Foreignness of Christian Church In the days of Archbishop .John of Monte Corvino, Catholic Christianity had not suf ficient contact with nor support from the Mother Church in Rome. The number of workers who could be spared and who dared brave the terrora of travel to Cathay and the hardships to be endured after arrival were few, and, apparently insofar as China was concerned, the error was made of developing a clientele, if such a term be admissible, upon too exclusively foreign :i, basis, Is there not a je!3son ~t :pres~nt tQ pe qeriyecl

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222 CRl'l'ICAL MOMEN'.l'S IN CHRISTIANITY from consideration of this point? In the minds of too many who eontribnte finaneially for Christian work in China, there is the idea that Christianity and foreign clothes, architecture, learning, and customs are synony mous. Consider for instance the surpassing foreign-ness of much of the Christian Church and mission architecture in China at present. Internal Dissension The great work of the Jesuits was wreckccl on the shoals of internal dissension on n. question of vita.I importance, the solution of which was attempted in the worst possible way, and by international and to all intents and purposes inter-denominational rivalry. Is there no leRson to be learned from this fatal ending to a great and good work? It would appear that. denominational quarrels and rivalry, both internal and external, have not yet passed away, and it is a nioot question as to whether certain quarrels between Fundamentalists and Modernists so-called may 11ot even.tually have an effect on Christianity in China of the twentieth centmy similar to that which the Rites Contro versy had in the seventeenth ,md eighteenth centuries. If the Chinese of the present day arc less confused 'by national a11.d denominational differences than they were in the days of the emperor K'ang Hsi and the High Commissioner Kiying, they are certainly not inclined to be bound by them as is witnessed by the ease and frequency with which they overstep the boundaries of the particular religions group among which they ma.y have been educated and earliest employed. Christianity Spiritual To remark that Christianity is essentially spfritunl and that it is a way or system of life is, of course, to remark the obvious: never theless it is the obvious that we are often most prone to overlook and slowest to .comprehend and apply in practice. Christianity in modern China has become highly organized; if spiritual depth and organic efficiency can be combined it is well, but the question may be considered as to whether this is the case. The present day tendency toward extreme organization seems often to lead rather to the growth of a system of Churchianity than to the living of Christianity.

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PART V EDUCATION AND STUDENTS CHAPTER XXI CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN l 925 Edward Wilson Wallace The year 1925 will be marked in the annals Schools and the of Christian education in China in letters o.f Storm red. It opened with widespread criticism of the Christian schools and colleges from the outside; these attacks increased in bitterness and in definiteness of objective; teachers and student.s within these institutions were embarrassed and perplexed by the repeated charges made against them of lack of patriot.ism for connecting themselves with "agencies of foreign imperialism"; not a few were persuaded that either the Chinese authorities should "regain control" of these institutions, or they themselves must leave them. Upon a situation already tense and full of unhappy possibilities burst the storm of May and June. The wonder is not that the storm was so severe, hut that it did not completely wreck the majority of the Christian institutions. The opening of the school year in September was awaited with much apprehension. A few schools did not reopen. Others with greatly depleted enrollments are having difficulty in carrying on. But in the great majority of schools the enrollment equals that of former years or is only slightly below it: teachers have shown splendid loyalt.y; and students are applying them selves to work with more than ordinary earnestness. Indeed not a few institutions.have reported a better spirit than has been known before. The year has closed with the announcement from the Ministry of Education in Peking of new and unexpectedly generous regulations for

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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 225 "the recognHion of schools maintained by foreign contributions," and with the complete failure, in all but a few places, of promised "anti-Christmas demonstrations."* Forces Back of Storm These startling events were the outcome of forces that had long been growing throughout the country. In the China Mission Year Book, 1925, Mr. Sanford Chen outlined these forces, which at the time that he wrote were already gathering toward the outbreak of the summer. They may be summed up as being actively anti-religious, anti-Christian, anti-foreign, and anti-existing-social-system. In the schools of the country the reAtiveness against authority, which had been so pronounced a feature for the past few years, became still more marked. Heretofore, Christian schools had suffered less than the government institutions, but in the winter of 1924-1925 a number of schools passed through periods of extreme difficulty when students revolted entirely against all control. National Educational Bodies This movement was strengthened by actions that had been taken the previous summer and autumn by the two national educational bodies, the National Association for the Advancement of Education, and the National Federation of Educational Association. Both these bodies adopted strong resolutions against schools conducted by foreigners and those that taught religion, and called upon the Ministry of Education to take active steps to "regain control of education." The public press popularized this demand, and students in Christian ii'1stitutions were urged to insist that their schools conform to the government regulations or to transfer to registered schools. May 30. The events of May 30th and throughout June threw practically the whole nation into the ranks of this movement, with its various streams that we have indicated, confm,ing as they did Christianity *From a paragraph by the writer in the EDUCATION AL REVIEW, January, 1926, page 1.

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226 CHRIS'l'IAN EDUCATION IN 1925 with anti-nationalism. Many Christians found difficulty in making it clear that to them Christianity was not inconsistent with nationalism, and not a few teachers and students were unable to reconcile their love of country with continuance in "foreign schools." For a time almost complete ruin seemed to threaten the Christian schools and colleges. Many institutions found it advisable to close before the end of the term, in most cases students leaving without taking their final examinations. Where this was not done, students themselves left the institutions or remained only to cause great difficulties to the authorities. During the summer there was fear lest many schools would be unable to reopen in the autumn. Yet, as we have seen, the situation at the end of the year in by far the majority of the schools and colleges is reported as being better than for some years past. For the time, at least, the disturbing elements have largely disappeared, and the students who have returned are those who are earnestly desirous of pursuing their education. The comparative quiet of the present time, however, should not induce any feeling of false security. This is not the end of opposition, though it may mark the change to a less open and more subtle type of opposition. It affords to those responsible for the administration of Christian institutions an opportunity to remove causes of difficulty in the past, and to make preparation for the next phase. Control of Education While the anti-Christian element in the opposition duri11g the year 19:25 was the one that was most prominent in the public press, it is undoubted that the most general cause for suspicion and opposition was the feeling that government educational authorities can exercise no oversight or control over the Christian schools, an<1 tbat this is not right. "Regain control of education" has come to be a cry that is very powerful in arousing antagonism. The determination to secure legitimate control over the Christian schools has not been forgotten, though instead of demonstration and riot it will be expressed through orderly methods of government action.

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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 227 New During the autumn of 1925 it was known Regulations that the Minister of Education contemplated issuing new regulations governing the registration of Christian schools and col1eges. It was feared that these might be still more unfavorable than the existing regulations. Fortuuately, several of the members of the Board of Education were themselves Christians and familiar with the purposes of the Christian schools, and opportunity was offered for assuring other members of the sincere desire of those in Church or Christian institutions for a satisfactory relationship with the government. Christian educators desired no privileges but simply the status of private schools, with the measme of freedom to vary from the requirements of the public schools which this implies. The religious problem was recognized as a complicating factor. There are those on the government side who feel that religion should be kept out of all schools, at least until China is able to provide a sufficient number of public schools without religious teaching to supply the needs of all who desire that type of education. When that is done, there would not be the same objection to the existence of private schools that teach religion, the attendance at which would be entirely optional. Christians, on the other hand, believe that their contribution to the progress of education in China is the nse of religion as a dynamic force, to insure the realization of true educational ideals in life and character. To this, those who consider that all religion is superstitious and degrading uttered a flat denial. New Regulations Translated When the new regulations were issued on November 16th it was fonnd that the fear that the government would ally itself with the extreme party was unfounded. The actual wording of the regulations in an unofficial translation* made by the China Christian Educational Association is as follows: 1.. "Any institution of whatever grade established by funds contributed from foreigners, if it carries on *See also Chapter XVII, page 240.

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228 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 its work according to the regulations governing various grades of institutions as promulgated by the Ministry of Education, will be allowed to make application for recognition at the office of the proper educational authorities of the Government according to the regulations as promulgated by the Ministry of Education concerning the application for recognition on the part of all educational institutions. 2. "Such an institution should prefix to its official name the term :ff. "fl. "szu lih (privately es tablished.) 3. "The president or principal of such an institution should be a Chinese. If such president or principal has hitherto been a foreigner, then there must be a Chinese vice-president, who shall represent the institution in applying for recognition. 4. "If t,he institution has a boarc1 of managers, more than half of the hoard must be Chinese. 5. The institution shall not have as its purpose the propagat,ion of religion (!;! & :;re; ql'),. Y. fw. l11i ~). 6. "The curriculum of such an institution should conform to the standards set by the Ministry of Education. It shall not include religious courses among the required subjects." R I t 4 Christian educators have not hesitated to egu a ions ,-h l express t e1r p easure at the generous terms of the first four regulations. The desire that Christian schools should be treated as are other private schools has been granted. There can be no objection to the requirement that Christian schools should come as rapidly as possible under the direction of Chinese principals and boards. Regulation 5 There is an unfortunate ambiguity in the wording of regulation 5, which on the face of it would appear to prevent a registered school from carrying

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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 229 on its religious activities. Dr. T. T. Lew, however, has pointed out in an important open letter, puhlished by the China Christian Educational Association, that members of the Board of Education have given their assurance that what is meant is that a school should have an educational purpose, expressed in educational terms, and that no restrictions are intended upon the normal religious activities of the Christian school. If such an interpretation could be officially assured one. of the chief difficulties in the way of registration of many schools would he removed. Regulation 6 With regard to regulation 6, which requires that courses in religion be macle elective, there is much difference o.f opinion. The majority of missionary educators are rfoiappointed that the authorities were unable to grant full religious rights, such as aril usually allowed private schools in other countries. Others believe that it is to the best interest of the Christian useful ness of our schools that all elements of "compulsion," or seeming compulsion, should be removed, in order to realize the educational and religious purposes of our schools. Here also a definition or explanation is to be desired. At the time of the writing of this article, it has not been possible to secure ftuther light on the meaning of these two regulations. For some time there has been no Minister of Education, and no opportunity has been afforded for securing a definition, either by an interpretation or by means of a test case, through the application for registration of one or more schools. In the meantime, some schools are going forward to register with the conditions as they stand, while a larger number are awaiting further information. Attitude of Christian Educators The general attitude of the Christian educators may be summed up briefly as follows: (1) There is general ag:1;eement that thr. Christian schools should be brought"' into relation with the government.

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230 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 (2) Action is already being taken by many institutions to meet the requirements of a Chinese principal and Chinese membership on t.he board of managers. (3) There is a growing recognition of the possibilities of modification in methods of religious work. (4) There is, however, a clear agreement that the Christian contribution in education is in the realm of that dynamic to character which religion affords, and a conviction that this must be retained, though the methods employed may vary from school to school. At the beginning of the new year the Ministry issued an order requiring schools to register or to be closed : so far as can be learned no attempt is being made to enforce this regulation, and no such attempt is expected. Progress in Chinese Leadership The year has shown many evidences of the growth of Chinese leadership in Christian education. We can merely indicate some of the signs of the progress that is being made toward the time when mission education will become completely "Chinese Christian education.'1 During the summer, Dr. Frank D. Gamewell, for twelve years genera.I secretary of the China Christian Educational Association, resigned from his position to take up secretarial work in connection with the Methodist Board in America. Two associate general secretaries were appointed in his place, of whom one is Mr. Sanford C. C. Chen. At the time of the annual meeting of the Association in the spring, Dr. Timothy T. Lew was appointed president. ']'he chairman of the Council of Primary and Secondary Jijducation is Mr. King Chu, who is also secretary of the executive committee. The 0ha.irman of the Council of Higher Education is Mr. F. C. Yen, of Changsha. The newly organized Council of Religious Education called as its full time secretary Dr. C. S. Miao, who has been energetic during the year in promoting study of the religious education side of the work of our schools and colleges. Twice during the year the preeident of the Association has done important service through open letters which have been published by the Educational

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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 231 Association, one dealing with the student unrest of the summer, the other with the subject of registration. Chinese leadership of a very high order marked the recent college conference in Shanghai. The chairman was Dean Francis C. M. Wei, of Central China University, and the speakers were, in the main, outstanding Chinese Christian educators. The China Christian Educational AssociaPublications tion has commenced the publication of the Chinese Oh1-istian Ediicatio,ial Quarte1ly, which, under the editorship of Mr. Sanford Chen, has just completed a successful year. It serves as a medium for the interchange of thought on Christian education as well as an opportunity to present its ideals and achievements to Chinese readers who al'e unfamiliar with it. Teachers' Bulletins for primary teachers have sold by the thonsands, and are carrying to most of the Christian prim!l.ry schools the latest and best methods. A new series of bulletins on religious education has been projected, and the first issue will appear before this article is in print. Provincial It is not only in the national association in Associations Shanghai that Chinese leadership is evident. In the ten provincial associations the majority of the members are now Chinese teachers, and in most of them it is they who are initiating and carrying ont the policies of the associations. Already a number of missions are at work on the problem of the transfer of the general oversight of their educational work to the Christian Church or to independent boards of education. Locally, many schools, as well as the colleges, are building up boards of management, upon which the proportion of Chinese membership is steadily, i.f slowly, increasing. That there is need for still greater progress, however, is shown by n. recent study of the administration of a number of middle schools in East China. It was found that only twenty seven per cent of those investigated had boards of managers with Chinese membership, and only nineteen per cent had Chinese principals. This is a time for action, not for the expression of earnest hopes for the future. The permanence of Christian education depends more np<;m

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2$2 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 successful transfer of responsibility and control to the Chinese Christian community than upon anything else. Making Education Chlnes.i There is, also, a hopeful development in the direction of making and relating the content of education more directly to the Chinese environment. For many years, at least in the eastern half of China, English has been the medium of instruction in the colleges and in most of the middle schools. This supremacy of a foreign language as a medium of instruction is challenged by the nationalists as well as by not a few western educators. Several of the Christian educational associations are taking active steps to promote the use of Chinese as a medium throughout the middle school, and we may expect in the next five years to see English relegated to a very nominal place, except as a subject of study in middle schools, and as a tool in college courses. This change is making possible larger emphasis upon the study of Chineioe language and literature, and is giving students greater familiarity with their own language through its constant use in the classroom. There is a tendency to st.udy all subjects in their relation to the Chinese environment, geographical, political a:nd cultural, ,vhich will do much to free the Christian schools from the not unmerited criticism of tending t,> "foreignize their students, inteliectually at least. Religion in Education Perhaps the greatest gain of the past two years has been a clearer understanding of the central position that religion takes in the P.ducational contribution of the Christian school~ to Chinn. The anti-Christian movement, so far from shaking the belief of Christian educators in their mission, has led them to appreciate more than before the nature of their contribution and how it should be made. To quote from the findings of the recent conference in Shanghai with Dr. John R. Mott: "The use of religion as a dynamic force in education is the special contribution of the Christian schools." It is unfortunate that the discussion of the relative merits, as methods, of the required and the voluntary principles in religious instruction has tended to cloud the issue. It has had the advantage, however, of

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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 233 compelling thought upon both purpose and method with a clearer appreciation of what is essential. Whatever be the attitude taken on the matter of "requirement," it is obvious that mere attendance on Bible courses and services .of worship is not the goal, nor is it always productive of the result in view. There is a desire to study the psycho logical factors involved in the development of the religious life of the young, in order that religious education programs may be in line with their intere<1ts, desires, needs and joys. There is a feeling that too much has in many cases been attempted and too little accomplished. Everywhere there is a turning back from dependence upon courses of study, religious services and other aspects of the more formal side of the religious life to a greater depen dence upon personal relationship~, influence of strong Christian personalitle3, whether teachers or students, and the bringing of individual students into personal communion with the Spirit of God. N R (i So far this new emphasis is not a matter of ew e gxous f It Spirit program or o organ1zaa10n. 1s a new spirit that is stealing into the Christian institutions and which promises to revive t,heir spiritual life. Gatherings of teachers and students in retreats, conferences held by the educational associations and the Y.1\1.C.A., activities of the Council of Religious Education, the interchange of opinion and experience in bulletins, and : through. the EDUCATIONAL REVIEW anrl the CHRISTIAN 'EDUCATIONAL QUARTERLY, experiments in group worship .. and in religious projects in school, -all are signs of a feeling after a larger content in religious education a,nd a more vital experience of personal communion with God. Galns and Losses Christian education is passing through a time of .opposition and danger. It is in times like this that Christianity has always flourished. Evidences are not waoting that the Christian movement in China is on the brink of a great experience of renewed vitality and life. Looking back over the last year it is impossible not to feel that the gains vastly outweigh the losses, and that the prospect, though fraught

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234 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN 1925 with peril -perhaps we should say because so perilous is full of promise. (1) For some years those who have been watching the progress of education in China have questioned whether a place would be found for educational institutions frankly Christian in spirit and method and, up to the present, largely under the control of foreign missions. A way ha!3 now beeri found by the government, which, with all its difficulties, promises in time a solution, and which in the main, is requiring the Christian schools to make such modifications in their policies as are for their interest. (2) We see to-day increased emphasis by Chinese and missionary educators on the central contribution of Christian education, that is emphasis on religion as the great dynamic of life. Christian education stands as a witness to the essential place of religion in the educa.tion of the young, and will prove, we may hope, that education so conducted does in reality best realize the great purpose of developing the highest type of personality. (3) So developed, it is evident that Christian education is essential to the Jife and growth of the Christian Church. Chinese Christians are determined to stand by Christian education, but only as "Christian,'' not as "mission" education. (4) The year has been notable for outstanding examples of Chinese leadership in Christian education. If any westerners have felt anxiety lest transfer of responsibility to Chineee hands worild weaken the religious contribution of the schools, this fear has been set at rest by numP-rous actions during the past few months, not least, in the discussions at the college conference in February 1926. (5) In face of such a situation, it is evident that. the time has gone by for the expressiqn of pious hopes, that "they should increase and we should decrease." There is a subtle danger lest this habit of hope for the future should hinder the realization of that hope in the present. The time has come to act, to dare to trust the spirit of God moving mightily in his Church in China, just as in the past we have trusted the spirit working in his Church in

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CHRIS'.rIAN EDUCA'.rION IN 1925 235 the West. Words of Dr. J. H. Jowett, quoted in his biography, are strikingly appropriate to the situation which the Christian Church faces to-day in China: "The Son of God, who is the sun of righteousness, reveals His presence in rushing change and transition just as truly as He reveals it inthe quiet features of restful peace and settled government. And here, I think, is the part whicn you and I, and all who share our faith, are to fill in these revolutionary days ... It is a good thing to be sure of the Lord in the old tent which has been our dwelling place for many generations; it is an even better thing to be able to say. "It is the Lord," when we are pulling up the old pegs, and striking tent, and setting out for we know nqt where, except it be 'on to the bound of the waste, on to the city of God.'"

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CHAPTER XXII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE GOVERNMENT EDUCATION Fong F. Sec The year 1925 in China was one of civil wars, strikes, discord and confiictH of all kindR. It was not, therefore, favorahle to education. Durb1g the twelve months no growth of any importance along the liue of education was noticeable. This is the general opinion of the laymen as well as the educators themselves. Disordered Conditions Educational funds were mostly appropriated by the militarists. Students, instead of studying in their classrooms, went out to distribute circulars to the workmen and harangue them. In place of physics, chemistry, and mathematics, they read books on communism ar.d became Bolshevic in spirit. Unrest and strikes went on in many school!:', and a number of cases of unprece
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CHINESE GOVERNMENT EDUCATION 237 nation and especially of the student body. Students not only in and near Shanghai, but also in the interior provinces, began to learn what is meant by extraterritoriality, in what respects a foreigner is different from a Chinese, and to what extent the treatieR between China and the other nations are detrimental to China. The gathering on N anking Road on that memorable day was, as it were, the Boston 'l'ea Party of China. The same radicals were sympathetic with the anti-Christian movement, which sent more students into government schools, where emphasis was givrn to training for Chinese citizenship; this deprived missionary schools of some students. It is hard to say whether these ideas will do China any good or not, but it is certain that they were developed to the full in 1925. For years to come they will put the missionaries in an unpleasant and difficult position. Students in Government Schools These agitations caused an increase in the num her of students in government schools. In spite of financial difficulties, more boys and girls were found in almost all the government institutions, especially in Shanghai. At the beginning of the fall term students crowded into primary schools, middle schools, and colleges maintained by the government. This was due to the fact that, after the May 30th affair, many st,udents were unwilling or found it impossible to return to the schools conducted and taught by foreigners, though a few enthusiasts assign the cause to an awakening on the part of parents to the importance of their children's education. Not only was the number of home students increased, but there was ahm an increase in the number of those going abroad to study. ln December about one hundred and twenty students, including some girls, went to study in the University of Sun Yat-sen at Moscow. The students who went to Russia were of various standing and from several provinces. New Schools The sudden growth of a large number of new schools was another phenomenon of the year. Up to the end of October there were more than one hundred colleges and universities in China, mostly in

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238 CHINESE CWVERNMEN'.r EDUCA'.rION Peking and Shanghai, at least thirty per cent of which were actually opened or changed i11to institutions of higher learning during the year. Some of them had only a few students and no professors in the true sense of the word, with no libraries and laboratories. They had no fixed places, moving about from one part of the city to another. The public complained that such schools were worse than useless. They led the young men and women astray. They taught nothing, or taught, false patriofo1m and made use of their students as tools of politicians, Because of such complaints, the Ministry of Education published regulations governing the establishment of priyate colleges and technical schools. These regulations are to the effect that, three months before any higher institution is started, it must report to the Ministry the source of income, the location and size of buildings, the course of study, the qualification of professors and officers, and the standard of the stulents. The Ministry of Education will then send inspectors to ascertain the facts. In case of approval, such a school may go on for a probationary period of three years, during which time the Ministry may order it to be stopped at any moment, and at the end of which it may petition the Ministry for formal recognition. Theim regulations are intended to put a stop to the nominal colleges and universities of mushroom growth. Equal opportunity for education received Enlarged Opportunity attention during the last year. At this time of high cost of living only persons with a good income can send their children to middle schools and colleges. In order to have a profession a boy has to go to a college or a technical school, which is beyond a poor boy. No money means no education or profession. With a view to helping students who are poor but intelligent the National Educational Association made a wise proposal to the Ministry of Education, which sanctioned and published it as follows: "(1) Exernption of fees. Every school shall keep a certain number of scholarships for poor students who show good records.

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CHINESE GOVERNMENT EDUCATION 239 "(2) Loan of fees. Part of the required fees may be lent to a poor student until after his graduation, when his profession will enable him to pay hack the money. "(3) 81.1,bvention. Part of the required fees may be entirely free to a poor student, so as to enable him to complete his studies. "Exemption of fees is applicable to students of all grades. Loan of fees and subvent.ion are applicable only to middle school and college students. Funds of this kind may be obtained by public or private donations." An act of permanent interest to all educators Educational was passed by. the members present at the Magna Charta f h 1 f h Oh" N t" l ourt annua, 1neetrng o t e 1nese a 10na Association for the Advancement of Education, held in Taiyuan, Shansi, on August 17-23 (1925). That act, entitled '' Draft, of a Special Chapter on ll::ducation," which is to be inserted in the Constitution of the Chinese Republic, may be regi.rded as an educational Magna Charta. The draft passed at Taiyuan consists of ten articles, which may be translated as follows: "(1) Education shall be a national business, to be carried on and looked after by both the central government and the various provinces. But individuals as well as corporations, under the supervision of the government, may undertake the same business. (2) The aim of thP. education of the nation shall be _to develop character, to strengthen morality, to promote sound health, to unfold vocational ability, and to complete the qualifications of republican citizenship. "(3) The system of Chinese government education shall comprise the primary school, the middle school, the university, the normal school, and other kinds of schools that may be established according to the need of the time and locality, the foundation of all being the primary school, where all citizens enroll and study. "(4) The businesi; of education i;hall be above a.II religious and political parties. Within school hours no instruction in religion or politics sha.11 be given, and 110 religious rites shall be performed.

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240 CHINESE GOVERNMENT EDUCATION "(5) All citizens of the Chinese Republic shall perform the duty of receiving education. The periorl of free education and the age for school shall be prescribed. Within the period of free education no fee shall be charged, and textbooks and other articles required by the pupils shall be supplied gratis. The training and treatment of primary school teachers shall be regulated by ordinance. "(6) The central government and the various prov inces shalJ raise or assign funds for helping the naturally bright but poor students, 1:10 as to enable them to complete their middle school education. "(7) The central government and the various pro vinces shall do their best to push forward continuation education and education for adult iJliterates. "(8) The minimum of educational funds of the whole nation shall not be less than twenty per cent of the total of the annual expenditure of the central and pro vincial governments, the amount being made public by law. The central government, as well as the provincial authorities, shall reserve fixed funds for education and assign special funds for prizes for scientific discovery and works of art, and may collect educational taxes. Funds for these purposes shall not be diverted to other uses. "(9) Al] citizens who are engaged in scientific or artistic researches shall enjoy perfect liberty, and 'the government shall offer them proper protection. "(10) Works of historical or artistic value shall be protected by the government and prohibited from being exporte.d for sale." M 5 h I Of special interest to missionary educators 1ss1on c oo s th l f l t. N was e promu gat10n o regu a 10ns 111 ovember by the Ministry of Education for the recognition of missionary schools. The Ministry takes the position that schools established with funds contributed by foreigners should receive the same treatment as other private institutions. The following six regulations are to supersede all previous regulations concerning the registration of missionary schools: (1) any institution established with foreign money may apply for recognition; (2) such an

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CHINESE GOVERNMENT EDUCATION 241 institution should be termed private; (3) its president should be a Chinese, or these must be a Chinese vicepresident; (4) more than half of the board of managers must be Chinese; (5) it shall not have as its purpose the propagation of religion; (6) its curriculum should conform to the standards set by the Minist,ry of Education, and not include religious courses among the required subjects. For some time Chinese educators felt that the "threethree system" for middle schools was unsuitable. As a result, the "four-two system "-four years for the junior and two years for the senior middle schools-was decided upon at a national educational conference some years ago. But the new system did not receive official recognition till recently, when the Ministry issued a decree approving the adoption of the four-two system" for middle schools.

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CHAPTER XXIII EXPERIMENTS IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION C. S. Miao 'fhe year 1925 has witnessed several new experiments in religious education in China. But in order to appreciate more fully any of these new experiments we have to understand the following factors that have hastened such an adventure. D tl f t' In the first place, during the last few years 1ssa sac ion th h d l Ch t" ere as preva1 e among t 1e ns ran educatorR a general dissatisfaction with the work as it is usually done. They say that their religious education work is not getting satisfactory results, that the preaching from most of the pulpits has little educational value, that too many of their Bible teachers are poorly trained, and that there are very few suitable t.extbooks for their pupils. Some of them have even been so impatient with mere talks and discussions that they have decided to do something themselves. Then we have found in recent years an Experiment increasing nmnber of well-trained missionaries and Chinese Christians who have taken religious education as their life work. They want to know the needs of Chinese students and the best ways of meeting these needs. They believe that only by experiment can they discover a new and better way in religious erlncation. Lastly, we are aware of the fact that the Government h d Re ulations Ant1C. ristian m~veme_nt a.n government g regulations on reg1stru.t10n have produced a favora.ble effect on religious education. Many ChriBtian educators have begun to do some hard thinking on the problems of religious education. They no longer take everything as a matter of course. They have felt the necessity of re-evaluating the aims and methods of religious

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EXPERIMEN'fS IN RELIGIOUS EDUCA'flON 243 education. In some places, these movements have actually compelled our schools to break away from traditions and try new methods in religious education. With this background in our mind, we may now proceed to describe some of the significant experiments that have been tried this year. Voluntary Religious Training The most popnhtr experiment started this fall is that of volunt:try religious training. This ta.lees different forms in different placP-s: but in general these can be divided into three kinds. The first kind is that all religious activities in the school, which include chapel, Sunday School, church attendance, and Bible classes, have been made voluntary. Yenching University, Canton Christian College, and William Nast College are examples. The second kind is that all religious activities except week-day Bible classes have been made voluntary. Fukien Christian University has four years required cuniculum work but is now contemplating making it two years, similar to Soochow. Shantung Christian University has only one year required curriculum work. The third kind is that of a dual system. In schools like St. John's there have been provided on Sunday divine worship and an ethical meeting. The students may choose either one or attend both if they want to. In other schools like Precious Dew Academy for girls in Shansi and the boys' schools in Foochow, the students rriay choose not only between the church service and an ethical meeting on Sunday, but also between Bible study and moral instruction on week days. Of course, it is too early to draw any definite conclusions as to the results of these various kinds of experiments. But already some of the effects of instituting such an experiment have been felt by those engaged in the work. These are the introduction of a better spirit into the school, the clearing away of an atmosphere of suspicion and ill-will toward their teachers, and a helpful stimulus that will make every Bible teacher and chapel leader work much harder than ever before. What is needed now is a careful and unbiased evaluation of their work at the .end -of the academic year,-

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244 EXPERIMENTS IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION so that not only may they find out their own mistakes and improve their methods, but also that others may get benefits from their experiences. Project Method Secondly, we ought to mention the beginning of the use of the project method in religious instruction. Credit should be given to Mrs. Barbour of Yenching 1md Prof. Hummel of Nanking for promoting, as well as practising, this new method in their own classrooms. A book similar to that of Shaver's Project Method in Religious Education has already been prepared by Mrs. Barbour. Instead of using foreign illustrations, she has been able to collect a number of Chinese examples on the project method of teaching religiou,: education. This new book not only indicates a good start has already been made in the methods that of teaching; but when it comes out it will snrely help many teachers to do better work. Thirdly, Miss Ruth Parker's work in Nanking is worthy of mention. She has started this fall an experiment with the preschool girls. Through play, music, story-tellillg and sanitary drills, etc., she hopes to build up in her lit le girls a worshipful spirit, right attitudes and habits o/ living. Through the mothers' meetings and follow-up work, she is trying to bring religious education as practically as possible into the Chinese family. Miss Parker is also wise in limiting her number of children to about a dozen only, and in having an intelligent and enthusiastic Chinese board of directors backing up her new experiment. Junior Church The fourth experiment is that of the junior church, started last September by one of the Congregational churches in Tientsin. This is the first organization of the kind that we have in China. It is divided into two departments; namely, the Yu Chih Pu (~ $) and the Shao Nien Pu (~--!K). The former is for those below ten years of age, the latter for those between ten and sixteen. Each department elects its own officers and various committees. Each department has its own advisers appointed by the adult church. Pastor

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EXPERIMEN'l'S JN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 245 Wei is hoping that beginning from next year the junior church will appoint their own advisers. Each department with the help of advisers manages its own affairs and holds its own services of worship. Of course, in its first year it has many defects, but it is nevertheless a noble experiment-an experiment worthy of commendation. It shows a recognition on the part of the pastor and adult members .of the psychological differences between adult.s aud children, and therefore of the necessity of providing a special service for the latter. It will lead to a gradual development of indigenous hymnology and tituals for children, as those we have now are either too foreign or not very healthy for the religious life of children. And above all, it is a great blessing to the Chinese church in that it foresees the value of training her future constituents and of cultivating fellowship as early as possible. Council of Religious Education Fifthly, the organization of the Council of Religious Education of the China Christian Educational Association marks an advance in the field of religious education. Its special field is schools and colleges. It.s task is to promote those aspects of religious education which involve direct control on the part of the faculty, such as curriculum work and public worship, and to correlate its activities with those of other agencies, such as the encouragement of spontaneity in organized religious activities of students and voluntary Bible classes. Having secured a full time secretary, the Council has been able to render services to schools and colleges in various ways. Conference on Religious Education Lastly, but not the least important is the Conference on Methods of Religious Education and the Faculty-Student Institutes. The former was called by the East China Christian Educational Association on the twentieth of November. The chief interest of the conference centered around such vital problems as those of a religious work director, tne voluntary principle and a unified program. The Faculty-8tudent Institutes were called by the National Committ_ee of the Y.M.C.A., with which the China Christian

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246 EXPERIMENTS IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Educational Association was cooperating. The object of the institutes was to bring together student leaders and discuss frankly the place, program and organization of the Student Christian Association in the Christian schools in the light of the present situation. Such institutes were held in Tsinan, Shanghai, Changsha and Canton. For local as well as for other reasons, not all of the Ir.stitutes were equally successful. But in all places both teachers and students have come to feel the necessity of reorganizing the Student Association in order to make it a more powerful spiritual force in the schools. 'fhe future of the Student Association seems largely to be de.pendent upon careful follow-up work and intelligent and sympathetic guidance of faculty advisers.

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CHAPTER XXIV CHINESE CLASSICS IN SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS* Tseu Yih-zan This article is an answer to the question, "How much of the Chinese classics is utilized or incorporated in the present-day school books under the category of language readers'?" Such an answer can best be given by telling actual facts, by making a survey of the most popular textbooks. Nature of Classics Before we do so, we should understll,nd: (1) that the classics are of different natures, historical, philosophical, poetical, political, etc.; (2) that some of these classics, besides being historical or otherwise, are highly literary in form and matter; (3) that the classics are no longer considered as law books, or sacred books, or canons, in the religious sense of the word; and ( 4) that parts of them, or selections from them, are taught in schools mainly on account of beauty of dic_tion. But what are _the classics? In order to understand this, we must, first of all, make clear what is meant by the term "classics." -"Classics'' Two Senses Naturally, this term, like every other, has two senses, broad and narrow. The broad sense includes the Confucian classics, the histories of the dynasties, the philosophical works of the Chou (ffl)) and Ch'in (*) dynasties, the poetical works and the essays of the T'ang (T,!f), Sung ($le), and other dynasties, and whatever is written in "standard sty le, ancient, medieval, and modern. The narrow meaning takes in only the so-called "thirteen canons (+ ::::: fJl!). This latter is the sense we take in this article. *See also, The Outline Standai.ds of the New System Curriculum, pp. 63-68,IH-94, 113-116.

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248 CHINESE CLASSICS IN MODERN SCHOOLS Thirteen Canons The name of the thirteen canons'' are as follows: (1) Lun Yii (I~ 1,P,.), i. e. Miscellaneous Conversations or Discourses and Sayings of Confucius. (2) Meng Tzu (~ -:F-), i. e. Works of Mencius. (3) Shih Ching (1,t II), i. e. Book of Odes or Book of Poetry. (4) Shu Ching ('l!f II), i. e. Book of History or Book of Goverment. (5) I Ching (~ II), i. e. Book of Changes. (6) Li Chi (fft liB), i. e. Book of Rites, in which are rncluded Ta Hsueh (* ~) (i. e. Great Learning or Great Study or Megology*) and Chung Yung (lfJ JI) (i. e. Doctrine of the Mean or Invariable Medium or Conduct of Life). (7) I Li (ii Wt), i. e. Decorum Ritual. (8) Chou Li (m if), i. e. Chou Ritual. (9) Ch'un Ch'iu (:fo lft), i. e. Spring and Autumn Annals, including Tso Ch'uan (;1-i: fil,() (i. e. Tso's .Narratives). (10) Ku Liang Ch'uan (jt m ~). i. e. Ku Liang's Narratives. (11) Kung Yang Ch'uan (&} ~). i. e. Kung Yang's Narratives. (12) Hsiao Ching ($ f~). i. e. Book of Filial Piety', (13) Erh Ya (ffl flt), i. e. Literary Expositor (a dic tionary of terms). Below is a list of selections made from these New System Series classics in two series of textbooks published by The Commercial Press: (I) (New System Series) Chinese Language Readers for Junior Middle Schools (Nii* 11i1J t,IJ lfJ ~~It fl {!I=), a series of six books, first published in 1923. *This term was coined by the present writer a number of years 'ago when he had the fancy of trai1slating this little classic ..

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CHINESE CLASSICS .IN MODERN SCHOOLS 249 Book I Lesson 4, a chapter from Meng Tzu (No. 2) rendered into modem pei hiia.(a ~). Le~son 5, the same chapter in the original language. Book II Lesson 10, a chapter from Meng Tzu (No. 2) rendered into pei huci. Lesson 11, the same chapter in the original language. Book III Lesson 2, a chapter from Meng Tzu (No. 2) in the original language. Book IV Lesson 1, a chapter from Meng 'fzu (No. 2). Lesson 11, odes from Shih Ching (No. 3). Lesson 12, a chapter from Meng Tzu (No. 2). Lesson 24, a chapter from Lun Yii (No. 1). Lesson 2fi, a chnpter from Meng Tzu (No. 2). Rook V Lesson 1, three chapters from Meng Tzu (No. 2). Lesson 12 (part of), a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9). Lesson 28, a selection from 'l'so Ch'uan (No. 9). Book VI Lesson 4, a selection from Tso Oh'uan (No. 9). Lesson 27, a selection from Li Chi (No. 6). Lesson 36, a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9) Lesson 37, a selection from Kung Yang Ch'uan (No. 11). Lesson 44, two chapters from Meng Tzu (No. 2) ..

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250 CHINESE CLASSICS IN MODERN SCHOOLS Modern Textbook Series (II) (Modern Textbook Series) National Readers for Junior Middle Schools (~ 1t t,JJ r:fJ Lil :,t $,It'. ff :;lf), a series of six books, first published in 1924. Book I Lesson 1, a chapter from Meng Tzu (No. 2). Book II Lesson 19, a chapter from Meng Tzii (No. 2). Book III Lesson 1, two chapters from Meng Tzii (No. 2). Lesson 2, a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9). Lesson 24, a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9). Book IV Lesson 2, a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9). Lesson 35, a chapter from Meng Tzii (No. 2). Book V Lesson 1, a chapter from Meng Tzu (No. 2). Lesson 6, a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9). Lesson 12, a chapter from Lun Yii (No. 1). Lesson 24, odes from Shih Ching (No. 3). Book VI Lesson 9, a chapter from Meng Tzii (No. 2). Lesson 25, a selection from Tso Ch'uan (No. 9). Lesson 33, odes from Shih Ching (No. 3). Lesson 34, a selection from Kung Yang Ch'nan. Classics not used This survey of two of the most popular series of readers shows us that no selection has been made from Shu Ching (No. 4), I Ching (No. 5), I Li (No. 7), Chou Li (No. 8), Ku Liang Ch'uan (No. 10), Hsiao Ching (No. 12), and Erh Ya (No. 13). This is so because they are too difficut in language, or too

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CHINESE CLASSICS IN MODERN SCHOOLS 251 technical in subject-matter. They are less useful to the modern student; they are books on ancient history, ancient philosophy, ancient government, and ancient philology that the modern student can hardly comprehend. The classics that have been made most use of are Meng Tzii (No. 2), Tso Ch'uan (No. 9), and Shih Ching (No. 3), which tell in beautiful language things of motlern value or of modern interest. Lun Yii (No. 1), Li Chi (No. 6), and Kung Yang Ch'uan (No. 11) are the classics from which only a few excerpts have been made. By carefully reading the selections as given in the two series of readers, we know that none of them are meant for instrnction in Confucian doctrine or anything of the sort. They are there simply for the purpose of teaching t.he beauty of classical language, in the form of a story or of a song. In Primary Schools The two series of ]angauge readers we have just studied have been compiled for the junior middle school, which is the proper place to taste bits of the classics. In the primary school, where most emphasis is laid on the spoken language, no classics can be taught and understood. In the senior middle school sturlents are requirerl to study complete classics or their abridged editions; for example, "Selection from Hsiin Tzii" (Student's Chinese Classic Series, $. Iii lll 'I~ i/lj -1published by The Commercial Press). Obj~ctions to Use Radical educators to-day cry out against teaching the Confucian classics. "Excepting parts of Mencins," they say, "all the classics are out of harmony with modern democratic. principles." In "Yii Ssii" (lm ~) (i. e. Language Thread), a periodical recently started in Peking, two sections have been purposely done into present-day language to show the empty or illogical way of talking of the ancients. On the other hand, long lists of classics and their commentaries are annually reprinted by the Commercial Press and other publishers, and, so far as reports go, their sale is ever on the increase. And some time ago a school was started so mew here in Kiangsu to teach the classics and nothing

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252 CHINESE CLASSICS IN MODERN SCHOOLS but the classics, according to the old method. Does this mean that we are going to have a revival of classical learning? It seems to be safe to say here that, as the classics have their special value, they will never die, though they will not occupy so much the attention of the modern student, who has a great deal to do with. the sciences, the arts, and other thing;; that are necessary for the betterment of his surroundings and for the salvation of his country.

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CHAPTER XXV E.::ONOMIC STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS AND ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF CHINESE A. J. Bowen China China is as yet, and for many years will Agricultural continue to be an agricultural country, with considerably over 300,000,000 of her people depending directly on agriculture for a living. A survey of 202 farms near Changchow, in Kiangsu, gave an average of 14.3 mow, 2-1/3 acres, per family, while the average family income from all sources was $316.64 local currency, the average family being composed of 4.8 persons. A similar survey of 102 farms near Wuhu gives the average size of the farms as '.:l4.9 mow, or 4.15 acres. The average size of 8!)9 farms in Chihli, Shantung, Anhwei and Kiangsn is 82.88 mow or 5.48 acres, with the average size of the family 5.51, and the family income $210. Of these 899 farms the average cost for the main items of living, not considering marriages and funerals, which frequently take more than an entire year1s income, was as follows: Cost for food Cost for clothing Cost for rent Cost for fuel and light ... $123 21 15 25 $184 A helpful correspondent has secured and tabulated the following data from ten pastors in Central Anhwei, based on a middle-class family, for their annual expenditure:

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254 ECONOMIC STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS Village Mm/.;et Town City Weddings Christians 100-200 125-300 1.50-400 Non-Christians 150-400 200-,500 300-600 Funerals Christians 100-150 150-300 150-400 Non-Christians 100-300 175-400 200-500 Worship Christians 3-35 440 550 Non-Christians 20-80 30-100 40-120 Economic Standards of Students Such facts as these need to be kept in mind when we are considering the possible support of Christian, or as more commonly called, 'Foreign Colleges' in China. While it is true that the larger proportion of the students come from cities, from commercial and official circles, still even in connection with these classes, except the favored few, the economic standard is not high, and the margin between family income and necessary living expenses is pitiably small. But the desire for and appreciation of education is so great that unusual sacrifices are made by parents and the family to enable the children to secure a good education. Then again Chinese students are quite as willing to work their way through college as students of other lands, though the opportunities for doing this are much more limited, in China than in other lands and the financial returns more so. The struggle for existence is so keen, that outside of teaching and office work, the financial returns for Heveral hours of labor per day for a student are so meagre that they are not worth while so far as 8chool expenses are concerned. Economic Status of Christians TherE' is, I think, agreement that these 'foreign schools should be turned over to the Chinese at the earliest possible moment, as to control, ownership, operation and financing; and that it is to the Chinese Christians, the Chinese Church, that this transfer should be made. But the

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ECONOMIC STA'rus OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 255 economic status of Christians is not much above the general economic level, and we know that Christians have very great difficul.ties in paying the fees required by these schools, to say nothing of siippo1ting them. Christians are even more anxious for education, and will make greater sacrifices for it in general than non-Christians, but their surplus is too small for them to do much as yet. There are now, enough Christian colleges Main Burden and universities established to meet the needs of the Christian community for many years to come. Most of them have fairly adequate plants, so far as grounds and buildings are concerned. For the most part, these have been provided by Christian friends from abroad. So the Chinese Church in taking over these plants will not need, relatively, large property equipment funds for some time. The main burden will be up-keep and operating expenses. In fact the missionary societies have not, as a rule, made large direct grants for grounds and buildings, at least not for buildings. Most of these, with the notable exception of Canton Christian College, have come from special donors, in the homelands, outside of and over and above the ordinary mission board grants. Upkeep and Operating When we come to the up-keep and operating expenses of the schools, we reach the real difficulty of the matter. I have before me a treasurer's report for the year 1924-25. The total amount budgeted and actually received was $305,210; of this $157,755 came from forei1w sources, and $147,455 came from Chinese sources, Of the former, $27 ,OOO was cash grants from mission boards, $64, 720 was mission board support of missionary teachers, and $19,031 was interest from endowment funds lrnld abroad; of the latter $100,499 was for tuition, and 842,781 for board and such items That is, so far as local funds that could be used for paying teachers' salaries and running the school, only one third, approximately, comes from Chinese sources, and this is probably a better showing than most of the larger universities could make. With the exception of Canton Christian College, where two-thirds of its entire budget

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256 ECONOMIC STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS (exclusive of buildings) comes from Chinese sources, practically all of the others receive more than half of their total current budget from abroad. Few, either of missionaries or of Chinese Christians, realize the immense sums that are annually expended in running these institutions and there is not one that is not cramped and unable to do what it feels it should and could be doing in more efficient work, with a few more tens of thousands of dollars. I give here the totals of the 1926-27 budget of one of the more conservative of the larger institutions: the items of the others would differ, but the grand totals would be somewhat the same, so it may, for our purposes, be taken as typical. Arts & Science instruction, supplies, departmental expense Agriculture & Forestry instruction, supplies, departmental expense ... Agriculture & Forestry experiment stations Sub-freshman year ... Language School Middle & Primary Schools Construction department ... Administration for all of the above Operation & maintenan~e of all of the above Library of all of the above Reserves & allowances of all of the above ... Student activities, athletice, etc., of all of the above Dormitories & Dining halls of all of the above Contfogent of all of the above ... The pay roll for Chinese staff is The pay roll for foreign staff is $114,324 112,107 $226,431 $58,793 39,783 46,839 27,133 18,4.54 41,676 5,801 25,372 29,025 15,171 7,840 6,995 24,845 1,512 $349,239

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ECONOMIC STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 257 None of these institutions has much in-Invested d d Endowment veste P.n owment. Of course for missionary societies to support a la.rge percentage of the foreign staff, and give generous money grants in addition, is the best kind of 'endowment.' But were the Chinese Church to take over these schools now, there would be very little income-producing funds to be turnec'I over, and very likely it would be difficult to build up such funds from abroad. China is far away, the future of such funds, even of these schools, is not quite clear in the minds of American people, and men and women of large means, from whom only such.funds can come, are liable to be conservative and hesitant in giving large sums for endowment. Again, the alumni of these Christian Alumni colleges and universities are relatively small in numbers, and as yet of not considerable wealth. Moreover, with China struggling desperately to develop and maintain her own institutions of higher learning; with the growing nationalism and the most legitimate and patriotic demands on all Chinese, Christian and non-Christian alike to preserve their own civilization, to encourage their own undertakings, to be free of foreign domination, direction and control, it would seem that any possibility of any large financing of these Christian schools by Chinese is con siderably in the future. I think, also, all are agreed that these schools are regarded as too foreign, and until that opinion can be modified by the existence of larger Chinese controlling personnel, by being under, if not a part of, the Chinese system of education through regif:itration and other means; and probably by less dependence on funds from a foreign land, we may not expect even Chinese Christians, had they the nioney, to be very generous in their financial support. F St ff Some might think that if a large number of oreign a the more expensive foreigners were to drop out, this would reduce the expense sufficiently so that the Chinese could largely finance the school. But this, I fear, will not bear searching scrutiny nor does it carry any weight. In the first place.the foreigner would in nearly all cases need.

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258 ECONO:MIO STATUS OF CHRIS'.rIAN SCHOOLS to be replaced by well trained returned students, and when this is clone the saving in salaries is not so great as many think. But more especially, these 'foreign' schools are able to maintain a very high tuition fee, at least twice as high as the government institutions, very largely because the foreigner is there and in control and teaching. Without him these schools would, in the natural competition with schools that would be somewhat similar to them, be obliged to reduce their fees to approximately the level of similar schools. Without government grants or large subsidies from churches or philanthropic friends, they would not be able to maintain their standards, and would soon become second or third-rate schools. The weakness, and at the same time the strength, of these schools now is their large and regular foreign income, and a large and fairly well-trained and devoted foreign staff. Fortunately, an increasing number of adequately trained Chinese teachers, capable of doing the best kind of work, is being rapidly developed. Also men with administrative experience are emerging, and it would seem that we shall be able to secure the right kind of teachers and administrators before we can secure suffiC'ient financial support in China. This will come more slowly, but no one can doubt that it will come in time. Christian education is a permanent and essential need of all lands, and the millions of dollars annually given by Christian peoples to round ont and supplement general education, even in the most advanced countries, educationally, would seem to indicate that in due time Christian people in China will also see to it that Christian schools .are available for their sons and daughters. The conclusion then would seem to be that Gonclusion the Chinese support and control of these Christian schools and colleges will be a gradual process, calling for increasing mutual trust and cooperation, a willingness on the part of the foreign interests to relinquish administrative control more rapidly than financial support can be assumed, the degree and rapidity depending to some extent upon the willingness of Christians in the homelands to give their money irrespective of who controls. And I think we may well expect that so long as the primary aims

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ECONOMIC STATUS OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 2,59 and purposes of these echools are maintained, Christian people in America are going to trust the Christian people in China, even as they have trusted the missionaries whom they have sent out, and will be willing to continue to send funds and missionaries so long as the Chinese Church really wants them:

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CHAPTER XXVI EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AND STUDENT LIFE T. z. Koo The following paragraphs are written from the point of view of a layman and observer. As far as possible the conditions described are those taken from the senior middle schools and above. No stat.istics are yet available for the year Jtra~r:ber 1925. The number of middle schools probably will run well into 1500 or more. The following two tables taken from the joint report of the National Association for the Advancement of Education and the National Federation of Provincial Educational Associations for the year 1924 will convey some idea of the extent of higher Education in China nt the present time. Table I. Professional Distribution of Colleges Kinds of schools Niimber of schools Universities... 35 Teachers' Colleges 8 Agricultural Colleges... 7 Technical Colleges 13 Commercial Colleges 8 Medical Colleges... 7 Law Colleges 33 Total ... ... 111 Table II. Distribution of Colleges by Support Sources of Siipport Number of schools National 30 Provincial .. 48 Private... 29 Mission am] Foreign 18 Total ... ... 125

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OONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS 261 The growth in number of schools iil the past year is not large and most of it is in the middle school field. The more recent additions in the University field are the North-Eastern University in l\foukden, the South-Western University in Yunnanfu, the North-Western University in Sianfu and the Kwangtung University in Canton. S h l F There has been no noticeable improvement c oo 1nance: h. I f' h t It m sc oo 1nance m t e pas year. was not an uncommon thing to come across schools where the teachers hacl not received their salaries for three, six, or ten months. In general, higher education is supported fro.m national funds, secondary education from p1ovincial funds and elementary education from county orloca.l funds. But with all sources of income, whether national, provincial or local, drained to the utmost limit by the militarists, Chinese schools have had a difficult time financially. St ff C d 'tl Several circumstances have contributed to a on I o.:i.s l h 1 d l' f h a owermg or t e mora e an qua 1ty o t e teaching staffs. 1. The irregularity of salary payments have turned away many a good man from edncationaJ work. Others have resorted to taking on concurrent positions in several ~chools in the hope that when 011e school is not able to pay the salary another may. Both are detrimental to the cause of education in China. 2. The increasing u::ie of schools for the propagation of various "isms n such as communism, natio'n alism, etc., has brought a divisive influence into educational circles. 3. The predominance of political influence in educational appointments has drawn ma1iy office-seekers into educational work who are in no way qualified for it. 4. The truculence of students has also caused many good men whose hearts are in education t.o hesitate going into that field.

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262 CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS School Discipline Discipline in the schools reached its lowest ebb last year. A radical group of students captured the student union and thus dominated the student body, making it almost impossible for the authorities to maintain discipline. Generally speaking, discipline is well maintained in mission and private schools, while in government institutions it has been notoriously weak. The loss to the student in the character-forming influences of the staff and school as a result of this state of affairs is a serious one. Trends in Secondary Education B. a. D. E. F. I. In the field of secondary education, the following trends may be mentioned briefly: A. To place growing emphasis on the teaching of science. This trend will receive added impetus when the China Foundation makes the returned Boxer Indemnity from the United States available for the betterment of scientific equipment and teaching. To give more place in our mi.ddle schools for vocational training. More than 90% of middle school graduates never go on for university training. It is therefore felt to be imperative that the middle school should greatly modify its nature as a preparatory school for college and take on more vocational training. To improve the teaching of the national language. ro discourage co-education in middle schools. 'fo add to the curriculum of middle schools subjects related to problems of practical living and Chinese social conditions. To tighten up discipline. In some provinces, notably the Three Eastern Provinces, this takes the form of negative suppression of almost every form of extra-curriculum student activity. But the general trend is to encourage students to ta.ke pa.rt in legitimate activities under the supervision of the staff.

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Trends in Higher Education CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS 263 II. In the field of higher education, the following are noticeable: A. To emphasize the importance of devel oping among university students the spirit of scientific research and initiative. B. To encourage closer cooperation between government colleges and universities. This is evidenced by the formation of the National Federation of Chinese Universities. 0. A disturbing trend in the field of higher education is the increasing use of the universities as propagation centers for "isms" of various kinds. Determined dl'orts have been put forth by different groups of people to capture existing universities and establish new ones for the purpose of indoctrination of students. D. 'fo work for larger freedom of the educational institutions from government interference. It is the belief of most educators that for the proper development of higher education in China, the colleges and universities should be given a fairly free hand in their internal administration. E. To extend university education more and more to women students. F. To work for a more complete separation of religion from education. Briefly, the above paragraphs de.scribe in brief outline some of the more outstanding conditions in the educational world of China to-day. Before passing on to conditions among students I must pay a tribute to the men and women who against severe odds, are carrying forward the edncational program of the nation. In spite of internal warfare, financial uncertainty, political intrigues, student unions, etc., education has remained national in scope, forward-looking in spirit and steady in growth. The only misgiving some people have is that our education at the present time is too much the imparting of knowledge and too little the training of character.

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26{ In History CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS STUDENT LnE oF CHINA Students have pla.yed a.n important part in the history of China during the last 25 years. It will help greatly our understanding of student life to-day if we first make a study of their role in history As far as students are concerned, the past 25 years can be divided into three periods. The Revolution Period J900~l9H 'l'he Tung Men Hui, which was ma.inly instrumental for the downfal1 of the Manchu, was almost entirely composed of men and women students. The conviction which anin:iated students in those days was that national salvation lay in the downfalI of the Manchu dynasty. For that conviction they plotted, fought and died. History will probably dismiss the several 11nsnccessful revolts engineered hy the Tung Men Hui students with a brief mention. But we must not forget that behind each abortive attempt to overthrow the l\fanchus was hidden a wealth of student romance, her<.>ism, and single-hearted devotion and sacrifice. 'l'his period culmii1ated in the Revolution and the establishment of the Republic in 1911. The work of tl1e Tung Men Hui during this period broke the prestige of autocratic government in China. This is no. mean achievemenf Autocracy had been entrenched in China for more than two thousand years. The students of China destroyed. it in ten. After the establishment of the Republic the Patriotic .st. udents wl~o took part in the revolution went Period J9JJ-l9J9 different wayia. Some went abroad for further study in Japan, Europe, and America, Others took office in the new. government. Still others went ,among the people to work for the masses. With the success of the revolution the Tung Men Hui naturally became very popular and students joined it in large numbers. But these new adherents lacked the consuming purpose of the pre-revolution group. 'fheir hope was for office after graduation from school. These students became trouble makers in school and lovers of the life of ease.

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CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS 265 One by-pl'Oduct of the War in Europe was that it startled the student body of China out of its complacency. They began once more to think in national terms and patriotism ran high. Japan's Twenty.one demands served to crystallize this patriotism into a movement. Towards Japan this movement expressed itself in the boycott, and in the country it watched closely those in high places who were suspected of too much friendship towards Japan. This Movement culminated in the May 4th Student Strike. The students were successful in their tw.o immediate objectives, namely, to drive out the three national traitors arid to force the government not to sign the Paris Peace Treaty. This second period definitely broke the prestige of the mandarins in China. When such officers of state like the Minister of Communications and the Minister of Foreign Affairs could be man-handled with impunity by students and then cast out of the Government, the day of the mandarin was indeed pa.st. Nationalistic Period l9l9 and o~ After the May 4th Movement students rose to a very exalted place in China. The Student Union was organized at this time. After the immediate purpose of the May 4th l\'iovement was achieved the union was used by students to fight the school authorities, and in local politics. They could not return to their studies af.ter all the excitement of May 4th and as a consequence theybecame a very turbulent group in school, defying discipline, refusing to work hard and generally discrediting themselves in the country. Feeling fo the country turned against them and for a time it seemed as if they were going to lose the confidence of the people. The turning point came when the San Min principles of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, and the work of the Young China Association, began to be felt among students. Nationalism became the watchword. Popular slogans were coined to indicate the program of the nationalists. "Down with Imperialism," "Down with Capitalism," "Revision of the Unequal 'freaties," etc., were a few of these slogans.

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266 CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS The first expression of this Nationalistic Movement came in 1922 when the Anti-Christian Movement was launched. Their activities were extended into the laboring class and labor unions and became more numerous and stronger every day. Then came the May 30th incident,* which lifted the ideal of a small group of nationalists and marle it into a nation-wirle cause. This was bound to happen. If the May 30th affair had not happened some other event would have lightfld the fuse for the students. This third period, which is still in the process of development, has already achieved one result. The students have brokei.1 the prestige of the foreigner in China. Pr t p i d This brief survey brings us down to the esen er O present day life of students in China. As far as students are concerned, the May 30th l\fovement was led by a small group of radical and mostly younger students. The immediate effect of May 30 was to draw students once more into political activities, and to do that they had to strengthen the student union. Both factors affect student life to a very large extent. Concentration and Scholarship I. Recent contacts with school principals and students indicate beyond doubt that the present generation of students falls far behind its predecessors in concentration and scholar ship. Students in general can be divided into three classes. One class is composed of those who attend school with no higher purpose than to have a good time. A second class is composed of those who are really serious minded. The third class is composed of those who come to school because it is the cheapest way for them to live for a few years. The first and third groups, although in the minority, are generally the trouble-makers. The second group, although in the vast majority, has generally taken the position of followers. The result has been that ever since the May 4th Movement the student body has been dominated by a small group of radical students belonging to the first and third groups. These have made *1925.

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CONDITIONS AMONG-STUDENTS 267 conditions in school so bad that in many institutions it has not been possible for students to do any real study during the past few years. Reaction Setting in Fortunately, a reaction is beginning to set in. The majority group, which had hitherto followed the radical leaders pretty much, is now beginning to assert itself. In some places they have organized a "Love the School Movement," the purpose of which is to weed out, in cooperation with the faculty, the radical trouble-makers who are making it impossible for students to study. This Movement is already making an appreciable difference in the schools where it has been organized. Corporate Life Among Students TI. This phase of student life is conspicuous by its absence in the average Chinese school. The problem which many students place in the foreground to-day is the aridity of their life in school. There is little corporate fel.lowship between faculty and students and between student and student, and there is a dearth of corporate activities in many schools to bring the,:e together. In other words, as one eminent educator said to me, Chinese schools are failing signally in one of the most important functions, that is, to give training to students in corporate thinking and living. III. It has been most interesting to observe Bodily and the difference in the phvsique and mentality of Mental Health d d'ff f Oh" S d of Students stu ents m 1 erent parts o ma. tu ents in Manchuria are sound in body but rather young in mind. Compared with students in other parts of China, they are, I should say, at least five years behind in thought. In Shantung, students are sturdy in build and deliberate in thinking. In East China, students give one the impression of being most well cared for physically but r::i,ther easy going in thought. They are certainly the most luxurious students in the whole of China. In Wuchang one will probably receive at first rather a depressing impression from students. Physically, they look worn out and mentally they do not seem to care for anything. One reason I have heard given for this impression is the fact

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268 CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS that Wuchang schools are most ina
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CONDITIONS AMONG STUDEN'l'S 269 C. The Anti-religion and Anti-Christian Movement This Movement started in 1922 in Shanghai and Peking. It is steadily gathering strength. D. 'fhe Anti-Imperialism League. This moYement is largely sponsored by students who are enamored of the Russian Revolution. Citizens' Revolution E. The Citizens' Revolution Movement. This Movement has a Nationalistic and an Anti-Christian Program. 1. 'fhe Nationalistic program is composed of the following planks: Recovery of foreign settlements. Tariff autonomy. No quartering of foreign soldiers and police in China. Abolition of consular jurisdiction. Prohibition of foreign mills in China. Recovery of control of foreign schoolH in China. Prohibition of the propagation of religion by foreigners. Prohibition of foreign vessels in inland navi gation. confiscation of foreign property not properly secured. Anti-imperialism Week May 30 to June 5. Promotion of military trainipg and student army. Federation of working men and farmers. Education of illiterates in China. Emancipation of women. 2. The Anti-Christian program consists of the following. Christmas Anti-Christian week. Closing or taking over of Christian schools.

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270 CONDI'rIONS AMONG STUDENTS Urging students to leave Christian schools. Organizing students for vacation anti-Christian work. Disruption of Christian organizations from within. Forbidding of participation of Christian students in national undertakings. St d t C t I F. Student Control of School Movement. u en on ro Th" l\'r l h t .. 1s 'lovement a so as two parts o its program. 1. Participation in Administration. Student Union to have equal representation on faculty. Student Union to have c'ontrol of right of publication in the school. Students to pass on budget ~and decide on its use. Student voice to be supreme after two vetos by the faculty. 2. Program of School reforms: Reduction of school fees. Elimination of all subjects unsuited to the spirit of the time. Addition of coursea related to practical living. All middle schools to have course of organiza tion, development and history of Chinese societ,y. Student union to supervise instruction given by teachers. More laboratories and libraries. Improvements in sanitary arrangements in schools. Abolishment of all unreasonable school re gulations.

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CONDITIONS AMONG S'fUDENTS 271 School Cooperation G. Love the School Movement. The last mentioned two mov~ments represent the radi cals among students. The "Love the School Movement" was started by the moderates who wanted to reduce trouble-making in the schools to the minimum through cooperation between the student union and the faculty. Student Thought What are students thinking about? Under the stimulus of the New Thought Movement, students have shown great intellectual acti vity. ';!'he three men who have had the greatest influence upon student thought to-day are Liang Chi Chao, Hu Suh and Chen Tu Hsiu. The following summary will give some idea of the range of topics covered in student thinking. 1. School life and the fortmttion of character: the problem of the cultivation of the personal life. 2. Social intercourse between the sexes: the problem of marriage, free love, etc. 3. Transformation of the family organization: the problem of relationship to parents, family responsibility, individual homes. 4. Life.work after graduation: the problem of earning a living. There are ma1.1y jobs which provide work students like to do b'at to which are not attached any rice bowls. On the other hand, many sinecures with no work have fat rice bowls attached. 5. National Poverty: the problem of population, its regulation and distribution, birth control, capitalism, industrialism. 6. Christianity and imperialism: the' problem of Christianity and foreign influence. 7. Students and politics: the problem of fighting evil forces in the country, resisting external a.ggression, militarists, ha11dits, Kuo Ming Tang principles, communism, nationalism.

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272 CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS 8. The personal economic problem, 9. China and th~ World: the problem of war, economic impact between nations, nationalism and internationalism. 10. The meaning of life: the problem of religion, materialism, spiritual experience, and culture of the race. In addition to the above, Christian students are thinking also on the following subjects: l. The Christian school: the problems of its future, registration, control and support. 2. The Anti-Christian Movement: the problem of the attitude to the movement and how to meet its attacks. 3. Contribution of Christian students to China: the problem of discovering that contribution and how to render it. 4. Christian students and patriotic movements: the problem of attitude and participation. 5. Indigenous Christianity: the problem of the Church, missions, missionaries, theology, etc. 6. Christian living in the school: the problem of living a Christian life among fellow-students. As to the attitude of students to religion Aftitudefo d C .R I' an hristianity, the vast majority of them e igion are indifferent to religion. They can see no connection. between life in school and religion, Others are frankly atheists. They do not believe in the spiritual basis of life. Many others take what is termed to-day in China the scientific attitude of mind arid maintain an attitude of rational doubt towards religion; On the whole, students to-day consider religion as something for the uneducated mass, whose minds need the supernatural in their outlook upon life. Only a very small number of students have any faith in religion to-day. This, however, must not be interpreted to mean that Chinese students though irreligious are also immoral.

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CONDITIONS AMONG STUDENTS 273 Compared with students in other countries, there is much less immorality among students in China. The centuries of moral training of the Chinese people are in their favor in this respect. When we come to study the attitude of students toward Christianity we shall find three kinds of reactions. First, those who are nationalistic in outlook oppose Christianity because of its foreign connections. Second, those who are rationalistic in outlook object to the dogmatic assumptions of the Christian religion. Third, those who are atheist in conviction naturally have no use for Christianity. General Attitudes In addition to these three more or less reasoned attitudes, I must add two other general attitudes shown by a very large number of students to-day. The first is the attitude of deadening indifference shown by both Christian and non-Christian students towards Christianity. The second, which is even more painful to observe, is the attitude of utter contempt which is being increasingly shown towards Christianity and Christians. That we who have given all we have for the cause of Christ should have brought contempt and rebuke upon His name instead of glory is indeed a sobering thought for us. Such in brief we find our students to-day. Future The future of China ie wrapped up in them. There is much in the situation to give us concern, Yet we are not downcast, because the Chinese student has never yet failed to rise to the call of the country. Mistakes ther~ have often been, excesses too. But so fa,r, in the past twenty-five years, they have hewn true in every crisis and on that we must rest our case.

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CHAPTER XXVII EVANGELISTIC WORK IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES T. L. Shen I. INTRODUCTION The word "evangelism is so common in F1tst Defm~t,on Christian circles that it has almost lost its real of Evangelism 6 d d .6 I s1gm cance an proper m ent1 cat10n. n dealing with the present topic, it might be well to give first two leading definitions in order to limit the scope of treatment in this article. First, there are people who think student evangelism should be a direct effort to help students to face the full implication and significance of Christianity for their whole personal life and for the life of society all about them. Secondly, there are those who believe it should be a general process of discovery with, and presentation before, students of all religious knowledge and experience, including ethical and spiritual heritages from Christian and other sources, the encouragement of the spirit of sincerity and open-mindedness, and the habit of study and self-cultivation. Of course these two statements are by no means mutually exclusive. They agree on many points. The interesting thing is that while in our colleges and universities tfie professed and stated purpose of evangelism is the former, the actual canying on in the emphasis, approach and direction of the work is really in line with the latter. For the sake of convenience, the writer will from now on take the second definition to represent what is termed student evangelism in this article. Second Definition of Evangelism An acceptance of the second definition as outlined above will also enable us to free ourselves from the habit of considering evan gelism as a mere campaign or a series of

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EV ANGEUSl\1 IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSI'f!ES 27.5 revival meetings. Too many have questioned the m.efulness of an isolated and poor campaign simply for its own sake, and under the spell of bewilderment have given up evangelism altogether. It is high time for us, therefore, to consider the question as a whole, and to find a scheme sounder and more inclusive than the evangelistic campaign itself. New Evaluation Needed Furthermore, the signs of the hour also demand a fre::ih ernluation of the work done and a thorough consideration of the future task that is before us. "The strong nationalistic feelings; the violent reaction against imperialism' in religion and all in tensi vc propaga.ndic efforts; the indifl<."rentism produced by what student,s feel to have been excessive emphasis on religious meetings and classes in Christian schools, combined with the scientific and other objections to all religions ; these and other conditions make it necessary for the Christian educators to reconsider and reaffirm the whole range of things in connection with stuclent evangelism from its aim down to its concrete program. The writer will endeavor in this article to review this trend of research and experimentation in the various colleges and nniversities of China. II. THE TASK OF STUDENT EVANGELISM Fundamental This change of attitude, as the writer sees Task it, is not a sort of giving way to secular emphasis, nor a relaxation of effort, but is a steady and earnest attempt to get down to the bedrock of the fundamental task of student evangelism. We have just referred to the dissatisfaction with what may be spoken of as a normal traditional program which includes the setting apart of a special time every term for concentrated work and the closing with an emotional call for definite decisions to become a Christian and to render service in the Church. But the tendency now is to spend more time in a painful every-day process in making personal contacts with individuals and small groups and to leave the decision end of it to take care of itself through a long period of reasoning and deliberation.

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276 EVA:t:
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EV ANHELISM IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES 277 are some fundamental points that call for a careful study by those who are rAsporisible for student e.vangelism. The writer is glad to say ihat from the replies to the question aire sent out, he is able to find this trend already at work in many quarters of the country. III. EMPHASES IN. EVANGELISTIC WORK AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS Such a vital consideration of the task of The Emphasis student evangelism wiH naturally usher in a frank enquiry of the emphases in evangelistic work among our college students. In the first place student evangelism has emphasized the church rather t.han the individual. The Church, sometimes, instead of Christ., is the object for which students are won. Unfortunately, the meaning of Christian fellowship in the Church is very meagre and vague to students, and besides the implication of church affiliation is not real to them. There are signs showing that religious educators have come to see that it is more important to emphasize the individual who will contribute to the real life of the fellowship rather than the intangible fellowship itself. Christian Philosophy In the second place, student evangelism has emphasized the Gospel rather than the Christian philosophy of life. Usually the Gospel presents the historical setting of Christianity which is simple and easy to understand. College students want something which will satisfy their intellectual imagination and meet their need of personal growth. In addition to the social significance of the Christian religion, they wish to get down to the ultimate values that constitute a synthetic Christian view of the universe. Recent experiments in one or two leading Christian colleges are along the direction of a new emphasis on this more fundamental iesue. Achievement Thirdly, sometimes student evangelism has emphasized the idea of transformation rather than that of achievement. The Christian theory about sin and its forgiveness is a good one, but it is not a vital religious problem with college students as compared with

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278 EVANGELISM IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES the positive creative capacities with which they are heavenly endowed. The .Chinese religious heritage teaches light more t.han power. It explains freedom from sin to be simply a return to the straight path by thinking of things good and striving to attain. In order words the process is one of cultivation and achievement. This is an important point to note and so far it is an emphasis that has been made in only a few instances. Rational Aspect Lastly, student evangelism has emphasized the mystical rather than the rational aspect of religion. Jt is easier to attribute spiritual knowledge and experience to mysticism. But coJlege students will always ask for the reason why they must resort to emotion when intellect and will too can perform the same furiction. Really to live as a Christian requires understanding as well as apprecial'ion of life. This rational emphasis is a more difficult one to make, but is never theless gaining ground among the leading student evangelists to-day. Main Factors In a way these emphases are all interrelated and they can be summed up in one statement. Such an evangelistic note will necessarily include the following important factors; namely, the apprehension of life, the realization of self, and the cultivation of conduct, in Chinese they. are mi t:t, IY) ~. JJJJ fr. Recent reports on student evangelism indicate that those contents can always link up with the student's own conscious personality, They indicate that religion can not profitably be dissociated from one's knowledge and experience. A spiritual awakening is always a matter of spirit.ual deepening. Knowing these things, Christian educators are endeavoring to put new contents into things that have meaning for students, instead of wasting time on worn-out terms that do not enlist their vital interest. College Student Attitude IV. STUDENT RESPONSES Now we shall review briefly the attitude of college students towards evangelism. On the whole students respond to personal appeals quite freely. Personality of leadership always

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EVANGELISM IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES 279 counts most, that is, leadership with insight, vision, moral height and spiritual richness. Leaders need not be pro fessional preachers, or even necessarily outsiders. They need less to speak in public than to have informal, unhurried meetings with individuals or small groups of students. When they do talk, they are usually expected to have a central theme, an organized presentation, and a number of questions leading to further study, and thought. Main Attitudes According to the present trend of student thinking, there are four kinds of attitude worthy of note. First, students doubt whether it is wise to join the church, not only because of the lack of meaning of membership, but also due to their nationalistic feeling-a vague reaction against cultural exploitation. Secondly, they seriously question the so-called missionary policy. Some simply disapprove the philanthropic and aggressive motive; others even fear that missionaries may have ulterior purposes other than religious. In the third place, they are confronted with many theological difficulties, for their failure to reconcile religion with science, their failure to appreciate the final authority of the Bible, their inability to justify the existence of denominational dif ferences, etc. Finally, they are cramped by a general feeling of impotence and uncertainty due to national and world unrest, so that they do not care to be particularly involved in any religious belief or movement. There are other types which are less distinctive and will fall in with one or some of the kinds described above. V. 'fHE ACHIEVEMENTS OF EVANGELISM Achievements There is no doubt that student evangelism has accomplished certain results. But the difficulty of measuring results and the anxiety of getting results have led some people to think that such accomplishments have been indeed very limited. Fortunately, aside from the statistical figmes, there are at least three standards that are being used to measure the results of evangelistic work in colleges and universities.

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280 EVANGELISM IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES First of all there is the revival of spiritual life in individuals and in small groups.. This can be secured through careful planning of the whole effort during the year. In the second place, .the creation of initiative among ~tudents is another indication of the good work done. Student initiative and responsibility are valuable things to have and can be cultiyated and encouraged through everyday contacts. Thirdly, there is also the production of leadership which does not often follow ordinary efforts. For not all Christian students are inclined to religious activities. It pays to get a few selected leaders who will form the nucleus of a student movement on the campus. The: Alm It is easy for us to criticise the past and to say that we have no use for spectacular results. But just how can we get down to the bedrock, so to speak? We know that we are not satisfied with a mere confession-even a decision. What we want is actual allegiance to Christ and the living of the Christian wa.y of life; and this life must have its foundation in an honest search for the trnth in God and a full appreciation of it. '.fo fulfil this mission of student evangelism is no easy task and is the great opportunity of the Christian .educators to-day;

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CHAPTER XXVIII NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF: EDUCATION P. Ling The National Association for the Advance. Origin ni.ent of Education was founded in December, 1921, as a result of the amalgamation of three organizations, namely, the Chinese Federation of Education, the New Education Monthly and the Institute of Educational Investigation. As stated in the Constitution, the Associa tion has three aims: (l) to survey the actual educational conditions (2) to study educational theories and methods for the purpose of introducing them into China, and (3) to project educational reforms. In carrying out these objec~ tives, the Association is guided by two principles. The first is the scientific and analyt.ic treatment of educational problems, and the second is to secure constructive cooperation from all agencies so that duplicate efforts and conflicting enterprises ma.y be reduced to the minimum. The membership of the Association is of Membership two kinds, institutional and "individual. There are, up to the present time, 126 institutional members and 2~86 individual members ... These are distributed over all the _province~ and special districts. The institutional members are largely colleges, secondary schools, provincial departments and associations of educa tionists. The individual members include college presidents and profes;;ors, secondary school principals and teachers, elementary school principals and teachers, national, provincial and county educational administrators and officers of social organizations. Control The control Qf the Association is vested in a Board of 'Trustees consisting of nine

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282 ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION members, who are elected by the institutional members. Their tenure of office is three years and one-third of them are elected every year. The General Director, appointed by the Board of Trustees, has charge of the administration of the Associa tion. His whole staff consists of Director of Research, Executive Secretary, Director of Village Education, Corresponding Secretary, Statistician, Editor of Pu blica tions, Accountant and ovei" ten assistants and clerks. The support of the Association is derived from membership fees, government subsidies, and special contributions. The China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture has also made a grant to the Association for the carrying out of various projects during the next three years. The activities of the Association center around the scientific studies of educatiopal problems. The following are the projects in which the Association has been interested. 1. Objective Educational Investigation. Investigation During the last three years the Association has conducted a number of investigations as follows: A. General survey of Chinese school education, 1922. B. Preliminary survey of Peking schools. C. General survey of science teaching in China. D. Investigation of the efficiency of elementary schools in important centers. E. Investigation of Dalton Plan in Chine::ie schools. F. Investigation of the life of Chinese science teachers. G. Investigation of Chinese normal schools. H. Preliminary survey of W usih schools. I. Investigation of the status of elementary school teachers in Peking.

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ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION 283 J. Preliminary rnrvey of T::;inan schools. K. General survey of Chinese school education, 1924. L. General survey of Chinese libraries. The results of the above investigations have eithe:r been published or are in preparation. Experiment 2. Experimental studies and scientific and Research researches in education. The purpose of this project is to work out a system of education which will be of real service to the Chinese people. In carrying out this purpose the Association has undertaken the following lines of work. A. Experimental schools. The association is cooperating with a number of schools of all grades in carrying out various kinds of experiments. Great emphasis has been laid on school economy:. The aim of the Association is to work out standards of education which are within the reach of communit1es with moderate resources. B. Construction of Educational and Psychological Tests. Under the leadership of Prof. McCall and Chinese Psychologists, thirty-three kinds of tests have been constructed and published. C. Studies in Physical Education. These studies are conducted by Prof. l\foCloy under the joint auspices of the National Southeastern University and the Association. 'rhey include studies of age-height-weight scale, chest measurement, chest index, medical examination, standard tests in athletics, universal scoring tables for over seventy events in track and field athletics, methods for determining the motor quotient, etc. It is hoped that through these studies a more effective type of physical education, better adapted to the physique of Chinese youth, may be developed. D. Experiment of Teaching the National Language to Tibetans and Mongolians. This experiment is being carried out by Mr. S. W. King in the Headquarters of the Pan Shan Lama with good results.

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284 ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION. Science Teachf.og 3. Improvement of Science Teaching. For the past few years the Association has taken an active interest in the improv.ement of science teaching. Beside the studies made by Dr. Twiss and .others along this line, the Association bas cooperated with the China l\fedical Board and Tsing Hua College in conducting summer institutes for science teachers. 4. Library Movement. During the annual Libraries conferences the Association bas been able to render service in organizing local and central library associations. Altho"Qgh this movement is still in its infancy, it is full of promise. Mass Education 5. Nat!on.al Mass Education M~veme~1t. The Assocrnhon has brought about cooperatwn from all sides in founding the National Association for the Mass Education ]Wovement for the elimination of mass illiteracy and the training of intelligent and responsible citizenship. It is still interested in this movement and is giving as much assistance as necessary. Female Education 6. Female Education Movement. Realizing that female education forms a vital part of a democratic system of education, a Committee on Female Education was organized for the study and promotion of this phase of education. The experience of the past years has shown that this is rather too big a problem for the Committee to take care of, so a Chinese National Association for the Promotion of Female J;:ducation will be formed in the near future. St d d t" 7. Standardization of Terminology. In an ar 1za mn d 1 d l h l 1 d stan. arc 1zmg e ucat10na psyc o og1ca an statistical terminology, three committees have beeh organized to carry on the work. The reports on psychological and statistical terminology have already been published. 8. With a view to acquainting school men Lectures and the general public with new movements in education, the Association has conducted in the past three years more than eight hundred lectures on various subjects, through its experts, in connection with their investigation tours to various places.

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ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION 285 Educational Library 9. Educational Library. Through the grant from the China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture the Association has a definite plan for reorganizing it.s Educational Library so that it will be the most complete of its kind in China. 10. Educational Museum. For the purpose Museum of presenting an adequate picture of the ever changing educational conditions in China as well as in other countries, the Association is establishing an educational museum which will have the following features: 1. Historical :Kxhibition, 2. Exhibition of Educational Processes, 3. Comparative Exhibition, 4. Exhibition of Special Contributions to Education, and 5. Exhibition of Educational Norms and Standards. It is planned that this museum shall be open to t.he public by January, 1927. 11. Publications. The publications of the Books Association are of five kinds: books on education, psychological and educational tests, bulletins, periodicals and reports. The Association has up to the present published eighty-eight kinds of publications; the "New Education Weekly," ii;sued under the joint auspices of the Association and eight other educational institutions, has a nation-wide circulation. 12. Par~icipation in the World Conference Conference of Education. The Association is one of the charter members of the World Federation of Educational Associations, which aims at the cultivation of inte1'.national understanding and good-will through educational processes. It has sent delegat.ea to participate in the World Educational Conferences held in San Francisco and Edinburgh and its delegates have been elected as Vice-president and member of the Board of DirectorR of the said Federation. What has been mentioned above represents the salient features of the activities of the Association. But the most encouraging feature of the Association is that both ins~itutional and individual membRrs are taking keen interest in its welfare. This interest has resulted not onbr

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286 ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION in the generous financial support they have given to the Association, but also in their full participation in the Association's activities, without which the Association could not hope to live a full life. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCE MENT OF' EDUCATION DIRECTORY OF OFFICERS AND STAFF OF THE ASSOCIATION NAME Tao Tchishin Ling Ping Chao Su Yu I I TITLE General Director I PREVIOUS TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE i\11 M. A. University of Il linois; Dean, College of Education, National I Southeastern Univer/ sit.y. Director of i Ph. D. -C-la_r_k_U-niversity; Researches; Corn missioner of Ed ucaManaging tion, Honan Province; Director,New Dean, Nankai Univer-Education sity. \Veekly. Director, Village Education I M. A. Amherst College; Professor, National Southeastern University. i-------Chang Chi Wen -11 Head of. the I Secretanat, Proctor, Nanking Teachers' College; Head of Chinese Secretariat, National Southeastern University, Nanking.

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ASSOCIATION' FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION 287 NAME TrrLE PREVIOUS TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE ---------------------------------! Statistician Hsueh Hung Tze Chin Hsing Wu Editor, National Language. B. A. in Ed ucatfon, National Normal Uni versity, Peking. Dean of the Language School, Peking. Wang Hsi -1 Editor, ~c,;---~:-~~-~~---~-c~-~:~tio_n_, Cheng i JI:clucation National SouthP.astern _______ l_\_\_'e_e_k_rY_ __ University, Nanking. Chn.ng Hung J-fai Editor Yeh Chao Lin f Head, I Circulation I Department I of New Education --------,I __ w_e_e_k_lY_ __ Chen Wei Assistant Secretary. Editor, Ministry ofCommunication; Member of Compilation Department, Bureau of Peking-Hankow Rail road. Assistant, New Education l\fonthly. Teacher in Chinese, History, Mathematics, in Hupeh Second, Third, and Girls' Middle Schools.

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288 ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION NAME L _TITLE ... Wang Yin Shih !!Accountant and Filing Clerk. Hsiao Che Chun [ Assistant Business Manager. Tso Kung Li Cheng Hsi Assistant in the Editiorial 'Dept. l~hinese Clerk. PREVIOUS TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE Clerk in the Army. Clerk, National Normal Universit.y, Peking. ---~-----------------Graguate of Hsieh Chun Middle School, Chang sha. Clerk, National Univer sity, Peking. _Kuan Shih Chung Chinese Clerk. Clerk, First I Elementary Public School, __________ __! ______________ __ P_ek_i_n_g __ _____ -Chao Chung Pei I Chinese Clerk. Ma KengYu Wang Hsiang Su Statistical Assi~tant. Graduate, Third Public School, Peking; Clerk, National College of Arts, Peking. Student of Peking First Middle School, Peking 1-----------------------------Statistical Assistant. Third-year student of the First Middle School, Fengtien.

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CHAPTER XXIX THE CHINA FOUNDATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE The Sixty-Eighth Congress, Washington D. Origin C., passed in 1924 a joint resolution providing for the remission of further payments of the annual instn.llmen ts of the Chinese Indemnity. In response to this generous act of the United States, a Chinese Presidential Mandate was issued under the date of September 17, 1924, appointing fifteen persons as trustee members to have custody and control of the fund remitted. The first meeting of these members on the day following the issue of the Mandate marks the formal establishment of the Foundation. The members on the Foundation are: Dr. ,V. W. Yen, Prof. Paul Monroe, Dr. Chang Poling, Mr. J!'an Yuan-lien, Dr. Y. T. Tsur, Mr. C. R. Bennett, Mr. J.E. Baker, Dr. Chiang Monlin, Prof. John Dewey, Mr. R. S. Greene, Dr. Huang Yen-peh, Dr. V. K. Wellington Koo, Dr. P. W. Kuo, Dr. Sao-ke Alfred Sze, Mr. V. K. Ting. 'l'he first regular meeting of the Trustees First Meeting was held on June 192-5. In order to define more precisely the scope of the work of the Foundation which will not only best serve the most urgent needs of the Chinese educational institutions at the present time, but must also be within the limits of the resources at its disposal, the members of the Foundation resolved that its fund should be "devoted to the development of scientific knowledge and to the application of such knowledge to the conditions in China through the promotion of technical training, of scientific research, experimentation and demonstration, and training in science teaching, and to the advancement of cultural enterprises of a permanent character, such as libraries and the like." This resolution was duly communicated to the United States Government through the Chinese Minister at Washington.

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290 FOUNDATION FOR PROMO'rION OF EDUCATION The Foundation further passed several general principles governing the allocation of funds, such as granting assistance to existing institutions having a record of efficient service and administration rather than newly founded institution1:1, equal treatment of government and private institutions, etc. The administrative work of the Foundation is entrusted to the Director, Mr. Ji,an Yuan-lien, who was appointed by the Board of Trustees last June, and the staff of the Secretariat. It is impossible to give a detailei'I account of the work of the Foundation but a summary review of its work may be attempted here. Since the Director has assumed office, Principles he has sent out in the name of Lhe Foundation the principles governing the allocation of funds, printed in pamphlet form, to different provincial educational authorities, and ahm public organizations, such as the educational associations, in order to have the policy and the future activit.y of the Foundation known as widely as possible. The Foundation up to last February had received over one hundred applications from different schools ~nd scientific or edunational institutions in different parts of the country. 'l'his. shows that the Foundation has already attracted the attention of the whole country. The sum applied for by the various institutions amounted to over twenty million dollars. As the fund in control of the Ji,onndation this year is only some six hurnlred thousand, there was great difficulty in working out a plan of appropriation that would satisfy each and all. Applications In view of the fact that the applications have so greatly exceeeded the fund available, and further that it is necessary to insure that the fund be granted to deserving schools or institutions, it was necessary for the Foundation to make a thorough study of the institutions that have applied for subsidies. This was achieved in two ways: one was to ask each institution to fill certain questionnaire forms, provided by the Foundation, that would give some idea of the conditions of that institution, while H1.e otl).er was to en~age specialists in their different.

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FOUNDATION FOR PROMOTION OF EDUCATION 291 fields to make investigations. 'l'he Foundation was fortunate in being able to secure the enthusiastic cooperation of specialists of various institutions, such as Dr. H. H. Love, Professor of Cornell University, Mr. A. H. Arnold of Arnold and White Corporation, Mr. R. S. Greene, Director of the China Medical Board, Dr. Wm. H. Adolph, Professor of Shangtung Christian University, Mr. G. Barbour, Pro fessor of Yenching University, Dr. John Y. Lee, formerly instructor of Physics, Chicago University, Dr. K. S. Lim, Head of Department of Physiology, P. U. M. C., Mr. W. T. Cheng, Chief Engineer, Lung Yen Iron Mining Administra tion, Dr. Y. Tang, formerly a Professor of National University of Peking, and many others. With the excep tion of Kwangtung and Szechuen, where local disturbed conditions made travel unsafe for the officials of the Foundation, they visited practically all the institutions which applied for subsidies. The report of these investiga tions forms the basis on which the trustee members proceeded with their discussion on the appropriation of the fund. The members met last February (1926) to Four Groups vote appropriations to the various branches of the work of the Foundation. The plan they adopted was a.long four lines:-(1) science teaching (2) application of scientific knowledge (3) scientific research (4) cultural enterprises of a permanent nature. This is all in accord with the resolution of last year's meeting. In following this plan, they decided to establish in the six districts, i. e. Peking, l\Iukden, Wuchang, Chengtu, Nanking, Canton, thirty-five professorships on Chemistry, Physic':', Zoology, Botany, Psychology and Education. As women's education in China at present needs every encouragement and assistance, some professorships will he endowed in the two girls' higher educational institutions in Peking. Further, summer schools will be opened every year in three places, where courses in scientific subjects will be given to the teachers of secondary schools. On the line of application of scientific knowledge, the Foundation decided to foster in particular the development of agriculture, engineering and medicine. As the fund is limited, it is perhaps beyond the.

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292 FOUNDATION FOR PROMOTION OF EDUCATION power of the Foundation to give grants to more than one school of each kind. Only three institutions, viz. the Department of Agriculture of the Southeastern University, the Nanyang University and the Hsiang Ya Medical School of Changsha, were chosen by the Foundation to receive the subsidies for applied sciences. For scientific research, the Foundation appropriated grants to the various scientific institutions, such as the Geological Survey, the Science Society of China, and also established research fellowships and research prizes, in various colleges. Library for Peking Last, in the field of cultural enterprise, so far only one library project is now being launched. 'I'he Foundation has voted one million dollars for the erection of a Peking Library during the next four years. This, when completed, will he the foremost library in this country. In connection with the library work, it is also proposed by the Foundation to establish a professorship and several fellowships of libra1y science in W uchang. On the whole, the Foundation may be said to have carried out faithfuJly the work it was entrusted to do, and it is admirable how the decisions have always. been guided by the principles passed in last June's meeting of the Trustees. The institutions that are given subsidies all hiwe a record of efficient service and administration. Included among these are ten government universities, six private colleges or universities, three private secondary schools and four educational and scientific organizations. All these were decided upon after exhaustive and lengthy discussion~ by the Board of Trustees during their long sessions in Peking last month. They met altogether eight times in three days. It is noteworthy that some members came from long distances specially for the meeting. Dr. Monroe, for instance, came from New York. Both the American and Chinese members cooperated in a manner that would satisfy the aspirations of the leaders of the world who pin faith on international cooperation in intellectual and cultural affairs. We ,are sure the Foundation has a great future and that its various activities will be an indispensable force in the reconstruction of China.

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FOUNDATION FOR PROMOTION OF EDUCATION 293 REPORT OF REGULAR MEETING The regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of the China, Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture was held in Peking, February 26th to 28th, 1926, inclusive. The members of the Board that were present at the meeting were the followi11g: Dr. W. W. Yen, Prot Paul Monroe, Dr. Chang Poling, Dr. V. K. Ting, Dr. Y. T. Tsur, Mr. Roger S: Greene, Mr. Fan Yuan-lien, Mr. J. E; Baker, Dr. Chiang Monlin, a.nd Dr. Huang Yen-pei. Di-. W. vV. Yen presided over the sessions. A t' The meeting lasted three clays, and alto~ ppropr1a ,ons } h h l l 'l'h 1 get ier e1g t sess10ns were e c. e app !Cations received by the li'oundation were over 100 in number, and, excluding those which specified 110 figures, the total of the amounts asked aggregated a mm of over ~21,0U0,000. Due consideration was given to th<::se applications, and after much careful discussion and deliberation the final list of appropriations for regular and special grants was agreed upon. Ea.eh individual grant was made with definite conditions imposed on the institution. receiving it and no money will be paid till the conditions have been complied with. A few institutions that received favorable consideration of the Board have to be further investigated by the Executive Committee before definite action would be taken. Total Grants Excluding an appropriation of one millfoi1 dollars for an up-to-date modern library jn Peking, to be paid in four equal annual instalments, the grants made for the first year amount to 1$601,000. The first instalments of these grants will be paid in July 1926. Professor John ,Dewey, one of the five American members of the Board, tendend his resig11ati01i aR a trustee. of the Foundation, on the ground of age and the number of demands upon his time which would prevent him coming' to China to attenrl the meetings of the Board. Dr. W. W. Willoughby of .John Hopkins University was unanimously elected to succeed him.

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294 FOUNDATION FOR PROMOTION OF EDUCATION LIST OF GRANTS Annual Grant Special Grant Total Grant Institution for 3 years for 1 ye'lr for the lst Peking National Normal University Peking National Normal University for Women and Peking National University for Women National Southeastern Universit~ 1Vuchang University Chengtu Higher Normal School and Chengtu University National University of Canton National N ort.heastern University National University of year. ( I An appropriation of II $149,000 for the first year was made in order to carry ont the plan for the esta i blishment of professorships I in ::cience teaching in thef'e schools. The plan provides I for a seven year budget, the I amount of which increases I with the advance of time. I l Sub-total $149,000.00 Peking $20,000.00 10,000.00 30,000.00 Nankai University 30,000.00 15,000.00 45,000.00. Chung Hua University, Wuchang 10,000.00 10,000.00 Fu-tan University 10,000.00 10,000.00 Ta Tung University 10,000.00 10,000.00 College of Agriculture, National South eastern University 35,000.00 35,000.00 Nanyang University 30,000.00 20,000.00 50,000.00

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FOUNDATION FOR PROMOTION OF EDUCATION 295 Annual Grant Special Grant Total Grant for 3 years for 1 year for the lst Institution Training of Chinese Industrial Experts in America under Prof. Joseph Bailie National Geological Survey The Hsiang Ya Medical College The Science Society of China The National Association for the Advancement of Education The National Association for Vocational Education in China Min Teh Middle School Nankai Middle School Tso Yee Institute Training of Apprentices in factories in Shang hai Research Fellowships Research Prizes Professorships and Scho-larship in the Library and Science Total Amount reserved for the few institutions whose projects are to be further investigated by the. Executive Committee year. 10,000.00 10,000.00 35,000.00 35,000.00 30,000.00 15,000.00 45,000.00 15,000.00 5,000.00 20,000.00 15,000.00 5,000.00 20,000.00 15,000.00 5,000.00 20,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00" 15,000.00 15,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 6,000.00 6,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 291,000.00 120,000.00 411,000.00 Total 41,000.00 $601,000.00

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PART VI SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER XXX THE PUBLIC ATTITUDE TO LABOR IN CHINA Labor Situation J.B. Tayler Public opinion may be sai
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PUBLIC ATTITUDE TO LABOR ;297 Such being the situation, what is the attitude of the public towards it? Is there any public demand for labor legislation, and if so, what is the character of the legislation desired? Literates and The educated classes in China, and especially Labor the 'intellectuals', are generally sympathetic in their attitude to labor. They feel t,hat the worker should have every consideration, and they are inclined to think that the capitalist is less than just to the employee. Their attitude is, perhaps, partly due to the fact that the scholar himself is often among the poor, and that he is close to their lives. But the character of Chinese traditions and the effect of the family and other institutions is even more influential in determining this attitude. C.:.vernment On the whole the government has also and Labor adopted a liberal attitude towards the worker. In the West the recognition of the workmen's right to combine was only won after a bitter and prolong ed conflict with the authorities. In China, on other hand, there does not appear to have been any determined opposition on the part of the official class. In part this may he .due to the fact that the labor movement has only reached .China after achieving an assured international status, but probably still more to the fact that the persistence of the guild has kept alive a gomewhat r:irnilar forin of combination down to the present day and even induced familiarity with the strike. While there has been no formal legalization hitherto, the authorities often tacitly allow ln.bor unions and only interfere when public order see!Ils to require it. There is, however, no uniformity in the different provinces and much depends on the attitude of the officials concern ed. There is reason to expect that legislation will t~e forthcoming when political conditions are stabilized. Various proposals have already been before parliament and the executive organs of government a.ncl it may be well to recapitulate very briefly some of the steps taken. When labor was first realized as a national Government Labor Bureau problem, it was proposed to form a govern-ment labor bureau. Difficulties, .however,

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298 PUBLIC ATTITUDE TO LABOR immediately arose because four ministries claimed to be concerned with labor regulation8, namely, the Ministries of Agriculture and Commerce, of Foreign Affairs, of Com munications, and of The Interior. These ministries failed to find any plan acceptable to them all for uniting their interests in one bureau. The consequence is that action, in so far as it has been taken, has been taken by one or other individual ministry. No legislation on this subject has been Regulations passed by parliament, but several bodies of regulations have been issued by the rninistries. The first of these was promulgated in l\farch, 1923, by the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. The Ministry's purpose was to assist in promoting cooperation between labor and capital in order to avoid conflict between them, and to secure better working conditions for the laborer. The decision of the Ministry to issue the regulations it had drawn up was expedited by the interest of those connected with the Industrial Committee of the National Christian Council. There were two sets of regulations, one dealing with factories employing a hundred or more workers, and .the other with modern mines. In the following year the 'same :ministry drew up regulations dealing with the formation of 1abor unions. These were not so liberal as the regulations adopted shortly afterwards by the government in Canton, but they conditionally recognized the right of the laborer to organize and", under rigid conditions, to strike. These regulations, however, because of changes of "government were not promulgated. International The government's continued interest has Labor Office also been manifest in its cooperation with tht,, International Labor Office. China was represented at the. Labor conference in Washington in 1919, which preceded the formation of the Office, and since then she has been represented at all the conferences 'organized by it. The influence of the Internatiorn1J Labor Office has been noticeable in several government actions. This is seen most clearly in the prohibition of the use of yellow phosphorus in the manufacture of .matches. The Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce m

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PUBLIC ATTITUDE TO LABOR 299 1924 issued orders for this purpose, to take effect on the lst. of January 1925. Although the poisonous phosphorus is still being used, this order has hacr the effect of introducing the use of red phosphorus side by side with the yellow, despite the fact thr,t the manufacture is thereby made more costly, at the same time that the price obtainable is lowered. Revision of Regulations The Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce has revised its regulations at the instance of the labor unions in the direction of making them more liberal, but it has not yet published this revised code. The cabinet has also resolved on a similar policy to meet the changed conditions of the last few months. The Fa Tsu Yuan, whose ratification is also necessary for the promulgation of regulations, is also sympathetic and has suggested that philanthropists should actively assist in the organization of labor unions. Since May of last year there seems to have been a demand from the conservative side for legislation with the purpose of controlling labor, not to say severely restricting it. On the other side it should also be Regulations Not Enforced pointed out that even the regulations which were promulgated in 1923 are not yet being enforced. No adequate machinery exists for this purpose. Regulations of this kind cannot be insisted upon without a system of inspection. The matter at present is left to the local authorities. The Ministry has appointed men to inspect but has not armed them with the necessary powers. It has contented itself with issuing notices calling upon the factories and mines to observe its orders, and adding one or two new provisions dealing with hours. This ineffectiveness may perhaps be partly Conservative Groups due to the fa.et that there are more conservative groups with.in the government itself. These are probably strongest in the Ministry of Interior, which has gone so far as to prohibit the political organization of labor. The militarists, with the exception of those connected with the Kuomingtang, are opposed to organized labor. Occasionally they have taken quite drastic action,

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300 PUBLIC ATTITUDE .TO LABOR as in the summary execution of strike leaders both oh the Peking-Hankow railway and in Changsha. The Shanghai native city authorities are said to have taken the stand that there shall be no strikes, on the ground that if the men desire to have their wages raised there are better ways of securing an increase, whi:e strikes for other pnrposes cannot he permitted. Commercial Classes and Labor Of critical importance for the future will be the attitude of the commercial classes to the labor movement. There are, of course; great inrlividual differences between firms. Some of the leading 01ws are distinctly Ii beral in their treatment of their employee!:', encouraging education, providing sickness and accident benetits, and carrying on various forms of welfare work. The, majority, however, must be set down as conservative. They are fearful of the results of a liberal policy. They believe that there is at present nothing that can be called exploitation of the worker and that the real menace to the workers comes from the politicians anrl the militarist. A well known Peking banker, at the time when the Tariff Coi1ference was in everybody's mind, expressed the opinion that the Chinese Chambers of Commerce "'ere more interested in suppre!:'sing labor than they were in the conference itself. This may be an extreme statement, but the undoubted conservatism on the part of the business man probably accounts to a large extent for the fact that the liberal attitude of the government has n0t been more fruitful of practical results. Att't d f The attitude of the labor unions themLab~; Un~ons seives is expressed in the demands they are making for the revision of the existing re gulations. The program of the non-communistic Shanghai association may he given as embodying the more moderate of the labor views. Its criticism of the existing rules contains five main points. First, it calls upon the government to make the organization of labor unions less difficult. Second, it seeks for the relaxation of the regula tion which insists that the funds of unions must be (ieposited in. the banks employed by the government.

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PUBLIC ATTITUDE 'l'O LABOR 301 Third, it asks for the rehtxation of the ruling that the election of officers and the revision of the trade union rules can only take place with the permission of the authorities and under their surveillance. Fourth, it aims at altering the terms under which strikes are authoriz~el, as it believes that the present rule is so worded as to be susceptible of an interpretation which would render all strikes impossible. Fifth, it asks that there be a general relaxation in the present rigid prescriptions limiting the activities of the unions. General Conditions Vague It should be frankly confessed that the conditions which gave rise to the spontaneous organization of workers in the West are still not present in China on any large scale, and that the unions which exist have largely been fostered by outside influences. Neither the business classes, the workers, nor the intellectuals understand hy experience the needs of the situation or the best policy to adopt. While the last named are sympathetic, their attitude is for the most part based on the reading of foreign books and not on a first hand contact with the actual situation in China. There is a vague feeling that steps should be taken to prevent the separation of the classes and the active antagonism between labor and capital from developing here in China. There is a belief in some quarters that some of the coopera tive and profit-sharing features, which are found in various of the small scale industries in China, may suggest bases for possible future solutions of industrial problems. The present is a time for experimentation, with a view to working out plans by which a form of industrial organisation may be evolved that will make possible an evolutionary process and so avoid revolution. The latter is only justified, or indeed possible, as the result of continued and severe repression; a situation which, fortunately, China has not experienced. For Christian sympathisers with labor in Christians and China several lines of activity suggest them-Labor selves. The most fundamental 1s the educa-tion of the worker. New industrial populations are growing up in the chief centers of modern industry under

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302 PUBLIC ATTITUDE 'fO LABOR conditions which weaken the influence of such institutions as the family and the moral sanctions current in Chinese life. At the same time the workers are subject to new temptations and difficulties. It is doubtful also whether the employers of the Christian churches have as yet recognised their responsibilities in rega.rd to them. Very little of permanent value can be accomplished without close contact with the workers themselves, such, for instance, as has been gained in England and America through settle ments. Socially minded Christian workers will be well advised to seek the same intimate knowledge. A. third field for activity lies in definite experimentation on a small sea.le with plans for bringing employers and employees together on a basis of common interest and co-partnership. Much may also be done by promotion of welfare work, especially within the firms themselves, which will create standards of working claRs conditions and living that will react on the workers' future; and by drawing public attention to the various aspects of the very com plicated prnblem known as the labor movement.

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Economic Assistance of Farmers CHAPTER XXXI COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA Y. S. Djang Recognizing the importance of rendering economic assistance to the farmers, the China International Famine Relief Commission ( !ft [@ I!W tr-ii-"% f~ ;Mc t!!!, ~) appointed a f'pecial Committee to deal with rural economic questions. The Commission believes that extension of its help to the farmers, to improve their economic condition, is genuine famine prevention. The giving of relief purely out of humane motives when a famine occurs is important but, to the Commission, improvement of the resources of farmers at normal times, is even more fundamental. The program of this special committee is well defined and aims at offering wider opportunities to the villagers for agricultural pursuits than they have hitherto been offered. Raiffo.isen Rural Co-operative One of its proposals isthe introduction of a rural co-operative credit system of the type invented by F. W. H.aiffeisen ('M !t ~), a German official, during the middle of the 19th cei1tnry. In a village or other small locality a society is formed on the basis of unlimited liability which gathers funds from its members, from a co-operative blLnk (at present the Commission) and from other depositors. This society lends its money to its own members and only for approved purpose:;. Such societies have proved very successful in India and Ja.pan. In both these countries they have been promoted by the Government. Committee 011 Co-operative Credit The Committee which is knowi1 as the Committee on Credit and I~conomic Improves ment (abb. "C.C.E.l." and known in Chinese as ft ;1:1J t~ ii) has thus far been granted

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304 COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA by the China International Famine Relief Commission a sum of $25,000.00 as a capital fund for the purpose of making loans to co-operative societies. The program adopted by the Committee is to conduct a thorough and careful study and experimentation, aiming at the discovery of a workable adaption of the original German system to Chinese rural conditions. The first step taken by the Committee was Regulations to draft a set of working regulations for the rural societies. This task took a year's time to complete, the "Model Constitution for Rural Co-operative Credit, Savings and Marketing Societies" being first pu blishecl in August, 1923. Having thus secured the "Model," the Committee was then concerned with the problem of making the first contact with a village in which to organize the first "Raiffeisen Bank'' in China,. Fortunately, during the procees of making First the "Model," many persons became enthnsi-Experiments astically interested in rural co-operation. Mr. E. T. Shaw of the American Board Mission was one of them. Through his country church at Lou Tsun (m; ~), Laishui (i* 1.lt), Chihli, the firRt contact was made in the early spring of 1924. Still a little later, another village ;named Wu Tsun (1i ~), Tinghsien ('.;J!'. ~), Chihli, was approached. At the same time a society of gardeners outside of the city of Nanking was formed, through Mr. Hsu (~) of the College of Agricutnre and Forestry. On Feb. 18, 1924, the Laishui and Tinghsien societies were recognized. After careful inspection a charter was issued to each society. From this point on co-operation flew on its own wings, so to speak. The farmers themselves took part in propagating the new system. Progress was, how ever, slow partly because of the conservative policy of the committee and partly because the funds with which to foster the idea were very limited. However, that co-operative credit is being more generally understood by the rural population can be seen from the following table showing the number of societies recognized on the various dates indicated.

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COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA 305 February 1924 2 societies March .. 4 .. April 7 June 1925 9 ,, December .. 44 ,, In the 44 societies now functioning there Present Strength are 1,493 members. The total funds the of Societies C.LF.R.C. has thus far advanced to these societies amount to $21,070.00, for which it charges only 6% per annum. The societies have contributed in addition about $3,000.00. Analysis of the figures shows that the fund are used for the following purposes: 20% for repaying old debts 40% for agricultural purposes 20% for village industry and trade 20% for other uses Training Course In spite of close supervision, consisting of visits to the societies, literature distributed to them from time to time and a monthly paper, the societies showed the need of further and even more thorough instruction. They lacked an understanding of business methods which are essential in the conduct of their affairs. Thus in November 27, 1925, the societies then existing were invited to send at least two delegates to Peking to attend a training course. One hundred and four delegates from 54 actual or would-be village societies came. They spent a busy week in class-room work which dealt with both the principles of cooperative credit and the methods of operation. The full proceedings of this con~ ference are now available in book form. (C.I.F.R.C. pub. Ser. B No. 17, 40 cts. a copy.} R t f G th The training course corrected many wrong a e o row l th t' h 11npress10ns anc gave e socie ms t e essential points as to business methods, resulting in a much more healthy growth and an accelerated rate of progress of cooperative credit in uuorganized areas. At present thEl

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306 COOPERATIVE CREDIT :i:N CHINA number of new societies reporting to the C.I.F.R.C. of their organization and applying for recognition is between two and three daily. At this rate, one thousand Chinese villages would have the benefit of Raiffeisen "banks" during a year. And the increase is likely to be faster as the idea spreads more widely through the countryside. In addition. to the 44 societies already recognized by the C.I.F. R.C., one hundred and four villages were seeking recognition on February 23, Hl26. Location of Societies With the exception of two societies supe1 vised from Nanking, all these societies are in Chihli. The Honan International Famine Relief Association ( C.I.li'.R.C. Honan Provincial Committee) is training a man in cooperation with the Commission to organize societies in that province and is providing funds for the purpose. Other interested parties are supplying funds for similar ventures in Shansi, and the Commission has promised general supervision of this work. St d d t' The Commission now has a staff of four an ar iza 1011 d th t' d men evotmg eu 1me to orgamzmg an supervising the village societies or to preparing suitable literature for their guidance and encouragement. Its pro.cedure is becoming standardized and the necessary forms have .been worked out. The utn'J.ost care has to be taken to' .ensure that no society is recognized unless its members are. trustworthy men who are led by those who understand the plan and are qualified to transact its simple business. It is essential that sound traditions should be created at the outset. For this reason the Commission has not sought to muHiply societies until sufficient experience ,has been gained and sufficient organizers traineLl to cope with a more extended movement. It is anxious that growth should be spontaneous and tha:t societies should arise in-close enough proximity to one another to make 'the forn1ation of nnions possible. Only in this way can the movement be strong. Scattered and isolated societies can not be expected to constitute a real movement. In tfungchow, east of Peking, a group of ten societies is at the time, of writing proposing to form a union.

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COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHIN A 307 The commission, whose oflices a.re at 6 Tsai Liter a lure Chang Hntnng, Peking (;Jb J!t Jll :tm Jillf iV.1 inl j, ~1Jt) will be pleased to send its literature to, and to answer the inquires of, those who desire to form societies, if the latter are started under conditions which seem favorable for the establishment of a strong movement. It believes that provincial action, such as that proposed by the Honan Committee, offers the greatest prospect of success. It will be glad to cooperate in training iield agents for the work, if provincial or district committees will send them to Peking for t.hat purpose. 1 't" 1 c 1 1 Satisfactory contacts with the villages are 111 ia 011 ac s essential. In Chihli our best initial contact3 were through the American Board workers, but it, must of course be under,:;tood that there are no religious tests in the movement. As soon as societies are started in an area the Commission's experience is that the idea spreads and other societies are rapidly organized. Cooperative Banks The Commission is at present performing on a small scale the functions discharged in India by government and by central banks and regards itself as paving the way (1) for the organizing of provincial cooperative banks when the movement is strong enough, (~) for the organizing of strong unions of societies and federations of unions and, (3) for government rcgula-' tions in the form of cooperative law. The Commission believes that this moveBetterment of Village Life ment offers great promise for a better village life, based on goodwill, mutual trust and cooperation and believes it is one in which the village churches can help by affording initial contacts and giving a lead.

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CHAPTER XXXII REFORMING FARM LIFE John H. Reisner 'rhis article sets forth briefly what seem to be the most significant developments in progress at the present time which are contributing to the advancement of agriculture and the improvement of rural life in China. No attempt is made to evaluate agricultural institutions. The contributions being made by organizations, other than strictly educational, toward rural improvement are, how ever, both significant and suggestive. S It al Sustained efforts have been made by a ericu nr i f t" d t"t t" Improvements num,,er o organ1za 10ns an rns 1 u 10ns 111 China for the past eight to ten years looking toward the improvement of Chinese sericulture. Activities have centered chiefly about the production of pebrine disease free eggs from selected cocoons for distribution to the farmers. The incidence of disease in this selected stock has been substantially reduced from 75 to 90% to 20 or 10 % and in a few crops to as low as 2 or 3 % Cocoons produced from these eggs are invariably much bP.tter than from non-tested eggs, though of course the silkworms often become infected because of unsanitary rearing conditions and unscientific methods. But the net result is a big gain. South China In South China this work has been carried on chiefly by the Ling Naam Agricultural College connected with the Canton Christian College, supported largely by government grants and contributions and buildings from t.he Silk Association of America. This institution has excellent buildings and facilities for carrying on its work and much good has been accomplished. Ya tz VaU In the Yangtze Valley there have been ng e ey several organizations and institutions at work.

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REFORMING FARM LIFE 309 The largest of these is the International CommiLtee for the Improvement of Sericulture in China, which received an annual grant from the Chinese Maritinrn Customs. This Committee is made up of representatives of the nationals of France, Americn, ltngland, Italy, Japan and China. Their interest has been almost entirely in the production and distribution of .disease free eggs. A large share of their egg production has come from France an.d Italy. More recently their policy has been changed to an emphasis on buiiding up sources of improved disease free eggs in China and the development of extension services in connection with the distribution of improved eggs. Chinese Institutions Of the Chinese sericultural institutions, by far the most noteworthy is the Girls' Scricultural School at Hushukwan, near Soochow. This school has been producing disease free eggs and distributing them among the farmers with such success that this last year, immediately after the general cocoon season was over, orders were placed for the entire output of the eggs of the institntion by the local farmers. Much effective extension work has also been carried on. This demonstration by the Girls' Sericultural School is probably one of the mmit successful demonstrations of improving sericulture, that has yet been made in China. University of A third organization in the Yangtze Valley Nanking is the Department of Sericulture of the College of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Nanking. In addition to disease free egg production considerable research has also been undertaken in silkworm diseases and a very large and representative collection of varieties of mulberries for experiment and research have been gotten together not only from various parts of China, but also from various foreign countries. Imprpved varieties of mulberry trees are also being produced in commercial quantities and sold to the farmers. This institution has been effectively and generously assisted in buildings, equipment, mulberry orchards and current contributions by the Silk Association of America and is cooperating with the International Committee for the Improvement of Sericqlture in China..

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310 REFORMiNG FARM LIFE In Shantung the Chefoo Silk Improvement Shantung Committee supported by government subsidy has been working on the improvement of wild silk as well as the cultivated silk and much good work has been done. The interest of this Committee has centered chiefly in the production and distribution of better eggs and in the externdon of oak leaf plantation on which the wild silk worm Ii ves. There are many other institutions and organizations in China which are working toward the improvement of sericulture, but the five whose work has been mentioned above, are the more important. lmprovem~nt T?rough specific efforts during the last six of Cotton to eight years there has been shown a great deal of interest in the improvement of the Chinese cotton plant. This interest has followed fairly closely the recent rapid developments of the cotton industry. The Govermnent, for a number of years, has maintained a Bureau of Cotton Improvement and four experiment stations. The most notable work, however, and the most practical results must be acc1;edited to the College of Agriculture at Southeastern University, which was financed for a number of years by the Chinese Cotton Mill Owner&' Association, and to the College of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Nanking which was financed by the Cotton Mill Owners' Association of China largely representing the foreign mills of Shanghai. A great deal of the work centered about the introduction and acclimati2:ation of two varieties of AmPrican cotton, both upland varieties, by the names of Trice and Acala. A new variP,ty of Chinese cotton is being developed by the College of Agriculture and Forestry that originated from a single plant selected near Shanghai in the fall of 1919. By taking advantage of the popular interest. in the extension and improvement of this crop and by being able to supply the farmers with better seeds, progress has been made in the improvement of cotton in China. In spite of the fact that financial aid has been withdrawn from the two institutions mentioned .. above by the -0riginal .. Cotton

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REFORMING FAR~I LIFE 311 Mill Associations, all of the work at the University of Nanking is being maintained as well as a large share of the work at Southeastern University. The largest and most effective work along Impro:vement these lines has been done by the College of ofSmall A 1 d F f h U Grain Crops gncu ture an orestry o t e mvers1ty of Nanking which, during the last ten years, has put into circulation three varieties of improved wheat and one of corn. In addition they were responsible for the development of an improved strain of wheat at Nanhsuchow, which is now being distributed in quantity hy the Agricultural Department of the Presbyterian l\[ission of that place. The improved corn seed has been sent into practically every province in China, with astonishingly effective results. It is unusual to find a variety of any crop that is as highly adapted to new conditions as this strain of corn seems to be. Already many busbelR of improved seed have been dietributed. One hundred bushels of corn seed were distributed dming the spring of 1926. Cooperative .Grain Improvement One interesting development that should be mentioned here is a triangular cooperative arrangement between the international Education Board, New York City, the Depa'rtment of Plant Breeding of the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University, and the University of Nanking, whereby each professor of the Cornell Department of Plant Breeding spends a year in China during the next five years. This cooperative project in plant breeding has been extended in China so that it now includes agricultural departments at the following institutions: Kaifeng Baptist College, Kaifeng, Honan; Central Ohina Teachers' College, Wuchang, Hupeh; Point Breeze Academy, Weihsien, Shantung; South Shantung Industrial School, Yihsien, Shantung; and the Pres byteriaff Mission, Nanhsuchow, Northern Anhwei. Cooperative relations have also Leen established with the Kiangsu Provincial Agricultural Station at Soochow and with the Wusih Wheat Experiment Station, Wusih. The

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312 REFORMING FARM LIFE interest canters about the improvement of wheat, corn, soy beans, kaoliang and barley. More than 20, OOO selections of wheat were made in the fall of 1925 for experimental tests, and the entire year's work involves more than 43,000 individual plantings. Progress in Forestry In spite of polit.ical conditions and the inability of the national or provincial govern ments to sustain appropriations for forestry undertakings, nevertheless, on the ba8is of the past ten to fifteen years, one is forced to the conclusion that marked progress has been made. Certainly there are many more trees now on the mountain sides as a result of interest in modern forestry which began some twelve years ago. Shansi Province has undoubtedly sustained her forest policies better than any where else in China. Anhwei Province has also made considerable progress. German forests at Tsingtao taken over by the Chinese from the Japanese are still being maintained. Furthermore, there was a time within the five years when probably two-thirds of all the districts in China maintained forest nurseries. Some of the provincial forest nurseries and forestry stations assumed large proportions anrl were doing very excellent work until they were ove1taken by political disturbances bringing about financial disaster and derangement of their programs. Practically all of this work; however, can be taken up at a later date. Important forest research work along many lines is being undertaken by the College of Agriculture and Forestry of the Univer sity of Nanking as part of the Prevention Program. Scientific data on many phases of forestry are being accumulated and will in a few years make possible the development of scientific forest policies on a basis of established information. Artificial Within the last few years there has been a Fertilizers very marked increase in interest in the introduction of chemical fertilizers to China. This has been very largely confined to foreign importing and exporting firms, with headquarters at the principal port cities. Comment is here made on this develop :Q'.).ent .l>ecause a lack of fertilizers is very generally

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REFORMING FARM LIFE 313 recognized as one of the most common limiting factors of crop production in China. There are probably certain areas where this statement does not hold, but in general the statement is correct. A more adequate supply of fertilizers to the farmers at a figure which they can afford will add very greatly to crop production. Rural Education Brief mention should be made to the recent interest in rural education on the part of the Mass Education Movement which has a rural department, and is promoting classes in adult education in the villages by use of the Thousand Character lessons. As a follow up project, a simple newspaper is being printed. A number of Rural Normal Schools have been established by the Government but their contributions to improvements in rural education so far has been practica.lly nil. Departments of Rural Education in several lea.ding universities are contributing more directly to advances in this very needy but tremendom;ly important field. An experiment in a half da.y rural school with an extensive progra.m including evening cla!"ses for adults, carried on under the Department of Rural Education of the University of Nanking has already attracted con siderable attention. E t 1 1 Entomological Bureaus established by B~r~:S~ ogica Kiangsu and Chekiang provinces at Nanking and Ha1~gchow have made important studies of several destructive insects, and recommended control measures to the farmers. This is only a very small beginning, on the vast problem of insect control but it points the way to further needful developments in this direction. Extension Work in Agriculture All agricultural undertakings, whether they be in the form of experiment stations, schools, or a1,1sociations, should have as their primary object the improvement of the lot of the farmer. This includes the improvement of agriculture in which he is primarily interested and the improvement of rural life. Unfortunately agricultural institutions and organizations have not been able to project themselves

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314 REFORMING FARM LIFE very much into the every day problems of the Chinese farmer. This may be due to the fact that scientific agriculture with all that the term implies is still very young in China. However, it is very manifest that the needs of th.e farmers should be more definitely considered in all agricultural undertakings and preparations. To illustrate this point, so far as the writer has been able to determine, the College of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Nanking is the only institution in China that maintains a field extension force, and that spends so large a proportion of its total income in making direct connections with the farmers. Christian Interest In Better Rural Life In closing this brief statement of what seems to be the larger manifestation of agricultural reforms being attempted in China, attention should be called to the present awakening interest of the Chl"istian Movement in China in ruralizing its program which will carry with it the iinprovernent of agriculture and the improvement of rural life. Many people are coming to the point where they are willing to accept. services along the line of improved agriculture and rural life as on a par with medical and other educational services. When this mental adjustment has finally taken place, it is going to liberate unsuspected energies and interest on the part of Christian rural leaders that will be made manifest in many ways in bringing about a renewal of rural life and better agriculture in China.

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CHAPTER XXXIII CHINA FAMINE FUND BALANCE COMMITTEE. John H. Reisner When the accounts of the American ComOrigin mittee for the China Famine Fund were closed after the Committee's appeal for contributions from American donors to the China famine of 1920-21, and all commitments were forwarded to China, there was an unexpended balance of about $900,000 gold. A full report of all moneys received and transmitted to China and of the unexpended balance left on hand was printed in pamphlet form and sent to the President of the United States and to the contributors to the China Famine Fund in October 1921. In this report, printed in New York, to which wide publicity was given, the question was raised as to how the unexpended balance should be used; and the proposal was put forth in the report that it would probably be best to devote the fund to the prevention of future famines or to the study of its causes, and thus to accomplish some really constructive work in the interests of the people living in the famine stricken districts of China. After the first report was printed and Aim circulated, the American Committee for the China Famine Fund took about two years to study the problem and to reach a conclusion. During this period, conferences were held in China and with interested contributors in the United States to determine to what extent the aims of the contributors to the fund might be best fulfilled. Many different suggestions as to the use of the unexpended balance were received and considered, such as reforestation, building of levees, construction of reservoirs to store flood waters, irrigation, construction of highways and railways, support of orphans, loan funds for farmers in famine districts, agricultural education, etc., etc. The suggestions

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316 FAMINE FUND BALANCE come from secretaries of mission boards of the different denominations through which large sums of money for famine relief had been received, from citizens of the United States who had contributed in large and small sums for the famine funds, from members of the American Advisory Committee at Peking, and from many others who were familiar with the problems in China. The plan adopted was that the unexpended Plan Adopted balance of the funds should be Ul:'ed for the study and investigation of famine causes nnd relief and the education of the Chinese in agriculture and forestry. The University of Nanking and Yenching Univerl"ity, both being in a position to make these studies and investiga tions, were selected as the institutions to carry out the plan adopted. Three-fourths of t,he balnnce, or approximately $6!:l3,000, was allocated to the University of Nanking and one-fourth, or approximately $231,000, to Yenching University. Trust Agreem~nts The Trust. Agreements covering the condi tiom1 of the allocations were entered into under the authority of the Sup1;eme Court of the District of Columbia at Washington, D. C. The Trust Agreement provides for a Committee in China known as the American China Famine Fund Committee of five. members and five alternate members, whose personnel is selected on the following basis: Two of them are appointed by the American Minister to China and two by the Committee of Reference and Counsel of the Foreign Missions Conference of North America. These four are to select a fifth. The alternates are appointed in the same way. The Trust Agreement further provides that the two universities concerned shall submit in March of each year a budget to the China Famine Fund Committee, which shall meet within a month and act upon it. The institutions may use both the interest and part of the principal, provided its use has the approval of the Famine Fund: Committee.

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FAMINE FUND BALANCE 317 The Washington National Savings and Trust Company, Washington, D. C. was made the Trustee of the Fund. The Trust Agreement also provides that of i~:!~!r Relfthe funds allocated to the two universities for Cam;~gn the purposes specified, the sum of $100,000 shall be available for a period of five years after the execution of the agreement for use in starting in the United States a campaign or campaigns for the relief of a famine or famines in China, if, and when, conditions in China require such a campaign. The Committee of Reference and Counsel is charged with the responsibility of deciding when famine conditions in China warrant starting such a campaign. After five years, this sum of Sl00,000, if not used, goes to the two universities. In the meantime, the interest on the fund accrues to the use of the universities under the authority of the China Famine Fund Committee. The Supreme Court of the District of Columbia sitting at Washington, D. C. finally passed on the plan on July 26, 1923, and issued an order directing that the plan be carried out. In the decree handed down, the Comt declared that the proposed use and application of the unexpended balance of said China Famine Fund .......... are most nearly akin to the uses and purposes for which said China Famine Fund was created." A final report of the American Committee for the China Famine Fund was ma.de to the President of the United States and to the contributors of the China Famine Fund on August, 1923, by the Chairman, Thomas W. Lamont, after which t.he committee ceased to function. Personnel of The personnel of the China Famine Fund Committee Committee is as follows: appointed by the American Minister to China, the Honorable .Jacob Gould Schurman, Mr. C. R. Bennett, General Manager, Peking Branch, International Banking Corpora tion, with Mr. Robert Coltman, Standard Oil Company, Peking, as alternate; and Mr. ,T. Harold Dollar, Vice President and General Manager of Robert Dollar Compauy and President of the American Cham her of Commerce,

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318 FAMINE FUND BALANCE Shanghai, with Major Arthur Bassett of the British American Tobacco Company, Shanghai, as alternate; by the Committee of Reference and Counsel of the North American Conference of Foreign Missions, the Rev. Charles E. Patton, Shanghai, Secn.:tnry of the (Presbyterian) China C@uncil, with Rev. J. E. Shoemaker of Yuyao, Chekiang, as alternate, and Bishop T. F. Kenney of the Methodist Church, Foochow, with the Rev. Frank Rawlinson, Editor of the Chinese Recorder, Shanghai, as alternate; by the four above named members of the Committee, Mr. Dwight H. Edwards of the Y. 1\1. C. A., Peking, with Mr. ,J. B. Powell, Editor of the China Weekly Review, Shanghai, as alternate. The China Fa.mine Fund Committee held its first meeting at Peking in April 1923 and has held annual meetings in April of each succeeding year. l\lr. C. B. Bennett of Peking, was elected chairman and the Rev. C. E .. Patton was elected rncretary. Rev. J. M. Yard was appointed a member of the Committee in 1924 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Bishop T. F. Keeney. FAMINE PREVENTION WoRK OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NANKING The program of the College of Agriculture Program and Forestry of the University of Nanking, includes the following projects: Instruction in Forestry, Ji'orestry Research, Forestry Extension, Agricultnrnl Extension, Farm Crops Improvement and Pure Seed Farms, ~conomic and :B'arm Management, SLudies, Cooperntive Extension \V"ork, Plant Disease Control, Animal Disease Control, Rural Education and the Research Library. Progress has been made in all of these projects, full accounts of which are issued each year in the Annual Report of the College of Agriculture and Forestry. Only a brief summary can be rnatle here. Research Important research carried out by the Department of li'orestry in the Yellow River watershed is indicating what has never before been clearly comprehended, namely, that the destruction of the soil

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FAMINE FUND BALANCE 319 iayer by cultivation or grazing, making possible rapid erosion, rather than actual deforestation, is responsible for many of the ills which deforestation popularly has ascribed to China. This discovery is of inestimable value and great significance. Comparative studies on forested and de forested areas in the Yellow River watershed in the summ(,'lr of 1925 indicate an average of sixty times greater run-off in the deforested areas than in the forested areas, where there was any run-off in the forested areas. These processes of soil destruction are now going on as they have probably gone on in the past several thousand years. It is not at all unlikely, as present studies indicate, that the destruction of the soil has played an important part in the reduction of available water through rainfall for food production in North China. A large amount of forest research work along other lines has been carried out which is being used as a basis for instructing students in forestry suitable to Chinese conditions and also for the development of more practical forestry policies which may be recommended to provincfal governments as substitutes for those now in force but which are not meeting the forestry problems in the provinces involved. The Department of Extension during the Extension past two years has carried on many extension field trips into the villages, has prepared extension lectures, agricultural exhibits, pictorial charts, has written and produced rural plays, cooperated in the organization of agricultural fairs, and has distributed many hundred pounds of improved seerls of corn, wheat, and cotton, and written and distributed much literature relating to agricul ture and forestry. Moving pictures have also been used in bringing new ideas to the rural people. During the year 1924-1925 approximately 145 separate meetings were held attended by a total of over 60,000 people. An effective extension agent is the Agriculture and Forestry Newspaper which has been developed and which has a circulation of between 2,000 and 2,500 numbers each issue of which about 1,800 are paid subscriptions. It is estimated that it reaches between 40,000 and 50,000 people each issue. The paper is published every ten days, is registered with the Post Office

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320 FAMINE FUND BALANCE as a newspaper and a charge of thirty cents per year is made for it. Extension work has also been done in rural cooperative credit societies, in plant diseaee control, in the control of rinderpest and in forestry. In connection with the project on the r:;ovement improvement of farm crops and th~ de-yelop.ment of pure seed farms, the Umvers1ty of Nanking has been able to secure the cooperation of the International Education Board, and Cornell University through the Department of Pla.nt Breeding of the New York State College of Agriculture-a triangular cooperative arrangement in which all three institutions share. This arrangement provides that a professor from Cornell shall spend about eight months of each year resident in Nanking, helping carry out the plant improvement program. Cooperative relationships have also been established on the China side in this project with the agricultural departments of the Kaifeng Baptist College, Kaifeng, Honan, Southern Shantung Industrial School, Yihsien, Shantung, the Presbyterian Mission Station at Weihsien, Shantung, the Central China Teachers' College, Wuchang, Hupeh, and the Presbyterian Mission Station at Nanhsuchow~ Anhwei, to all of which institutions grants in aid are made to meet part of the expenses involved. A cooperative relationship also exists with the Wusih Wheat Experiment Station, the Soochow Provincial Agricultmal School and the Agricultural Experiment Station of the Tsinghwa College. For the year l!:l25-1926, there are more than 42,000 rows of wheat, barley, corn, kaoliang, and beans being planted under the cooperative arrangement. The wheat experiment alone included more than 20,000 rod and head rows at these various cooperative stations. It is too early to record results but there is every reason to believe that these will be forthcoming in due time. The College of Agriculture and Forestry has already developed four strains of improved wheat, one of corn and three of cotton, of which each year large quantities of improved seed are distributed to the farmers. The improved corn seed especially has been sent into every province in China with invariably successful results.

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FAMINE FUND BALANCE 321 Economic and Farm Management studies of over 3,000 farms and studies of types of farming in typical districts is securing a wealth of data and material which will make it possible to better understand some of the economic aspects of Chinese agriculture, about which there is avai.lable practic~lly no worthwhile information, but much conflicting and unsubstantial opinion. Plant Disease Plant disease control projects include not only the control of plant diseases through seed treatment but also through the breeding of plants resistant to various diseases. The plant disease resistance work is being carried out in cooperation with the plant improvement work and includes studies on wheat, kaoliang, corn and cotton, all of which crops suffer heavy losses each year through disease. Progresi, is being made in this work and effective results should be forthcoming in the near future. Animal Diseases The control of animal diseases is probably one of the most difficult problems connected with the improvement of agriculture in this country. This is due not only to the ignorance of the farmers, but also to a lack of public opinion and parti cularly to the lack of a trained veterinary personnel to apply such methods as might be made available. Our work has been chiefly on the study of rinde1pest, emphasizing research in developing a vaccine which will be cheap and the use of which will not require a. high degree of skill. Curative treatments such as are available by the use of serum are so expensive at the present time that its practical use is very questionable. Some work has also been clone in the study of poultry and hog diseases. Plans at the present time look forward to the development of a serum laboratory. Rural Education In order to make the project in rural education as practical as possible a rural normal school has been developed, in which emphasis is placed on the practical application of education to rural life. A number of demonstration schools are also being carried on; one of them on the basis of one half day in which the .teacher devotes time to eciluoational work and

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322 FAMINE FUND BALANCE the other half to extension work among the farmers with an evening school for adults, using the 1,000 character lessons. 'l'he teacher also manages an improved cotton seed demonstration farm and once or twice each year holdi;; an agricultural fair and gives varying extension programs. Rural health is also included in the program. The elementary agricultural text book has been prepared for use in the country primary schools. A large number of educational charts have also been made. Teachers in this department have also cooperated in a number of summer schools in North China, providing the instruction in subjects relating to agriculture and rural life. Lib 'fhe research library has been working on rary the indexing of old Chinese Iiteratnre relating to agriculture, of which there is a. large amount. A number of these indexes are now in the final stage of completion and make it possible to refer to a large mass of very valuable information relating to old Chinese agriculture. Quite a number of scholarships hn.ve also Scholarships been provided through the China Famine Fund Committee, either as outright scholarships or as loans to students who are studying in the College of Agriculture and Forestry, the One Year Short Course, or the Rural Normal School. R 1 T A Summer School for Rural Training is ura rammg being developed as an iiitegral part of the etlucational program of the College and as an aid to the creation of favorable public opinion and interest in agricultural and rural life improvement projects. Two hundred and twenty-five students were emolled in the regular curriculum courses of the College of Agriculture and Forestry, in the spring semester of 1926, which is a large increase over any previous year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OF YENCHING UNIVERSITY :Program During the year of 1925-1926, the Depart n1,ent of A~ricultqre of Yenchin~ Universit,Y

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FAMINE FUND BALANCE '323 has continued the basic work of building a fou'ndatidn for an institution, which it is hoped, may be equal to the agricultural, experimental and scholastic demands and necessities of North China. Our number of students has increased as have our facilities for teaching and the general vocational program of the department strengthened by added projects and increased hours of practical instruction. Since the barest immediate need is for salaries for additional staff, we have sold bonds sufficient with .our present equipment to finance a commercial dairy with a capacity for thirty producing cows. From this enterprise we expect to receive enough profits to pay at least two salaries, and eventually mature said bonds with accrued interest. Types of Work Work on the above project has been somewhat delayed by the continued traffic difficulties, but we are ready to continue upon the cessation of the disturbance. A foreign dairy man will be out in the summer to take over this part of the work and assist in the teaching. Dr. Homer Lew from the University of Maryland and Iowa State College has joined onr staff .and taken over the teaching work in Agronomy. .Another graduate assistant has been raised to the rank of instructor, an additional assistant employed for the experimental work, while two of this year's graduates are to begin work this summer as regular assistants on the staff. This brings our regular teaching staff to one professor, five instructors and three graduate assistants. students and Our students, while undergoing the usual Courses high mortality rate due to the entrance requirements have increased to the following: 7 Candidates for B. S. Degree. 5 Two year ,short course students 3 Special students 1 Artisan student 'l'he added staff has increased the variety for specialization from three to five branches, forthermore the vocational and practical nature of our work has been

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324 FAMINE FUND BALANCE strengthened by two required 9 o'clock, one hour per week courses in farm shop and an increase to the same amount of time in farm practice. Arrangements have been completed for the establishment of a regular two year vocational short cour;;e which is to be given in Chinese to students of the middle school gra
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FAMINE FUND BALANCE 325 and experiment stations of the district, arranging for cooperation in livestock breeding, anci an exchange of experimental data -at the same time giving consideration to the advisability of locating a university substation in that district. Mr. Eubank made an inspection tour into Inner Mongolia and ma
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CHAPTER XXX!V RECENT ANTI-OPIUM ACTIVITIES Suppression and Recrudescence K. T, Chung and Garfield Huang It will be remembered that after China had suffered for a century from the curse of opium she was able to stamp out poppy growing within her borders in 1917, largely through the pressure of the agreement signed with Great Britain_ in 1906. Thereupon anti-opinm organizations to a great extent ceased their activities; Owing, however, to the stimulation. of the world war the production of cocaine and of opium and its derivatives in other countries was greatly increased. Over-production beyond the legitimate medicinal needs of the world has led to large quantities of these foreign drugs finding 'their way into China. During the same period, China has not been able to enforce the law forbidding the planting of the poppy and the traffic and use of opium and narcotics, and as a result of the constant fighting between different militarists the planting of the poppy and the trade in opium has been revived to a great extent. The League of Nations accepted the Estimates estimate of the Internat.ional Anti-Opium Association of Peking that in the year 1924 fifteen thousand tons of opium were produced in China. Our veteran anti-opium leader, Dr. Wu Lien-teh, estimated only sevent.y-five hundred tons. Even this latter figure, how ever, shows clearly the seriousness of the present opium situation in China. The famine which is now taking place in Yunnan, Kweichow, Szechuan, Hunan and part of Kiangsi, is largely due to the over-production of the poppy which has directly occupied the fields formerly engaged in the cultivation of rice, wheat and other grains. In many provinces, especially Fukien, Sze.chuan, Yunnan, Jehol and Hunan, opium is cultivated under the pressure of

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ANTIo:erm,r MOVEMENT 327 military and civil authorities as a means of raising revenue for armies. The immense amount of taxes collect ed therefrom has in many cases heon the cause of fighting hetw:een different army factions. Under such circum stances few farmers or merchants can avoid participation in. the cultivation of and trade in opium if they want to carry, on business. Aside. from locally produced opium, China; Smuggling is also the consumer of a .large quantity of foreign opium and other narcotics, smuggled in from other countries. Not less than twenty-seven tons of morphia, heroin and cocaine are smuggled into China annually, according to Dr. Wu Lien-teh's estimate. The quantity of foreign opium seized by the Chine3e Maritime Customs amounted to more than 85,800 pounds in 1924. 'fhe yearly import stands above 20,000 cases, which are worth 100,000,000 Hailrnan Taels. Coast and river steamers flying foreign flags are the agencies for the transportation of these poisonous chugs. 'fhe evil rtlsnlts wrought thereby are manifested in the family, social, industrial and political life cif prA~ent-day China. The increase in the number of suicides, in kidnapping, robbery, banditry, prostitution, gambling and concubinage, can be in most if not all cases,. traced back to the influence of opium and narcotics. This evil force is, in a most serious way, undermining the will power and moral integrity of the Chinese people as a whole. Young people are found everythere unable to resist the temptation of huge fortunes, which under ordinary circum stance;, would take generations to make, but which can,. through the smuggling of,. and trade in, opium and other narcotics, be acquired within a short space of time. This tendency threatens to bring destruction to our race if left 1p.1checked. People's Anti-Opiutn Movement August 5, 1924, was a red letter day in the history of the Peopli>'s Anti-Opium Movement in China. Untiring efforts spent by the officers of the Anti-N a.rcotic Committee of the National Christian Council during that year had gathered together the representatives of more than thirty organizations .of national impor_tance and representing. d.iffer(lnt .'

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328: ANTIOPIUM MOVEMENT walks of life, and had brought into being on that day the. National Anti-Opium Association of China. Since then. this orgai1ization has .conducted a nation-wide movement against opium. It has sprui1g into prominence in a very short time, and now commands the attention of the whole. world. China at Geneva It is needless to remark that the Chinese Government was more interested in the Chekiang-Kiangsu and Fentien:..Chihli wars than in the Jnternational Opium Conferences called under the auspices of the League in Geneva in 1924. 'J'he situation was very grave in China, not only on account of her unpreparedness but also because military leaders in a number of provinces were openly enforcing poppy cultivation. Opium dens were found in big cities under police protection; opium and narcotics were smuggled under armed guards,-in a word, thP-Rnppression laws were totally neglect,ed or defied. Many of China's friends were disappointed over the situation, especially the late Sir John Jordan, form.er1y H. B. l\I. Minister to China, who remarked shortly .before the conference was called that China's public opinion concerning opium was dead. The National Anti-Opium Association found it necessary to arouse the people's attention, to wake th<:m up to face the situation .. The Association is fully aware that if there is going to be succees in the fight against opium in China the Chinese people mnst play the main role. China must show to the world her ability to set her house in order so that she can stamp out the importation of illicit drugs from abroad, And is it not true that the world will not be able to limit the production to medicinal deeds if the Chinese people are not keenly interested and well prepared to cooperate? Popular Campaign With this purpose in view, the AssociaLion started a nation-wide campaign against opium. and narcotics in the fall of 1924. This campaign marked the first people's up-rising against that great evil. A National Anti-Opium Day was set for Sept. 27, 1925, and observed by over 900 cities. and towns throughout. the. whole nation. A petition to the Peking i Governrnent and the .Geneva. Con.ference voicing the,;

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AN'fI-OPIUM -MOVEMEN'f people's aspirations against opium, was signedby 4265 bodies representing 4,663,979 people. With this backing, Mr. T. Z. Koo went to Geneva as a people's representative and was given a chance to speak to the conferences. Dr. Saoke Alfred Sze, the Government's chief delegate, worked in close cooperation with Mr. Koo who thus represented .Chinese public opinion. Mr. Koo was also well supported by Christian opinion in Europe which considered his 'speech to the Conference a "prophet's voice." Through his efforts much interei,t was aroused in Europe regarding the People's Anti-Opium Movement of China. Many friends of China. were watching the situation with keen interest and hoped that the revival of China~s public opinion against opium would mark the beginning of a victorious war on the narcotic evil. With regard to the two conferences which were f!itting for over three months, the results are disappointing, e~pecially that of their attitude towards China. For the following four 1easons, China withdrew from both Con ferences: 1. The Conference adopted no measures to ,reduce actually the production of raw opium, decrease the number of addicts by means of regh,tration, and control the traffic in opium. 2. 'fhe Conference s-tands for opium monopoly as the ,only means_ to control the sale of opium, China's view is ,fundamentally different from this. She stands for total suppressio_n, which cannever be accomplished throu-gh a monopoly. 3. The powers posse_ssing colonies in the East are dependent upon opium as the source from which uearly ,half of their revenue is
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:330 ANTI-OPIUM MOVEMENT From the experience of their delegates to the Geneva Conference, the Chinese people have come to realize that the task before them of ridding their country of opium, although an international problem, is first of all a question affecting themselves. In a way they are disappointed with the "success/' or rather failure, of these Conferences, but in a way it has made them the more firmly resolved to fight their own ,vay out. To sum up, the Geneva Conferences had no small influence on the People's Anti-Opium Movement of China. In the first place, the leaders of the nation strongly urged that this movement must go on under whatever circumstances-it must go on in full swing until China is freed from the curse of opium. In the second place, besides getting at facts, promoting ameliorative work, doing publicity and propaganda. work, this movement must center its activities in the carrying on of education, which is the only means of assuring the effective enforcement of law. It is, therefore, going to undertake a piece of comprehensive and Sustained anti-opium work covering every phase of this evil. Pl!!,ns for a nation-wide campaign of education 'throughout schools, extending over at least -four student generations of four years each, are being made in the hope that, supplemented by other methods, the coming generation of young people in China will be thoroughly aware of the evils resulting from the abuse of these drugs and will be fired with the determination to rid China therefrom. At the same time the Association proposes to reach the adult population by such popular educational methods as may be within its power, since it is of the opinion that under a democracy nothing else than an enlightened public opinion can _win the fight against a traffic the financial returns from which a.re so very great. For this purpose, the home, the popular education schools, community organizations like the Y. l\L C. A., Y. W. C .. A., the Churches and other religious bodies, clubs and professional associations, are all called upon to cooperate. For purposes of practical efficiency the work will be blocked off into five years periods, the first five years to lead up to the next International Conference in 1929. A Domestic Problem

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ANTI"OPIUM MOVEMENT 331 Relatioil to ~t needs. to. be pointed ou~ that althoug_h CbineseCburch this Associat10n 1s funct10nrng as a public body, it still calls for the cooperation of all forces, both .. Christian and non-Christ.ian, Chinese and foreign. The National Christian Council, which initiated the formation of the National Anti-Opium Association, ex pressed the opinion of the majority of Christian leaders in the Council in the following resolutions concerning the ~~neva Conferences passed at the Annual Meeting 1925 : 1. The Council regards H as a matter of profound regret, and disappointment that the Geneva Confe'rence failed to reach an agreement designed to bring about the complete cessation of the opium traffic within ari early and limited period of years. 2. The Council has sorrowfully to admit the fact of tpe recrudescence of opium gro\ving and the increasing use of the drug in China in recent years, a fact which was 1nade one of the reasons for not taking immediate steps for suppression at the Geneva conference. 3. The Council pledges its efforts to secure' \he cooperation of the whole of the Christian forces with which it is or may become associated in a persistent and continuous, effort to bring to an end the cultivation and the use of opium in China. 4: 'rhe Council urges its supporters and sympathizers a:rnong the nationals of all countries to use their utmost influence, in China and abroad, in a fight which will not cease until the opium traffic has been utterly crushed. Furthermore in the following resolutions, the. Council. decided to wa.ge a strenuous fight agaimt the evil of opium: 1. This Council, having .heard with the deepest concern reports from most of the provinces of China on the present condition of the opium question, expresses its deep sympathy with many members of the Christian Church 1n the very great personal difficulties in which the revival of. the opium traffic has placed thern. 2. The times. are critical and this Council. states its conviction that the several churches should maintain .the.

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332; ~N'fl~OI>IQM _MOVEMEN'.l' recognizer! discipline with reference to poppy culture and the me of anrl trading in opium, reaffirming in very explicit and official, as well as earnest terms the condemnation with which every branch of the Christian Church has ever regarded this international, social anct moral evil. 3. There is an urgent call not only for every Christian to be entirely free from any complicity whatever with the opium evil but to join with all men of goorlwill, in China and abroad, in united efforts to free China from this curse. 4. This end will not be achieved without very great !'lacrifice, and the zeal and persistence with which the Christian Church throL1gh its individuaJ membtrs and united effort faces thiA evil will have ruuch to do with the eal"ly termination of the traffic. 5. That the BP.cret.arial :;itaff of the Council give adeqtiate publicity to this resolution anct that the staff send this resolution to the authorities of the Roman Catholic Church with the request that they in turn keep the Council i!1formed as to the position of that church along these lines. With regard to the missionaries and the Anti-Opium Movement, the following rernlution was adopter!: '' The Council while recognizing the desirability of Chinese taking the lead in the opium campaign in all matters affecting the internal affairs of China, would urge all missionaries to cooperate and serve the cause in all possible ways." It is interesting to note that a~ a response to the appeal of the National Christian Council the Apostolic Delegate to China wrote in part, as an expression of the attitude of the whole Catholic body toward this evil: The work for the uplift of souls and the pre!-lervation of society is being pursued in every one of our seventy-two missions throughout the length and breadth of China, even to the extent of recurring to the spiritual punishment prescribed by the ancient canons against Christians guilty of the abuse of opium,. or of the intent to raise, or traffic in,Qpium

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ANTIOPIUli MOVEMENT I am convinced that it is necessary to conduct a. widespread campaign utilizing every means of persuasion and publicity to focus attention upon the evils wrought by opium, in order to create a spiritual atmosphere favourable to the suppression of the cultivation of the poppy. But the true and decisive remedy can only come through energetic and efficacious action on the part of the governing ~uthorities, as well as through international agreements aiming at the abolition of the nefarious traffic in opium." With' the issuance of this statement the way was for the first time open for cooperation between Protestants and Roman Catholics in the fight against opium. Since then, the National Anti-Opium Association has received the support of not only Protestants and Roman Catholics but also Confucians and Buddhists. Monopolies One of the most strenuous fights which the Association has had to put on since the Geneva Conferences was that against the opium monopoly proposed to the Government by Peking politicians shortly after the Conference of 19:25. 'he Association, being fully informed that the motive of such a proposal was no other than to raise funds, and also partly a result of international political complications, made every effort to arouse public opinion against this legalized traffic which would at once have overwhelmed any efforts to rid China of the evil. The Association was of the opinion that an opium monopoly, if well administered, would effect a gradual reduction of the number of addicts and in time fully suppress the traffic, but it was very doubtful as to the advisability of establishing this at the 'present time. It is apparent that once established it would open the way for every military leader to openly raise money by means of legally enforcing cultivation and traffic, of encouraging smoking,-things which are to-day done secretly by only some of the militarists. On the above grounds the Association sent protests to the Peking Government in letters, petitions and lastly in the person of Dr. R. Y. Lo. The Association's constituent bodies, sympathetic individuals and branch associations rose in response to this action. Special PIJ.mphlets 11,nd ma_nifestoes were issued by the Association.

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334 ANTIOPIUM MOVEMENT and considerable interest was aroused. The public opinion thus aroused has gained the victory over this evil proposal Both the Chief Executive and the Minister of Interior personally assured the Association of their decision to kill the proposal of a legalized opium monopoly. Nantung Opium Combine Last January the ARsociation, having been informed from several reliable sources that a vast opium ring was active in Nantung under the protection of local authorities, exposed the fact, challenged Marshall Sun and Mr. Chang Chien,. urging them to put a stop to this. Considerable agitation resulted. As a result, a search was made and strict measures were employed to check the situation. This is according to many people the initiation of the most daring attempt which public opinion has ever taken against the overwhelming forces of the local opium ring, an open secret that is so much interwoven with militarism in this part of China. French Concession (Shanghai) Opium Shops 'fhe Association discovered that there were at least 36 opium shops openly doing business in the French Settlement of Shanghai under protection of the police. It submitted a list of the names of these shops and samples of opium purchased from them to the French Muncipal Council, asking that they put an immediate stop to this. Several searches were made and some opium was found. The French. Minister in Peking in reply assured the Association of the sincerity of the local French authorities in this matter, which is of course rather doubtful, and asked the Association to supply facts of this sort continuedly. Genera( Situation Recently a number of provincial authorities have tried to raise funds by means of enforcing poppy cultivation, protecting traffic in opium and narcotics, with dreadful results. Among these provinces are Fukien, Hupeh, Kiangsu, Anhwei and several others. 'fhe Association being fully informed regarding the misgovernment of these militarists, published the news in the, paper and sent letters and telegrams of protest to each_one.

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. ... ANTI-OPIUM MOVEMENT 335 .of them, besides urging local organizations in these provinces to work in close cociperation with the Association. It is needless to say that most of these protests brought no direct results, but in some cases it E::eems that the pressure that this Association brought to bear has created considerable inconvenience, and most, if not all, of them have come to realize that public opinion cannot be overlooked. In one particular province where plans were all laid to collect an opium tax in a semi-official way, the militarists were very much disturbed after the Association's actions and finally decided to give up the plan in order to preserve their names. It is very encouraging, although far from being satisfactory, to see the results thus gained by our efforts. It is hoped that such a strong public .opinion concerning the question of opium will be gradually built up that it will overwhelm the forces backing this great evil. Association Magazine The need of an Association Magazine has long been felt. After a long period of contemplation the first issue of the AntiOpium Association Monthly was published on May 1st, 1926 with a special article contributed by Dr. V. K. Wellington Koo. It proposes to serve as a link between this Association and its various constituent bodies and branch associations. An English quarterly is also under contemplation. Visit to Recently the writers were sent by the North China Association to North China for an extensive trip in connection with its activities. They visited Peking, Ka]gan and Tientsin, meeting the local leaders and government authorities, coordinating their efforts in the carrying on of the Association's Educational program. .Cooperation with Educa tional Bodies The Association made an appeal to the Association for the Advancement of Education at its annual meeting in Taiyuan, 1925, urging them as an educational body and as a constituent body of the N.A.O.A. to appoint a committee to work with the Association on the matter of Anti-Opium

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336 ANTI-OPIUM MOVEMENT material to be 'included in text-books for middle and primary schools. The result was the appointment of a special Committee headed by Mr. Sanford C. C. Chen, with whom this Association will l\'ork on text-book material. The Association made the same appeal to the Popular Education Association, which has alreacly taken steps to inclu and the best story, on the condition that the Associa.tion raise enough funds to make such a picture .within one year. The Association accepted the con tribution and immediately appointed a speciaL committe(;l .on 1~1otion picture educ~tion which inclnded, 'the leading

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ANTIOPIUM MOVEMENT 33'7 men in the Shanghai motion picti:lre'industry. Regulations for such a contest were formulated and widely advertised. Nearly fifty manuscripts were received as a result. About a dozen prominent editors and writers were invited to judge these manuscripts and arrangements are now being made with the Peacock Motion Pictqre Co., which is prepared to 'invest $6000 in cash :and .$4000 overhea
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'Al'tTIOPIUM .MOVEMENT International Opium Conference in 1929 for unwillingness to adopt adequate measure against the production of and trade in opium and other narcotics. And it is also hoped that these efforts of the Association will obtain response and cooperation by popular organizations h the other nations concerned, so that in the course of time China will be free not only from native opium but from the foreign article also.

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PART Vil MEDICAL AND HEALTH WORK CHAPTER XXXV MEDICAL MISSIONS l 925 ANJ? AFTER James L, Maxwell The past year in medical work, as in the 1925 other work of our missions, has been a testing time fraught with many difficulties and in some places with seemingly insurmountable obstacle~. Yet the fact is that medical missions as a whole have not only overcome the obstacles, but have come through the ordeal with increased strength for the serious problems that lie ahead. Hospitals Carry On The altruistic nature of this work has been increasingly recognized and the doctc;rs have been able, except in very few localities, to carry on at times and in places where other forms of mission work have had temporarily to be suspended. This has not been true in a very few places, but in most of the areas where the fiercest anti-foreign and anti-Christian prejudices have been called in to play the ho,;pitals have been able to continue their usual activities and the pressure on their accommodation bas often been increased rather than decreased by the difficulties that they have had to meet. T k" St k Yet the fact remains that the troubles that a ing oc have been successfully overcome have led and should lead us, to take stock again of our position in China and consider carefully and prayerfully our plans for future work. By so doing we believe that the very difficulties that have had to be met may be made a path to greater success in the future and above all to less dependence on. foreign management and support.

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340 :MEDICAL :MISSIONS Chinese Control In respect of all missionary effort in China we are agreed that the time is fast approach ing when the Chinese Church should take over the responsibilities of the work and that foreign direction and management should be withdrawn as rapidly as this can safely be done. As to how this can be done is perhaps the greatf>st problem of the hour, and as such deserves the most careful consideration in an article reviewing the position of medical missions in China It were well, before act~nily dealing with Aim this proposition, to. consider the more basal one of what is the real aim of medical missions in this land and clearly think out our position here. Let us put cmce more,to ourselves the que1:>tion: What is the object of medical missions in China and how can that object be best met? We believe thnt as we review our essential position here we shall get a truer perspective of our future work and the problems stated above will, to some extent a,t least, answer thPmselves. We shall also cover the ground which an article such as this demands, viz., a review of the work of the three great divisions of effort out here-hospital work, medical educational worltand health education. It is now over a century since medical work for the Chinese was begun by Christian phy8icians, from the West, and close on a century since. Dr. Peter Parker started the first organized medical missionary work as the agent of a home board. It may be that the first idea was the power of the medical missionary to draw crowds within the hearing of the Gospel message, but if this be so a higher and nobJer aim soon took its place. No study of the life of Christ can leave one in doubt that such ail idea was entirely foreign to .His methods of work .and that where He could He rather discouraged the crowds t.hat were merely attracted by His healing works. Origins Medlcai Aim Spiritual That our Lord's desire was,to reach through the body, to the soulof the .individuals on whom His healip~ mir!!,des .. wer.e .. Perf.or.med,

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:MEDICAL MISSIONS 341: is self-evident; and to leave suppliants every whit whole, body and soul alike, and so teach them the full love of God. It was not long before the medical missionaries, at any rate, began to rP,alize that this i;,hould be their function too, rather than merely to attract hen.rers. Changed Situation Now there iR a serious implication. in this, implying as it does the need for a change in method, which in the early days, was far From evident, hut must now he clearly faced in view of the altered conditions of the medical missionary's work. Let t'ls go back to those early days and consider for a moment the posit.ion of a medical missionary then. 'fhe science of medicine and surgery was but slowly developing and that of tropical medicine was only in its very infancy. It was easily possible for a singk1 man of any little talent to acquire a good all-round knowledge and practice of the complete science of medicine and further to carry the whole of his small arrnamentarinm with him when he settled down to work in any particular station. It was of comparatively little account too, whether his hospital were an adapted Chinese house or a building especially erected for the purpose of his missi,m. Since these early days the growth of Progress medical knowledge has been immense, its methods have been completely revolutionized and tropical medicine has become a huge science in itself. It would be as wrong as it ,vonld be foolish to fa.ii, to realize the implication of this change, and t.o do so, as is still attempted by a few of our boards, is to deny the pro vidence of God in providing us with the newer knowledge and technique, with all that it means in further healing service to mankind. \Ve have already Raid that our ideal is to follow the Master in His work when He made men every whit whole, and to refuse to use to the utmost the knowledge that we iirnist God Himself has put in our hands for this purpose, is to deny Him in His very acts of providence. We feel that in theory at least there will be few who would venture to deny the truth of the position bet~ _lai9-QQWIJ., .:Yet. unfortunately it is not .uncommon to

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342 MEDICAL MISSIONS deny in practice what we a.ssent to in theory and this occurs too often in the relation of home boards to medical missions in China. Cooperation Let us go a step further in the practical Needed implications that our assent to this arguinent implies. In the early days, as has already been pointed out, the missionary physician could come out alone, bringing with him all he needed, settle in any sort of building that was available and carry on the merlical missionary work for which he ea.me. This is emphatically not the case now. One m::m or woman cannot by any possible system of training acquire the knowledge or the practical experience that will fit him or her for the task of giving the best., or anything like the best, that can or ought to be given to the patients coming under his care. No one would expect him to do it at home and it is no more possible on the mission field than it is at home. In truth it is less so, for many diseases met in China are either foreign to our homelands, or have .already dis appeared or are fast disappearing there. Not any place is. good enough for a hospital now, but_ a specially planned building, wit,h laboratories for pathological, x .Ray and other specialized forms of work, is essential if anything like the best work is to be done. The only logical consequence is that one man hospitals and hospitals in malrnshift buildings, except for temporary: purposes, are not only out of date -but are absolutely wrong. At once it will be replied that_ an ideal is The Ideal being presented which is financially impos sible to boards which have to
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MEDICAL MISSIONS success of medicalmissions, and the nun:1bers whom the new healing necessarily attracted, implied the need of employing dE:pendable men to carry out the orders of the physician in the treatment of the patients, and the value of such men depimded very largely on the amount of training that the physician himself could give them. This apprenticeship method is on the face of it an unsatisfactory way of teaching, meaning as it does great waste of time and, though common at one time in our own lands, has now been completely abandoned in favor of systematic teaching by men set apart for their ability along this special line. Again what is a logical sequence in the homelands is none the less logical on the mission field. Training Schools So sprang up a number of small training schools; but again it was felt that this was not doing the best that might be done, or was a system that would give to the students that advanced knowledge which God in His providence had placed at our command for the healing of men's bodies. Therefore, in the natural course of events, in place of a number of small training schools there arose a few thoroughly and fully equipped medical colleges for training men and women in the healing art. Once more it has to be allowed that the straitness of ;finances and the naturally great expense of such educational systems put a strict limit on the n111nber which.missions can provide. Health Education A third form of medical enterprise, in the form of health education, has been the logical result of medical missionary activities in China, though least of all has it received the attention and the consideration of the boards at home. Yet undoubtedly it deserves the most careful study and should be given its due position in the medical missionary enterprise. That it has failed so far to get this is in part due to the fact that exactly what that poi,ition is, and what proportion of our effective strength should be given to it, is a matter on which considerable difference of opinion has existed and, to some extent, still contiimes to exist.

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84'! MEDICAL MISSIONS Public Health The su"bjects of public health education, of school hygiene and of community hygiene, is one that is beginning to loom large in the home countries and deservedly so from the great work that it has already accomplished and the immense prospects of its future usefulness. How far is it a necessary implication of our medical work in China? Schoo( Hygiene Let us deal first with the simplest of thesq -that of school hygiene, as about this there can hardly be 'two opinions. Again in the providence of God, missions in China have been enabled to do an enormous amount of work in the education of the young, both the children of Christian parents and of those whose homes have not. yet been touched by the Gospel. The immense value of this work, even .though as in every branch of our work mistakes have been made, is clear to all except the most prejudiced observers-Chinese and foreign, Chris tian and non-Christian alike. But in what does education consist ? This is a question that has been often asked and never fully answered. But I think that all will allow that no education is really complete which does not include some teaching in. regard to the bodies that should be the Temples of the Holy Ghost. Such teaching may and doubtless should be by the usual oral and didactic methods. but even more important still is the learning that comes by example and practice. 'fhis teaching, we put particular ~mphasis on the fatter form, has not only often not beeli given, but such ;knowledge as the children might acqdir~ by what they observe in practice in 'the 'schools has often been. the: reverse of what in theory we believe. We delibera.tely and unhesitatingly maintain both from personal observation and from incontestable-avidence that not a fe,v of the mission schools in China are nothing short of scanda.ls to the mission body and hot.beds of. disease and as such are a denial in fact of the very Gospel that we have come to China to propagate. Nor are we willing to a.ccept the charge that has .been niade tl;iat this is largely the fault of the medical missionaries themselves. The i;nission doctors have .so long been denied any respon sibility for hygienic conditions in the schools, aml have

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MEDICAL MISSIONS 345: been held responsible only for the treating of disease.after. it. breaks out, that many have doubtless lost interest ir. the matter, but they are certainly not primarily to blame for the condition of things. Community I:Iygiene Public health work and community hygiene did not hi the first place touch the activities of the medical missionary. This was self.evident when a man was working alone, often.in the rnidst of an intensely hostile population and striving by his work to reach the individual with the complete message of the Gospel through his body, often the only channel of' approach. That we have not sooner realized the changed a,:pect of affairs and the true missionary possibilities that, these special forms of activity now give is doubtless a mistaken policy. But there is this to be said at least, that nowadays such work to be effective needs special courses of training which few medical missionaries have had. This, however, does not mean that the time has not now come when very careful attention should be given to such forms of medical mission activity or that, they are in any way apart from the missionary's calling. On the other hand, to those who study the situation out here it is clear that wide doors have been opened in these directions which constitute a direct call for Emch work. That this is true mission work few would have the temerity to. deny. A population borne down by chronic and preventable sickness is not the population that will respond most easily to spiritual appeal nor, except in a. very small minority,. will the 8piritual perceptions be anything .but blunted by, the constant load of bodily infirmity. So fa.r we have largely confined ourselves to a review of the past activities of medical missionary work but, as we have noted, the present crisis demands every careful con side1:ati.on of our future prospects and plans and certain problems have been touched on already which need much thought for their elucidation. I In considering these we will return to the :divisions, that' ihave a:li:ea
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346 MEDICAL MISSIONS that the question before us is not merely that of how the work should now be carried on but equally how it should be passed over to Chinese hands. Mission Hospitals Mission hospitals come first for consideration. They are primarily the work for which medical missions were started and are and will remain the backbone of that work. The special problems of the present day as regards their staffing and maintenance have already been noted and we musL solve these in connection with the further problem of devolution. 'fo do this we must for a moment reconsider our position as a whole in China and re-state our aims. It should be quite clear that it is no part of our medical mission work ont here either to meet the medical needs of China as a whole or to supply the medical wants of the Christian community. In the .first place medical missions come to China as the spear point of the Christian attack on a non-Christian land where the Gospel was received with much antipathy. Medical missions have nobly fulfilled this object and generally speaking the objective has already been reached. It .is a question whether since thr.n a sufficiently careful reconsideration of our position has been given. We believe that the opportunity of reaching the individual with the Gospel mesf:!age by the medical mission agency is still as gi:eat as ever it was. There are now, however quite a number of well-qualified physicians growing up in con nection with the Chinese Church and it is only a reasonable: and natural proposal that the Chinese Church should itself carry on this work for its own people. Into the ways and means by which it could !"lo this we have not here space to enter, but the problem is by no means an insoluble one. Modei What then is our own position to be? Here Hospitals I think the answer is not far to seek. The .... f9reign physicians coming to China are trained in a system of hospit;al organization which has now generations behind it and which is one of the glories of our home countries. The Chinese physicians here have no such experiericl3 and .. no. sucq background. It would then;

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MEDICAL MISSIONS 847 'lppear the natural thing that we should maintain, and maintain at a high state of efficienC'y' a few hospitals in each region first as an example to our Chinese brethren of what a hospital should eonsist, and second as important centies to which they might for the present turn for further assistance in difficult cases of diagnosis and treatment and on which in a general way they might model their own hospitals as these grow. The implication of this is of course to reduce the number of our own hospitals as steadily as we can, maintaining, for some time yet, a few more central ones, and encouraging the Chinese Church to take over the others. Our men thus freed might either push on to the entirely unoccupied regions, of which there are 1:till many in China and where their services are terribly needed or could be employed in the other forms of medical missionary work. Chinese Doctors "\Ve next come to the question of the medical colleges. These are of the very utmost importance to the medical missionary cause in China. They are essential to the realization of the plans suggested in the last paragraph. One at least, perhaps the most serious, of the obstacles to the Chinese Church taking over medical mission work to their own people is the dearth of thoroughly trained doctors. As we have said, there are now growing up quite a number of efficient Chinese physicians, but the demand is so far ahead of the supply that the position is most serious. Medical Schools The only solutilln to this is to strengthen our medical schools and as opportunity comes to multiply them. It is quite evident that the medical schools in relation to the Chinese Church stand in a very different position to the mission hospitals. While there are not a few Chinese physicians who are eminently fitted for taking charge of mission hospltals, the number who could with advantage take teaching positions in medical schools is very strictly limite-d. That the number of such is a growing one is a matter for great satisfaction but that in the next few years they cari rnultiply sufficiently to meet the needs is out of the

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MEDICAL MISSIONS question. For some time yet then it will be necessary to rely on the home countries for a considerable number of such men. Chinese This does not in any way mean a desire to Responsibility exclude the Chinese Church from such work. On the other hand it is most important to foster this in every way possible. This is especially so in the matter both of staffing as suitable men can be Recured, which must be slow, and as to management, which is already being done and which should more and more be the case. The matter is urgent for two reasons. ]first, that trained Chinese professors should be more and more available for the future, and Recond, in or
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MEDICAL MISSIONS '349 this deveiopment, but it is hardly likely to tak~ the matter seriously when our home boards fail to do so; lmmediatt Needs What are we to regard its the immediate needs in this special branch of the' work? First, we have the schools. These should receive most careful and earnest attention from all our mission bodies. The condition of many of them is, as I have said, a reproach to our mission work in China and the remedy is not a matter of very serious difficulty. In our opinion the mission doctors should be given the necessary authority to insist on reasonable hygienic arrangements both in the building, the sanitation and the adcqu:tte housing of the students and it should be a part of their duty to f'ee to these. If there is any ditliculty along this line it should not be impossible to have a few men or women sent out with special experience and training in this important branch of the work to advise as to the needs of the case. Every school of large size should have a Chinese graduate nurse to see to the carrying out of prescribed treatment, or where schools are t.oo small for this one nurse for a small group of them. Chinese physicians should also be employed as far as possible for large schooh; or groups of schools. The expense of such measures would not be very great and a really serious situation would thereby be cleared up. The problems of health education and community hygiene E'hould recP.ive the careful attention of our home boards, something which they have never yet had. The existing organization, which is quite interdenominational, should be strengthencl and the question of allocating a certain percentage of medical mission aries to this work should be considered. These would need special training, but such training is now easily obtaind at home. Medical Missionary Position important review is The intention of this article has been to take in review the medical missionary position in China, its history and the changes in outlook that time has brought to it. The point on which we wish to dwell is that such a at this crisis urgently called for. We have

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350 MEDICAL MISSIONS suggested the fresh view point which in our opinion seems to be the correct one. Willingly we would allow that as to some details we may be mistaken, but this does not affect the main contention that such a review is urgently called for. We trust that mission bodies on the field and mission boards at home will not put the matter lightly aside.

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CHAPTER XXXVI THE NURSES ASSOCIATION OF CHINA Nina D. Gage N O I During the past year the Nurses' As-ew pen ngs sociation has inherited new privileges, and taken on new resporn,ibilities. Through these it is proving a.new the unity of mankind. In 1924, at the biennial conference of the Association in Canton, four delegates. were elected to represent the Association at the World Convention of Nurses. This was held in July, 1925, at Helsingfors, the capital of Finland. Miss Wu, Director of the School of Nursing at the Red Cross Hospital in Shangha,i, was sent entirely on funds from China, mostly from Chinese sources. The Chinese nurses worked hard all last spring raising the travel fund. It is no small thing to have four delegates elected a year and a half in advance to attend a conference in a little visited corner of the world, all arrive on time, with no hitch in arrangements. But all four of our delegates were there. It renews our faith in the way our Association is being led. World Conference of Nurs?s We found so much in the message of the Finland conference to bring back to our own Association, so much not only of encourgement, of new methods and ideas, but of inspiration from meeting 1050 nur,ies from 33 different countries, and becoming friends with them, that we found it impossible to bring it all back, And instead we prevailed upon the conference to come themselves to China for their next meeting, accepting the invitation which it had been decided to extend at our aforementioned Canton conference. Therefore in 1929 the nurses of the world wilt meet in Peking and stimulate us while planning how better to carry on their work and make themselves more useful citizens of the territory within the four sea.s.

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352 NURSES' ASSOCIATION OF CHINA Our Association is working actively with International the International Council through its National Cooperation Representative, who is the President of the Nurse!"' Associatimi, of China; through the member for Asia of the Publication Committee; the Program Committee for the next conference;who are all from our Association; and through our members on the Education, Public Health, and Private Duty Committees. For our work in China we have two full Secretaries. time secretaries, to care for the general affairs of the Association, the office work and correspondence, and business managenient of the Ni.using Jomnal, and to visit the various centers of nursing, ad_vise on school, public h~alth nursing, and other nursing matters, an
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NURSES' ASSOCIA'l'JON O:B' CHINA 353 2-The Registration Sub-Committee, which Registration reviews the standnrds and facilities of the r,;chools applying for registration, their teachers, methods of ,vork, quality of their students, time given by the students to study, practice, exercise, recreation; and then decides whether the school is able to give instruction which will uphold nursing standards. If a school camiot be registered, the committee suggestf:' ways of meeting its standards. Within the last two years we have registered 112 schools. This figure includes rt'gistrations, for we have found it helped the schools in maintaining their best work to have them re-register every two years. This keeps the subject of the ne<:cssitieR of a good echool always fresh in the min, which keeps us in touch with each other and with the latest developments in our field, and is the oflicial organ for all departments of our work. lt is a bilingual magazine, so that those members of the Association who know only Chinese, 01 only English, may still know all that is happening. This Journal, like the other publications, is self-supporting, having had a balance in its favor each year, even though it was only five dollars the firot year.

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354 ~URSES' ASSOCIATION OF CHINA Union Committees The work of cooperation with the China Medical Association through a Union Committee to discuss nny matters of joint interest to both Associations, and make necceia:sary recommendations; and a Midwifery Committee to coordinate t.he training in this branch. The work of these committees needs the help of a forge proportion of our members. Beside this, we have been raising money this year for a land purchase. J\ loan was made by one of our Chinese friends interest free to cover half the cost of the land, because he had faith in what we are trying to do. This loan has been repaid. we now have over 1100 members, nearly Membership 700 of them being Chinese. We started out in 1909 as a foreign missionary orgimization, and we have already become a Chinese Christian Association. Many of the Chineae ri1ember;i a.re on ulH committees, and they are taking over the management of the Association ns fast as they feel themselves capable. We are being led in a marvellom, way, and each y(mr proves anew the oneness of our prefession.

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CHAPTER XXXVII MODERN CHINESE PHYSICIANS AND PRACTICE Wu Lien Teh Modern medical practice in China may be Beginnings traced to the year 1807, if not earlier during the period of the East India Company, when Dr. Pearson f1rRt in trod ucc
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356 1\IODERN CHINESE MEDH'AL WOUK enthusia.stic management of the Hongkong College of Merlicine (1888-1898) attracted a large number of brilliant Cantonese to the medical profession. At that time, there was still much prejudice against western practice, and it was not uncommon to hear the most fantastic stories about the 'foreign' hospitals using children's eyes and hearts for the manufacture of pills and gelatin capsules (evidently because of the shining lustre of the latter). Until recent years, modern practitioners were consulted only as a last resort, and only dying patients were sent to hospitals in Hongkong, in order to obtain the necessary death certificates, because native practit.ioners were not allowed to issue such things. When Viceroy Li Hung Chang established In Tientsin the Peiyang Medical College in Tient!'in in 1883 and requested Dr. Kenneth Mackenzie of the London Missionary Society to manage it, he could only obtain Cantonese students, and these were mostly recruited from Hongkong, for there only could the required standard of English be attained. It may therefore be expected with the above background that in medicine, as in other modern activities, such as railwa.ye, banking, steamships, the Cantonese have pla.ye
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MODERN CHINESE. MEDICAL WOR~ 357 strict hospitalisation of the sick, confinement of contnctR, burning of the ,lead, etc. By this meam1, the pla.gue waR Htayecl, and although 60,000 lives were lost altogether in Manchuria and North China, it was prevented from invading other countries. Chinese preventive medicine thereupon recei vecl a great fillip, an International Plague Conference was held at Muk
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358 MODERN CHINESE MEDICAL WORJC victims to the scourge. H enabled the Central Government to utilise the balance of the one million dollar loan from the Group Banks for the establishment in 1919 of the Central Epidemic Bureau at the Temple of Heaven. At this Bureau, vaccines and sera for smallpox, diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, etc. are manufactured for distribution throughout the country, and the ordinary functions of a public health laboratory are performed. The annual appropriation of $110,000 is obtained from the Maritime Customs. In 1920-1921 Pneumonic Plague again invaded Man churia from Siberia, but thanks to the vigilance of the medical personnel and the close cooperation between the Chinese, Russian and .Japanese railway lines, the spread of the epidemic was limited, and less than 9,000 persons died throughout Manchuria and Siberia. During this outbreak, most valuable research upon the plague and its origin was carried out by the Chinese medical staff. Western Trained Physicians In the meantime, considerable progress had been made in other parts of the country. The fact that western trained Chinese physicians had been able to put a stop t.o such a fatal disease as pneumonic plague in a short time while the old fashioned ones failed considerably influenced the conservative scholars and merchants in adopting a more rational attitude toward modern medicine. Although they still hold that internal diseases are peculiarly obedient to the ripe experience (?) of the native practitioner, the masseA are now ready to admit the rmperiority of western surgery in removing tumours, amputating uselel:'s tuberculous joints; of modern anti f-lyphilitic injections with 606 and 914 (in fact they are at times too ready to receive such treatment and therefore fall a ready prey to unscrupulous ex-employees of hospitals by ,paying for simple colored solutions); of the ad vantages of modern health campaigns against infantile mortality, tuberculosis, flies and insects as causes of disease, etc.; of systematic vaccinations against smallpox, etc. Trained midwives are in greater demand in the cities, l\,lld as n, result, there are fewer ca~es of puerperal septice111i11,

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MODERN CHlNESE MEDICAL WORK 359 and infant ophthalmia. But the supply is still insufficient, and it may be that our strict policy of the past to raise qualifications to the level prevailing in more developed western countries will have to be modified so as to meet the pressing needs of China. In the summer of 1914, just when the guns commenced to boom in Enrope and announce the beginning of the World War, a body of young Chinese doctors, including Drs. Wu Lien Teh, (Peking), E. S. Tyau (Shanghai) F. C. Yen (Changsha), !\:Iary Stone (Kiukiang), lda Kahn (Nanchang), C. V. Yui (Shanghai), and a few others met at a. restaurant in Shanghai and decided to start the nucleus of the National lWedical Association of China. Two hundred dollars were sn bscribed on the spot as initial expenses for printing, employment of a clerk, etc., Dr. F. C. Yen was elected as President, while Dr. Wu Lien Teh volunteered to act as Secretary. A quarterly journal, called the National Medical Journal of China, was forthwith published in two langnages--Chinese and English. Five hundred copies of the first issue were printed and sent to possible members. The membership was to be limited to properly qualified practitioners of medicine. By next year, when the firRt fnll Conference was held in Shanghai, the number of members had been incrca,;ed to 300. In 1917, when the Association met in Canton, the liHt had expanded to over 500 names. Since that time the number has swung between .540 and 600, and for four years now we have printell one thousand copieH. of the journal, now bimo11thly instead of quarterly. A sub~tantial income is receivecl from the large number of advertisements appearing in its issues. The National Medical As,,ociation comprise., practically all medical graduates who have studierl in European and American colleges as ,\rell as medical schools in China recognised by the government. Another Medical. association-the Chinese Medical and Pharmaceutical Association -comprises graduates from ,Japanese medical colleges as well as colleges in China influenced by Japanese teaching, and has about one hundred and twenty members. Although

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360 MODERN dHINESE MEDICAL WORl.t our organization is still not quite perfect, it is hoped that during the next three years the membership of the National Medical Association will have increased to nine hundred and that permanent headquarters will be acquired in Shanghai to meet our growing needs. Since its foundation, these two Medical Associations have cooperated with other bodies interected in scientiiic nomenclature and published a series of medical terms now officially adopted by the Ministry of Education. Together with the Y.M.C.A., and five other organizations, it has formed the Council of Health Education for the promotion of Health Education throughout the country. For a time the National Medical Assocfation was the mainstay of the National Health Movement under the leadership of Dr. S. M. Woo, a graduate of Johns Hopkins. Recently, the two leading Medical Associations have again united in launching an appeal to the British Boxer Commission under the chairmanship of Lord Willingdon for the apportionment of ,000 yearly (one-fonrth of the total annual funds) for five years for the promotion of Pi1blic Health in Chinn., including the endowment of health lectureships in medical colleges and high schools. This need is based upon both humanitarian and economic reasons. The estimated crude deaths rate of 25-30 per 1000 of. population pm year in China, as compared with approximately 12 for i:-uch countries as England and U. S., shows the genera.I need of public health. China thus ha~ an exces.~ mortality of Hix million preventable deaths per year, in comparison with which the famines and floods are relatively insignificant. Modern civilisation is so complex that for China to attain the desired position in the comity of nations, it is dependent. upon the development of public health as weH of industry, communieation and education. We are sanguine enough to hope tha.t our appeal for this sub stantial contribution to medical progress in China will meet with a favourable response by the Commission. Among the hospitals and institutions which have been built under purely Chinese auspices may be mentioned the following:-

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MODERN C!HINESE MEDICAL WORK 361 (a) Chinese Red Cross Hospital, Shanghai, founded over fifteen years ago by the late Mr. Shen Tun Ho, Prer;ident of the Chinese Red CrosR. It covers a big area of land and is managed by the two doctor brothers New, one a graduate of Cambridge, the other of Harvard. It has accommodation for over 200 and is a model of efficiency and economy. Here also is established a training school for nurses under the supervision of Miss Wu, a graduate of Johns Hopkins. (b) Chinese Isolation Hospitai, Shanghai, also managed by the News. The Chinese residents have mol'e confidence in a hospital managed by their own doctors, and hence every summer when choler$!., dysentery and other bowel diseases pre vail, the wards are crowded with patients. The recoveries from cholera (about 85 per cent) in this hospital after saline treatment speaks well for the skill of the doctors. (c) Central Hospital, Peking, founded by Dr. Wu Lien Teh and designed after the latest American standards. The funds were contributed partly by government and partly by friends. It cost over $300,000 to build and equip, and was intended as a model for similar institutions in other Chinese cities. The accommodation is for 160 patients. Until Rockefeller erected the modern Peking Union Medical College, the Central Hospital was the finest institution of its kind in China, (cl) North :B:::astern Hospital, Mnkden, completed in 1924 for Mukden city under Dr. Wu Lien 'l'eh's direction at a cost of $700,000. It has accommoda tion for 450 patients and is in the form of eighteen self-Rufficient pavilions with covered archways leading from a central administration block. A railway platform and siding leads to the entrance of the hospital, so that in case of need wounded Roldiers may be conveyed directly thither. This hospital has alren.dy rendered invaluable services during two campaigns.

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362 MODERN CHINESE MEDICAL WORK (e) Two Cantonese hospitals, both built under modern auspices one in Shanghai (native city) and the other in Hankow. Here ea.stern and western methods of treatment are given. (f) Health Demonstration Centers have also been established in important cities like Peking, Canton, Harbin, Nanking, where vital Rtatistics on approved American morlels are being collected and studied. It would be idle in a short iJ.rticle like this to list the number, increasing yearly, of hospitals a11d institutions established and financecl hy Chinese and run by their own 1loctorR. The numbe1 of Chi1rnse practitioners of western medicine now numbers 12,000 including graduate nmseR distributed in the twenty odd provinces. Day by clay, one sees an increasing desire on the part of the people to move with the times, and if the establishment of modern hospitals and medical schools has not appeared so significant as industrial and other money-making activities, the reason lies rnther in the lack of well-trained doctors than in any want of desire to help on this humanitarian movement. So soon as the output of scientific and indeperident medical men and women is increased to conform with the growing needs of the country in this respect, the philanthropists of China will no doubt be found to do their share, the same as in America. The following dates may serve as useful landma1ks 1egarding the medical movement in China. 1807. Vaccination introducd into China. 1836. Dr. Peter Parke1 opened first hospital in Canton. 1846. Shantung Road Hospital, Shanghai, sta1tecl by Dr. Lockhart. 1861. Dr. Lockhart started first missionary hospital, Peking. 1883. Peiyang Medical Hospital, Tientsin, established by Li Hung Chang. 1907. Army Medical College, Tientsin, establiRhed hy Yuan Shih Kai.

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t.lODERN CHINESE MI~DICAL WORK 363 HJ10. Pneumonic Plague invaded Manchuria from Si