Citation
China mission year book

Material Information

Title:
China mission year book
Added title page title:
China Christian Year Book
Creator:
MacGillivray, D ( Donald ), 1862-
Christian Literature Society for China
National Christian Council of China
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
Christian Literature Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions, Medical -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Directories -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
亞洲 -- 中國
Coordinates:
35 x 103 ( China )

Notes

Bibliography:
Inc. indices.
General Note:
Issues for 1920-1922, 1927, 1930, 1933/4, 1935/6 were not published. After 1925 continues as "China Christian year book".
General Note:
Editors: 1910-1915 D. MacGillivray;

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
353641 ( aleph )
X192075321 ( oclc )

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Full Text
THE
CHINA CHRISTIAN
YEAR BOOK
1928
(FIFTEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA 44 MISSION"
YEAR BOOK)
Issued under arrangement between the Christian Literature
Society for China and the National Christian Council of
China under the Direction of the following Editorial Board
appointed by the National Christian Council
Rev. K. T. Chung
Miss L. K* Haass
Rev* A. R* Kepler
Dr. John Y. Lee
Mrs. Herman Liu
Rev. E. C. Lobenstine
Dr. D. MacGillvray
Rev. Edwin Marx
Dr. J. L. Maxwell
Mr. Plummer Mills
Rev. Frank R. Millican
Rev. C. E. Patton
Dr. Frank Rawlinson
Mr. J. H. Reisner
Rev. Stanley Smith
Miss Helen Thoburn
Mr. H. C. Tsao
Rev. Z. K. Zia
EDITOR
;Rev. Frank Rawlinson^ D. D*
Editor, Chinese Recorder.
SHANGHAI
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY
J928




PREFACE
LANS were started for issuing this Christian Year Book in 1927.
But various untoward events and the evacuation of missionaries
made them impossible of fulfilment. It is, therefore, two years
since this Year Book appeared. In general these two years
have created as momentous issues for the Christian Movement in
China as it ever met in any other period of its modern existence
therein. This a reading of the articles will make clear.
This Year Book has very few statistics. They are in general
unobtainable. It contains, however, considerable history, some of
which runs back as far as 1900; some of its contents are made
up of impressions, opinions and discussions. It is, therefore,
primarily historical, to some extent psychological but only casually
statistical.
To those who might feel that varying opinions occupy too
much space in a volume of this nature we can only say that such
opinions are a prominent aspect of the situation in which
Christianity in China now finds itself. An awakened state of
mind is the chief feature of both its enviroment and its own inner
life. Being an actual part of this situation the many facets of this
mind need to be recorded, studied and understood. While this
manysidedness stimulates thought it discourages attempts to
generalize. Widely accepted and conclusive generalizations are
not, therefore, conspicuous in this volume. Nevertheless this
volumes gives to an unusual degree the result of recent research
into Chinese and Christian problems. In this regard it registers
advance over its immediate predecessors. It provides, therefore,
a basis for better understanding of Christian problems in China
and starting points for further study and cautious generalization
thereon.
As a matter of fact opinions about Christianity, and Christian
work, both within and without the Church, constitute in no small
measure the chief modern problem of Christian workers and


iv
PREFACE
adherents. It is perhaps more necessary at the present juncture to
understand these often conflicting opinions about Christianity
than it is to evaluate its strength numerically. For these opinions
indicate how Christianity has affected the spirit and mind of the
Chinese to a degree quite apart from and of much greater
significance than that of its numerical and material strength.
They prove that Christianity has become a challenge to China.
The articles in this volume record also considerable criticism
of Christian methods and institutions. This criticism must be
measured. Furthermore the articles indicate very little consensus
of opinion on any aspect of Christianity in China and suggest very
few if any general solutions to its present problems. Yet three
general emphases characterize most of the articles. In the first
place, they show that the old ideals and methods of carrying on
Christian work in China have broken up as a result of the Revolu-
tion which has now extended over a generation. In the second
place, they reveal and urge experimentation in almost all aspects of
Christian life and work in China. In the third place, most of the
writers are trying to help find the principles of reconstruction
demanded by the new political era and the emergence of a China-
centric Church. This volume should, therefore, be of special help
to that group of people interested in helping find and operate those
same reconstructive principles.
To all those who have given of their time to share their know-
ledge, hopes and thoughts about Christianity in China the Editor
and the members of the Editorial Board are exceedingly grateful.
All the writers are busy workers and most of them are in responsible
administrative positions: forty percent of them are Chinese. Taken
together the articles give a composite picture of the mind of those
best versed in the real problems of the Christian Movement in
China. They indicate how Chinese and western Christian leaders
i are together facing a common need and challenge.
The Editor is especially grateful to Eev. C. L. Boynton, Dr.
D. MacGillivray and Rev. A. J. Gamier for sharing with him the
tedious task of proof-reading. The Editor has tried to achieve
uniformity in spelling and capitalization. He is, however, aware
of failure in this regard. Frequent variations as between different


preface
v
national standards and even within the same article presented too
many opportunities for failure in achieving uniformity. But
perhaps these variations in the use of capitals and spelling serve to
indicate that Christians in China have not yet achieved an inter-
national etymological mind. The Editor has done the best he
could. He has not felt like trying to work out an international
set of rules that might guide the original writers. Something like
that is needed, however. For all typographical errors which have
escaped correction in spite of many readings of the proof, he craves
indulgent sympathy. These errors are listed in the Errata, so far
as detected, at the end of the volume.
Shanghai, China. September 20, 1928.


CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE iii
CONTENTS v
CONTRIBUTORS ix
INTRODUCTIONRECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES
EDITOR 1
PART L NATIONAL LIFE
Chapter
I. Political Events of 1927 and Their Effect on
The Christian Church ......H. T. Hodgkin ti
II. Some Chinese Constructive Enterprises
Chang Fu Liang 22
III. Status of Women in Modern China
Eleanor M. Hinder o4
PART IL RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
IV. Current Eeligious Thought............C. S. Miao 41
V. Religious Liberty in China............T. L. Shen 47
PART in. CHURCH LIFE
VI. Losses and Gains of the Church in 1927
Edwin Marx <50
VII. National Christian Council in 1927
Henry T. Hodgkin
VIII. Movements for Christian Unity...A.E.Kepler 73
IX. Some Aspects of Evangelism ...............Editor 90
X. Christian Literacy and Bible Eeading
Carleton Lacy 99
PART IV. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES
XI. The Events of 1927 and the British Churches
Harold Balme 105


CONTENTS
vii
Page
XII. Effects of 1927 on Work of Missionaries
L. H. Roots 111
XIII. Recent'Evaluations of Mission Work
C. E. Patton 120
XIV. Relations of the Younger and Older
Churches ..............................C. E. Patton 134
XY. The Evacuation and Return of Missionaries
C, L. Boynton 155
XVI. Location of Missionaries .........C. L. Boynton 1G0
XVII. Work of Catholic Christianity in China
G. B. O'Toole 163
PART V. EDUCATION AND STUDENTS
XVIII. The Nationalist Movement and Christian
Education.................................H. C. Tsao 172
XIX. Education Under the Nationalist Govern-
ment....................................Sidney K. Wei 195
XX. Present Outlook for Religious Education
Frank W. Price 207
XXI. Theological Training in 1927 ......Djang Fang 217
XXII. The Revolution and Student Thought
Y. T. Wu 223
XXIII. The Village Education Movement
Chishin (W. T.) Tao 235
PART VI. SOCIAL LIFE
XXIV. Labor and Revolution ...............Gideon Chen 248
XXV. Peasant Movements...............J. Lossing Buck 265
XXVI. Scientific Disaster Relief............Y. S. Djang 2 XXVII. Anti-Opium Campaign..................Bingham Dai 296
XXVIII. Some Recent Christian Social and Industrial
Experiments ...............Eleanor M. Hinder 307
XXIX. Work for the Blind............Miss S. J. Garland 319
PART VII. MEDICAL AND HEALTH WORK
XXX. Public Health Work ...............Iva M. Miller 327


viii
contents
Page
XXXI. Mission Hospitals and Research Work
James L. Maxwell 345
PART VIII. LITERATURE
XXXII. Religious Tract Societies in 1927
George A. Clayton 351
XXXIII. Best Books in Chinese .....................Z. K. Zia 364
XXXIV. Christian Periodicals in Chinese ...K. L. Pao 372
XXXV. Best Books in English on China...J. B. Powell 376
XXXVI. National Christian Literature Association
J. Wesley Shen 383
XXXVII. Urgent Needs in Christian Literature
A. J. Gamier 392
PART IX. APPENDICES
A. Principal Events, 1925-28 Dr. D. MacGillivray 402
B. Doctrinal Basis of Union and Constitution of
Church of Christ in China ........................... 405
C. Educational Regulations.........L. E. Willmott 413
D. Bibliography of English Books on China
J. B. Powell and Frank Rawlinson 424


CONTRIBUTORS
(FIGURES IN PARENTHESIS INDICATE DATES OF
FIRST ARRIVAL IN CHINA)
Page
Balme, Harold, F.R.C.S., D.P.H., L.R.C.P*, (1906) The Events
of 1927 and the british churches, XI.
English Baptist. Formerly President, Shantung Christian
University and Vice-Chairman, National Christian
Council ........................ 105
Boynton, Charles E., B.A., (1906) The Evacuation and Return
of Missionaries, XV; The Location of Missionaries, XVI.
Secretary Y.M.C.A. 1901-14; on staff of China Continua-
tion Committee 1915-20; Shanghai American School
1920-26; Editor, Directory of Protestant Missions; now
Business Secretary, National Christian Council ... 155,160
Buck, J. Lossfng, (1915) Peasant Movements, XXV.
American Presbyterian (North). Department of Agricul-
tural Economics and Farm Management, University of
Nanking ........................ 265
Chang, Fa-Liang, Pfi.B*, M.F., M.S. Some Chinese Con-
structive Enterprises, II.
Elder in Presbyterian Church. Chairman Rural Life
Committee, National Christian Council ......... 22
Chen, Gideon, B.A, Labor and Revolution, XXIV.
Church of Christ in China. Industrial Secretary, National
Christian Council..................... 248
Clayton, George A., (1895) Religious Tract Societies in 1927,
XXXII.
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society. General Secre-
tary, Religious Tract Society for China, Hankow...... 351
Dal, Bingham, B.A*, Anti-Opium Campaign, XXVII.
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretary National Anti-
Opium Association .................. 296
Djang, Y* S*, B,A*, Scientific Disaster Relief, XXVI.
Acting Executive Secretary, China International Famine
Relief Commission; Chief Secretary, Red Cross Society
of China ........................ 283


X
CONTRIBUTORS
Djang Fang, Theological Training in 1927, XXI.
Church of Christ in China. Secretary, National Christian
Council ........................ 217
Gamier, Albert John, (1906) Urgent Needs in Christian
Literature, XXXVII.
English Baptist Mission. Member of staff of Christian
Literature Society, Shanghai............ ... 392
Garland, Miss S.J., (1891) Work for the Blind, XXIX.
China Inland Mission .................. 319
Hinder, Miss Eleanor M#, (1926) Status of Women in Modern
China, III; Some Recent Christian Social and In-
dustrial Experiments, XXVIII.
Industrial Secretary, Y. W. C. A. in China. Program
Secretary, Pan-Pacific Women's Conference, Honolulu,
August, 1928 ..................... 34,307
Hodgkin, H.T., M.A., M.B., (1905) Political Events of 1927
and their Effects on the Christian Church, 1 :
National Christian Council in 1927, VII.
English Friends Mission. Secretary, National Christian
Council ........................ 6,66
Kepler, Asher Raymond, A.B., (1901) Movements for Chris-
tian Unity, VIII.
American Presbyterian (North). General Secretary,
General Council of the Church of Christ in China ... 73
Lacy, CarJeton, B.A, A.M., S.T.B., D.D., (1914) Christian
Literacy and Bible Reading, X.
Methodist Episcopal (North). General Secretary, Ameri-
can Bible Society in China ............... 99
Marx, Edwin, A.B., B.D., (1918) Losses and Gains of the
Church in 1927, VI.
Secretary and Treasurer of China Mission, United
Christian Missionary Society............... 60
Maxwell, James L, M.D., (1901) Mission Hospitals and
Research Work, XXXI.
English Presbyterian. Secretary, China Medical As-
sociation; Editor, China Medical Journal; Medical
Advisor to Mission to Lepers............... 345
MacGillivray, D** D.D., (1888) Principal Events, 1925-28,
Appendix A.
United Church of Canada. General Secretary, Christian
Literature Society, Shanghai................ 402


CONTRIBUTORS
xi
Page
Miao, C.S., Ph.D. Current Ruligious Thought, IV.
Baptist Church. Secretary of Religious Education, China
Christian Educational Association ............ 41
Miller, Miss Iva M., M.D., C*P.H*, (1909) Public Health
Work, XXX.
Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist
Church. Acting Director, Council of Health Education 327
O'Toole, Very Rev. G.B Ph.D., S.T.D., (1920) Work of
Catholic Christianity in China, XVII.
Rector of The Catholic University, Peking, China.
Captain (Chaplain) U. S. R., Consultor of the Chinese
Government Bureau of Publication and Translation ... 163
Pao, K.L, Christian Periodicals in Chinese, XXXIV.
Church of Christ in China. Member of the staff of the
Christian Literature Society, Shanghai ......... 372
Patton, Charles E B.A., M. A., (1899) Recent Evaluation of
Mission Work, XIII; Relations of the Younger and
Older Churches, XIV.
Presbyterian Church (North). Vice-Chairman and Secre-
tary of the China Council of the Presbyterian Mission 120,134
Powell, John B., (1917) Best books in English on China,
XXXV; Bibliography of Books in English on China,
Appendix D.
Editor, China Weekly Review; Correspondent, The
Chicago Tribune and the Manchester Guardian. ... 376, 424
Price, Frank W., B.D., M.A*, (1923) Present Outlook for
Religious Education, XX.
Presbyterian Church (South). Formerly Professor of
Religious Education in Nanking Theological Seminary;
now Director of Religious Education, and College Pastor,
Hangchow Christian College.........* ...... 207
Rawlinson, Frank, M.A., D.D., (1902) Introduction, Recon-
structive Crises; Some Aspects of EvangelismIX;
Books in English on Religion in China, Part V,
Appendix D.
American Board. Editor of China Christian Year Book
and Chinese Recorder................ 1, 90, 433
Roots, Right Rev. Logan H., M.A., D.D (1896) Effects of
1927 on Work of Missionaries, XII.
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Bishop of Hankow
Diocese. Formerly Chairman of the China Continuation
Committee. Honorary Secretary, National Christian


xii
contributors
Page
Shen, T.L., B.Sc., Religious Liberty, V.
Secretary, National Committee of Y.M.C.As. in China.... 47
Shen, J. Wesley, B.D., S.T.M., National Christian
Literature Association, XXXVI.
Methodist Church (South). General Secretary, National
Christian Literature Association............. 383
Tao, (W. T.) Chishin, The Village Education Movement,
XXIII.
General Director, Village Education Movement....... 235
Tsao, H. C., Hsitt Tsaf. The Nationalist Movement and
Christian Education, XVIII.
Wesleyan Methodist Church. A cting General Secretary,
China Christian Educational Association.......... 172
Wei, Sidney K., Ph.D., Education Under the Nationalist
Government, XIX.
Commissioner of Education for Educational Commission
of Kwangtung; Director of Popular Education, Ministry
of Education and Research; Commissioner of Education,
Municipality of Greater Shanghai; Secretary in the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nationalist Government;
Professor of Canton Christian College and Normal Col-
lege, Kwangtung University and Wuchang Chungshan
University......................... 195
Willmott, L.E., B.A., Sc., (1921) Educational Regulations,
Appendix C.
United Church of Canada. Secretary, China Christian
Educational Association. ............... 413
Wu, Y. T., M.A., The Revolution and Student Thought,
XXII.
Congregational Church. Student Secretary, National
Committee of Y.M.C.As. in China............. 223
Zia, Z. K., M.A., Best Books in Chinese, XXXIII.
Church of Christ in China. Member of the staff of the
Christian Literature Society, Shanghai.......... 364


RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES
INTRODUCTION
Editor
Two Events Since the articles published in this Year
Book were written two events have taken
place which set new standards for both the people of
China and the Christian Movement therein. These are
(1) the Jerusalem Meeting and, (2) the, at least tacit,
recognition of Nationalist authority.
Both the Revolution and Christianity
Crisis26 an now ^ace varius crises and challenges.
Christianity has been attacked, often with
virulence. This has proved, however, that Christianity
now has a permanent foothold in China.
The Nation
New Ideals China has been going through a revolution-
ary struggle for about a generation. For the
first time in this generation of struggle those principles
originally outlined by Sun Yat Sen have the right of way.
They are accompanied by two major desires. First, China^
is seeking to utilize western values and methods in her own
rehabilitation. Second, the Revolution has created a new
awareness of China's own ancient values.
New Authority China now is in the hands of a new leader-
ship. With rare exceptions its viewpoint
is the fruit of an international training and experience.
This leadership may change and even fail to achieve some
of its ideals. Nevertheless the military phase of the
Revolution is slipping into the background, and for the
first time in China's generation of revolution a new
leadership has a real chance to guide her people. An era
of14 political tutelage has opened.
Reconstruction The, ^ynote of the hour m China is
reconstruction. In the economic sphere this


2
reconstructive crises
is best illustrated by the posters recently put out by the
4'National Institute of Military Technology" of Nanking.
These urge attention first to the following industries, food,
clothing, housing, motoring and printing. China's needs
are then viewed comparatively in the light of the achieve-
ments of the seven leading nations as regards railroads,
automobiles, telegraph, telephones and roads. Reconstruc-
tion in education, currency and taxation are likewise
receiving much earnest consideration. Moral and social
reforms are being urged by the central government which
has also recently appointed an Opium-Suppression
Committee.
New ideals, a new leadership and recon-
Problcm structive programs are, then, the fruits of the
Chinese Revolution up to date. In a broad
way the Christian Movement shows the same characteristics.
This volume reveals that many heretofore local experiments
are now being put into a national reconstructive program.
The problem now facing the nation and the Church is
that of applying reconstructive ideals on a community-and
nation-wide scale.
The Christian Movement
o tst d' c^an£es taking place in the Christian
Changes ^ Movement have not been created solely by
the Chinese Revolution though its influence
has been the chief accelerating factor therein. The chief
^fruit of this Revolutionary acceleration is the vitalization
of the Chinese Christian mind.
. , The number of missionaries in China has
Missionaries . , , ,T7. , ,
considerably decreased. Widespread evacua-
tion took place primarily in connection with the Com-
munist attack upon foreigners in Nanking and was due
either to expediency, diplomatic pressure or Chinese
Christian advice. It was not due to unfriendly feeling
towards them on the part of Chinese Christians or a nation-
wide desire to be rid of them*
Two changes of attitude are worth noting,
Attittfde miss^onar^es> in the first place, have
registered a desire to be freed from diplomatic
protection where it involves the use or suggestion of


reconstructive crises
military pressure. In the second place, the Chinese
Christian attitude towards the missionaries has changed.
The attack on property and the fact that missionaries and
Chinese Christians have suffered have brought the spiritual
values of the missionary movement into much greater
prominence. Likewise their revolutionary experience has
made more manifest to the missionaries the spiritual
capacities of the Chinese Christians.
The Chinese Church still earnestly desires
o^MisskmZks cooPera^on of the missionaries and their
supporters. There is, nevertheless, some
uncertainty as to the type of service missionaries should
render to the Chinese Church and China.
The Church Change is also evident in the Chinese
Church. Negatively its numerical strength
has decreased. For this two reasons are given. First,
many Chinese Christians could not stand the strain of
persecution and criticism. Second, the attacks upon the
Church have pruned off many of those interested only in its
temporal advantages. The Revolution has, therefore,
served to purify the Church. The persecution, criticism
and revolutionary strain of recent years have, furthermore,
brought to many Chinese Christians a new. and vital religious
experience. A deeper feeling of responsibility has also
developed. The urge to self-support has gone up though
Chinese Christian economic strength has gone down.
There is also a rising Chinese Christian determination to
understand Christianity better. In these we have the
beginning of a China-centric Christian passion and purpose.
Recent events have also stimulated the
L adTh' coming forward of Chinese Christian leader-
c ship. Nominally Christian institutions and
the Church are now under Chinese control. This was one
explicit demand of the Revolution. Chinese Christian
leadership is an actuality now in a way it was not in 1910.
It is more evident and active in higher education than
elsewhere. It is also evident in some sections of the Church.
It is nowhere adequate numerically.
In Christian as well as in civic and political
Reconstruction reconstruction is the order of the
day. In the Jerusalem standards Christian


4
RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES
responsibility for participation in social rehabilitation
has been clearly espoused. The principle of the spiritual
equality of Chinese and western Christians has also
been plainly outlined. That the plans and practice of
religious education must also be rebuilt is admitted. In
addition the relation of the mission and the missionary to
the Chinese Church and Christian institutions in China is
being reorganized, though plans and progress in this
regard vary with different groups and localities. Jerusalem
has not, any more than recent Nationalist reconstructive
programs, introduced many, if any, new activities to the
Christian Movement in China. But both have pushed
Christian reconstruction forward.
, f The first stage of China's revolutionary
Crbes"* transition, both within the nation and the
Church, has passed. For both the way is
more open than ever before for reconstruction. In neither
case is the task finished. A psychological conflict is in
evidence. In the nation nationalist aspirations are "striv-
ing against extra-national influences. Within the Church
there is some uncertainty as to the relation of the
developing China-centric Chinese Church to international
Christianity. This transitional situation involves crises
for both the nation and the Church.
Two such crises challenge the missionaries.
CfiSsesnafy First there is the influence of their sectarian
momentum upon the growing desire of
Chinese Christians for a fuller degree of visible Christian
Unity and free fellowship. At present while only the more
advanced Christian leaders are articulate in regard to the
meaning and goal of this Unity, yet the desire for Unity
is also found in the rank and file of Chinese Christians and
is bound to grow in urgency among them. Missionaries
therefore, must, needs see that their Chinese colleagues
have opportunity to study and understand this problem
and also take care that their own historical momentum
does not hinder the cause of unity in China. The second
missionary crisis arises in the danger of slipping back into
an old normalcy and failing to develop the aspirations
accelerated by the Revolution for self-responsibility and
self-expression. A new normalcy must be set up.


5 RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES

The Church faces many and intricate crises.
Influence ^ has won to exist in China. It
faces a new and tremendous opportunity.
But will it, learn how to wield influence in China's national
and social as well on her religious life? Or will the Church
slip into the position of being just one of the systems
extant in China with an influence small in proportion ?
What also will the Church do about its
Religious new awareness 0f religious liberty and the
er widespread challenge thereto? This crisis
heads up in the Christian school, though it affects, and
must be solved in and by, the Church also. The Recent
National Educational Conference apparently accepted the
gist of earlier regulations as bearing upon private schools.
The issue confronting religious education, therefore, still
exists.
Another crisis arises in the relation of
Vitalit continued western economic cooperation with
the Chinese Church to the spiritual vitality
of that Church. The Chinese Church cannot lay aside its
need. Western Christians cannot escape their respon-
sibility to help. There is needed a new way of carrying
on an old form of sharing.
Unity of Faith anc* mos^ important, there is an
urgent need that the Chinese Church unify
its spiritual life in personal devotion to Christ. To
achieve this is the chief problem facing religious education
in church, school, home and community.
9 Christianity is now challenged to make
Challenge to a vital factor in China's new aspirations
Christianity and life under Chinese leadership. To do
this it must become naturalized. Only
patient prayer and research can make plain the implications
involved therein. Christianity is also called on to release
its dynamic resources so as to build up individual
character and social equity. It must enrich social as
well as individual life. It has won the right to live in
China. Now it must make good that right by living richly,
infusing the aspirations of China with the Christlike spirit
and will.


PART I
NATIONAL LIFE
CHAPTER I
EVENTS IN CHINA DURING 1927 AND THEIR EFFECT
ON THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH*
H. T. Hodgkin
The year nineteen hundred and twenty-
Movement seven dawned with the nationalist movement
in China at the height of its power. The
government recently established in the Wuhan center was
recognized by forward-looking Chinese as the best expres-
sion up to date, of the ideals of the republic for which
Dr. Sun and the Kuomintang had been contending for
many years. The spectacular advance through Hunan
to the Yangtze Valley and into Hupeh and Kiangsi, where
the nationalist forces had met with one success after
another, seemed to give an assurance that at last the
Republic would become something more than a name and
the regime of the Tuchuns come to an end. Preparations
were being made for further advances and there was a
general expectation that the campaign begun so brilliantly
would in a reasonably short space of time be carried
through to North China and bring all the eighteen
provinces under one nationalist government.
*Note: The writing of this article was undertaken at the last
moment owing to the unavoidable breakdown of other arrangements
therefor. It has, therefore, been necessary to prepare it very
hurriedly and it has been impossible to secure the material on
which an article attempting to deal with this subject ought to be
based. Nor has it been possible, under the circumstances, to secure
the opinions of more than one or two people on the article itself.
The reader must, therefore, take it as, in the main, an expression
of personal opinion on the part of one who has tried to keep in touch
with the developing situation in the country and in the church.


7 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

The advance of the Nationalist army was
Advance made possible partly by defections from the
vanc* ranks of other leaders, partly by the able
leadership and the great devotion of the men who had
been trained in the Whangpoa Academy and partly by the
efficient and widespread system of propaganda which
undoubtedly did much to weaken the resistance of the
opposing armies as well as to raise the morale of the
Nationalists.
To some observers it had already become
Nattonalist clear that there was a very grave source of
Movement weakness within the nationalist movement,
due to the fundamentally different aims of
the right and left wings and the dependence of the whole
movement upon the more extreme elements and in
particular upon Russian advice and cooperation. At the
same time many Chinese who did not share the principles
of the communists, believed that their presence, as an
efficient driving force, was necessary in order to carry
through the campaign, that when the time came, China
would easily be able to work out her own economic and
political methods and discard what she did not want.
While in a military sense the position of the northern
generals under the leadership of Chang Tso-lin was fairly
secure, there was a quite general feeling that this position
could not long be maintained in the face of the rising tide
of nationalism and that a clash between the enthusiastic
Nationalist forces and the soldiers of the north could
only have one result.
As has been the case in the development of
As^ctTof so many nationalist movements in the world,
Nationalism the period of intense patriotism was also
one of violent opposition to other nations.
The designs of western peoples were under a constant fire of
criticism, all actions were construed as parts of a deliberate
imperialistic policy, cartoons, slogans and speeches com-
bined in their exposure and exaggeration of the evils under
which China had suffered from these Powers, and this
campaign was being steadily pushed as a means of strength-
ening the national spirit and developing cohesion and


8
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
enthusiasm. Few seemed to realize that this anti-foreign
movement was bound, sooner or later, to be followed by a
reaction and that the unification of China needed a stronger
motive than that supplied by the criticism or dislike of
other nations. The very varied elements in the nationalist
movement still lacked real cohesion. Nevertheless, the cry
of 11 One party until the revolution is completed!" was, in
the beginning of 1927, generally recognized as binding on
the various elements, and anyone who suggested that the
time had come for attempting to clear up these radical
differences was regarded as little short of a traitor to the
national cause.
Hankow January> 1927, therefore,
the stage seemed set for the rapid realization
of the hopes with which Young China had been buoyed up
during the fifteen years of chaos, disappointment and
tyranny following the proclamation of the Republic.
Within a few days, however, an incident had taken place
which already showed, to those who had eyes to see, that
very grave dangers loomed ahead. The deliberate organiza-
tion of a mob in Hankow, whose presence was resisted for
four hours without the firing of a shot by the defenders of
the British concession in Hankow, was undoubtedly due to
a move on the part of the extremists who held that the
relation of China with foreign Powers could only be settled
satisfactorily through the exhibition of violence in one form
or another. When the authorities in the concession finally
called in the Chinese and asked them to take over the
policing of the area for which Britain had hitherto been res-
ponsible, the extreme elements in the nationalist movement
regarded the event in the light of a signal victory for their
tactics. What negotiation had failed to do through long
years of discussion, had been accomplished in a few hours
by an angry mob, stirred up by intense feelings of
patriotism and anti-foreignism. The door was opened for
the negotiations which followed and which finally led to
the definite relinquishment of the Hankow concession by
Great Britain and the establishment of an Anglo-Chinese
regime, with a Chinese Director. Similar events in Kiu-
kiang but added confirmation to this view of the incident.


9 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

Within the Nationalist Party, however, the
Nationalist group that favored negotiations and believed
that China had more to gain by patience
than by the use of mob violence or economic pressure,
realized that a serious blow had been struck not only to
China's standing among the nations, but also to the unity
of the nationalist movement itself. In less than three
months the forces of the South had moved down the
Yangtze river, occupying the provinces of Anhwei and
Chekiang and parts of Kiangsu and threatening Nanking
and Shanghai. The incidents connected with the fall of
the former city must be regarded as the final attempt of
the forces of the left to discredit the moderate leaders,
and more particularly, Chiang Kai-shek. If the Hankow
incident was a first indication in a public way of the
impossibility of reconciling these elements, the Nanking
incident on the 24th of March was the last desperate
attempt to maintain the ascendancy of the left wing in the
party councils.
N r_' ^n this fateful day, a section of the
Nationalist armies, entering Nanking, and
under definite instructions from leaders of the left, attacked
three foreign consulates and nearly all the centers where
foreigners were located. Many were threatened repeatedly,
robbed, beaten and wounded, and some were killed, includ-
ing Dr. Williams, the much loved Vice-President of the
Nanking University. Only after the opening of a barrage
by foreign war vessels did the looting and outrage come to
an end, making it possible for the foreigners to escape,
but leaving the buildings and their contents, in most cases,
to the further violence of the soldiers and the lawless mob.
The Nanking incident forced the hands of
Government General Chiang Kai-shek who proceeded to
establish a moderate government in Nanking
and took, in Shanghai, very drastic steps to suppress the
communists. For a considerable time the whole progress
of the nationalist movement was brought to a standstill
by these dissensions. Attempts were made for a while
to bring about a reconciliation between the Wuhan and
Nanking governments, and finally, through the elimination


10
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
of the Russians in Hankow, and General Chiang Kai-shek
himself in Nanking, a joint government was formed. This
government maintained a somewhat precarious existence
for about six months, when attempts were made to bring
in again Wang Ching-wei from the left and Chiang Kai-
shek from the right.
Canton This effort, however, coincided with an
outbreak of extreme violence with bloodshed
and unspeakable horrors in Canton, when the forces of the
extreme left tried to re-establish their hold in that city
and province. The feelings of Chinese throughout the
country had by this time been increasingly alienated from
the more extreme elements who, it was felt, had no
adequate constructive program and whose methods and
spirits seemed to undermine some of China's most precious
traditions. The outbreak in Canton, after lasting for only
three days, was suppressed with almost equal if not
greater violence by the more moderate section. The eyes of
the Chinese had been opened as by no previous experience
to the worst side of the communist program and in the
intense revulsion of feeling which followed the Canton
incident, Wang Ching-wei left China and Chiang Kai-shek
was able to establish himself in the party and in the
government as the leading figure.
, Turning back for a moment to the Nanking
Nations11 incident, reference must be made to the effect
of this upon China's relations with the rest
of the world. The incident proved to be a very serious
setback to the sympathy which had been developing in
many quarters in Europe and America for the nationalist
cause. Had such an outrage been perpetrated by the
northern soldiers, it would indeed have been deeply
deplored, but only regarded as an inevitable incident in
the course of civil war. The fact that a section of the
Nationalists was directly responsible for this outrage, that
it was not simply a chance but a deliberate move, caused
grave misgivings on the part of very many who had
hoped against hope that the nationalist movement held in
it the promise for a strong, progressive and unified
China. Relations between China and the foreign Powers


11 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

were broken off, and until the end of the year under
consideration, no Power had succeeded in re-establishing
them on terms satisfactory to itself and acceptable to the
Chinese government.
The Nanking incident gave an added sense
Missionaries of to foreigners resident in China.
Following the incident in Hankow a large
evacuation of missionaries and other foreign residents in
China had been arranged by the consular authorities of
the countries concerned. After the Nanking incident,
still more drastic steps were taken and in many parts of
China there were scarcely any foreigners left to carry on
even the most, necessary services. It seemed for a while as
if the only thing to do was for foreigners to withdraw
altogether from China except from the few points that
could be defended, leaving China to work out her own
salvation in her own way.
Following the Hankow incident and while
Troops extreme left was still in control of the
situation in Hankow, considerable bodies of
troops had been sent from various nations to Shanghai in
order to make sure, so far as possible, that no attempt
should be made by mob violence to rash the situation in
that huge international center. So long as the extreme
counsels prevailed in Hankow, it was feared that tactics
which had proved so successful there might be repeated
in other centers, and it was held that a peaceful evacua-
tion of Shanghai by foreigners was unthinkable and in
the interests neither of the foreign nations concerned nor
of China herself.
, The movement of troops, however, was
Feeling"811 reSarded by many Chinese as a further sign
of imperialism, an interpretation inevitable
in the heated condition of mind which was the result of
the continued propaganda of the previous months?. During
the early part of ly27, therefore, the anti-foreign feeling
throughout China was greatly increased through the
precautionary measures taken by Britain and other
Powers in relation to the Shanghai situation. Certain


12
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
facts are now generally recognized which, during the early
part of 1927, were much disputed. The varied interpreta-
tion of these facts Jed undoubtedly to a much more tense
situation than would otherwise have developed.
In particular, it is now recognized (1) that
Co^dusions** the Hankow incident was the result of a
definite move on the part of one element in
the government who were trying to gain advantage over
the other; (2) it is further recognized that the movement
of troops to Shanghai was primarily a defensive and not an
offensive operation and, in particular, was not aimed at
the nationalist movement; (3) it is also recognized that the
Nanking outrage was due more to the effort to discredit
Chiang Kai-shek than to a deliberate attempt to injure the
foreigners, and that it was a desperate effort on the part of
the already discredited communist element. It may also
have been intended to prepare the way for an attempt to
reproduce in the Yangtze delta the tactics which led to
the cession of the British concessions in Hankow and
Kiukiang.
In addition to its effect upon foreigners
N ^kins anc* uVn foreign relations with China there
11 can be no doubt that the Nanking incident
deeply moved many thoughtful Chinese who were shocked
to feel that even with the Nationalist forces there were
elements so violent and dangerous. Some who had
attempted to idealize the movement and its leaders were
turned almost into cynics and felt that there was but little
to choose between the leaders of north and south.
While this is true it must not be forgotten
Nationalism ^at ^ere was a degree of enthusiasm for the
cause which could survive even this severe
shock. Around the personality of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen a
tradition had grown which gave to him and his principles
an almost divine sanction. Early in the year the cult of
what has been called Sanminism" (the study and pro-
paganda of the San Min Chu I or Three Principles of the
People) carried all before it. As the year proceeded
criticism of this position developed both on the part of


13 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

extreme communists who felt the dead leader was far too
cautious and on the part of conservative elements who
regarded the entire movement as destructive. This changed
emphasis led to a weakening in the more violent and
aggressive aspects of the movement.
At the same time there was an increasing
Constructive demand for a more definite constructive policy
0 c and this is now beginning to take shape. It
was not enough to have the farmers organized as a force to
take back the land, they must also be able to increase
production from the land. It was not enough to have
student organizations press political issues; they must
also do good work and fit themselves to hold responsible
office. The trend away from mere propaganda and to-
wards constructive service has been a distinct though not
as yet a. dominant one in recent months.
In estimating the effect of the events briefly
Christian summarized in the foregoing paragraphs upon
Church the Christian movement in China, it is neces-
sary, however, to remember that points such
as these only gradually became apparent and that during
the first part of the year, feelings were running very
high.
It was inevitable that the Christian
NationaHstsnd <^rches China shollld be deeP]y ved
and responsive to the currents of thought in
the nation as a whole. This, of course, was more evident
in areas under the control of, or in sympathy with, the
nationalist movement than in the northern provinces
where there was less propaganda and where strong re-
pressive influences were brought to bear. At the same
time, it will be fair to say that the general tendency
among Christian Chinese in north and south alike was
favorable to the nationalist movement in a general way,
although not to be counted on as behind any particular
political group.
It would be easy to find sections of China
Not*Affected Christian Church in its general
activities and in its relation to foreign friends


14
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
was little, if at all, affected by these significant happenings
in the political world; nevertheless, the Christian forces in
many places have been deeply influenced, and the following
points are mentioned as those in which it seems as if that
influence had been most profound.
1. Desire for a more Chinese Expression of Christianity
The nationalist movement has undoubtedly
Expression of the feeling, already beginning to
Faith be articulate in various parts of the Christian
Church, for a more thoroughly Chinese
expression of the Christian faith, both in word and in
the organization of the churches. In some cases this
desire has resulted in sharp criticism of foreign elements
in the Christian Movement and of the determining
influence of missionary boards and councils. In these
cases there has been a restiveness and a desire to shake
off foreign control, though it has been realized by
comparatively few that, however little it may be desired,
the continuance of large subventions in aid of the churches
in China necessarily involves a considerable element of
foreign influence in the growing life and activities of
the church.
In a very few cases statements have been
Missionsn published which amounted to a direct attack
upon the- foreign missionary or mission board.
In a far larger number of cases there has been a clear
recognition that the Chinese church still needs some
measure of foreign help, both in the matter of finance
and personnel, and indeed, a desire to maintain such
relationships as will enable this help to be given not less
in the future than in the past. The worthwhile leadership
of the Chinese Church has definitely dissociated itself from
the extreme statements made in a few cases and is mainly
concerned to see that the foreign help given in the future
should be along lines consistent with the full autonomy
of the Chinese Church, the missionary taking his place
within that church and ju>t as much under its direction
as the minister or other Chinese servants of the church.


15 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

We may say, as a broad generalization,
Christian Self- th t the c}ulrch in China is reaching a
Determination , i.- , us
determination to express itself m its own
way, to shape its own organization, to lind its own credal
statements, to plan its own program and to stand before
the nation as a genuinely Chinese institution, claiming
attention, not because of any association with the foreigner,
but because of the intrinsic value of its me.-sage and the
suitability of that message to the China of to-day.
2. Readiness to accept Responsibility
For some years past, there has been a
Ovei^of steady movement in most of the missions
Responsibility and churches towards the appointment of
Chinese for responsible positions in the
church. This movement has been a slow one, not so
much because of any question in the minds of missions
on theoretical lines as to the desirability of such a
movement, as because of the lack of conviction on the
part of many missions that Chinese Christians are actually
ready to assume these responsibilities and competent to
take up the work which would devolve upon them. There
has also been, in not a few cases, an unwillingness on the
part of Chinese to accept responsible posts, due in part
to a natural diffidence and in part to the fact that the
conditions connected with the assumption of these duties
have, in many cases, been unacceptable.
, The effect of the nationalist movement
Duties'pass to has been felt in overcoming these difficulties
Chinese in leading Chinese, partly because of the
evacuation of missionaries, partly because of
the efforts to mee-t the requirements for the registration
of schools, and partly as a means of meeting the general
attacks from the anti-Christians, to assume responsibilities
which, in not a few cases, they had previously shrunk
from accepting. So far as our information goes, in a
great majority of the cases, this quickening of the pace
has proved satisfactory and those who have taken over


16
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
duties hitherto discharged by missionaries have often
shown themselves far better fitted to do so, than the
missionaries or even they themselves had dared to hope.
New occasions have taught new duties, and there can be
no doubt that in many cases there has been a deepening
of character and a discovery of fresh spiritual resources,
enabling men to rise to meet the occasion.
3. Defection from the Church and Revelation of Its
Weakness
It would not be true to say that the
Membership attaks upon the church, the evacuation of
missionaries and the other strains to which
Christians have been subjected, have in all cases worked
out as indicated in the preceding section. In not a few
cases the attacks have been very bitter and persistent and
there have been wonderful records of faithfulness on the
part of individual Chinese, some remaining true even at
the cost of life itself. The continued violence of the
opposition has in other places been too much for the
church and considerable reduction in numbers have been
reported in various sections. Reports, are to hand of cases
where the Christian work in centers has seemed altogether
to collapse; some who had been trusted leaders have
proved untrustworthy. The removal of the missionary
has, in certain cases, brought out internal discords and
factions which have paralyzed the church and made its
witness ineffective at a time of crisis and opportunity.
Observers from different parts of China, while recording
such cases, nevertheless feel that on the whole the effect
has been to strengthen the church; that the elements of
weakness have been disclosed, and in some cases the few
who are left are really of more value to the Christian
cause than the larger numbers of indifferent Christians.
In some parts the winnowing process has been severe,
and it is still too soon to say what the net result will be,
but judging by history and by certain other cases that
have been reported, there is good reason to hope that the
final result of such a process will be to the strengthening
of the Christian cause.


17 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

4. An Impetus towards Christian Unity
On this question it is peculiarly difficult
andfunlt^111 generalize. In some groups the reaction
an 1 has been rather away from an extreme
nationalism which is felt to be inconsistent with the
universal spirit of the Christian faith, leading to an
emphasis, as in the case of the Methodist Episcopal
churches, upon union with an international denomina-
tional organization rather than union within China of
the various communions. In other cases, however,and
these are perhaps the majoritythe feeling has been
growing that the unification of China to which all are so
eagerly looking forward, ought to have results within the
Christian group, leading to a much closer association or
affiliation between the varied groups. The movement for
the Church of Christ in China has been consummated at a
time when this feeling has tended to predominate, and
the steady support of Chinese to the National Christian
Council, even when some of the missionaries have ques-
tioned its value, is a further evidence of the same temper.
5. Growing Interest in Public Affairs
A generation ago the Chinese churches felt
National themselves to be, as indeed they mostly were,
Movements little groups of believers, somewhat outside
the main current of China's national life.
To-day, and especially through the events of the last year,
the Christian movement has been drawn into the tide of
China's developing national self-consciousness. More and
more are leading Chinese Christians feeling that the
church must not stand outside the national movements,
that she must find a way of expressing herself in regard
to great moral issues that are raised in connection with
the economic development of the country, in connection
with her political life and international relationships, in
connection with the home and social customs. To many
Chinese, these are no longer outside interests to be thought
of as a field for individual participation, but to be
eschewed by the church in its organic life. Realizing, as
many do, the danger of the church's becoming committed


18
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
to particular solutions or parties, Chinese are nevertheless
increasingly aware of the demand for the lifting up of
high standards of public life, and they feel that the fear
of contamination must not be allowed to prevent the
Church from entering into these fields.
This movement within the church has
Trends produced a certain reaction on the part of
those who feel that the church must confine
itself to spiritual activities, leaving the individual to work
out, in connection with other organizations, his Christian
convictions so far as they affect public issues. There
may, therefore, be said to be within the church two trends
of thoughtone calling for a more active participation by
the church as such in these questions; the other trying to
call a halt and fearing lest the church should dissipate its
energy on such matters and fail to make its profound im-
pression in the field of evangelism and the deepening of the
spiritual life.
6. A Deeper Appreciation of the Church's Educational
Function
For a long time past educational mission-
Le^shi aries have dePJored the lack of a deeP and
e sustained interest in education on the part
of Chinese Christians generally. In demanding registration
for all schools and the establishment of predominantly
Chinese boards of control the government has stepped in
to remedy this. The anti-Christian movement, through
its attacks upon Christian assumptions, has done something
in the same direction. The need for a trained leadership
to meet the situation is becoming ever more apparent. At
the same time new opportunities for service and new
methods of cooperation are opening up. Chinese Christians
sitting on the new boards come to appreciate the problems
of the educational work and the Church as a whole is
rapidly moving towards the place where it will accept its
rightful share in the educational Jife of the country and
be prepared to make sacrifices to see that a Christian
education is provided at least for its own young people.
The questions connected with registration of Christian


19 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH

schools have produced a lot of thinking by-Chinese on the
problem of voluntary versus required religious teaching
and other aspects of the educational program. No doubt
the church is gaining much in this way through the events
of the last year or two.
7. A Stronger Emphasis on Character Building
Christian leaders have watched the develop-
Nc^ed*1*13 ment of the nationalist movement with great
hope, but also with a certain amount of
misgiving. As time has gone on, it has become more and
more apparent that the crux of the question for China is
whether a leadership can be developed which will be
truly selfless, public spirited, and absolutely honest. The
breakdown in one after another of the leaders in China
has been due more to moral failure than to political
mistakes. There is a great fear in the heart of many
Chinese lest a movement so full of promise should be
wrecked through the moral failure of its leadership.
Among Chinese Christian leaders, therefore, it is easy to
discern a re-emphasis in the light of the needs of to-day,
upon the fundamentals of character and, in particular,
upon the contribution to be made by Jesus Christ to the
life of China to-day.
, The movement in the Y.M.C.A., with the
Nationamfe slSan' "We W()"Id see Jesus,-is one evi-
dence of this desire to get back to the highest
conceivable standard of character and to study the meaning
of the life of Jesus in connection with every aspect of
China's national development. The holding of retreats
for the deepening of the spiritual life, the re-discussion
of the principles of religious education, especially in view
of the elimination of required religious education from
registered schools, and other similar movements give
promise that, through the tremendous experiences of this
last year, the Chinese churches are being caused to think
more deeply on their fundamental problems, and are
coming through to a fresh experience of God in Christ.


20
NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH
Generalizations always tend to be mis-
Lessened leading, especially if they are used by those
who have not enough knowledge of the
specific conditions out of which they arise to check them
up in detail. The above generalizations are, therefore,
offered with a good deal of hesitation lest they should be
regarded as applying to all parts of the church and as
interpreting all particular situations. It is nevertheless
believed that each of the tendencies referred to above is
to some extent characteristic, at least in some parts of
China, of the effects produced within the Church by the
stirring events of 1927. As the year proceeded, the intense
feelings and the strain through which Christians had been
living, tended to pass away, and a soberer view of the
whole situation settled, not only upon the church, but
upon the nation as a whole. Those who had looked to a
very speedy accomplishment of their objectives, came to
realize that there are still many terrific obstacles to be
overcome. Those who had tended to throw all or nearly
all the blame for China's ills upon foreign Powers came to
realize some of the grave dangers which exist within China
herself. Those who had counted upon the pronouncement
of ideals and slogans as adequate to carry the movement
forward to success, came to see how long a process of
education is required before such ideals can be understood
by the mass of the people and become operative in the life
of the nation.
For the leaders in the church no less than
Future fQr ^Qge -n ^ g^e, ^jg change proved
valuable, and as China passed into the new year, the
temper was rather one of going steadily forward upon a
long and difficult road, prepared to accept drawbacks,
disappointments, hardships, but by no means prepared to
surrender the ideals which had inspired the earlier
enthusiasm.
This is the temper, it seems to me, with
^Church113" ^e Church is entering upon her work
now, eager to draw all the strength she can
from foreign friends who will serve with absolute loyalty


national life and the church
21
to the Church in China and place their experience and
gifts at her disposal. Perhaps through the difficult times
of 1927, the Church is entering upon a new period of
fruitful cooperation and greater power to meet the dangers
and the opportunities that lie ahead.


CHAPTER II
SOME CHINESE CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES
Fu-Liang Chang
9 One hesitates to write about constructive
Revolutions66 enterprises at this particular moment when
China is undergoing three revolutions at the
same time, political, intellectual and economic. Taking the
political revolution alone under consideration, this period
can well be compared with that of the French Revolution,
many times magnified Communistic reigns of terror and
anti-communistic hysteria have occurred here and there.
China is at present engaged in a civil war on a scale that
has never been equaled in her history of forty centuries!
There is, however, a silver lining to this
Self'preserva- uncertainties and disturbances, for
tfon the Chinese people have lost much of their
faith in isms and are beginning to realize
that their salvation lies in their own hands. Among the
simple folks of the country, organizations such as the
" Red Spear Society," the Big Sword Society/' etc., are
desperate efforts for self-protection and self-preservation:
as to the more intelligent Chinese, the events of past years
have compelled them to think more deeply. As one lives
and moves among them, one hears of many constructive
projects being discussed and prepared and, in some cases,
some experiments are being conducted quietly.
The chief purpose of this article is to
Permanent attempt to present some of these constructive
Contributions enterprises, which are less known to the general
public and which, nevertheless, promise
permanent contributions to the upbuilding of China.
Owing to the limitations of time, energy, travel and
experience, this article is bound to be partial, for the
writer can only refer to those particular constructive
enterprises which have come to his own notice.


CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES
23
Of certain well-known constructive enter-
Well-known prises> mere mention is sufficient. The Home
n Missionary Movement has done splendid
work in Yunnan, Shensi and other interior places! Its
support by Chinese Christians is growing. The National
Anti-Opium Association of China, a child of the National
Christian Council, has grown to be an organization of
nation-wide influence and has gained the hearty support of
Chinese leaders. Educationally, Nankai College, Tientsin,
and Futan College, Shanghai, are outstanding institutions
of higher learning, established and developed by the
Chinese; they compare favorably with other colleges,
governmental or Christian. While business has suffered
much under the disturbed conditions of the present, the
Commercial Press, the premier publishing house in China,
is able not only to maintain itself but also continues to
pay a profitable dividend.
That governmental efforts should be largely
ReronXucntion resPnsible for China's reconstruction is
recognized by all. This article will not
attempt to deal with reconstructive works under such
auspices. It will suffice to mention one or two outstanding
enterprises, which seem to possess great possibilities. The
first is the National University of Labor at Kiangwan, in
which students spend half a day in studies and the other
half working in the university factory. This is a
departure from the ordinary conception and practice of
acquiring a higher education in China The second is the
making of Chengchow, a model city in Central China.
The city wall was torn down in February, 1928. A motor
road is in process of being built. Three rows of willow
trees have been planted on the banks of the river passing
through the city. A public theater with a seating capacity
of 10,000 is under way. A school for the training of
" street elders and village elders,in the Chengchow
district, has been established. The continuance of such
efforts and their resultant success will be watched with
great interest.
Passing from the efforts of the government we
come now to those constructive enterprises which are


24
CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 24
being undertaken by individual citizens and organizations.
China is a nation of farmers. It is
Giant 1 estimated that 85% of China's population
lives in the country. Whatever affects the
life of the village influences the welfare of the whole
nation. Only recently have people become alarmed at the
outburst of power latent in the countryside. More thought
by more men is being spent on rural problems as people
have become aware of the awakening of the country giant.
We are glad to find several distinct constructive attempts
to make the life in the country less a matter of drudgery
and more liveable.
The fighting between northern soldiers and
t? * the Nationalists in December 1926, reduced
Reconstruction ,T . . '
Nankang, a country region a few miles south
of Foochow, to utter ruin. The Civil Governor at that
time was Admiral C. P. Sah, who gave up his high
position and set himself unstintingly to the relief of his
war-stricken people. Out of the ruins of the battle ground
a new village was built. The paved main street has trees
and flowers in the middle and three other smaller streets
have also been built. Four new bridges together with
other public works such as wharves, public toilets, ditches,
roadside pavilions and kerosene godowns have made the
village literally modern. The 91 new-styled business
houses on both sides of the main thoroughfare and 160
residences, all recently built, have given a truly Chinese
countryside a western atmosphere. A small fort for the
" village guards,'' reminds us vividly of the unsettled
conditions of rural districts. The remarkable thing about
Nankang Village reconstruction is the statesmanlike ways
in which it has been carried out. It is constructive
philanthropy, that is, helping people that they may help
themselves. No pauperizing, which often characterizes
relief work, is visible in this case, but a real double bless-
ing for those who gave and those who received the help.
Relief Work Relief work, when efficiently handled by
unselfish men, upon the principles of self-
help and cooperation, can make one dollar do the work of


CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES
25
two. Built not too far above the old standard of con-
struction, a shop costs $435 and a home $180. The former
item is carried by the trustees of the Relief Fund unless
the shop is bought for $400 by the land owner; for the
latter item no repayment is expected, for it is a home and
produces no income. Other arrangements for housing
large families or clans were also made. Clans that can
raise the larger half of the money needed for rebuilding
their common home, may seek the remaining 45% from
the fund. Thus out of the ashes and ruins of yesterday
only we find a happy and prosperous community arising.
FancIs When reconstruction was first started by
Admiral Sah, it was based on his faith in
the generosity of human nature. He did not solicit money
but used what was freely given to him. He handled the
funds first given so efficiently that more came from his
personal friends and friends of the cause. He received
about $80,000 in all and made it go a long way in this
work of constructive relief. There is no better challenge
to any work of real worth than the one of old: "Come and
see."
Model Vill Another constructive undertaking similar to
the above is the model village in Pootung,
across the Whangpoo, Shanghai, built under the auspices
of the Shanghai Chinese Y. M. C. A. The plan calls for
sixty single houses and at present twelve houses have been
built and occupied. Several features of this work deserve
special attention. In the first place, each building costs
$330 and will be usable for 15 to 20 years. Including
charges for interest at 5%, insurance, maintenance and
repairs on the house, a monthly rental of $3 will cover
all expenses. In the second place, each house is
compactly built of bricks with tiled roof and conveniently
arranged with light from three sides. It has a living
room, a bed room, a kitchen, a toilet and a small front
yard. In the third place, the prospective tenants must
be laborers with families, whose monthly wages are not
over $30. In the fourth place, the community activities
center in a two-story building, which also serves as a
day school of primary grade and a night school for adults.


26
constructive enterprises
Every Wednesday there is a weekly social entertainment
when all the villagers go to the Community House for a
cup of tea, discuss the problems of the village, listen to
stories and lectures and sometimes enjoy entertainments
given by the Music Club and the Dramatic Club, organized
by the boys of the locality.
In visiting the "model village" at Pootung,
Mode?eSS one ptrnck hy the cleanliness of the homes
Village" and the grounds in contrast to the general
conditions of an average village, as well as
by the cheerful attitude of the tenants. It is an eloquent
demonstration to factory owners and other capitalists how
they can help their workers and employees best. Therein
lies an important contribution to improving the relations
between capital and labor.
Tea House commlin^y center of a Chinese village
is the tea house. It is the place where the
doings of the village are discussed and where the farmers
get recreation by listening to story narration and enjoying
a game of cards. In tea houses disputes are often settled
and arrangements for weddings and funerals generally
made. It is a pulse-center that dominates the social life
of the village. At present we find that tea houses are
also gambling houses for the villages and that illicit opium
smoking is often carried on in inner rooms. Yet in spite
of all existing evils, they are wonderful places for
constructive efforts!
We are glad to note that a beginning was
Te?-HouseI marIe' in Februa,T of this ?ear, by the
Village Education Movement and the Chinese
Vocational Educational Association in opening two Center
Tea Houses in the country districts outside the City of
Nanking. Popular education classes, story telling, news-
papers, pingpong, chess, Chinese musical instruments,
talking machines, stone weights, horizontal bars, etc., are
provided in these two Tea Houses as means of recreation
and uplift. This is an interesting experiment, the results
of which will throw a great deal of light on the most
acute problem in the prosperous regions of rural China,


CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES
27
namely, how to use wisely the leisure hours of the farmer
and improve his recreation.
Villa e Schools A few years ago the National Association
for the Advancement of Education made a
study of how to educate and modernize the Chinese
farmer and his children. It was decided to begin with
experiments as to what type of teacher is most successful
for village schools. This was to be followed with the
training of village school teachers. Thus we have to-day,
a few miles outside the City of Nanking, an Experimental
Village Normal School. The school started in March 1927.
In spite of political vicissitudes, which have made it
necessary to move four times already, at the time of
. writing it has an enrolment of 29 men and 5 women
students with a budget of over $30,000.
There are several points in which this
Education experiment deviates from ordinary normal
schools and which have already received the
attention of those who are interested in Chinese education.
Firstly, this school aims to train a group of students who
will become the ideal future village school teachers,
because they possess the farmer's physique, the mind of
a scientist and the spirit of a social reformer. Secondly,
this school believes that teaching, learning and doing
should go together. Hence teachers teach by doing and
the students learn by doing. Thirdly, the students ac-
tively participate in the activities of the village. Fourthly,
the teachers and students of the school are doing practically
all the necessary manual labor and household duties as
well as field work When visiting this school and con-
versing with the teachers, one noticed the spirit of a
scientist engaged in his experiments. The life of the
teachers is quite Spartanone of hard self-discipline and
physical exertions. The students are willing to undergo
all sorts of hardship without complaint, and their teachers
share them with them. With so much illiteracy in the
country and with a growing realization of the need for
a better life among the farmers, village schools under
such teachers as the graduates of this school, will become
centers of great usefulness and service. The Experimental


28
CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 28
Village Normal School is making a lasting contribution by
opening a new approach to rural education.
About twelve years ago, after having seen
Education industrial and vocational training in
America, the Philippines and Japan, a
number of Chinese educational and industrial leaders
formed the Vocational Educational Association in China.
It has accomplished ncn.ch during the last ten years and
we shall try only to summarize some of its most important
activities. The greatest contribution of the Association
is in the promotion of vocational education in China.
A series of studies of the present status of different
professions as well as reports on some phases of vocational
education constitute enlightening efforts on the part of .
the Association. In addition to these a monthly magazine
entitled: "Education and Vocation," and a weekly paper:
"Living," both published by the Association, have been
able to foster and extend vocational interest to the public.
A special department of vocational guidance for students
and an employment bureau for others have enjoyed a
wide patronage. In 1908 the Association established in
Shanghai a technical school of the middle school grade
where students, like shop apprentices, do a great deal of
manual work. At present it has an enrolment of regular
students of 400 and a group of special students of 100
at night.
In a country of such dense population,
Training1* where manual labor used to be looked down
as unworthy of scholars and where education
has been more or less divorced from the art of living,
vocational training cannot be over-emphasized. Advocating
that education and vocation should go hand in hand and
be one, the Association touches the very heart of the
economic welfare of the whole nation.
Much has been written about the Mass
Movement^*011 Education Movement in the newspapers and
magazines both at home and abroad; its past
achievements are too well-known to need repetition here.
We shall try only to dwell briefly on two pieces of recent
work that seem to be unusually full of hope for the future.


CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES
29
The first is the Ting Hsien Experiment.
Agricultural Ting jjsjen js a typical rural district in south
jixperiment ChihlL Through the 4C1000 Character77
schools the farmers not only became very friendly toward
the Movement but also gave it hearty support by enrolling
in large numbers as students or teachers. A general
committee of the village elders was organized to carry
responsibility for this work. Thus almost all the work
was carried on by local people, only for the training of
teachers and supervision of schools was the National
Association at Peking responsible. To meet this respon-
sibility certain men were appointed to work at this
experiment.
The graduates from the 1000 Character "
with Farmers scbools became the entering wedge for more
intensive help to the economic life of the
villagers. These new scholars'' being local men were
able to gather and give the information necessary for the
National Association to formulate their projects. At first
the farmers were skeptical as to the ability of these men
from the National Association to help them agriculturally.
However, as a friendly gesture 15 mow of lan to them for an agricultural experiment. These men went
ahead with this 15 mow and adapted their technical
knowledge, which they had learned from universities in
America, to the work on hand. They made such a good
showing that the following year 100 mow were given to
them. With the manual help of some of the local boys,
they again demonstrated that scientific agriculture could
be adopted in rural China and would produce good crops.
Last summer 1200 mow were given to these experts. The
civil war has interrupted this good work for a while but
the demonstration of the compatibility of labor and
learning and also the efficacy of scientific agriculture was
not made in vain.
While the average farmer is too poor to
Agricultural ^uy agricultural machinery, the greatest need
Machinery the present is the improvement of the
existing implements, without putting the


30
CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 30
cost too far above the purchasing power of the farmers.
Thus an improved water wheel was invented by these
men, which was able to lift twice as much water and at a
smaller cost than the present one. The same approach
was also applied to the problems of crop selection and
improvement of live stock. Instead of introducing foreign
seeds and pure-bred animals, both of which are costly, the
farmers were taught to select locally the best available
stock. In short, a step at a time has proved to be a
most practical and satisfactory method for helping rural
districts.
The second move which was initiated in
Education March, 1928, is the Kiangsu Mass Educational
College Training College at Soochow. This is under
provincial auspices but is directed by experts
from the National Association at Peking. About 300
graduates of normal schools from the 61 hsien took the
competitive entrance examinations. About half of them
were admitted. To complete the course of the Training
College takes two years, divided into four semesters. The
first and third semesters will be spent in the college and
the second and fourth in their respective home hsien for
practical work. This is the first of the provincial training
colleges for mass education and marks the beginning of
governmental efforts on a large scale to fight against
illiteracy in China.
As one meets and talks with the leaders
Effort260115 of the National Association of Mass Edu-
cation, one is impressed with an esprit de
corps among them and a sort of religious fervor in their
work. There has been a shortage of funds and the leaders
have been willing to cut their own salaries, although none
of them can afford to do so. They might have obtained
funds through political sources but they have preferred to
adhere to the popular character of the Association. The
problems of a patriot in paths of peace are often more
difficult and longsuffering than those of war.
The Good Roads Movement, an organiza-
Good Roads j.-on ^^ immense future possibilities, had a
very humble beginning. It was formed in 1921 by a


CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES
31
number of prominent Chinese. At that time there was
probably less than 100 li of improved roads in all China
outside of the foreign concessions and leased territories.
To date over 13,000 miles have all been built, through the
influence of the Movement, by the provincial governments,
the Ministry of Communication and privately.
, Being an organization of individuals
Road**1 working for the promotion of good roads, it
Campaign short existence of six years carried
on effectively an educative campaign through
writings, lectures and exhibits, and has won the support
of the people in general. Its four-fold program is
especially worthy of attention and has been carried out
practically m a number of provinces. The movement
endeavors to induce the military authorities to utilize the
soldiers for road building, it encourages people to build
roads for special purposes with their own resources, it
agitates for adequate governmental appropriations for road
construction and finally it stands for doing away with
city walls as obstacles to vehicular communication. Be-
sides its educative value, the movement actually has a
membership enrolment of 122,000.
The Good Roads Movement has thus far
Roads^'' Gd Slicceeded in selling the idea to the people.
With this growing understanding on the part
of the public and with continuous cultivation on the
part of the organization, the future possibilities for the
movement are immense. Whether they will be used for
the good of the people or ignored for some baffling goddess
of glory is up to the political and military leaders to
answer.
A great deal of charitable work cannot
WorkntJlrOPIC come under heading of constructive enter-
prises. At best they carry on relief measures
and are often pauperising. The writer visited several
orphanages under both public and private auspices in the
last few months. They all aimed to give their charges an
education of primary grade as well as some suitable
handicraft. In practice, however, handicraft training


32
CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 32
requires money and men and is therefore costly, while a
primary school teacher is paid a very small salary and can
look after two score or more of students. Consequently at
least half of the orphanages visited follow the line of least
resistance and pay very little attention to handicrafts.
Many golden opportunities are being wasted in some
orphanages for constructive work in training the orphans
to be not only literate but also, by far the more important,
useful and independent men and women.
There is another special form of philan-
Work tor thropy which deserves our consideration.
e It is the Chinese Mission to Lepers. There
have been leper homes for many years in Kwangtung,
Fukien, Chekiang, Kiangsu, Shantung, Hupeh, Kansu,
and Yunnan, established by Protestant missionaries and
Catholic fathers. Only as recently as January, 1926, the
Chinese Mission to Lepers was formed by leading Christians
in Shanghai. Its purpose is many-fold; to inform the
Chinese people of the dangers of leprosy and of the new
possible cure; to strengthen existing leper asylums and
to cultivate the social responsibility of the Chinese towards
the support and medical care of the lepers for the ultimate
riddance of China of leprosy.
This Mission has employed a general
Publicity secretary who has in his travels done a
considerable amount of publicity work. A
great deal of interest has been roused among
Christian school students, especially the girl students,
and also among church members. A campaign for
adequate funds is being planned and only awaits an
opportune time. This fight against leprosy is not only
for the protection of the public through segregation; but
with the recent discovery of the chaulmoogra oil treatment,
th.ere has come a ray of light and hope to this most
hopeless class of people. This movement certainly
deserves the whole-hearted support of the Chinese people.
The above represents some of the con-
u ure structive works afoot. They are really lost
in the immensity of China. But one cannot help taking


constructive enterprises
33
heart when one views the perspective with understanding
eyes. As one sees the mighty oak in an acorn and the
man in a child, so do we see that out of these humble
beginnings great things may be realized. These enter-
prises, after all, are the manifestations of a new spirit
in Young China, a spirit of adventure, initiative and
experiment.


CHAPTER III
STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA*
Eleanor M* Hinder
Chinese women alone can reveal to the
women of other Pacific countries the inner
Consciousness . .
significance ot the happenings as the woman-
hood of their country emerges into a consciousness of
its unity and potentiality. But western women, resident
in China, experienced in the women's movement,
sympathetically observing trends and events, may have
the temerity to attempt an outline of some of the historical
features of the Chinese women's movement, and may
further do what Chinese women alone might hesitate to
doindicate where and how a Chinese women's movement
might make a contribution to international women's
movements. Cordial understanding and sympathetic rela-
tions exist as between organized Chinese and foreign
women's groups in Shanghai, as is evidenced by the
membership of three Chinese women's groups within the
Joint Committee of Shanghai Women's organizations, and
the participation of Chinese women in international
women's clubs in other cities of China.
The twentieth century has seen a change
Activities sP^iere activity of an increasing
number of Chinese women. Passing from a
condition in which they confined themselves to the ad-
ministration of the home and the affairs of the family
no mean task for the woman-head of a household when
the complexity and size of the Chinese family is realized
Chinese women are now concerning themselves with the
problems of their communities and their nation. Their
activities are demonstrated in the fields of the professions,
notably in education and in medicine: in social work: and,
*This article was prepared originally as a contribution to the
Pan Pacific Women's Conference, Honolulu, 1928.


STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA
35
in latter days, in relation to government. The fact that
there has not existed in China any essential assumption of
the inferiority of woman in her relation with man, even
though there has been, in the past, sharp demarcation
of their spheres of activity, is significant for the new
era. As stable political conditions develop, Chinese women
will be accorded equality with men much more easily than
this is conceded to have taken place in some European
countries Facts such as these have their importance in a
consideration of the modern place of Chinese women in
Pacific affairs.
Historically it may be stated that, with the
Eflofts"^011^7 cominS of western influence to China, and
the opening of mission schools, emphasis was
laid upon the education of women and girls as upon that
of men. Consequent upon this the twentieth century has
seen, from its opening, the emergence of Chinese women
into new fields. In 1901 the first Chinese magazine
advocating women's rights was published in Tokyo, Japan,
by a Chinese woman. China, then still under Manchu
rule, had many secret societies, and women, graduated
from new schools, had their share in the planning or
discussion of political affairs. With the first Revolution-
ary Movement in 1911, women began to be active in their
demands for suffrage, equal rights in education, for
revision of marriage laws, and the prohibition of the slave
custom and concubinage. This first aggressive group was,
obviously, small. They failed to get any one of these
issues written into the Provisional Constitution of China.
They were successful, however, in having their suffrage
claim recognized, but through a technicality in the draft-
ing of the bill, it received final consent without the
inclusion of the necessary ideograph. This only served to
make them realize the necessity for a large coordination of
the power of womaneducated concerning these issues.
This incident was not taken by them to signify that they
would have a Jong and hard fight to achieve their ends.
Their hopes seemed to find justification in the early
election of several women to the Legislature in Kwangtung
Province, though their term was cut short by political


36
STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA 36
changes. The Suffrage Associations which this period
brought into existence subsequently languished. As is
frequently the case in Chinese women's organizations,
they continue to exist while their functioning is in
abeyance, to revive when the need recurs.
s rffa In 1921, when the Constitution of Kwang-
tung Province was being drafted women
leaders in Canton petitioned for provincial suffrage: on
March 29, of that year, seven hundred women paraded,
demanding their rights. They failed to achieve a provin-
cial vote but were granted municipal suffrage. When,
also in 1921, the province of Hunan drew up its constitu-
tion, a woman was elected provincial representative; she
subsequently sat with other members in the National
Parliament in Peking. Provincial constitutions of Clie-
kiang and Szechwan, prior to the northern advance of the
Southern Army and the establishment of the Nationalist
Government along the Yangtze Valley, both granted
women equal franchise with men, though no elections
were held.
E j,. The policy of the Kuomintang, which is
the policy of the Nationalist Government, as
adopted at the Third (Extraordinary) Plenary Session of
the Central Executive Committee, with delegates present
from all Provincial Committees, in Canton on October
1926, is definite with regard to women:
" Article 44: Position of Women. Legally, political-
ly, economically, educationally and socially, women are
to be the equals of men." In 1927 the Hankow Govern-
ment issued an order, carrying out the principles involved
in this article to the effect that, pending promul-
gation of definite laws relating to the status of women,
resolutions which were in preparation for submission to a
people's conference should serve as guides in decisions of
cases involving women in the High Courts in Hunan,
Kwangtung and Kwangsi. The resolutions referred to
make mention of other matters than women's suffrage
rights: they are implicit as to their equality and declare
the slave trade and concubinage illegal, and indicate the


STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA
37
intention to reform marriage laws and give women the
right to inherit. In the revision of China's Criminal Code
the Nationalist Government at Nanking, in March 1928,
gave indication of a growing sense of responsibility toward
women by promulgating a decree raising the age of consent
from 10 to 14 years and assuming the age of majority to
be 16.
Student Effort bjec^ve Chinese women has not
yet been obtained, for so far China has been
unable to consider the problems of political reconstruction.
In the meantime, it must be realized that women students
in China have played an important part in the struggle
for emancipation. During the years since the 1911
Revolution, the whole student group, both men and
women, held an importance not known by students in any
other country. Politics, not learning, was their chief
concern. Hence, it is not surprising that, in the summer
of 1922, two women's movements were organized in which
women students in Peking had a major partthe Woman's
Suffrage Association and the Women's Rights League.
In ten provinces branches of these, working essentially for
the same ends, were formed. In 1926 and 1927 in the
Yangtze Valley; the personnel of these organizations was
active in the extraordinary participation of women in the
revolutionary movement.
In other than political and student groups,
Organizations ^riese women are also finding expression.
Clubs, as known m the West, are as yet
few in number: but social service organizations have a
strong personnel. The Y.W.C.A. of China is the out-
standing women's organization ; it has city associations in
13 cities and 90 student associations. Its concern with
the issues of the day is significant for Chinese women, as
well as its pursuance of a steady policy of education
among them in problems related to the home: these make
it an organization of great importance. Many Chinese
women, who are acknowledged leaders, owe their capacity
to their training in the employed or volunteer service of
this organization. It may justly claim to be the principal
adult education movement for Chinese women, and its


38
STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA 38
membership of 12,000 makes it a potential force in China.
Its program is designed to be adapted to changing needs
and can thus meet demands made upon it by changing
circumstances.
The W. C. T. U. of China, though of a
Re orm more restricted range of interest and frankly
aiming at reform, is with courage tackling large social
problems in Chinaopium smoking, plurality of wives,
girl slavery, and the problem of beggars in Shanghai. Its
membership is approximately 10,000. It has also been an
instrument demonstrating to Chinese women the potential
force they wield in organized form.
It is probable that the greatest influence of
Suction11** Chinese women is shown in the educational
institutions of the country. The emergence
of institutions, of college grade and of western type, where
Chinese women students congregate, and where Chinese
women have equal opportunity with men for appointment
to the faculty, places great possibilities in the hands of
these women. Latter days have seen the assumption of
final control in schools and in colleges by women edu-
cationalists, which is indicative of the influence they
may exert.
The coming of large scale industry to China
Industry bas meant' aggregation of large numbers
of women in modern factories in some of the
port cities. This, as in the West, has been the precursor
to mass action arising out of and contributing to a class
consciousness. In 1926 and 1927, in the days of the
activity following the nationalist advance in the Yangtze
valley, these groups of industrial women participated in
parades, demonstrations and strikes, which point to the
emergence of a labor movement among Chinese women.
But it has to be realized that these phases of activity were
political,efforts consciously aiming at political ends,
by leaders not of the women workers themselves. Though
it is recognized that many strikes were inspired by eco-
nomic demands, and were not Apolitical in their expressed
aim, it is also realized by those who know the Chinese
women workers that they have little or no understanding,


STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA
39
as yet, of the power of group action, and of the labor
movement" in general. There are practically no women
labor leaders. At the same time Chinese women have
had experience in mass action which has taught them
much; and it is probable that the next twenty years will
see the rise of women leaders within the labor movement
who will create out of the present unfocussed stirrings a
more coherent group sense.
It is obvious that the demand for the
Women service of Chinese women leaders within
organizations, aiming at political and social
ends, is very great. The comparative fewness of them, and
the enormousness of their tasks mean that, from the sincere
Chinese woman, much is demanded: indeed, she frequently
feels that these demands are more than she can meet. Not
the least of the facts which concern more thoughtful leaders
is the loosening of older forms of social custom without the
understanding of the necessity for creating new safeguards.
There are, in consequence, extremely difficult situations
known in those schools and colleges which have adopted
co-education, and in the larger cities where modern dance
halls have begun to open. More compelling still is the
tremendous problem of the ignorance of the majority of
people in China, the insanitary conditions of living and
their degrading poverty. So great is the concern of
responsible women for these and other weighty issues that
they feel the necessity for complete concentration upon
them to the exclusion of other things, even, if need be, to
the exclusion of participation in international gatherings.
This decade has, however, seen thern rep-
Co^erattoT1 resented at several such gatherings. The In-
r ternational Federation of University Women,
International Women's Suffrage Alliance, International
Federation of Working Women, World's Y.W.C.A., and
the Institute of Pacific Relations, have all had Chinese
women delegates. They are being called, with other Pacific
women, to the Pan-Pacific Women's Conference. They
realize, despite their preoccupation with domestic issues
within China, that China in 1928 is of vital interest to the
world; that China has been in the forefront of the


40 status ok women in modern china
world's thinking, and that Chinese women must seize every
opportunity to interpret to the world the hopes they enter-
tain for China. They realize fully that in an international
conference, Chinese women of good standing are their
country's best emissaries toward an understanding of their
country's aims. If it has been necessary and valuable to
have contacts in Europe, in international gatherings in the
past, it is equally vital to have Pacific contacts. In the
words of one Chinese woman "lsome of us know American
women: but though Japan is closer to us than America,
we know fewer Japanese women. We know nothing of
Latin America or of the southern hemisphere. Chinese
women need the Pan-Pacific Women's Conference and the
opportunity it gives for knowing other Pacific women."
Foreign women residents in China, privi-
Contributions ]eged tQ knQW an(j WQrk wifch Chinege women,
know also that they have much to give such a conference.
The very honest facing of their country's problems; the
very courage which it needs to face their overwhelming
difficulties and to evolve a plan which can scarcely begin
to make an impression upon such enormous issues; the
very poise that long centuries of culture have brought to
Chinese women, coming, in the finest of them, to their
rescue in a day otherwise not to be faced with equanimity
these are contributions of Chinese women which other
Pacific women yearn to have the opportunity to receive.


PART II
RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
CHAPTER IV
CURRENT RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
C, S. Mfao
Introduction orc^er to understand "current religious
thought" in China, it is necessary to know
the situations or problems that stimulate religious thought.
For this purpose a brief account of the problems or
situations that are confronting religious institutions in
China is apropos.
First, the anti-religious movement. Under
Problems ^ the influence ot' Communism, this has taken
on new impetus. Religion is superstitious.
It is anti-scientific, and therefore retards progress. It
ought to be non-existent in the modern world. Temples
should be confiscated, and monks, being parasites, should
be compelled to work. Christianity is specially attacked
by the movement, because it is regarded as a tool of
western imperialism and capitalism. In many places
the attacks appear not merely in placards and writings,
but also in violence. Since party purification set in,
although communistic theories have been repudiated and
open violence has been prohibited by the Government, yet
there still exists as an under-current an anti-Christian
and anti-religious spirit, as revealed now and then in the
" Republican Daily News and other papers.
Second, the Revolutionary Movement that embodies
the aspirations of Dr. Sun. At the beginning this had good
prospects of making rapid conquest of the whole country,
but it was checked by personal strife and splits in the
party. Anyhow, the revolutionary movement is much


42
RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
more than a local happening or a party affair. It is the
national tide of new aspirations. So the position of
religious institutions is hereby challenged. Are they
for or against the revolutionary movement? Will they
participate in the movement? Will they reject or accept
the Three Principle-;? Will the ( hristian Church join the
movement for the abolishment of unequal treaties?
Third, this movement calls for government
R^ratifin r restoration of all private schools. Both the
of Educational .. .. f., ,
Rights northern and southern government regula-
tions do not permit religion as a required
subject. The regulations of course contain more than
that about which Christian educational leaders are greatly
concerned. Facing them there are such questions as:
Are government requirements in harmony with the
spirit of religious liberty as given in the constitution?
Should the Christian schools register? If so, how can their
Christian character be best preserved ?
Having attempted to state briefly the
Current situations and problems confronting religious
Religious . .. .. i , i ,
Thought institutions in China, let us now seek to
define current religious thought as stimulated
by these problems and situations. The limits of this
article allow only the barest of outlines of what Bud-
dhists and Protestant Christians are thinking now. Other
religious bodies, such as the Taoists and Confucianists,
either have not yet been awakened or their thinking is not
known to the public.
The Buddhists suffered more than the
Religious Christians in the year 1927. In many places
Amoi?ht ^ey were very treated. But some
Buddhists them still think that since there is no
hope for the Buddhists themselves to initiate
reforms, it is necessary, therefore, to rely upon external
force-, whether these are their friends or not. Their
people will anyway receive certain stimuli and, therefore,
an opportunity for improvement. Furthermore, they are
convinced that the foundation of Buddhism is not temple
property, so that even with the possibility of losing some


43 RELIGIOUS THOUGHT

of their property, they see no reason for pessimism: on the
contrary, they deem this probably a very good thing for
Buddhism.
Buddhism is not anti-revolutionary. Its
Principles teachings have no conflict with the Three
Principles. On the contrary, Buddhism in-
volves the Three Principles. Therefore, Buddhists should
not only participate in the revolutionary movement, but
also spread Buddhist teachings among the people in order
to hasten the manifestation of the Three Principles.
The Buddhists have felt the urgent need of
Etoddhism reforming their own association. They think
their greatest enemy is not the anti-religious
people but they themselves, for what the former have
criticized and wanted to destroy is not Buddha and his
teachings but the bad monks and their superstitious
practices. 80 they believe that the future of Buddhism in
China depends upon the Buddhists themselves. Th^y
desire, therefore, to have a revival of their own mission
and to reform themselves.The following is regarded as a
minimum program of reformation:
1. Restrict people from becoming monks.
Program of Those who are not mature, who are lazy, or
Reformation . i j ... , . ,
who want to utilize Buddhism as a means to
an end, should not be allowed to become monks.
2. Restrict people from taking vows. Those who lack
good character or who have no understanding of Buddhist
teachings should not be allowed to take vows.
3. Stop the practices of saying mass for money, and
participation in funeral processions. Such practices tend
to commercialize Buddhism and degrade the morale of
monks. In order to be self-supporting the monks should
do farming or other kinds of manual labor.
4. Educate the monks They are too ignorant, they
need general education as well as special education on
Buddhism. For this purpose more Buddhist schools
should be opened.
5. Preach the true teachings of Buddha to the public.
Buddhanize social ethics, economics and politics.


44
RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
6. Organize the Buddhists. No longer should each
temple look after its own interests only. Each should look
after the common welfare, and therefore all should be
bound together by some association. It is also suggested
that for the best interests of Buddhism all temple property
should be held and controlled by a central committee.
7. Do more philanthropic work and participate in the
Peoples' Movement.
Like Buddhists, Christians are labelled as
Relfgfotts superstitious by the anti-religious people.
Amon Buddhists have certain advantages over
Protestants Christians. Their religion is not regarded as
having anything to do with foreign im-
perialism or capitalism. Christianity has been under
suspicion and the anti-Christians, by using the text-proof
method, have magnified popular suspicion. This has com-
pelled the Chinese Christians to do their own hard thinking.
They have gone directly to Jesus and knocked at His door.
The following are some of the most important results of
their ^earchings:
1. They are convinced that Jesus and His
Christian teachings have no relation at all to Im-
Ideas perialism and Capitalism.
2. They believe that Christianity possesses
a revolutionary significance.
3. They have come to see that the Church does not
need any special privileges or treaty protection.
4. They believe that religious liberty is a human
right. They also believe that in accordance with the
characteristics of their own people and a broad scientific
attitude towards the modern world, they can enjoy religious
liberty even though the Constitution contains no clause
referring thereto.
5. They think that the personality of Christ does
not conflict with the Kuomintang, but will serve as the
foundation of the success on which the Kuomintang
depends.
6. They think that the greatest contribution of
Christianity to China either in faith, leadership, or
service, comes through Christian education: a large


religious thought
o
45
majority believe that it is the right thing to register
Christian schools.
, They are divided on the relation of
and PoiiHcSnlty Christianity to politics. One group believes
that Christianity should have nothing to do
with politics. Christians, especially those who are set
apart for the Christian ministry, should abstain from
discussing political issues. Another group holds that
whilst Christians should join a political party arid be
active in politics, the Church should stand aloof. Her
voice is a voice judging right or wrong, advocating justice
and denouncing sins. The other group thinks, that
Christianity regards itself as a unit, that ought to make
proper contributions towards political life. Therefore,
they say that Christianity must duly recognize the
function of politics and furnish the motives of good
thinking and provide the highest and the best principles
for political activities. Since Christians are also citizens,
they must participate in those movements that tend to
reform society, to improve economic conditions, and
restore national rights, in order to fulfil their civic
obligations.
They recognize that what the anti-
factoryatlS" Christians have tried to criticise and attack is
Christian nt Christ but the bad churches and bad
Factors Christians; so the crucial problem before
Christianity in China to-day is neither the
problem of reorganization, or the poverty of Chinese
Christians, their weakness in theological thinking, nor
the participation of the Church in political movements.
The crucial problem before Christianity to day is the lack
of first-hand religious experience on the part of Christians.
To meet their need, they should deepen their spiritual
life. Some think that a purification in the Church similar
to that in the Kuomintang is desirable. But all believe
in the need for self-discipline, the expression in life of
spiritual realities, and the enrichment of congregational
worship. It is only in this way that the Church can have
a new life. It is also only in this way that Christianity
can exist in China.


46
religious thought:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Hai Cho Yin (A Buddhist Monthly), 1927-1928
The Chinese Recorder, 1927-1928
The Educational Quarterly, Vol. IV, No. 1 (Special
issue on Party Education.)
The Wen She Monthly, 1927-1928
The Truth and Life, 1927-1928
The True Light Review, 1927-1928
Annual Report of National Christian Council of China,
1927-1928


CHAPTER V
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN CHINA
T. L. Shen
1. The Problem
The impact of western culture during the
A New ra ]agt century upon China, with its momentous
changes, has brought with it two contributing factors to
Chinese life; namely, science and democracy. It is not
so much the detailed features of science and democracy
that count in the progress of evolution and revolut.on
obtaining in the country, as the underlying and prevailing
spirit of quest and adventure which characterizes the
modern race as a whole. Embodied in this spirit are
the virtues of truth, freedom and courage, all of which
are increasingly emphasized by young China.
Liberty as a virtue is not entirely alien to
in China Chinese mind; it is, however, being
thrown under a new light as the result of
concrete emphasis thereon by western science and de-
mocracy. It now emphasizes two conditions; namely,
exaltation of the individual and equality of opportunity.
In the light of these two principles China has to face many
great changes and adjustments. She has to answer the
question whether citi/ens, individually or collectively, are
to enjoy the freedom of belief, the freedom of association,
the freedom of speech and of the press, etc. The most
vital and delicate aspect of this question is the freedom of
belief or disbelief as it is the taproot of all others.
# A very common and erroneous view is that
AUitud^IneSe consiJerin& Chinese culture as disregarding
the fundamental virtue of religious liberty.
The correct view is rather that the traditional Chinese
attitude has been one of negative acceptance. That is tant-
amount to saying that the Chinese have been accustomed


48
religious liberty
to take for granted that one's belief is not to be interfered
with unless it implies or actually brings harm to others.
The Chinese temper is extremely pragmatic; therefore
an academic emphasis on a religious liberty that has
no politico-social significance is almost inconceivable.
Furthermore the average Chinese attitude towards religions
belief is always skeptical; hence there is no felt need to
insist on something which is only a symptom of bondage.
It looks as if the average Chinese feels that religious
liberty is only needed where dogmatism and proselytism
persist and flourish.
One effect of the great cultural impact
Between East of the West Up0n China is the dilution of
and West much of China's pragmatism and skepticism.
China must now adapt herself to new condi-
tions incidental upon a sweeping tide of human progress.
With regard to the institution of religious liberty the
Chinese attitude must likewise be one of adaptation, not
of passive acquiescence. For in the absence of an accepted
ideal, the Chinese people have long been following their
own practice in the limited spheres of action and inter-
action. What they now want is a definite and clear-cut
ideal which will help to further not to limit the old policy
of non-interference in religious beliefs. It behooves the
makers of new China to see that certain aspects of western
genius in this regard are assimilated in order to fulfil the
limited aim of the traditional practice.
The recent challenge of the nationalist
Whith-fBounc?? revolutin seems to demand an acceleration
of every new process now in evidence. But
its destructive phases have, on the contrary, often meant
suspension or even retardation of progress. Those whose
interests are vitally concerned are either impatient or
dissatisfied. So we have been hearing particular com-
plaints on the inability of the government to protect
religious liberty. We need to realize that the work of
reconstruction can not be begun until the people have
mastered the national situation, which practically means
getting hold of themselves, Then will come the period of
regularization and standardization. In bringing up any


RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
49
question which has to do with the destiny of Chinese
culture an allowance of "time" is always necessary if a
satisfactory answer is to be found. China must meet the
requirements of the modern world, but she must also be
permited to meet them with her own resources and plans.
No one has the right to ask religious liberty of China if he
himself sticks to a system that makes the successful
working out of the principle extremely difficult if not
altogether impossible.
2. Historical Status of Religious Liberty in China
The first reason why in the past religious
R 1 tf nshf s ^berty China has not been explicitly em-
e phasized is that the Chinese people observed
group virtues or virtues pertaining to the fixed relationships
of a patriarchal social system. Loyalty to causes outside
those groups was rarely called for. Conscious piety, there-
fore, was directed toward parents and ancestors only The
average individual was never enabled or encouraged to
venture with faith into unseen and intangible realms.
Popular belief in an ethical order greatly overshadowed
the need for liberty of religious faith.
With regards to personalistic culture, the
Mean'' Chinese people .have always striven to main-
tain the balance of the inward moral forces.
Any dominant issue which tended to destroy this equili-
brium was considered as a usurpation. In this way a
harmony of vie :vs was established which concerned itself
neither with the conquest of nor tHe surrender of one's
personal view. That naturally made subjective assertion
almost impossible, hence the absence of dogmatism and
proselytism. This is another reason why it has not been
felt necessary to emphasize religious liberty in China.
Another reason why the Chinese did not
^Freedom positively favor the idea of religious liberty
is due to their allegiance to the virtue
"Shu" or sympathy, which is the reciprocal virtue to
loyalty. It was interpreted as similar to the Christian
teaching Do to others that which you would have others


50
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 50
do to you." When translated into action it resulted in
very little doctrinal prejudice and an almost entire absence
of religious persecution. Fur in any case one would be
willing to listen to the presentation of any belief provided
that adequate explanation was given in an unbiased way.
When people took such a tolerant attitude toward one
another, is it any wonder that the principle of religious
liberty came to be merely a luxurious ornament?
Again take the question of "Tao" or the
tToa^'CTao',Way' which is the Chinese equivalent ol
religion. The traditional concept of Tao was
that it represented that Greatest Common Measure in the
universe, which while it gave unity to life, did not lead to
uniformity. The manifestations of Tao were Teh or the
virtues, which always varied according to their conditions
of growth. Differences in religious belief were only its
natural consequences. That those differences should be
allowed to set up barriers between people who were
essentially sharing the same unity of life was a situation
absurd to the Chinese. This fittingly accounts for their
ability to assimilate and harmonize the three great religions
of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Moreover reli-
gion to the Chine.-e actually meant "living" the way
which included the processes of personal cultivation and
attainment. That this should be left with the individual
without interference from law or convention was also an
obvious result.
Perhaps the most interesting point about
Re?Mon hi Chinese history is that since remote antiquity
China the family clan has been so powerful that it
has assumed practically all the functions
of the state and the church. So the idea of a church
being a separate entity from the politico-social union was
entirely alien. The attempts of the state to install some
church authority of its own (for example during the Han
and T'ang dynasties) were met with general disapproval
and soon proved failures. The emperor worshiped Heaven
not in the hope of fostering a national religion but rather
in order to show his affiliation with the masses and their
common practices. This disorganization of religious


52 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
51
activities in China has constantly discouraged all attempts
to centralize religious systems. The resulting lack of
enthusiasm for preaching, persuasion and evangelism on
the part of the people again offered little occasion for the
claim of rel'giou* liberty which too frequently seems to
have been intended for the preacher rather than for the
subject of conversion.
"Worshf "of The universal "worship" of Confucius in
Confucius China, however, often suggests to casual
observers the existence of a great religious
institution, unless they are led to see something of deeper
significance, namely that the "worship" was more for
the purpose of keeping up an esprit de corps among the
intelligentsia who were the governing body in China, at
least until the recent introduction of the dollar and the
gunboat civilization from the West. This "worship" was
really politico-educational in nature. As such, however,
it involved neither compulsory nor prohibitory measures.
It is to be noted that the worship" of Confucius is
being gradually eliminated with the advent of the new
age; but his memory will doubtless continue to be fresh
in the minds of people, particularly as his teaching of
Ta Tung or universal ism has been taken as the basis of
the nationalist revolution. In this teaching he pictured
a socialistic state in which freedom and equality would
be incidental virtues of society, and would need no hard
and fast advocacy or requirement.
S read of How Buddhism was introduced into China
Buddhism became indigenized constitutes a more
important study than the "worship" of
Confucius. In all respe< ts Buddhism was more of a
religion in every sense of the term. It made its entrance
in the Han dynasty and later flourished in the T'ang
dynasty. It was due to the voluntary sacrifices of its
searchers that the. great work of interpretation and
adaptation was done with such marvelous success. It
resisted the potential indifferentism of the people, not by
attacking the established systems of Confucianism and
Taoism, but by supplementing them with a. unique,
message of its ownparticularly through its followers


52
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 52
living the monastic life which meant the closest approxi-
mation of the way of Buddha. Thus Buddhists won
! the social sanction of the time and achieved liberty
i individually and collectively not by petitions and demands
but by the actual merit of their own faith and conduct.
However, in Chinese history there are numerous instances
of jealousy and resentment on the part of the orthodox
Confucianists against the Buddhist invasion, for example
the fundamentalist position of Han Yii as shown in his
thesis on Tao. But his dogmatism and intolerance were
not at all representative of other well-known scholars and
besides he did very little in influencing Chinese skepticism
one way or the other. In so far as Buddhism was being
popularly transplanted over against the Chinese religious
genius of assimilation and adaptation, it has degenerated
into a religion of mercenary superstitions. The essence
of Buddhist faith, however, a great deal of which has
already sunk into the depths of the Chinese soul, still
commands genuine interest and shows signs of steady
revival.
3. Recent Trends in the Country
After a brief survey of the historical status
of'the^CId religius liberty in China, we now turn
Regime to the attitude of the present generation
upon whom the solution of the problem
mainly depends. Probably the most noticeable tendency
now is to give up the traditional policy of contentment or
watchful waiting. The Renaissance has already tired the
signal shot for the onward race, and has started a chain
of inquiries and experiments leading to the adventurous
unknown. We shall thus not stop at a negative acceptance
of anything, nor with taking something for granted. In
matters of faith we shall follow the lead of truth and
courage. This naturally amounts to a positive assump-
tion of the freedom of belief and the abandonment of the
Confucian system as a whole, as this made too great an
appeal for the slavish remembrance and glorification of
the past. Recently many young people have taken hold
of new religious appeals in an adventurous way. Still


52 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
53
others have been led to ponder on the problems of religion;
and pondering often means believing more than halfway.
Another tendency is that of seeking some
Trutf rational basis for contemporary beliefs,
particularly the scientific and the religious.
Shortly after the emergence of the Renaissance there was
a prolonged discussion on science and religion, participated
in by most of the leading intellectuals of China. It failed
to enlist popular response owing to the lack of authority
on the subject; so ifc was followed by a series of anti-
religious manifestations based on mere external and
sensational considerations. But the leading intellectuals
refused to take part in this latter movement because of
their respect for the religious liberty of others. It must
be said, however, that to an appreciable extent the anti-
religionists have been genuine in their search for the truth.
j j Most of them simply opposed dogmatism and proselytiza-
tion, which are hindrances to truth anyway: practically all
of them made attacks not on personal religion but on its
institutional features, which often justify and invite
criticism. The recent drift of youth away from the
organized church is an indication of this tendency.
A third tendency in China is embarkation
Chanes on a com Pre^ensive scheme of reforms. To
carry out that scheme one must grope with
some general hypotheses based on observation and ex-
perience. From these there may develop some convictions
which in turn will call for reckless experiments in all
spheres of life. Modern idealism is thus literally trans-
lated into action by the younger generation. The history
of recent changes in China, educational, political, economic,
etc., is really a record of a nation-wide groping after
freedom. This struggle has gradually passed from the
superficial aspects to the deeper realms of the realities of
life. For instance the persecution which the Kuomintang
people long suffered has led them to value more and more
freedom not only of action but of belief. The forces of the
i revolution will, therefore, ultimately cause the dogmatism
1 and intolerance, that have been imported from the West,
J to die a natural death. In the meantime reform move-


52
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 54
ments have sprung up in religious circles, which will grow
in strength, in order to cope with the momentous changes
that have taken place outside them.
4. The Two Critical Trends
u f9 Of the radical anti-religionists in China
Natlonafist^ ^0Se Ques^on or deny tJie principle of
religious liberty are of two types: namely,
the 44 narrow nationalists and the communists. Both of
them have tried to impose on the people a set of alien
beliefs and standards and in so far as they denounce
liberty of belief, they are not only in diametrical opposi-
tion to the Chinese genius but actually moving to defeat
their own purpose. If they would succeed in transplating
a political order they must do it either by negatively
accepting the principle of liberty in course of time or by
adopting a policy of high-handed coercion in order to
suppress it altogether.
4( f9 It should be noted that the "narrow"
' Narrow nationalist is not affiliated with the Kuomin-
Nationalfst , tt ..
anri tang tor he believes m narrow nationalism
Kuomfntang instead of the Three People's Principles as
taught by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. This movement
is responsible for a great deal of the agitation against
foreign and missionary education. One ground of the
attack is that foreign missionary educators have often made
use of their own religious liberty to undermine that of their
prospective converts. That this only represents an in-
consistent denial can be easily shown by the fact that they
require their own adherents to declare general disbelief
in religion, which practically amounts to the very thing
they try to discredit. Incidents that show how some
prominent members of the Young China Society early
protested againt the above requirement being put into its
constitution are interesting indications of the same struggle
all over the country.
The following are the usual arguments of
AgafrtentS "narrow?? nationalist against religion:
Religion 1- It exploits Chinese culture (denational-
ization) ,


52 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
55
2. It interferes with China^s sovereignty (especially
the educational),
3. It encourages division and disunion among the people.
The communist, as we all know, is a
Communist participant in an international class struggle.
His main misgiving as regards religion is
that it forms a part of the scheme of oppressive capitalism.
In other words his opposition is largely directed against
contemporary religions as such, not so much against their
more disinterested implications. On the question of
religious liberty he seems to maintain the position that
so long as it is being used by the capitalist class to suit
their own convenience, it should be abolished root and
branch. As a result there would be no freedom except that
of the proletariat. That this position is also inconsistent
is quite*obvious; for this conception of liberty violates the
two essential conditions under which the virtue of liberty
must function; namely, the exaltation of the individual
and the equality of opportunity. Furthermore the com-
munist, while attacking religion without his own sphere
of belief, is actually adopting the substitute religion of his
fellow comradesnamely, Marxism. And Marxism as a
religious force is even more intolerant and oppressive
than those other systems which are often so indicted.
That this antagonism toward religion is more a matter
of exigency than national desire may be proved by the
attitude taken by one of the communist leaders, to the
effect that he sincerely wished to have the great and noble
personality of Jesus and his warmth and richness of
emotion incorporated in the blood of his own people; but
that he felt compelled to condemn his blind followers and
the profiteers of Christianity as related to a capitalistic
system.
( These are the common lines of attack
Attack onSt against religion as made by the communists:
Religion 1- Ifc strengthens the spirit of conserva-
tism,
2. It inculcates superstition,
3. It ministers to a capitalistic order,
4. It supports imperialistic designs,


52
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 56
5. Attempts Toward Clarifying the Issue
Proper Con- The treatment of the subject as given above
ceptfon of should enable the reader to gather some
Religious concrete ideas as to possible steps towards
dtty a proper solution. Let us consider, as the
most important need, the formation of a proper con-
ception of religious liberty; this arises out of the fact
that many of the difficulties spring from wrong notions or
wrong emphases. To-day few seem to realize that religious
liberty is a habitual virtue of civilized society and that it
is something more than just a method or a technique. It
should, therefore, be the fruit of experience in the inter-
action of per.-onalities rather than a mere process of cold
legalization. It cannot depend on a negative acceptance
of non interference in religious beliefs or on a subjective
assertion of the right of proselytization. It properly rests
on the golden mean between the two. For the best way
to deal with Chinese skepticism is to assume a liberal
attitude of humility, tolerance, and sympathy. The
person who has given up the quest and adventure of life
has already disqualified himself as an advocate of religious
liberty for China, a nation now undergoing constant, rapid
progress. And those who do thus qualify, have before
them an enviable opportunity of education the task of
helping to enlighten and bring home to the Chinese the
proper conception of religious liberty.
The spirit of tolerance, as a necessary
Adventure accompaniment of true liberty, should carry
us a step further by enabling us to create
and enjoy a corporate quest with people, of varying
religious knowledge and experience. We have only begun
to realize the religious significance of the impact between
East and West; and too often we have purposely shut
our eyes to many side-lights to the truth. For instance
the Chinese conception of Tao, although abstract and
impersonal, really offers a key for the transcendence of
existing artificial barriers to faith. The cultural wealth
and greatness of China have not come by mere chance.
It always behooves seekers after truth to venture into


52 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
57
the depth of the Chin'ese soul to find what has sustained
it and the cause of its survival. The requirement of the
modern world is that men share their best interpretation
of truth in and through a way of fellowship. For the
liberty of mutual understanding and goodwill is the
highest liberty of the modern man; its scope constantly
increases in proportion to the richness of the fellowship.
Our fellowship with people of different
Professed Less ^^h further enable us to realize that
"Professional" the best way of finding the Way or the Truth
Religionists is not by building up isolated systems and
compartments but by reckless ventures in
the heroic practice of one's unique vision, however dim
and obscure it may appear at times. When one really
believes in Jesus and His Way of life, let him immediately
follow Christ and take up His cross! There is no reason
why he should be particularly excited or discouraged by
the presence of any outward system, such as a code which
promises him a liberty of faith that is, in reality, already
his as the inherent right of every human being. A
religion which fails to call out the best in its believers
in just such reckless effort to follow the Truth must be
wrong somewhere. If any reformation is to be started
it should rightly begin with the root of the trouble, which
in this case most people will readily agree is lack of a
real purpose for a living religion instead of any existing
limitations on free worship or preaching. The professional
religionists must turn from parasitic adherents into
sacrificial searchers and bearers of the Truth, then religion
will enjoy a measure of freedom hitherto unknown to
them simply because of their own superstition and
cowardice.
For the adherents of a living religion, the
EvPfIr proclamation of truth becomes a matter of
natural overflow. The early apostles and
saints did not wait for an ideal situation before they began
to spread the Gospel. In a sense the challenge of the
Chinese revolution, with all the inconveniences and
restrictions it has imposed upon religion, offers a crucial
test to the vitality of the church. Now that the church has


52
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 58
been practically deprived of those embarassing weapons,
which Satan once used to tempt Jesus, it is free to
demonstrate an evangelical strength based solely on the
ministry of love. For it is commonly believed that the
persecution which the Church has suffered can, for
the most part, be traced back to the erroneous methods
of a proselytizing evangelism. It is time for believers of
religion to interpret actually the Truth in their own daily
life. Liberty of belief will then be free from the possibility
of defeat!
It should be particularly noted, however,
Ant?tTated ^at a Proselytizing evangelism becomes even
Shackles worse when it is supported by a system
which has derived its existence from the
force of oppression. The war-cry against imperialism
must not be taken too lightly. When moral forces gather
round the banner of Satan, they are at the outset doomed
to failure which foreshadows itself in every obstacle in
the way of their success. If one's liberty can be obtained
by forcing others into subjection, it is itself a hopeless
bondage for all concerned. We should have learned by
this time a lesson from the Buddhist experiment in China.
In the absence of treaty interference it has flourished; and,
is so far as it was transplanted by artificial means, it soon
developed mercenary features which will constitute a
heavy burden for the new Buddhist revival.
, The last but not the least of the steps to
Safeguards11 be taken to pet up ^ligious liberty is to
provide an effective execution of the con-
stitutional clause on religious liberty. When the negative
requirements of the unilateral treaties go once for all, the
positive significance of the constitution will mean more
to all people concerned. This process of regularizing the
Chinese genius in line with modern values is a most
interesting one. China is entering into a more organized
and articulate social life both internally and inter-
nationally. We should not be misled by the experience
of the West to think that China must needs adopt a
national religion. Nevertheless we can be reasonably sure
that young China will be most eager to see her own


RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
59
citizens and those of other friendly nations continue to
enjoy her bountiful spirit of sympathy and tolerance and
to enter into the fullest measure of freedom in all spheres
of quest and adventure.


PART III
CHURCH LIFE
CHAPTER VI
LOSSES AND GAINS OF THE CHURCH IN 1927
Edwin Marx
Viewing the year 1927 as a whole the losses of the
Church have been almost wholly material and institu-
tional; of things which at worst encumbered the Church,
and at best were external, transient, or non-essential.
The gains have been in the realm of the spirit. They
pertain to those aspects of the Christian movement which
are vital, essential, abiding. The losses and suffering
were of the body; the victories and rewards were of
the soul.
In the category of losses it is natural to
ses include the extensive exodus of missionaries;
the sequestration of church and mission properties; personal
property losses, some the result of intentional acts and
others incidental to conditions of war; the interference
with schools, and closing of hospitals; the harrying of
Christians, resulting in suffering of mind and body and in
deaths. The extent of these inroads is difficult to indicate
concretely without entering into more details than space
allows, and also probably trespassing on subjects allotted
to other writers. We must be content here to indicate the
kinds of losses which the Church has sustained, rather
than to specify the details or extent of them. Reference
may be made to the files of the Chinese Recorder for many
statistical and other detailed facts.1
1 For example: Evacuation of Missionaries, 1927: 457, 608;
Schools and Colleges, 233, 453-459, 553; Medical Work, 46ti, 741;
etc., etc.


LOSSES AND GAINS
61
There has been a reduction in the number
Memb shi members, but adequate statistics
Decreases are avaiJabJe. The number of preachers
is diminished, the number of members in the
Yenping Conference, for example, decreased by one-third,
the income from the churches has been cut in half." This
statement by Bishop Welch is typical of reports from
widely scattered sections. It is not yet time to assess the
extent or the significance of these losses, to determine
what proportion are due to deaths, how many of the
missing members have been driven from their localities
by chaotic conditions, what ones are temporariJy absenting
themselves from the church through timidity, and what
percentage have abandoned the church.
Evangelistic efforts and emphasis on expansionthe
winning of additional members,has given place for the
present to those forms of ministry which concern the inner
life of the members and of the institution. 44 Chinese
Christians are digging in.'7
The attempt to catalogue the losses of the
isoyaty Church, reveals how fortunate it has been in
regard to those kinds of loss that bear no compensating
advantages, but leave the body bankrupt indeed; such
as, widespread disloyalty of the members, conspicuous
treachery and corruption, use of positions in the church
for private, seltish ends, and indifference or contempt of
the public toward Christians. Sadly it must be recorded
that there are cases of these sorts. But they are not
relatively numerous nor conspicuous, and they are not
typical of the Church in China.
. In casting up the account of gains, it is
ams fitting to acknowledge first those that are the
direct outcome of the suffering and losses. By the baptism
of fire which they received, many churches were startled
out of their apathy. They were thrown upon their own
resources; they were forced to take stock of their faith,
their convictions, their purposes and their strength. They
were tested in a crucible. Influences which interrupted
the work of missionaries, increased the experience and


62
LOSSES AND GAINS 62
self-confidence of the Chinese members. The seizure and
the destruction of property proved that any special forms
of protection which surrounded foreigners and Chinese
Christians in the past were gone or fast going, and no
artificial barriers separated Christians from the other
people. The Church has suffered and lost on the same
basis as the rest of Chinese society. Had she been spared
the material losses and the mental and spiritual travail
that Chinese people generally were undergoing, she
would stand discredited. She would have saved her life
to lose it.
Along four lines there have been distinct gains.
In deepening spiritual experience. It has
Spiritual been a time of spiritual rebirth, and of
Experience --1.11 " nu
firmer grasp on spiritual values. Chinese
Christians have won a notable victory of the spirit.'' A
Chinese woman writes: This in turn made me
realise that we Christians had not lived a strong enough life.
. The result was that I resolved to deepen my own
spiritual life by living closer to my Savior, and I think that
many of our Christians made the same resolve. ... So now
our Bibles are read more regularly and family prayers are
held in more homes, and we are endeavoring to do more
personal work by winning souls for Christ." From a
manifesto issued by a congregation: "As the aim of the
church is to preach truth and to help society, and its
purpose to achieve a spiritual life and love and to accom-
plish the salvation of the world, we can only work within
this sphere, and are determined not to care for other
things." The quest to discover what are spiritual realities
and how they may be achieved, has been particularly
noted among students. In a number of student centers
voluntary groups loosely organized but eager in the pursuit
of this ideal, have been reported.
In a clearer articulation of faith and aims.
Afrns Under the compulsion of their own inner
needs, and the challenges hurled at them
from without, the Christians of China are entering a new
phase of corporate consciousness. "It (the church) is


LOSSES AND GAINS
63
challenged to make up its own mind and state its own
faith." What is the essential Christian message? In
view of the demands for accommodation to Chinese thought
and customs and objections to the so-called accretions
imported from the churches of the West, what is there in
Christian thought and practise that must not be alienated
nor compromised ? What should be the attitude of a
Christian to his government, to political affairs, to econ-
omic conditions? What is involved in the principle of
religious liberty, and how shall it be realized? What of
the future relations between the Church in China, and the
Churches in the West? How shall the church be organ-
ised, how nurture its members, how propagate itself?
What kind of leadership is required, and how shall it be
produced ?
The atmosphere of China to-day resounds
General'011 with these In the individual's
private study, in the prayerful retreat, in
discussion and study groups, in class-room, in public
forum, in pulpits, in every kind of Christian gathering,
in religious publications, in public manifestoes, in the
secular press, and even in political and state councils,
and in public mass meetings, such questions as those
mentioned above are themes of earnest consideration.
The main significance for the present is not in the
particular quality of the various utterances; nor even
in the conclusionp, for few final conclusions have yet
been reached, although some of them are beginning to
assume form. The significance is in the fact that so
much of the institutional structure and thought forms
of the past have been "shaken down or shifted out of
position," and that Chinese people, both Christian and
non-Christian, are eagerly at work reconstructing in their
own way. It is too early to predict the final results,
but the outlook is hopeful, and to be pessimistic about
the outcome would be to doubt the efficacy of the Spirit
of Truth in the hearts of all people.
In demonstrated vitality and stability.
Stabilityan<* Notwithstanding what is said above about
reconstruction, the church as hitherto con-


64
LOSSES AND GAINS
i
stituted has not been a failure. No other group in this
time of trial and testing in China has proved more
satisfactorily its essential vitality, its ability to carry on
in harmony with its purpose. While its super-structure
has been shaken, the foundation of Christianity has been
firm. What was done by students and faculties at Hwa
Nan College in Foochow, at Ginling College and the
University of Nanking in Nanking, by numerous local
Y. M. C. A.'s throughout the land, by churches throughout
the war-torn areas, by medical workers at the sieges of
Wuchang, Nanchang and Sianfu, are but a few scattered
examples in an epic story which will never all be known.
The record is one of devotion, stedfastness, courage and
resourcefulness probably never surpassed. These tests
have proved the reality of the Church in China as a
going concern.
Witness points in this connection need
to be emphasized, which can only be
mentioned here: the numerical strength of the Church,
claiming a great body of witnessing members in every
walk of life and in all classes of society; and the wide-
spread availability of the Bible.1 The Christian Church
is too firmly established in China ever to be eliminated
or ignored in the future.2
In an enhanced position before the rest
Position of the world- A writer in the International
Review of Missions3 points out among other
encouraging factors, (1) sincere and continued popular
approval of Christianity in China, and (2) recognition
by thoughtful Chinese that Christianity has been a
tremendous force for social as well as for individual
regeneration. The months since the spring of 1927 have
seen the waves of hate and opposition against Christianity
steadily subsiding, and a reaction against the violent,
1 Consult the published reports of the Bible Societies.
2 For a comparison of the condition of the churches in North
China and in Central and South China, see article by Rev. Djang
Fang, in the Chinese Recorder, March, 1928.
3 E. H. Hume, July, 1927. s


LOSSES AND GAINS
65
unreasoning attacks. A manifesto of the Annua] Meeting
of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Kiangsi says in
part:1 44 At the very height of opposition, Bibles can
be sold many times more than in normal times. This
shows people's attitude toward religion." The same
document asserts that the Christian people in the world
are too numerous and too influential for any progressive
movement to succeed without admitting them to participa-
tion. For this reason, the authors of the manifesto
maintain, the revolutionary movement in China cannot
, afford to discriminate against Christians.
, Definite progress has been made toward
LibcftUS clarifying the issue of religious liberty,
although the task has not by any means
been completed.
While the Christian movement has thus
been winning for itself a more assured and
favorable recognition in China, the same has
been true internationally. The world wide attention
that has been focused on some practical applications of
Christian principles, as, for example, in connection with
reparations, the use of force, and international justice,
will reinforce the efforts of Christian workers in China,
and should react favorably on the prestige of the Church.
In the narrower circle of church and
NeedfcT mission relations, the very severity of the
shock sustained has awakened western
Christians to the immensity of the changes in this
country. Nothing less would have concentrated thought
so intently on the affairs in this land, and brought about
so readily the fundamental changes needed in Church
and mission relations. Even yet, 44mission board archives
contain no suitable programs for this situation,"2 but the
events have given a mighty impetus to the needed read-
justments.
1G. R. 1927:473.
2C. R 1927:233, 234.


CHAPTER VII
NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL IN 1927
Henry T. Hodgkin
General Work Much of the work of the National
Christian Council in any year is of a
character which is little, if at all, altered by changing
circumstances. There is a regular output, for example, of
literature, including the Chinese and English Bulletins,
the preparation of yearbooks in the Chinese and English
languages, the publication of a directory of missionaries
and such special pieces of literature as may from time
to time be required in the development of the organization.
Work in 1927 attempting to give a picture of the work
of the Council during 1927, no attempt is
made to summarize activities of this kind. It is not
without significance that the Council was able in the main
to continue such regular work. Special efforts occurring
during the year, such as the work done during the New
Year in what is known as the Week of Evangelism were
certainly handicapped, by conditions of unsettlement in
China, but much regular work was continued, at any rate
for large parts of China, during the year.
The special interest, however, from the
Movement Point of view of the Nafcional Christian
Council, was due to the rapid development
during that year of events in China as the Nationalist
movement swept forward and as it had to grapple with
serious problems. The Church of China is so closely knit
into the life of the nation that it was bound to react to
these very significant national movements and the Council
found its work largely determined by the changes that
were taking place in China and in the thought and
activities of Christian people.


NATIONAL CHBISTIAN COUNCIL
67
The Call ^ c^ose 1926 the Council was
planning to issue widely and follow up
vigorously the 44 Call which came out of the annual
meeting held in October of that year. This was a call to
examine and follow the way of Christ in personal and
social lifea call emphasizing the fundamentally spiritual
nature of the Christian message and at the same time
stressing the necessity of working this message out through
a fearless readjustment of the individual life in accordance
with the example and teachings of Jesus. The Call "
emphasized the implications of discipleship in the home
and in the wider relationships of the Christian. Events
which took place in China at the turn of the year deeply
moved the Christian churches throughout the country and
in many places involved a complete reorganization of
their work to meet the emergency. During the spring
! months thousands of missionaries were withdrawn from
: their stations. In certain sections of the country very acute
anti-Christian movements developed. Some Christian
leaders lost their lives and many were in peril. These
circumstances led to a change of emphasis in the
work of the Council. The witness to Christ was being
borne through persecution and through the facing of
unexpected responsibilities and opportunities. The time
called for specific acts rather than for general counsel.
Steps taken through the Council may be summarized
under a few general headings.
For a while it was difficult to do anything
th'SChttrches fco help the churches which were feeling their
weakness through the evacuation of mission-
aries and the attacks of the anti-Christian movement, but
as time went on, the way seemed to open for the sending
out of Chinese Christians of standing and spiritual power
to a number of centers in different parts of the country.
These men were brought together as far as possible in
Shanghai for preparatory thought and prayer in regard to
this mission, and subsequently visited sixty-five centers
in fourteen provinces, bringing a message of spiritual
comfort and counsel to many who were feeling the stress
of the times. The visitation work of the Council has


NATIONAL CHBISTIAN COUNCIL 68
alwavs been an important part of its service to the churches,
and the secretaries continued such work so far as condi-
tions permitted, but through this body of Chinese Christian
leaders a wider field was reached and ideas were brought
back to Shanghai which helped the Council to appreciate
more, vividly the conditions and needs in different parts of
the country. There is ample testimony as to the value of
this visitation. The emphasis was laid upon the deeper
questions and care was taken to avoid merely political ones.
During the spring months large numbers
Help to ^ of missionaries came in larger or smaller
Missionaries b
groups to bhanghai. Among the organiza-
tions which attempted to deal with this emergency was
the National Christian Council which helped missionaries
to find suitable quarters, set up a post office and informa-
tion bureau in the Missions Building, and stimulated
other efforts, including the holding of special meetings
which were much appreciated. The Council officers
further got into touch with the secretaries of the various
missions in regard to the problem of language study and
the more advanced study of Chinese literature and prob-
lems. A special committee for an emergency school was
established, and, under the leadership of Mr. J. E.
Moncrieff and Mr. W. B. Pettus, for a time, arrangements
were made whereby a large number of missionaries were
able to use the period of enforced absence from their
stations in further preparation for future work. Classes
on newspaper reading, on the San Min Chu I, on Chinese
Religions, Art, and other subjects of current interest, were
taken by competent authorities. Several discussion groups
were also carried through dealing with important questions
such as religious education. There is ample evidence that
this service was appreciated by many missionaries and
that to some extent the difficulties and drawbacks of a
large number of people suddenly evacuated from their
stations were reduced.
One of the aspects of the national move-
^onfere^nce Bient in China has been, as everyone knows,
the attention given to economic questions.
Economic theories have been propounded and widely


NATIONAL CHBISTIAN COUNCIL
69
discussed, some of which, at any rate, are by no means
firmly established and the application of which to China
is a very doubtful advantage. Early in the year the
National Christian Council faced the fact that many
Christians, including pastors and other leaders, were
seeking guidance as to the Christian attitude towards such
economic questions. It was realized that in recent years,
representative Christian groups in other countries have
been doing a great deal of thinking on the question of the
relation of Christianity to our industrial and social prob-
lems. It was felt that the result of this thinking should
be made available for the churches in China and still
more, that those who are competent to do so should have
the opportunity of getting together for more detailed
discussion of the problems raised.
This led to the calling of a small conference
Conference which was held in Shanghai in August, when
a group, largely Chinese in composition,
came together for about a fortnight and devoted themselves
to an intensive study of some of these problems. The
result is embodied in the report of the conference, but
doubtless the influence of this meeting will go far beyond
the circulation of any printed matter. On the whole, the
findings of the conference were somewhat more conserva-
tive than might have been expected when the radical
tendencies which have been working in China in recent
years are taken into account. Nevertheless the conference
showed a very serious attempt to bring the principles of
Jesus to bear upon the actual problems of city and country
life and no disposition to evade or compromise in regard
to the issues raised. In preparation for the conference,
two or three workers made surveys of local conditions and
brought the results of their work to the group which met
in Shanghai. While the National Christian Council does
not for a moment take the view that the Kingdom of God
is to be established through improving the lot of the
workers, they do believe that those who are under the
influence of the Spirit of God cannot but be interested in
seeking for such improvement and doing their utmost
to effect it. This involves the most careful study as to


70
NATIONAL CHBISTIAN COUNCIL 70
ways in which such help can be wisely given. Such study
the National Christian Council is furthering continuously
through its Committee on Christianizing Economic Re-
lations.
In the early part of 1927, letters and state-
Church^nd stents were received from different parts of
Mission China showing an increased interest in the
problem of developing an indigenous church
life in China. A few of the statements received were of
an extreme character, but in the main they showed a
healthy determination to face these problems and a desire,
quickened no doubt by the growth of the nationalist move-
ment, for a more definite Chinese expression in organization
and life of the principles of Jesus Christ. The National
Christian Council responded to these appeals by securing
special help from Mr. Havermale of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church, who made a special study of what was being
done in the various groups and localities in China. The
investigation was carried forward for several months and,
though the material collected has not been published, it
has been made available for individuals who are giving
special attention to the matter. The difficulty of publica-
tion is due to the fact that so many matters are now in
flux. In many different groups, experiments are being
made and those who are concerned with them are not yet
prepared to commit themselves in writing; while in other
cases, the precise form of the development which is
contemplated has not yet been worked out. The out-
standing fact is that progress is being made in nearly every
group and in not a few at a rate which a few years ago
would have been thought impossible. The Council seeks
to serve the churches and missions by collecting and
studying the results of such steps and the nature of all
experiments made in this wide field.
Though not an outcome of the conditions
the6Jerusalem1, in China itself> the preparation for the above
Meeting meeting involved a considerable amount of
special work during the year. Care was taken
to select a group of delegates who should be as far as
possible representative of different parts of the country


NATIONAL CHBISTIAN COUNCIL
71
and different denominations and points of view. Visits
were paid to a number of centers to stimulate interest in
the subjects which were coming up for discussion at the
Council meeting and in several centers groups were formed
which did preliminary work.
Beyond the light which it is expected will
Jerusalem E&ined in regard to these particular
Meeting matters, there was an earnest expectation that
the meeting at Jerusalem, so varied in its
composition and so unique, would be the occasion for a very
deep spiritual fellowship and fresh inspiration to all those
who attend and through them to many others. This
expectation has been fulfilled. The thought given to
the subjects which came up for discussion has been of
particular value to the committees on Church and Mission
j Administration and on Religious Education as well as
! to that on the Christianizing of International Relations,
as the presentation of various questions has been the
means of bringing out many interesting points of view
and starting fresh lines of thought.
During the year, two or three of the larger
^Thfc^unciT bodies cooperating in the work of the Council,
submitted suggestions to the Council with a
view to its reorganization on more representative lines. It
is now more than five years since the National Conference
was held at which the Council came into existence and it
has from the beginning been found difficult to maintain
the very close contact desirable between the Council and
the various church and mission organizations. Still more
difficult is it to ensure a continued sense of responsibility
in relation to the Council on the part of churches through-
out the country. The problem of reorganization is being
tackled, not simply as one of machinery, but more
especially as one which will give an opportunity to deal
with these fundamental difficulties and to create a deeper
sense of spiritual unity throughout the Protestant churches
in China.
The need for reorganization was emphasized by the
fact that some criticism of the Council appeared during
the year, receiving quite a little public attention. In order


72
NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL
to clear away the misunderstandings on which this
criticism was so largely based, the Council issued a state-
ment of the five years' work since its inauguration in 1922.
Personnel year under review is the first full year
during which the Council has had a General
Secretary. The appointment of Dr. Cheng Ching-yi to this
position in the annual meeting, 1926, has proved to be a
great gain to the Council in many ways. Through his
personality and on account of the confidence which is
placed in him in all parts of the country, Dr. Cheng has
been able to commend the Council and to lead out to
fruitful lines of activity. The year has seen the streng-
thening of the Chinese staff through the appointment of
the Rev. Djang Fang of the Church of Christ in China as
one of its full time secretaries and the return of Mr.
Gideon Chen from his studies in England to take up the
position of co-secretary with Miss Haass of the Industrial
Department. The tendency to strengthen the Chinese
element is continuing and an Associate General Secretary,
Mr. L. D. Cio, is now under appointment and steps have
been taken to secure a Chinese woman as full time secretary
in the autumn. In this way the purpose of the Council
to gather together and express Chinese convictions in regard
to the issues confronting the Christian church in this
country is being steadily pursued.
. The Council has faced during the last year
i icuhes a number of difficulties. It has been a per-
plexing time, not only for Christians and missionaries
throughout the country, but also for those who have had
responsibilities of general oversight and advice. The
annual meeting held towards the close of 1927 showed a
unity and steadfastness of purpose which were very en-
couraging in a time when so many cross currents have been
evident in the life of the Christian movement.


CHAPTER VIII
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY
A. R* Kepler
q . Christian Unity in China began with the
first missionary, Robert Morrison, who came
to China not as a denominationalist, but as the repre-
sentative of that then inter-denominational organization,
the London Missionary Society. The fact that in the
beginning, the majority of missionaries came under either
the American Board or the London Missionary Society, both
of which at the time were inter-denominational agencies,
undoubtedly contributed to provide a soil where church
unity could find good rootage.
. That the Christian missionaries were only
Environment a sma^ number in a strange land, created a
feeling of solitariness and a sense of inter-
dependence which served to throw out in bold relief those
elements of the Christian religion which they held in
common rather than their differences.
First Attemt Reformed and English
Presbyterian missionaries in Amoy, we are
indebted for the first actual achievement in church unity.
Though coming from different nations and representing
different denominations, they felt most vividly the desir-
ability of eliminating their denominational distinctions
and uniting in the development of one Chinese Church,
When they took steps to form one Chinese
Difficulties Presbytery in 1857, they were faced with a
seven-year struggle with the home con-
stituency. When the General Synod of the Dutch
Reformed Church issued a mandate instructing their
missionaries in South Fukien to desist from their effort to
form a united Church independent from the Church in the
West, their missionaries with holy boldness replied as
follows:


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
"We conscientiously feel that in confirming such an
organization (as proposed by the General Synod), we
should be doing a positive injury and wrong to the
churches of Christ established at Amoy, and that our duty
to the Master of His people here forbids this. Therefore,
our answer to the action of General Synod must be and is
that we cannot be made the instruments of carrying out
the wishes of Synod in this report; and further, if Synod
is determined that such an organization must be effected,
we can see no other way than to recall us and send hither
men who see clearly their way to do that which to us
seems wrong."
In the light of this background it is not
Conference surprising that at the 1877 China Missionary
Conference, we should find expressed a very
definite yearning for Christian unity. The Rev. A.
Williamson, LL.D., a missionary of the United Scotch
Presbyterian Mission, in his paper read before this Con-
ference remarked :
can unite should unite with all due respect to those who
do not see their way clear. No one can be a strict
denominationalist in this heathen land. I believe, there-
fore, that denominationalism, as far as possible, should go
to the winds I for my part shall never consent to aid in
transplanting the sects and sectarianism of the West into
this country. Let the dead bury their dead. Be it ours
to preach the Gospel and rear a new united and glorious
Church in this landthe Church of God in Chinaand not
; denominationalism only, but let nationality go to the
'winds! British prejudices and American prejudices have
played far too fatal a part in our work to go on any
longer."
Dr. J. V. N. Talmage of Amoy, in his paper, remarked:
4'In Apostolic times, there may have been and
doubtless was diversity in religious services, order of
worship and such things, and there may have been
diversity in the minutiae of church government; but
there was nothing in the Apostolic Church corresponding


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

to our present, denominational distinctions and differences.
Can you imagine several churches in the same city or
region under apostolic direction, separated from each
other by doctrine and order, but united to churches in
distant cities and countries? The individual churches all
'regarded themselves as parts of the same Church. They
were but one denomination"
The Rev. C. Douglas, LL.D., in his address said:
44The question has been asked: 4 What keeps the
native churches in China apart?' It is their connection
with the churches at home. So long as this connection is
kept up, the union spoken of cannot be realized."
Common Aim 1877 Conference in the interest of
Christian unity, among other resolutions,
voted that every Saturday evening all missionaries should
set apart time for special prayer for each other's success
in bringing souls to Christ and that they may be closely
united in the spirit and in the bonds of love. They
organized a committee of reference and counsel to deal
with all subjects of common interest and to publish
statistical reports and the like.
From 1877 to 1900 we find very little
accomplished in achieving actual unity. For
-this there are two reasons:
(1) Individual mission constituencies were now grow-
ing in number and strength, therefore the individual
denominations became more self-reliant, self-contented
and not a little ambitious for their own denomination.
Henry Drummond, who visited China during this period,
referred to mission work in China as 4 4 bands of guer-
rillas."
(2) The difference which arose over the term
question had cut very deep and created currents subversive
to Christian unity.
In its platform papers and resolutions, the
Conference Missionary Conference of 1890 made little
mention of union and unity. However, at
this meeting, 120 missionaries representing the various


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
Presbyterian bodies throughout China, who were members
of this Missionary Conference, took the first steps to bring
about a union of all Presbyterian bodies, of which we will
make further mention later on.
The Boxer Uprising in 1900 prevented
Common Need another Missionary Conference, for which
plans had been made. But at the same time the Boxer
Uprising threw the missionaries from all parts of China
together in Shanghai and to a certain extent revived the
passion for church unity as voiced in the Conference ctf
1877. A great common danger and a threatened disaster
brought again an awareness of their solitariness and of the
need of solidarity.
In October, 1901, delegates from the Pres-
Prcsfavterian byterian Churches holding the Reformed
Union Faith, working in all parts of China, met in
Shanghai, to form the Federal Council of the
Presbyterian Church of Christ in China. The following
resolution, adopted by the first meeting of this Federal
Council, is indicative of the broader and deeper purpose of
church unity, which actuated this new organization:
This Conference earnestly desires the unity of the
Christian Church in China, and cordially welcomes all
opportunities of cooperation with all sections of the Church.
The Conference resolves therefore to take steps for uniting
more closely the Presbyterian Churches, hoping thereby to
facilitate the ultimate attainment of wider union"
The Federal Council of the Presbyterian
-Movements Church in China at its fifth meeting in April,
1918, at Nanking, organized itself into the
First General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in
China.
Summing up the practical achievements toward
Christian unity at the turn of the century, we note the
following:
(1) The general recognition of the principle of comity
in the development of the work of the respective missionary
societies.


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

(2) The union effort in the translation of the Bible
and in preparing several hymnals.
(3) Tract Societies, Bible Societies, the Presbyterian
Mission Press, while non-union enterprises, were neverthe-
less unifying agencies and rendering inter-denominational-
services of great value. The Christian Literature Society,
under the leadership of such giants as Dr. Timothy
Richard and Dr. Young J. Allen, was most potent not
only in the evangelistic outreach of the Church, but in
drawing the several denominational groups closer together
through the production of a common literature.
(4) The Y. M. C. A. had just made its appearance at
the close of the century. It was just at the threshold of its
remarkable expansion.
(5) In scattered centers were also found union classes for
theological training, mostly confined to missionary societies
of kindred denominations. Nanking University and
West China University were still largely in the blue-print
stage. The Educational Association was experiencing its
growing pains. In the following decade through regional
organizations and later on through the Council on Higher
Education, this Association was to become a most efficient
agency in organizing, promoting and unifying the primary,
secondary and higher educational activities of the Christian
movement.
The Medical Missionary Association, which later '
evolved into the China Medical Association, rendered
an equally valuable service to medical evangelism. The
[educators and doctors blazed a broad way toward the
goal of Christian Unity. They faced a tremendous task ;
I they were conscious of great needs which only solidarity
i could meet.
(6) The Christian enterprise still was projected and
propagated largely in the guise of missions. The Church,
though it may have already discarded its swaddling
clothes, was still for the most part in the dress of the
pinafore age.
(7) There had been a few achievements in organic
ecclesiastical unity, such as among the Scotch and Irish


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
Presbyterians in Manchuria, Dutch Reformed and English
Presbyterians in South Fukien. A Federal Council of all
the Presbyterians Churches in China had been formed,
working definitely toward the achievement of complete
organic unity.
(8) Peitaiho, Ruling, Mokanshan, Kuliang, were just
being developed as summer resorts for the missionary;
and these through the friendly fellowship which they
afforded through their conferences and other means for
close acquaintanceship of widely scattered missionaries
with each other, contributed not a little to create a soil
and an atmosphere, in which could grow the seeds of
cooperation and union in the increasingly diversified
agencies of the Christian enterprise.
At the Centenary Conference of 1907, union
Conference through federation was one of the foremost
questions that came before the assembly.
The situation throughout the Chinese Church is very
accurately stated in these words from the paper read by
Dr. J. C. Gibson, one of the two Chairmen of the
Conference:
"Chinese Christians feel, not without justice, that
the foreign missions are both the source and are the
cause of the perpetuation of division. Therefore Chinese
Christianity is bound to seek two things,independence
from the control of foreign churches and union among
their own churches. Let us be heartily at one with them
in seeking these two ends."
The preamble to the resolutions on federation pre-
sented to the 1907 Conference reads as follows:
44 In view of the rising tide of union sentiment in
China; in view of the call of the Church in all lands;
and in view of the prayer of Christ and our ability to
assent in its answertherefore resolved that we as a
conference pledge ourselves to support the great principles
of federation, and while looking to a still closer union,
suggest in the meantime the adoption of the following
methods."*


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

The resolution which generated the greatest amount
of interest and discussion without question was the one
on Christian unity which after not a few compromise
amendments, was unanimously adopted in the following
form:
That this Conference unanimously holds the Scrip-
tures of the Old and New Testaments as the supreme
standard of faith and practice, and holds firmly the
primitive apostolic faith. Further, while acknowledging
the Apostles7 Creed and the Nicene Creed as substantially
expressing the fundamental doctrines of the Christian
faith, the Conference does not adopt any Creed as a basis
of Church Unity, and leaves Confessional questions for
future consideration; yet, in view of our knowledge of
each other's doctrinal symbols, history, work and character,
we gladly recognize ourselves as already one body in
Christ, teaching one way of eternal life, and calling men
into one holy" fellowship, and as one in regard to the
great body of doctrine and of the Christian faith, one
in the teaching as to the love of God the Father, God
the Son, and God the Holy Ghost; in our testimony as to
sin and salvation, and our homage to the Divine and
Holy Redeemer, one in our call to the purity of the
Christian life and in our witness to the splendors of the
Christian hope."
During the same year of the Centenary
Confercn Szechwan, the West China Conference. This
Conference also was noteworthy because of the emphasis
which it placed on Christian Unity. In fact, the concious-
ness of spiritual unity in this Conference was so great
and the desire for organic unity so strong that it was
hoped that one united Christian Church for Szechwan
might be realized at an early date. Although these hopes
have not been realized, there has been maintained very
happy cooperation by all the missions in the higher
educational work and also in their production of Christian
literature and the most sympathetic fellowship has been
manifest in the ecclesiastical relationships.


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
In both the Centenary Conference and the
Relation of West China Conference, Bishop Bashford of
We^ntemaQd fche Methodist Episcopal ^ Church made a
Churches strong plea for the maintenance by the
churches in China of organic relations with
the mother churches of the West. He was a passionate
advocate of world-wide unity along denominational lines,
rather than national interdenominational unity. In both
these Conferences, the vote by a great majority indicated
a preference for organic unity amongst the churches in
China. Bishop Bashford ?s own denomination, however,
grasped his vision and during the past twenty years,
the Methodist Episcopal Conferences in China have
consistently stood for "World-Methodism," In spite of
the fact that the Methodist churches have always been
ready to cooperate in all interdenominational enterprises,
Christian unity in China has undoubtedly been greatly
weakened because of the Methodist Episcopal principle of
: World-Methodism.
Out of the 1907 Conference grew the scheme
Federation of with a National Council and Provincial
Councils to consist of members appointed by both missions
and churches. Although a number of the Provincial
Federations were organized and a few of them continued
to function for almost a score of years, the National
Council never did attain organization.
The failure of this scheme was due to two factors:
(1) There was no full-time secretariat, either in the
Provincial Federations or for the National Council. It
was impossible to swing such a large organization into
existence without having men definitely set aside to give
their entire time to the task.
(2) The Edinburgh Conference provided for a series
of conferences in China under the leadership of Dr. John
R. Mott, which eventuated in the organization of the China
Continuation Committee to serve the same purposes which
were hoped of the National Federation. It made provision
for a national office and a staff of full-time secretaries. It


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

was an expression of missionary and Chinese cooperation.
As a consequence, the National Federal Council died
still-born.
, Immediately after the Centenary Missionary
nomlnAional Conference, there was a speeding up in the
Churches coalescence of kindred denominations into
national denominational churches. The scat-
tered Anglican groups in April, 1912, met and formed the
Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hui. In 1917, a large number
of Lutheran bodies completed the organization of the
Chung Hwa Hsin I Hui. Mention has already been
made of the Presbyterian Churches, which organized a
Federal Union in 1901, and which immerged as the
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in China in
April, 1918.
During the decade following the Centenary Conference,-
the outstanding feature of the Christian Movement in
China was this trend toward the achievement of Christian
unity. The Editor of the 1917 Year Book remarked:
"The progress made in cooperation and
rogress union is probably the most significant single
development of the missionary movement in China in
recent years. Before 1900 while the missionary societies
were working in most cordial relations with one another
and met from time to time in conference to discuss
questions of common interest, and while they even joined
in occasional Christian movements, such united efforts
were comparatively infrequent.'7
In 1910 the union cooperative enterprises
UnionsIOn theological, medical, normal, academic and
collegiate education, numbered thirty. Most
of them were the product of the preceding five years.
But in 1914 the number of union projects had grown to
about 100, involving large investments in property and
personnel. The major contributing factors to this impetus
in union and cooperation were, (a) the six language
schools, which had just been opened; (b) the series of
Mott Conferences; (c) the organization of the China Conti-
nuation Committee with its Annual Meetings; (d) the


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
Summer and other Regional Conferences among Chinese
Christians of all denominations; (e) the Zeit-geist mani-
festing itself in a desire to realize a closer fellowship
among all Christian communions the world over.
The language schools annually brought the
Schools2** body of new missionaries from different
denominations into intimate fellowship with
each other at a time when their minds were particularly
sensitive to new impressions and made them unity-minded.
The Mott Conferences for the first time brought the
Chinese and the missionary together into National Con-
ferences and gave the Chinese an opportunity for corporate
thinking and expression. These Conferences were followed
by the C. C. C. and the N. C. C. which tended still further
to unite the Christian forces, now including the Chinese
churches, in thinking and planning and service.
In chronicling movements for Christian
Missfonaryme Unity' .the Chinese Home Missionary Society
Society particularly noteworthy. It has been a
very successful enterprise. It is a wholly
indigenous enterprise. From its inception it has been
entirely under Chinese control. Denominational barriers
and distinctions have proved impotent in the face of this
appeal for cooperation. It thus serves as an earnest of
what may be reasonably expected in Christian cooperation
and unity when the dominant control in the Christian
Movement becomes wholly Chinese.
New Factors During the decade following the war, new
factors projected themselves into the arena
which slowed up the movement toward Christian Unity.
They were (1) the general disillusionment immediately
following the conclusion of the World War and the Treaty
of Versailles, which very vitally affected the Christian
Movement everywhere ; (2) the debacle of the Inter-church
Movement in America; (3) most potent of all, the outburst
of a spirit of militant intolerance among groups within the
I Christian church.
c . Just as the "term controversy" chilled
on roversy enthusiasm for unity after the 1877


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

Conference, so now a big divisive force, "fundamentalism "
vs. 44 modernism," appeared on the scene. This is almost
wholly a missionary and not a Chinese product! The
church in China has as its very heart and dynamic the
fundamentals on which the Church through the ages
has been founded and built. This controversy, however,
unfortunately retards the movement towards Unity.
, The next landmark in the movement of
Chrfatian Christian Unity in China is the National
Conference Christian Conference held in Shanghai in
1922, with almost a thousand delegates in
attendance, of whom one half were Chinese, representing
all denominations working in China.
At this gathering the Commission on the
Christian Message of the Church 44 composed entirely of
Leadership Chinese Christian leadership vividly ex-
pressed its unwillingness to perpetuate our
western denominationalism in China and presented un-
equivocal resolutions calling for visible unity.
, The National Christian Conference at its
Christian closing sessions organized the National
Council Christian Council, which has, during the
past five years under great difficulties, served
as an interdenominational agency representing both the
missionary societies and the Chinese churches. While the
N.C.C. from the very nature of its constitution is unable
explicitly to advocate or extend any particular form of
organic church unity, it nevertheless serves as an outstand-
ing unifying force.
Immediately preceding the National
Genial Christian Conference in Shanghai, there met
Assembly in the same city the Provisional General
Assembly of the Church of Christ in China.
The Federal Council of the Presbyterian Churches' at the
first meeting in 1901, as above noted, expressed the hope
that their federation would 44 facilitate the ultimate
attainment of wider union." It was only natural, there-
fore, that when the Provisional General Assembly of the
Presbyterian Church in China met in Nanking in 1918,,


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
there should be present representatives from the churches
connected with the L.M.S. and American Board Missions
and that the first steps should be taken to unite these
churches in one body. It was at the very beginning
proposed to form a federal union, but the desire amongst
the Chinese for organic union was so strong that the
committee on organization drew up a Doctrinal Basis of
Union and a Constitution involving organic unity.
Basis of Union ^ Provisinal General Assembly in
1922, the Doctrinal Basis of Union and the
Constitution were carefully considered and approved and
submitted to the constituent groups scattered all over
China for their consideration and approval. It required
five years in order to secure the necessary agreement to
the proposed Doctrinal Basis of Union and the Con-
stitution and thus make it possible for the meeting of the
first General Assembly of the united church.*
The most noteworthy constructive event of
of Christ 1927_a year of chaos, disorder and revolu-
tionwas the final consummation of the
united Church of Christ in China $Jc through
its first General Assembly, which met in Shanghai,
October 1st to llth, 1927. In spite of the dangers and
difficulties of travel, there was a full representation from
Harbin in the North to Hainan in the South, and from as
far West as the Yangtze Gorges.
Commissioners There were present 88 commissioners, of
whom 66 were Chinese and 22 were mis-
sionaries, officially representing 11 Divisional Councils and
, 46 District Associations. There were in addition 8 com-
missioners from two Presbyteries who had not yet fully
approved of the union, and 28 fraternal delegates from
other Communions not as yet participating in the United
Church.
Constituency These commissioners represented a con-
stituency distributed as follows. The figures
See Appendix on Doctrinal Basis of Union and Constitution.


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

indicating organized churches, preaching places, pastors,
evangelistic workers and communicants are only ap-
proximately correct:
Divisional Councils........ 12
District Associations........ 51
Organized Churches........ 585
Other Preaching Places ..... 2035
Ordained Pastors ........ 333
Other Evangelistic Workers .. 2072
Communicants........... 120175
Divisional Councils No. of District Associations No. of Baptized Members
Manchuria 3 21129
Hopei 2 5387
Lianghu 8 9123
North China 9 18507
Hwatung 6 20231
Minpeh 3 1652
Minchung 3 2653
Minnan 6 10215
Lingtung 2 6792
Kwangtung 8 20000
Hainan 1 4075
Yunnan 411
Church groups constituting the Church of Christ in China:
.1. Independent Churches
2. Swedish Evangelical Free Church
3. United Brethren in Christ
4. American Board Congregational Churches
5. London Missionary Society
6. New Zealand Presbyterian Church
7. Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
8. United Church of Canada
9. English Presbyterian Church
.10. Reformed Church in America
11. Presbyterian Church, South
12. Reformed Church in the U.S.
13. Church of Scotland


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
14. Irish Presbyterian Church
15. United Free Church (Scotland')
16. English Baptist Church
Communicants connected with American
Societies............... 70,000
Communicants connected with British
Societies............... 50,000
American Missionaries associated with the
Church of Christ in China ...... 1,065
British Missionaries associated with the
Church of Christ in China ... ... 582
Since the above data were gathered, the
MhsnionInland churches affiliated with the C.I.M. in
Lanchow and South Kansu have definitely
voted to link up with the united Church.
Organic Unity Church of Christ in China,a name
which bv the way was chosen by the
Chinese delegates themselves, signifying both a challenge
and an objective,is not an effort after a glorified larger
denominationalism. It is not an attempt toward con-
formity. It is not an endeavor for uniformity. It is a
holy venture to secure all evangelical bodies in China to
unite in one organic body for worship, mutual edification
and service, asking none to sacrifice beliefs which they
deem vital to Christian living, none demanding of the
others conformity to their particular tenets, but each
bringing their contribution to the enrichment of all, each
believing in the loyalty of the others to our Lord Jesus
Christ and to the fundamentals of our Christian Faith.
Basis of Union ^e Doctrinal Basis of Union, does not
contain all that every Christian or body of
believers should believe. It seeks to express only that
modicum of doctrine which all must hold in common if
the Religion of Jesus is to be conserved. The Doctrinal
Basis of Union, therefore, is an effort to enable those
churches, whose historic policies have emphasized a
written creed, and those churches who have gloried in
their freedom from credal restraints, to unite on the


so MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"

same basis which bound together the Christians of the
Early Church.
Another reason why the united Church
Creed presents no detailed creed is the fact that
whfin such a creed is adopted, it should be
the product of the Chinese Church, expressive of her
doctrinal convictions. A creed prepared at the present
time would unduly bear the stamp of the churches of the
West. The doctrinal statement is, therefore, brief but
comprehensive.
q t{ The form of organization is also an adven-
2 ture in freedom of diversity of expression
within the unity. A preamble to the Constitution of the
united Church reads as follows: The Church of Christ
in China, recognizing that variety in the operations of the
Spirit is as essential to the true welfare of the Church as
oneness of spirit, accepts the principle that the powers of
the General Assembly shall be confined to such matters
only as are essential for the promotion and conservation
of true unity and that each divisional council, district
association and local church shall have the greatest
freedom of self-expression in organization, worship and
service, consistent with such unity.
Autonomy church government gives
autonomy to the local church with a grada-
tion of councils which have names or alternate names to
which the large majority have been accustomed. The
principles underlying the organization are democratic and
not hierarchical. Power and authority are not imposed
" from above downward or from without inward. It is the
hope rather, that power and authority within the church
shall be a normal growth, outward and upward.
Constitution constitution provides for no stereo-
typed, rigid form of church government.
But it permits that elasticity of expression in organization
which will permit "daring experimentations'7 in seeking
to discover that form of church government which will
most adequately lend itself to Chinese customs, life and
thought.


so
MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY"
Councils There are four grades of church councils,
namely, the local church, the district asso-
ciation, the divisional council, the General Assembly.
Local Church Each district association determines the
form of organization of the local church
within the district. There may be some district associa-
tions in which local churches will be organized with a polity
along congregational lines. Other district associations
may have their local church organized according to pres-
byterian polity. There is nothing in the constitution
which would prevent any district associations forming a
divisional council from having their local churches
organized under an episcopal system in so far as such a
system would not contravene the fundamental principles
of the parity of the ministry or the mutual recognition of
the validity of each other's ordination.
Again, the Divisional Council, within very broadly
defined limits, determines the type of organization of its
constituent district associations.
The General Assembly constitutes a bond of
Assembly correspondence, mutual confidence and love
among all its constituent parts. Its relation
to the divisional councils is the same as the relation of the
divisional council to the district associations. If questions
arise concerning church government or doctrine, the
General Assembly is authorized to deal with them; though,
except in special circumstances, the General Assembly
does not receive appeals and overtures directly from the
local churches or district associations.
Basis of Unity ^e Church therefore, is found
(in organization) within the General Assembly,
and (in spirit) in its loyalty and devotion to our ever-living
and blessed Lord, Christ Jesus.
Ultimate Goal That the present plan of organization and
basis of union is far from perfect is readily
acknowledged. It does, however, seem to be an adequate
basis around which the hundred and more denominational
units in China should be able to gather. It should serve
as an adequate point of departure for the ultimate goal,-


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK 1928 (FIFTEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA "MISSION" YEAR BOOK) Issued under arrangement between the Christian Literature Society for China and the National Christian Council of China under the Direction of the following Editorial Board appointed by the National Christian Council Rev. K. T. Chung Mr. Plummer Mills Miss L. K. Haass Rev. Frank R. Millican Rev. A. R. Kepler Rev. C. E. Patton Dr. John Y. Lee Dr. Frank Rawlinson Mrs. Herman Liu Mr. J. H. Reisner Rev. E. C. Lobenstioe Rev. Stanley Smith Dr. D. MacGillvray Miss Helen Thoburn Rev. Edwin Marx Mr. H. C. Tsao Dr. J. L. Maxwell Rev. Z. K. Zia EDITOR IRev. Frank Rawlinson, D. D. Editor, Chinese Recorder. SHANGHAI CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 1928

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PREFACE PLANS were started for issuing this Christian Year Book in 1927. But ,arious untoward events and the evacuation of missionaries made them impossible of fulfilment It is, therefore, two years since this Year Book appeared. In general these two years have created as momentous issues for the Christian Movement in China as it ever met in any other period of its modern existence therein. This a reading of the articles \\'ill make clear. This Year Book has very few statistics. They are in general unobtainable. It contains, however, considerable history, some of which runs back as far as 1900; some of its contents are made up of impress ions, opinions and discussions. It is, therefore, primarily historical, to some extent psychological but only casually statistical. To those who might feel that y_3:rying opinions occupy too much space in a volume of this nature we can only say that such opinions are a prominent aspect of the situation in whi c h Christianity in China now finds itself. An awakened state of mind is the chief feature of both its enviroment and its own inner life. Being an actual part of this situation the many facets of this mind need to be recorded, studied and understood. While this manysidedness stimulates thought it discourages attempts to generalize. widely accepted and conclusive generalizations are not, therefore, conspicuous in this Yolnme. Nevertheless this volumes gives to an unusual degree the result of recent research into Chinese and Christian problems. In this regard it registers advance over its immediate predecessors It provides, therefore, a basis for better understanding of Christian problems in China and starting points for further study and cautious generalization thereon. As a matter of fact opinions about Christianity, and Christian work, both within and without the Church, constitute in no small measure the chief modern problem of Christian workers nnd

PAGE 4

IV PREFACE adherents. It is perhaps more necessary at the present juncture to understand these often conflicting opinions about Christianity than it is to evaluate its strength numerically. For these opinions indicate how Christianity has affected the spirit and mind of the Chinese to a degree quite apart from and of much greater significance than that of its numerical and material strength. They prove that Christianity has become a challenge to China. The articles in this volume record also considerable criticism of Christian methods and institutions. This criticism must be measured. Furthermore the articles indicate very little consensus of opinion on any aspect of Christianity in China and suggest very few if any general solutions to its present problems. Yet three general emphases characterize most of the articles. In the first place, they show that the old ideals and methods of carrying on Christian work in China have broken up as a result of the Revolu tion which has now extended over a generation. In the second place, they reveal and urge experimentation in almost all aspects of Christian life and work in China. In the third place, most of the writers are trying to help find the principles of reconstruction demanded by the new political era and the emergence of a China centric Church. This volume should, therefore, be of special help to that group of people interested in helping find and operate those same reconstructive principles To all those who have given of their time to share their know ledge, hopes and thoughts about Christianity in China the Editor and the members of the Editorial Board are exceedingly grateful. All the writers are busy workers and most of them are in responsible administrative positions: forty percent of them are Chinese. Taken together the articles give a composite picture of the mind of those best versed in the real problems of the Christian Movement in China. They indicate how Chinese and western Christian leaders I are together facing a common need and challenge, The Editor is especially grateful to Rev. C. L. Boynton, Dr. D. MacGillivray and Rev. A. J. Garnier for sharing with him the tedious task of proof-reading. The Editor bas tried to achieye uniformity in spelling and capitalization. He is, however, aware of failure in this regard. Frequent variations as between different

PAGE 5

PREFACE v national standards and even within the. same article presented too many opportunities for failure in achieving uniformity. But perhaps these variations in the use of capitals and spelling serve to indicate that Christians in China have not yet achieved an international etymological mind. The Editor has done the best he could. He has not felt like trying to work out an international set of rules that might guide the original writers Something like that is needed, however. For all typographical errors which have escaped correction in spite of many readings of the proof, he craves indulgent sympathy. These errors are listed in the Errata, so far aR detected, at the end of the volume. Shanghai, China. September 20, 1928.

PAGE 6

CONTENTS PREFACE CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS iNTRODUCTION~RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES EDITOR PART I. NATIONAL LIFE Chapter I. POLITICAL EVENTS OF 1927 AND THEIR EFI<'ECT ON PAGE iii v ix 1 THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH .... H. T. Hodgkin n II. SOME 0HJNESE CONS 'l'RUCTIVE ENTERPRISES Chang Fu Liang 22 III. STATUS oF WmmN IN MoDERN CHINA Eleanor M Hinder :-l4 PART II. RELIGIOUS THOUGHT IV. CURRENT RELIGIOUS THOUGII'l' ....... c. s. Miao 41 V. RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN CmxA ........ T L. Shen 47 PART IJI. CHURCH LIFE VI. LossEs AND GAINS OF 'l 'HE Cm.men IN 1927 Edwin Marx 110 VII. NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL IN 1927 Henry T Hodgkin 116 VIII. MovEMENTs FOR CHHIS'l'IAK UNI'l'Y A.R.Kepler 7 3 IX. So~m ASPECTS oF EvAKGELis)I . Editor !)0 X. CJIRISTIAN LI'l'ERACY A N D Bmu: READING Carleton Lacy 9fJ PART IV. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES xr. THE EvENTs oF rn:a AND rnE Bn1Trna CauRcm,s Harold Balme 105

PAGE 7

CONTEN'f! vii PAGE XII. EFFEC'l'S OF 1927 on ,VoRK 01' l\fISSJONARIES L. H. Roots 111 XIII. RIWENT.EVALUATIONS O~' MISSION \VORK C. E. Patton 120 XIV. RELATIONS oF reE YouNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES ............................ C. E. Patton 134 XV. THE EVACUATION AND RETURN OF MISSIONAHIES C. L. Boynton 155 XVI. LoCA'l. 'ION OF MISSIONARIES ......... C. L Boynton 160 XVI!. ,voRK OF CATIIOLIC CHRISTIANITY lN CHIN,\ G. B. O'Toole 163 PART V. EDUCATION AND STUDENTS XVIII. Tim NAr10NALIST MovE)IEN'l' AND CnRJSTIAN EDUCATION .. ... ............ ... .......... ,.H. C. Tsao 172 XIX. EDUCATION UNDER rrrE NArroNALIST Gov1rnN-MENT .................................... Sidney K. Wei 19 3 XX. PRESEN'l' 0UTI.OOK FOR RELIGIOl'S EDUCATION Frank W. Price 207 XXI. Tm:oLOGICAL TRAINING IN 1927 ...... Djang Fang 217 XXI!. THE REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT Y. T. Wu 223 XXIII. THE VII.LAGE EDUCATION MovE)IEN'r Chishin (W. 'I.) Tao 235 PART VI. SOCIAL LIFE XXIV. LABOR AND REVOLUTION ............... Gideon Chen 248 XXV. PEASANT MovEMENTS ............... J. Lossing Buck 265 XXVI. SCIENTIFIC DISAS'l'ER REI,rnF ............ Y. S. Djang 283 XXVII. AN l'I-0PIUM CAMPAIGN .................. Bingham Dai 29B XXVIII. SoME RECEN'l.' CHmsrrAN SocIAL ANU INDUSTRIAL ExPERI~mNTS ............... Eleanor M. Hinder 307 XXIX. WouK 1,on THE BLIND ............ Miss S. J. Garland 319 PART VII. MEDICAL AND HEALTH WORK XXX. PUBLIC HEALTH WoRK ............... Iva l\l. Miller 327

PAGE 8

viii CONTENTS PAGE XXXL l\!IJ!'SION HOSP11'AI.S AND RESEARCH ,VORK James L. Maxwell 345 PART VIII. LITERATURE XXXII. RELIGIOUS TRACT SocrnTIES IN 192i George A Clayton 351 XXXIII. BEs'r Boo KS IN CHINESE ........ Z. K. Zia 364 XXXIV. CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS IN 0HINJ1SE K. L. Pao 3i2 XXXV. BEwr BooKR IN ENGLISH ON CmNA J. B. Powell 3i6 XXXVI. NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LrmRA'rFRE AssocIA'l'ION J. Wesley Shen 383 XXXVII. URGENT NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE A. J. Garnier 392 PART IX. APPENDICES A. PRINCIPAL EVENTS, 1925-28 Dr. D. MacGillivray 402 B. DOC'l'RINAL BASIS oi, UNION AND CONSTITUTION OF CHUR('H oF CH HIST IN CHrnA .. . . . ... 405 c. EDUCATIONAL REGULATIONS ..... L E. "\-Villmott 413 D. BIBI.IOGRAPHY OF ENGLISH BOOKS ON CHINA J. B. Powell and Frank Rawlinson 424

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CONTRIBUTORS (FIGURES IN PARENTHESIS INDICATE DATES OF FIRST ARRIVAL IN CHINA) Balme, Harold, F.R.C.S., D.P.H., L.R.C.P., (1906) THE Evm,.rs OF 1927 AND THE BRITISH CHURCHES, Xl. English Baptist, Formerly President, Shantung Christian University and Vice-Chairman, National Christian PAGE Council 105 B:iynton, Charles E., B.A., (1906) TrrE EVACUATION AND RETURN OF MrnsroN.-1.RIES, xv; TIIE Loc.-1.TION 01<' MISSIONARIES, XVI. Secretary Y.M.C.A. 1901-14; on staff of China Continuation Committee 191 5-20; Shanghai American School 1920-26; Editor, Directory of Protestant Missions; now Business Secretary, National Christian Council 155 100 Buck, J. Lossing, (1915) PEASANT MOVEMENTS, XXV. American Presbyterian (North). Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of .: Nanking 2(l5 Chang, Fu-Liang, Ph.B., M.F., M.S. SOME CHINESE CoNSTRUC-rIVE ENTERPRISES, II. Elder in Presbyterian Church. Chairman Rural Life Committee, National Christian Council 22 Chen, Gideon, B.A. L.-1.BoR .-I.ND REVOLUTION, XXlV. Church of Christ in China. Industrial Secretary, National Christian Council 248 Clayton, George A., (1895) RELIGIOUS TR.-1.CT SOCIETIES IN 1927, XXXII. w esleyan Methodist Missionary Society. General Secre-tary, Religious Tract Society for China, Hankow .. . 3 51 Dai, Bingham, B.A., ANTI-OPIUM C.-1.MP!uGN, XXVII. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretary National Anti-Opium Association 296 Djang, Y. S., B.A., SCIENTIFIC DIS.-1.STER RELIEF, XXVI. Acting Executive Secretary, China Internationa l Famine Relief Commi~sion ; Chief Secretary, Red Cross Society of China 283

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x CONTRIBUTORS Djang Fang, THEOLOGICAL TRAINING IN 1!)27, XXI. Church of Christ in China. Secretary, National Christian Council 217 Garnier, Albert John, (1906) URGENT NEEDS IN CnRISTIAN LITERATURE, XXXVI J English Baptist Mission. Member of staff of Christian Literature Society, Shanghai .. 392 Garland, Miss S.J., (1891) WORK FOR THE BLIND, XXIX. China Inland Mission 31!) Hinder, Miss Eleanor M., (1926) S'l'A'rus Ol' "\VoMEN rn MODERN CHINA, III; SOME RECENl' CIIRIS'.l'IAN SOCIAL .AND IN DUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTS, XXVIII. Industrial Secretary, Y. "\V. C. A. in China. Program Secretary, Pan-Pacific women's Conference, Honolulu, August, 1928 .. 34,307 Hodgkin, H.T., M.A., M.B., (Hl05) POLITICAL EVENTS oF 1927 AND THEIR EFFECTS ON TIIE CHRISTIAN CUURCII, l: NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL IN 1927, VII. English Friends Mission. Secretary, Nat.ional Christian Council 6,66 Kepler, Asher Raymond, A.B., (1901) lVIovEMENTS FOR CHRIS TIAN UNITY, VIII. American Presbyterian (North). General Secretary, General Council of the Church of Christ in China 73 Lacy, Carleton, B.A., A.M., S.T.B., D.D., (1914) CnRIS'.l'I.AN LITERACY .AND BIBLE READING, X. Methodist Episcopal (North). General Secretary, Ameri-can Bible Society in China 99 Marx, Edwin, A.B., B.D., (1918) LossES .AND GAINS OF TBE CBURCU IN 1927, VI. Secretary and Treasurer of China Mission, United Christian Missionary Society 60 Maxwell, James L., M.D., (1901) MISSION HosPTU.LS AND RESEARCH w ORK, xxxr. English. Presbyterian. Secretary, China Medical As socia.tion; Editor, China Medical Journal; Medical Advisor to Mission to Lepere .. 345 MacGillivray, D .. D.D., (1888) PRINCIPAL EVENTS, 1925-28, APP~NDIX A. United Church of Canada. General Secretary, Christian Literature Society, Shanghai. .. 402

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CONTRIBUTORS xi PAGE Miao, C.S., Ph.D. CuRREN : r R11LIGIOVS THOUGHT, IV. Baptist Church. Secretary of Religious Education, China Christian Educational Association 41 Miller, Miss Iva M M.D., c.P.H., (1909) PUBLIC HEALTH WORK, xxx. Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Church. Acting Director, Council of Health Education 327 O'Toole, Very Rev. G.B., Ph.D., S.T.D., (1920) WORK OP CATHOLIC CHRIS'l'IANI 'fY IN CHINA, XVI!. Rector of The Catholic University, Peking, China. Captnin (Chaplain) U.S. R., Consultor of the Chinese Government Bureau of Publication and Translation 163 Pao, K.L., CHRIS'rIAN PERIODICALS IN CIIINEBE, XXXI V. Church of Christ in China. Member of the staff of the Christian Literature Society, Shanghai 372 Patton, Charles E., B.A., M.A., (1899) RECE!'IT EVALUATION OF MISSION WonK, XIII; RELA'fIONS 01, THE YoUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES, XIV. Presbyterian Church (North). Vice-Chairman and Secre-tary of the China Council of the Presbyterian Mission 120,134 Powell, John B., (1917) BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CatNA, XX:X:V; BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CIDNA, APPENDIX D. Editor, China Weekly Review; Correspondent, The Chicago Tribune and the Manchester Guardian. ... 876, 424 Price, Frank W., B.D., M.A., (1923) PRESENT OuTLOO:K FOR RELIGIOUSEDUCATION, XX. Presbyterian Church (South). Formerly Professor of Religious Education in Nanking Theological Seminary; now Director of Religious Educati:en, and College Pastor, Hangchow Christian College. ... 207 Rawlinson, Frank, M.A., D.D., (1902) INTRonucrrnN, RECON STRUC'fIVE CRISES; SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM-IX; Booxs IN ENGLISH ON REtIOION IN CHINA, PART v, APPENDIX D. American Board. Editor of China Christian Year Book and Chinese Recorder. ... 1, 90, 433 Roots, Right Rev. Logan H., M.A., D.D,, (1896) EFFECTS OF 1927 ON WORK 01' MISSIONARIES, XII. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Bishop of Hankow Dio~ese. Formerly Chairman of the China Continuation Committee. Honorary Secretary, National Christian Council. 111

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xii CONTRIBUTORS PAGE Shen, T.L., B.Sc., RELIGIOUS LIBERTY, V. Secretary, National Committee of Y.M.C.As. in China.... 47 Shen, J. Wesley, B.D., S.T.M., NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE Assocv .. TION, XXXVI. Methodist Church (3outh). General Secretary, National Christian Literature Association. ... ... ... ... 383 Tao, (W. T.) Chishin, THE VILLAGE EDUCATION l\foVEMENT, XXIII. General Director, Village Education Movement. ... 235 Tsao, H. C., Hsiu Tsai. THE NATIONALIST MovEMEN'r AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION, XVIII. Wesleyan Methodist Church. Acting General Secretary, China Christian Educational Association. ... 172 Wei, Sidney K., Ph.D. EDUCATION UNDER rHE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT, XlX. Commissioner of Education for Educational Commission of Kwangtung; Director of Popular Education, Ministry of Education and Research; Commissioner of Education, Municipality of Greater Shanghai; Secretary in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nationalist Government; Professor of Canton Christian College and Normal Col lege, Kwangtung University and Wuchang Chungshan University. ... 195 Willmott, L.E., B.A., Sc., (1921) EDUCAUONAL REGULATIONS, APPENDIX C. United Church of Canada. Secretary, China Christian Educational Association. 4IS Wu, Y. T., M.A., THE REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT, XXII. Congregational Church. Student Secretary, National Committee of Y.M C.As. in China. .. 223 Zia, z. K., M.A., BEST Booxs IN CHINESE, XXXIII. Church of Christ in China. Member of the staff of the Christian Literature Society, Shanghai. 364

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RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES INTRODUCTION Editor Two Events Since the articles published in this Year Book were written two events have taken place which set new standards for both the people of China and the Christian Movement therein. These are (1) the Jerusalem Meeting and, (2) the, at least tacit, recognition of Nationalist authority. Change and Crisis Both the Revolution and Christianity now face v a rious crises and challenges. Christianity has been attacked, often with virulence. This has proved, however, that Christianity now has a permanent foothold in China. THE NATION China has been going through revolutionNew Ideals ary struggle for about a generation. For the first time in this generation of struggle those principles originally outlined by Sun Yat Sen have the right of way. They are accompanied by two major desires. First, Chin~ is seeking to utilize western values and methods in her own rehabilitation. Second, the Revolution has created a new awareness of China's own ancient values. N A th 't China now is in the hands of a new leader-ew u or1 y h' W 'th t t s 1p. I rare excep ions Its viewpom is the fruit of an international training and experience. This leadership may change and even fail to achieve some of its ideals. Nevertheless the military phase of the Revolution is slipping into the background, and for the first time in China's generation of revolution a new leadership has a real chance to guide her people. An era of-" political tutelage" bas opened. R C truct The keynote of the hour in China is e ons ion I h h h' reconstruction n t e economic sp ere t IS

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2 RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES is best illustrated by the posters recently put out by the "National Institute of Military Technology" of Nanking. These urge attention first to the fo1lowing industries, food, clothing, housing, motoring and printing. China's needs are then viewed comparatively in the Jight of the achievements of the seven leading nations as regards railroads, automobiles, telegraph, telephones and roads. Reconstruc tion in education, currency and taxation are likewise receiving much earnest consideration. Moral and social reforms are being urged by the central government which has also recently appointed an Opium-Suppression Committee. The Chief Problem New ideals, a new leadBrship and reconstructive programs are, then, the fruits of the Chinese Revolution up to date. ln a broad way the Christian Movement shows the same characteristics. This volume rereals that many heretofore local experiments are now being put into a national reconstructive program. The problem now facing the nation and the Church is that of applying reconstructive ideals on a community-and nation-wide scale. THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT The changes taking place in the Christian Outstanding Changes Movement have not been created solely by the Chinese Revolution though its influence has been the chief accel .erating factor therein. The chief '.'fruit of this Revolutionary acceleration is the vitalization of the Chinese Christian mind. The number of missionaries in China has Missionaries considerably decreased. Widespread evacua-tion took place primarily in connection with the Com munist attack upon foreigners in Nanking and was due either to expediency, diplomatic pressure or Chinese Christian advice. It was not due to unfriendly feeling towards them on the part of Chinese Christians or a nationwide desire to be rid of them, Two changes of attitude are worth noting. The missionaries, in the first place, have registered a desire to be freed from diplomatic protection where it involves the use or suggestion of Changed Attitude

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RECONSTRUOTIVE CRISES 3 military pressure. In the second place, the Chinese Christian attitude towards the missionaries has changed. 'fhe attack on property and the fact that missionaries and Chinese Christians have suffered have brought the spiritual values of the missionary movement into much greater prominence. Likewise their revolutionary experience has made more manifest to the missionaries the spiritual capacities of the Chinese Christians The Chinese Church still earnestly desires Futu~e Servl. ce the coop eration of the missionaries a .nd their of Missionaries supporters. There JS, nevertheless, some uncertainty as to the type of service missionaries should render to the Chinese Chmch and China. The Church Change is also evident in the Chinese Church. Negatively its numerical strength has decreased. For this two reasons are given. First, many Chinese Christians could not stand the strain of persecution and criticism. Second, the attacks upon the Church have pruned off many of those interested only in its temporal advantages. The Revolution has, therefore. served to purify the Church. The persecution, criticism and revolutionary strain of recent years have, furthermore, brought to many Chinese Christians a new and vital religious experience. A deeper feeling of responsibility has also developed. The urge to self-support has gone up though Chinese Christian economic strength has gone down. There is also a rising Chinese Christian determination to understand Christianity better. In these we have the beginning of a China-centric Christian passion and purpose. Chinese Leadership Recent events have also stimulated the coming forward of Chinese Christian leadership. Nominally Christian institutions and the Church are now under Chinese control. This was one explicit demand of the Revolution. Chinese Christian leadership is an actuality now in a way it was not in 1910. It is more evident and active in higher education than elsewhere. It is also evident in some sections of the Church. It is now here adequate numerically. eh Jn Christian as well as in civic and political r15tlan l th d f th Reco st cti cuc es reconstruction JS e or er o e n ru on day. In the Jerusalem standards Christian

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4 RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES responsibility for participation in social rehabilitation has been clearly espoused. The principle of the spiritual equality of Chinese and western Christians has also been plainly outlined. That the plans and practice of religious education must also be rebuilt is admitted. In addition the relation of the mission and the missionary to the Chinese Church and Christian institutions in China is being reorganized, though plans and progress in this regard vary with different groups and localities. Jerusalem has not, any more than recent Nationalist reconstructive programs, introduced many, if any, new activities to the Christian Movement in China. But both have pushed Christian reconstruction forward. The first stage of China's revolutionary Transitional transition, both within the nation and the Crises Church, has pa8sed. For both the way is more open than ever before for reconstruction. In neither case is the task finished. A psychological conflict is in evidence. In the nation nationalist aspirations are striv ing again8t extra-national influences. Within the Church there is some uncertainty as to the relation of the developing China-centric Chinese Church to international Christianity. This transitional situation involves crises for both the nation and the Church. Two such crises challenge the missionaries. Missionary Crises First there is the influence of their sectarian momentum upon the growing desire of Chinese Christians for a fuller degree of visible Christian Unity and free fellowship. At pm,ent while only the more advanced Christian leaders are articulate in regard to the meaning and goal of this Unity, yet the desire for Unity is also found in the rank and file of Chinese Christians and is bound to grow in urgency among them. Missionaries therefore, must, needs see that their Chinese colleagues have opportunity to study and understand this problem and also take care that their own historical momentum does not hinder the cause of unity in China. The second missionary crisis arises in the danger of slipping back into an old normalcy and failing to develop the aspirations accelerated by the Revolution for self-responsibility and self-expression. A new normalcy must be set up.

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Church Influence RECONSTRUCTIVE CRISES 5 The Church faces many and intricate crises. It has won the right to exist in China. It faces a new and tremendous opportunity. But will it, learn how to wield influence in China's national and social as well on her religious life? Or will the Church slip into the position of being just one of the systems extant in China with an influence small in proportion? Religfous Liberty What also will the Church do about its new awareness of religious liberty and the widespread challenge thereto? This crisis heads up in the Christian school, though it affects, and must be solved in and by, the Church also The Recent National Educational Conference apparently accepted the gist of earlier regulations as bearing upon private schools. The issue confronting religious education, therefore, still exists. Spiritual Vitality Another crisis arises in the relation of continued western economic cooperation with the Chinese Church to the spiritual vitality of that Church. The Chinese Church cannot lay aside its need. Western Christians cannot escape their respon sibility to help. There is needed a new way of carrying on an old form of sharing. u t f F 'th But last, and most important, there is an 111 YO ai urgent need that the Chinese Church unify its spiritual life in personal devotion to Christ. To achieve this is the chief problem facing religious education in church, school, home and community. China's Challenge to Christianity Christianity is now challenged to make itself a vital factor in China's new aspirations and life under Chinese leadership. To do this it must become naturalized. Only patient prayer and research can make plain the implications involved therein. Christianity is also called on to release its dynamic resources so as to build up individual character and social equity. It must enrich social as well as individual life. It has won the right to live in China. Now it must make good that right by living richly, infusing the aspirations of China with the Christlike spirit and will.

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PART I NATION AL LIFE CHAPTER I EVENTS IN CHINA DURING J927 AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH* H. T. Hodgkin Nationalist Movement The year nineteen hundred and twenty seven dawned with the nationalist movement in China at the height of its power. The government recently established in the Wuhan center was recognized by forward-looking Chinese as the best expres :,ion up to date, of the ideals of the republic for which Dr. Sun and the Kuomintang had been contending for many years. The spectacular advance through Hunan to the Yangtze Valley and into Hupeh and Kiaugsi, where the nationalist forces had met with one success after another, seemed to give an assurance that at last the Republic would become something more than a name and the regime of the Tuchuns come to an end. Preparations were being made for further advances and there was a general expectation that the campaign begun so brilliantly would in a reasonably short space of time be carded through to North China and bring all the eighteen provinces under one nationalist government. "Nori;:: The writing of this article was undertaken at the last moment owing totbe unavoidable breakdown of other arrangements tberefor. It has, therefore, been necessary to prepare it very hurriedly and it has been impossible to secure the material on which an article attempting to deal with this subject ought to be based. Nor has it been possible, under the circumstances, to secure the opinions of more than one or two people on the article itself. The reader must, therefore, take it as, in the main, an expression of personal opinion on the part of one who bas tried to keep in touch with the developing situation in the country and in the church.

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NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH 7 Cause ol Advan4;:e The advance of the Nationalist army was made possible partly by defections from the ranks of other leaders, partly by the able leadership anrl the great devotion of the men who had been trained in the Whangpoa Academy and partly by the efficient and widespread system of propaganda which undoubtedly did much to weaken the resistance of the opposing armies as well as to raise the morale of the Nationalists. To so'lle observers it had already become We~kne$!es of clear that there was a very grave source of Nationalist l h" h 1 Movement wea mess wit m t e nat10na 1st movement, due to the fundamentally different aims of the right and left wings and the dependence of the whole movement upon the more extreme elements and in particular upon Russian advice and cooperation, At the same time many Chinese who did not share the principles of the communists, believed that their presence, as an efficient driving force, was necessary in order t'J carry through the campaign, that when the time came, China would easily be able to work out he1 own economic and political methods and discard what she did not want. While in a military sense the position of the northern gf\nerals under the leadership of Chang Tsolin was fairly secure, there was a quite general feeling that this position could not long be maintained in the face of the rising tide of nationalism and that a clash between the enthusiastic Nationalist forces and the soldiers of the north could only have one result. Extreme Aspects of Nationalism As has been the case in the development of so many nationalist movements in the world, the period of intense patriotism was also one of violent opposition to other nations. The designs of western peoples were under a constant fiTe of criticism, all actions were construed as parts of a deliberate imperialistic policy, cartoons, slogans and speeches com bined in their exposure and exaggeration of the evils under which China had suffered from these Powers, and this campaign was being steadily pushed as a means of strengthening the national spirit and developing cohesion and

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8 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH enthusiasm. Few seemed to realize that this anti-foreign movement was bound, sooner or later, to be followed by a reaction and that the unification of China needed a stronger motive than that supplied by the criticism or dislike of other nations. The very varied elements in the nationalist movement still lacked real cohesion. Nevertheless, the cry of "One party until the revolution is completed!" was, in the beginning of 1927, generally recognized as binding on the various elements, and anyone who suggested that the time bad come for attempting to clear up these radical differences was regarded as little short of a traitor to the national cause. On the first of January, 1927, therefore, Hankow the stage seemed set for the rapid realization of the hopes with which Young China had been buoyed up during the fifteen years of chaos, disappointment and tyranny following the proclamation of the Republic. Within a few days, however, an incident had taken place which already showed, to those who had eyes to see, that very grave dangers loomed ahead. The deliberate organization of a mob in Hankow, whose presence was resisted for four hours without the firing of a shot by the defenders of the British concession in Hankow, was undoubtedly due to a mova on the part of the extremists who held that the relation of China with foreign Powers could only be settled satisfactorily through the exhibition of violence in one form or another. When the authorities in the concession finally called in the Chinese and asked them to take over the policing of the area for which Britain had hitherto been res ponsible, the extreme elements in the nationalist movement regarded the e vent in the light of a signal victory for their tactics What negotiation had failed to do through long years of discussion, had been accomplished in a few hours by an angry mob, stirred up by intense feelings of patriotism and anti-foreignism. The door was opened for the negotiations which followed and which finally led to the definite relinquishment of the Hankow concession by Great Britain and the establishment of an Anglo-Chinese regime with a Chinese Director. Similar events in Kiukiang but added confirmation to this view of the incident.

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NATIONAL LIFE A ND THE CHURCH 9 Nationalist Split Wit.bin the Nationalist Party, however, the group that favored negotiations and believed that China had more to gain by patience than by the use of mob violence or economic pressure, realized that a serious blow had been 1:1truck not only to China's standing among the nations, but also to the unity of the nationalist movement itself. In less than three months the forces of the South had moved down the Yangtze river, occupying the provinces of Anhwei and Chekiang and parts of Kiangsu and threatening Nan king and Shanghai. The incidents connected with the fall of the former city must be regarded as the final attempt of the forces of the left to discredit the moderate leaders, and more particularly, Chiang Kai-shek. If the Ifankow incident was a first indication in a public way of the impossibility of reconciling these elements, the N anking incident on the 24th of March was the last desperate attempt to maintain the ascendancy of the left wing in the party councils. On this fateful day, a section of the Nanking Nationalist armies, entering Nanking, and under definite instruct. ions from leader;i of the left, attacked three foreign consulates and nearly all the Centers where foreigners were located. Many were threatened repeatedly, robbed, beaten and wounded, and some were kilJed, including Dr. Williams, the much loved Vice-President of the Nanking University. Only after the opening of a ~arrage by foreign war vessels did the looting and outrage come to an end, making it possible for the foreigners to escape but leaving the buildings and their contents, in most cases, to the further violence of the soldiers and the lawless mob. The Nanking incident forced the hands of ~i;;;~~~ent General Chiang Kai-shek who proceeded to e1:1tablish a moderate government in Nanking and took, in Shanghai, very drastic steps to suppress the communists. For a considerable time the whole progress of the nationalist movement was brought to a standstill by these dissensions Attempts were made for a while to bring about a reconciliat.ion between the Wuhan and Nanking governments, and finally, through t.he elimination

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10 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH of the Rus<1ians in Hankow, and General Chiang Kai-shek himself in Nanking, a joint government was formed This government maintained a somewhat precarious exiPtence for about six months, when attempts were made to bring in again Wang Ching'l'l'ei from the left and Chiang Kaishek from the right. 'fhis effort, however, coincided with an Canton outbreak of extreme violence with bloodshed and unspeakable horrors in Canton, when the forces of the extreme left tried to re-e4tablish their hold in that city and province. The feelings of Chine se throughout the country had by this time b e en increas ingly alienated from the more extreme elements who, it was felt, had no adequate constructive program and 'l'l'ho,e methocls and spirits !'eemed to undnmine some of China's most precious traditions. The outbreak in Canton, after lasting for only three days, was i=>Uppref>Fed with almost equal if not greater violence by the more moderate Pection. The eyes of the Chinese had been opened as by no previous experience to the worst side of the communist program and in the intense revulsion of feeling which followed the Canton incident, Wang Chingwei left China and Chiang Kai-sht>k W,ts able to establish himself in the party and in the government as the leading figure. China and Nations 'fuming hack for a moment to the Na.nking inciclent, reference must be made to the effect of this upon China's relations with the rest of the worl,l. The incident proved to be a very i-:erious setback to the sympathy which had been clev<-'lnping in many quarters in Europe and America for the nationalist cause. Had such an outrage been perpetrated by the northern soldiers, it would indeed have been deeply deplored, but only regarded as an inevitable incident in the cour,:e of civil w a r 'fhe fact that a section of the Nationalists was directly responsible for this outrage, that it was not simply a chance but a cleliberate moYe, caused grave mi~givings on the part of very many who had hoped again~t hope that the nationalist movemeJJt held in it the promise for a strong, progressive and unified China. Relations between China and the foreign Powers

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NA1'IONAL .LIFE AND THE CHURCH 11 were broken off, and until the end of the year under consideration, no Power had succeeded in re.estn blishing them on termR sat.isfactory to itself and acceptable to the ChineRe government. The Nanking incident gave an added sense Ev;ac~atio? of of irn;ecurity to foreigners resident in China. M1ss1onaries F II I .d H k l o owrng t 1e rnc1 ent m an ow a arge evacuation of missionaries and other foreign residents in China had been arranged by the consular authorities of the countries concerned. After the :t\anking incident, still more drastic steps were taken ancl in many parts of China there were scarcely any foreigners left to carry on even the most. necessary services. It seemed for a while as if the only thing to do was for foreigners to withc!raw altogether from China except from the few points that could be defended, leaving China to work out her own salvation in her own way. Foreign Troops Following the Hankow incident and while the extreme left was still in control of the situation in Hankow, considerable bodies of troops had been sent from various nations to Shanglrni in order to make sure, so far as possible, that no attempt should be made by mob violence to rush the situation in that huge international center. So long as the extreme counsels prevailed in Hank ow, it was feared that tactics which had proved so successful there might be repeated in other centers, and it was held that a peaceful evacuati11n of Shanghai by foreigners was unthinkable and in the interests neither of the foreign nations concerned nor of China herself. The movement of troops, however, was Anti-Foreign d d b Ch. f th F Ii regar e y many mese as a ur er sign ee ng of imperialism, an interpretation inevitable in the heated condition of mind which was the result of the continued propa.g:rnda of the previous month~. During the f'arly part of l\:J27, therefore, the anti-foreign feeling throughout China was greatly inrrea:-ed through the precautionary measures taken by Britain and other Powers in relation to the Shanghai situation. Certain

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12 NATIONAL LIE'E AND THE CHURCH facts are now generally re"ognized which, during the early part of 1927, were much disputeci. The varied intnpreta tion of these facts led undoubtedly to a much more tense situation than would otherwise have developed. In particular, it is now recognized (1) that Some P'?pular the Hankow incident was the result of a Conclusions defimte move on the part of one element m the government who were trying to gain advantage over the other; (:.!) it is further recognized that the movement of troops to Shanghai was primarily a defensive and not an offensive operation and, in particular, was not aimed at the nationalist movement; (3) it is also recognized that the Nanking outrage was due more to the effort to discredit Chiang Kai-shek than to a deliberate attempt to injure the foreigners, and that it was a desperate effort on the part of the already discredited communist element. It may also have been intended to prepare the way for an attempt to reproduce in the Yangtze delta the tactics which led to the cession of the British concessions in Hankow and Kiukiang. Effect of Nanklng In addition to its effect upon foreigners and upon foreign relations with China there can be no doubt that the Nanki11g incident deeply moved many thought.ful Chinese who were shocked to feel that even with the Nationalist forces there were elements so violent and dangerous. Some who had attempted to idealize the movement and its leaders were turned almost into cynics and felt that there was but little to choose between the leaders of north and south. While this is true it must not be forgotten Survival of h f h f h Nationalism t at there was a degree o ent us1asm or t e cause which could survive even this seVfire shock Around the personality of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen a tradition had grown which gave to him and his principles an almost divine sanction. Early in the year the cult of what has been called "f::anminism" (the study and propaganda of the San Min Chu I or Three Principles of the People) carried all before it. As the year proceeded criticism of this position developed both on the part of

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NATIONAL LIFE AND 'HE CHURCH 13 extreme communists who felt the dead leader was far too caut.ious and on the part of conservative elements who regarded the entire movement as destructive. This changed emphasis led to a weakening in the more violent. and aggrei;sive aspects of the movement At the same time there was an increasing Constructive demand for a more definite constructive policy Policy and this is now beginning to take shape. It was not enough to have the farmera organized as a force to take back the land, they must also be able to increase production from the land. It was not enough to have student organizations press political issues; they must also do good work and fit themselves to hold responsible office The trend away from mere propaganda and to wards constructive service has been a distinct though not as yet a. dominant one in recent month~. Effect on Christian Church In estimating the effect of the events briefly summarized fo the foregoing paragraphs upon the Christian movement in China, it is necessary, however, to remember that points such as these only gradually became apparent and that during the first part of the yen, fe e lings were running very high. It was inevitable that the Christian Christians and churches in China should be deeply moved Nationalists and responsive to tbe currents of thought in the nation as a whole. This, of course, was more evident in areas under the control of, or in sympathy with, the nationalist movement than in the northern provinces where there was less propaganda and where strong re pressive influences were brought to bear. At the same time, it will be fair to si1y that the general tendency among Christian Chinese in north and south alike was favorable to the nationalist movement in a general way, although not to be counted on as behind any particular political group. It would be easy to find sections of China ~~!!Affected in which the Christian Church in its general activities and in its relation to foreign friends

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14 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH was little, if at all, affected by these significant happenings in the political wor:d; nevertheless, the Christian forces in many places have been deeply influenced, and the following points are mentioned as those in which it seems as if that influence had been most profound. 1. Desire for a more Chinese Expression of Christianity Chinese Expression of Faith The nationalist movement has undoubtedly stimulated the feeling, alreaily beginning to be articulate in various parts of the Christian Church, for a more thoroughly Chinese expression of the Christian faith, both in word an<1 in the organization of the
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NATIONAL .LIFE AND THE CHURCH 15 We may say, as a broad generalization, CbrMian Self-that the eh nrch in China is reaching a Determination determination to express itself in its own way, to shape its own organization, to lind its own credal statements, to plan its own program and to stand before the nation as a genuinely Chine.;e institution, claiming attention, not because of any af'sociation with the foreigner, bnt because of the intrinsic value of its me~sage and the suitability of that message to the Chimt of to-day. 2. Readiness to accept Re8ponsibilit .l/ Passing Over of Responsibiiity For some years past, there has been a steady movement in most of the missions and e,hurches towards the appointment of Chinese for responsible positions in the church. This movement has been a slow one, not so much b,cause of any question in the minds of missions on theoretical lines as to the desirability of such a m,,vement, as because of the lack of conviction on the part of many missions that Chine;;e Christians are act -ually ready to assume thei::e responsibilities and competent to take up the work which would devolve upon them. There has also been, in not a few cases, an unwillingness on the part of Chinese to accept responsible pm,ts, due in pa.rt to a natural diffidence and in part to the fact that the conditions connected with the assumption of these duties have, in many cases, been unacceptable. The effect of the na.tiona:ist movement r;1i!~iopry t has been felt in overcoming these difficulties C~in:sse ass O and in leading Chinese, partly because of the evacuation of mi"sionaries, partly because of the efforts to med the requirement_ s for the registration of school:;, and partly as a means of meeting the general attacks from the anti-Christian>', to assume responsibilities which, in not a few cal:'eS, tl1ey had previom;Jy shrunk from accepting. So far as our information goes, m a great majority of the cases, this quickening of the pace has proved satisfactory and th_ose who have taken over

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16 NATIONAL LIFE AND 'l'HE CHURCH duties hitherto discharged by m1ss10naries have often ehown themselves far better fitted to do so, than the missionaries or even they themselves had dared to hope. New occasions have taught new duties, and there can be no doubt that in many cases there has been a def'pening of character and a discovery of fresh Hpiritual resources, enabling men to rise to meet the occasion 3 Defection from the Ohnrch and Revelat-ion of Its Weakness It would not be true to say that the Effect on attacks upon the church, the evacuation of Membership missionaries and the other strains to which Christians have been subjected, have in all cases worked out as indicated in the preceding section. In not a few cases the attacks have been very bitter and persistent and there have been wonderful records of faithfulness on the part of individual Chinese, eome remaining true even at the cost of life itself. The continued violence of the opposition has in other places been too much for the church and considerable reduction in numbers have been reported in various sections Reports are to hand of cases where the Christian work in centers has seemed altogether to collapse; some who had betm trusted leaders have proved untrustworthy. The removal of the missionary bas, in certain cases, brought out internal discords and factions which have paralyzecl the church and made its witness ineffective at a time of crisis and opportunity. Observers from different parts of China, while recording such cases, nevertheless feel that on the whole the effect has been to strengt.hen the church: that the elements of weakness have been disclosed, and in some ea.Res the few who are left are really of more value to the Christian cause than the larger numbers of indifferent Christians. In some parts the winnowing process has been severe, and it is still too soon to say what the net result will be, but judging by history and by certain other cases that have been reported, there is good reason to hope that the final result of such a process will be to the strengthening of the Christian cause.

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NA'flONAL LIFE AND THE CHU)WH 17 4. An Impetus towards Christian Unity On this question it is peculiarly difficult Nationalism to generalize. In some groups the reaction and Unity has been rather away from an extreme nationalism which is felt to be inconsistent with the universal spirit of the Christian faith, leading to an emphasis, as in the case of the Methodist Episcopal churl)hes, upon union with an international denominational organization rather than union within China of the various communions. In other cases, however, -and these are perhaps the majority-the feeling has been growing that the unification of China to which all are so eagerly looking forward, ought to have results within the Christian group, leading to a much closer association or affiliation between the varied groups. The movement for the Church of Christ in China has been consummated at a time when this feeling has tended to predominate, and the steady support of Chinese to the National Christian Council, even when some of the missionaries have questioned its value, is a further e vid en ce of the same temper. 5. Growing Interest in Public Affairs Church and National Movements A geni>ration ago the Chinese churches felt themselves to be, as indeed they mostly wer.:l, little groups of believers, so mew hat outside the main current of China's national life. To-clay, and especially through the events of the last year, the Christian movement has been drawn into the tide of China's developing national self-consci,msness. More and more are leading Chinese Christians feeling that the church must not stand outside the national movements, that she must find a way of expressing herself in regard to great moral issues that are raised in connection with the economic development of the country, in connection with her politica l life and international relationships, in connection with the home and social customs. To m any Chinese, these are no longer outside interes t s to be thought of as a field for individual participation, but to be eschewed by the church in its organic life. Realizing, as many do, the danger of the church's becoming committed

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18 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE CHURCH to particular solutions or parties, Chinese are nPvertheless increasingly a ware of the demand for the lifting up of high standards of public life, and 1 hey feel that the fear of contamination must not be allowed to prevent the Church from entering into these fields. Two Trends This movement within the church has produced a certain reaction on the part of those who feel that the church must confine itself to spiritual activities, leaving the individual to work out, in connection with other organizations, his Christian convictions so far as they affect pub] ic issues There may, t.herefore, be said to be within the church two trends of thought-one calling for a more active participation by the church as such in these questions; the other trying to call a halt and fearing lest the church should dissipate its energy on rnch matters ancl fail to make its profound im pres1:>ion in the tield of evangelism and the deepening of the spiritual life. 6. A Deeper Appreciation of the Church's Educational Function Educational Leadership For a long time past educational missionaries have deplored the lack of a deep and sustainecl interest in e
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NATIONAL -LIFE AND THE CHURCH 19 schools have produced a lot of thinking byChinese on the prohlem of voluntary ver:-ns required religions teaching and other aspects of the educational program. No doubt the church is gaining much in this way through the events of the last year or two. 7. A Stronger Emphas i s on Character Building Leadership Needed Chrfrtian leaders have watched the development of the nationalist movement with great hope, but also with a certain amount of misg1vrng As time has gone on, it has become more and more apparent that the crux of the question for China is whether a leadership can be developed which will be truly selfkss, public spirited, and absolutely honest. The breakdown in one after another of the leaders in China i has been due more to moral failure than to political mistakes. There is a great fear in the heart of many Chinese lest a movement so full of promise should be wrecked through the moral failure of its leadership. Among Chinese Christian leaders, therefore, it is easy to discern a re-emphasis in the light of the needs of to-day, upon the fun'tered l"choolt1, and other similar movements give promise that, throngh the tremendous experiences of this last year, thl:l Chinese churches are being caused to think more d,eply on their fundamental prohlems, and are coming through to a fresh experience of God in Chri&t

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20 NATIONAL LIFE AND THE OHUROH Strain Lessened Generalizations always tend to be mis leading, especially if they are used by those who haVfi not enough knowledge of the specific conditions ont of which they arise to check them up in detail. The above generalizations are, therefore, offered with a good deal of hesitation lest they should be regarded as applying to all parts of the church and as interpreting all particular situations. It is nevertheless believed that each of the tendencies referred to above is to some extent characteristic, at least in some parts of China, of the effects produced within the Church by the stirring events of 1927 As the year proceeded, the intense feelings and the strain through which Christians had been living, tended to pass away, and a soberer view of the whole situation settled, not only upon the church, but upon the nation as a whole. Those who had looked to a very speedy accomplishment of their objectives, came to realize that there are still many terrific obstacles to be overcome. Those who had tended to throw all or nearly all the blame for China's ills upon foreign Powers came to realize some of the grave dangers which exist within China herself. Those who had counted upon the pronouncement of ideals and slogans as adequate to carry the movement forward to success, came to see how long a process of education is required before such ideals can be understood by the mass of the people and become operative in the life of the nation. For the leaders in the church no less than Future for those in t.he state, this change proved valuable, and as China passed into the new year, the temper was rather one of going steadily forward upon a long and difficult road, prepared to accept drawbacks, disappointments, hardships, but by no means prepared to surrender the idi>als which had inspired the earlier enthusiasm. New Temper of Church from foreign This is the temper, it seems to me, with which the Church is entering upon her work now, eager to draw all the strength she can friends who wil 1 serve with absolute loyalty

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NATIONAL .LIFE AND THE CHURCH 21 to the Church in China and place their experience and gifts at her disposal. Perhaps through the difficult times of 1927, the Church is entering upon a new period of fruitful cooperation and greater power to meet the clangers and the opportunities that lie ahead.

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CHAPTER II SOME CHJNESE CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES Fu-Liang Chang One hesitates to write about con>1tructive China's Three enterprises at this particular moment when Revolutions China is undergoing three rev0lutions at the same time, political, intellectual and economic. Taking the polit.ical revolution alo11e under consideration, this period can well be compared with that of the French Revolution, many times magnified! Communistic reigns of terror and anti-communistic hysteria have occurred here and there. China is at present engaged in a civil war on a scale that has never been equaled in her history of forty centuries! There is, however, a silver lining to this Struggle for periocl of uncertainties and disturbances for Self-Preserva. tion the Chmese people have lost much of then faith in isms and are heginning to realize that their salvation lies in their own hands. Among the simple folks of the country, org:rnizations such as the "Red Spear Society," the" Big Sword Society,'' etc., are desperate efforts for self-protection and self-preservation: as to the more intelligent Chinese, the events of past years have compelled them to think more deeply. As one lives and moves among them, one hears of many constructive projects being discussed and prepared and, in some cases, some experiments are being conducted quietly. Some Permanent Contributions The chief purpose of this article is to attempt to present some of these constructive enterprises, which are less known to the general public and which, rnwerLheless, promise permanent nontributions to the upbuilding of China. Owing to the limitat.ions of time, energy, travel and experience, this article is bound to he partial, fur the writer can only refer to those particular constructive enterprises which have come to his own notice.

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CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 23 Of certain well-known constructive enterWell-known prh;es, mere mention is sufficient. The Home Enterprises Missionary Movement has done splendid work in Yunna.n, Shensi and other interior places! Its support by Chinese Christians is growing. The l\ational Anti-Opium Association of China, a child of the National Christian Council, has grown to be an organization of nation-wide influence and has gainerl th,~ hearty support of Chinese leaders. Educationally, Nankai College, Tientsin, anrl Futan College, Shanghai, are outstanding institutions of higher learning, established a11d developed by the Chinese; they compare favorably with other coJIPges, gov<'rnmental or Christian. While business has suffered much under the disturbed conditions of the present, the Commercial Press, the premier publishing house in China, is able not only to maintain itself but also continues to pay a profitable divi
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24 CONS'fRUC'l'IVE ENTERPRISES being undertaken by individual citizens and organizations. The Rural Giant China is a nation of farmers. It is estimated that 85% of China's population lives in the country. Whatever affects the life of the village influences the welfare of the whole nation. Only recently have people become alarmed at the outburst of power latent in the country,;ide. More thought, by more men is being spent on rural problems as people have become aware of the awakening of the country giant. We are glad to find several distinct constructive attempts to make the life in the country less a matter of drudgery and more liveable. The fighting between northern soldiers and i~!~!:truction the Nationalists in December 1926, reduced Nankang, a country region a few miles south of Foochow, to utter min. The Civil Governor at that time was Admiral C. P. Sah, who gave up his high position and set himself unstintingly to the relief of his war-stricken people. Out of the ruins of the battle ground a new village was built. The paved ma.in street has trees and flowers in the middle and three other smaller streets have also been built. Four new bridges together with other public works such as wharves, public toilet;i, ditches, roadside pavilions and kerosene godowns have made the village literally modern. The 91 newetyled business houses on both sides of the main thoroughfare and 160 residences, all recently built, have given a truly Chinese countryside a western atmosphere. A small fort for the village guards,'' reminds us vividly of the unsettled conditions of rural districts. The remarkable thing about Nankang Village reconstruction is the statesmanlike ways in which it has been carried out. It is constructive philanthropy, that is, helping people that they may help themselves. No pauperizing, which often characterizes relief work, is visible in this case, but a real double blessing for those who gave and those who received the help. Relief Work Relief work, when efficiently handled by unselfish men, upon the principles of selfhelp and cooperation, can make one dollar do the work of

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CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 25 two. Built not too far above the old standard of construction, a 1,hop costs $435 and a home $180. The former item is carried by the trrn,tees of the Relief Fund unless the shop is bought for SHOO by the land owner; for the latter item no repayment is expected, for it is a home and produces no income. Other arrangements for housing large families or clans were also made. Clans that can raise the larger half of the money needed for rebuilding their common home, rnay f:'eek the remaining 45 % from the fund. Thus out of the ashes and ruins of yesterday only we find a happy and prosperous community arising. When recon~truction was first started by Funds Admiral Sah, it was based on his faith in the generosity of human nature. He did not 1oolicit money but used what was freely given to him. He handled the funcls firl"t given so efficiently that more came from his per.:lonal friends and friends of the cause. He received about $80,000 in all and made it go a long way in this work of constructive relief. There is no better challenge to any work of real worth than the one of old: '' Come and see.,: M d I V'Il Another constructive undertaking similar to O e I age the above is the model village in Pootung, across the Whangpoo, Shanghai, built under the auspices of the Shanghai Chinese Y. M. C. A. The plall calls for sixty single houses and at present twelve houses have been built and occupied. Several features of this work deserve special attention. In the first place, each building costs $330 and will be usable for 15 to 20 years. Including charges for interest at 5%, insurance, maintenance and repairs on the house, a monthly rental of $3 will cover all expem:es. In the second place, each house is compactly built of bricks with tiled roof and conveniently arranged with light from three sides. It has a living room, a bed room, a kitchen, a toilet and a small front yard. In the third place, the prosper.tive tenants must be laborers with families, whose monthly wages are not over $30. In the fourth place, the community activities center in a two-story building, which also serves as a day school of primary grade and a night school for adults.

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26 CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES Every Wednesday there is a weekly social entertainment when all the villagers go to the Community Honse for a cup of tea, discuss the problems of the village, listen to stories and lectures and sometimes enjoy entertainments given by the Music Club and the Dramatic Club, organized by the boys of the locality. Cleanliness of "Model Village" In visiting the "modPl village'' at Pootnng, one ie struck by the cleanliness of the home1-and the grounds in contrnst to the general conditions of an average village, as well as by the chPerfnl attitude of the tenants. Jt is an eloquent demonstration to fnctory owners and other capitalists how they can he!p their workers and employeP-s best. Tlrnrein lies an important contribution to improving the relations between capital and labor. The community CPnter of a Chinese village Tea House is the tea house. It is the place where the doings of the village are discu s sed and where the farmers get recreation by listening to story narration and enj,>ying a game of cards. In tea honses diRpntes are often i::ettJed and arrangements for weddings and funerals genernlly made. It is a pnlse-center that domina tes the social life of the village. At pre8en t we tind that tea houses are also gambling houses for the villages and that illicit opium smoking is often carried on in inner rooms. Yet in spite of all existing evils, they are wonderful places for constructive efforts! We are glad to note that a beginning was Community macle, in February of this year, by the Tea-Houses Village Education Movement and the Chinese Vocational Educational Association in opening two Center Tea Houses in the country districts outside the City of Nanking. Popular education clas8es, story telling, newspapers, pingpong, chess, Chinese musical instruments, talking machines, stone weights, horizontal bars, etc., are provided in these two Tea Houses as means of recreation and uplift. This is an interesting experiment, the results of which will throw a great
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CONS'l'RUQTIVE EN'l'ERPRISES 27 namely, how to use wisely the leisure hours of the farmer and improve his recreation. V'll s h I A few years a.go the Nat, ional Asrnci ation age c 00 5 for the Ad van cement of Education ma.de a study of how to educate and modernize the Chinese farmer and his children. It was decided to begin with experiments as to what type of teacher is most su
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28 CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES Village Normal School is making a lasting contribution by opening a new approach to rural education. Vocational Education A bout twelve years ago, after having seen the industrial and vocat.ional training in America, the Philippines and Japan, a number of Chinec:e educational and industrial leaders formed the Vocational Educational Association in China. It has accomplished m ,ch during the last ten years and we shall try only to summarize some of its most important activities. The greatest co'ntribution of the As:::ociation is in the promotion of vocational education in China. A series of studies of the present st.atus of different professions as well as reports on some phases of vocational education constitute enlightening efforts on the part of the Association. In addition to these a monthly magazine entitled: "Education and Vocation," and a wePkly paper: "Living,'' both puhlished by the Association, have bP.en able to foster and extend vocational interest to the public. A special department of vocational guidance for students and an employment bureau for others have enjoyed a wide patronage. In 1908 the Association established in Shanghai a technical school of the middle scbool grade where students, like shop apprentices, do a great deal of manual work. At present it has an enrolment of regular studenLs of 400 and a group of special students of 100 at night. Vocational Training In a country of such dense population, where manual Jabor used to be looked down as unworthy of scholars and where education has been more or less divorced from the art of living, vocational training cannot be over-emphasized. Advocating that education and vocation should go hand in hand and be one, the Association touches the very heart of the economic welfare of the whole nation. Much has been written about the Mass Mass Education Education Movement in the newspapers and Movement magazrne,l both at home and abroad; its past achievements are too well-known to nf:ed repf'tition here. We shall try only to dwell briefly on two pieces of recent work that seem to be unusually full of hope for the future.

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CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 29 The first is the Ting Hsien Experiment. Agricultural Ting Hsien is a typical rural district in south Experiment Chihli. Through the '' 1000 Character" schools the farmers not only became very friendly toward the Movement but also gave it hearty support by enrolling in large numbers as students or teachers. A general committee of the village elders was organized to carry responsibility for this work Thus almost all the work was carried on by local people, only for the training of teachers and supervision of 8chools was the National Association at Peking responsible. To meet this responsibility certain men were appointed to work at this experiment. The graduates from the "1000 Character'' ~~r:~:!:ners schools became the entering wedge for more intensive help to the economic life of the villagers These new "scholars" being local men were able to gather and giv e the information necessary for the National Association to formulate their projects. At first the farmers were skept.ical as to the ability of these men from the National Association to help them agriculturally. However, as a friendly gesture 15 mow of lanI were given to them for an agricultural experiment. These men went ahead with this 15 mow and adapted their technical knowledge, which they had learned from universities in America, to the work on hand. They made such a good showing that the following year I 00 mow were given to them. With the manual help of some of the local boys, they again demonstrated that scientific agriculture could be adopted in rural China and would produce good crops Last summer UOO mow were given to these experts. The civil war has interrupted this good work for a while but the demonstration of the compatibility of labor and learning and also the efficacy of scientific agriculture was not made in vain. Improved Agricultural Machinery While the average farmer is too poor to bny agricultural machinery, the greatest need for the present is the improvement of the existing implements, without putting the

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30 CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES cost too far above the purchasing power of the farmers. Thus an improved water wheel was invented by these men, which was able to lift twice a s much water and at a smaller cost than the present one. The same approach was also applied to the problems of crop selection and improvement of live stock. Jnstea
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CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 31 number of prominent Chinese. At that time there was probably less than 100 Ji of improved roads in all China out,dde of the foreign concessions and leased territories. To date over 13,000 miles have all been built, through the influence of the Movement, by the provincial governments, the Ministry of Communication and privately. Educational Road Campaign Being an organization of individuals working for the promotion of good roads, it haR in its short existence of six years carried on effectively an educative campaign through writings, lectures and exhibits, and has won the support of the people in general. Its four-fold program is especially worthy of attention and has been carried out practically in a number of provinces. The movement endeavors to induce the military authorities to utilize the soldiers for road buil
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32 CONS'fRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES requires money and men and is therefore costly, while a primary school teacher is paid a very small salary and can look after two score or more of students. Consequently at least half of the orphanages visited follow the line of least resistance and pay very little attention to handicrafts. Many golden opportunities are being wasted in some orphana.ges for constructive work in training the orphans to be not only literate but also, by far the more important, useful and independent men and women. Work for Lepers There is another special form of philanthropy which deserves our consideration. It is the Chinese Mission to Lepers. There have been leper homes for many years in Kwangtung, Fukien, Chekiang, Kiangsu, Shantung, Hupeh, Kansu, and Yunnan, established by Protestant missionaries and Catholic fathers. Only as recently as January, 1926, the Chinese Mission to Lepers was formed hy leading Christians in Shanghai. It,; purpose is many-fold; to inform the Chinese people of the dangers of leprosy and of the new possible cure; to strengthen existing leper asy lurns and to cultivate the social responsibility of the Chinese towards the support and medical care of the lepers for the ultimate riddance of China of leprosy Leper Publicity Work This Mission has employed a general secretary who has in his travels done a considerable amount of publicity work. A great deal of interest has been roused among Christian school students, especially the girl students, and also among church members. A campaign for adequate funds is being planned and only awaits an opportune time. This fight against leprosy is not only for the protection of the public through segregation; but with the recent discovery of the chaulmoogra oil treatment, th.ere has come a ray of light and hope to this most hopeless class of people. This movement certainly deserves the whole-hearted support of the Chinese people. Future The above represents some of the constructive works afoot. They are really lost in the immensity of China. But one ca.nnot help taking

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CONSTRUCTIVE ENTERPRISES 33 heart when one views the perspective with understanding eyes. As one sees the mighty oak in an acorn and the man in a child, so do we see that out of thesP. humble beginnings great things may be realized. These enter prise", after all, are the manifestations of a new spirit in Young China, a spirit of adventure, initiative and experiment.

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CHAPTER III STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA* Eleanor M. Hinder Chinese wome11 alone can reveal to the New women of other Pacific countries the inner Consciousness significance of the happenings as the woman-hood of their country emerges into a consciousness of its unity and potentiality. But western women, resident in China, experienced in the women's movement, sympathetically observing trends and events, may have the temerity to attempt an outline of some of the historical featureg of the Chinese women's movement, and may further do what Chine,:e women alone might he~itate to do-indicate where and how a Chinese women's movement might make a contribution to international women's movements. Cordial understanding and sympathetic relations exist as between organized Chinese and foreign women's groups in 8hanghai, as is evidenced by the membership of three Chinese women's groups within the Joint Committee of Shanghai Women's organizations, and the participation of Chinese women in international women's clubs in other cities of China. New Activities The twentieth century has seen a change in the sphere of activity of an increasing number of Chine!:,e women. Passing from a condition in which they confined themselves to the administration of t.he home and the affairs of the familyno mean task for the woman-head of a household when the complexity and size of the Chinese family is realized Chinese women are now concerning themselves with the problems of their communities and their nation. Their activities are demonstra ted in the fields of the professions, notably in education and in medicine: in social work: and, *This article was prepared originally as a contribution to the Pan Pacific Women's Conference, Honolulu, 1928.

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STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA 35 in latter days, in relation to government. The fact that there has not. existed in China any essential assumption of the inferiority of woman in her relation with man, even though there has been, in the past, sharp demarca.t.ion of their spheres of activity, is significallt for the new era. As t-table political conditions develop, Chinese women will be accorded equality with men much more easily than this is conce
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36 STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA changes The Suffrage Associations which this period brought into existence subsequently languish1::d. As is frequently the case in Chinese women's organizations, they continue to exist while their functioning is in abeyance, to revive when the need recurs. In 1921, when the Constitution of Kwang Suffrage tung Province was being drafted women leaders in Canton petitioned for provincial suffrage: on March 29, of that year, seven hundred women paraded, demanding their rights. They failed to achieve a provin cial vote but were granted municipal suffrage. When, also in 19::ll, the province of Hunan drew up its constitution, a woman was elected provincial representative; she subsequflntly sat with other members in the National Parliament in Peking. Provincial constitutions of Chekiang ancl Szechwan, prior to the northern advance of the Southern Army and the establishment of the Nationalist Government along the Yangtze Valley, both granted women equal franchise with men, though no elections were held. The policy of the Kuomintang, which is Equality the policy of the Nationalist Government, as adopted at the Third (Extraordinary) Plenary Session of the Central Executive Committee, with delegatP-s present from all Provincial Committees, in Canton on October 1926, is definite with regard to women: "Article 44: Position of Women. Legally, politically, economically, educationally and socia.lly, women are to be the equals of men." In 1927 the Hankow Govern ment issued an order, carrying out the principles involved in this article to the effect that, pencling promulgation of definite laws relating to the status of women, resolutions which were in preparation for submission to a people's conference should serve as guides in decisions of cases involving women in the High Courts in Hunan, Kwangtung and Kwangsi. The re~olutions referred to make mention of other matters than women's suffrage rights: they are implicit as to their equality and declare the slave trade and concubinage illegal, and indicate the

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STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN OHINA 37 intention to reform marriage laws and give women the right to inherit. In the revision of China's Criminal Code the Nationalist Government at Nanking, in March I 928, gave inciication of a growing sense of responsibility toward women by promulgating a decree raising the age of consent from 10 to 14 years and assuming the age of majority to be 16. St d t Elf I But the objective of Chinese women has not u en or yet been obtained, for so far China has been unable to consider the problems of political reconstruction. In the meantime, it must be realized that women students in China have played an important part in the struggle for emancipation. During the years since the 1911 Revolution, the whole student group, both men and women, held an importance not known by students in any other country. Politics, not learning, was their chief concern. Hence, it is not surprising that, in the summer of 1922, two women's movements were organized in which women students in Peking had a major part-the Woman's Suffrage Association and the Women's Rights League. In ten provinces branches of these, working essentially for the same ends, were formed. In 1926 and 1927 in the Yangtze Valley; the perf'onnel of these org a nizations was active in the extraordinary participation of women in the revolutionary movement. In other than political and student groups, ~ew t' Chinese women a.re also finding expression rganiza ions Clubs, as known in the West, are as yet few in number: but social f'ervice organizations have a strong personnel. The Y.W.C.A. of China is the outstanding women's organization; it has city associations in 13 cities and 90 student associations. Its concern with the issues of the day is significant for Chinern women, as well as its pursuance of a steady policy of education among them in problems related to the home: t.hese make it an organization of grnat importance. Many Chinese women, who are acknowledged leaders, owe their capacity to their training in the employed or volunteer service of this organization. It may justly claim to be the principal adult education movement for Chinese women, and its

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38 STATUS OF WOMEN IN MODERN CHIN A mt>mbership of 12,000 makes it a potential fowi in China. Its program is de,,igned to be adapted to changing needs and can thus meet demands made upon it by changing circumstances. The W. C. T. U. of China, though of a Reform more restricted range of intere8t and frankly a1mrng at reform, is with courage tackling large social problems in China-opium smoking, plurality of wives, girl slavery, and the problem of beggars in Shanghai. Its membership is approximately 10,000. it has also been an instrument demonstrating to Chinese women the potential force they wield in organized form. It is probable that the greatest influence of Women and Chinese women is shown in the educational Education institutions of the country. The emergence of institutions, of college grade and of western type, where Chinese women studellts congregate, and where Chinese women have equal opportunity with men for appointment to the faculty, places great po~sibilities in the hands of these women. Latter days have seen the assumption of final control in schools and in colleges by women educationalists, which is indicative of the influence they may exert. 'fhe coming of large scale industry to China ~J:tr~ and has meant the aggregation of large numbers of women in modern factories in some of the port cities. This, as in the West, has been the precursor to mass action arising ont of and contributing to a class consciousness. In 1926 and 1927, in the days of the activity following the nationalist advance in the Yangtze valley, these groups of industrial women participated in parades, demomtrations and strikes, which point to th~ emergence of a labor movement among Chinese women. But it has to be realized that these phases of activity were political,-efforts consciously aiming at political ends,by leaders not of the women workers themselves. Though it is recognized that many strikes were inspired by eco nomic demands, and were not '' political in their expressed aim, it is also realized by those who know the Chinese women workers that they have little or no understanding,

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STATUS 01<' WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA 39 as yet, of the power of group action, and of the "labor movement" in general. There are practi<.'ally no women labor leaders. At the same time Chinese women have had experience in mass action which has taught them much; and it is probable that the next twenty years will see the rise of women leaders within the la.bor movement who will create out of the present unfocussed stirrings a more coherent group sense. Calls for Women It is obvious that the d<>mand f~r the service of Chinese women leaders within organizations, aiming at political and social en
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40 STATUe Olt' WOMEN IN MODERN CHINA world's thinking, and that Chinese women must seize every opportunity to interpret to the world the hopes they entertain for China. They realize fully that in an international conference, Chinese women of good standing are their country's best emissaries toward an understanding of their country's aims. Ii it has been necessary and valuable to have contacts in Europe, in international gatherings in the past, it is equally vital to have Pacific contacts. In the words of one Chine;;e woman "1some of us know American women: but though Japan is closer to us than America, we know fevrnr Japanese women We know nothing of Latin America or of the southern hemisphere. Chine~e women need the Pan-Pacifie Women's Conference and the opportunity it gives for knowing other Pacific women." Foreign women residents in China, priviCoutributions leged to know and work with Chinese women, know also that they have much to give !:'l,lCh a conference. The very honest facing of their country's problems; the very courage which it needs to face their overwhelming difficulties and to evolve a plan which can scarcely begin to make an impression upon such enormous issues; the very poise that long centuries of culture have brought to Chinese women, coming, in the finest of them, to their re;,cue in a day otherwise not to be faced with equanimitythese are contribution:; of Chinese women whieh other Pacific women yearn to have the opportunity to receive.

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PART II RELIGIOUS THOUGHT CHAPTER IV CURRENT RELIGIOUS THOUGHT C. S. Miao In order to understand "current religious Introduction thought" in China, it is necessary to know the situations or problems that stimulate religious thought. For thi;; purpose a brief account of the problems or situations that are confronting religious institutions in China is apropos. Fir;;t, the anti-religious movement. Under Situations and the influence of Communism, this has taken Problems R 1 . on new impetus. e 1g1on IS superst1t10us. It is anti-scientific, and therefore retards progress. It ought to be non-existent in the modern world. Temples should be confiscated, and monks, being parasites, should be compelled to work. Christianity is specially attacked by the movement, because it is regarded as a tool of western imperialism and capitalism. In many places the attacks appear not merely in placards and writings, but also in violence. Since party purification set in, although communistic theories have been repudiated and open violence has been prohibited by the Government, yet there still exists as an under-current an anti-Christian and anti-religious spirit, as revealed now and then in the "Republican Daily News" and other papers. Second, the Revolutionary Movement that embodies the aspirations of Dr. Sun. At the beginning this had good prospects of making rapid conquest of the whole country, but it was checked by per:-ional strife and splits in the party. Anyhow, the revolutionary movement is much

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42 RELiGIOUS THOUGHT more than a local happening or a party affair. It is the national tide of nP-w aspirations. So tlrn position of religiouR irntitutions is hereby challenged. Are they for or 11ginst the revolutionary movement? Will they participate in the movement? Will tliey rPject or accept the Threi> Principle4? Will the ( hriRtian Church join the movement for the aboli!:'hment of umiqual treaties? Thinl, this movemimt calls for government Restoration restora.tion of all private schoolf'. Both the of Educational Riihts northern and rnuthern gov, rnment regulations do not permit religion as a required subject. The regulations of course contain more than that about which Christian educational leaders are greatly concerned. Facing them there are F-uch questions as: Are government requirements in harmony with the spirit of religious liberty as given in the constitution? Should the Christian schools register? If $0, how can their Chric;tian character be best preRervecl? Current Religious Thought Having attempted to state briefly the situations and problems confronting religious institutions in China, let us now seek to define current religious thought as f'timulated by these problems and situations. The Ii mi ts of this article allow only the barest of outlines of what Buddhists and Protestant Chri:4ians are thinking now. Other religious bodies, su c h as the Taoists and Confucianhts, either have not yet been awakened or their thinking is not kno. wn to the public. Religious Thought Among Buddhists The Buddhists suffered more than the Christians in the year Ht27. In many placeR they were very badly treated. But some of them Rtill think that since there is no hope for the Bu
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RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 43 of their property, they see no reason for pessimism: on the contrary, they deem this probably a very good thing for Buddhism. Buddhist Principles Bnddhism is not anti-revolutionary. Its teachings have no conflict with the Three Principles. On the contrary, Buddhism involves the Three Principles. Therefore, Buddhists should not only participate in the revolutionary movi.ment, but also spread Buddhist teachings among the people in order to hasten the manifestation of the Three Principles. Reform in Buddhism The Buddhists have felt the urgent need of reforming their own association. They t .hink their greatest enemy is not the anti-religious people but they themselves, for what the former have criticized and wantt-d to
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44 RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 6. Organize the Buddhi!aits. No longer should each temple look after its own interests only. Each shoulci look after the common welfare, and therefore all l'lhonld be bound together by some at>Hociation. It is also suggested that for the best interests of Buddhism all temple property shonld be held and controlled by a central committee. 7. Do more philanthropic work and participate in the Peoples' Movement. Religious Thought Among Protestants Like BuddhiRts, Christians are labelled as 8uperstitious by the anti-religious people. But Buddhists have certain ad vantages over Cliristians. Their religion is not rPgarded as having anything to do with foreign im-perialism or capitalism. Christianity has been under suspicion a11d the anti-Chri:otians, by using the text-proof method, have magnitiecl popular snspicion. This ha.scorn pelled the Chinese Christians to do their own hard thinking. They have gone directly to Jesns and knocked at His door. The following are some of the most important results of their :-::earchings: -Chinese Christian Ideas 1. They are convinced that Jesus and His teachings have no relation at all to ImperialiHm and Capitali::;m. 2. They believe that Christianity possesses a revolutionary significance. 3. They have come to see that the Church does not need any spPcial privileges or treaty protection. 4. They believe that religious liberty is a human right. They al~o believe that in accordance with the characterii;:tics of their own people 11nd a broad scientific attitude towards the mociern world, they can enjoy religious liberty even though the Constitution contains no clause referring thereto. 5. They think that the personality of Christ does not conflict with the Kuomintang, but will serve as the foundation of the success on which the Kuomintang depends. 6. They think that the greate8t contribution of Christianity to China either in faith, leadership, or service, comes through Christian education: a large

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RELIGIOUS THOUGH' 45 c majority believe that it is the right thing to register Christian schools. They are divided on the relation of 7. Christianity Christianity to politics. One group believes and Politics that Christianity should have nothing to do with politics. Christians, e,-,pecially those who are set apart for the Christian ministry, should abstain from discussing political issues. Another group holds that whilst Christians should join a political party arid be active in politics, the Church should stand aloof. Her voice is a voice judging right or wrong, advocating justice and denouncing sins. The other group thinks, that Christianity regards itself as a unit, that ought to make proper contrihutions towards political life. Therefore, they say that Christianity must duly recognize the function of politics and furnish the motives of good thinking and provide the highest and the best principles for political activities. Since Christians are aim citizens, they must participate in those movements that tend to reform society, to improve economic conditions, and restore national rights, in order to fulfil their civic obligations. 8. U nsa tis factory Christian Factors They recognize that what the antiChristians have tried to criticise and attack is not Christ but the bad churches and bad Christians; i-o the crucial problem before Christianity in China to-day is neither the problem of reorganization, or the poverty of Chinese Christians, their weakness in theological thinking, nor the participation of the Church in political movements. The crucial problem before Chrif::tfanity to day is the lack of first-hand religious experience on the part of Christians. To meet their need, they should deepen their spiritual life. Some think that a purification in the Church similar to that in the Kuomintang is desirable. But all believe in the need for self-di:-cipline, the expression in life of spiritual realities, and the enrichment of congregational worship. It is only in this way that the Church can have a new life 1t is also only in this way that Christianity can exist in China.

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46 RELIGIOUS THOUGH'! BIBLIOGRAPHY THE HAI CH() YIN (A Bu
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CHAPTER V RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN CHINA T. L. Shen 1. The Problern The impact of western culture during the A New Era last century upon China, with its momentous changes, has brought with it two contributing factors to Chi11e::;e life; name ly, science and democracy. It is not so much the cletailed features of science and democracy that count in thB progres,; of evolution and revolut.on ohtaining in the country, as the unclerlying and prevailing spirit of querot and adve11ture which charackrizes the modern race as a whole. Embodied in this spirit are the virtues of truth, freeclom and couragB, all of which are increasingly emphaFs two conditio1,s; namely, exaltation of the individu!l and equality of opporturnty. In the light of tbe~e two principles China has to face many great change. ~ and adju1:1tme11ts. She ha:; to an:,;wer the question whether citi1.ens, individually or eollective1y, are to enjoy the freedom of belief, the freedom of association, the freedom of speech and of the pre::;s, etc. The most vital and delic:Jte aspect of this question is the freedom of belief or disbelief as it is the taproot of all others. A very common and erroneous view is that I_fti~~~inese of considering Chinese culture as disregarding the fu11dam1ti ve acceptance. That is tant amount. to saying that the Chinese have been accustomed

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48 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY to take for granted that one's belief is not to be interfered with unless it implies or' actually brings hum to others. The Chinese temper is extremely pragmatic; therefore an academic emphasis on a religious liberty that ha8 no politico-social significance is almost inconceivn ble Furthermore the average Chinese attitude towards religions belief is al ways skeptical; hence there is no felt need to in8ist on something which is only a symptom of bondage. It looks as if the average Chinese feels that religious liberty is only needed where dogmatism and proselytism persist and flourish Impact B~tween East and West One effect of the great cultural impact of the West upon China is the dilution of much of China's pragmatism and skepticism. China must now adapt herself to new conditions incidental upon a sweeping tide of human progress. With regard to the institution of religious liberty the Chinese attitude must likewife be one of adaptation, not of passive acquiescence. For in the absence of an accepted ideal, the Chineioe people have long bP-en following their own practice in the limited spheres of action and inter action. What they now want is a definite and clear-cut ideal which will help to further not to limit the old policy of non-interference in religious beliefs It bebooves the makers of new China to see that certain aspects of western genius in this regard are assimilated in order to fulfil the limited aim of the traditional pra'ctice. The recent challenge of the nationalist Chu~ese Culturerevolution seems to demand an acceleration Whither Boundi of every new process now m evidence. But its destructive phases have, on the contrary, often meant suspP-nsion or even retardation of progress. Those whose interests are vitally concerned are either impatient or dissatisfied. So we have been hearing particular complaints on the inahility of the government to protect religious liberty. We need to realize that the work of reconstruction can not be begun until the people have mastered the national situation, which practically means getting hold of themselves, Then will come the period of regularization and standardization. In bringing up any

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RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 49 question which hae to do with the destiny of Chinese culture an allowance of "time" is always necessary if a satisfactory answer is to be found. China must meet the requirements of the modern world, but she must also be perm.-i'ted to meet them with her own resources and plans. No one has the right to ask religious liberty of China if he himself sticks to a system that makes t.he successful working out of the principle extremely difficult if not altogether impossible. 2. Historical Status of Religious L-iberty in China The first reaPon why in the past religious tt~:!nsbips liberty in China has not been explicitly emphasized is that the Chinese people observed group virtues or virtues pertaining to the fixed relationships of a patriarchal social system. Loyalty to causes outsirle those groups was rarely called for. Conscious piety, there fore, was directed towurd parents and ancestors only The average individual was never enabled or encouraged to venture with faith into umeen and intangible realms. Popular belief in an ethical ordn greatly overshadowed the need for liberty of religious faith. With regards to personalistic culture, the ~be ",~olden Chinese people ,have alwuys striven to main-ean tain the balance of the inward moral forces. Any dominant issue which tended to destroy this equilibrium was considered as a u;:urpation. In this way a harmony of vie:vs was established which concerned itself neither with tbe conquest of nor t~e tmrrender of one's personal view. That naturally made subjective assertion almost impossible, hence the absence of dogmatism and proselytism. This is another reason why it has not been felt necessary to emphasize religious liberty in China. Tolerance vs Freedom Another reason wby the Chinese did not positively favor the i
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50 RELIGI.OUS LIBERTY do to you." \Vhen translated into action it resulted in very little doctrinal prejudice and an almost entire absence of religious perEecution. Fvr in any case one would be willing to listen to the presentation of any belief provided that adequate explanation was given in an unbiased way. When people took such a tolerant attitude toward one another, is it any wonrler that the principle of religious liberty came to be merely a luxurious ornament? Again take the question of "Tao" or the The Concepn., h. h th Ch. 1 i f f" T ,, nay, w IC JS e 1nese eqmva ent o rnn ao religion The traditional concept uf Tao waE that it represented that Greatest Common Mtiasure in the universe, which while it gave unity to life, did not lead to uniformity. The manifestatione of Tao were Teh or the virtue!:', which always varied according to their conditions of growth. Differences in religious belief were only its natural consequences. That those differences should be allowed to set up barriers between people who were esst->ntially sharing the same unity of life was a situation ab,mrd to the Chine~e. This fittingly accounts for their ability to assimilate anrl harmonize the three grea t religions of Confucianif'm, Buddhism and Taoi~m. Moreover religion to the Chine~e actually meant "Jiving" the way which included the processes of personal cultivation and attainment. That this should be left with the individual without interference from law or convention was also an obvious result. Organized Religion in China Perhaps the most interPsting point about Chinese b.istory is that since remote antiquity the fa.miry clan has been so powerful that it has assumed practieally all the functions of the state and the church. So the irlea of a church being a separate entity from the politico-social union was entirely alien. The attempts of the state to install some church authority of its own (for example during the Han and 'I'a.ng dynastit-s) were met with gt->neral disapproval and soon proved failurt-s. The emperor wonihiped Hea v e n not in the hope of foi,:tering a na.tiona,l religion but rather in order to show his affiliation with the masses and their common practices. This disorganization of religious

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RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. 51 activities in China has constantly discouraged all attempts to centralize religious systems. The resulting lack of enthusiasm for preaching, per1:>uasion and e,7angelism on the part of the people again offered little occasion for the claim of relgiou~ liberty which too frequently seems to have been intended fur the preacher rather than for the subject of conversion. "W bi ,, f The universal "worship" of Confucius in ors p o Confucius Chma, however, often suggests to casual observers the existence of a great religious institution, unless thBy are led to see something of deeper significance, namely that the "worflhip" was more for the purpose of keeping up an esprit de cnrps among the intelligentsia who were the governing body in China, at least until the recent ir,troduction of the dollar and the gunboat civilization from the West. This "worship" was really politico-educational in nature. As such, however, it involved neither colilpulsory nor prohibitory measures. It is to be noted that the "worship:, of Confucius is being gradually eliminated with the advent of the new age; but his memory will 'doubtless continue to be fresh in the minds of people, particularly as his teaching of Ta Tung or universalism has been taken as the basis of the nationali<::t revolution. In this teaching he pictured a socicilistic state in which freedom and equality would be incidental virtues of society, and would need no hard and fast advocacy or re quirement. Spread of Buddhism How Buddhism was introduced into China and became indigenized constitutes a more important study than the "worship" of Confucius. In all respe, ts Buddhism was more of a religion in every sen~e of the term. It made its entrance in th!:' Han dynasty and later flourished in the T'ang dynal'ty. It was due to the voluntary !"acrifices of its searchers that the great work of i11terpretation and adaptation was done with stwh marvelous i-uecess. It resister! the potential indifferentir,,m of the pt>ople, not by att,:teking the esta bfo,hed syi-:temE' of Confucianism and Taoism, but~ by i,upplementing them with a. unique message of its. own-particularly through its followers

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52 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY living the monastic life which meant the closest approximation of the way of Buddha. Thus Buddhists won ', the social sanction of the time and achieved liberty ; individually and collectively not by petitions and demands but by the actual merit of their own faith and conduct. However, in Chinese history there are numerous instances of jealou~y and resentment on the part of the orthodox Confucianists against the Buddhist inva~ion, for example the fundamentalist position of Han Yii as shown in his thesis on Tao. But his dogmatir,m and intolerance were not at all representative of other well-known scholars and besides he did very little in influencing Chinese skepticism one way or the other. In so far as Buddhism was being popularly transplanted over against the Chinese religious genius of assimilation and adapt.ation, it has degenerated into a religion of mercenary superstitiorn,. The essence of Buddhist faith, however, a great deal of which has already sunk into the depths of the Chinese soul, still commands genuine interest and shows signs of steady revival. 3. Recent Trends in the Country Criticism of the Cid Regime After a brief survey of the historical status of religious liberty in China, we now turn to the attitude of the present generation upon whom the solution of the problem mainly depends. Probably the most noticeable tendency now is to give up the traditional policy of contentment or watchful waiting. The Renaissance has already tired the signal shot for the onward race, and has started a chain of inquiries and experiments leading to the adventurous unknown. We shall thus not stop at a negative acceptance of anything, nor with taking something for granted. In matters of faith we shall follow the lead of truth and courage. This naturally amounts to a positive assumption of the freedom of belief and the abandonment of the Confucian sy,;tem as a whole, as this made too great an appeal for the slavish remembrance and glorification of tl1e past. Recently many young people have taken hold of new religious appeals in an adventurous way. Still

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I RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 53 others have been led to ponder on the problems of religion; .and pondering often means believing more than halfway. Seeing the Truth Another tendency is that of seeking some rational basis for contemporary beliefs, particularly the scientific and the religious. Shortly after the emergence of the Renaissance there was a prolonged discussion on science and religion, participated in by most of the leading intellt:>ctuals of China. It failed to enlist popular response owing to the lack of authority on the subject; so H was followed by a series of antireligious manifestations based on mere external and sensational considerations. But the leading int,ellectuals refused to take part in this latter movement became of their respect for the religious liberty of others. It must be said, however, that to an appreciable extent the antireligionists have been genuine in their search for the truth. 11 Mo:;t of them simply opposed dogmatism and prosel vtiza tion, which are hindraPces to truth anyway: practically all of them made attacks not on personal religion but on its institutional features, which often justify and invite criticism. The recent drift of youth away from the organized church is an indication of this tendency. Needed Changes A third tendency in China is tmbarkation on a comprehensive scheme of reforms. To carry out that scheme one must grope with some general hypotheses based on ob8ervation and experience. From these there may develop some convictions which in turn will call for reckless experiments in all spheres of life. Modern idealism is thus literally translated into act.ion by the younger generation. The history of recent changes in China, educational, political, economic, etc., is really a record of a nation-wide groping after freedom. This struggle has gradually pasi:ed from the superficial aspects to the deeper realms of the realities of life. .fi'or instance the persecution which the Kuomintang people long sufferecl ha!'! led them to value more and more freedom not only of action but of belief. The forces of the : revolution will, therefore, ultimately cau,:e the dogmatism 1 and intolerance, that have been imported from the West, I to die a natural death. In the meantime reform move-

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54 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY ments have sprung up in :religious circles, which will grow in strength, in orcler to Mpe with the momentous changes that have taken place outside them. 4 The Two Oritic(l,l Trends ,, Of the radical anti-religionists in China The Narrow those who question or dPny the principle of Nationalist religions lib~rty arP, of two typPs: namely, the "narrow" nationalists and the communists. Both of them have tried to impos e on the people a set of alien beliefs and standards and in so far as they rlenounce liberty of belief, thP-y are not only in diametrical opposition to the Chines!'! genius but actually moving to defeat their own purpose. If they would succee
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RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 55 2. It interferes with China~s sovereignty (especially the educational), 3. It encourages division and disunion among the people The Communist The communist, as we all know, is a participant in an international cla,;s strnggle. His main misgiving as regards religion is I that it forms a part of the scheme of oppressive capitalism. In other words his opposition is largely directed against contemporary religions as such, not so much against their more disinterested implications. On the que!:'tion of religions liberty he i'e>ems to maintain the position that so long as it is being used by the capitalist class to suit their own convenience, it shonld to have the great and noble pnsonality of Jerns and his warmth and richness of emotion incorporated in the bloori of his own people; hut that he felt compelled to co11demn his blind followers and the profiteers of Christianity as related to a capitalistic system. Communist Attack on Religion These are the common lines of attack against religion as made by the communists: 1. It stre11gthens the spirit of conserva-tism, 2. 3. 4. It inculcates supnstition, It ministt>rs to a capitalistic order, It supports imperialistic designs,

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56 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 5. Attempts Toward Clarifying the Issue Proper Con-The treatment of the subject as given above ception of shonld enable the reader to gather some Rbligious concrete ideas as to possible steps towards Li ~rty a proper solution. Let us consider, as the most important need, the formation of a proper con cept.ion of religious Ji berty; this arises out of the fact that many of the difficulties spring from wrong notions or wrong emphases. Today few seem to realize that religious liberty is a habitual virtue of civilized society and that it is something more than jt-ist a method or a technique. It should, therefore, be the fruit of experience in the interaction of per,onalities rather t .han a mere process of cold legalization. It cannot depend on a negative acceptance of non -interference in religious beliefs or on a si;ibjective assertion of the right of proselytization. It properly rests on the golden mean between the two J:i\Jr the best way to deal with Chinese skepticism is to assume a liberal attitude of humility, tolerance, and sympathy. The person who has given up the quest and adventure of life has already disqualified himself as an advocate of religious liberty for China, a nation now undergoing constant, rapid progress. And those who do thus qualify, have before them an enviable opportunity of education -the task of helping to enlighten and bring home to the Chinese the proper conception of religious liberty. The spirit of tolerance, as a necessary accompaniment of true Jibnty, should carry us a step further by enabling us to create and enjoy a corporate quest with people. of varying religious knowledge and experience. We have only begun to realize the religious signiticance of the impact between East and Wei:!t; and too often we have purpo1,ely shut our eyes to many sicle-lights to the truth. For instance the Chinese conception of Tao, although abstract and impersonal, really offers a key for the transcendence of exhiting artitic1al barriers to faith. The cultural wealth and greatne~s of China have not come by mere chance. It always behooves seekers after truth to venture into

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RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 57 the depth of the Chinese soul to find what has sustained it and the cause of its survival. The requirement of the modern world is that men share their best interpretation of truth in and through a way of fellowship. For the liberty of mutual unclerstanding and goodwill is the highest liberty of the modern man; its scope constantly increases in proportion to the richness of the fellowship More Professed, Less "Proles,iona['' Religionists Our fellom,hip with people of different faith will further enable us to realize that the best way of finding the Way or the Truth is not by building up isolated systems and compartments but by reckless ventures in the hnoic practice of one's unique vision however dim and obscure it may appear at times. When one really believes in Jesus arnl His Way of life, let him immediately follow Christ and take up His cross! There is no reason why he should be particularly excited or discouraged by the presence of any outward system, such as a code which promises him a liberty of faith that is, in reality, already his as the inherent right of every human being. A religion which fails to call out the best in its believers in just such reckless effort to follow the Truth must be wrong somewhere. J f any reformation is to be started it should rightly begin with the root of the trouble, which in this case most people will readily agree is lack of a real purpose for a living religion instead of any existing limitations on free worship or preaching. The professional religionists must turn from parasitic adherents into sacrificial searchers and bearers of the Truth, then religion will enjoy a measure of freeclom hitherto unknown to them simply because of their own superstition and cowardice. Improved Evangelism For the adherents of a living religion, the proclamation of truth becomes a matter of natural ovnflow. The early apostles and saints did not wait for an ideal situation before they began to spread the Gospel. In a sense the ehallenge of the Chinese revolution, with all the inconveniences and restrictions it has imposer! upon religion, offers a crucial test to the vitality of the church. Now that the church has

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58 RELIGIOUS LIBERTY been practically deprived of those embarassing weapons, which Satim once me,i to tempt Jesus, it is free to demonstrate an evangelical strength bai-ed solely on the ministry of love. For it is commonly believed that the persecution which the Church has suffered can, for the most part, he tracerl back to the erroneous mdhods of a proselytizing evangelism. It is time for bllievers of religion to interpret actually the Truth in their own dnily life. Liberty of belief will then be free from the possibility of defeat! Removal of Antiquated Shackles It should be particularly noted, however, that a pro::elytizing evangelism l-.ecomes even worse when it is supporterl by a system which has rleriverl its exiRtence from the force of oppression. The war-cry against imperialism must not be taken too lightly. When moral forces gather round the banner of Satan, they are at the outl:'et doomed to failure which foreshadows itself in every obstacle in the wa.y of their success. If one's liberty can be obtained by forcing other,.: into subjection, it is itself a hopelesH bondage for all concerned. We should have learnerl by this time a lesson frrim the Bnddhist experiment in China. In the absence of treaty i1,terference it has flourished; and, is so far as it was tranRplantec! by artificial means, it soon developed mercer.ary features which will constitute a heavy burJen for the new Buddhist revival. The last but not the least of the steps to Constitutional be taken to set up religious liberty is to Safeguards ,, ff t f h prov1ue an e ect1ve execu 10n o t P. con-stitutional clause on religious liberty. When the negative requirements of the unilateral treaties go once for all, the positive signiticance of the constit.ution will mean more to all people concerned. This process of regularizing the Chinese genius in line with modnn values is a most interesting one. China is entering into a more organized and arLiculate social life both internally anrl internationally. We should not be mislt'd by the experience of the West to think that China must needs adopt a national religion. Neverthele-,s we can be reasonably sure that young China will be most eager to see her own

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RELIGIOUS LIBERTY ,59 citizens and those of other friendly nations continue to enjoy hn bountiful spirit of sympathy and tolerance and to enter into the fullest measure of freedom in all spheres of quest and adventure.

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PART Ill CHURCH LIFE CHAPTER VI LOSSES AND GAINS OF THE CHURCH IN l 927 Edwin Marx Viewing the year 1927 as a whole the losses of the Church have been almost wholly material and institutional; of things which at worst encnmbered the Church, and at best were external, transient, or non-essential. The gains have been in the realm of -the spirit. They pertain to those aspects of the Christian movement which are vital, essential, abiding. The losses and suffering were of the body; the victories and rewards were of the soul. In the category of losses it is natural to Losses include the extensive exodus of mif'sionarirs; the sequestration of church and mission properties; penonal property losf'es, some the result of intentional acts and others incidental to conditions of war; the interference with schools, and closing of ho!
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Church Membership Decreases LOSSES AND GAINS 61 There has been a reduction in the number of church members, hut adequate i:;tatistics are 11ot available. '' The number of prt>aehers is diminished, the number of mt>mhers in the Yenping Conference, for example, decreased by one-third, the income from the churches has been eut in half." This statement hy Bishop Welch is typical of report:; from widely scattered i;:ections. It is not yet time to a:;i::ess the extent or the signiticance of these los:3e:;, to determine what proportion are due to deaths, how many of the missing members have been driven from their localitif'S hy chaotic conditions, what ones are temporarily ab!:'enting themselves from the church through timidity, and what percentage have abandoned the church. Evangelistic efforts and emphasis on expansion-the winning of additional members,-has given place for the present to those forms of ministiy which concern the inner life of the members and of the institution. "Chinese Christians are digging in." The attempt to catalogue the losses of the Disloyalty Church, reveal,; how fortunate it ha.s been in regard to t.hose kinds of loss that bear no compensating advantagf's, but leave the body banlnupt imleed; such as, wide!:'pread disloyalty of the members, conspicuous treachery and corruption, me of positions in the church for private, seltish ends, and indifference or contempt of the pu~1lic toward Christians. Sadly it must be recorded that there are cases of these sorts. But they are not relatively numerous nor conspicuous, and they are not typical of the Church in China. In casting up the account of gains, it is Gains fitting to acknowledge first those that are the direct outcome of the i,uffering and losioes. By the baptir
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62 LOSSES AND GAINS self-confidence of the Chinese members. The seizure and the destruction of property provecl that any special forms of p::-otection which surroun
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LOSSES AND GAINS 63 challenged to make up its own mind and state its own faith." What is the essential Christian mes,mge ? Jn view of the demands for accommocla tion to Chinese thought and customs and objections to the rn-called accretions imported from the churches of the West, what is there in Christian thought and practise that must not be alienated nor compromii=:ed? \\"hat should be the attitude of a Christian to his government, to political affairs, to econ omic conclitions? What is involved in the principle of religious liberty, and how shall it be realized? What of the future relations between the Chnrch in China, and the Churches in the West? How shall the church be organ isecl, how nurture its members, how propagate itself? What kind of leadership is required, and how shall it be produced? Discussion General The atmosphere of China to-day resounds with these discussions. Jn the individual's private study, in the prayerful retreat, in discus13ion and study groups, in c]a,:s-ruum, in public forum, in pulpits, in every kind of Christian gathering, in religious puhlications, in public manifestoes, in the secular press, and even in political and f:itate councils, and in pnblic mass meetings, i>uch questions as those mentioned above are themes of earnest consideration. The main significance for the pre:,ent is not in the particular quality of the various utterances; nor even in the conclusion:::, for few final conc>lusions have yet been reached, although some of them are beginning to assume form. The significance is in the fact that so much of the institutional structure and thought-forms of the past have been "shaken down or shifted out of position," and that Chinese people, both Christian and non-Christian, are eagerly at work recornitructing in their own way. It is too early to predict the final results, but the outlook is hopeful, and to be peRsimistic about the outcome would be to doubt the efficacy of the Spirit of Truth in the hearts of all people. Vitality and Stabilfty In clemon,trated vitality and stability. Notwithstimding what is said above a.bout reconstruction, the church as hitherto con-

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64 LOSSES AND GAINS stituted has not been a failure. No other group rn this time of trial and testing in China has proved more satisfactorily its essential vitality, its ability to carry on in harmony with its purpose. While its super-structure has been shaken, the foundation of lhristianit.y has been firm. What was done by students and faculties at Hwa Nan College in Foochow, at Ginling College and the University of Nanking in Nanking, by numerous local Y. M. C. A. 's throughout the land, by churches throughout the war-torn areas, by medical workers at the sieges of Wuchang, Nanchang and Sianfn, are but a few scattered examples in an epic story which will never all be known. The record is one of clevotion, sttdfastness, courage and resourcefulness probably never surpassed. These tests have proved the reality of the Church in China as a going concern Two other points in this connection need Witness to be emphasized, which can only be mentioned here: the numerical strength of the Church, claiming a great body of witnessing members in every walk of life and in all classt>s of society; and the widespread availal,ility of the Bible.1 The Christian Church is too tirmly estahlished in China ever to be eliminated or ignored in the Iutnre. 2 Enhanced Position In an enhanced position before the rest of the world. A writer in the International Review of J\Jissions3 points out among other encouraging factors, (1) sincere and continued popular approval of Christian it.y in China, and (2) recognition by thoughtful Chinese that Christianity has been a tremendous force for social as well as for individual regeneration. The months since the spring of 1927 have seen the waves of hate and opposition against Christianity steadily subsiding, and a reaction against the violent, 1 Consult the published reports of the Bible Societies. 2 For a comparison of the condition of the churches in North China and in Central and S:)uth China, see article by Rev. Djang Fang, in the Chinese Recorder, March, 1928. a E H Hurne, July, 1927.

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LOSSES AND GA INS 65 unreasoning attncks. A manifosto of the Annual Meeting of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Kiangsi says in part: 1-" At the very height of opposition, Bibles can be sold many times more than in normal times. This shows people's attitude toward religion." The same document asserts that the Christian people in the world are too numerous and too influential for any progre,sive movement to succeed without admitting them to participation. For this reason, the authors of the manifesto maintain, the revolutionary movement in China cannot afford to discriminate against Christians. Reltgious Liberty Definite progress has been made toward clarifying the issue of religious liberty, although the task has not by any means been completed. While the Christian movement has thus International been winning for itself a more assured and Position favnrable recognition in China, the same has been true internationally. The world wide attention that has been focused on some practical applications of Christian principles, as, for example, in connection with reparations, the me of force, anrl international justice, will reinforce the efforts of Christian workers in China, and should react favorably on the prestige of the Church. Changes Needed In the narrower circle of church and micsion relations, the very severity of the shock sustained has awakened western Christians to the immen"1ity of the changes in this country. Nothing less would have concentrated thought so intently on the affairs in this land, and brought about so readily the fundamental changes neerled in Church and mission relations. .l:i~ven yet, "mission board archives contain no suitable progra.ms for this situation,"2 but the events have given a mighty impetus to the needed readjustments. 1 C. R. 1927: 473. 2 c R. HJ27: 233, 234.

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CHAPTER VII NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL IN J927 Henrv T. Hodgkin General Work Much of the work of the National Christian Council in any year is of a character which is little, if at all, altered by changing circumstances. There is a regular output, for example, of litPrature, including the Chinese and English Bulletins, the preparation of yearbooks in the Chinei;e and English languages, the publication of a directory of missionaries and such special pieces of literature as ipay from time to time be required in the development of the organization. w k, 1927 In attempting to give a picture of the work or in of the Council
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NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 67 At the close of 1926 the Council was The Call planning to issue widdy and follow up vigorously the "Call which came out of the annual meeting held in October of that year. This was a call to examine and follow the way of Christ in personal and social life-a call emphasizing the fundamentally spiritual nature of the Christian mesi,,age and at the same time streFsing the necessity of working this message out through a fearless readju1::tment of the individual life in accordance with the example and teachings of .Jesus The "Call" emphasized the implications of discipleship in the home and in the wider relatiomhips of the ChriRtian. Events which took place in China at the turn of the year dt:"eply moved the Christian churches throughout the country and in many plnces involved a complete reorganization of their work to meet the emergency. During the spring months thousands of missionaries were withrlrawn from : their stations. Jn certain sections of the country very acute anti-Christian movements developed. Some Chri1:-:tian : learlers lost their lives and many were in peril. These circum,:tances led to a change of emphasis in the work of the Council. The witness to Christ was being borne through persecution and through the fri.cing of unexpected responsibilities a.nd opportunities. The time called for speci fie acts rather than for general counsel. Steps taken through the Council may be summarized under a few general headings. For a while it was difficult to do anything Visitation of to help the churches which were feeling their th! Churches weakness through the evacuation of missionaries and the attacks of the anti-Christian movement, but as time went on, the way seemed to open for the sending out of Chine~e Christians of stan
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68 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL alwavs been an important part of its service to the churches, and the t.-1ecretaries continued such w0rk rn far as c0ndi tions permitted, but through this body of Chinern Christian leaders a wider field was reached and ideas were brought back to Shanghai which helped the Coullcil to appreciate more. vividly the conditions and needs in different parts of the country. There is ample testimony as to the value of this visitation. The emphasis was laid upon the deeper questions and care was taken to avoid mere!y political ones. During the spring months large numbers ~~~!'i~~aries of missionaries came in larger or smaller groups to Shanghai. Among the organizations which attempted to deal with this emergency was the National Christian Council which helped miseionaries to find suitable quarterf:', set up a post office and information bureau in the Mi:;siom; Building, and stimulated other efforts, including the holding of sp~cial meetings which were much appreciated. The Council officers further got into touch with the secretaries of the various missions in regard to the problem of language study and the more advanced stucly of Chinese literature and problems. A special committee for an emt>rgency school was established, and, under the leadership of Mr. J. E. Moncrieff and Mr. W. B. Pettus, for a time, arrangements were made whereby a large number of missionaries wne able to use the pniod of enforced absence from their stations in further preparation for future work. Classes on newspaper reading, on the San Min Chu I, on Chinese Religions, Art, and other subjects of current intere!':'t, were taken by competent authorities. Several discussion groups were also carried through dealing with important questions such as religious education. There is ample evidence that this service was appreciaterl by many missionaries and that to some extent the difficulties and drawbacks of a large number of people suddenly evacuated from their stations were red need. Industrial Conference One of the aspects of the national movement in China has been, as everyone knows, the attention given to economic questions. Economic theories have been propounded and widely

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NATIONAL CHRIS'rIAN COUNCIL 69 discnssed, some of which, at any rate, are by no means firmly established and the application of which to China is a very doubtful advantage. Early in the year the National Christian Council faced the fact that many Christians, including pastors and other leaders, were seeking guidance as to the Christian attitude towards such economic questions. It was realized that in recent years, representative Christian groups in other countries have been doing a great deal of thinking on the question of the relation of Christianity to our indmtrial and social prob lems. It was felt that the result of this thinking should be macted when the radical tendencies which have been working in China in recent years are taken into account. Nevertheless the conference showed a very serious attempt to bring the principles of Jesus to bear upon the actual problems of city and country life and no disposition to evade or compromise in regard to the issues raised. In preparation for the conference, two or three workers made surveys of local conditions and brought the results of their work to the group which met in Shanghai. While the National Chri~tian Council does not for a moment take the view that the Kingdom of God is to be established through improving the lot of the workers, they do believe that those who are under the influence of the Spirit of God cannot but be interested in seeking for such improvement and doing their utmost to effect it. This involves the most careful study as to

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70 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL ways in which such help can be wisely give n Such study the Nat.ional Christian Council is fur1 h ering continuomdy through its Commit.tee on Christianizing Economic Relations. Relation of Church and Mission Jn the early part of 1927, letters and statements were received from rlifferent parts of China showing an increased interest in the problem of developing an indigenous church life in China. A fe w of the statements receiverl were of an extreme character, but in the main they showed a healthy determination to face the
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NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 71 and different denominations and points of view Visits were paid to a number of centers to stimulate interest in the subjects which were coming up for discussion at the Council meeting and in several centers groups were formed which did preliminary work. Fruits of Jerusalem Meeting Beyond the light which it is expected will be gained in regard to these particular matters, there was an el!,rnest expectation that the meeting at Jerusalem, eo varied in its composition and so unique, would be the occaf>ion for a very deep spiritual fellowcm to many others This expectation has been fulfilled The thought given to the subjects which came up for discussion has been of particular value to the committees on Church and Mission / AdminiHtration and on Religious Education as well as ; to th11t on the Christianizing of Internll.tional Relations, as the pret-1enta tion of various questions has bePn the means of bringing out many interesting points of view and starting fresh lines of thought. During the year, two or three of the larger Reorganfzatron bodies cooperating in the work of the Council, of the Council b t d h C .1 h su m1t e sugge1:,t1ons to t e ounc1 wit a view to its reorganization on more representative lines. It is now more thHn five years since the National Conference was held at which the Council came into exii:'tence and it has from the beginning been found difficult to maintain the very close contact desirable between the Council and the various church and mission organizations. Still more difficult is it to ensure a continued sense of respom,ibility in relation to the Council on the part of churches throughout the country. The problem of reorganization is being tackle
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72 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL to clear away the misunderstandings on which this criticism was so largely based, the Council issued a statement of the five years' work since its inauguration in 1922. The year under review is the first full year Personnel during which t.he Council has had a General Secretary. The appointment of Dr. Cheng Ching-yi to this position in the annual mr~et,ing, 19:26, has proved to be a great gain to the Council in ma .ny wnys. Through his personality and on account of the confidence which is placed in him in all parts of the country, Dr. Cheng has been able to cornmenri the Council and to lead out to fruitful lines of activity. The year has seen the strengthening of the Chinese staff throngh the appointment of the Rev. Djang Fang of the Church of Christ in China as one of its full time secretaries and the return of Mr. Gideon Chen from his studies in England to take up the position of co-secretary with Miss Haass of the Inrlustrial Department. The tende1,cy to strengthen the Chinese element is continuing and an Associate General Srcretary, Mr. L. D. Cio, is now under appointment and steps have been taken to secure a Chinese woman as full time secretary in the autumn. In this way the purpoi:,e of the Council to gather together and express Chinese convictions in regard to the issues confronting the Christian church in this country is being steadily pursued. The Council has faced during the last year Dilliculties a number of difficulties. It has been a perplexing time, not only for Christians and missionaries throughout the country, but also for those who have had responsibilities of general oversight and arlvice. The annual meeting helrl towards the close of 1927 showed a unity and steadfastness of purpose which were very encouraging in a time when so many croes currents have been evident in the life of the Christian movement.

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CHAPTER VIII MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY A. R. Kepler Christian Unity in China began with the Origin first missionary, Robert Morri:;:on, who came to China not as a denominationalist, but as the repre sentative of that then inter-denominational organization, the London Missionary Society. The fact that in the beginning, the majority of missionaries came under either the American Board or the London Missionary Society, both of which at the time were inter-denominational agencies, undoubtedly contributed to provide a soil where church unity could find good rootage. That the Christian missionaries were only ~arl7 t a small number in a strange lanrl, created a ~nv1ronmzn f J. f 1 d f ee rng o so 1tarmess an a sense o mter-dependence which served to throw out in bold relief those element,i of the Christian religion which they held in common rather than their differences. First Attem t To the. Dut~h. Ref?rm~d and English P Presbyterian m1ss1onanes m Amoy, we are indebted ior the first actual achievement in church unity. Though coming from different nations and representing different denominations, they felt most vividly the desirability of eliminating their denominational distinctions and uniting in the development of one Chinese Church, Early Difficulties When they took steps to form one Chinese Presbytery in 1857, they were faced with a seven-year struggle with the home constituency. When the General Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church issued a mandate instrocting their missionaries in South Fukien to desist from their effort to form a united Church independent from the Church in the West, their missionaries with holy boldness replied as follows:

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74 MOVEMEN'fS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY We conscientiously feel that in confirming such an organization (as proposed by the General Synod), we should be doing a positive injury and wrong to the churches of Christ established at Amoy, and that our duty to the Master of His people here forbids this. Therefore, our answer to the action of General S:ynod must be and is that we cannot be made the instruments of carrying out the wishes of Synod in this report; and further, if Synod is determined that such an organization must be effected, we can see no other way than to recall us and st>nd hither men who see clearly their way to do that which to us seems wrong." 1877 Conference In the light of this background it is not -surprising that at the 1877 China Missionary Conference, we should find expressed a very definite yearning for Christian nnity. The Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D a missionary of the United Scotch Presbyterian Mission, in his paper read before this Con ference remn,rked : '' And so I venture to submit that those of us who can unite should unite with all due respect to those who do not see their way clear. No one can be a strict denominationalist in this heathen land. I believe, therefore, that denominationalism, as far as possible, should go to the winds I for my part shall never consent to aid in transplanting the sects and sectarianism of the West into this country. Let the dead bury their dead. Be it ours to preach the Gospel and rear a new united and glorious Church in this land-the Ohiirch of God in China-and not : denominationalism only, but let nationality go to the \vinds British prejudices and American prejudices have played far too fatal a part in our work to go on any longer." Dr. J. V. N. Talmage of Arnoy, in his paper, remarked: "In Apostolic times, there may have been and doubtless was diversity in religions services, order of worship and such things, a.nd there may have been diversity in the minutiae of church government; but there was nothing in the Apostolic Church corresponding

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l\IOVE!',,IENTS FOR CHRISTIAN U)TITY 75 to our present denominational distinctions and differences. Can you imagine several churches in the Harne city or l"egion under apostolic direction, separated from each other by doctrine and order, but united to churches in distant cities and countries? The individual churches all rregarded themselves as parts of the same Church. They were but one denornination." The Rev. C. Douglas, LL.D., in his address said: "The question has been asked : What keeps the native churches in China apart?' It is their connection \ with the churches at home. So long as this connection is kept up, the union spoken of cannot be realized." The 1877 Conference in the interest of Common Aim Christian unity, among other resolutions, voted that every Saturday evening all missionaries should set apart time for special prayer for each other's success in bringing souls to Christ and that they may be closely united in the !Spirit and in the bonds of love. They organized a committee of reference and counsel to deal with all subjects of common interest and to publish statistical reports and the like. J877-J900 From 1877 to 1900 we find very little accomplished in achieving actual unity. For -this there are two reasons: (1) Individual mission constituencies were now grow ing in number and strength, therefore the individual denominations became more self-reliant, self-contented and not a little ambitious for their own denomination. Henry Drummond, who visited China during this period, referred to mission work in China as bands of guerrillas.'' (2) The difference which arose over the term question had cut very deep and created currents subversive to Christian unity. 1890 Conference In its platform papers and resolutions, the Missionary Conference of 1890 made little mention of union and unity. However, at this meeting, 120 missionaries representing the various

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76 !IIOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY Presbyterian bodies throughout China, who were members of this Mi8sionary Conference, took the first steps to bring about a union of all Presbyterian bodies, of which we will make further mention later on. The Boxer Uprising in 1900 prevented Common Need another Missionary Conference, for which plans had been made. But at the same time the Boxer Uprising threw the missionaries from all parts of China together in Shanghai and to a certain extent revived the passion for church unity as voiced in the Conference c1f 1877. A great common danger and a threatened disaster brought again an awareness of their solitariness and of the need of solidarity. First Presbyterian Union In October, 1901, delegates from the Pres byterian Churches holding the Reformed Faith, working in all parts of China, met in Shanghai, to form the Federal Council of the Presbyterian Church of Christ in China. The following resolution, adopted by the first meeting of this Federal Council; is indicative of the broader and deeper purpose of church unity, which actuated this new organization: "This Conference earnestly desires the unity of the Christian Church in China, and cordially welcomes all opportunities of cooperation wit.hall sections of the Church. The Conference resolves therefore to take steps for uniting more closely the Presbyterian Churches, hoping thereby to facilitate the iiltimate attainment of wider iinion. '' Advance Movements The Federal Council of the Presbyterian Church in China at its fifth meeting in April, 1918, at Nanking, organized itself into the First General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in China. Snmrning up the practical achievements toward Christian unity at the turn of the century, we note the following:-(1) The general recognition of the principle of comity in the development of the work of the respective missionary ::;ocie. ties.

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:MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 77 (2) The union effort in the translation of the Bible and in preparing severnl hymnals. (3) Tract Societies, Bible Societies, the Presbyterian Mission Press, while non-union enterprises, were nevertheless unifying agencies an
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78 MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY Presbyterians in Manchuria, Dutch Reformed and English Presbyterians in South Fukien. A Federal Council of all the Presbyterians Churches in China had been formed, working definitely toward the achievement of complete organic unity. (8) Peitaiho, Ruling, Mokanshan, Kul1ang, were just being developed as summer resorts for the missionary; and these through the friendly fellowship which they afforded through their conferences and other means for close acquaintanceship of widely scattered missionaries with each other, contributed not a little to create a soil and an atmmphere, in which could grow the seeds of cooperation and union in the increasingly diversified agencies of the Christian enterprise. Centenary Conference At the Centenary Conference of 1907, union through federation was one of the foremost questions that came before the assembly. The situation throughout the Chinese Church is very accurately stated in these words from the paper read by Dr. J. C. Gibson, one of the two Chairmen of the Conference: "Chinese Christians feel, not without justice, that the foreign missions are both the source and are the cause of the perpetuation of division. Therefore Chinese Christianity is bound to seek two things, -independence from the control of foreign churches and imion among their own churches. Let us be heartily at one with them in seeking these two ends.'~ The preamble to the resolutions on federation presented to the 1907 Conferece reads as follows: "In view of the rising tide of union sentiment in China; in view of the call of the Church in all lands; and in view of the prayer of Christ and our ability to assent in its answer-therefore resolved that we as a conference pledge ourselves to support the great principles of federation, and while looking to a still closer union, suggest in the meantime the adoption of the following methods.':

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MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 79 The resolution which generated the greatest amount of interest and discussion without question was the one on Christian unity which after not a few compromise amendments, was unanimously adopted in the following form: "That thi:, Conference unanimously holds the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the supreme standard of faith and practice, and holds firmly the primitive apostolic faith. Further, while acknowledging the Apost.les' Creed and the Nicene Creed as substant.ially expressing the fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith, the Conference does not adopt any Creed ,as a basis of Church Unity, and leaves Confessional questions for future consideration; yet, in view of our knowledge of each other's doctrinal symbols, history, work and character, we gladly recognize ourselves as already one body in Christ, teaching one way of eternal life, and calling men into one holy fellowship, and as one in regard to the great body of doctrine and of the Christian faith, one in the teaching as to the love of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost; in our testimony as to sin and salvation, and our homage to the Divine and Holy Redeemer, one in our call to the purity of the Christian life and in our witness to the splendors of the Christian hope." We~t China Conference During the same year of the Centenary Conference, 1907, there was held in Chengtu, Szechwan, the West China Conference. This Conference also was noteworthy because of the emphasis which it placed on Christian Unity. In fact, the concious ness of spiritual unity in this Conference was so great and the desire for organic unity so strong that it was hoped that one united Christian Church for Szechwan might be realized at an early date. Although these hopes have not been realized, there has been maintained very happy cooperation by all the missions in the higher educational work and also in their production of Christian literature and the most sympathetic fellowship has been manifest in the ecclesiastical relationships.

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80 Relation of Chinese and Western Churches MOVEMEXTS FOR CHRI::iTIAN UNI'fY In both the Centenary Conference and the West China Conference, Bishop Bashford of the Methodist Episcopal Church made a strong plea for the maintenance by the churches in China of organic relations with the mother churches of the West He was a passionate advocate of world-wide unity along denominational lines, rather than national interdenominational unity. In both these Conferences, the vote by a great majority indicated a preference for organic unity amongst the churches in China. Bishop Bashford's own denomination, however, grasped his vision and during the past twenty years, the Methodist Episcopal Conferences in China have consistently stood for World-Methodism," ln spitP of the fact that the Methodist churches have always been ready to cooperate in all interdenominational enterprises, Christian unity in China has undoubtedly been greatly weakened because of the Methodist Episcopal principle of ; World-1\:Iethodism. National Federation Out of the 1907 Conference grew the scheme of '.' The Christian Federation of China," with a National Council n.nd Provincial Councils to consist of members appointed by both missions and churches. Although a number of the Provincial Federations were organized and a few of them continued to function for almost a score of years, the National Council never did attain organization. The failure of this scheme was due to two factors: (1) There was no full-time secretariat, either in the Provincial Federations or for the National Council. It was impossible to swing such a large organization into existence without having men definitely set aside to give their entire time to the task. (2) The Edinburgh Conference provided for a series of conferences in China under the leadership of Dr. John R. Mott, which eventuated in the organization of the China Continuation Committee to serve the same purposes which were hoped of the National Federation. It made provision for a national office and a staff of full-time secretaries. 'It

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MOV.E:.1,rnN TS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 81 was an expression of missionary and Chinese cooperation. As a consequence, the National Federal Council died still-born. Immediately after the Centenary Missionary National Di-Conference, there was a speeding up in the nominationaI Churches coalescence of kindred denominations into national denominational churches. The scattered Anglican groups in April, 1912, met and formed the Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hui. In 1917, a large number of Lutheran bodies completed the organization of the Chung Hwa Hsin I Hui. Mention has already b ee n made of the Presbyterian Churches which organized a Federal Union in 1901, and which immerged as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in China in April, 1918. During the decade following the Centenary Conference, the outstanding feat.ure of the Christian MovPment in China was this trend toward the achievement of Christian unity. The Editor of the 1917 Year Book remarked : "The progr ess made in cooperation and Progress union is probably the most significant single development of the missionary movement in China in recent years. Before 1900 while the missionary societies were working in most cordial relations with one another and met from time to time in conference to discuss question s o f common interest, and while they ev en joined in occasional Christian movements, suc h united e fforts were comparatively infrequent.' 7 Educational Unions In 1910 the union cooperative enterprises in theological, medical, normal, academic and collegiate education, numbered thirty. Most of them were the product of the preceding five years. But in 1914 the number of union projects had grown to about 100, invo lving large investments in property and personne l. The major contributing factors to this impetus in union and cooperation were, (a) the six language schools, which had just been opened; (b) the series of Mott Conferences; (c) the organization of the China Continuation Committee with its Annual Me etings; (d) the

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82 MOVEMF:NTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY Summer and other Regional Conferences among Chinese Christians of all denominations; (e) the Zeitgeist manifesting itself in a desire to realize a ch;:er fellowship among all Christian communions the world ovn. Language Schools The language schools annually brought the body of new missionaries from different denominations into intimate fellow ship with each other at a time when their minds were particularly sensitive to new impressions and made them unity-minded. The Mott Conferences for the first time brought the Chinese and the missionary together into National Con ferences and gave the Chinese an opportunity for corporate thinking and expression. These Conferences were followed by the C. C. C. and the N. C C. which tended still further to unite the Christian forces, now including the Chinese churches, in thinking and planning and service. Chinese Home Missionary Society In chronicling movements for Chric:tian Unity, the Chinese Home Missionary Society is particularly noteworthy. It has been a very successful enterprise. It is a wholly indigenous enterprise. From its inception it has been entirely under Chinese control. Denominational barriers and distinctions have proved impotent in the face of this appeal for cooperation. It thus serves as an earnest of what may be reasonably expected in Christian cooperation and unity when the dominant control in the Christian Movement becomes wholly Chinese. New Factors During the decade following the war, new factors projected themselves into the arena which slowed up the movement toward Christian Unity. They were (1) the general disillusionment. immediately following the conclusion of the World War and the Treaty of Versailles, which very vitally affected the Christian Movement everywhere; (2) the debacle of the Inter-church Movement in America; (3) most potent of all, the outburst of a spirit of militant intolerance among groups within the i Christian church. Controversy Just as the term controversy chilled the enthusiasm for unity after the 1877

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MOVEllIENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 83 Conference, so now a big divisive force, "fundamentalism" vs. modernism," appeared on the scene This is almost wholly a missionary and not a Chinese product The church in China has as its very heart and dynamic the fundamentals on which the Church through the ages has been founded and built. This controversy, however, unfortunately retards the movement towards Unity. National Christian Conference The next landmark in the movement of Christian Unity in China is the National Christian Conference held in Shanghai in 1922, with almost a thousand delegates in at,tendance, of whom one half were Chinese, representing all denominations working in China. Chinese Christian Leadership At this gathering the Commission on the lHessage of the Church "composed entirely of the Chinese Christian leadership'' vividly expressed its unwillingness to perpetuate our western denominationalism in China and presented unequivocal resolutions calling for visible unity. National Christian Council The National Christian Conference at its closing sessions organized the National Chrif:,tian Council, which has, during the past five years under great difficulties, served as an interdenominational agency representing both the missionary societies and the Chinese churches. While the N.C.C. from the very nature of its constitution is unable explicitly to advocate or extend any particular form of organic church unity, it nevertheless serves as an outstanding unifying force. Provisional General Assembly Immediately preceding the National Christian Conference in Shanghai, there met in the same city the Provi~ional General Assembly of the Church of Christ in China. The Federal Council of the Presbyterian Churches at the first meeting in 1901, as above noted, expressed the hope that their federation would facilitate the ultimate attainment of wider union." It was only natural, therefore, that when the Provisional General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in China met in Nanking in 1918,

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84 MOVEl\rn:,Ts FOR CHlUSTIA N UNI'fY there should be present representatives from the chmches connected with the L. M.S. and American Board Missions and that the first steps should be taken to unite these churches in one body. It was at the very beginning proposed to form a federal union, but the desire amongst the Chinese for organic union was so strong that the committee on organization drew up a Doctrinal Basis of Union and a Constitution involving organic unity. 8 1 u At the Provisional General Assembly in as,s O n1on 1922, the Doctrinal Basis of Union and the Constitution were carefully considered and approved and submitted to the constituent groups scattered all over China for their consideration rmd approval. It required five years in order to secure the necessary agreement to the proposed Doctrinal Basis of Union and the Constitution and thus make it possible for the meeting of the first General Assembly of the united church.* The most noteworthy co:1strnctiv1, evP-nt of ~~thd' <;hcrch 1927-a year of chaos, disorder and revolu O r,s tion-was the final consummation of the united Church of Christ in China (ip e$ 11.!c 'W[) through its first Genera.I Assembly, which met in Shanghai, October lst to llth, 1927. In i,pite of the clangers and difficulties of travel, there was a full representation from Harbin in the North to Hainan in the South, and from as far West as the Yangtze Gorges. c There were present 88 commissioners, of ommissioners whom 66 were Chinese and 22 were missionaries, officially representing 11 Divisional Councils and 46 District Associations. There were in addition 8 com missioners from two Presbyteries who had not yet fully approved of the union, and 28 fraternal delegates from other Communions riot as yet participating in the United Church. Constituency These commissioners represented a constituency distributed as follows The figures "See Appendix on Doctrinal Bnsis of Union and Constitution.

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MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 85 indicating organized churches, preaching places, pastors, evangelistic workers and communicants are only approximately correct: Divisional Councils .. District Associations .. Organized Churches .. Other Preaching Places Ordained Pastors Other Evangelistic Workers Communicants Divisional CoimC'ils Manchuria Hooei Liai-igbu North Chirnt Hwatung Minpeh Minchung Min nan Lingtung Kwangtung Hain an Yumrnn No. of Di$lrict .Associcitions 3 2 8 9 6 3 3 6 2 8 l 12 51 585 2035 333 2072 120175 No. of Baptized Men~bers 21129 5387 9123 18507 20231 1652 2653 10215 6792 20000 4075 411 Church groups cor.stituting the Church of Christ in China: J. Independent Churches 2. Swedish Evangelical Free Church 3 United Brethren in Christ 4. American Board Congregational Churches 5 London Missionary Society 6. New Zealand Presbyterian Church 7. Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 8. United Church of Canada 9. English Presbyterin.n Church 10. Reformed Chnrch in America 11. Presbyterian Church, South 12. Reformed Church in the U.S. 13. Church of Scotland

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-86 :MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 14. Irish Presbyterian Church 15. United Free Church (Scotland) 16. English Baptist Church Communicants connected with American Societies ... Communicants connected with British Societies ... American Missionaries associated with the Church of Christ in China British Missionaries associated with the Church of Christ in China 70,000 50,000 1,065 532 Since the above data were gathered, the China Inland churches affiliated with the C.I.M. in Mission Lanchow and South Kansu have definitely voted to link up with the united Church. 0 u 't The Church of Christ in China,-a narne rganic m Y which bv the way was chosen by the Chinese delegates themselves, signifying both a challenge and an objective,-is not an effort after a glorified larger denominationalism. It is not an attempt toward conformity. It is not an endeavor for uniformity. It is a holy venture to secure all evangelical bodies in China to unite in one organic body for worship, mutual edification and service, asking none to sacrifice beliefs which they deem vital to Christian living, none demanding of the others conformity to their particular tenets, but each bringing their contribution to the enrichment of all, each believing in the loyalty of the others to our Lord Jesus Christ and to the fundamentals of our Christian Faith. B f u The Doctrinal Basis of Union, does not asis o nrnn II h Ch b cl contam a t at every nst1an or o y of believers should believe. It seeks to express only that modicum of doctrine which all must hold in common if the Religion of Jesus is to be conserved. The Doctrinal Basis of Union, therefore, is an effort to enable those churches, whose historic policies have emphasized a written creed, and those churches who have gloried in their freedom from credal restraints, to unite on the

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MOVEMENTS FOR CHRJS'.rIAN UNITY 87 same basis which bound together the Christians of the Early Chnrch. No Detailed Creed Another reason why the united Church presents no detailed creed is the fact that wh1111 snch a creed is adopted, it should be the product of the Chinese Church, expressive of her doctrinal convictions. A creed prepared at the present time would unduly bear the stamp of the churches of the West. The doctrinal statement is, therefore, brief but comprehensive. The form of organization is also an ad venOrganization ture in freedom of diversity of expression within the unity. A preamble to the Constitution of the united Church r e ads as follows: "The Church of Christ in China, recognizing that variet.y in the operations of the Spirit is as essential to the true welfare of the Church as oneness of spirit, accepts the principle that the powers of the General Assembly shall be confined to snch matters only as are essential for -the promotion and conservation of true unity and that each divisional council, district association and local church shall have the greatest freedom of self-expression in organization, worship and service, consistent with snch unity.': The plan of church government gives Autonomy autonomy to the local church with a gradation of councils which have names or alternate names to which the large majority have been accustomed. The principles underlying the organization are democratic and not hierarchical. Power and authority are not imposed 11 from above downward or from without inward. It is t.he hope rather, that power and authority within the church shall be a normal growth, outward and upward. The constitution provides for no stereo-1 typed, rigid form of church government. Constitution But it permits that elasticity of expression in organization which will permit "daring experimentations" in seeking to discover that form of church government which will most adequately lend itself to Chinese customs, life and thought.

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88 :MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY Councils There are four grades of church councils, namely, the local church, the district asso ciation, the divisional council, the General Assembly. Local Church Each district association determines the form of organization of the local church within the district. There may be some district associa tions in which local churches will be organized with a polity along congregational lines. Other district associations may have their local church organized according to presbyterian polity. There .is nothing in the constitution which would prevent any district associations forming a divisional council from having their local churches organized unde1 an episcopal system in so far as such a system would not contravene the fundamental principles of the parity of the ministry or the mutual recognition of the validity of each other's ordination. Again, the Divisional Council, within very broadly defined limitr::, determines the type of organization of its constituent district associations. General Assembly The General Assembly constitutes a bond of correspondence, mutual confidence and love among all its constituent parts. Its relation to the divisional councils is the same as the relation of the divisional council to the district associations. If questions arise concerning church government or doctrine, the General Assembly is authorized to deal wiLh them; though, except in special circumstances, the General Assembly does not receive appeals and overtures directly from the local churches or district associations. B of u 't The Unity of the Church therefore, is found asis m Y (in organization) within the General Assembly, and (in spirit) in its loyalty and devotion to our ever-Ii ving and blessed Lord, Christ Jesus. Ulti at G al That the present plan of organization and m e O basis of union is far from perfect is readily acknowledged. It does, however, seem to be an adequate basis around which the hundred and more denominational units in China should be able to gather. It should serve as an adequate point of departure for the ultimate goal, -

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MOVEMENTS FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 89 one indigenous Christian Church for China, a Church which will at one and the same time continue in sympathy and harmony with the Christian life and hope and faith of the churches of the West and also be expressive in worship, fellowship, and service to the Chinese Christian in ways suited to Chinese culture and customs This ideal will not be realized until each one of the existing denominations in China has come with her contribution into the united Church. Impulse to Unity It has been remarked that Christian unity will come not by the way of balanced reasonings, a claim here and a concession there; but that it will take place in obedience to some mighty and unanimous impulse in the hearts of those who find Goel; that this unity will be achieved in consequence of some threatening from the side of the world which can only be escaped by some affirmation of faith and hope and love such as make us one ; that the Church is destined some day to find herself one, but that it will be : in the depth of a dark night that she will make that blessed discovery. Some of us wonder if that day, that dark night, is not now!

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CHAPTER IX SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM The Editor Abnormal Conditions The abnormal conditions characterizing China in 1927 have affected aclver,,ely all aspects of Christian work therein: in con sequence no comprehensive and conclusive report of evangelistic effort is possible. Statistics are conspicuous by theil' absence. The evacuation of the missionaries, the perseoution of Christians and political and social challenges have cut wide swathes in regular evangelistic work in many places. In some places the only possible course to follow was quiet and watchful waiting: in others all work stopped. The Nanking Evangelistic Team was, for instance, compelled to disband after the Nanking Incident, Yet in the majority of places regular work went on. Towards the latter part of the year the improvement of general conditions reacted favorably on evangelistic effort nearly everywhere. Special evangelistic campaigns were not, however, prominent in China in 1927. The problem of the expansion of Christianity has been merged, generally speaking, into plans for strengthening the internal resources of the Churches and a determination often grim! to hold on to a position. So intense was the struggle for existence in many places that no energy or opportunity was left for expansive efforts. Yet, as will be evident in what is said below, at no time did evangelistic effort cease everywhere: in some cases special efforts were successfnlly put over. Nevertheless, during 1927 the Christian Church was largely on the defensive; such aggressive sallies outside of Christian trenches as are in evidence took place in sectors where the enemy was either otherwise engaged or absent. Regular Evangelism Many instances of the fearless canying on of regular evangelistic services have been noted during the year. Sometimes such

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SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM 91 services had to be held in the homes of Christians. Availa ble instances of Christian heroism n.re too numerous for inclusion in this chapter. Suffice it to say that such services have often been held in defiance of threats to life Numerically speaking attendance on services held at exposed positions has diminished; but those who stood firm have shown that the Church in China has come through the ordeal of 1927 purified and spiritually strengthened. Of West China one reports, "With the going of the missionaries the Chinese Christians were left to face the brunt of the 'vicious anti-foreign and anti-Christian' opposition and had all they could do to keep thenwelves and their property out of the hands of the Communists. In some places this was found to be impossible; but as a rule the Christian Church has held on her way, quietly preaching the gospel and doing all she could under such untoward conditions to help the communities in which she finds herself." In Soochow many soldiers attended the regular evangelistic services cond ncted by the Central China Presbyterian Mission. They made no attempt to hinder the meetings. Special reference must needs be made to the "mini8try of the colporteurs "-often heroic !-and the work of the Bible Societies, both direct agencies in evangelistic work. In spite of disrupted po8t office organization, communistic activities, bandits, and civil war, the three Bible Societies operating in China distributed 8,488,058 copies of the scriptures, mostly in portions. Neither the Bible Societies or the Tract Societies were silenced though both were somewhat restricted in their activities. In no small measure the success achieved by the Bible Societies is due to the fearless and tirdess activity of the colporteurs. Foreign Evangelists While special evangelistic campaigns have not been prominent during 1927 information has come to hand of several that are of interest. Shanghai and environs experienced a campaign in which three foreignen,, none of whom spoke Chinese., were the leaders. Rev. W. J. Drummond reports on their work as follows :-'-

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92 SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM "Edward Carter, African by descent, uninvited and unannounced bnt apparently providentially sent, arrived in Shanghai. His first meetings were held in Martyrs' Memorial Hall: for the first week under missionary auspices but for the second week under those of the Y M C. A. The hall was well filled each afternoon. A number professed conversion and a few were h e aled in answer to prayer and anointing with oil. Mr. Carter was a comedian before his conversion, earning $275 Gold a week ; hence he was well skilled in interesting his audience. This skill he now consecrates to the Lord's service. He greatly interested the Chinese and, I believe, did them much good. Following these meetings he was invited to hold evangelistic services in several other churches in Shanghai. The Nanking Church Council invited him to Nanking where he conducted a fifteen days' campaign primarily for the revival of the churches there; however many conversions were reported. These meetings affected probably one thousand persons. The after effects were even better than those noted cl tuing the meetings. Following the meetings at Nanking came a call to Ningpo and Yii Yao, Chekiang. As in Nanking the time limit for the meetings had to be extended. In Nanking it went from ten to fifteen days: in Ningpo five days ran into ten. In Ningpo as well as in Nanking the invitation was extended to Mr. Carter by the Pastor's Asrnciation. 3000 persons were reported to have been affected in Ningpo: the Presbyterian Church which seats one thousand people being too small to accommodate the audience. Women walked long distances on their bound feet only to find no seating room. "At the invitation of a number of m1Ss10naries refugeeing in Shanghai Rev. Joseph Flacks, a Hebrew Christian, came from America to Shanghai in October. The aim of those who planned the meetings for Mr. Flacks was first of all to revive the churches and then to evangelize non-Christians. Plans were laid for meetings among the different nationalitive e. g. Chinese, British, American, Russian, Japanese and French. But nearly all these were rendered abortive by the publication, about

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SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM 93 the time of Mr. Flacks' arrival, of the Shanghai edition of '' The Pro tor.ols.'' l\ir. Flacks conducted many very acceptabi.e meetings for Bible Study among Christians but all endeavors to reach non-Christians proved unavailing. Mr. Flacks was asked by the Chinese Pastors' Associations of Shanghai, Soochow, Tsingtao and Weihsien (Shantung) to give a series of addresses which were well attended and much appreciated. "Jn October Prof. Kuramada of Tokyo also came by invitation and conducted a series of meetings of four or five days among the Japanese. About seventy decided to accept and serve Jesus Christ. "Except in the r.ase of 1\fr. Carter's meetings no new methods were employed. What was new in his meetings was the emphasis laid on singing by himself and the congregation. Although the meetings were for the Chinese, most of whom knew but little English, the singing was in English. Mr. Carter was fortunate in having his addresfJes translated by a very sympathetic interpreter or interpretors. In one ca8e at least the interpretor was a woman; and in every case a Chinese. Mr. Carter's prayers for the sick and anointing with oil in evangelistic meetings was a rather unusual feature. "During the Autumn Mr. Leland \Vang came to Shanghai and conducted :1 series of evangelistic meetings in several churches. These meetings were very well attended. Mr. Wang also conducted series of similar meetings in Hongkong, Canton and Hangchow." Under the aegis of the China Inland f~:~::gn ia Mission a notable campaign was conducted in various parts of Kiangsi. Some tens of thousands of people were reached. In rural places the message was gladly received: in cities there was some student opposition. A Liebenzell missionary also did effective work on the border of Kweichow, details of which are not in hand. Mr. A. B. Cooke of this same mission was able to reach a new district and tribe among the hillmen of Yunnan.

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94 SOME ASPEC~ OF EV~NGELIS.M The Methodist forces of Peking held special Campaign in revival services in all their local churches. Peking During the week of evangelism, at four of the eight churches 21,642 attended, of whom 749 signed cards. In addition this group carried on special evange listic work in fourteen centers at which the attendance aggregated 1 l,230. This second campaign was held in: the Shanhaikuan district. The United Methodist Church in North China, also c a rried on it,, annual work in connection with the Week of Evangelism. Rev. L. D. M. Wedderburn reports for Campaign in Hailung, Manchuria, that he and his fellowManchuda workers combined all their evangelistic forces in a special campaign, aiming to cover their entire district in one year. The band, as thus organized, consisted of nine Chinese and one missionary. Inasmuch as the farming population of this district lives on indiv_idual holdings and not in villages their work involved much visiting and personal work. Among other things the workers visited all the shops and most of the houses in the villages or small tcwns included in the campaign. Evangelistic posters and about 10,000 Scripture portions were u s ed and distributed. Audiences were eager to listen but they tended to "sheer off from definite decisions. Special .Features A number of special features were usecl in connection with the campaigns already mentioned and some others to be herewith noted. These are local in extent but taken together indicate a tendency towards the use of new evangelistic methods. The Methodists in the Shanhaikuan district provided evening lectures on such topics as Home Improvement, Hygiene, Child Education, unbinding of Feet, and the Love of Jesus Christ. The same group also carried on Bible readiug and Mass Education classes. All these special efforts were appreciated. The students of a middle school were enrolled in the teaching of the illiterates. Jn the Hailung campaign some anti-opium posters were used in addition to those bearing specifically on evange-

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SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM 95 lism. In July and August in and around Liaoyang (United Free Church of Scotland) vacation evangelistic bands were formed which included voluntary workers. Travelllog Theatrical Band A Travelling Theatrical Band was connected with the ,.ark of the American Board in the Ching Chao district. The work of this band is mainly musical The blind pastor at Ma T'ou, Chihli, has for years been coliecting Chinese music with a view to setting it to words suitable for use in services and evangelistic campaigns. Two or three men in one village were found to have a strong musical bent; one of them had an unusual voice and some musical genius. This small group got to rehearsing their music and songs. Other Christians from other villages joined them. All this furnished entertainment for long winter evenings. The group determined to make these rehearsals di;;tinctively Christian, participated in by Christians only. Some non-Christians who wished to join were led to join the church through their association therewith. To all this the blind pastor made frequent contributions with a view to utilizing this mm;ical interest as an evangelistic force The work of the group gradually grew into an appreciable evangelistic entertainment. Villages soon began to invite the group to come and give their entertainment of Christian music and songs. Carts W(')re sent for the members of the band and refreshment provide.cl for them after the entertainment. The musical band did not go where they were not wanted oi: where temple fairs accompanied by 1:mperstitious rites were being held This is in essence a musical entertainment bas e d on an evangelistic purpose. Its influen<;e has already been widespread. If its Christian purpose is maintained its future is promising. Several instances of prayer for healing in connection with the Chinese have also come to our attention. Fairs and Evangelism For three As an introduction to evangelistic work an agricultural fair was held at Hsiang He, Chihli, in connection with the same mission days a stream of 5,000 people visited the

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96 SOME ASPECTS OF EV A::-l"GELISM exhibits and demonstrations which were given in the church courtyard. A summer school was conducted in the same place, al~o, through the efforts of Christian students. To this the officials were at first opposed on the basis of criticism of a certain church in Peking which had gained the reputation of being against the government. The students invited the officials to come and hear their speeches for themselves. As a result the opposition died down. New Tendencies Mass education has also been promoted in and around Paotingfu, Chihli, as an adjunct to evangelistic effort. Rev. H. W. Hubbard, of the American Board, reports an attendance of 8,000 on such classes during the year of which 2,000 were expected to graduate. Direct additions to the churches are credited to this e
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SOME ASPECTS OF EVANGELISM 97 A large number of pocket testaments have Special Inbeen distributed. There is evident also some terest in Bible increase of interest in the Bible. The annual report of the British and Foreign Bible Society records a rather unusual incident. A school master in a certain village found the Gospels to contain such wonderful teaching" that he bought a hundred copies for the use of his students as text-books. The Americftn Bible Society reports that a professor in a prominent government university is doing research work in Chinese diftlectR. As one line of study he obtained from the society thP, Bible in several colloquial dialects as he recognized it as being a standard in the::,e vernnculars. He also expressed high regard for the literary style of the Mandarin Union Vnsion. Elsewhere in this volume it is noted that modern Chinese authors and playwrights nse Biblical material in the making up of their productions. All these points have a distinctly evangelistic significance. Chinese Leadership The most prominent and general feature of both these regular and special evangelistic efforts is the leadership of the Chinese. Missionaries have freely cooperated, but the bulk of the responsibilfty and the work has been on Chinese shoulders. In some cases the leadership was entirely Chinese. Special Problems Some of our correspondents report no special problems in connection with evangelistic work except those arising out of the abnormal conditions which in turn are not general. The evacuation of missionaries has laid heavy and sometimes unusual burdens on the Chinese. Mr: R. B. Whitaker of Lintsing, Shantung, reports that the new conditions necessitated some attention to the morale of the workers. Weekly meetings did much to promote courage, cooperation and a better morale. In another case reference is made to the difficulty of having the preachers determining their own salaries. The problem involved is as to how far power to do this should be put in their hands. A correspondent in North China says that "one hindrance seem to be that Feng Yii-hsiang being 'profes~edly'

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98 SOME ASPECTS OF ~VANGELISJ\I Christian the churches are rather suspected by the An Kuo Chun of sympathy with 'the enemy.'" No active opposition has, however, arisen in this suspicion. The above references and quotations are $1,tmmary nothing more than an attempt to call attention to some aspects of evangelistic work as carried on during or affected by the tmusual events of 1927. It is evident that while there have been, in some places, defections from the church there have, in others, been additions. It was exceedingly difficult to gather even the inadequate information on which this short and sketchy statement is based. In this case silence probably means, in most cases, that there was little of a special evangelistic nature to report. On the other hand there were undoubtedly instances of evangelistic effort of which for one reason or another reports did not come to hand. There were, for instance, evangelistic bands active in Shantung of which no detailed reports were received. Generally speaking, 1927 was a year of indirect evangelistic influence rather than one of much aggressive and expansive effort. A tendency to socialize the evange listic message is evident in some places and chnrches. Where, however, special efforts were made they seemed to meet with the usual acceptance. 1927 has not def!troyed the spirit of willingness to listen to the Christian Message. The tendency towards extra-professional methods and the activity of la.y Christians in some places are distinctly encouraging features of t.he year's records; so is the fact that active evangelism is becoming more the direct res ponsibility of Chinese leadership.

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CHAPTER X CHRISTIAN LITERACY AND BIBLE READING Carleton Lacy The Chinese Church is still seriously handiIlliteracy capped by illiteracy. "The Chri ~tian Occupation of China," published in 1922, estimated from reports obtained that "forty per cent. of the male and almo s t sixty per cent. of the female church members are unable to read the Gospels in the v ernacular with any degree of fluency or understanding.,., At that time 62% of the church membership was thought to be male and 38% female This would give a total illiteracy of approximately 47-} % of the entire church membership. It is an open question how much improvement there has been fo the half decade since those figures were compiled. The only statistical information available of more recent date reduces the degree of Chrif'tian illiteracy in Protestant church membership to 41.7 % This is based upon two surveys conducted by the American Bible Society. One of these Rtuveys was made within the Surveys limited range of one province and one denomination. Reports were received from nineteen Chines e pastors and evangelists in charge of churches and parishes of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the Hinghwa-1::peaking area of Fukien province. This is in an old mission field where third and fourth generation Christians a.re numerous, where the church has a definite study course for its members, and has for years pushed a "Bible-reading Church Campaign." Tbe returns included churches in two or three mission stations as well as churches in rural sections. "The Christian Occupation of China" observes that "Fukien ranks second, or next to Shan,-i, in the degree of literacy among Christian communicants (70% of the men and 49 % of the women) Il!itera cy fn Fuld~n In the light of all these favorable conditions it would be expected that exact reports from this selected area would show ari -

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100 CHRISTIA:S LITERACY AND BIBLE READING exceptionally high percentage of literacy in the church, On the contrary, the detailed report of ll 90 church members shows that 644, or 54 % are unable to read the scriptures. This is most discouraging. No explanafron is provided. The situation provides a challenge to the Church in Fnkien; and suggests that those who have made estimates of the degree of literacy in the church Phould examine carefully to ascertain whether or not the figures published by the Survey Volume or elsewhere fairly represent the actual conditions. The second survey conducted by the Bible Bible Society Society was much more general and less Survey intensive. A questionnaire was broadcasted throughout China. Reliable replies were tabulated from fifty-two churche5, in ten provinces. The outer tier of provinces, from Shansi around the west to Kwangtung, was not represented in the replies. Of the central and eastern provinces only Anhwei was not focluded in the returns. Also the provinces of Manchuria were not heard from. A study of the map of '' Christian Occupation in 1920" will show that this survey thrn~ covers the part of China most nearJy occupied by the Christian forces with the single exception of Kwangtnng Province. A large number of different denominations are represented in the returns, and a total church membership of 3299. Of this number it is reported that 1239 can not read: tk. t is, over 37 % are illiterate. General Literacy This is decidedly better than the more intimate investigation in Fukien. It is even a marked improvement over the estimates published in the Survey Volume As an accurate gauge it is unfortunately utterly inadequate, for but ten provinces are touched, from some of these only one church reported, and tl:J.e Fukien <;hurches previously surveyed were excluded from this tabulation. Inadequate Information that of 584 Merely as an example of the inadequacy of this survey the figures of the fourteen Shantung reports were totalled; it was found church-members over 72% were said to be

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CHRISTIAN LITERACY AND BIBLE READING 101 literate. If then the Shantung report were deducted as the Fukien report had b een, the result for nine provinces would show but 60% literacy, instead of 72%. On the other hand, the inclusion of the Fukien figures with those from t e n provinces would show ,58 % of eh nrch membership to be literate. These somewhat fantastic 8tatistics are Illiteracy Still presented only for what thev a re worth in Prevalent 1 ] f 'Jl rnc 1catrng a arge measure o 1 1teracy sti prevalent within the Chine,e Church. \Yit.h this condition facing us it is disappointing to find so little attention being given to the solution of the problem of illiteracy in the Christian church. A perusal of the deliberations and findings of many church ancl mission conferences held during 1927 leaves the reader scarcely cognizant that there is i:uch a problem. Many educational gatherings have consumed hours in deliberation of the conduct ef Christian schools for the education of a limited number of privileged students, but Christian eel ucationalists have not yet in any large way turned their attention to mass education within the church. The formal policies of mission boards are :::trangely unconcerned with the instruction of po s sibly on e half of the Christians in China I,.iteracy Campaign Earlier periods of mi8sionary effort have provided some noble attempts to relieve the church of this burden and handicap from illiteracy. The Romanized "campaign" in :,outhern China achieved commendable results. Certain Fukien dialect regions popularized the movement and achieved the largest success. Both popularity and success now appear to have declined. The Mission Press in Hinghwa still publishes a church paper, and prints, for the Bible Society, gospels in Romanized script. Yet ii is in this very region that we find, as shown above, a church membership of which 54~~ cannot read The demand for Romanized scriptures in this area, and also in the Foochow dialect field, is rapidly falling, in the one section being replaced by a desire for the Union Version Mandarin, and in the other by calls for the colloquial character. The type from which the Foochow Romanized scriptures were printed

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102 CHRISTIAN LITEHACY A:'.'lD BIBLE REAID!G has now disappeared and it is doubtful if sufficient Foo chow Romanized type now exists to set up a moderate sized book. In Amoy dialect regions (especially in Formosa) a demand for Romanized ecriptures persists, but the number of orders is somewhat limited. Ningpo Romanized can hardly be said to flourish. In short the church, without definitely abandoning the effort to reduce illiteracy, is not pushing it with any vigor whatsoever. Pb 11 5 t Seven years ago the Phonetic Script wa~ one c cnp hailed with enthusiasm as the hope of securing a Bible-reading church. The entire New Testament and Old Testament books were published. The special committee organized for the promotion of this national script expended a considerable budget, brought out many publications, encouraged the organization of successful study classes, and gave every promise of making at least a dent in the wall of Christian ignorance in letters. To declare the phonetic movement as dead now would be more than an exaggeration. Several isolated places continue to report most encouraging results from its use. The facts appear to be rather that enthusiasm has waned; that efforts at promotion have slumped. The subsidy for the Promotional Committee has been discontinued. The Bible Societies report almost no sales for the scriptures in this script. The total number of books in the phonetic script, sold by the three Bible Societies during the past two years was 2,773: this out of a circulation figure for all scriptures of 19,208,190. To be sure th.ire were other agencies distributing phonetic scriptures, but so are there other agencies distributing character scriptures. True, also, there have been publi&hed in this recent period a number of volumes of scripture in the combined character and phonetic which pro mised to prove more popular. The sale of these books, as reported by the three Bible Societies for the same two years, was but 3,529 copies. It becomes apparent that the church is not now vigorously attacking the citadel of illiteracy with the weapon of phonetic script. Mass Education There are no figure:; available to show what success has attended the mass education movements in which a selected 60J or 1,000

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CHRISTIA:N lirERACY AND BIBLE READlNG 103 characters have been used. The diversity in the select.ions made has prevented united effort and has retarded the publication of books in the chosen characters. Labor expended on writing the gospels in this simplified form has not yet seen fruition in published form Many cities and church'3s have reported the prosecution of character reading campaigns, and among Chinese Christian leaders the idea is far more popular than either of the other methods has ever been with them. The movement has the advantage of opening to its pupils the whole realm of Chinese literature. Mr. James Yen has made the claim that any one who has learned the thousand characters selected by the government can read with a fair degree of understanding the thr&e synoptic gospels with the exception of the proper names. Natio:.aUsts and Mass Education The Nationalist Government has now seconded the sanction previously given by the Peking government to a vigorous prosecution of the mass education movement with the use of the thousand characters. The Church has a most favorable opportunity at this point to join with the people's movement for the deliverance of the general populace from its appalling illiteracy. Fears have been expressed that energy might be unprofitably expended by turning to a vast field which it is clearly the task of the government to cultivate. If that argument is at ail valid figures above cited should be sufficient to arouse the church to the crying need within its own ranks. The appalling amount of illiteracy extant among the church members in China constitutes one of the most fatal elements of weakness and of danger for the Christian forces. Illiteracy and Bible One need not enlarge upon this point, it is so apparent. It is not out of the way, how ever, to refer to the relation of illiteracy to the single matter of Bible reading among Christians. With from one-third to one-half of our church members unable to read, the practice of Bible study as a means of Christian nurture is regrettably limited. 'l.'he investiga tions previously mentioned show that of literate Christians

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104 CHRISTIAN LITERACY AND BIBLE READING at best not more than half make it a habit to read a portion of scripture daily. The Hinghwa survey revealed that of 1190 churchmembers, of whom 546 were able to read, only 194 (i.e. 16%) practised daily Bible study. The more gimeral survey of scattered churches in ten provinces showed 1057 out of 3299 to be daily Bible readers. That is practically one-third of the total and one-half of the literate memb'ership. There is a reasonable hope that some improvement has taken place in the months since these statistics were gathered ; for on the one hand there has been a serious loss in church membership in China, which loss is probably far heavier among those who were not regular Bible students than among the more educated Hnd warm-hearted; and on the other hand the Million Testaments for China Campaign has placed some 700,000 New Testaments in the hands of persons who, presumably, have indicated their desire or intention to become regular readers of the book. Family Worship Before these surveys were made the hope had been expressed that it might be found that many illiterate Christians might have daily access to the Bible through family worship and the literacy of some other member of the family. The surveys furnished little support for that hope. Of 1190 members, 17 5 reported family worship; and of 3299 members, 409 had family worship. That is about 13 % Recent confer ences on religions education and Christian nurture have emphasized the need for more attenLion to family worship. As an institution it has not become at all well-grounded in the Chinese church. For the most pa.rt it is an exotic, transplanted from the West with little regard to the large place which non-Christian family worship has held in this country. A re-study of the purpose and forms of family worship, together with a new and modified type of campaign for a Bible-reading church may produce most urgently needed improvement in the literacy and the spiritual growth of the Christian Church in China.

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PART IV MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES CHAPTER XI THE EVENTS OF 1927 AND THE BRITISH CHURCHES Harold Balme Disturbances The distmbances which took place in China rhning H)27, culminating in the tragedy at Nan king on March 24th and its grievous aftermath, occurred at a time when, throughout B)itain, there was a deepening understanding of, and sympathy towards, the aspirations of Chinese nationalism. "Nationalism" For some years previously, largely as a result of inadequate information, a general impression had been prevalent that "national ism" was the label of a particular political party rather than a deep-rooted movement of the whole Chinese people. The failure of the foreign press to appreciate and interpret the significance of this movement was largely responsible for this erroneous impression. It was streugthened by the popular belief that f::iun Yat-sen ,vas an impractical visionary, whose influence did not run far beyon
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106 1927 AND BRITISH CHURCHES country, attracted large circles of readers. A special com mittee, composed of leading representatives of the British Universities, invited Professor Hu 8hih to visit England and lecture in the colleges. The recently formed Boxer Committee decided to s@d a special deputation to China, and to invite an equal number of Chinese delegates to serve upon its Commission. Finally the British Government, in a series of historic documents, declared that "any failure to meet this movement (i. e., the "powerful Nationalist Movement") with sympathy and understanding would not respond to the real intentions of the powers towards China "; they recognized "the essential justice of the Chinese claims for treaty revision,'' and they expressed the opinion that until it was possible to negotiate new treaties in place of the old, the Powers should '' modify their traditional attitude of rigid in sistence on the strict letter of treaty right.s," and i,;how themselves "prepared to consider in a sympathetic spirit any reasonable proposals that the Chinese authorities, wherever situated, may make, even if contrary to strict interpretation of treaty rights, in return for fair and considerate treatment of foreign interests by them. "1 Missionary Memorial In all these activities representatives of the British churches took a keen and sympathetic part. It was in their publications that the earliest and fullest references to the true significance of Chinese nationalism were mainly to be found; their leaders were frequently consulted by the Government authorities, during the months which preceded the publication of the Foreign Secretary's Memoranda; and a year before the issuing of those statements the Missionary Societies had submitted a Memorial to the Government covering the following points: "(a) The support of His Majesty's Government in proceeding to carry out the Washington agreements, and to reconsider the whole of the treaty provisions in a generons spirit. 1Memorandum communicated by H. M. Charge d'Affaires at Peking, .Decembet 16th 1926.

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1927 AND BRITISH CHURCHES 107 "(b) A desire to rest their work in future, not upon treaties reluctantly accepted by China, but upon such provisions as may he freely accorded to them by China as a Sovereign Power, and as shall be mutually agreed upon in equal conference between Britain and China. "(c) A readiness to accept as British subjects living in China such rights, in pln.ce of extra-territoriality, as shall be accorded fo a similar manner." It was in response to this Memorial that the British Government, in its communication to the Chinese Authorities on January 27th, 1927, included the following parugraph: "His Majesty's Government are prepared to accept the principle that British missionaries should no longer cla.im the right to purchase land in the interior, that Chinese converts should look to Chinese law and not to treat.ies for protection, and that missionary, edncational and medical institutions will conform to Chinese laws and regulations applying to similar Chinese institutions.'' Nationalist Advance The successful advance of the nationalist troops during the autumn of 1926, and the eager response to their national program which was manifested in all parts of China, were followed with keen sympathy and interest in all parts of Britain; and in spite of the attacks of the anti-Christian party and the excesses of some of the communistic agencies, no serious apprehension was at first f elt as to the outcome. It was therefore with deep disappointment, not unmixed with bewilderment and shock, that news of the attacks on foreign lives and property in the Yangtze valley was received. It seemed incomprehensible that at a time when sincere and genuine efforts were being made by the British Government to recognise "the essential justice of the Chinese claim for treaty r e vision and to "liquidate the promises made at Washington," a deliberate attack on British .interests should be made, with but little attempt, on the part of the Chinese nationalists, to control it. A

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108 1927 AND BRITISH CHURCHES wave of indignation spread through the country, and angry demands for reprisals were heard in some quarters. D f F These demancls, it need hardly be said, e ence orce were vigorously opposed by representatives of the British churches, and though it was generaJly agreed that in the absence of reliable guarantees of protection from the Chinese authorities, the despatch of the Defence Force was a regrettable necessity, great anxiety was expressed on all hands that its function should be strictly limitecl to resistance against unprovoked attack, and that it should not be utilized for the enforcing of "sanctions," the occupation of fresh Chinese territory, or for other aggressive or punitive purposes. The part played by the Defence Force in protecting both Chinese and foreign lives in the International Sittlement, theiT careful abstention from acts of aggression, and their attitude of friendliness and goodwill towards the Chinese people, evoked deep satisfaction throughout Britain. Nanking Outrage Meanwhile prominent representatiYes of British Mission Boards and missionaries on furlough U!'ed every effort to stem the tumult of feeling aroused by the news of the Nanking murders, and to restore a sense of proportion in viewing the situation as a whole. It is inevitable that when national feeling is deepy stirred, events are seen out of their true perspective, and when every fresh disturbance, or rumored disturbance, provides sensational headlines for the newspapers, it becomes well-nigh impossible to secure a just and dispassionate impression of what is occurring. Thus it came about that. while the injuries suffered by foreign residents in certain parts of China were universa[]y noted, the suffering of Chinese Christians was but little known, and still less was heard of the protection loyally afforded to hundreds of foreigners outside the reach of any Defence Force, or the splendid spirit manifested by Chinese Christian leaders in carrying on work reluctantly laid down by missionaries ordered to the coast. Clear Vi. Gradually, however, as the excitement and er sion anxiety of the first weeks died down, the

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1927 AND BRITISH CHURCHli;S 109 situation was seen with greater clarity and justice. The distinction between the pretentious demands of timeserving politi c ians and agitators and the equitable clai rns of true nationalism became more apparent than was possible a year ago And although little hope is entertained of any short cut to unity and stability in China, the resolute determination of the British Government to adhere to the policy expressed in its forlill.er Memoranda, and to meet Chinese aspirations for the revision of the treaties in the most liberal spirit, provided only that security is given for lawfnl occupations," has met with widespread approval. Set-bade to Missions It must, however, be admitted that the events of last year, and the disturbed state of many parts of China, have caused a serious set-back to the mis::iionary movement A variety of circumstances has helped to bring this about. 8ome missionarie:=: who have suffered physical loss, or have been greatly clis:tppointed by the course of events, are not expecting to return. Other;, are questioning the wisdom of doing so, apart from a clear and unequivocal i1:ivitation from the Chinese Church. Mission Boards responsible for work in the disturbed areas are hesitating as to whether they would be right to send out new workers to such districts. Many supporters of missions arc questioning whether it would not he b etter to transfer t.lieir funds to other countries, ,~ here conditions are more stabilised, and where there is less prospect of interruption. Some again are dubious as to the wisdom of continuing to maintain particular types of missionary activity, especially educational and pastoral work, which they consider would better be left to Chinese hands. This set-back is not likely to be more than Set-bade Temporary temporary, and there is no evidence of any tendency to abandon work in China, or to withdraw permanently from centers that had to be evacuuted last yea .r; on the contrary, amongst some missions the new difficulties are being regarded as a challenge to faith and a n incentive to new endeavor. There is, however, a disposition in most quarters to re-value

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110 1927 AND BRI'flSH CHURCHES the various forms of missionary encl ea vor. so as to provide for a better use of available force and funds. In this connection the question of devolution comes prominently to the fore, and in some respects the events of 1927 have forced the pace of what was admittedly a somewhat slow process. The ability and devotion displayed by Chinese leaders in centres where they have had to carry on the whole re;-;pon::;ibility of the Christian enterprise, without the co-operation of missionary colleagues, and often in face of bitter misunderstanding and persecution, have served to emphasize the importance of a policy of transferring increased responsibility to the Chinese Church. In Manchuria, for example, the work of the United Free Church Mission of Scotland is being placed more and rnorE' under the control of the Chinese Synod, and the same tendency is observ:1ble in some other missions. On the other hand, it must be admitted, with regret, that in the case of some soci(lties this process of devolution appears to have been retarded by recent events. Whilst entertain"ing no illusions as to the prospect of peace an tranquillity in China h1 the near future, a quiet determination to maintain the work to which they have !:'et their hands is observable amongst all the churches. The news of the return of missionaries to interior stations was received with great enthusiasm, and the welcome which they received from ,their Chinese Christian colleagues, and the statement of prominent Chinese leaders that "in this crucial experience through which we are passing we need the continued cooperation of the older Christian communions in the West and of our missionary co-workers in China" have helped to dispel doubts as to the possibility of such co-partnership in the future. The thought of a fellowship of service, in which the responsibility for guidance and ad ministration should rapidly pass into Chinese hands, is becoming more and more attractive to earnest students of missions, and it may be that the year 1927, with a.11 its tragedies and sorrows, will be looked brtek upon, in future years as the period when that fellowship was consecrated by mutual suffering, and sprang into new life and vigor.

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CHAPTER XII EFFECTS OF J927 ON WORK OF MISSION,f.RIES L. H. Roots Significance The year 1927 already stands out much like 1900 in the recent history of China. As yet it has no brief name, like "Boxer Year," which immediately snggests its significance, but the figures a.lone, 1927, or the names iu the Chinese cycle, Ting-mao, are commonly used with much the significance of 1900 and its Chinese equivalent, Keng-tsz; fighting and brigandage, prevailed on n large scale; social revolution was widely proclaimed as essential to complete the Revolution of 1911; and direct attacks upon Chri!:'iianity were made with a virulence and from a va.riet.y of points of view hitherto unurecedentod in China. These three features of 1927 are those which most directly and immediately nffected the work of missionarie:; and require a few words of explanation. War and Brigandage The year opened with the highly significant demonstration which led t0 the withdra.wal of B1itish forces from the British Concession at Hankow and the turning over of the control of the same to the Chinese authorities. Then followed the development of the Central Government of the Nationalists at Wuhan under the leadership of Borodin, Eugene Chen and Hsu Ch'ien; the tragedy of Nanking on March 24; the taking of Shanghai; the terrific battles in Honan; the breakdown of the Wuhan Government; Red Terror and White Terror in Hunan and Hupeh --incidents and names which barely suggest the plagues of political disorder which a!Hicted the cities, and which left the countryside and small towns a prey to every kind of banditry. Social Revolution A factor in 1927 which is bound to have very far-reaching consequences was the deliberate appeal to the masses to call their

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1927 AND WORK OF MJSSIONARIEiJ hitherto recognized readers "land hogs" or "corrupt gentry," (" T'n lrno, ;~: lieh shen, % ~,111 "), and to rise against them. That meant violence and Reel Terror when ca.rrifd to extremes; but it was really the negative nspect of the profound conviction of human l,rotherhood which historically has Teceivecl its chief impetus from Jesus Christ. l am inclined to think that thi!; is the most signi ficn.nt of the extraordinary happenings of 1927, as effecting the mutual relationships of maukind, in religion as well as in politics. Attacks on Christianity The work of missionaries was moilt affected during 1927 by the direct attacks on the Church, Christian institutions and Christianity itself, which were a marked feature of the year. Hitherto such attncks lrnve been comparatively blind and unintelligent. Last year they appeared with a well developed self-consciousness a])(l equipped with a.t least the semblance of modern learning. Three distinct sources of these attacks are clea rly discernible. Sometimes they work together to the same end: sometimes they would be mntmdly de8tructivc if allowed free play; but they always repay careful differentiation. (a) Criticism. China is now in the mid-stream of modern thought-or in the eddies and ou the margin, if not actually in mid-stream. Chinese scholars are no longer isolated from the rest of mankind as they were until a. few yea1s ago, and many of them have eagerly welcomed the objections which either ancient Judaism and paganism or modern science and philosophy have raised against Christ.ianity. Perhaps most deadly of all is the appeal to the horrors of the Great War which overwhelmed the \\'est and which Christianity did not prevent. (7,) Nationalism. The greatest handicap of Chr1st itti1ity in China to-clay is probably tfmt it remains so foreign. Na.tion11Iism may be iw necessary for the Chinet-:e as family affect.' on is for the members of :t fa.mily, if the individuals nnrl groups concerned are to play their clue part in the life of ma.nki.nd; but narrow nationalism is poisonous, oftlrn destroying the nation's best friends

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1927 AND WORK OF MISSIONAltlES 118 The attack of nationalism on Christianity is often most difficult to meet because the true and the false elements in it are so hard to distinguish. (c) Oomniunisin. The tide of Communif,m, which reached its height in April and l\fay, but which continued to flow,
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114 1927 AND WORK O~' MISSIONARIES the armies, or the prevalence of banditry. In a few cases t,he local Christians advised withdrawal for the time being out of solicitude for the safety of the missionaries or because the presence of their foreign friends would be only an embarrassment to all concerned while the storm lasted. In most cases, however, the impelling motive was I either the "strong urgency" which sometimes looked like imperative "orders" of the consular authorities, and which was loyally followecl by some of the large missions, notably the China Inland Mission, as a matter of principle, or a deliberate judgment by the mission authorities, that evacuation was the only wise course for most of the m1ss1onaries. Considering the independence and courage of the missionary body as a whole, there was remarkably little discord betweenthe missionaries and their govern ments. Ministers and consuls and naval authorities were ready to give friendly and even urgent advice; but as a rule were most considerate, giving reasons for their a dvice, and rather encouraging the wisest and most experienced missionaries to stn.y at their posts, or to take temporary refuge where they could return at the first opp0rtunity; and in almost every case making it plain that they had no power to "order" their nationals about. The missionaries on their part, while usually determined to maintain their freedom from dict.ation by their governments, were also grateful for the ad vice which they knew was based on knowledge sometimes irniccessible to missionaries, and which could not be suspected of being given with hostile or sinister intent. Exact figures are not now obtainable, but it is certain that more than half of the whole missionary body left their stations in China during the year, going at least as far as Shanghai, some of them to Japan, the Philippines, India or other mission fields, and some leaving China permanently. Missionary Losses It has been said that some missionarie;; lose i their health. some of them lose their minds, and a few los e even their souls. A consider able number of missionaries will never recover the health they lost through the physical hardships of 1927. Many required, or will require, long periods of time to regain.

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1927 AND WORK OF MISSIONARIES 115 mental balance and normal vigor of mind aft.er the nerve-racking experiences, anxieties and responsibilities which the year thrnst upon them Most tragic of all is the disillusionment as to the capacity and responsiveness of the Chinese people which has overtaken, at least for the time b e ing, 80me of the most devoted friends of China; / disillusionment which has caused a few to question even the power of the Gospel. Destruction of Property Property losses will probably turn out to have ber.n rather less than might have been expected, considering the magnitude of the upheaval through which we have P,assed. Still, the losses to both individuals who have been looted, some of them many times, and to missions, will certainly total a large snm and will call attention to the very considerable sums by which Christian work in China has been supported by gins from abroad. Work Curtailed Such losses in personnel and property as indicated above necessarily involved much curtailment of the usual missionary work. In most missions the number of baptisms and attendance at services and instructions and preachings have been much reduced, though the number of places in which Christia,n activity has been driven entirely out of public sight is very small. In most places for considerable periods of time, and in some places for many months, such work as continued a.t all was carried on by Chinese with little or no personal assistance from foreigners. Broken Institutions One of the most perplexing things about thP. treatment of Christian institutions during the past year is the way in which not only churches and chapels, but more especially schools and even hospitals have been broken up. Why should these be closed a11d often despoiled when their eervices are so needed and there is nothing to take their place? Narrow, nationalistic anti-foreignism, communistic intolerance of religion, and the necessities of the armies, often undisciplined, probably account for most of the sad facts. In this place I note only that, at many points in Nationalist

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116 1927 AND WORK OF MISSiONARIES China, churches and mission premises were last year occupied for considerable periods by soldiers or Kuomintang Party officials, as is to this day the case in Nanking itself; schools, especially thorn above primary grade, were closed; and even hospitals were forced to abandon their beneficent work, or to continue it under great handicaps. 'fhe fact that one of the schools that suffered most was I-Fang, at Changsha, where the school was both registered under the government and was a purely Chinefe undertaking; while in other places some schools carried on without registration and. under a foreign principal, indicates that much depended on local conditions and that genera.I principles were not uniformly applied. Our tale of depressing foatnres would not Apostates be complete without mention of the ic:ad fact that in some crucial case8 trusted Chinese Christians went hack on their faith, while a eonsiclerahle nnmber of church members proved to have no root, and so, in the time of persecution, stumbled. Some prominent Chinese Christians have become less zealous than formerly in professing their faith, and some have apparently put their trust in a political platform where once they trusted wholly to Christianity. All thePe facts should be noted; but it should be borne in mind that this sort of thing usually accompanies any such time of stres~ as visited the Christian community la~t year; and also that some of those who now appear to be apostate in appearance only and some who have been misled by specious propaganda, may yet find their way back again to an even deeper Chr1stiai1 faith. Stimulating Effects Popular favor and unlimited oppmtunity were grnnted Christianity in China for twenty years after the Boxer uphen.val. 1927 saw the climax tip to date of the renction. We are obliged in all honesty to recognize the depressing effects of the reaction, and I have tried to indicate these in the preceding paragraphs. We can now turn with no sense of having overlooked unpleasant facts to the bright side of the picture and consider the stimulating effects.

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1927 AND WORK OF MISSIONARIES 117 Nothing so stirs the best in men as the Christian l f h l l b Steadfastness spectac e o overw e mmg ea amity orne with cheerfulness and fortitude. Such a spectacle was presented on a fairly wide scale during the piist year. Both the missionaries and their Chinese col leagues and the rank and file of the Christian community have taken joyfully the spoiling of their goods. And in addition to property losses, which are part of the birth pangs of the New China, they have stood up under abuse and often under personal violence with a patience and good temper which are certain proof that the Gospel in China has not lost its ancient power. Many groups of Christians recognized that their Jongsuffering is a fruit of God's Spirit as they met in the church at Christmas while angry processions beat at the doors, and said to one \ ( another, We used to come to church for protection; now we come though we incur danger thereby." Faithfulness of Chinese Workers The outstanding contrast between the Chinese Church of HlOO and that of 1927 is the quality and also the number of capable and responsible Chinese. Not only have Chinese pastors kept congregations together, but schools and colleges and hospitals requiring a high degree of professional skill as well ns devotion, were carried on for months by Chinese teachers and doctors and nurses under most difficult conditions, when the whole foreign staff had to evacuate. Such facts have not only been notable in themselves, but have indicated, at least, in some instances, that responsibility can hereafter be carried by Chinese more satisfactorily than had hitherto been deemed pos sible. This is in many ways the most encouraging feature of the whole situation. Self-Su ort The normal Christian urge i,o self-support PF has been much strengthened by that element in the n:;i.tionalistic movement which demands of the Chinece Church that it be both self-
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1:18 1927 AND WORK OF MISSIONARIES supplemented by the comparative shortage of foreign funds and sometimes by the difficulty of trnrsmitting such funds when available. The reality of the advance in this direction should not be too heavily discounted by the fact that amounts actually contributed for self-support have as yet shown small increase or have diminish1;d. The pitiful impoverishment of all classes on account of war and banditry must not be forgotten. Woman's Mov_ement 1927 saw a social change of immeasurable importance sweep over nationalist China. Not only in politics and society in general, but in church and school and hospital the woman's move ment is amazing, releas ing hitherto unsuspected energies in behalf of the community. The fact that Chinese women nurses can now do almost if not quite all the nursing work for 'men's as well as women:s hospitals indicates the enormous advance attained in less than one year. New human resources of vast significance Workers and for the Church as well as for society in Piasants general have already been uncovered by the deliberate purpose of the Nationalist Movement to build on these numerically predominant classes and not trust mainly, as Chinese government has done in the past, to the sch9lar class, supplemented by a grudging recognition by the merchant class. The point to note in this review is the va,it new field thus opened for foreign missionaries who have had experience which fits them to help the Chinese Church do its share in the uplift of working men and farmers, The past year has led missionaries to con-WM~Y. i sider anew some fundamental issues. For 1s~ronar1es. l b many years m1c1s10nar1es rn.ve een so cordially welcomed, especially by the Chinese Christians but also by the responsible people whether Christin,ns or not, in the towns and cities where they have lived, that it has been easy to think that they came primarily at the invitation of the Chinese; but 1927 has made even the missionaries ask themselves what many in Europe and America ask them-" If the Chinese do not want you, why stay?" ,Other questions must follow. "What

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1927 AND WORK OF MISSIONARIES 119 Chinese opinion should be heeded, that of the Christian community or that t)f other groups?" Also each missionary must ask himself whether the Chinese opinion" quoted refers to all missionaries or only to men with his pe culiar limitations as to sympathy, skill and power of making friends And comprehen,sively the question is, "What is God's call to me to-day?" Place of Pl'operty Another prominent issue is that as to tho, place and use of money, land buildings and equipment in the work of the Church in China. Some missionaries as well as many Chinese thought at first, when property was confiscated or looted, that God had forsaken them and that no consolation could come unless the property loss were made good. The year has helped many to clear this issue, and to see that property is useless or worse than useless except in so far as it is the expre ssion of faith and hope and love, or ministers to these spiritua.l qualities. Again, most missionaries have been quite "Gunboat" oblivious of their relations to gunboats and Policy the armed for c es of their governments in China. The year has helped clear the air on this subject, both as to the facts and as to the moral and spiritual issues involved. Work of Missionary A further fundamental issue which must be considered anew in the light of the new powers which the year has shown the Chinese Church to possess is the place of the foreign missionary.'' On the one hand his relation to the Chinese Church arid on the other to the vast unevangelized fields, geographical areas, and classes of the Chinese population .lVIessage Finally the searching crises of the year have raised anew the questi o n which is perennial wherever men are sensitive to the leadings of God's Spirit-" What is the Gospel?" These questions can only be mentioned, they cannot be answered, in this brief review. The fact that they can be named as being now burning questions among the missionaries is in itself a most stimulating effect of 1927 on their work.

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CHAPTER XIII R~CF;:NT IVALUA TIONS OF MISSION WORK C, E. Patton The word evaluation was introduced into Evalu11tion mission nomenclature by the Presbyterian Missions and given currency through their series of three Sectional Evaluation Conferences and one General Evaluation Conference held in Shanghai in 1926, all of which were participated in by a deputation from the homeland as well as by Chinese Christians. All organizations no doubt believe, at least Self-study theoretically, in a periodic refacing of itctivities. One of the first effects of the upheaval of 1926 was the impetus given to self-study by all the missions in China. The leading organizations then and since have devoted much time and thought to evaluations of their work in some form or other. R d 1 Although the movement began as an ea Jus ment I f t f eva uat10n o mrns10n act1v1t1es, t11e turn o events during 1926 and 1927 very quickly changed the movement into one of readjustment as between mission and church. The relation of church and mission supplanted the earlier mission evaluation. Success Considered purely as an evaluation of mission activities, it is safe to say the move pient has not been entirely successful. This is due to several causes: 1. The evaluations did not go deep Inadequate enough. There were no standards for taking measurements. Even in the visible tangible aspects of mission work, this was found to be true. Much more so was it true in the spiritual aspect The lack of a definable aim was another difficulty. The use of the word

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RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK 121 missions is vague. Of late it has grown to include almost anything of a helpful or philanthropic nature. No doubt this is tn1eeable to the churches.of the homelands for missions are but the reflex of the Christianity of the sqnding country. 2. The evaluations did not last long Too Short enough. The process was disturbed by the readjustment processes prec:pitated by the crisis in China. These readjustments have scarcely been well begun. 'fhe end is not yet within sight .. Educational Value On the other hand one may with some degree of assurance say that the mission evaluations had a real value in preparing the minds of all for the changes which came upon us with such overwhelming suddenness. To introduce the idea of a periodic refacing <-r of oelf-evalualion was in itself well "orthwhik. :Mission organizations like individuals require time for making mental adjustment:;,. A periodic refacing greatly assists readjustment. Of great value is the creation of an evaluation atmosphere. Much is possi blc in la.ter stages which sensitiveness to implied criticism may make difficult or impossible at an earlier stage. Self complacency is too apt to characterize us. To have created an atmosphere therefore in which facts may be faced impersonally and impartially was in itself well worth while. Chief Issues A review of the various evaluation findings discloses a number of outstanding issues shared very mu c h in common:J. Tb~ Definition of Missions of time and Numerous and labored attempts have been made to define the term "Missions" or to phrase the Aim of Missions. These attempts have usually been colored uy local conditions place, which to a degree affects their valne. 2 NI. 11 Nationalism in it.s struggle with interna- a wna .m 1 l l l th tiona ism ooms up v e ry nrge y m e evaluation findings and has unduly influenced them.

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122 RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK 3. The Relation of Church and Mission This involves questions of force, whether it shall be increased, kept at a par or decreased; of property, whether ancl to what extent and under what conditions mission owned property should be transferred to Chinese title or control; of current funds. whether funds for current work coming from the homelands should be placed without restriction in the hands of Chinese directorates or similar bodies of control. Opinions differ as to the continuance of the mission organization. One group would dissolve the mission, the Chinese Church absorbing everything; another would continue the mission as a cooperating agency with or under the Church. Dr. Robert E. Speer in his report on Japan and China, (pages 317 18) gives thirteen reasons for and thirteen against the perpetuation of the missions, furnishing an excellent resume of the thinking on this subject. The probability of a lessening of interest Maintenance in the homelands because of the withdrawal of Interest of the foreign missionary or because of his altered status is recognized. The mission cause in the homelands must be more or le:::s dramatized or personalized in order to win and maintain inte rest 4. The Registration of Schools Here again a proper evaluation of mission activiti e s has been made impossible becnuse of issues pending at the moment. A large factor in the registration problem has been the lack of uniformity in th e registration requirements of the various governments in China. Apparently there is unanimity of view among the missions as to the principle of registration. Registration in itself is considered a proper thing. Difficulties arise from the conditions imposed ... 1 by the various governments in China. Much is said of the taking over of schools. Control of education and control of property have been greatly confused. Admittedly education is China's own responsibility and she may make it what she chooses but mission property rights should be regarded until properly transferred to Chine1:e control. Religious liberty and the right to private education, most vital issues, have not had as large a

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RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK 123 place as one might have expected in the evaluation finding8, presumably because they are considered to !)e distinctively a problem of the Chinese Christian community rather than of tbe mission. G I t' Cert,ain generalizations may be deduced enera 1za 1011s from a study of the evaluation findrngs of the various org:111izations 1. That the autonomy and primacy of the Autonomy Chinese church is clearly recognized by all though the form of recognition varies somewhat. The Presbyterian group builds on a national premise yielding all to the Chinese church of which the missionary may be a member and hold such office as the Chinese church itself decre es The Methodist group builds upon an international premise of world-wide Methodism, knowing no nationnJ or racial distinction. Church and Mission 2. The differences must be recognized, both geographical and chronological, in the relations which exist between mission and church. There is in China the church of the first century as well as of the twentieth. The three regional plans evolved hy the Presbyterian Evalnation Conferences illustrate the necessity for adaptation of conditions to time or place, in other words, to the state of development of the Chinese church. Leaders 3 That the big problem is concerned with leaders rather than with the rank and file. The m i ssions quite evidently are ready and willing to transfer to the Chinese Church responsibilities and tasks more rapidly than the Church itself is prepared to undertake them. .Jn he rent Difficulties 4. That the Chinese Emergency Committee and other workers left in charge during the absence through evacnation of the foreign m1Ss10naries complain of the same difficulties that the missionaries encountered, thus showing that the difficulties are inherent and not attributable to the foreigner or missionary as such.

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124 RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK Finances ,5. That the fundarnenta.l problem is one of :financial support. Two theories widely obtain: a. That the work from its inception should be built upon a self-support basis only, as in Korea. This theory is held chiefly by board secretaries and a few missionaries. b. That the contributions from abroad may continue in perpetuity as the joint effort of Christians abroad and Christians in Chinn.. This theory is held chiefly by young China and some missionaries. 6. That property could to a very large Ov,mership of degree be turned over and the mission bodies Property would quite willingly turn it over if and when proper Chinese holding bodies were constituted. This is revealed by all the evaluation findings. As yet there is no practical test since thei~e is no holding body with assurance of security for propert.y title. Chinese Control 7. There is common agreement that the Chinese Church should have a dominant voice in all matters pertaining to foreign force, including a general influence in the determination and direction of the work of the missionaries. Startina Points The following questions propound~d by "' Dr. R. E. Speer preparatory to the earliest of the Mission Evaluation Conferences furnished an excellent starting point and are somewhat suggestive. 1. What is the actual ~tatus of the Chinese Church? Ecclesiastically it is absolutely autonomous and free, but h, w far in the exercise of this power has it fulfilled or does it give promise of fulfilling the true ideal of an independent, national Church? To this end how best and most speedily can its membership be mnltiplied and its self-support hastened? "2. What plan of relationship between cliurch and mission or church and missionai-ies will best

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RECENT EVALUA'_fIO)TS OF MISSION WORK 125 promote the power and administrative autonomy, the real responsibility and self-dependence of the Church? "3. For what parts of the work is the Church now able to assume full responsibility without aid from America and for what parts with aid, considering first, the work already undertaken and under-way, and second, the vast work not yet done which must be undertaken? Where aid is still necessary, how can it be given in such a way as to increase the sense of responsibility and the actual assumption of financial responsibility by the Church in China and when responsibility, financial or otherwise, is transferred from the Church in America how can the interest and prayers of the American Church be retained? "4. Wh:i.t are the definite things which the Church ought now to do or to do better, to promote the efficiency of the work and the realization of our common aim in each station area and in each departmental form of work? And what are the corresponding definite things which the mission ought now to do? And what things can best be done, for their own sake and for the Church's sake, by cooperative or merged effort of church and mission and what by separate or supplementary action? "5. How can we secure the enlargement of the rlirect, per~onal evangelistic impact of our livesChinese Christians and foreign missionaries-on other individual lives with a view to winning ihem to Christ and His Church? 6. How can the Church fulfill its general, social and national duty and at the same time develop, as has not yet been done, the essential realization and expression of Christianity in a more adeqna te volume of individual Christian lives and of Christian homes, and local congregations and communities?" Two Summaries Partly because of their suggestiveness and because they represent in turn t.he earliest and the. latest of the evaluations we present

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126 RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK the following two summaries. The first is largely a mission product, the other is entirely a Chinese product but approved as a whole by the mission body. Each has a value of its own. Presbyterian Evaluation Confarence "Revealed before us stands most clearly the Chinese Chur.::h. A real church exists. It differs in degree of strength, of self consciousness, and of well understood purpose in the several areas but it plainly live..,, Mission work of the future must relate itself to the Church. We now know better what place the mission should occupy. Understanding the Church as the permanent body we see clearly that the mission is the temporary body and that it will more truly accomplish its purpose as it progressively transfers its functions to the Church. Until these functions are transferred and the mission's work is done it has its own place in the Christian movement. "Confronting Church a.nd mission is the task. Mem bers of the Conference realized, as they had not for years, the magnitude of the" unfinished task." Chinese leaders meeting with us pointed out the need for continuance of missionary effort. Surveys of the field showed the work remaining to be done, and our eyes saw our own task incomplete. It is natural, then, that our message to the Home Church should include this statement, 'Rejoicing as we do in the achievements in the past we have an overwhelming sense of the grea.t unfinished task before us. The Church already planted is exerting an influence far in excess of its numbers, but vast areas have not yet heard the Gospel and many social group.~ are as yet practically untouched.' "The Conference faced the problem of method. The aims of the Church and mission are almost identical. They have a common task. Is it better to merge the two or to keep the m distinct? The opinion prevailed that the mission should not absorb the Churc h nor the Church the mission, but that the two should maintain separate entities cooperating in the common btsk. While the Church is the primary and the mission the assisting

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RECENT EVALUATIONS OF .MISSION WORK 127 agency, yet the former will the more easily realize its autonomy and the latter complete its usefulness as the two remain distinct. "The autonomous church self-supporting, self propagating, and self-goverriing occupied much of the time and thought of the Conference. Our own mission methods were examined, policies of other lands and of other societies were studied as we sought to determine whether we had helped or hindered self-support in the churches. Our methods may have been at fault-though we are not sure of it-but at any rate it does not seem wise to uproot the churche1::' already planted. We have decided to emphasize again and again the desirability of self-support for work already begun and to urge selfsupport from the beginning in all newly organized groups of believers. "lt became very evident that we must deal with facts as they are. In the matter of self-support it is necessary to consider economic as well as spiritual matters and to outline a practical policy. It would be easy to think of an ideal church and to plan for it in a theoretical way but it has seemed wiser to eliminate all fictions. The Con ference h e ld itself from assuming that the present Church is now all that the potential Church promises to be. There was considerable temptation to sweep into the Church with generous hand more than it is able to manage. But the Conference resisted that desire At the same time there was a clear recognition that the Church had already attained to a certain strength and that certain work should be transferred and th,1 t what was given with the one hand should not be held back by the other, that it should be given genuinely Reality rather than name was held to be important. A study of evangelistic work seemed to show the need of emphasis on the individual churches. The evangelistic report contain'> this significant statement: 'Recognizing the fact that much has already been accom plished toward the spread of the Gospel in China and the establishment of Christian institutions, yet dissatisfied

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128 RECE:1-l"T EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK with the progress made in the development of a Chinef:e Church, virile, independent, aggressive, with an earnest zeal for soul saving, we record our conviction that all forms of missionary activity should be closely linked up with, and be made contributory to, the building up of local individual churches-the units of that Church which is to foster and express the spiritual life of the people.' "That the Church might have complete control of the work most conducive to such a development and might be 8aved from tasks requiring large overhead organization it seemed wise to transfer to it the evangelistic work and the elementary day schools in the evangelistic ficld8, which is the form of educational work most closely connected therewith. These forms of work are thus to pass definitely from mission control. "The present situation demands a study of mission educ1tional activities both as regards general and particular evaluation. Many question the place of education in the 111issionary program, others rloubt the wisdom of the educational policies obtaining among missions in China, still others ask as to the value of particular schools. Rarely has mission education been so carefully considered as in this Conference and the attitude. now emerging amounts almost to a rebirth, so much more vitalized has our educational purpose become. Never before has our mission body so thoroughly supported our schools. The Christian school supported by the mission is not to be joined with other Christian schools in a rivitl system to public education, nor are such schools to be an organized part of the government system, nor indeed as a uniform unit in such a system. Instead the Christian school is thought of as enjoying the full integrity of private schools with the avowed purpose of showing the Christian ideal as well as attaining educational excellence. It is to be supplemental to the government systems enriching the life of the Church and the nation through a distinctive Christian character as shown in its life and teaching "While the mission continues to share in the control of secondary s chools and the higher institutions remain

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RECENT EVALUATIONS OJ!' MISSION WORK 129 under separate 1,oards of directors, yet the desire is that all be vitally related to the great purposes of the Church. They are to develop intensively rather than extensively, they are to be definitely Christian, and they are to be so strengthened as to be more accessible to the children of the Church, which will in tnrn strengthen their Christian influence. "The chief by-product of the Conference was the clearer recognition of variations We have begnn to see that work must be judged by its own standard;; in the light of its surroundings. We are less likely now to try the same plan with the same sort of application for all China. In South China evangelistic workers are to be allocated to the Church -on the definite request by the Church-for definite terms of service under the Church. In territory further north most work will be carried on through cooperation committees. In other fielcls the work will be carried under the Presbytery. We have learned that we must deal with the Church on the basis of its development in a given area. Having learned this much we can be more resigned to the fact that we could not solve all onr problems in the Conference. '' Again we are ready for a closer tying together of all our work-evangelistic, educational, medical, and special types-in a more effective cooperation, each department sharing the responsi bilit.y for conserving to the Uhurch, as a permanent contribution to its numerical growth and spirit:ml progress, the evangelistic results of its own efforts. And we have learned that each worker must evaluate his own activities so as to contribute to the upbuilding of the Church in this land. '' Finally the Conference revealed to us the necessity for evaluating our purposes and our responsibilities. Why should men and women come to China as miR sionaries? Who!:e command do we obey in our work here? To whom are we ultimately responsible for our work? In thoughtful prayer and prayerful thought the conviction grew upon us day by day that ours is much more than a cultural mis:;ion, that it is indee
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130 RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK bearing a message of life, and that those engaged in this enterprise are called upon to preach the unsearchable riches of Jesus Christ, proclaiming the name that is above every name.'' Chinese Methodist Conference Report of the All Chinese Conference of the Methodist Church held on January 2-6, 1928. "This All-Chinese Conference was arranged for by the Board of F'oreign Missions and our Bishops. It was prompted by the very earnest desire to find out, at this critical time, just what it is that the Methodists of China feel and think and desire concerning many of the great questions of the day Representative Chinese leaders were carefully chosen by the Chinese themselves from our ten China Conferences, and when the meeting convened there were some eighty of our outstanding leaders in attendance. "After much prayer and careful study the confer ence makes the following recommendations which have all been thoroughly considered and duly adopted: "1. The states of Chinese Methodism. It was voted that: (a) The Chinese Methodist Church shall remain an organic part of the world church. "2. Episcopal supervision. It was voted that: (a,) A Chinese bishop be elected as soon as this can be e ffected. (b) The General Conference should delegate power to the J<:astern Asia Central Conference to elect a bishop or bishops for China. (c) The bishops from America should be eliminated gradually when the time comes. (d) The question of how many bishops should be retairied during the next quadrennium was laid on the table. (e) Four bishops are needed for China; who should be one Chinese, one missionary in China and two from America elected by the General Conference

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RECENT EVALUATiONS OF !\ilSSION WORK 131 "3. The place of the Mis;;ionary. It was voted that: (a) Missionaries are still desired and needed in the Methodist Church in China. (b) The number of the missionaries should be restored to equal that of 1926. "4. Church Property. It was voted that: (a) The Board of Foreign Missions Rhould transfer the ownership of Church propf'rty to the Chinese Church as Roon as plans for the transfer of the same are made. (b) The Eastern Asia Central Conference should appoint a National Committee to make plans for the transfer of the property. (c) A local board should be organized by each Annual Conference and a central board by the Eastern Asia Central Con ference for the transfer of mission property and that. in making the transfer the following conditions must be fulfilled : that each loc:dity should be able to pay for the repairs and insurance and that the original purpose for which the property was designated should be maintained. "5. Registration. It was voted that: (a) The schools should register according to the conditions of each place. (b) The schools should register if and when the regulations for regh;tration are satisfactory. "6. Emphasis of Work. It was voted that: (a) In the present conditions and in the near future the Church should emphasize rural evangelism and vocational training. (b) That a committee be appointed by the Eastern Asia Central Conference to prepare a program of Religious Educ ation for the next quadrennium. (c) Each conference should set apart a portion of its finances for literary work. (d) The Chinese \ Christian Advocate and the Yoimg Peoples Friend should open a section of Religious Education. (e)

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132 RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK Our Board of Religious Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church in China should negotiate with the Sunrlay School Union for the preparation of Sunday School lessons suitable for country use. "7. It was voted that the Methodist Church should have spiritual fellowship and hearty cooperation with other Christian Churches. "8. It was voted that the changes in discipline, policy or ritual of our Church in China should be referred to the Eastern Asia Central Conference for discussion. "9. Finance. It was voted that: (a) We ask the Mission Board to continue thei r financial support according to the condition ol each place. (b) BeRides 8elf supporting churches, each imlividual church should increase e,teh year ten per cent of the present amount for self-support; however this does not apply to churches under unusual circumstances. (c) The finances for evangelism should be increased. 10. It was voted that we ask the Eastern Asia Central Conference to take act.ion requesting General Conference to admit lay delegates to the Annual Conference with power to vote. "11. It was voted that we ask the Eastern Asia Central Conference to organize a General Executive Office for the Chinese Methodist Episcopal Church." An article" A Missionary Audit," by Mark A Missionary ~f. Jones, in the Atlantic Monthly of Decem Audlt her 1927 indicates that the interest in evaluation of missions is not confined to the China missions. The writer places his finger on a vital spot, whether the material or the spiritual aspects of mission activity are under considerat,ion, namely, that combination at home for the reduction of overhead expenses and combination in

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RECENT EVALUATIONS OF MISSION WORK )33 China for the intensification of spiritual fellowship are unquestionably the needs of the hour. Making dne allow ance for such differences as may arise from conscientious scruples, there would yet appear to be a great waste of e nergy both in tho homelands and in China, clue to lack of coordination and combination. Fully con s cious of the fact that spiritual values cannot be computed in dollars and cents as in "A Missionary Audit," none will quer;tion the need for a more busine,;s like method in mission organization with an occasional audit or reevalution By way of conclusion we submit,:-Reshaping Thinking 1. As to organization and method: Has not the growth of the church in China, in India and Japan, made possible, and the intern ; e nationalism in these lands made imperative, a complete reshaping of our thinking in regard to mission organization and administration? Has not the day come when, instead of the "superior" sending to the "inferior," we may think in terms of some sort of an international cooperative Christian movement in which the combined Christian forces of Western lands and the Orient alike may be organized to deal with the non-Christian element in each? M t p 2. As to spirit and motive power : Can the o 1ve ower h" h I ? Wh stream rise 1g er t 1an its sotnce at we have in China is but a reflex of the Christianity of the chnrches in the homelands. Product 3. As to results: While far from commensurate with effort and cost-Christian work rarely is-missionary effort in China J,as not been without a real and gratifyir.g product.

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CHAPTER XIV RELATIONS OF THE.YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES Introductory C. E. Patton In this chapter the problems raised in connection with the relation of Church and m1ss1on a.re as far as possible brought under r e view, and an indication is given of the trends of thought and action of the present time. The material was first prepared by Rev. Edwin Marx as a contribution to the thinking of the Chinese delegation preparatory to the meeting of the International Missionary Council in Jerusalem. It has subsequently been reviewed and thoroughly revis e d by the Committee on Church and Mission Administration of the National Christian Council, by whose courtesy it is here published. While the Committee contains both Chinese and foreign members several of the former have been absent, as members of the Jerusalem delegation and otherwise, and therefore the document has had far less Chinese thinking put into it than is desirable. For this and other reasons it is still regarded as a tentative statement. It is issued with the object of calling forth further consideration and securing different points of view from Chinese and foreigners in the organized work of the Christian Church. It is hoped that comments from individuals or groups may be sent to the General Secretary of the National Christian Council in order that further attention may be given by the committee to such aspects of the whole problem as call for it.

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 135 J. REASONS FOR CONSIDERATION OF THIS QUESTION. There are certain conditions in the world Presen~ World to-day tliat call for a reconsideration of the Conditions f R l f quest10n o e at10ns o Younger and Older Churches." The principal ones may be listed as follows: 1 1. The emergence of a new spirit of nationalism on a world-wide scale. 2. A new world conscience and world-enlightenment, calling for revaluation and reconstruction of human claims and relationships, particularly by supporters of the missionary movement. 3. A new spirit of critical inqiiiry directe.d toward the missionary movement. On the one hand this is exhibited in a sympathetic but searching analysis on the part of those who are supporters of the missionary movement to discover the most acceptable apologetic for this enterprise. On the other hand, it is manifested in an increase of active opposition, such as anti-Christian movements, philosophical criticisms, and so forth. 4. A new scientific techniqiie by which the demands of revaluation and reconstruction can more adequately be met. Such sciences as anthropology, sociology, psychology, comparative religion, anrl in fact nearly all of the new social sciences that have made such rapid strides in development during recent decades, have thrown a flood of light on the proper aims and methods of Christian missionary work 5. Desire on the part of friends nf rnissions to know how their continued interest and support can be most helpfully maintained. II. AIMS AND AT'rITUDES. 1. Preliminary considerations. 2 1JPR, whole paper; RJC: 72-82; OCT: 4-14. Religious Educati:on, December, 1927: "An Interpretation of the Christian Missionary Enterprise." zcMR,preface; NOC. 1926-:27: 96-~7

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136 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES Jn nearly all groups there have been long Devolution steps forward in devolution, in the development of Chinese leadership and responsibility: in placing churches and institutions on a self-governing basis under Chin em direction; in bringing about more of a spirit of cooperation and equality between the foreign and the Chine~e workers; in developing a consciousness and esprit de corps among the churches on t.he field; in transforming the thinking of the western churches to a chnrch-centric in place of a mission-centric basis. The discussions and publicity that have arisen around these questions in recent years have been accentuated by the course of events. But there has been steady progress in all these lines from the beginning and it would be a mistake to assume that the present generation of Christian workers in China are the iirst to have a comcience on these matters, or to give any constructive thought to them. An appraisal of the situation must take Tendencies account not only of specific events but of tendencies. As has been often said in other connections, where we are, on the road, is not so important as whether we are m?ving, a11d if so, in which direction. The whole situation in China is in flux. Situation in Flu:::: Provieion must be made for adaptability; policiefl and methods may need to vary accorcling to the particular circumstances of a given time, group or locality. This need for adaptability according to varying circumstances is especially apparent at the present time. 2. Attitude of Approach to the St11dy.1 Neither organizations, methods, policies, nor ideas must become an end in themselves. They must be sub mitted to searching examination, and evaluated according to their usefulness as a means toward the ultimate aim of the missionary movement. More important thai1 any methods or aims is the motivating spirit, which is the most important factor of all. 1CCT: 83; IPR: sec. IV, items 1, 2, 3; RJC: 323-324.

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 137 3. Aims of the Missionary Enterprise. Dfatinction is to be made between Ultimate and Proximate aims. The latter are but steps or stages in progress toward the former. Ultimate Objective The ultimate objective may be broadly stated as the realisation of those ideals for the world, for society, and for the individual, which are embodied in the conception of the Kingdom of God and in the personality of Jesus Christ. Aim of Missions The aim of Christian Missions in China, as generally accepted, has been stated as follows: "The supreme and controlling aim of foreign missions is to make the Lord Jesus Christ known to all men as their Divine Savior and to persuade them to become His disciples; to gather these disciples into Christian churches which shall be self-propagating, self-supporting and self -governing; to cooperate, so long as necessary with these churches in the evangelizing of their countrymen, and in bringing to bear on all human life the spirit and principles of Christ."1 4. Western Offerings to China through Christian Worlc. 2 What distinctive contributions can be made through the churches of the West to China that will justify continued cooperation? Primary Gift of Western Churches The primary gift which the churches of the West have to bring to China is the knowledge of God through Jesus Christ, known to them both as an historical person and through the experience of faith in and fellowship with him through the Christian centuries. Through his personality the Church has gained and should be able to assist the people in the lands where Christ has not been known, in arriving at,-(1) a conviction that God, the Father, is like Christ, the Son; (2) a higher and more inclusive standard of life; (3) a keener sense of the disastrous results of sin and consciousness of personal sinfulness; 1RJC: 214, CMR: 2 20:& 1926: 883-897

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138 REL.ATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER OHUROHES (4) salvation through conscious cooperative companionship between the individual and God, made possible through Jesus Christ; (5) the ethical results flowing from such an experience; ( 6) spiritual fellowship hetween indiviciuals of all types and races, also as a direct outcome of such experience; (7) a knowledge by the individual and the group of the abiding presence of God as the Spirit of Truth leading into all truth; (8) a simultaneous development of all human capacities. Rellglous Experience The above statements are made in the realization that religious experience is not an interest separate and distinct from other human concerns. Rather, it is that which gives direction and motive power to the whole of life. This being the case, it is to be expected that in direct proportion to the progress of the Christian religion, its influence will permeate and affect all human affairs. It is for this reason that the educational, medical and social aspects, of Christian effort in China are also to be regarded as integral parts of the offering of western Christians, the healed body, the enlightened mind, and the purer society being products of the Christ spirit working through His disciples. In addition to the religious values which By-Products the Christian Movement definitely aims to achieve, there are certain by-pro
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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 139 This question is sometimes heard, but it does not appear to be a serious one at the present time. The answers to it are overwhelmingly in the affirmative from all sources 1 2. Number of Missionaries The number of missionaries in 1922 was about 7500; in 1925 about 8320 These figures are based on the Directory of Protestant Missions. 2 As to the future, the following seems a sane pronouncement: "The present time does not seem opportune for attempting to determine by any extensive survey the number of missionaries whose service will be required in China in the next few years. If the churches are to have a much larger influence than in the past in determining the number of missionaries required by the work, it would seem that considerable time will need to be given to the churches, in many caf'es, to adjust themselves adequately to this new situation. Progress must be made by the churches in evaluating the work as a whole. Time must be given to test out the results of some of the experiments being made in the increased assumption of responsibilities."3 A t I N d The actual needs and the conclusions c ua ee s reached in this regard will certainly vary in different missions, churche::;, localities, and types of work. Looking at the field as a whole, for the next few years while the Church is finding itself, there seems to be a fairly clear case for at least maintaining the missionary forces at the present level of numbers. lt certainly is desirable not to press the younger churches too hard for decisions which they are not yet prepared to make. They must be given time to think out their own plans and decide what they need. But in the meantime foreign mission agencies should maintain their support in such 1CM:R:11-12; NCC 1925-26:143; 1926-27 : 46; CT'.r:70,159; CR:1926: 569-573,866-875; 1927:23-27, 88-99, 309,318, etc. 2CCT;:70 aNCO 1925-26: 143-144.

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140 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES way as to present a setback to the results that have already been accomplished. Untouched Areas One thing in connection with the whole discussion of the future need for missionaries and financial help from the older churches has not been sufficiently emphasized: that is, the needs of the areas that have not yet been touched, or at least have not been seriously affected by any kind of Christian influence. Most of the discussions of devolution, auton omy, and self-support, have concerned areas where Christian churches have been long established. Naturally in these places decisions as to the future work must be made more and more in consultation with the representa tives of the churches But in many parts of China the conditions are not greatly different from those existing in the days when mission work first entered this country. In such districts Chinese Christian bodies are not yet in existence to be consulted, and those in other areas have their hands full as a rule with local work. Much of the talk about independence of Church the established churches in China really Independence assumes only the c arrying on of the task of nourishing their own life by the1:1e established con gregations. Although some missionary work is being undertaken by Chinese Christian organizations, there is little hope of their being able for a long time to come to undertake the full responsibility for evangelizing the whole of China. Summary What is said above may be summarized more briefly as follows: Time Needed The time is not opportune for determining final policies and for giving definite answers to the questions asked at the beginning of this section. The churches and missions should have a chance to work out their readjustments gradually. Meantime the work should be carried on as best it can until these read justments can be made. Three conclusions may be stated definitely:

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 141 a. Most of the discussions of readjustment Missionary h I d h d" f h Readjustment ave re ate to t e rea Justments o t e individual missionaries to a changed environment. It must he recognized that some of the changes needed will be in regard to organizations and programs. For example, missions should probably pay more attention to the expanding aspects of the work, moving out into new territory, and so forth. b. The determination of changes is not Consultation one for the missions alone. It must be Needed worked out in consultation with representa-tives of the Chinese churches. The degree of consultation and cooperation required will be in proportion to the ability of the churches to take an effective share in the particular field or form of service. Present Missionary Strength c. During the time that readjustments are being made it is advisable that the older churches maintain their forces and their support at least on the present levels 3. .Finance As to the amount of financi a l assistance to be required in the future, to a considerable extent the same kind of observations will apply, as in regard to the numbers of missionaries. Details as to the use of missionaries and funds are dealt with in a later section IV, CHURCH AND MISSION RELATIONS1 1. There are four stages in the developStages ment of foreign missionary work. The first is the pioneer stage, when necessarily the missionary has to do everything; the second is that of cooperation with the native workers, when the Church begins to emerge as a strong entity; the third is that period when the Church becomes more indigenous and although yet too weak to go alone, largely establishes its own leadership; the fourth period is when the Church becomes independent 1QMR: 12-13; RJC: 214-220, 220-221, 280-324; COT: 65, 66, 69, 71, 75, 76-77, 77-78, 82; NCC: 1925-26: 136-137; 1926-27 : 46-47

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142 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES of foreign aid, assumes full self-support, and adopts a missionary program of its own. All Four Stages Exist All of these four stages are to be found in China today. The large untouched areas, to which reference has been made before, still present the conditions of the first stage. In some of the localitieR where the Church has been established longest, there are units which have already undertaken to enter into the re8ponsibilities of the fourth stage. But considering the Church in China as a whole, we should say that it is in the third stage. T Th 2. There are two common theories as to wo eor1es h l h h h f h t e re at10n w 1c t e orgamzat10ns o t e younger churches and the foreign mission organization in the field should sustain to each other during the third stage One is in the na .ture of a partnership with the Church and mission each maintaining separate identity, but with the Church's influence and responsibility predominant, or at least ascendant. The other theory is that the mission shoul d gradually merge into the Church and cease to exist as a separate organization. In the latter case, the idea of the merger and the disappearance of the mission organization applies only to itR functions in relation to the Chinese Church Organizations may be maintained for purposes touching the purely personal concerns of the foreign workers. Ideal Church 3. The statement has frequently been made that the agencies of the older churches in cooperation with the younger churches are conceived as temporary and the time is anticipated when theRe forms of cooperation will be fulfilled and come to an end. For example: "The Ideal Christian Ohvrch.-The ideal of both mission and Church for the Church's attainment is no other than that of the New Testament, namely, an organized association of all those who have become new creatures through faith in Jesus Christ and surrender to the transforming work of His Spirit, for the purpose of fellowship in and with Him in

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 143 united worship, mutual edification, loving ministry, service to society and the nation, and universal evangelisation. The ideal Church in any nation must necessarily be indigenous in the sense that it must be self-propagating, self-supporting and self-governing and, both in outward form and inward spirit, the free expression of that people's life under the guidance of the Spirit of Christ, building upon the only Foundation which any man can lay and according to the ideals of the Word of God which abideth forever. A Church of this character will most attract the national heart and life. "Mutual Relation of Mwsion and Ohurch.-According to the above principles, the mission, from beginning to end, looks upon itself as merely the transient agency by which the Christian Church of one land or race seeks to fulfil the great Commission of our Lord and Savior; its functions and activities to be transferred as speedily as possible to the permanent and growing Church, whose primacy, autonomy and responsibility must ever be, .together with the duty of full world evangelization, the predominant concern of the mission." It is recognized that for a certain period, the length of which cannot be foretold, the cooperative work of the younger and older churches will be of a character in which the older are in a position to give more to the younger, than the younger can give to the older. During this period, 1. What are the conditions of cooperation? 2 What are the general aims to be achieved? 3. What are the methods to be employed? An attempt will be made in the following section to find an answer to these questions. v. THE CHURCH AT THE CENTER. 1. The Ohurch-Oentric ldea.1 1CCT: 80, 81, 82; NCC: 1926-27: 48, 49; IPR: p. 9, sec. IV.

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144 RELATIONS 0!' THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES Transfer of Loyalty It. is generally accepted that as the younger churches are established and devefoped they must receive an increasing amount of the interest and loyalty that in the initial stages is devoted to the missionaries and mission organizations. Although this church-centric idea has been formalJy accepted, its full significance has not been realized either by the younger or the older churches. It must embrace such points as the following: a. There must be a church in China fully Autonomy autonomous, self-reliant, and evangelistic. b. The church on its part must attain self-consciousness, and voluntarily assume the responsibilities devolving upon it. c. The older churches must change from the mission-and missionary-centric to the church-centric way of t.hinking This means among other things that: (1) they must think less of sending and supporting people of their own race, and think more of helping the young churches; (2) mission boards more and more should put their property and personnel and their experience at the disposal of indigenous bodies; (3) missionaries must help to interpret the older churches to the younger and the younger to the older, giving their full loyalty to the churches to which they go. 2. The Functions of the Church. It is especially important for the younger churches to distinguish clearly their functions, not merely in vague, general terms, but concretely and specifically. These functions have been stated as follows: Church Functions "Every church worthy the name has at least five main functions which it discharges in the life of its worshippers It is the organ of their common worship. It is the school in which they are instructed in the meaning of their religion. It is the instrument of their moral discipline. It is the agency through which they combine for common service. Finally, it is the means through which the tenets of their religion are propagated "1 1 Wm. Adams Brown: Imperialistic Religion and the Religion of Democracy. Scribners, New York, 1923.

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 145 The above headings are further amplified by the author. These ideas may be expanded, and given in more detail, until each act performed in the name of the church, finds its proper place in the whole scheme.1 3. Special Tasks Owing to Present State. Owing to circumstances growing out of the present degree of development, there are certain tasks before the young Church in China, which deserve special mention: To Win Confidence a. The responsibility of gaining and/ or holding the confidence of the older churches, which will cause them to devote to the youriger churches the same kind of loyal support that hos hitherto been given to the missionaries.2 It has required decades and in many cases generations for the missionaries and the mission boards to develop the confidence and loyalty of the constituencies which support them. This kind of loyalty cannot be immediately transferred from one agency or group to another. The younger churches must necessarily go through the processes of building up con fidence and loyalty for themselves in the constituencies from which they desire support. In doing this these younger churches should be able to count upon the agencies of the older churches placing at thtir disposal all the resources and opportunities which the older agencies possess. b. Arrangements, such as special board8, etc., Organization for carrying on line s of work u:hi, h do not fa,ll completely with?'.n the sphere of immediate church interests, or v hich the ex p erienc e and re.3ources of th e churches do not enable them to manage through their reg : ,lar church orgaris3 Examples would be secondary and higher education, hospitals, and philanthrophic institutions. Common Tasks c. Common ta sks of the uhole Ohurch. There are certain tasks and needs which belong to the whole Christian Church in China, and 1CR. 1927: 403-416. J. Lossing Buck: "The Building of a Rural Church." 2ccT: 44, 75. sccT: 66-67; NCC : 1925-26: 139-141.

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146 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER OHURCHES which cannot be adequately met by any part of the Church alone. For such tasks there ehould be provision in the form of committees, boards, or other similar agencies, through which all the churches can cooperate Examples are: 1. The Narcotic Traffic 2. Christianizing the Home. 3 Rural Life. 4. Religious Education. 5. Economic Relations. 6. Church and Mission Relations. 7. International Relations 8. Various kinds of philanthropic work, such as for blind, orphans, and lepers. The nature of these tasks and the kind of service that needs to be rendered may be better understood by consulting the reports of the standing committees of the National Christian Council and the kindred organizations affiliated with the National Christian Council. d. Provision for receiving and making the best use of resources contributed by the older churches, both material and penonal. For example, it is suggested that language study and other training of missionaries after arrival in China be under direction of the Church.1 What policy and provision has the church for undertaking such direction ? Contributed Resources To Define Religious Liberty e Religious Liberty. Religious Liberty in China is not yet fully defined and safe guarded. To see that such definitions and safeguards are created is one of the re:oponsi bili ties before the young Church in China. Plan of Education f. State control of Education. In connection with education it is necessary to formulate answers to such questions as the following, and having formulated them, to get them generally accepted by the public: Is there a permanent place for private schools in the government system of education? iNCC:1926-~:49; IPR: sec. IV.

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 147 What is it? What is the contribution of Christian schools? How far should the Government control private (that is, non-state rmpported) school"'? What is the proper attitude to "Party Education"? Should religious teaching be required by Christian schools ?1 VI. AGENCIES OF THE OLDER CHURCHES 1. The Mission Board Whether the mission organization on the field continues or not, the mission board should continue. Function of Board It is the agency through which the older churches attempt to fultill their share of re sponsibility for the evangelization of the world, and through which they express their fellowship and sympathy with the younger churches in seeking to promote the cauf:'e of Christ. It is a connecting link between the older and the younger churches. It will increasingly move toward the goal of functioning (it may be) like existing philanthropic foundations, sending men and money to as,dst the weaker churches; (1) as cal1ed for by the churches, (2) on t erms mutually agreeable, (3) direct to churches, not through intermediary bodies such as missions Types of assistance2 which may be most Best Types advisable are those that leave the essential of Assistance work of the Church in the hands of its own members, while supplementing their efforts and resources. Thus thfl mission boards might (1) assist the development of leadership, (2) contribute such equipment as will increase the effectiveness of the Church, without adding too much to running expenses; (3) provide endowments and trust funds for such purposes as may be agreed upon, (4) place funds at the disposal of the Church for literature, travel of delegations, holding conferences, making surveys, etc, (5) and contribute to deepening of the spiritual life through personal service and religions education, as supplementary to the regular services of the Church. JEducational Review (Shanghai), July 1927: pp. 248--251. "Brief Answers to Questions of To-day," W. H. Kilpatrick. 2CCT: 71, 72; NCC: 1926-27: 49; IPR: sec IV.

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148 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER ANI, OLDER CHURCHES The assistance should be such that the essential framework and activities of the Church will continue, even should the assistance of the older churches entirely cease. 2. The Missi.on. If and 1,0 long as the mission organization continues, it will be for the sake of values that can be better conserved, or functions that can be better performed, by its continued existence. What are such values and func tions? This has been discussed already in chapter IV, 2. 1 J t A To the list of functions given in chapter om gency IV, 2, should be added the responsibility of creating some joint agency that can speak and act for the various missions of all denominations; this is explained more fully in 4 below. 3. The Missionary.2 What type of person should the n11ss10nary of the future be? What qualifications and training should he posse~s? What should he do? Qualities of Missionary a. As to the innate quality, or type, of person: ( 1) His Christian character and experience are indispensable; this is understood to include a vital faith and a genuine devotional attitude: (2) He should have a comprehensive vision, and a spirit ready to adventure: (3) He should have a faculty for friendship: (4) He should have a living conception of world fellowship; this latter will give him the proper orientation toward other individuals, toward national ideals and movements, and toward other faiths. It will constitute him a builder of good-will in all human relationships, personal, religious, economic, social, racial, and international; he should be able to apply the Christian message and life to the accomplishment of these ends: (5) He should be willing to serve in the Chinese Church and under its direction. 1Note. It is necessary to keep in mind that there is a difference between the functions of the mission and of the missionary. 2CCT: 68, 73, 82-83, 84, 159. ABFMS: 12-14; IRM: 1927: 226234, 542-555; CR: 1926: 611-614; 1928: 9-13.

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 149 Trainin~ and Work: of Missionary b. The following statements are submitted as a summary of present conclusions in regard to the training and types of work of the missionary : ( 1) For a long time to come there will be a place in one part or another of China, in one group and another according to their locality and stage of development, for practically every type of foreign worker that is serving now, including evangelistic, educational, medical, and special workers. Even in certain types of administrative work, Chinese administra torR will welcome foreigners who are prepared to give skilled, wise, and sympathetic help. (2) The missionary should have general education and also specialized training sufficient to fit him for the duties to which he is assigned, What this means in specific terms needs to be decided for each particular task or position. No general statement can be satisfactorily framed. (3) He should have the best understanding he can obtain of pui:>lic affairs, economic and social conditions, and the bearing of Christianity thereon. (4) More effort should be devoted to acquisition of the language, to understanding the national culture, to social amenities, and other such matters as will make him most acceptable and welcome among the people. (5) In addition to the fundamental servicP-s of evangelism, education, and medical service, there are some specialized lines for which expi>rt training is required, that should receive more attention in the future; examples are religious education, industry and labour, rural life, and community social service. 4. Special Service and Exchringe.1 There should be exchange between the Chinese and the western churches through direct correspondence, special delegations, exchange professors, lecturers, secretaries, outstanding leatlers, all with a view to information, greetings, fellowship, mutual understanding, sharing of experience, ideas and ideals More definite attention needs to be given to this matter, especially to insure adequate coordination. 2 1NCC : 1925-26 : 148; 1926-27: 49; COT: 160; IPR: p. 9, IV. 1. 2The National Christian Council is the natural organization to perform this function.

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150 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 5. Fed0ration. Mission work in China is carried on under a large number of mission boards. In some cases one board administers its work through several missions or district councils While all was in the pioneer stage this involved no great difficulty. Now, however, as work has become correlated and the Chinese churches tend to form nation-wide denominational units, (as in the case of the Anglican and Lutheran groups, or to enter into a wider communion, as in the case of the Presbyterians, Congregat ionalists, Baptists and others, who are uniting in the Church of Christ in China), the disadvantage of so many mission organizations with each of which the Church authorities have to deal separately becomes apparent. Some simplification is much to be desired. Mission Council As a first step it is suggested that each board which has more than one mission district in China should appoint a mission council for the whole of its work in China, as has been done by the American Presbyterian Church, by the London Missionary Society and the English Baptist Mission, and should so arrange that church organizations might deal direct with this mission council. As a further step it is suggested that two or more boards should allow their mission councils in China to cooperate, or still better to become one courn ; il though serving two or more boards. Mission Mergers In view of the situation at the home base, there is a question whether it is wise for so many different boards to be functioning separately, and it is earnestly recommended that the question of mergers between some of them should be considered. National Christian Council Again, certain phases of work, as for example, welfare work in factories, work among Moslems, and. so forth, might be best handled through the National Christian Council ; if boards desiring to undertake such types of work would allocate special workers to serve with a committee of the National Christian Council the best results would, perhaps, be achieved. Such work is scattered over a

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 151 large part of China. No one board can possibly handle it; yet it i"hould be administered as a unit. VII. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE. The quBstion of financial assistance, a.s of the personal service of foreigners, is not whether it shall continue, but how it can be most helpfully applied. 1. On the part of the mission boards M,ss,.on Board certain readJ'ustments are called for. These ReadJustmenls have been well summarized rn the followmg statement: The committee recommends the closest cooperation between churches and missions in an effort to fully appreciate the difficulties involved in assisting the boards in making the adjustments required along the following lines: 1. In removing so far as possible the restrictions on the use of funds available for the work in each mission so that the proper balance and proportion can be maintained as between the Chinese and foreign staffs and as between the various departments or units of work. 2. In working out a new approach or appeal to the constituencies in the sending countries which will be more modern, more appreciative of the churches' viewpoint and more appealing than any used in the past. 3. In winning the confidence of the board constituencies in the judgment, consecration, efficiency and trustworthiness along all lines, of the churches and other administrative organizations of both the invested funds aud the funds provided for current expenses of mission and church activities.1 2. On the part of the Chinese Church Chia~se Church the following are important: a. Increased Readiustmeats h Ch d h d emp as1s on nstlan stewar s 1p an giving. b. More attention to approved methods of handling funds, including accounting, auditing, and regulations for the handling of trust funds. c. Stress on the need 10CT : 79-80.

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152 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES for an outward vision, an expanding program, shared spontaneously by every member, to overcome the tendency to a self-centered pr<>gram, complacency, and stagnation. d. Cultivation and stimulation of the habit of voluntary service, rather than relying so largely on employed persons for every service performed for the church. (This may apply to such matters as Bible class teaching, janitor service, reading room attendance, and numerous other lines). e. Repudiation of the practise of a church de pending indefinitely on subsidy. f. The minimizing of subsidies to current expenses of organised churches, and the application of ;;uch rather to projects like those mentioned in VI.lb. above. 3. Practically from the beginning of ~z~::~?zation Christian missionary work in China there have been those who opposed the policy of using foreign funds to subsidize the Chinese churches. Recently there has been a renewal of emphasis on this view-point. The advocates of this view claim that addi tional proof of the soundness of their position is found in the success of Christian missionary work in Korea and in certain areas in China. It would seem that the time has come when a thorough, and in so far as the term may be properly applied, a scientific, investigation or survey, should be made of the different methods which have been and are being used in different fields with a view to evaluating these methDds in the light of the results they have attained and in the light of the best test now available. The survey and report on Christian educa~~b;iiz~!lon tion in China, in 1922, furnishes a precedent, and a typical example of the idea which is here contemplated. It is recommended that steps be taken at an early date, for i-:uch a survey of policies and methods in evangelism and the up-building of churches.1 Property Ownership With regard to property used for Christian purposes in China, complete ownership in this country is the goal. To the extent that ; ~n conn?ction w_ith this ~ection, see RJ? pp. 2~4-29!. Also'. NC0.1925-26 .141-142, COT .70,71,79,80,160, CR.1926.565-569, CR: 1927: 405-407

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RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHURCHES 153 the Church assumes responsibility for the control and expansion of Christian activities, it must assume re sponsibility for the control and upkeep, if not for the actual ownership, of the property. Property of the foreign organizations may Methods of be conveyed to Chinese control by -a Transfer transfer of title to a proper holdmg body (m other words, by gift); b. by sale; c. by rent or lease .1 The best method of making transfer, as !t4~~!t~d well as the suitable time for doing so, cannot be defined in general statements, but must be in concrete terms applicable to particular cases Most of them cases will solve themselves when church administration is established and running smoothly. Mission Residences Property such as residences which are for the exclusive use of fon,ign workers, need not be transferred from mission board control. Considerable further study is required of questions involved in these connections, including more light than is now available on many legal points. An outline for such study is presented herewith.2 References OCT THE CHURCH IN CHINA To-DAY. The report of a CMR conference of Christian workers with Dr. John R. Mott, Shanghai, January 5-7, 1926. CHURCH AND MrnsION RELATIONSHIPS. basic materials, by Lewis F. perpared for the Committee on Mission of the N C.C., 1927. A study of Havermale, Church and CR THE CHINESE RECORDER. A:BFMS FOREIGN MrssION POLICIES. A report of the special conference of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, New York City, Nov. 18-Dec. 2, 1925. 1See Bullentin of the N.C.C. January 1928, p. 15. 2See N.C.0. l!l25-26 : 144-148: RJC: 258-261; OCT: 81, 83-84, 159-160, JTI.

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154 RELATIONS OF THE YOUNGER AND OLDER OHURCHES IPR INSTITUTE OF PACIFIO RELATIONS. Preliminary paper, prepared for second general session, July 15-29, 1927. "Facing the Future of the Missionary Movement,'' by Edward H. Hume. !RM INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MIBSIONS. NCC NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL OF CHINA. Annual reports. RJC REPORT ON JAPAN AND CHINA, of the deputation of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions sent to visit these fields and attend a series of Evaluation Conferences, 1926.

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CHAPTER XV THE EVACUATION AND RETURN OF MISSIONARIES C. L. Boynton The year 1927 was a critical year in the history of mis sionary work This article does not attempt to deal with matters of policy or with the relations of the movements of missionaries to the life and work of the church in China. It is simply an attempt to describe briefly the extraordinary movements in the missionary body during the course of 1927 and the early part of 1928. During 1925-26 there had been local J925-26 evacuation of missionaries due to the movements of the Nationalist armies from Canton northward and the political and military events attendant thereon. The beginning of 1927 found a consiclerable body of missionaries absent from Kwangtung, Fukien and Hunan, with adjacent provinces somewhat less affected. The political events attendant on the rendition of the British concession at Hankow and the closing of many schools in adjacent districts led to a small but steady stream of evacuation from the affected areas. Even before the Nanking incident, circumstances in Foochow led to the withdrawal of most of the missionaries in that province, many going to the Philippines, Japan and to Shanghai, with the expectation that at any time they might return to Foochow. The general uncertainty and tenseness of the situation led to instructions from the British consular officials to their nationals in Szecliwa11 and Yangtze river points to retire to the coast, and secret suggestions had been forwarded by American consular officials to American missionaries in the same districts indicating the embarrassment which their presence might be to the diplomatic and military forces of the United States in case untoward results arose from the presence of missionaries in highly

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156 EVACUATION AND RETURN OF MISSIONARIES agitated centers, where destruction of life or property might lead to international embarrassment. Consequently, the methods and means for a quick evacuation had been communicated to all those affected, including a code by which those accessible by telegram or radiogram might be quickly and unobtrusively notified that the time had come for speedy withdrawal. The events of March 24, 1927 at Nanking Nan king" afforded the occasion for carrying those instructions into effect. The results were most noticeable in the Yangtze valley, although a general evacuation took place throughout, not only the region in which the Nationalist forces were already present or where they were about to operate, but in regions further north like Honan and Shantung, and even in Shensi, Shansi and Chihli. By April lst over 1500 refugees had reach or passed through Shanghai, and the port cities from Peitaiho, Chingwangtao in the north, to Hongkong in the south, found accommodations for their foreign guests taxed to the utmost. From the best data which can be gathered April-May it is apparent that during April and May less than 500 missionaries were to be found outside of these port cities On January I, 1927 there were somewhat over 8,000 names of missionaries including wives to be found on the active lists of Protestant missionary organizations in China. Of these not more than 6,500 or 6,600 have ever been in China at any one time, owing to the absence of approximately one-tifth of the missionary body at any one time because of furloughs, special leaves and health considerations. During March and April at least 2,000 of these left China for America, Europe, England or Australia or the nearer countries of Japan, Korea and the Philippine Islands. On July lst, the numbers in Shanghai had been reduced to about 1,200 and it was estimated that somewhat less than 4,000 m i ssfonaries from China were still in the Far East, about 500 of whom were in Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands or the Strait Settlements, nearly 3,000 in the port cities and the remainder in interio:r stations.

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EVACUATION AND RETURN OF MISSIONARIES 157 During May the movement back to mission Return stations began very slowly. During the summer an increasing number of missionaries made occasional trips from the port cities to their homes, and by September a slow but steady process of filtration back to their stations from the coast and back to China from other lands had set in. In Shanghai the nllmbers had been reduced from 2,000 in April to 1,200 in July and to about 80() in November. Figures given in another article indicate that on April 1, 1928 the total in Shanghai was approximately 600, of whom at least 100 were in the habit of going more or less regularly to stations in the vicinity The province of Shantung presents a Shantung spectacle somewhat different from others in that it has been the scene of two very considerable withdrawals: the first at the time of the general evacuation in the spring of 1927 and the second almost exactly a year later, with the nearer approach of the Nationalist armies, the taking of principal cities and the international complications with Japan aroused by events at Tsinan in April and May At the time of writing it seems probable that the majority of Shantung missionaries a.re not at their stations, having been advised or ordered by consular officials to the port cities. These evacuations have been carried out Conditions under great difficulties and with great hardship to those affected. A large proportion of those ordered to leave were quite reluctant to do so and in many cases left against their own judgment in order to avoid giving offense or to complicate the situation for their national authorities. They looked upon the evacuation as so temporary and so urgent that in the majority of cases very little perRonal property was taken with them. The subsequent occupation of the homes of hundreds by the military and political authorities and the consequent destruction and loss of personal effects as well as of buildings in some instances has meant a grave financial loss to individuals and to societies, which in

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158 EVACUA'l'ION AND RETURN OF MISSIONARIES many cases will never be retrieved. Scores of volumes could be written on the personal hardships undergone in the course of evacuatipn, with inadequate transport, under fire, and without satisfactory means of protection from disease in overcrowded steamers, trains and less modern conveyancee, as well as in the ports of refuge where hospitality was extended not only in private homes and in lodging houses and hotels, but in any kind of a shelter which might be secured to meet urgent temporary necessities. In Shanghai, for example, in spite of the large provision made for transients under all ordinary circumstances, it was necessary to utilize the halls and classrooms of church buildings, vacant offices, the grill room of a prominent hotel and various other unusual accommodations. To enable refugees to leave China it was necssary not only to use all available sleeping space on outgoing steamers, but on two lines also to convert steerage accommodations for temporary use by fin,tclass passengers. One steamer alone carried nearly 400 such refugees to America. Sum~ary In summary it may be said that over 3,000 missionaries left China during 1927, including all thof:e whose furloughs were due in 1928, a considerable proportion who were due to have left in 1929 and some hundreds of others who for health or personal reasons found it desirable to get away from China. Pos;;ibly between 500 and 1,000 of these have already returned, and hundreds of others expect to do so The question remains, Why this enormous movement? In fairness to those concerned it must be said that in only a very small proportion of cases was it due to fear or panic on the part of those who left. So far as we can learn, the overwhelming majority of those who abandoned temporarily the homes of their choice and t.he work to which they had dedicated themselves was because: 1. They were advised by their Chinese associates to do so; 2. Instructions had been received from consular authorities urging the extreme importance of departure;

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EVACUATION AND RETURN OF MISSIONARIES 159 3. There was fear of complicating a most difficult international situation. 4. Counsel or orders to this effect were received from their imperiors or executive officers in church or mission organizations.

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CHAPTER XVI LOCATION OF MISSIONARIES C. L. Boynton Since January 1, 1\:127 it has been difficult, Dlsloc:atlon if not impossible, for any one to state with even a relative degree of accuracy just where the misf'ionaries in China were to be found. The dislocation of the missionary body due to the forced evacuation, especially in the Yangtze during the spring of 1927, made, it impossible to secure accurate data. With a return to a new type of normalcy it Some Data has been possible to compile some statistics g1vmg a rough idea of the present situation. The data which follow are derived largely from information secured from offiP-ial correspondence in connection with the corn pilation of the Directory Qf Protestant Missions pub lished the last week of March, 1928, and entirely revised during the month of April. Direct replies have been received from 94 of the principal missionary organizations. Missionary Directory The number of names included in the directory was 4,375, of whom 1,117 were wives. The corrections since received have resulted in the removal of 346 of these names either because they were incorrectly entered or because the persons involved have left China. Two hundred and eighty-four names not inclurled in the March issue are to be found in the May revision, leaving the net total of names 4,313. Of these names it is to be noted that 315 in addition to the 284 added have changed tl1eir address owing to a removal from their temporary stopping places either to their former stations or to a position nearer to their permanent locations. Present Location Of the names in the directory definite in formation has been received regarding approximately 3,150 since April lst. These

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LOCATION OF MISSIONARIES 161 people are located in 313 different cities in all the provinces or China, as compared with a total of 729 which were subject to missionary residence about two years ago. These 3,150 are distributed as follows: Port Cities follows: Anhwei ..................... 33 Chekiang .................. 130 Chihli ........................ 394 Fukien .. .................. 279 Honan ..................... 27 Hunan ..................... L25 Hupeh .................. 121 Kansu ..................... 11 Kiangsi ..................... 67 Kiangsu ..................... 709 Kweichow .................. 18 Shansi ................... .. 112 Shantung .................. .417 Shensi ..................... 23 Kwangtung ...... .... .... 262 Szechuen .. ................ 86 Yunnan ..................... 53 Kwangsi .................. 2876 Heilungkiang .. .. .. .. 8 King ........................ 140 Kirin ........................ 35 183 Mongolia ................. 3 Singkia.ng .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 21 Japan ........................ ~3 P. I. ........................ 21 Fr. In do-China.. .......... 3 Singapore .. .. .. .. .... .. .. 6 53 3133 It will be noted that of the total about 1,250 are in the principal port cities as Shanghai .................. 605 Chefoo .... ................. 177 Canton ......... ... ........ 102 Foochow ........ .... .... 98 Hankow ..... .... ........... 92

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162 LOCATION OF MISSIONARIES Tientsin:................ .... 68 Swatow .. .. .. .............. 35 Amoy ........... ... .. ..... 33 ',I'singtao. .. . . . . 33 Jn other words, approximately only one-third of the missionary body is now to be found in these port cities, as compared with over two-thirds in July of last year. Over 1,800 missionaries are now resident in interior cities. Visits to Stations In addition to this it should also be noted that a very considerable number of those in the port cities are making fairly regular visits to their former stationR, although it has not been deemed wise to take up regular residence there. Another factor to be considered is that the figures cover a period when normally a very considerable proportion of the missionary body is leaving China. Jn addition to the figures shown, at least 200 others will be leaving between May and the first of August, but the number who are designated for return in the fall is considerably in excess of this figure

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CHAPTER XVII WORK OF CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA First Christians in China G. B. O'T oole Though it has become conventional to assume that Christianity first entered China under the form of Nestorianism in the seventh century of the present era, there is some evidence which tends to show that the advent of Catholic or pre-Nestori a n Christianity preced e d that of the "Luminous Religion Arnobius, for instance, in his AdvPrsu s Nationes, written
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164 CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA shop of Khanbalig, the latter being consecrated at Peking in the course of the following year. He died in 1333, and was succeeded by Nicholas, who brought with him to China twenty-six friars and six lay brothers. The last Archbishop of Peking' was William of Prato, who was appointed in 1370. The following year a papal legate, Francesco di Podio, was i-ent to Peking with twelve companions, but none of the party was ever heard of again With the downfall of the Yuan and the accession of the Ming dynasty (in J 368), all traces of this medieval mission were swept away. As to the work which the Franciscans accomplished, very little is known, but it said that they converted about thirty thousand pagans. The next period of the Catholic Missions Jesuits is that of the Jesuits, which began with the advent of Matteo Ricci in 1600 Ricci enjoyed the favor of the last Ming emperors. In the work of preaching and diffusing the Christian r e ligion, he was ably assisted by a group of learned Jesuits, who were no less remarkable for their mastery of Chinese literature than for their pro ficiency in ma thematics, astronomy, and other sciences. Especially famous are the names of Giulio Aleni, Adam Schall von Bell, and Ferdinand Verbiest. Father Andrew Xavier Koffler, S. J., baptized Prince Constantine, son of Kuei Wang, the last emperor of the Ming dynasty. The unfortunate Crown Prince, however, was put to death by Wu San-kuei at Yunnanfu in the year 1662. Jesuits at Peking Under the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-1912) the Jesuits again attained to high favor with the Court of Peking. Their influence was at its height under the celebrated Emperor K'ang Hsi. In fact many non-Catholic writers (both Chinese and foreign) have expressed the opinion that if the unfortunate "Rites Controversy" had not. supervened, the Jesuits would have been successful in their effort to convert K'ang Hsi. Be that as it may, the writer had occasion to note in the recently-discovered Court Diary of K'ang Hsi many expressions of atta'chment and esteem, which show that the Emperor's affectionate regard for the Jesuits continued to the very end of his life. K'ang Hsi's successor, however,

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CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA 165 Yung Cheng (1723-1735), inaugurated a violent persecution of the Christians, and from that time forth thPJesuit missions began to decline. The period tnminates with the suppression of the Jesuits by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. Thereafter t.he French Lazarists replaced the Jesuits in the mission of Peking. Treaty of Tientsin The next period, following upon a pro longed series of persecutions, began with the Treaty of Tien tsin in 1858. This treaty acknowledged the right of Christian missionaries to preach the Gospel and make converts in all parts of China. In the sequel, missions wer e established throughout China by nearly all of the great religious orders of the Catholic Church. The Agreement of Berthemy (1865) gave the missions the right to acquire and possess property in China. This period came to a close with the Boxer Uprising of 1900. Chinese Republic The last or contemporary period of the Catholic missions dates from inauguration of the Chinese Republic in 1912 It is charac terized by a m arked solicitude on the part of the Holy See to accelerate the spread of the Faith in the Orient. This has manifested itself in the increased number of missiona ries which the religious orders of both America and Europe are pouring into China, as well as in the increased support given by the faithful of both continents to the subsidiary works of the missions, such as seminaries, Rchools, hospitals, orphanages, homes for the aged, dispensar. ies, etc Indigenous Aspiration In the Encyclical Max-imiim illud ( 1919), Benedict XV reiterated the traditional policy of the Church so pithily expressed in the aphorism of Clement XI (1700-1721): "Rather ordain one single native priest than convert fifty thousand heathen." An important step in the pr11ctical furtherance of this policy was taken with the accession of the reigning Pontiff, Pius XL The latter establiehed the first per manent Apostolic Delegation in China, sending Archbishop f)ostantini as official :representative of the Holy See.

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166 OATHOLJC OHRISTIANITY IN CHINA Archbishop Costantini arrived in Peking towards the close of the year 192~. In addition to working for the realiza tion of the "Indigenous Aspiration," his function was to be that of co-ordinating and unifying the various missionary enterprises of the Catholic Church in China. It was in pursuance of these aims that the Apostolic Delegate convoked at Shanghai in the May of 1924 the First National Council of the Catholic Church in China. This Synod put into practice the principles formulated in the Maximum. illiid. Two native Chinese participated as Prefects Apostolic in this council, the foundation being thus laid of a future native hierachy in China. Chine$e Bishops In the year 1926, Pius XI issued the Encyclical Rerum Ecclesiae. This, together with the Maximum illud of Benedict XV, constitutes, as it were, the Magna Oharta of the Catholic m1ss10ns. In the same year, too, the present Pope raised the two native apostolic prefectures to the rank of vicariates and added thereto four new native vicariates, making a total of six. To fill these posts, Pius XI con secrated, on October 28, 1926, the six Chinese Bishops: (1) Philip Chao; (2) Melchior Sun; (3) Odoric Ch 'eng; (4) Aloysius Ch'en; (5) Joseph Hu; (6) Simon Tsu. The writer considers himself fortunate to have been present at this memorable and epoch-making ceremony, which took place in St. Peter 's, Rome, before an immense concourse of the faithful from every nation. Before that day, only one Chinese priest had had the distinction of being raised to the episcopate. This was Father Gregory Lo, 0. P., who was comiecrated Bishop at Canton on April 8, 1685. N 1 Cl Closely correlated with the project of a ive ergy making the Church indigenous in China is the recent reorganization of the clerical seminaries. The scope of these institutions is the all-important one of forming a native clergy. Here there is every evidence of rapid development and progress Each and every one of the 73 vicariates and prefectures, which make up the whole of the Catholic Church in China, is bending every effort to establish junior seminaries. In the great centers of pnpulation regional and central seminaries are being

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OATHOLIO CHRISTIANITY IN OHINA 167 established. The Lazarists have a major seminary 11.t Peking, whose scope is to supply the northern vica.riates with native secular clergy, and another at Kashing, to cultivate native religious vocations for their own congregation. The Jesuits have a major seminary at Shanghai; the ll,rariciscans have regional seminaries at Sianfu, Tsinanfu, and Hankow; the Fathers of the Divine Word have one at Yenchowfu, and the Scheut Fathers another at Tatungfu. Other Regional Seminaries are now being organized: one at Hongkong for the southern vicariates; one at Kaifeng for the vicariates of Honan; one at Nanchang for the province of Kiangsi; one at Fengtien for the whole of Manchuria; and one at Chengtu for the province of Szechwan. Chinese College at Rome In addition to these, the Holy See has under consicleration the establishment of a national Chinese college at Rome in which Chinese seminarians may receive a thorough and scientific training for the priesthood. Meanwhile, fifteen Chinese ecclesiastical students are at present attend~ ing the Propaganda University at Rome. These will return to China after ordination. The number of students attending preparatory seminaries in China proper is 1,236. The total number of native seminarists in junior seminaries is 2,150, while those in major seminaries number 824. The grand total, therefore, of ecclesiastical students in Chinese seminaries is (for the year 1927) 4,210. Number of Priests The number of native priests actually ordained is 1243, the number of foreign priests in China being 1,854. These figures point to a time in the not-distant future when the native clergy will exceed the foreign. fn fine, it would be a mistake to regard the recent consecration of the six Chinese bishops as a mere experiment, or an isolated incident. It is, on the contrary, a first step towards the realization of a mighty project,, far-reaching and portentous in its results: that, namely, of launching an indigenous church with a native personnel. "Wherever, therefore," exclaims Benedict XV, "there exists a native clergy, adequate in numbers

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168 CATHOLIO CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA and in training, and worthy of its vocation, there the missionary's work must be considered brought to a happy close, there the Church is founded And if persecution ever threatens her existence, her roots and foundations will have struck too deep to give any chance of success to hostile attack" (Encyclical Maxirnum illud). Missionary Propaganda Contemporaneously with the indigenous movement, the foreign missionary movement has been increasing in magnitude and momentum. Practically all the new forms of missionary propaganda among the Catholics of Europe and America look towarcls China as the great goal of endeavor. All the religious orders and congregations of both continents seem to be vying with one another in a &upreme effort. to hasten the
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CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA f69 Passionists in Hunan and Kweichow; (9) The American Vincentians in Kiangsi. In adrlition to the foregoing religious orders a.nd societies of men, there are large number of American sisters engage
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170 CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA Architecture Closely related to the previously-described indigenous movement is the project of developing a Sino-Christian sty le of architecture for the Catholic missions. This enterprise has been undertaken (at the express request of the Cardinal Pr<>fect of the Propaganda and of the Apostolic Delegate to China) by the Cntholic University of Peking. lt'or this purpoi,e the university has been fortunate enough to secure the services of an artist of international reputation, Dom Adelbert Gresnigt, n Benedictine monk of the Abbey of Maredsous, Belginm. Dom Gresnigt is considel'ed the most inspired exponent of the Benedictine School of Art known as the 1::!chool of Beuron. Painter, sculptor, and architect, he recalls to mind the great general artists of the Renaissance. Examples of his work are to be found in Italy, Brazil, and the United States. A master of the mathematics of proportion, it would be hard to find anywhere an artist better qualified by comparative studies to isolate the essential genius of Chinese architecture and re-express it under modern forms Within the last year, Dom Gresnigt has designed seminaries and chapels for Hongkong, Hsuanhwafu, and Tsinanfu, and he is now engaged in planning a cathedral in Chinese style for Bishop Tsu at Haimen near Shanghai. Charitable Institutions With reference to the charitable institutions condncted by the Catholic missions, space will not permit us to do more than cite the statistics for the year 1926-1927. There are 334 orphanages taking care of 19,502 orphans of both sexes. The number of hospitals is 94 and the number of patients 54,732. Of homes for the aged there arc 110 taking care of 8, 113 elderly persons of both sexes. The number of dispensaries and pharmacies is 480; the annual number of consultations is o,591,193 and that of cures is 1,253,493. The following statistics (for the year 1927) Statistics give some idea of the spiritual progress of the Catholic missions during the same period. The number of conversions is estimated at 55,834. The number of Catholics in China is reckoned aR 2,439,220. The total increase of the Catholic population over the

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CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY IN CHIN A 171 preceding year (taking into consideration births, deaths, conversions, and losses) is 46,773. G I A Though, in writing this article, the writer eaera 1ms has had at his disposal the best and most recent statistics available, he does not venture to Jay claim to more than ordinary accuracy for the figures herein set down. Nor, in fact, can the dry-as-dust statistical method do anything like justice to the" human element," to the personal equation," to the genuine spirit of self-sacrifice with which so many of our missionaries are devoting them selves to the evangelization of China. The inevitable consideration of spatial limitation must serve as the writer's excuse. But he trusts that he has conveyed some little notion of how we are striving to adapt ourselves to the life of China, to reverence her noble cultural and artistic traditions, to r e spect Chinese nationalism and Chinese patriotism, to work with all our hearts for the spiritual advancement, the national progress, the social and material prosperity, of the most ancient, the largest the most industrious, the most pati1mt, the most courteous people in the world

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PART V EDUCATION AND STUDENTS CHAPTER xvnr THE NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION H, C. Tsao Gener.al Historical Background Christian ]Education in China has, since ~t.t1t~~01 M cirrison opened the tirat school ofits. ldnd in' Education l\i{alacca in 1818, had a history of over cine . hundred years. Educational wo'tlc. has been carried on by 'Christian missionaries simultaneously witn the evangelic11l and medical; but it has developed into such an outstanding po~ition that it needs self-evaluation, co~ordination and correlation from within, and invites jealousy, criticism and opposition from without. Up until the latter part of the Chin Dynasty, rts1'; d education in China had been uuder the C~i~~s: s;steni liberal system The first Imperial Educa tional Regulations, issued in 190 :,, did not include mission schools in the educational system. The documen~ put forth by the Ministry of Education in 1906 stated regarding "schools established by foreigners" that sincte the Imperial regulations of Hl03 had not indicated any permission to foreigners to establish educational irtstitutions in China, all schools already established and to be established by foreigners hereafter were not required t> register; no reward, however, was to be granted to students of such schools This shows that at that time i:ss10n schools had no place in the Chinese educational ~ystem and that the government had no intention of

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NATIONALIST : MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN E:O'tJCA1'I0N'-173 controllfng all 'the schools inChina. The missioQaries were citizens of countries where private educational institutions were granted much fr~doJiJ foi< their : own development and evolution: they were in consequence unwittingly nrgligent qf the national rights of the country wherein they e;;tablished schools. Chris~i;m schools had littfo conn ection with. the Chinese government until the reaction aga,inst them was sufficient to, bring .about the adoption by the intelligentsia of the slogan; ''-Regain Educational Rights.'' The Movement. to R~gai'n Edt4cati_onal Rights This ~ovem~nt. was due to two causes: politics a1;id new ideals. Christian Educati on has rapidly expanded 0) ;Political since the Boxer trouble of 190(!f; but foreign Cause oppression, both political and commercial, by means of old and new treaties has loomed np in the ... mind of the Chinese people so that they' have felt it linpossible to maintain their national independence without re volution. Dr. Sun Yat 8en's theories have gradtially come to meet the needs of' the revolutionary thinking of the young Chinese. Nationalism has penetrated every heart. Since the downfall of :the Manchus the Chinese i people have been dissatisfied with the militarism of tne warlords; they have been particularly sore with the nationai traitors and diplomatic oppnissions.' The Japanese schools in Manchuria and Da.iren, run for the definite purpose of colonization, have led Chinese educationalists to raise very strong objection. One result was a kindred feeling with respect to the extensive penetration of mission schools throughout Ohina. The term "Educational Rights1 was; therefore, created. After lengthy diecussions and seneati-011al agitations the public came to the conviction that the problern of mission schools is more important' and urgent'than that of the Japanese colonizing policy, as the people beli~ved that this latter might be : checked by means of counter measures, such as opening more schools ahd prohibiting. Chinese from entering Japanese sohools ...

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17 4 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION ( 2 ) Id II New Ideals. These may be set forth as ea sm follows: (1) The Anti-Christian Movement, (2) Narrow Nationalism, (3) Communism. Anti-Christian Education Movement The anti-Christian movement originated in a reaction against the International Conference of Christian Students in Peking in 1922, at which time the anti-Christian Alliance was created This was, however, a result of the discussion on religion versus science, !"tarted by the Peking Government university. Mr. Tsai Yuen-pei's lecture, "Aesthetics as a Substitute for Religion," in 1917, may be considered the outstanding hypothesis. The Young China Society organized a series of lectures on religion in both Peking and Nanking, and published three special issues on religion of its organ, "The Young China Monthly." In 1925 a resolution was passed by the National Students' Union, that the anti-Christian Mov.ement should be carried on at every Christian season in all educational centers It was natural that this anti-Christian Movement should evolve into an anti-Christian education movement : and it was also natural that this movement should be greatly strengthened by the Narrow-Nationalists and the Communists, since its aim is common to both parties. The Attitude of the Chinese Educationalists towards Christian Education may be summed up as follows: (a) Mr. Tsai Yuen-pei's essay on the Educational Independence of Education in 1922 was Independence based on the principle that education is to help young peri;ons to develop their own ability and to build up perfect personality so as to be able to do their own duty towards culture and the human race, but that it should not be used as a tool for any particular purpose. Education, therefore, must be independent and free from any political party or religion, and should be administered by educational experts and not by politicians or religious propagandists. No theological department should be established in colleges, but courses in the history of religion and comparative religion should be included in

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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT .A'.ND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 175 the work of the d epartment of philosophy, and no religious course or ceremony be allowed in any school. Religious Edl:cation (Ii) In July 192'.~ a motion was jointly recommended by Hu-snh, V. K. Ting and Mr. H. Tao in the annual meeting of "The National Association for the Advancement of Education" in Tsinan, that no religious education be allowed in elementary education including the kindergarten. The reason advanced was that immature minds shculd not be biased and that primary schools, therefore, are not the place for the propagation of any religion (c) The National Conference of Educa-Edu~a tron and tional Associations passed a resolution at Religion K f 0 b 1"24 h "S a1 eng rn cto er, on t e eparat10n of Education from Religion," which was jointly recommended by the Provincial Educational Associations of Kiangsi, Honan, Hupeh, Hunan and Jehol. The steps proposed were: \ 1) No religious propagation to be allowed in any grade of schools. (2) Strict supervision to be exercisecl by the government educational authorities: In the event of religious propagation being found in any school, its registration should be cancelled or it should be ordered to close. (3) Faculty and students should be treated equally whether Christian or non-Christian. 1'he Attitude of the Narrow Nationalists: Cultural Invasion The Narrow 1\"at{on(J,lists have been the strongest supporters of the movement for "Regaining Educational Rights." They created the term "Cultural Invasion." Their official organ was a weekly called, "A wakening Lion," but they alRo utilised the Young China Monthly of the Youni China Society and the Chung Hwa. Educational Magazine of the Chung Hwa Book Company, both organizations being among their sympathisers. They organized in order to dominate the provincial educational associations of certain provinces and the National Association for the Advancement of Education. The annual conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Education

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176 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION held at Nanking in July 1924, passed a resolution moved by twelve me.mbers headed by Yu Chia-Chu, one of the leading Narrow-Nationali8t s to the effect that the registration of schools e~ta blished by foreigners mu s t be put into effect. In the next annual meeting of this Association, at Taiyuan in August 1925, the NarrowNationalists failed to carry through their motion to eliminate Christian organizations and schools from mem her sqip, became of strong opposition from the Christian delegates. But they succeeded in the National Conference of Provincial Echwational Associations of the same year in having a resolution passed to the effect that the "Provincial authorities be asked to devise ways and means to accommodate walk-out stuclents and resigned teachers from mission schools The Attitude of the 0011111,unists c~mmuolst Program The Oom11111nists object to all religions on principle. They dubbed the Christian educational institutions the "tools of imperialism" and the "running d()gS of capitalism." Their organs gave extensive space to information on student strikes in Christian schools as a means of instructing young students how to act their part in the program of the party. After they had gained power in the nationalist movement, they caused much destruction to Christian schools. The slogan, "Regain Educational Rights" was extensively used in a deliberate effort by radicals, opportunists and personal enemies under communistic influence to grasp, take over and destroy Christian schools. Government Attitudes The Peking Government has issued re:~:~;r~ment gulations, since the Republic, dealing with schools e :-tablished by foreigners : these issued in l 917, were known as, (a) "Regulations for the ~pproval and treatment of private higher educational j1)stitutions established by Chinese and foreignen:1." (b) Regulations for the application of private higher 1:1<;lnc~tional institutions established by foreigners to the Ministry of Education for approval acc~rding to the

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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 177 general regulations for higher educational institutions," issued in 1920." (c) "Regulations for the registration of Christian middle schools," issued in 19:!l. These regulations indicated a government attitude towards Jllission schools different from that of the Chin Dynasty which placed them on an equal basis with both public and private schools. These regulations did not require registration of mission schools. (d) As a result of the movement to "Regain Educational Right5" and the effect of the ~tormy conditions created in Christian schools by the May 30th affair of Shanghai (192fi), a set of regulations for the recognition of the schools established and tinanced by foreigners was promulgated by the Ministry of Education in Peking on November 16th, 1925. In these, for the first time, the government made demands on mission schools. There were six requirements: The Board of Control must have a Chinese majority and a Chinese Chairman; the principal must be Chinese; if in special caf!es there is a foreign principal, a Chinese vice principal must be installed; the purpose of the schocrl must not include the propagation of religion; it must comply wit.h government school organization, curriculum and standard; religious instruction and services must not be required; all mission schools must apply for registration under the category of private educational institutions. These regulations were looked on as Education~! unusual and undesirable by missionaries. "lmperlal1sm" . One aspect of the long criticism w h1ch preceded them is that the control of mission schools by foreig11 administrators and boards was taken as the strongest evidence of the imperialistic tendency of Christianity. The dilatoriness of the schools in applying for recognition or registration with the Chinese government was condemned as another aspect of imperialism in that it ignored the Chinese authorities while still recognizing the foreign educational authorities by charters, etc. Religious Services and Instructions In regard to religious instruction and exercises, Dr. Paul Monroe's statement, is very fair and accurate : In no feature are the mission schools more attacked as im-

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178 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION perialistic than in theil' use of compulsion with regard to rel i gions exercises and religious instruction. A further word needs to be said regarding the compnlsion now applied by the Chinese government. For several years, governmental regulations have indicated that elimination of the compulsory feature would be required of all registered schools When it is recalled that two-thirds of the pupils in mission schools are non-Christian, that in many regions mission schools are more numerous and effective than government schools, and that the evident purpose of the government authorities is to bring these schools under government control through registration, the situation may be understood. But now that the major schools have tardily acquiesced, the development of hostile sentiment has gone on more rapidly. They are now met with the demand, in many provinces or localities, and on the part of many people, that religious instruction and exercises be excluded from the echools altogether. This was at one time the position of the Japanese government. In fact, so far as public schools are concerned, it is the position of the American government and of the American people. The difference lies in the foct that America recognizes a large sphere of liberty to private schools, while China is inclined to declare education a function of the state, and, in this respect, all schools to be public schools. Such is the attitude in many countries, though not reached in the United States. It may be that that position will be definitely assumed by the government in China. It. is the position already assumed in some countries where mission work is carried on. While from the point of view of progress and of private Chinese endeavor in education this position is regrettable; yet if it be ultimately assumed, because of their tardiness and unwillingness in meeting far more reasonable demands of the Chinese authorities, the missions must share the responsibility In the minds of the general mass of the Chinese people, the hostility of the missions to these regulations has accentuated their foreign character just as their insistence upon compulsion has led to their inclusion under the caption "imperialistic."

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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 179 Before we define the attitude of the Nationalist Nationalist Government towards Christian Government Education, it seems necessary to give a brief account of the Russian Communistic influence in the nationalist movement. After the announcement of a new policy for dealing with China was made by Soviet Russia which included the return of territorial concessions in treaty ports without compensation and the giving up of the old treaties and the Boxer indemnity, Russia had become more popular in China. Through the able tactics of the Russian representatives, Joffe and Karakhan, Russia secured recognition and entered again into her legation quarters in Peking; but through secret agencies and surreptitious methods, the communistic influence was exercised very externd vely among the intellectual and student classes. In 1923, Dr. Sun Yat Sen, having become convinced that it was necessary to seek for aid from abroad and new methods and organization, made an alliance with Russia through Karakhan, as a result of which Russian advisors were employed by China and Chinese communists admitted into the revolutionary party. As a result, Russian influence grew rapidly. After the death of Dr. Sun, new methods of prop~ganda and organization were adopted by the revolutionary force; after the killing of students at Shanghai, May 30, 1925, the communistic spirit, patriotism, intolerance and particularly anti foreigni8m fleemed to fuse. With Borodin in the lead, the Bolshevik influence speedily worked it.self into students, laborers and peasants, and very soon after the advancement of the Nationalist army into the Yangtze valley the Chinese communists dominated the Kuomintang. The further north the army moved in its victorious career, the more emboldened became the extremists. The excesses which occurred in Central China and in Nanking in March, 1927, were indications that communistic influence had attained its maximum. It was difficult at that time for foreign observers or even missionaries to distinguish the moderates from the extremists, and it was natural for them to emphasize the strong atmosphere of anti-foreignism apparent everywhere south of the Yangtze River. The

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180 NATION.lLIST MOVEMENT AND OHRISTIAN EDUCATION split betwee:o the right and left wings of the Kuomintang was hastened by the radical reorganization of the W uhitp government; the '' hou,:e-cleaning" movement in the party which began in April 1927 was the greatest turn in the history of the Nationalist movement. From the beginning of the Nationalist i~~~ra~~onal Government, the work of educational ad-Commission ministration was handled by t'lrn Central Educational Commission. In November U,26, a set of regulations for private. i"chools, regulations for the boards of directors of privj.te schools and regulations for the registration of schools were issued in Canton. These rules were identical with those issued by the Peking government just a year previous but were more detailed a.nd elaborate. The important points in these regulations are as follows: (1) Christian schoobi and colleges are no longer considered as a separate class, but are given the status of "private" institutions, and are required to be so designated. J t has been for some time the" desire of Christian educators that this status should be granted thern. Chi nest Control (2) The essentially Chinese character of all Christian institutions is to bfl guaranteed by requiring that the administration be in the hands of Chinese. The Peking regulations allow ,a foreign principal in schools were there is one already, in which case there shall be a Chinese vice-principal; ahd state that where there is a board of managers the majority of the members must be Chinese. The southern regulations are more thorough-going. These required that the school have a Chinese principal and a board of managers of whom the chairman and the majority of the members rrrnst' : be Chinese. "In special cases, the school rtray invite (a foreigner) to be an adviser." (3) The Peking regulations 'require that the curriculum, etc. shall be in accordance with the regulations affecting all private schools. The southern regulations make the same requirement, and go on to require rather close control of the school' by t.he educational authorities. Differentia

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N ,ATIONALIST,MOVEMEN'.r AND CHRiSTIAN EDUCATION 181 Aim of Christian Schools (4) In the Peking regulations, as at first issued, was this requirement: "The aim of the school :,hall not be the prnpa.ga tion of religion." This was felt to be ambiguoua and an interpretation was secured from the minister of education, which explained that the school must have the educational aim stated in the government nigula tions, that religious propaganda shall not be introduced into the teaching of other subjects, but that there shall be freedom to teach religion, and to conduct religious services. The Southern regulations simply forbid "religious propaganda in class instruction." (5) In the regulations of both the North and South it is expressly stated that students cannot be required (or "compelled ") to attend classes in religion or to participate in religious exercises. Otherwise there is freedom to teach religion and to conduct religio.us services. (6) No steps seem to have been conRegistration templated by the Peking authorities to compel schools to register. In the South it was definitely stated that "all private sP-hools which have not yet registered shall apply for registration within the prescribed date after the promulgation of these regulations." After the establishment of the Nati onal Modificatl~n University or the Ministry of Eclucatlon and of Regulations R h h f 11 f 1 27 h l esearc 1n t e a o 9 t e regu at10ns issuecl in Canton were, as promulgated inFebruary 1928, slightly modified; but they are practically the same as the previous ones. Nationalists and Christian Education The attitude of the Nationalist Government towards Christian Education has varied with political conditions, which can well be divided into two periods: (1) the period b~fore the "house-cleaning" movement; (21 that after the movement. In the first period, communistic influence ci:.eated such a chaotic situation that no constructive work in, education could be taken into consideration by the then g'o.vernment authorities,. who were busily engaged in the

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182 NATIONAUST MOVEMENT AND OHRISTIAN EDUCATION work of "deepening the revolution" with regards to the labor and peasant classes. The moderates were partly out of office and partly occupied by the urgent work of "splitting" and "house-cleaning" which came in the spring and summer of 1927. 'l'he former Central Educational Commission did not follow the advancement of the army, nor did the Ministry of Education created in Wuhan function until the Nanking Government called the Educational Commission from Canton to meet in 8hanghai and ultimately developed it into the present. Ministry of Education and Research or the National University which follows the French style and is highly concentrated administratively. During this period Christian schools in the South were subject to communistic attacks outwardly and inwardly. Three things caused many of them to close: (1) communistic influence: (2) internal troublee, starting in personal grudges or radical opportunists: (3) the evacuation of missionaries Religious Freedom 'l'he leaders of the Nationalist group and many even of the radical leH wing made it clear that they did not intend or desire to interfere with religious freedom as promulgated in the principles of the party. "The government believes in the freedom of religious belief. But it will neither attempt to eradicate nor to promote religions, for reliiion is a matter of the beliefs of a people with which the government does not wish to meddle." A responsible official said: "I believe that all education in this creative effort and new epoch should be made contributory and assjstant to the Nationalist movement. All that assists it is good: all that hinders it is bad. In general mission schools should not be closed, as the present government has not sufficient funds to support its own schools. If mission schools are closed, the educational vacuum may be in creased. The anti-Christian movement, which is only one .aspect of the anti-imperialistic movement, has not been considered as essential. We are up against the supergovernment working through the "unequal treaties." When the problem of international control is solved, the anti-Christian movement will naturally come to an end."

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NATIONALIS'f MOVEMENT .AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 183 The second period, which began with the New Epoch house-cleaning'' movement in the Kuomintang, is a new epoch. The declaration made in April 1928, by the first Foreign Minister, Mr. C. C. Wu, indicates a change in diplomatic policy. He said: "With the removal, on April 18, of the seat of the Nationalist Government to Nanking, another stage has been reached in the Chinese NationaliRt Movement. The pre~ence in the party of the communistic influences, wl1 ich are at variance with the precepts of the Kuomintang, has during the past few weeks brought what has been an internal schism to an open split. There is every reason to be confident that they will shortly be completely eliminated and that solidarity will be re-established in the rankR of the followers of Dr. Sun Yat Sen. .Meanwhile the Nationalist Governm ent will do all in its power to protect foreign life and property according to the generally accepted rules of international law." After this, official proclamations were repeatedly made calling for the protection and return of churches, sch oo ls and hospitals in case of their being occupied by army or othe r official organizations. The attitude of the Nationalist Government Interpret~tion toward the Christian schools can be inferred of Educational Rights from the followmg:-(1) The mterpretat10n of "Regain Educational Rights as made by the Central Educational Commission, July 1927 i s: "This Commi ss ion has recently d e t ermined that all private schools, including mis sion schools and foreign-support e d schools, shall be allowed to register in accordance with the official regulations and to continue to be maintained. People of all classes and students of private schools may, on no account, deliberately try to de stroy a private institution by means of the slogan "Regain Educational Rights." Religious ft'reedom Upheld calling on (2) As a r esult of action by the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang : on May 13, 1927, an official resolution was passed in the Central Political Conference the Nationalist Government tq instruct the

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184 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN' E:OOOATION people that they must not misinterpret the slogan "Down with Imperialism," and must not. on the basis of antiforeign or anti-rf'ligious intentions, use :my influence to oppose or violate the religious freedom of either Chinese or foreign citizens.n Demands of Students' Union (3) Answer was also made to the twenty-. two demands of the National Stud1mts' Union. Important points like, (a.) freedom of choosing teachers, (b) represeutation of students on school administrative bodies, (c) abolition of periodical examinations, and (d) expulsion of students only with the approval of the students' union of the school, were all turned down. Chief end of Education (4) The educational section of the general proclamation issued by the 4th Plenary Meeting of the Kuomintang, February, Hl28, said: '' China's greatest cause for suffering is that immature stuclents participate in political and social struggles. they ought to be trained and protected in time. .training for stable and perfE>ct citizenship is the foundation of national reconstruction." (.5) Resolutions looking to educational Educational. reconstructi"on were passed in February 1928 Reconstruction as follows: -(a) Secondary :ind elementary school students, boys and girls, are prohibitecl from participating in all mass movements of a belligerent nature. .(b) College students may join political parties and political and eocial movements, but only by way of individual action, a.nd not in the name of the school or the students' association: (c) Empty theories of political scienr.e and philosophy are harmful rather than beneficial to China. .(d) The term 'Party Education has no known origin. We should call it 'San Min Chu I Education. (e) The name 'Students' Union' shall be changed into 'St.udents' 'Self-Government Associat.ion,' so as to apprise the students of its proper meaning. .The activities of the organization shall be restricted to the departments of intellectual, moral, physical, and aesthetic education, etc. (f) The present attitude, toward Christian

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NATIONALIS'.l' MOVEMEN'f AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATIO~ 185 education, of the chancellor and vice-chancellor of the National Uni ver~!ity or the Ministry of E
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186 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCA'flON been enforced so far, and Christian schools have been going on as usual. It is said that this r adical revision of regulations for 'schools establi8hed by foreigners' was purposely made to counteract the influence of the South. Moderate Attitude To sum up, then, there is a tendency for the attitude of the government toward Christian educational institutions to be moderate and fair. The reasons for this may be summarized as follows: (1) The reorganization and transfer of control within Christian schools and the hard work of the Christian leaders have re:,mlted in a better understanding of them on the part of the government. (2) After the "house-cleaning" movement the policy of the govf'rnment was radically changed into that of a moderate attitude towards Christianity. (3) The conflict of theories between the Kuomintang and the Narrow-Nationalists put to an end all the activities of the latter so that the movement to "Regain Educational Rights" ceased. (4) The communistic agitation has been eliminated and the opportunists can no longer use the common slogans. (5) Christian educationalists have become aware of the immediate need of their assuming responsibility for Chrii;tian schools, and have tried to shoulder the situation. (6) Young students have realized their wrong in being too emotional and sacrificial for these great national and social tasks in connection with which their immature minds are not equal to full freedom of action. (7) Both the party and government authorities have definitely changed their policy towards the young students. (8) All mass movements have been stopped by order of the party and the central government. Viewpoints of Missionaries Missionaries and mission school administrators might be roughly divided into three classes: Function of Christian School (1) The first class sees clearly the two functions of the Christian school, namely; to assist in building up the Christ,ian Church, and to make a real educational contribution

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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 187 to China; for, if Christians want to build np a strong church they must maintain schools, and if the Church wishes to make her greatest contribution to the common people and the newly built nation, she must maintain her educational work. Strengthening Christian Schools On the basis of this conviction missionaries are trying their best to strengthen their schools. One way to achieve this is by observing the regulations of the goYernment which call for registration. Though it may seem that the present regulations are in many ways difficu It for the schools to comply with, nevertheless, they embody the common demands of both the Northern and Southern governments and represent Chinese public opinion as developed during the past two years. The influence of this cannot be disregarded. It would seem that at this critical time Christian schools cannot maintain a strong position unless they register. If they do not sacrifice some of their tradition::; and perhaps also a measure of their efficiency, in order to comply with the expectations of the Chinese people, there is no way to show that their purpose is to work for the welfare of the Chinese Church and people. For this reason many schools have registered in spite of great difficulties. The second class regard the chief aim of a Are Christi~n > Christian school to be the development of Schools Desired. h Ch 1 h' h h t at nstrnn persona 1ty w 1c 1s t e foundation of the Church. They are inclined to believe also, that the regulations of the government, being especially restrictive on this particular point, indicate that the continuance of Christian schools is not desired "Do not the Christian schools," they say, "indirectly benefit all the people? Foreigners have given annually large sums of money to maintain Christian schools which the Chinese do not seem to appreciate. Then why not temporarily discontinue them? In both the constitution of China, and the foreign treaties, religious liberty is assured; but this has now been interfered with and the only method left is 'passive resistance.' During the first sixteen years of the Republic there was no occupation of Christ,ian schools; but

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188 NATIONALIST MOVEMEN'r AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION now, not only are they occupied, but much of their property has been destroyed in addition. If thil" problem is not satif;factorily solved there will be increasing difficulty in maintaining the schools Again the disturbe d condition of the country makes it very difficult for the foreigner to return to his work." This class, therefore, is determined to discontinue school work until a solution of the problems involved is found. Negotiations with Government The third class regards the work of the Christian school as so important that they must be continued unless absolutely im possible But they considn it unwis e at present to enter upon negotiations with the government. It is fortunate for them that the @:OVernment is not centralized; for although the regulations governing private schools contain many restrictions, yet the Christian schools which are not registering are not actu ally being interfered with. This group has adopted the policy of taking conditions as they are and letting the fut .ure look after itself. Noting that the difficulties occurring in many schools come from internal disturbances and are due chiefly to student demands for registration and reorganization, they think it better in many institutions to conduct only the lower classes. "San Min Chu I Ediication The term Party Education has been ;J:~:Won." extensively used and discussed, and numbers of books thereon have flooded the bookstores. Divergent interpretations have confused the minds of the public, and the word "Party" was wrongly used by opportunists and extremists up to the time when the resolution on Educational Recorn,truction was passed by the joint meeting of the University Committee and the Political Educa.tional Commission in February, 1928. The resolution reads: "The term 'Party Education has no known origin. Our party aims to 'reconstruct the country by the party and to educate the people to conform to San Min Chu I.' The educational policy of our party, therefore, is undoubtedly 'San Min Chu I national education.'

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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 189 The term partyized' has no definite context nor explicit origin. It is not found in any of Dr. Sun's works or in any re!mlutions of the party conferences. It is just a popular 'fad.' In order to rectify the name and determine its definition, we shall call it' San Min Chu I Education.' In order to avoid misinterpretation, official terms should not include any vulgar names." Mr. N. Z. Zia defines 'Party Elution: not a class revolution. Hence the party is rightly known ae the 'Kuomintang,' the 'Peoples' Party,' and not the 'Revolutionary Party.' It advocates the Principle of Livelihood, not that of Communism. (2) Our enemies are those imperialistic forces who rob ns of our freedom and destroy our equality both nationally and spiritually. (3) Dr. Sun possessed the noble idea of a world-wide cosmopolitanism to help the people of the whole world enter the common land of plenty and blessings. If this idea is rightly interpreted, then the aim of party education must be to train men of talent to combat these destructive forces and realize these ideals." San Min Chu I has been officially adopted San Mu~ Chu I as the basis of education by the Naticmalist and Christian Schools Government, and as a reqmred course 111 the curricula of every grade of schools. Mr. Frank W. Price made a study of the problem of whether and how to teach San Min Chu I in Christian schools. His conclusions merit inclusion here. (1) The material in San Min Chu I is related to many courses, particularly that of the social sciences. "(2) San Min Chu I is not in text book form and is difficult to teach as a text book. But it can be made a starting point or stimulus for innumerable topics of study and discussion.

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190 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION "(3) San Min Chu I may be studied as infallible pr0paganda or as a.n ordinary source book, with open and critical mind. Where the scientific spirit of modern education prevails, the latter method would have to be used. "(4) San Min Chu I will always be a historic document, but much more is being a.no will be written upon the problems it raises. Many of its theories will be modified as they are tested. The book will not be a permanent text in Chinese schools. "(5) The book will gain and not lose by having its weak points as well as its strong points frankly recognized "(6) Christianity is in full sympathy with the three great principles of nationalism, democracy an
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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATI9N 191 reading of his will and to meditate in silence for three minutes. This has caused no lit.tle appreheneion among the Christian schools lest a new religion be forced upon all studt>nts, in spite of the prohibition of required religious instruction and exercises by the government regulations. A recent survey of the opinions of Chri!:'tian educationalists made by the China Christian Educational Asi>ociation, disclose
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192 NATIONALIST lllOVEMENT AND CHRIS'l'IAN F:DUCATION hearted cooperation of a Christian faculty. (4) The most import.ant thing in the religious life is personal wurk. Because of his faith and his life, a person becoming an intimate friend with another may maintain that friendship with all his heart and strength, and cau s e the two of them to have their faith and life mutually affected (,5) Close cooper a tion with the Church should be secured in order to use the Church to the full extent as a part of the school in practical religious education. (f:i) Close cooperation with the parents of the stu
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NATIONALIS f MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDOCATION 193 Conclusion New Educational Contribution The present time provides a great op. portunity for Ch ristia.n8 to make a new contribution to China through Christian education. The Nationalist Movement is a nation-wide revolution. It is not a class-or party-revolution Chine~e Chri~tian citizens are all involved and many are taking act.ive parts therein. From the statements made above, it can be seen that Chri8tia.n education is urgently needed for the production of perfect character and personality, for the building up of the new China. The Narrow-Nationalists have become inactive in the jurisdiction of the Nationalist Government, because of the conflict of theories between them and the Kuomintang, while the Communists have been eliminated and suppre:,,sed by the "hous~-cleaning" movement of the party. Anti for,dgn, anti-Christian, and anti-Christian eel ucation or "Rega.in Educational Rights'' movements have come to a standstill. Christian schools, on the other hand, have been trying their best to prove their willingness to recognize Chinese educational authority and to maintain their Christian spirit in supporting these schools both morally and materially as before Christian All Chinese Christians deeply appreciate Attitude to the words of a brave Christian and a wise China's educator, Dr. E. D. Bur on who, in bis last Educational ltddre8s on "Christian Education in China" Ideas said: I believe t.hat we ought to be r,ady to make any adjustment whatever in order to achieve the fundamental purpose for which we are maintaining Christian education in China. .I hope the time will never come when we shall have to face the question of conducting schools in which no religion can be taught. But if we should have to face that question, what would be our answer? My answer would be that I would stay in China, that I would stay and seek to express the Christia.n spirit by giving the most helpful service I could render to the Chinese, even if they refused to let me give them. in words, what they cannot and will not refuse me the opportunity of expressing in

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194 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION life. I would seek to bear testimony through a Chri;:tian life even though I were bound not to bear testimony through the Christian word. We must not indeed offer education that is not Christian. But we can make our education Christian by tl1e spirit in which we conduct it, even if we are forbirlden to give any direct Christian teaching. I, therefore, plead that we be ready to make any adjustments which may seem necessary, in order that we ma.y continue to be able to mnke our contribution-as large a contribution ns possible-to the welfare of China.''

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CHAPTER XIX EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST .GOVERMENT Sidney K. Wei The Nationalist Government is a product Nationalists f N and Education o the 1ationalist Movement which dates back to the latter pa.rt of the last century. It was inaugurated on .Tnly lst, 1925, though it should be pointed that the successive governments that were set up in Canion since 1917 under the }E,adership of Dr. Snn Yat-sen were its antecedents. The Nationalist Movement ha!" always had intimate connections with the studt>nts and teachers. In fact, prior to the organization of labor unions and peaPant unions under nationalist patronage, the students and teachers were the nuclei of the revolution. Since the nationalists secured a firm control in Kwangtung and extended their authority to the other provinces, the government has always paid special attention to the advancement of education. A brief review of edueational activities under nationalist rule will bear out the above statement. In 1917 when the nationalists gathered Southwestern together in Canton to take practical steps to University i11aintain the continuity of the republican government, they turned their attention later to the project of establishing a Southwestern University in Canton. The plan was to reorganize the various government colleges with a view to making them parts of the new university. An effort was made to secure half a million dollars as initial expP.nses from the customs surplus fund. Failure to secure this fund together with subsequent political changes frustrated the realization of the original plan which became a reality a few years later. Educational Commission Two years of constant political disturbances followed. As soon as nationalist authority was reinstated, the government took im-

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19(3 EDUCATION UNDER 'HE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT mediate steps to organize a provincial educational commis sion for Kwa.ngtung. In this connection it is important to point out that the office of the commission e r of ed ncation which was created after .the establi:.;hment of the repuhlic was later on abolished. For many years there was no separate administrative department looking after the edueational nffairs of the province. True, there was a department in the governor's yamen which took charge of educational a ffairs, but its function was strictly limited to routine matter,,. There was no supervision nor projectmaking of any kind. Such a state of affair s was very unsatisfactory. For this reason the government considered the organization of a separate administrative department to be of primary importance. Owing to political disturbances the educational commission that was created was short lived r n spite of that the commission started many innovations that proved to be helpful to future administration. Owing to the rebellion of Chen ChiungComnuss~oner ming the government that was set up by Dr. of Edl1cahon Sun Y a t-sen on May 4th, 1920 r-:uffered for about six months from an eclip:=:e of power. The following January Dr. Sun returned to Canton. A few months later the Educational Commission was abolished and a commission<'r of education was appointed to discharge the same duties. Meanwhile the plan for converting the existing colleges into a university was brought up again As. a result the National Kwangtung University was formally opened with the former college of agriculture as faculty of agrirulture; college of law as faculty of law; normal college as faculty of arts and faculty of sciences; Kung-yee medical school as faculty of medicine The name of the university was later changed to National Chungshan University in memory of the late Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Central Educational Dzpartment As the authority of the Nationalist Government was extending to other provinces it was felt necessary to have a central educational department. Accordingly the Educational Administrative Council, otherwise known as the Central Educational Commission, was organized on March lst,

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EDUCATION UNDER 'l'HE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 197 1926, asa department of the Nationalist Government. The Council had five to nine members who met together at least twice a week to decide on important matters. The council elected from its own m embers, a standing committee of two who are responsible to carry out the decisions of the council and to take charge of routine affairs In July of the same year the council called an educational conference which was participated in by a large number of delegates from the provinccs under nationalist rule. There were twenty.two proposals passed by the conference covering a wide range of topics. Among the important ones we may mention "The Independence of Educational Fina.nee and the Pe.riodic Increase of Kducation!tl Expenditure," Prac tical Means fur Carrying Out Compulsory Education," "A Practical Plan for Laborers and Peasants' Education," "the Regulation of Private Schools." Following the military expedition in Jnne, Central Chma 1926 the nationalist army made rapid advance D~partment of Education mto central Chrna. There was attached to the Commander-in-chief's office the .Bureau of Political Affairs which took charge of civil administration in the newly occupied territories. The general plan was to institute, as soon as military operations ceased, a pro visional political council to take charge of political affairs of the whole province. Under the same council there wa.s a department of education As a rule the head of the department of education organized a discussion group inviting leading educationalic:ts of the province to participate therein. This group made out nn educational plan for the province. As an example we may mention the plan Plan .111 Hupeh worked out in Hupeh province. The plan Provmce d 'd th l was to 1v1 e e provmce into e
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198 EDUCA'flON UNDER THE NA'fIONALIBT GOVERNMENT and popular libraries was mapped out. A new institute for the training of elementary and middle school teachers on party principles was established. Text books and educational ordinances were re-examined wit.h a. view to making necessary changes to suit new conditions. In higher education all the existing colleges and professional schools were al1!algamated into one univei-sity. Nanking Ministry of Education The occupation of Nanking by the Nationalist army in March, 19~7. greatly extended the authority of the Nationalist Government. Unfortunately a split of the party occurred resulting in the establishment of two nationalist Govern ments-one in Wuhan and another in Nanking. At the plenary session of the Central Executive Committee in Maren, 1927, it was decided to create the Ministry of Education in place of the Educational AdminiRtrative Council. Ku Meng yn was appointed to be the Minister of Education. Meanwhile the Nanking Government sent an order to the Educational Administrative Council then sitting in Canton to move up to Nanking. Dr. Tsai Yuan pei, Mr. _Lee Shih-sheng, Mr. Wang Ching-wei were appointed to be member;; of the council to fill up the vacancies caused by the split of the party. For political reasons Mr. Wang Ching-wei did not accept the appointment. After its removal to Nanking the Educa Educ~h.onal tional Administrative Council continued to Admm1strative Council In function. It was decided later by the Nanking Council to experiment upon the French system of educational administration. Chekiang and Kiangsu were chosen to be the provinces for carrying out the experiment. The president of the Fourth Chungsban University (now called the Central University) at N anking was mad e the head of the educational administration for Kiangsu province in addition to his duties as the president of the university. Thus educational administ.ration is centralized in the hands of one person. There is a university council serving as the legislative body. Under the president there

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EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 199 are three administrative departments, namely, the Department of Higher E
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200 EDUCA'fION UNDER 'l'HE NATIONALIS'l' GOVFRNMEN' f New Educational Department In connection with the new experiment it was agreed upon later by the members of the Educational Council to abolish the Council and establish a new e'titute It is planned to have many research bureaux, but owing to lack of funds only a few have been established. National Educational Conference A recent event of great importance was the calling of the National Educational Con ference in Nanking under ti,e auspices of the Ministry of Education and Research. The Conference was held from i\1 a y 15 to l\fay 28, 1928, inclusive It was truly a national conference as it was attended by delegates from all parts of China. The allotment of the delegates was as follow8:-(1) Two delegates from every province or epecial administrative distriet; (2) One delegate from every special municipality; (3) Five delegates from the Central Executive Committee of the party; (4) Eighteen specialists invited by the Ministry of Education and Research;

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EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 201 (5) The Minister, vice-minister, chief secretary and bureau-chiefs of the Ministry of Education. Several hundred proposals were brought Proposals forward by the delegates. The delegation from Kwangtung and Kwangsi brought a group of well worked out proposals. For convenience in discussion the proposals were classified under the following headings: (1) Education on the basis of the three principles; (2) educational administration; (3) educational finance; (4) general education; (,5) popular education; (6) vocational educatio!l; (7) physical education; (8) higher education; (9) education in science; (10) education in arts; (11) publication; (12) private schools. Many important resolutions were passed by Resolutions the conference. We can only mention the most important ones. There has been a good deal of confusion of thought in recent years in regard to ~ partisanized education." The delegates from Kwangtung and Kwangsi urged that the term "partisanized education '' should not be used any more. Instead educa tion should be based upon the three principles. What they meant is not simply the teaching of the three principles, but their incorporation in the educative process. The proposal was carried by a gr.eat majority of votes. A committee was subsequently formed to draw up a con crete statement as to what the aim in education should be in accordance with the three principles. As requested by the conference, the committee submitted a memorandum outlining education on the basis of the three principles. It was stated that this means the realization of the three principles through education. After carefully considering the memoranRequis.ites for dum submitted by the committee, the conEclucation f d "th 1 ht d'fi t' erence approve w1 s 1g mo 1 ea 1011 the following as requisites for education on the basis of the three principles: (1) Enrichment of the spirit of the Chinese people; (2) raising of the moral standard of the people; (3) emphasis on physical culture of the people;-( 4) cultivation of the scientific spirit and

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202 EDUCATION UNDER THE NA'IONALIST GOVERNMENT 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 Post-graduate School ----~-----~~""'-'! College or University L __ I_ -----. rechnical Schools Senior Middle School Junior Middle School 12 ----------~~-----------11 10 9 8 7 6 Higher Primary Grades Lower Primary Grades Kindergarten

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EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 203 extension of the application of science; (5) enforcement of compulsory edncation; ( 6) equal opportunity of education for both sexes; (7) emphasis on expansion of education for the Manchus, Mongolians, Tibetans and other tribes; (8) emphasis on expansion of education for over-sea Chinese; (9) elucidation of the limit of freedom and cultivation of the habit of obeying laws; (10) diffusion of political knowledge and cultivation of the itbility to exercise political rights; ( 11) fostering of organizing ability and cultivation of the spirit of group co-operation; (12) extension of vocational education ; (13) emphasis on agricultural education; (14) emphasis on training for co-operation in production and consumption; (15) cultiva tion of the right way of Ii ving and fostering of the spirit of communal production Educational Diagram There are many proposals in regard to improving the present educational system. For the convenience of the reader, let us draw a diagram of the present system. (See page 202) It will be seen from this diagram that the Main Lines period of elementary education is limited to of Education six years, being divided into lower primary and higher primary grades. If local conditions permit the period may be extended another yeu.r. Compulsory education is temporarily limited to four years with the under standing that the period may be extended if local conditions permit. There is a junior middle school and a senior middle school, each covering a period of three years. A general edm:ation is offered in the junior middle school, but vocational subjects may be taught to meet local needs The senior middle school offers general, agricultural, technical, commercial, and normal courses. The period of higher education iR fixed from four to six years depending on the type of specialization. Post-graduate schools are to be established. There are also technical schools which offer shorter professional courses. Modified School System As a result of the deliberation of the conference, the school system is slightly modified as follows: -

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204 EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 I:: .8 ..., d <:,) ::, 'O r:,:i .... Cl) .c l!l{J .:: 0 ...... ..., d <:,) p 'O r:,:i >. ... C:l 'O Q 0 <:,) Cl) U1 Q .8 ..., d <:,) p 'O r:,:i >. .... d ..., Q Cl) s Cl) r:il Post Graduate School -1 College or University Technical Schools ..... d Ul Q-, 0 0 Senior Middle School ...... 0 ..., .c d <:,) 8 U1 :> Junior Middle School Higher Primary Grades Lower Primary Grades Kindergarten >. ... d ..., Q~ Cl) 0 0 .c <:,) O.Ul 0. ::, U1 r>, ... d ..., Ul .::-Cl) 0 s O Cl) .c -<:,) p.Ul 0. ::, U2

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EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 205 M d' f'cat' As indicated by this diagram, the school o I I ions 11 h d Th 1 system 1s pract1ca y unc ange e moc 1-iications are; first, normal schools and vocational schools can be separately established, and, secondly, supplementary schools of elementary and secondary grades are to be opened. Other Resolutions There are many other important resolutions, but to give an adequate account of them would require the writing of a special article. For the sake of brevity we can only give a summary of the most important ones as follows: -(1) military training should be given in middle school s and colleges; (2) boy scouts should be organized in elementary schools; (3) the national spoken language should be unified ; ( 4) secondary education for girls Rhould be specially worked out; (5) independence of educational funds should be safe-guarded; (6) educational expenditure should be liberally apportioned; (7) educational banks should be established; (8) literary language should not be taught in elementary schools; (9) kindergarten education should be provided; (10) secondary schools should pay special attention to extra-curriculum activities ; (11) compulsory education should be strictly enforced; (12) supplementary education should be given to laborers and peasants; (13) mass education should be carried out; (14) physical education should be emphasized: (15) vocational education should be expanded; (16) special attention should be paid to physical training of the people; ( 17) degrees should be conferred by the government on the basis of examination: (18) scienceeducation should be emphasi zed; (19) scientific research should be encouraged; (20) education for cultivating the sense of beauty should be emphasized; (21) artistic production should be encouraged; (22) textbooks for elementary and secondary schools should be improved; (23) special attention should be paid to supplementary readings for elementary and secondary schools; (24) pri"iiate schools should be regulated; (25) indemnity funds should be used for educational purpose. As a rule to each r esolution is appended a practical scheme for carrying it out. It is the general belief of thoi.e

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206 EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT who attended the educational conference that much good will come out of it. In conclusion it may be of interest to sum Summary up recent tendencies in Chinese education as follows: -(1) Centralization of control in order to speed up necess:1ry reforms; (2) practical steps to be taken for the enforcement of compulsory education; (3) strict measures to be carried out for increasing educational funds ancl for safe-guarding their indepen dence; (4) revival of the examination system; (5) regula tion of private schools and encouragement for their growth; (6) regulation of students' activities and emphasis on school discipline; (7) emphasis on science education and encouragement of scientific research; (8) emphasis on appreciation of arts and cultivation of the sense of beauty; (9) separation of religion from educa.tion; (10) emphasis on improving the economic welfare of the people; ( 11) emphasis on manual labor; (12) emphasis on preserving the continuity of Chinese culture through the assimilation of western culture and further development of Chinese culture.

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CHAPTER XX PRESENT OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Frank W. Price New Forces Both external and internal forces are at work in China quickening interest in and thought upon religious education. The remarkable de velopment in the theory and m ethods of religious education which has taken place in the W est during the past quarter of a century is slowly but surely infiuencing the Chinese Church. Missionaries and returned students with special training in religious eel ucation, new literature upon the educational task of the church, International Sunday School Conferences and discussions upon religious educa tion in mission fields such as the Jerusalem Conference has motivated, the religious or non-religious implications of much imported western thought-these are forces from without that a.re directing an ever inc reasing amount of attention to the problems of religious education in China. It would be strange if the Chinese Christian Movement should fix itself in nineteenth century moulds of religious teaching while Dewey, Monroe and Kilpatrick from the West are breaking the old moulds in the sphere of general education. The forces within that are pushing the Significance Christian Movement into new paths of educational experiment and endeavor are much independent thinking and many experiments by younger leaders in the Chinese Church, the growing and more articula te desire for an intelligent and self-propagating church, the felt inade quacy of many old methods in the light of new conditions, the effort to make Christianity at home in China, at.tacks upon the Christian Movement from within and from without, together with an undeniably larger opportunity for a reasonable and courageous interpretation of spiritual

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208 OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCA'fION religion. Dean Weigle of Yale Divinity School has said, "It iR probable that the work of religious education will engage the interest and enlist the resources of Christian churches in the twentieth century in a degree comparable to that in which the missionary enterprise engaged their activity in the nineteenth century." His thoughtful pre diction is in the first stages of fuliilment in China. From the day of broadcasting the seed we are coming into a day of nurturing Christian life. In China, as elsewhere, religious education Opposition is meeting some opposition within the mis sionary boc1y and the Church from those who see it as a weak substitute for evangelism rather than as evangelism through education or who judge it solely by the advocates of an exaggerated methodology or an all-powerful religion of psychology. Others fear that the emphasis upon religious education will subtly endanger fundamental theological positions or at least direct too much attention away from the vital content of the Christian faith. Without the Christian Movement opposition is to be expected, though oi a different nature. Yet it is offset in the minds of many Christian leaders by the stimulus it gives to thoughtful self-criticism and reconstruction and also by the tendency in some cirdes far away from the Church to search for an adequate moral and spiritual basis of education. The "Movement for Saving Youth" sponRored by the Kuomintang is an illustration of this tendency. Controvzrsy "\Ve may expect to see in the Chinese Church a repetition of the western contro versy between older and newer conceptions of religious education, though perhaps less acute. The debates over the place of religious education in general education promise to be far-reaching Religious education will not advance without costly thought and effort or without a renewed dependence upon divine resources and energies. Revaluation The conferences in China preliminary to the Jerusalem Conference have served to crystallize much worth-while but scattered thinking upon the problems of religious education in the church, school,

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OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 209 home and community and to suggest new line~ of progress. The ,Jerusalem findings have been awaited with interest. Comprehending "all deliberate efforts to foster specifically religious insights, feelings and attitudes," religious educa tion can only gain by having its essential aims and methods constantly reexamined and revaluated. What are the influences that contribute most directly and fundamen tally to the formation of Christian character ? What are the respective contributions of the more direct and formal educational processes and the more indirect influences through custom, example and atmosphere? How can present methods be improved in order to develop Christlike character more effectively? How can the present teaching of the Bible and Christ.ian doctrine be related more fruitfully to the experience, needs, capacity and social environment of the pupils? To what extent should the "approach to non-Christian minds" alter present methods? Is religious education, propaganda? These are all pertinent questions. But the discussion of general principles should grow out of and be applied back to concrete situations which religious education faces in the particular home, school, church and community. These situations present many common characteristics but also a wide variety of problems according to locality, standards of the church or institution, religious background, conflict with other influences and the rapidly changing political and social environment. Any attempt to sum marize tendencies in so large a new field will be necessarily incomplete. la the Church The Christian Church in China has felt to a far smaller degree than the Christian schools the influence of modern principles and methods of religious education. Such a statement by no meims implies a lack of religious teaching in the Church. Catechetical instruction, Bible classes and institutes, instruction in the Chinese char11.cter or phonetic at the same time with Christian doctrine, and orthodox western Sunday School methods have widely prevailed. The aim has been largely to impart Biblical knowledge, fundamental doctrines and

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210 OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION codes of Christian living, church requirement8, rather than the planting and nurture of Christian personality. The predominant emphasis has been upon "evangelism" and evangelistic methods, upon general preaching and exhortation and upon the acceptance of Christian beliefs. Without doubt the Church has. aside from its schools, produced some splendid examples of Christian character especially in its Christian homes. Church Leadership However, t.here is a widespread feeling among thoughtful missionary and Chinese leaders that in reality and richness of religious experience, in consciousness of fellowship with God, in habits of personal devotion and social worship as well as of Christian living, in intelligent grasp of Christian truth and understanding loyalty to the Christian cause, in vigorous application of the Christ-like spirit to present-day problems and needs, in transforming influence upon community and 80cial life-the average leadership of the church and the rank and file of church members rank disappointingly low. Not only is there recognized weakness in the training of adult church members but even more serious failure to reach with any effective program of religious education the children and youth of the average church community, except such as may be in the da.y schools. The ideal of a Bible-reading, literate church has not yet been reached. Emphasis is more upon formal instruction than upon cultivation of the devotional life or upon practice of meaningful Christian worship and fruitful Christian living in all social relationships. The child-field is hardly touched by the Church and existing church activities among children give little considemtion to Chinese child psychology. The curriculum of religious education in the churches is far below the standard of texts and teachers' helps in schools. The dependence of a large part of the Chinese Church upon mission funds has delayed the growth of the lay leadership which is the strength of the Korean Church and also has weakened the initiative of Chinese Christian leaders in developing a religious education program of their own. Only here and there has religious education been conceived of broadly and carried out whole-

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OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 211 heartedly with a view to the building up of Christian character and of the Christian community. Wholesome Signs These would be discouraging facts but for the frank recognition that is being accorded them. The self-examination and questioning as to present teaching aims and methods which we see within the Church are wholesome signs. There is a growing impatience with formal and fruitless schemes and a hopeful tendency toward independent experimentation. Interest in religious education is growing every year. Special conferences and institutes are being held this summer (1928) in Canton, Foochow, Hangchow, Peking and other centers. A few city churches now have directors of religious education and children's work and several national or provincial church bodies have promoters of religious education at work in the field. The plan which Lewis F. Havermale and others have been trying in the Paotingfu area of graded Bible study courses fur church members under trained voluntary leadership is but one of a score of interesting new ventures. Orders to the Bible societies are now coming largely from Chinese pastors and workers which shows a hopeful growth of conscious responsibility for the religious life of the Church on the part of Chinese leaders. The larger place which theological :::chools and Bible schools have given to religious education within the past five years is bearing frni.t. The movements toward church union are making possible a more unified plan of religions education over wider areas. The agricultural schools are suggesting fresh approaches to religious teaching in rural communities. Social upheavals and political disillusionment are giving the Church as a whole more confidence in the specific contribution of character and spiritual power which it alone can give to the life of the nation. The Church is ready for advance under a teaching ministry and a better trained lay leadership. N E h Within the next decade we shall no doubt ew mp ases t t"
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212 OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION in mind. Two widely representative groups of Chinese are meeting this summer to begin work upon a more suitable curriculum of religious education foT churches. 'fhe Sunday School Union will continue to :,erve a certain larger constituency and if it is willing to enlist strong Chinese cooperation and leadership should have a permanent place in the life of the church. There are indications that many churches will be attempting Rome form of week-day religious education with pupils from government primary schools rather than the continuance of their own day schools and that more stress will be ]aid upon the training of Christian children in their Christian homes. Other ag e ncies of religious education in the church call for evaluation, coordination and improvement-Bible class teaching, societies such as Christian Endeavor, education through the picture and poster, the teaching of character and phonetic with Christian textbooks and special work with children. The teaching opportunity of the sermon will receive greater attention and a high type of personal work by pastors and Christians will be found to be an essential part of effective religious education. The average Christian is reading more and we shall see not only the production of much new Christian literature but also many efforts to stimulate the reading appetite of Christians. The n e w political and social movements sweeping over China will be a challenge to the Church to interpret these in the light of prophetic and Christian ideals. 'fhe gradual withdrawal of mission subsidies will certainly stimulate the training of voluntary workers to carry more responsibility in the Church: and i t will also affect the type of training given to theological and Bible school students. The future leadership of the Church must be trained to train and nurtured to nurture. In the Home Third-generation Christian is becoming a common term in China. It implies not only the lengthening history of the Christian Movement in China but also a recognition of the central importance of Christian home training. Products of Christian homes are stepping into places of influence everywhere The Church

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OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 213 is beginning to sec that it must help to conserve the values of the old Chinese social unit and use the family as a base, for its most effective religious teaching. What a fascinating field this opens up to the Church I Guiding parents in the rearing of their children, Christianization of ancient family customs, training in simple but impressive family worship, encouraging home Bible study, setting Christian home standards, holding before each home the ideal of a radiating center of Christian life in the community 1 It is thrilling to envisage what the old family ideals of China under the quickening power of Christianity might mean to the nation and the Church 1 Perhaps the Church will be thought of as located more in Christian homes than in church buildings. Without spiritual ideals the Chinese family in this period of social transition faces tragedy and disaster. Here is a great call to the Christian Movement in China. In the School Christian schools have been, of all the phases of the Christian Movement, the most sensitive to new influences from :ibroad or within the nation. The general tendencies of Christian school education in China are so familiar that they hardly need be described here, except as they bear upon the future of religious education in these schools Ten years ago, hardly a mission school questioned its right or its duty to require either religious stu
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214 OU'l'LOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION chology-most of the Christian schools have moved toward the new policy. The general position at present is that it is better to make religious worship and class instruction an elective feature of the school program, putting more emphasis than formerly upon the proportion of Christian teachers and students, vital Christian influence, personal work, highgrade teachers of religion, the Christian opportunity in all courses and extra-curriculum Christian activities. Some schools have made the change freely and willingly; others have moved with great reluctance or against severe opposition of those who believe that the very principle of religious freedom is being surrendered. No one would claim that a change of method a.lone works miracles; the dangers of secularization and compromise in Christian schools are great. Religious educators in schools are feeling New their way now earnestly and humbly. New Experiments experiments are being tried which will require time for just appraisal. It is encouraging to see the Chinese Church, while seemingly in favor of the new policy, yet standing firmly for the maintenance of the Christian purpose and character of t.he schools. With a few schools continuing along old lines, it will be interesting to compare the product in Christian life from the different types of schools. The new methods and experiments are calling attenti<,n to many failure;,i and weaknesses which had not been faced b(?fore, arc removing the old confidence in mere systems and are calling for a more vigorous and vital type of religious education. Christian educators are asking themselves what are really the standards of a Christian school. Religious educators are turning their attention to cnr riculum needs in their departments. Christia.n teachers of other departments are beginning to feel a larger share in the Christian success of the school. A freer and more open-minded, responsive atmosphere prevails. Many disappointments and perils lie ahead of Christianity but also marvelous possibilities, even if its schools have no appeal beyond the quality of its own interpreters.

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Christian Stttdent Movement OUTLOOK. FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 215 In connection with the ontlook for religious education in Christian schools should be noted the growth of the Christian Student Movement as a self-active and promising expression of Christian student thought. This movement is becoming more of a fellowship represented in small likeminded groups seeking truth and life. We can hardly expect to s ee for some years much of a rapprochement between the organized church and the Christian student in middle school or college. The Christian schools will feed the Christian thought movement rather than the church membership lists. The adventurous type of Christian personality which they will tend to produce will not flow easily within most of the church channels to-day. But the institutionalized church will have much to learn from the youth who call themselves Christian and much to receive if she is sympathetic and willing to view it from the standpoint of the growing Christian Student Movement. This movement also offers the most nopeful approach to-day to the great student field of government schools. By this is meant the gen eral popularization In the of Christian ideas and standards. The Community agencies for such religions education are rapidly increasing. The tract is appearing in new forms adapted to various classes of people; revolutionary posters and slogans have given new impetus to the production of religious pictures and mottoes for use in homes or in public; the effectiveness of religious drama for the masses is being tested here and there; churches have been using popular education as a step toward the te aching of religious truth. Pereecution and opposition, caricatures and mispresentations of Christianity have served the purpose of calling popular attention to this living religion in their midst. The work of hospitals, institutional churches, Y.M.C .A.'s and Y. W.C. A.'s is both a direct and indirect contribution toward the religious education of the community ; that these organizations are not perfectly satisfied as to their own methods gives hope for their future development. Secular groups are begim~ing to assist in the popularization of Christian beliefs. The full account of

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216 OUTLOOK FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION General Chiang Kai-shek's Christian wedding ceremony, the newspaper discussions on religious freedom, modern novels and poems containing religious ideas, the renewed vitality of Buddhism in many quarters and comparisons of Buddhism with Christianity, the publication of translated books on religion by the Commercial Press and other publishing houses are all tending to make more familiar certain facts or teachings of Christianity. The few references to religion in San Min Ohn I have probably been read by millions. Such popularization of Christian ideas or Intensive community religious education cannot do more than plow the soil and make it more receptive for the slow, patient, intensive nurture of individual Christians in the growing. Even popular addresses on Christianity will have their place only as a setting for the intensive religious education of the individual or as an impetus for some individuals toward the building of Christian ideas, attitudes and habits. The Outlook '' Go ... make disciples .... teaching them to observe my commands ... That so many earnest souls in the new China are seeking for moral and spiritual foundations upon which to build the new order; that the Christian movement is more and more alive to its teaching task and opportunity; that Christlike personality is increasingly the end and the criterion of Christian effort make the outlook for religious education in China hopeful and inspiring.

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CHAPTER XXI THEOLOGICAL TRAINING IN 1927 Djang Fang Theological training has sharP.d the same, Criticism if not a worse fate than other branches of education cl ne to last year's national movement. I:f education is open to criticism as being a form of propaganda for the promotion of religion, then I should say that theological education is most to be criticized. If there is any kind of curriculum which is transplanted or adapted from western countries it is in the theological seminary. If there is anything to be said about foreignsopported institutions it is the theological seminary which is almost entirely supported by the missions in both the equipment as well as running expenses. If there is anything to be criticized about the support of students during their period of training for the definite purpose of employing them in the ministry after their graduation it is found in the theological seminary. For thes e reasons the theological seminary has been attacked both by the people with anti-Christian attitude and by those who are nominally professing the Christian faith. P t St t Theological training at present may be reseo a us classified under three general head rngs, regnlar seminaries, Bible training schools and religious departments of universities. There are seven seminaries which may be further divided into two classes, union and denominational. There are four union institutions, namely, Cn.nton Union Theological Seminary, Fukien Union Theological Seminary, Nan king Union Theological Seminary, and Mukden Theological Seminary. In addition to these there are three denominational ones: Tenghsien Seminary, Central Theological Seminary of Nanking, and Shekow Seminary. Only one-half of the union institutions were able to keep going during last year; the others

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218 THEOLOGICAL TRAINING IN 1927 have had to close or at least to suspend work for the time being. The seminaries in Mukden and Canton have been able to continue their work, bnt the Fukien seminary, on account of reasons other than the nationalistic ones was forced to suspend its work, and the union has been dissolved. The closing of the Nanking Theological Seminary, which is considered the largest one, was due to the Revolution. The faculty and students, both Chinese and foreign, had a very bitter experience and the seminary was compelled to discontinue its work after the outrage of March 24th. Of the d('nominational seminaries, only the one in Tenghsien was able to run for a very short time last fall. The others for various reasons have been closed or have been combined with others, as for instance the Central Theological Seminary has been combined with St. John's University. Bible Schools Besides the regular theological seminaries there are these Bible training schools: Honan Bible Training School, Amoy Bible Training School, Swatow Baptist Bible Training School, Wuchow Bible Training School, and Changsha Bible Training School. Of these only the Wuchow and Amoy Bible Training Schools have been able to carry on their regular work. The others met the same fate as the seminaries. School of Religion In addition to the above two types of institutions for theological training there are the Schools of Religion in different universities-Shanghai College, St. John's Univeri:;ity, West China Union University, Yenching University, Fulcien University, and Central China Union University at Wuchang. Two of these schools have been forced to close; the others :Lre running with very small enrolments, some places having not more than three or four students. Present Tendencies It is not very clear to some of the Christians whether theological training in China is necessary or not, simply because they do not have confidence in those students who have been produced, the work that has been done by the students and the type of training that has been given,

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THEOLOGICAL TRAINING IN 1927 219 and because of the present economic pressure that has been brought upon the Christian Church. On the other hand, others are very clearly convinced that theological training is the paramount need of the Christian Church if she is to exist and to propagate the Christian religion. The first important element in any kind of religion is not simply the faith which we profess but also the person who is to preach the faith to another; otherwise its growth will be dwarfed. Personally I think something can be said for the first point; we are certainly agreed that the curricula, as well as the policies, of the theological seminaries should be modified, readjusted and coordinated. There is a permanent place in Christian education for training for the ministry. In view of this, several tendencies have been manifest.ed in Christian circles. Dissolution of Union Institutions Fil'st of all, there is the tendency among Christian educators to dissolve the union institutions, which are the result of patient work and earnest prayer during past years, and to go back to the denominational Bible schools. For example, the Union Theological Seminary of Fulden has been d;ssolved and each one of the denominations is trying to conduct a Bible Training School of its own. If doctrinal problems are the main cause of such dissolution, then economic pressure may be counted as the second. Denominational Coordination The next tendency is coordination or the union of the different seminaries in one denomination. It has been definitely pro posed by the Anglican Church to combine their seminaries in Shanghai, Wuchang and Nanking into one institution. This tendency is also seen in the Methodist Church which is trying to have a seminary, or rather a Bible Training School, in Fukien for their four conferences. The reason for this tendency is the lessening of demand, and also the question of efficiency in discipline as well as in teaching. Connection with Universities 'l'he third tendency is that the theological seminary should also have the regular university atmosphere. It will be disastrous to the Christian cause to have two types of

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220 THEOLOGICAL TRAINING rn 1927 work, one that of teaching in connection with a higher grade of education and another that with a lower grade. That is the reason why some of the universities have advocated the organization of a department of religion. This will prove of mutual benefit: students in the department of religion can advantageously arrange to take courses in other departments and the religions flavor of the whole institution can be strengthened by the students of this department. Y enching, Shantung Christian University and Fukien University all have such a department of religion. Even at that, the leaders of the Church Expansion of are not satisfied with this kind of arrangeCourses ment. They expect to substitute theological training by some other courses. It has been proposed to substitute theological training by courses on agriculture or courses on commerce and industry. The reason for this is that the present theological training cannot satisfy the needs of the people, whether urban or rural. The farmer:s need is not for a merely intellectual faith but for the improvement of living as well as of his crops. The city people's needs are not simply theological interpretation of their God but also the Good Samaritan's way of doing things. Correlation Needed The fifth tendency is caused by the lack of support and shortage of demand and also the need for effici e ncy of training and completion of the courses. This tendency manifests itself in a growing demand for coordination among the different denominations. If each denomination tries its best to keep one or several seminaries or Bible schools for itself, certainly, in that way it can maintain the faith or "ism" of that denomination; but one of the results of this present movement shows that developing this narrow "ism" is not the fundamental object of theological training. It would mean a great deal in the future if all the seminaries and denominations could work out a correlated scheme for the whole of theological training in China, both in shaping the policy and arranging the courses, and in the assignment of faculty and location of the institution.

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THEOLOGICAL TRAINING' IN 1927 221 There is no question that theological trainFuture ing in China should be adapted to the life and needs of the Chinese people. For this reason, certainly the fundamental courses such as those now given need to be emphasized, but in addition to this some courses on general education should be added. 'I'he work of the seminary should be differentiated, if not in the first year then in the second year, because there are different types of work to be performed in the Church. There should be training for city workers and rural workers, as well as for Y. M C. A. and Y. W. C. A secretaries. Such courses as the psychology of childhood and adolescence, city sociology, a brief course in commerce and industry, and how to run a city church should be given to those students who are preparing themselves for work in the city. The students who will work in the country should have such courses as rural sociology, rural economics, a brief one in agriculture and forestry and methods for a rural church. Furthermore those students who are preparing themselves to become secretaries either in the Y. M C. A. or Y. W. C. A. should know the organization, the history and method of the organization. There is a growing demand for differentiating the training of Christian workers. One type of study for all does not meet the need and equip the students for their future work. Theological training does not appeal to the Difficulties students or the higher grade of people, especially since the Nationalistic Movement has influenced their minds, and also because of Lhe economic pressure of the present time. The enrolment in different seminaries as well as in the departments of religion in the universities, with the exception of a very few, is gradually decreasing. The second difficulty is that this economic pressure is felt in the Chinese churches. The Chinese churches cannot support, their own seminaries as they have a very difficult time to maintain even their present machinery. Human psychology always follows the line of least resistance. The present demand as a matter of fact always commands immediate action. 'l'o keep the present machinery running has been quite a burden to the Chinese Church. It is

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222 THEOLOGICAL TRAINING IN 1927 pretty hard for the Chinese Church to provide suitable training for its leaders. The theological seminary has not demonstrated itself as a self-supporting institution. It has always been subsidized from some outside sources. The third difficulty is that the seminary has been entrusted with the task of defending the orthodox faith. Denom. inational theological differences might prevent the growth of some of the seminaries.

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CHAPTER XXII THE REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT Y. T. Wu I. A Review of the Revolution : Th Str 1 The overthrow of the Manchu Government e ugg e in 1913 was not the only revolution which helped to put the Chinese nation on the road to democracy, It was only the beginning of a series of efforts to rid China of the various influences which have been obstructing her national progress. Two years after the birth of the new Republic, Yuan Shih K'ai tried to make himself Emperor; this was followed, in 1917, by the attempt of Chang Hsiin to reinstate the defunct Manchu Emperor, Hsiian T'ung. In the same year, Dr. Sun Yat-sen and his followers established a military government in Canton in opposition to the northern government, and "in defence of the Constitution After this, it was a continuous struggle, slow but persistent, between the southern government at Canton, weak and in control of only a small piece of territory, and the northern government, with a far superior force, chiefly under the supporters of Yuan Shih-K'ai. Present Situation The present chapter of the Revolution can best be dated from the death of Dr. Sun Yat sen in March 12, 1925. He was going to Peking with the hope of coming to some kind of an understanding with the northern militarists for a forward move towards a constructive program. He was taken ill before he reached the old ea.pita! and he died with an earnest injunction to his fellow workers to complete the Revolution which, he thought, was still far from being accomplished. His death, however, somehow quickened the spirit of his followers, for in July, 1925, a Nationalist Government was formed in Canton, which soon saw the time ripe for an expedition to the north. In June, 1926,

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224 REVOLUTION AND S'fUDENT THOUGHT Chiang Kai-shek was appointed the generalissimo, and in less than a year he achieved sweeping victories in the provinces of Hunan, Hupeh, Fukien, Chekiang, Kiangsi, and Kiangsu, gaining control for the Nationalists of all of South Chirnt. At this time the national consciousness of the people was at its highest. The demand for the abolition of extrality and of the control of the customs tariff was on the lips of everybody. The foreign powers also took a much more conciliatory attitude in their dealings with the Nationalis t s at, this time. The Nationalist capital was first moved from Canton to Hankow; there the Communist members in the Kuomintang (The Nationalist Party) began to acquire a threatening hold on the new government. General Chiang and others saw the danger and immediately cut themselves off from Hankow by establishing a separate government at N anking in A pri1, 1927. Shortly after wards, Hankow expelled its Communist members and recognized Nanking as the Nationalist capital. At the same time, the Communists, who had been playing such an important role in the revolution, were condemned as intriguers against the Nationalist cause because they had been secretly planning to make the Kuomintang a tool to propagate Communism in China. Since this split, the nor.th e m expedition has suffered many reverses, bnt at the time of wr i ting (March, 1928), it has regained a good deal of its old vigor and has so etCpanded its area of activity that now only two provinces in the north, Chihli and Shantung, and the three Eastern provinces, are left in the control of the northern military head, Chang Tso-lin. II. The Lesson from Gomnuinism : Communists In his struggle for national liberty Dr. Sun eaw in Russia an ally at once sympathetic and strong enough to give powerful help to the revolutionary force And in this Dr. Sun was at least partially right, for Borodin and other Russians did help to plan for the northern expedition and played an important part in it before the Nationalist forces reached Nanking. Besides, in principle at least, Communism and the San Min Chu I, agree as to the goal they both want to reach

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"REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT 225 Unfortunately it did not take the Nationalists long to realise that the Russians and their communist followers in China had other motives besides helping the Revolution. They joined the Kuomintang, but what they wanted to see realized was not the San Min Chu I but Communism. The advocacy of class struggle, the use of brutal force, terrorism, the breaking down of all moral virtues, were their ideal methods and these were not only foreign to the San Min Chu I but were also abhorred by the ChineEe people, who held an entirely different philosophy of life. After the Communists were expelled from the Kuomintang, they played such havoc in several provinces particularly in Kwangtung, that they lost whatever sympathy the country as a whole formerly showed them. When Communism was first introduced into Students and China, many students were attracted by the Communism high ideals it professed. Communism as thus presented offered a solution to the burning questions of production and distribution, problems which China must face some day; it has a. good organization and strong discipline and its membership has a touch of secrecy; it is also of a revolution ary nature and has an adventurous spirit: these things appeal particularly to youthfnl minds. No doubt many students joined because of the financial help that the party offered and because of the appeal of sexual freedom which they advocated; no doubt, too, many joined the party simply through ignorance of what the party really aims at; nevertheless there is among them a minority who are convinced that Communism is the only road to freedom for China, and many of these have actually sacrificed their lives for the cause. This was especially true when, after the split from Hankow, the Nationalist forces as well as the Kuomintang were at a very low ebb because of selfish strifes in the party and the loss of a united front against the common enemy in the north. The imagination of the students w n s raised to the point of exhilaration, only to be lowered nga.in by disillusionment and disappointment. The last refuge for the true patriot seemed to be in the camp of the Communists who had not only preserved their own .integrity

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226 REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT in the chaos but had also carried on an aggressive program. But now, when the atrocities of the Communists and the incompatibility of their methorls with the temperament of the Chinese people have been laid bare by their recent plunders and massacres in various places, the same disillusionment which fell on student minds because of the temporary failure of the Nationalists has again appeared as a result of the failure of the Communists. It must not be thought, however, that the end of Communism in China has come. The poverty of the masses, the lack of employment, the disorganizat-ion causerl by the present Revolution -these and other things will continue to serve as a fertile breeding ground for radical propaganda and will be available until China is put on a sound political and economic basis. Nevertheless Chinese youth have enriched their experience by having trodden on another proposed "Road to Freedom" and have become, at least partially, convinced that they have to look elsewhere for the salvation of China. III. Science and National Reconstruction In a recent book entitled "The Road of the Two Needs Youth" written by Mr. Tai Chi-tao, one of the leading thinkers in the Kuomintang, two things were designated to which Mr. Tai thinks special attention should be paid by the students of China. The first is science: the second, morality. These two subjects represent two phases of the question of national reconstruction which must dominate the thinking of present-day students. N d f O d Nothing seems more urgent at present than ee or r er h d f h 1 puttmg t e country m or er a ter t e ong period of military operations which have upset the political and economic life of the people. New roads have to be built, mines opened, factories operated, machines installed in all sorts of industrial enterprises. Poverty and desolation, stagnation of trade, famine, bandits, floods, deforestation, stare one in the face everywhere as soon as one leaves the big cities and travels inland. What can save the situation except the far and wide application of science with all its inventions? Ten years ago leaders of the" New

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REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGH'f 227 Thought Movement" pointed to science and democracy as the two main roads which China must travel in the coming generation. At that time, the idea of scier!ce was emphasized more for its intellectual value as a liberator from traditional and superstitious thinking than for its practical value a s a tool for material bettermenL It is this latter aspect of science that is again being brought to the forefront In fact as early as the time of the Manchu Dynasty, the old reformer K'ang Yu-wei wrote a book on this subject urging the importance of material reform; and now after twenty years of national travail, the need for applied science is brought into even bolder relief by the devastation caused by continuous fighting. Not only for internal development is the need for science apparent, but also for national defence. Mr Tai in his book asked, in effect "What if China is drawn into a war with the western powers ten years from now? Where are our warships and ammunitions, our clothing materials and our food products, our hospitals and medicines, our railways and industrial organizations, to meet the momentous needs of modern gigantic warfare?" Modern Philosophy If the dire needs of China give force to the appeal to science perhaps the Marxian materialistic interpretation of history has, for some people, supplied the philosophy for the appeal. This philosophy speaks very loud for those who have visited western countries and have seen their civilization for themselves. In it material development and material welfare form the background of all national progress; and it is also the lack of these that has caused most of the sufferings in China today No one can question the soundness of this argument provided it is not stretched too far. The danger of this line of reasoning for students is that they may think that man has no other needs besides the material, or, as one of our ancient statesmen once remarked, that ''man knows no discipline and righteousness unitl he is well fed and clothed." One of the leaders of the "New Thought Movement" feels that even the "worship of good', is a right principle for our people to take today. The natural tendency is to scorn

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228 REVOLUTION AND S'l'UDENT THOUGH' as empty and useless anything that has no direct bearing on the tangible problems of life. Four or fiye yeitrs ago an academic war raged among the intellectuals of the country on the question of science and the philosophy of life One side leaned to the scientific or objective view of life, the other to the ra.tionalistic or sn bjective. Today, the scientific view has distinctly come to the top: the materialistic interpreLation of life has borderd on, and merged in:to materialism. IV. Seeking a New Philosophy of Life Racial M al If the task of national reconstruction were or s so simple that only the material side of life needed to be taken care of, then all our problems would be solved; but that our problems cmrnot be solved in that way alone there is plenty of evidence to prove. It was on this that Mr Tai in his book also referred to the importance of reviving our racial morals, a point that was strongly urged by Dr. Sun himself. Morals and Science Why is the need for mornls again felt when the need for science speaks so loud? Let us look first at the political field. During the first few months the northern expedition went on very successfully; but immediately after the climax had been reached the selfish traits with which the northern militarists have been stamped reappeared under a different cloak in the Nationalist leaders in the form of a scramble for position and power, graft, mutual envy and criticism, neglect of public welfare, etc The Sati Min Chu I has become a matter of formal n.cceptance, and the only tie that binds the members of the Kuomintang together is the personality of their leader, Sun Yat-sen. Besides reading his will constantly, they sometimes keep silent a few minutes in the presence of his picture, to help reflection. The leaders of the party have come slowly to realize that besides practical political programs such matters as training in discipline, in the understanding of principles, in manhood and character, must not be overlooked. Student Problems The same realization has come to students, only in a different way. Instead of saying that they are feeling the need for morals,

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REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT 229 perhaps it is better to say that they are grappling, though hardly consciously, with the problem of a philosophy of life. Science will save China !-on that all agree. "But how," they ask, "am I going to play a part in the work?" To put the question more bluntly: "How should I live in this generation?" The following a r e some of the reasons why such questions come up. First: The old moral standards have been Old Morality questioned and no new ones yet set up. Gone Obedience to parents and teachers, for ex.ample, was once for the Chinese the most important duty in life; but now rebellion against them is altogether too common. It is true tha.t many of the old virtues are not yet discarded: nevertheless, they are quivering in the balance. This difficulty is nggravated by the introduction of western ideas, such as individual rights, the small family, etc., and by the more radical conceptions of life introduced from Bolshevik Russia. Students seem to be at a cross-roads in their thinking about life in general at this time. Appalling Needs S econd: Students are faced with a situation pregnant with appalling needs. Everywhere there are rough roads waiting to give hard knocks to the new corner. One may desire a little honesty, but falsehood is the rule in society; one may desire to do a little real work in some position but corrnption will drive one away or choke one up in a short time; one may be interested in farming, but bandits will not permit it. At one time, the political situation seems to be ablaze with hope; at another, it pushes one into deep pessimism. 'fhe militarists are hopeless, and also for some, the Communists; but neither does the Kuomintang seem to be able to fulfill their longings. Such are tlrn things in actual life that students cannot help pondering on even in their school days. Need of Leaders Third: There has been lacking a group of leaders who can set for students an example that they could follow. This implies that, not only among students but also among people in ordinary walks of life, the search for a philosophy of life is

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230 REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT equally apparent, if not equally earnest. To most. students, indeed, Sun Yat-sen is a very inspiring figure, even more so since his death; but, alas, too few leaders have lived up to his example to take his place as a constant guide to students! St d t Qu t The quest of students is particularly keen u en es d t h t f II m regar o t e wo o owmg quest10ns, because these are the urgent questions of their immediate personal life: 1. Sex: A few year8 ago the burning question was, how far should marriage be free, i.e. uncontrolled by parents or relatives? This question has now practical ly been settled in favor of individual liberty. Bnt now the problem has been pm;hed a step further by thiR question, is the institution of marriage necessary at all and is free sexual intercourse right? While a few students have ventured to act radically in this regard, the average student wavers between established custom and the still existing moral code on the one hand, and the beckoning of the new psychology on the other. 2. Vocation: "What should I do after school? What can I do?" These questions are af:'ked by students everywhere and all the time; but they are not so acute elsewhere as in China to-day. In the first place, it is a question of how they can best fit into the present chaos: "should China's needs or my own inclinations or both decide what I am going to do?" In the second place, the question is: "How can I do what I have decided to do amidst the many adverse circumstances? If I do not want to be moulded by circumstances, how then can I become strong enough to mould circumstances?" Such are the t hings that trouble students' minds in their quest for a new philosophy of life. They are real problems; and students are seeking for a way out. V. The Anti-Christian Movement Two Values Where is this way out going to be found? The two outstanding proposals to-day are first, knowledge, and second, religion. Let us take these up in order.

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REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT 231 In the last two sections, I have pointed out Knowledge that the two great needs at present, according to one of the leading members of the Kuomintang, are science and morality. We need science to build up a new China where people can live peacefully and enjoy life: we need also to revive the old racial virtues such as loyalty, love, honesty and peace, to give stability to our social relations and make strength and prosperity possible. To students both these imply a quest-the quest for knowl edge. This is based on Dr. Sun's new theory: to act is easy; to know, difficult.' To quote Mr. Tai again: "All our mistakes, all the unworthy sacrifices in the past, are the result of the fact that we do not know and do not strive to know." If we really knew, we should act! So whether it is in the realm of science, or whether it is in the realm of morals, the quest for knowledge embraces them both and leads to the solution of all problems. During the past few years, students have been very active in many kinds of social and political movements. They played important parts in the May 30th incident (1925) and the March 18th incident (1926) aiming thereby to stir the nation into life. But since then they have become the prey of agitators and student activities have become more or less a matter of spreading slogans. "Back to the class room is the cry that is heard again after many months of listless wandering, and this deeper realization of the situation gives added strength to the appeal to knowledge as the way out for troubled youth. Let us see also what religion has to say at this time. Religion at its best, would Religion endorse all that the protagonist for knowledge has to say, only with this addition, that if life is to be lived at its fullest it requires faith, the faith that life has a purpose and is worth living, that human personality is the greatest worth and that love can conquer all evils This is the conviction of the Christians. There is also required the faith that can rise above all human limitations desires, selfishness, ambition and hatred ; and that by going beyond our little selves we can be at one with that larger self which is true life. This is the conviction of the Buddhists. It

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232 REVOLU'.rION AND S'.rUDENT '.rHOUGHT is true that faith also comes from knowledge; but religion claims a deeper and more dynamic faith by reason of the fact that it reaches beyond the human and the mundane. Popular Attitcde to Religion 'fhe attitude of the ordinary people towards Buddhism has never been antagonistic be cause it has become so deeply absorbed into Chinese thought and life. With Christianity the situation is quite different; partly because Christianity claims to be a unique religion and partly because it has often ignored Chinese culture, people think it is a 'foreign' religion, and rightly so. We need not spend time reviewing the severe attacks on Christianity and the Christian institutions since 1922: suffice it to s:iy that the four main objections to the Christian religion, are that it is the forerunner of imperialism; that it is the tool of capitalism; that it is superstitious; and that its followers do not practice what they profess. Student Attitude to Religion What is the attitude of the average student towards Christianity at the present moment? In the first place the noisy attacks that were so much heard a year or two ago have de cidedly died down. The Nationalist Government has repeatedly declared that it has no prejudice against religion. Recently two members of the Central Executive Committee brought up a motion for the abolition of all anti-Christian slogans an
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REVOLUTION AND STUDENT THOUGHT 233 but in many schools, it is almost impossible for Christian students to hold public meetings. Harder still is it for student secretaries to do any work therein. How long students will remain in this attitude of indifference will depend on how much success they will find in meeting their problems through the quest for knowledge alone, and how soon they will come to realize that religion and knowledge are not mutually exclusive but belong to life together. VI. The Awakening of Ohrist-ian Stitdents Christian Students In the meantime Christian students are. coming to a deeper realization of what religion means for oneself and for society. Up to this time they have been kept back by the ready acceptance of traditional religious ideas and by the lack of vital religious experience. Then the anti-Christian movement came and compelled them to think and to give an account of their faith. This was followed by the Nationalist Movement which has both created and revealed the great needs of t,he country. Christianity was challenged: the social implica tions of religion had to be sought for. Christian students have awakened along the following lines:-. 1. They are laboring hard on the reconReconstruction struction of their faith. The chief method of Faith h h II f 11 h. t ey use 1s t e sma e ows 1p group. Through discussions, meditation, study and worship in these feJlowship groups they are slowly discovering a religion that roots itself in experience and that has the power to transform life. Stripped of traditional concep tions, Jesus will be a fresh inspiring figure and God will have an imminent and dynamic relation to life. Then, too, the oneness of truth and the unity of faith will as never before be realized, and it will be found that the religion of Jesus is not fo1eign to Chinese thought and life but that it is one, though in different degrees, with the life and teachings of our own great leaders in the past. Social Expression 2. They are also seeking for the social expression of their religion. Christianity has often been criticized for its other-wordliness

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234 REVOLU'flON AND STUDENT THOUGHT and for its indifference to social needs. If Christianity and the Christians cannot play an iinportant part in the task of national reconstruction in China to-day, then very rightly do the people question the necessity for religion. Slowly the consciousness is dawning among thoughtful and earnest Christian students that, in order to make their influence felt, they must bind themselves together in a Chinese Stndent Christian Movement. This Movement has hardly been born in the legal sense, but, when it is grown up, it will have great possibilities. The awakening of the Christian students has been brought about at least partly by the activities of the :,;ecular movements. It remains to be seen how far the Student Christian Movement will influence and direct the thought and life of the country in the future. Indifference to Organized Religion 3. The Christian students, in their quest for life and truth, have naturally shown indifference towards organizations and institutions. They question the place of the Church, the function of the ministry, and the need for rites and ceremonies. The truth lies not so much in their scorn of these things as in the inadequacy of the Jatter to meet present needs. This is borne out by the experim.ents made in various student centers in new church services and organizations and the production of Chinese hymns, prayers, and other liturgical materials. Organization and ritual will always be found necessary, provided they can be revisfld and recreated to serve their real purpose.

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CHAPTER XXIII THE VILLAGE EDUCA TJON MOVEMENT Chlshin (W. T.) Tao Magnitude of Problem China. is predominantly an agricultural country. According to popular estimates, nearly eighty-five per c ent of her population, i.e. three hundred and forty million people, live in the villages To educate and modernize the Chinese villagers and their children is one of the most gigantic undertakings in the Far East. Village education in China is a mass phenomena that cannot escape the notice of any world. minded person. Whether it is for good or bad, it affects one-fifth of the world's population The present schools actually found in Fpaduret V01.11 g Chinese villages can not meet the demands. resen 1 a e Wh h h h'ld h' Schools at t ey give to t e c 1 ren is not mg more than book knowledge. They make the farming population less productive. They make the rich, poor and the poor, poorer ; the strong, weak and the weak, weaker. These schools belong to the past and are not serving the real needs of our farmers. The cry for change is heard from every part of the land. A new era is dawning. During the last few years, the National New Move-Association for the Advancement of Education ment has set itself to the task of evolving a type of education which will meet the needs of Chinese village life. The authorities who have been charged with this study have taken the realities of villag e life as their guide Deviating from former practices they no longer look forward to ancient or foreign models for solutions. As a new nation is being born, a new education is needed for fitting her farmers for the new life. Old conceptions a.nd methods, inadequate to meet the new needs, have to be

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236 VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT thrown away, and new ones to be devised. Thus in many respects the movement has assumed a creative and rev olutionary character. Three Steps Three steps have been conceived in carrying out the whole movement The first and the most fundamental step is experimentation Experimental schools of various kinds are being conducted in order to discover better methods and contents for village education. Second, on the basis of findings through experimentation, the right type of village teachers and other forces are to be trained. Third, the movement is to be extended according to the number of persons who have received training. Center Schools The movement starts with a few center schools. The term, center school" derives its meaning from three sources. First, it takes village life as its center. Second, it forms the center for reconstructing village life. Third, when the stage of training and extension is reached, it will naturally be the center for normal training and reformation of other schools. All the center schools are of an experimental nature. The national association has, under its direction, three center schools of the elementary grade. The first center school is located at Swallow Cliff. It has six grades, a full elementary school according to the new system The second center school is situated at Yao Hwa Meng. It has four grades, but teaching is organized according to the double-grade plan. The third is at Morning Village which is an ungraded school, run by one teacher. Common Features In spite of all the differences in organization and adaptation to local difference, these three center schools have certain features in common. First, they have a common philosophy of education and life. They take village life as their center and at the same time aim to become the center of village reform. Not only this, they serve as the center at which the little village meets the world at large. Second, the main principle is common to all. Here the maxim is

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VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT 237 "Think when you work"; "Use your mind when you use your hands." Active work becomes the center of learning. Third, tools are considered as a most important medium of education. Education for life demands life-tools. Real education is an education by tools. It teaches how to invent tools, how to make tools, and how to use them. Books are considered as one kind of tool but are no longer worshipped as the only one. Fourth, the principle of economy is emphasized from the start. The running expenses of these schools are not higher than those of other schools in the neighborhood. On the basis of average per capita cost, these schools try to work out ::;tandards which may easily be reached by other schools. It is due to t.his minimum cost that these schools are exerting a wider influence than the ordinary model school. Fifth, as the school is the village center, the principal is its soul. His .personal example has the greatest influence over his students anrl the villagers. The principals of the three schools all have three qualities in common. 1. They all have the farmer's physique. Qualities ol Principals They can do farm work. These qualities have given t.hem several advantages over ordinary principals. In the first place they thoroughly understand the farmers' difficulties, hardships, and problems and are in a better position to be a helping friend to them. Second, in utilizing their leisure on vegetable gardens and the like their low salary can be supplemented in part. Third, the possession of a farmer's hands enables them to take active interest in the village which also gives them abundant opportunities to express themselves in actual deeds. 2. They all have the mind of a scientist. They are all open-minded. They want to observe and try. They take interest in scientific agriculture and other new discoveries in science and are eager to introduce them to the farmers. This attitude of mind is essential to a village teacher in order to counteract the very conservative influence of the farming population: 3. They all ha.ve the spirit of a social reformer. They make the school serve as a social dynamo, sending

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238 VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT light to every home, making the whole village bright. Even in the one-teacherschool, the y never feel singlehanded. Every pupil is a live-wire connecting the school and the community. The school is successful only when all the villagers become happy and wise. Center Schools at Work: The working of the center schools may be rendered more concrete if actual examples are given for a day's activities Country children are early birds They usually come to school as early as six A.M. The first thing they do is to make the school clean and put every thing in order. The teacher and the pupils work as fellow comrades in sweeping, washing, dusting, arranging, etc. Each one is respomible for a certain area. In less than half an hour the school looks as everybody wishes it to look In this way one can readily see how our center schools can dispense with the service of the janitor who has sometimes deprived the students of the opportunity to do practical work. It can also be readily seen how these schools save money for the securing of necessary life-tools in spite of present nationwide financial difficulties. Exercises Then comes the morning exercise which consists of raising the National Flag, the Song of the Revolution, the principal's address. Finally all go into the class room in procession. The personal cleanliness of the pupils is supervised by the teacher and elder students. Cleanliness This includes the examination of the face, eyes, teeth, fingers, etc. Washing the face, brushing the teeth, cutting the finger nails,-all are done in school if they have not been done at home. Thus every one looks as he ought to look. All are now ready for class work. Reading, Class Work: writing, and arithmetic are related to country life and the teaching of other suhjects. 'Ne seize every opportunity to practice the use of language in meeting actual needs. For instance, when an illiterate farmer comes to ask us to write a letter for him, we submit it to the old pupils to write. After correction by the teacher,

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VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT 239 the best letter is given to the farmer. But all who write the letter will be giv e n credit for language work. Current Events Just half an honr before lunch, current events of national or world significance, or messages which affect the welfare of the vill a ge, or projects which eall for the cooperation of all villagers, are told to the student body. Most frequently these are worked out in story form by the teacher and older students. All the pupils are required to tell the story to their home folks and report their reactions. Natl St d In nature study, one example may be given ,re u Y "t d h on mosqm oes an t e campmgn agamst them. Specimens of the various stages of development of different kinds of mosquitoes are collected by the pupils under the direction of the teacher. These are preserved and shown in tubes. In this way the pupils come to a real understanding of mosquitoes and develop determination to fight against them. They are also led to see how frogs and other insects eat mosquitoes and to accept them as their allies in the anti-mosquito campaign. Gardening is of two kinds: school projects Gardening and home projects. We have solved two of the most difficult problems in conducting school gardens. The first is that the farmers object to having their children work in the school garden. They say, "We send the children to school for study and not for work Many schools failed in introducing gardening in the curriculum just because of this stubborn objection. We know this before we introduce it. We, therefore, call in the parents and tell them that the school teaches children to write, read and count according to what they grow in the garden. After they have taken part in gardening, they will be able to read, write and count things as well as grow them. The pupils will share in the produce of their labor. They can either take the produce home or sell it to the market. The parents are pleased with the arrangement and the s c hool garden goes on well. The second difficulty is the teaching of gardening in ungraded schools where students of different ages gather in one class. We have tried to

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240 VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT solve this difficulty by differentiating the processes of the projects and making assignments according to the abilities of the pupils. Thus every pupil is kept busy and interested in the work which he is able to do Handwork in these schools consists of Handwork repair work, and the making of simple apparatus and equipment. The carpentry and masonry work of the school are for the most part done by pupils under the direction of the teacher. Apparatus needed for teaching science is, so far as possible, self-made: so is some of the ordinary equipment of the school. Health work is carried on by the teacher under the supervision of a travelling doctor. Health The teachers are taught to examine the eyes, to give vaccination and a few other simple treatments. The treatment of trachoma has produced very satisfactory results. In these schools, individual wash towels, toothbrushes, and drinking cups are provided. We hope, also, to have a traveling nurse for the three schools. An example of group projects is found in Receptions the arrangement for a welcome reception given in honor of a prominent visitor. The gnest is already known to the student. As soon as the visitor arrives, the students, with the permission of the teacher, call a meeting to order in making preparations for the reception. A student leaJer is elected to take the chair; another, to record the minutes. The program is outlined, and items assigned: welcome a
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VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT 241 and, above all, a farmers' evening class. The evening class was formerly carried on by the teacher. But the teacher, after a day's strenuous work, must rest in the evening A better plan was devised. In every village there is some intelligent, public-spirited person who can and will serve as teacher. We found that such are not only teachers, but good teachers. We tried such persons in the Swallow Cliff School and the result was wonderful. The tool we use is the One Thousand Character Reader, edited by ourselves for the special use of the villagers. By spending one hour a day, the average farmer learns to read vernacular newspapers and write common letters. Here, one can readily see, how the elementary school can serve to teach the adult as well as the young. The kindergarten is specially needed in The Chinese villages. During the busy months, Kindergarten the farmer's wife is occupied with much more work than in ordinary times. She has to help in farm work, prepare food and drink for farm workers, and carry on all other household duties. While the old children of elementary grades are called home to help on the farm, the little children under five become a burden. It is a great relief to the mother if somebody can be found to take care of them for her. Sometimes an elder brother or sister is kept at home simply for the purpose of keeping company with them. At other times the mother just sends the little ones with a bench to the school and asks the teacher to watch over them for her. All she asks for is to have the baby sit on the bench and not to move about. Here we can see the vill!!,ge need of kindergartens and all the problems it could help to solve. The village kindergarten will be a relief to the mother during the busy months and it will help to keep those elder children in school who are called on to take care of their younger brother.~ and sisters. But the kindergarten, as it is now, can never hope to be established in the villages For the ordinary kindergarten to go into the village is something like a camel passing through a needle hole. The present day kindergarten is aristocratic, foreign, and expensive. Before it can be introduced into

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242 VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT the village, fundamental changes have to be made so that it may become more democratic, more Chinese and more economical. Various plans have been worked out in adapting kindergarten education to village conditions. The untimely death of our kindergartener, Mrs. Wang Lu Shenyu, has delayed our experiment. But in the fall this experiment will be carried on in accordance with the policies above mentioned. This school is located at Morning Village, i,llagef S h 1 near to the third center school, about one and orma c 00 a half miles from the first center school and about three miles from the second center school. It aims to train village teachers so that they may acquire the qualities of village leadership. The objectives of the training are three: 1. To cultivate a farmer's physique. 2. To cultivate a scientific mind. 3. To cultivate the spirit of a social reformer. The method adopted in the school is what we call "the unification of teaching, learning, and working." The method of working determines the method of learning, and this in turn determines the method of teaching. For instance, farm work is to be done on the farm, therefore, it should he learned on the farm and taught on the farm. This is termed the unitary method as opposed to the segmental method prevailing in Chinese normal schools. According to the segmental method, normal students are suppC'sed to spend three years and a half in academic studies, the last half year for practice teaching, and then carry on real teaching after graduation. The unitary method demands that the students teach from the start. The students learn through teaching ubder real, responsi ble, and supervised conditions. With this method, the students are compelled to learn not only knowledge, but also the met.hods of transmitting knowledge, not only to understand thernsel ves but to help others to understand the subject matter also. It is only through making others understand certain things that we may really understand them ourselves. According to our plan, each student is

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VILLAGE EDUCA'rij)N MOVEMENT 243 required to take full charge of a class for a week under strict directions in each of the three center schools. Curriculum The curriculum covers the whole field of life. All curriculum is life and all life is curriculum. There are no extTa-curriculum activities; the term itself does not suit our philosophy. Life-Activities The first group of, ac~ivities is the life of the center schools. This covers half of the credit. The ordinary normal school has practice teaching done in the "appendix school," which is not in organic unity with the normal !'lchool. With us the elementary school forms the center of normal training. The elementary schools are founded before the training school. They are the mother: they are the dynamo. Training in activities in the center schools is divided into six divisions, namely, language, arithmetic, citizenship, health, nature study, gardening, play and recreation. Each division is headed by a research supervisor. The normal students may choose one or two of the divisions and serve therein aR assistants. Each supervisor, after having worked out the lessons and the methods will hold conference with the st.udent-teacher, demonstrate how they should be taught, observe how he teaches and help him to improve. The directing supervisor is appointed by the president and has control over the whole work. Ad 1 t t' The second group of activities is the admin-m nis ra 100 istration of the normal school. Clerical work, bookkeeping, business, sanitation, and other works are carried on by the students under the guidance of the eupervisors. The whole school has only one farm laborer whose duty is to carry water. All other work is divided among the students and the supervisors; even the cooking is done by them. This is rather a practical necessity because village teachers sometimes have to rely upon themselves to cook food when they are sent to communities not friendly to the new schools. Environment The third group consists of activities in controlling the natural environment. This

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244 VILLAGE EDUPATION MOVEMENT includes scientific agriculture and forestation, fundamental handwork, and sanitation. The fourth group consists of activities in Reform village reform which includes village govern ment, village mass education, cooperative societies, village investigation, and farmers' recreation. In doing social work, the area for the first stage is a one mile radius from the school. For every villn.ge two persons are designated to be responsible. Them are now twelve villages included in this plan. As we have said before our teaching and learning all centers in doing: this is the case also with our social work The course on village survey is not a class room study but an actual survey of the twelve villages. The coun;e on cooperative societies involves also the actual promotion of such societies among the farmers accoriling to strict principles required for their succesg The other courses are run in the same way. The two persons sent to each village are expected to enter into friendship with genuine farmers so that when these courses are conducted there will be sympathetic response from them. These two representatives from the school to the village form the vital link between them. S If Dl t Fifth, there are the self-determining activi-e rec ion ties. These are planned and selected by the students themselves They consist, for the most part, of the personal aspects of school life. One of the outstanding characteristics of Book-Study the school iR that books are studied in the library. They are no longer studied i11 the class room. Students come to the supervisor only when they meet difficulties in the books. Further books are studied as references to the performance of life activities; they are no longer studied for their own sake. Another characteristic is found in the fact Costume that both supervisors and students appear in farmer's costume, with bare feet and straw shoes. The students are required to work as farmers from the very day of their entrance examination. We have the convic

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VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT 245 tion that we must be transformed into farmers before we can transform them. 'fhen, you find little difference between Supervisors supervisors and students. Here the demarcation is not sharp. Every body teaches and all learn how to do. Teach others what I know." "What I do not know I will learn from others," are among our mottoes. We do not give diplomas to our students Diplomas until they have run a school successfully for half a year. 'fhe connection between the normal school and its students is to be sustained even after they have left school for service. 'l'he traveling supeTVisor keeps the connection vital. The experimental normal school has a TVlrlalmmgKf.ord department for the training of village kin-age 1n er. I d garteners c ergarteners. This epartment Centers m the activities of the center village kinder garten. It admits girls from the villages for matriculation. The wife, fiance, or relatives of the village teacher are heartily welcome. Such a department has the following merits in its favor: (1) It will turn out kindergarteners to run the much needed viJlage kindergarten. (2) It will open a new line of profession for educated girls in the villages. (3) If the village teacher's wife or fiance receives such training, they can both work in the same village: this in turn will have five important effects: (a) the village teacher will feel happier in the village: (b) since the wife can run a. kindergarten, their economic condition will be better: (c) the teacher's tenure of service in the village will be prolonged: (d) on account of the influence of the woman educator, female education in the village will make more headway than without her: (e) the teacher's home will serve as a model for the villagers. It is on the basis of these considerations that we shall open this depa1-tment in spite of all difficuties The Research Council council will The research council on village educa tion consists of research supervisors of the normal school and honorary members. This make studies of all problems related to village

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246 VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT education. This will be more emphasized in the future as herein lies the hope of real progress in village education. College students will come in to serve as assistants in the council. It is hoped that as the council develops, advanced students will come in to take active participation in original researches in this most important undertaking. Auxiliary Activities The center schools, the experimental vil lage normal school and the research council on village education form the main pillars of the present movement of village education in China. There are, howev er, a few other allie d activities which should be mentioned. (1) Dormitories for visitors. In the center schools, facilities are provided for persons interested in village education to stay for a period in order to acquire an insight into the working of these schools. Teachers from as far as Mukden, Szechwan, Canton, have availed themselves of this advantage. This arrangement enables the movement to spread wider and faster. (2) National League of Village Teachers. This is an affiliated institution of the National Association for the Advancement of Education. The members have now reached one thousand. After the political situation has settled down, this League is bound to grow It has adopted a village teacher's creed of eighteen articles. It issues a bi-weekly paper, entitled "Village Education," which has a circulation of two thousand. (3) Traveling supervisor of village schools. The National Association has secured the service of Mr. Ting, a most successful village principal, to help schools in other communities. Any school wishing to reform has to send its principal to make a careful study of the center schools. Then, our supervisor goes to his school to make an intensive study. Then, they both work out a plan for reform which is to be carried out by the principal with the guidance of onr supervisor. (4) The village clinic. In the Morning Village, we have estab lished a medical clinic. The doctor, besides giving treatment to village patients, trains the normal students in simple medical operations and conducts medical inspection of the children of the center schools. (5) The Farmers' Self-Defence League. Real farmers in the twelve villages

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VILLAGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT 247 are given training in Chinese boxing Military tactics will be taught to them as soon as the government gives permission to do so. (6) A cooperative society on a smaller scale has been started in Yao Hwa Meng. Another one will be organized soon in the Morning Village. This project will be developed according to the degree of trained forces and reenforcecl interest among the farmers. This is a brief summary of the Village Education Movement in Nanking, the new capital of China. Similar work will be started at Canton, Wuchang, Chengtu, Peking, Mukden, and Quenming as soon as possible. It is our hope that finally every province or even every suitable district will become a cente r for similar effort Our final goal is to tra.in one million village teachers who will be able to lead one million villages into a new life.

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PART VI SOCIAL LIFE CHAPTER XXIV LABOR AND REVOLUTION Gideon Chen In a China where five revolutions--political. gb::::!uoas intellectual, industrial, social, and interna-tional-are taking place simultaneously, labor, on account of its numbers, has a twofold significance: (1) the stimulation of labor consciousness by the general spirit of revolt; (2) the influence of labor upon the general course of these revolutions. In contrast with the culture movement, the mind of labor, which is still under the spell of illiteracy, is not articulate. The sporadic and loose nature of labor movements at this stage does not compare with the political revolution, which has a common policy and program, no matter how different in degree among its followers, a well organized army and a modern political party machinery to fight for its cause. How came it, then, that laborers in China, possessing nothing except hardship and poverty, shook the world in 1927? Three things, at least, we must bear in Labor's New f d" f p h I mind be ore we enter upon a 1scuss1on o syc O ogy labor movements in China: (1) Industrial works in China are beginning to give up their age-long belief in 'fate' and 'heaven' and are adopting a new attitude toward life 'l'he old days of passive content with wages below the starvation line are gone. Workers now demand justice and a fair chance to live. (2) Although many of the rank and file of workers do not yet fully realize the importance of organization, they are gradually organizing into unions and frequently make use of their

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 249 recently imported weapon-the strike-with a certain amount of suceess. More and more workers are led to see that the only road to salvation is the organization of themselves into unions. (3) There are some interested groups which seeing the weakness and the possibilities of labor, would at any moment utilize workers to further their own ends. From time to time, therefore, workers have been misled into jumping forward by leaps and bounds or moving in undesirable directions. What is needed in China to-da.y is a.n The Need independent labor movement, a movement of the workers, by the workers and for the workers. This calls for a wise and unselfish leadership with intelligent and educated followers. This eventful year saw many ups and J927 downs in China's labor world The night mare of communism had completed its first act, beginning with comedy in Hankow and ending with tragedy in Canton. Fear of 'Communists' aod hunting them down were the pre-occupations of the year. In the north, workers were shot down sii'nply because they were the officers of trade unions. In the south, trade unions were suspended for months for fear of communism. In the International Settlement in Shanghai a lad of seventeen was fined thirty dollars for carrying a few pamphlets on communism. Workers in Shanghai were armed and fought for the Nationalist cause in February and March, 1927; but a year later, the Nationalist Government suspended this popular movement, pending 'reorganization.' The general trend of events in recent years seems to suggest that the struggle of labor in China is not against the powerful capitalistic class, with its financial and political fodifications, as is the case in the West, but it is rather a counter movement against the ruthless militarists; that the ups and downs, 'right' or 'left,' of the labor movements are apparently due to the attitude of the generals who happen to be on the spot; and that the rise of the 'lower' classes in the arena of the new China causes uneasiness even among the Kuomintang, whose 'right' wing would prefer government from above to govemment from below.

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250 LABOR AND REVOLUTION There are, however, some salient features Some Salient in the perplexing labor situation. The Features public at large is becoming aware of the grievances of the laborers and a feeling is gradually growing that something ought to be done for them before things drift too far. The need for a labor code is being r-mriously consid ered by the Nanking Government. Machinery for conciliation and arbitration has been set up in several place s as an attempt toward the solution of industrial disputes by peac e ful methods. The strike has occupied a. prominent place in the program of researchers and considerable space in the press. Workers themselves are able to get some compensations in one way or another. The question of the right of dismissal of workeTs has been added to the disputes ovel' wages and hours. In severa.l cases, employers have been deprived of the right to dismiss their workers, and the whole question of employment of workers thus controlled by the unions. Whether this last development will lead to a more de 'mocratic control in industry, or will result rather in a labor autocracy, it is too early to judge. At any rate, the security of woTkers in employment is beginning to be considered. Both the National and provincial governments under the Kuomintang's rule have labor sections or departments, labor colleges, and in one province we see a large-scale promotion of workers' consumers' cooperatives, and the beginning of factory regulation, all fostered by the government. All these activities show a genuine desire to start something on constructive lines. Since there is not a or the labor North China mov ement in China, as the term is used in the West, we have to describe movements in various parts of the country. In the northern territory, undeT the iron hand of Marshal Chang Tso-ling and his associates, there has been no toleration of literature on social problems, not to speak of socialism. Nothing significant from the point of view of labor can be said for the north except one or two cases of labor disputes in Japanese mines in Manchuria. We may t a ke conditions in Shanghai as representative of East China, Canton, the South, Changsha and Hankow, and Central China.

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 251 Early in the year strikes occurred almost Shanghai d 1 Sh h A f h a1 y rn ang ai. new eature rn t e situation was the strikes among the workers in the general stores and the employees in public transportation companies. The triumphant parade of the tramcar conductors led to a clash with the police in the International Settlement. The political strike against General Sun Chuan-fang hegan in the latter half of February and continued till March 22nd, (1927), when the Nationalist Army entered the city. As a result hundreds of workers were ruthlessly killed. Tn !\larch the workers were very active in both political and military affairs. They joined with other local organizations in the attempt to set up for Shanghai a j\[ unicipal Government for and by the people. 'l'hey fought bravely side by side with the Revolutionary Army against the northern troops in the rail way station. 'l'hey participated in the formation of a peaceful policy toward the Settlement which should be handled through diplo matic channels rather than by violence. After the workers had rendered their service in the revolutionary cause, they were disarmed by the military :rnthority of the Revolutionary Army. April 18th was the day of the Inauguration of the Na.nking Government. On that same day, General Chiang Kai-shek,' the incumbent commander-in-chief of the Nationalist armies, issued his fifteen points for labor. These were almost the same in content as the seventeen demands set. forth by the General Trade Union as the minimum for workers in Shanghai and embodied in their manifesto against General Sun Chuan-fang. The following is a liberal tramlation of General Chiang's fifteen points as issued on April 18, 1927. F'ft p t Title: "Regulations for the Conciliation I een 111 s of Labor and Capital in Shanghai." 1. Trade unions will be recognized as the bodies representing i,he interests of workers, but they must re11:ister with the local government and the local Kuomintang. 2. A minimum wage for all workers will be fixed according to the index of the cost of living.

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252 LABOR AND REVOLUTION 3. An annual increase of wages is gnaranteed which must at least correspond to the increased rate in the cost of living. Steps should be taken to prevent a rise in the cost of living. 4. The maximum number of working hours will be determined by the number of hours stated in the Kuomintang's policy and with reference to conditions in the new and old industries. 5. The system of foremen will be abolished, but the employer shall have the right to appoint supervisors. 6. A Committee on Labor Problems will be appointed by the Government to improve regulations in factories and in employment contracts. 7. No work on Sundays and festival days, but no loss of wages therefor; double wages should be paid for work done on holidays. 8. No worker can be dismissed by the employer for going out on strike. \:I. No punishment, either in the form of beating or of cutting of wages, is to be inflicted on the worker. 10 Labor insurance and the protection of workers will he promoted by regulations to be issued by the Government 11. Compensations for workers, injured or killed in accidents due to their work, will be fixed. 12 When the worker is injured during working hours, the employer must be responsible for medical treatment and an allowance of more than half of the wages must also be given. 13. Equal pay for equal work for men and women alike. The conditions governing the work of women and children will be improved. A six weeks' holiday with full wages should he given to women workers before and after childbirth. No heavy work should be given to children.

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 253 14. Improvements in the factory buildings; such as putting in windows and sky lights, providing sanitary arrangements, and so forth. 15 The unemployed to be taken care of by the government in cooperation with the working and com mercial classes. These fifteen points were enth nsiastically endorsed by trade unions in Shanghai. It looked as if the General were willing to pay the blood price of the workers. On the very day when the Shanghai workers were enjoying this feast provided by General Chiang, his government at Nanking announced their determined policy to fight against the Communists In the minds of students of labor affairs, these two pronouncements follow one another logically. After all, the best weapon with which to fight the Communists is the improvement of the conditions of the laborer. But the authorities seemed to hold a different view. Consequently, the minimum demands for labor promised by General Chiang proved to be a castle in the air. From April to August Shanghai passed through the dreadful period of the anti~communistic campaign. The General Trade Union w a s replaced by a committee on Unification of Trade Unions appointed by the military guard. Hundreds of active workers and young students were shot without trial. Thus history repeats itself. In the day of Sun Chuan-fang, workers were massacred because of their interest in the Kuomintang: in the day of the Kuomintang, workers were killed because of their interest in 'communism' l Except for the B.A. T strike, lasting from September, 1927, to January, 1928, since August (1927) things have been comparatively quiet in Shanghai, and a more hopeful phase has developed. The Board of Conciliation and Arbitration and the Labour Department of the Municipal Government (Chinese City) have begun to function. Even the Committee on Unification of Trade Unions has been able to help in securing eome sort of compensation for workers in times of dispute with their e mployers. In the spring of 1928, the Provincial Government in Kiangsu showed their apparent interest in the welfare of workers by establishing an institute for the,

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254 LABOR AND REVOLUTION training of one hundred men for the management of workers' cooperative stores which will be required in those factories in the province, both Chinese and foreign, which employ more than one thousand workers. A set of regulations regarding factory inspection were also recently promulgated by the Provincial Government. The plan for a Government rural bank to promote cooperative enterprises among rural workers is quite well advanced. How these things will work out yet remains, of course, to be seen. The communistic regime in Hankow began in December 1926, and ended in June, J927. Hank:ow But the period of actual control by the Communists really ceased in April when the reaction set in. During the rule of the "reds" both in Hankow and Changsha, strikes, the arrest of "capitalists:, and the confiscation of private property were the order ofthe day. Trade unions formed a state within the state. In many cases the rank and file of workers were able to increase their wages by leaps and bounds; in others, they were oppressed by the leaders of the unions. The deliberate policy of the Communists was to force the small capitalist class to join the camp of the proletariat by unreasonable demands on the employers which would ruin their business in a short time. It has been alleged that although the workers were able to increase their wages and shorten their working hours they were no better off in the end, for several reasons: (1) increased cost of living, owing to the disturbed conditions; (2) the sudden incre ase in wages in a time of leisure brought about extrnvagant spending. Thi,: shows the need of education and proper provision of means which will enable workers to utilize their money and time in profitable ways. Employers' Attitude It will be of interest to note the attitude of the employers during the "reign of terror." The factory own ers and the merchants were struggling for what they call e d "freedom of trade." They demanded four tbings: ( 1) that increase in wages should be gradual and reasonable; (2) that there should be no change in the working hours; (3) that e1nployers should

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tABOR AND REVOLU'fi:ON 255 have the right of dismissal; ( 4) fair treatment for workers. In April, under the pressure of foreign gunboats, the Government and the General Trade Union were compelled to prohibit illegal arrests by the workers The incidents which led to the reaction on the part of the generals against the Communists were the seizures of the money sent back home by the military officers to their families, in the rear, particularly the arrest of General Ho Chian's father by the trade union. 'l'hese personal resentments irritated the militarists, made them give up the communist cause, and join the anti-communistic move. In May the pickets were disarmed and the .General Trade Union was closed. Hundreds were shot. Some escaped to Shanghai to be caught there. Others went into the interior of Hunan to link up with the farmers' cooperatives to make n. :final stand. Conditions were more settled in the autumn. It will take some time fo: Central China to recover from this terrible dislocation and disintegration. Since December 1926, the Canton GovernCanton ment has adopted a sb arp attitude toward the extreme actions of the workers. Illegal arrests by the Trade Union, armed parades, seizur e of factory and shop properties by workers-were all prohibited. The beginning of 1927 saw the armed conflict b e tween the Conservative Mechanic's Union and tlrn 'left' Railway Union The Government intervened and settled the conflict by prohibiting both sides from starting any fresh attack and ordering the arrested pers ons to be handed over to the Government. In February, while the Government went on vigorously disarming the pickets and strictly prohibiting armed conflicts of workers, the merchant class closed their shops in support of the d emand for the right of dismissal. But the workers were greatly stimulated by the return of Tan Peng-shan, a well-known communist, from Moscow and the arrival of the workers' d e legation of the Third International. At the same time the need for labour legislation and arbitration was increasingly recognized by society at large. The tendency toward the suppression of workers' activities, however, was strengthened by the nation-wide anti-communistic move. The first large-scale

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256 LABOR AND REVOLUTION search for Communists began in April. More than two hundred unions were closed and nearly two thousand workers were arrested. The Hongkong Government lost no time in closing down the Seamen's Union. Its historic strike in 1922 was still fresh in memory. The second raid occurred in June; fifty trade unions were searched and two hundred workers arreste d. Nevertheless the communist leaders were either openly working with the farmers' cooperatives in the country, or secretly planning for a violent rising. A general strike was planned on the 24th of October to demand the release of the arrested workers and the re-opening of the trade unions. This plot leaked out and the authorities got the situation in hand; hundreds were arrested and several kilJed in the conflict between workers and soldiers In spite of all precautions the Government had taken to prevent the activity of the Communists, Canton witnessed the merciless burning and killing of December 12th, and 13th. It has been estimated that the dead in Canton City numbered from five to six hundred on both sides; and that about 3,000 houses in twenty-five to thirty places were destroyed. The total loss in terms of money amounted to $100,000,000 silver. Of the three centers, Hankow, Shanghai and Canton, upon which the Communists laid their hands, Canton suffered the most. Two conferences in 1927, The AU China Labour C Consciousness Labor ongress and the Pan-Pacific Trade Union Conference, which were both controlled by the "left," are worthy of special atte ntion. The All China Labor Congress, held in June' 1927, in Hankow, was the fourth of its kind; the first being held in 1922, the second in 1920, the third in 1926-all in Canton. The 1927 Labor Congress differed from the previous ones mainly in its" narrow and deep" work, its singleness of objective and its detailed thinking. If I may be allowed to use a single word to describe the character of each congress, I would say that the first labor congress in 1922 showed distinctively a social consciousness. The laborers were then trying to find their own place in the New China as a social force, and were therefore discussing the principle of.

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 257 orgamzmg trade unions on an industrial rather than a craft basis, the need for a permanent national organization, and a policy of economic and industrial struggle instead of political activity. In the second Congress in 1925, social consciousness ha(! been superseded by political consciouss ness. The All China Labor Federation was definitely formed in spite of the opposition by several big unions in Shanghai and Hupeh Province. They thought in terms of uniting with farmers and soldiers, a youth movement, cooperation with international labor organizations, and so forth. The third Congress in 1926 demonstrated the economic consciousness of workers. Such subjects as the following were discussed: the objects and program of the economic struggle ; relations between workers and peasants ; labor legislation; cooperative enterprises and so forth. The fourth Congress last year, of quite a Legislative different nature, gave expression to a legislct Consciousness tive consciousness. The workers' own in-terests, such as working hours, regulations governing wages and employees, women and juvenile workers, protection of workers, death of workers and labor insurance, treatment of apprentices, readjustment of ill-treatment, c0nditions for guarantee of workers, settlement of disputes, conditions of handicraft workers, sickness relief and pensions, were discussed. In each case some principles were laid down and definite terms set forth. In this congress the workers in' China found their own mind; they knew what they wanted and expressed it precisely. In spite of the changes, both in the general situation in China and the thinking of the laborers, two fundamental things have always come up and always will come up again and again in the programs of labor congresses in this country; namely, the education of workers and the organization, or to be exact, the reorgani zation, of trade unions. No movement can accomplish its aim without a common mind and an alert brain. All the standards put forth above are, of course, rather more idealistic than practical. They express the mind of labor nevertheless even though realities and possibilities are to some extent overlooked in their idealistic aspiration.

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258 LABOR AND REVOLUTION PanPaclfic Conference The Pan-Pacific Trade Union Conference which met in Hankow in June, 1927, was attended by Russian, British, American, Korean, Japanese, French, Javanese, and Chinese represen tatives. Their ten demands were as follows: 1. The introduction of the eight-hour day. 2. The introduction of a regular continuous fort.y two hour weekly rest for all workers 3. The introduction of social insurance in case of: illness, accident, incapacitation and unemployment: the whole burden of social insura nce to be borne by the employers and the government 4. The prohibition nf night-work for women. Eight weeks of paid vacation before and eight weeks after confinement. 5. Absolute prohibition of the sale and purchase of children for purposes of exploitation: prohibition of child labor for all persons under fourteen years. 6. Equal wages for equal work. 7. Freedom of organization; freedom of assembly and freedom of the press; freedom to organize and carry on strikes. 8. Introduction of la.bor inspection by agents to be elected by the trade unions. 9. Abolition of corporal punishment, fines, the practice of docking wages or of paying wages with products from the factory stores. 10. The organization of labor pickets for the struggle against fascism and blacklegging. "Such is the economic program which is to serve as the basis for the activities of the working classes of the Pacific Only through a determined, systematic, daily struggle of the millions of workers, and only through the initiative and energy of the toiling masses, will the resistance of the enemies of the proletariat be broken Only thus will the enemy be forced to accept this economic program formulated by the Pan-Pacific Trade Unio_n

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 259 Conference." Such tense feeling, sharp language, and definiteness of program would have been alien to any of the earlier Chinese conferences. Strikes in China are generally divided into two main types, political and economic. Strikes Whenever the two combine, a very strong case is made, as in the historic Seamen's Strike in Hong Kong in 1922 and the series of strikes following May 30, 1925. In 1927 the only significant political strike was the one in Shanghai, when, from February Lo March, the workers stood out against General Sun Chuan.fang and in favor of the Kuomintang. On the 28th of February, a strike of one hour was called to show opposition to the landing of the British troops in Shanghai. On June 12th, both Nanking and Shangha.i also had strikes of short duration in protest against the landing of Japanese troops. The prevention of strikes is part of the Nanking Government's anticommunistic policy The series of strikes which began in May 1925 and reached its height in the early part of 1927, originating as a protest against international injustice but leading to industrial disputes, practically came to an end in May 1927, in Shanghai. After four months, however, they began again. Seventeen strikes occurred in Shanghai in September, a number equal to that of the early spring months. In Canton, the authorities raised $30,000 at the end of April for the purpose of dispersing the 40,000 Hong Kong strikers. A series of strikes in the Japanese mines in Manchuria began in August. These lasted for several months and were finally settled by a compromise between the capitalists and the laborers. Causes and Demands 1926 1927 According to the Chinese Economic Journal n the figures for strikes in Shanghai in 1926 and 1927 are as follows: Number of strikes 169 119 Factories and companies affected 165 1,473 Workers involved 202,297 230,256 Different causes for strikes: 1926-32: 1927-27

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260 LABO'.R AND REVOLUTION Chief Causes : a. High Cost of Ii ving b. Dismissal of employees c. Management's refusal or failure to comply with 1926 66 cases 31 cases 1927 28 cases 14 cases employee's demands 20 cases 26 cases 1926-Total number of different demands-78 Chief Demandsa. Increase of wagesb. Recall of discharged employees c. Dismissal or punishment of alleged 72 cases 35 cases offenders 26 cases d. No dismissal without good reasons 24 cases e. Pay or full pa.y during strike 22 cases 1927-Total number of different demands-73 Chief Demands-a. Increase of wages b. Recognition of labor union 57 cases 26 cases c. No dismissn.l of workers without cause or without approval of the workers' union d. Reinstatement of (dismissed) workeril e. Better working conditions 24 cases 17 cases 17 cases Terms of Settlement 1. All demands rejected 2 Part of demands accepted 3. All demands accepted 1926 61 cases 55 cases 27 cases 1927 26 cases 35 cases 33 cases The Trad~ Union Movement A few of the trade unions in existence were organized before the Republic, for example, the Conservative Mechanic's Union in Canton. Most of the unions, however, came into being around 1920. The movement began in the south and spread along the coast and railways. Several factors have contribnted to the development of labor consciousness and its organization. Such rue, (1) the general spirit of revolt, (2) the Student Movement, (3) the Patriotic

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 261 Movement, (4) the Nationalist Movement, (.5) the Communist Movement, and (6) the sympathy expressed by labor in other lands. 'fTade Unions in China can be classified f;:de: Vnions int~ four m3:in ~y~es: {1~ in most of .the ancient handicraft mdustnes, the old guilds are modernized : (2) the workers in modern factories and general stores and companies always organize themselves in unions: {3) some unions have been organized by the Communists, notably, the General Labour Unions in most of the cities under Nationalist rule, which is a federation of the unions in that locality: {4) the Kuomintang after its split with the Communists, took the trade unions in hand. Even the tutors in the old t.ype of private school were organized into a "trade union." The events of 1927 illustrate some of the Trade Union acute problems in the trade union movement.. Problems In the first place, the trade union, like everythillg else in China to-day, is in a condition of flux. "Re-organization" is the key to present-day affairs in China. By this time (April~ 1928) both the conservative National Federation of Trade Unions in China, with its headquarters in Shanghai, and the radical All-China Trade Union Federation in Canton, have ceased to be heard of. The two hundred unions in Canton are still "closed" by order of General Li. A few days ago, all the trade unions in Chekiang Province were called to life again after their winter's sleep by a proclamation of the Provincial Government. The N anking Central Kuomintang is sending "experts" to all the provinces under its jurisdiction to "reorganize" the local Kuomintangs; this would naturally include the "reorganization'' of the trade unions. The same precarious situation prevails in Shanghai where the radical General Trade Union was "replaced" by a Committee on Unification of the Trade Union Organization appointed by the Military Guard. Not unification but complication has been the result. Later in the year, some big unions like the Nanyang, B. A. T., Commercial Press, Railway, Postal Union, and others, separated from the Committee on

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262 LABOR AND REVOLUTION Unification and formed the" Workers' Federation" under the auspices of the Shanghai Kuomintang. Jn February, 1928 tbe Unification Committee chitnged its "signboard" and now bears the name, "Labor Unification Federation." Thus in Shanghai we !Jave the trade unions divided into two camps, one going with the 1oolcliers, the other with the politicians. But this is by no means the end of the labour movement. Perhaps, it is the only condition under which trade nnions can exist without being hunted clown as "Communists." Another difficult problem facing the trade "Right'' and Ch" h umon movement 111 ma 1s t o antagomsm "Lett" Wings between the "left" and the "right" wings. In January, 1927, the armed conflict between the Con servative Mechanic's Union in Canton and the "left" Railway Union was finally 1oettled by the intervention of the Government. Since 1925 trade unions in Canton have split into two groups. Some thirty-nine unions have joined the Conservative Federation of Labour, the Mechanic's Union being the most powerful of these These are 139 unions affiliated with the Labor Union Representative Federation, which is the more radical group. Labor Federations In Shanghai, there are three federations of labour unions the "Labour Unification," the Workers' Federation, and the General Labour Union, the last being "underground." These rival federations are often hostile toward each other. A clash between the "left" and the "right" also occurred in Chekiang and Kiangsi Provinces. In spite of all these difficulties, the trade TValude ouf unions are the backbone of the young labour ra e 111oos movement m Chma. They have been able to improve working conditions and to raise the standard of living of workers in many cases When the political situation returns to normal, one may expect mo1e constructive work along educational lines, and in other fields, and snch work as has been started from .time to time can be carried through.

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LABOR AND REVOLUTION 263 Although the Kuomintang has a Jabour Government 1 1 d d Activities po 1ey, its execut10n a ways epen s upon the kind of m e n in power The Central Kuomintang and its local branches always have a labour sect ion with the idea of '' running" the trade unions. 'l'he future relation between the party and the unions will be determined by the "Committee on Reorganization" which is just in the process of formation The Nanking Nationalist Government established, in August, 1927, a National Labour Bureau with a Committee on Labour Legislation attached to it, but this Bureau was closed in the spring of 1928. The administrative side of its work was turned ove r to the new Department of Labour and Commerce with H H. Kung, a member of the National Christian Council, as its Minister. Its Jabour section is headed by Mr. lVI. T. Tchou, formerly Industrial Secretary of the National Committee of the Y. M C. A. Christian influence can thus be infused into the labour movement in China through these mediums. The legislative side of the work of the National L a bour Bureau is taken care of by the Judicial Department. which is working on a Labour Code for China In most of the provinces under the Nationalist GoYernm ent departments of Agriculture and Labour have been set up. Shanghai has a Department of Agriculture, Labour and Commerce. Conciliation and Arbitration One of the most hopeful features in 1927 is the development of peaceful methods in settling industrial disputes. There are committees on conciliation with repreEentatives from the Kuomintang, the government department, the labour unions, and the Chamber of Commerce, functioning in Hankow, Canton, Foochow, and Shanghai. The success of their work is proved by the fact that the Nationalist Government in Nanking is now preparing a set of regulations on Conciliation and Arbitration to be enforced in all of China under their jurisdiction. After all, the idea and the practice of settling disputes by peace-makers is quite familiar to the masses in China. The institution of conciliation and arbitration is but a systematic extension of an old and sound idea and practice into new situation.

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264 LABOR AND REVOLUTION May this point the way in which other aspects of industrial problems in China are to be solved In the midst of the most obscure situation Conclusions in China to-day one thing is clear-that is, that labour is power. The Kuomintang tries to win their support for a political revolution, while the Communists would make them responsible for a social revolution. But the labourers themselves are hesitating. The race between the Kuomintang and the communist party will not be determined by their respective capacities to bnrn and kill. It is only through a genuine love for the labourers, a sincere purpose to uplift them, believing that the welfare of the workers is an end in itrnlf, and that workers are not simply to be used as tools to selfish ends; it is only through a courageous spirit willing to attempt the seemingly impossible, an imaginative mind which foresees the um:een, that achievement is going to be made. These, after all, are moral and educational questions. Here Christian religion owes China as a whole and labour in particular a supreme obligation.

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CHAPTER XXV PEASANT MOVEMENTS J. Lossing Buck There are several rural organizations in Rural China today which may come under the head Organizations of peasant movements The chief of these is the farmers' unions, but others to be mentioned are the cooperative credit societies, the People's Army, and the secret societies such as the Big Swords, the Little Swords, and the Red Spears. C ~dt s c 11 The cooperative credit societies, however, r~ 1 o 1e es 1 d b d are as yet 1m1te m num er an conlme their activities entirely to their members. They are scarcely developed enough to be thought of as a true pea.sant movement and have been fostered entirely by the China International Famine Relief Commission of Peking and the University of Nanking in Nanking. They are, however, one of the most promising means for future rural improvement. P l A The People's Army (N. JM) is an organiza-eop e s rmy t f l f 10n o country peop e or protect10n agamst bandits, and it is rapidly increasing in number. Its membership consists of local citizens, whether farmers or others, and for this reason it is not strictly a farmer's organization, alth0ugh usually its members are mostly farmers. The object sought-protection-is a common interest around which, all classes in the district con cerned, organize together for mutual welfare. Since it is not a class" organization for farmers it is out of place to describe it here except to note its importance and to call attention to it. as a group with which the farmer's unions in Kwangtung have had conflicts. S t S tl Secret societies are increasing greatly in ecre oc1e es b f Ch' 1 h h num er m various parts o ma, a t oug

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266 PEASANT MOVEMENTS it is not yet clear just what place such societies as Big Swords," "Little Swords," "Red ~pears" and others are to hold in the future. While they may be composed partly or entirely of farmers still it i~ questionable whether they can be thought of solely as a farmer's organization since membership is not confined to farmers alone and is based on certain superstitious ceremonies w hicb make members bullet-proof. Their purpose varies in some respects, although all have the common object of self-protection and self-preserva.tion. They are often predatory and therefore are frequently considered banditr:. Their growth is on a phenomenal scale. In Honan, General Feng Yu-hsiang is sending officers to the8e societies to assist in the training of their members, evidently to win or eventually force their allegiance to him. In Manchuria the "Big Swords" have been resist.ing the i\Iukden authorities on account of heavy taxation and possibly for other reasons. A recent and very rapid development of these societies has occurred in four dit-tricts of Kiangsu south of Nanking. Last October there was a sudden uprising of the native people against the immigrant 110rtherners who have been settling in these districts ever since the Tai Ping Rebellion, and this uprising resulted in the burning of every thatched roofed house (the home of the immigrants are thatched while those of the natives have tile roofs and brick walls) throughout the four districts. There is a natural dislike by the native (southerner) of the immigrant (northerner) because their standa1d of living and characteric:tics are quite different. The immediate cause of the uprising, however, was the fact that some few northerners were in the habit of sheltering bandits. The immigrants in or
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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 267 The Farmer's Union Movement in China The Farmer's has now been rendered inactive, like labor Unions1 unions, by order of the Nationalist Govern-ment. Any
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268 PEASANT MOVEMENTS the village land which is the property of the temple (m JIJ) a.nd the school land (~ III), and the Mingluntang (!jij ~). which is handed down from gen eration to generation and the proceeds from which are us e d for school purposes. Such public land has been monopolized by a few of the gentry class. These individuals have assumecl the control of such property and have managed it for their own benefit, under the protection of the local magistrate. These lands are oft.en let to others who in turn rent them to the farmer. It is usually these middlemen who are the worst oppressors of the farmers. The rent received by the gentry is nsed for educational purposes and very little is spimt for the exclusive welfare of the farmers. Small Farms Another important factor is that the farms are so small that enough cannot be produci>d to support the farm family in addition to the portion which must be given to the lancllord. Statistic, / for Kwangtung show that over one half of the farmers have less than 10 mow of land (approximately 1.6 acres) per family. In the report for Kwangtung province the major expenses and receipts of a farm are given as illustration, to show that the small farmers who rent land are not meeting their expenses. To quote from the Kwangtung report: As the farmers do not get enough to meet their expenses, they have to do some other work besides farming, such as collecting fuel. They have to lead a very frugal life, eating gruel and seldom having any rice. This poverty gives rise to the following conditions: 1. Increase of woman and child labor. 2. Borrowing, mortgaging and then sale of land and buildings. 3. Migration of farmers to cities as laborers. 4. Late marriages, bachelors and maids and abortion. 1 Report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, Peking 1928

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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 269 .5. Sale of wife, male children and the drowning of girl babies. 6. Sale of men and women. 7. Farmers become idlers and beggars, and farmers' wives become prostitutes. 8 Some become soldiers; really bandits. 9. Suicide. 10. Death by starvation and cold. Exorbitant Interest The exorbitant rates of interest charged by money-lenders, who are often th'l land lords, is another cause for unrest on the part of farmers. Thirty per cent per annumn is a very ordinary charge while ratt ~ s up to 100 p e r cent are common. Where interest is returned in the form of crops immediately after harvest when prices are low, rates of several hundred per cent are not infrequent. Unfair Treatment countryside. Still another cause for unrest is the unfair treatment to farmers in matters of justice by the bad geritry, the "emperors" of the There are many conditions inherent in the Inequalities situation which makes the soil favorable for agrarian movements against existing inequalities. Those mentioned are some of the major ones and it can easily be seen how any group with a program assuring relief can command a following-for the poor farmers have everything to gain and liUle to lose. There are four stages or periods of develop-Stages 01 ment of the farmer's movement in Kwantung. Development The movement before the re-organization of the Kuomintang is called "the pregnant period." The period after the thirteenth year of the Chinese Republic, when the reorganization of the Party occured, until the first General Representative Conference of all farmers in Kwangtung and the formation of the Farmer's Union of Kwangtung fa called "the nurture period." The third period extends to the Second General RP.presentative Conference of farmers in Kwangtung and is known as "the

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270 PEASANT MOVEMENTS period of success." From that time until the Fifth of April 1927-the pnrification of the Kuomintang-is called "the developing or thriving period." During the so-called "pregnant period," tttemptst which was dnring the years 1922-1924, rganiza 100 sporadic attempts by farmers to organize wne made in various parts of the province. The purpm:es of such attempts varied with the regicm; some were for reduction of rents in a year of crop failures, some were for a rednction of taxes collected by the hsien, others were in opposition to heavy taxes collected for the support of the local people's army-a police force against bandits and robbers. In one place the farmeri; opposed the citizen's organization by organizing themselves into the "Farmer's" Self-Control Society," Ca 1i'. l"l rr; it). All of these attempts failed largely because Opposition of the opposition of the existing provincial government anrl the magistracies throughout the province. In some ca8es, the unions themselves were not strong, the membership had in it many bad elements and the members faile
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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 271 At an entertainment on July, 28th, of that year he encouraged the farmers present. His central idea was that the merchants have their chamber, the laborers have their unions, and that farmers should also start to OTganize Farmer's Welfare It was during this period of reorganization of the Party that special attention was given to the farmer's welfare as a definite part of the party program. Limitation of taxation, provision of credit facilities and expressions of desire for better conditions for farmers were spec i fically mentioned. At the Fourth M<,eting of the Central Executive Committee a Ministry for Farmers was organized. Aid f F On the 30th of June, 1924, it was decided O armers at the 3('th meeting to effect the farmer's movenrnnt in a limited number of plac e s. Among the five minister:;, of the Ministry for Farmers rnpidly succeeding each other, Lin Tsu han, Tan Su-min, Li Ta-chang, Huang Chui-su and Lao Chung-kai, the latter had tl,e most prof<'und belief in the policy of aiding farmers and laborers and was therefore very enthusiastic in promoting and assisting the movement. He attended conferences, delivered lectures and because of his timely help in many ways the farmer's movement successfulJy devp]oped. Training Schools Training schools for leaders of the farmer's movement were carried out successfully. No tuition was required of students and in addition, food, clothing, lodging, and miscellaneous expenses were provided free to all students. Minister Liao Chung-kai himself was one of the teachers. Mention should be made of other helpers. who appearPd at this time. They were two Russians, Volin and Vointlinsky, Frank of Germany and Borodin. The movement was considered successful Kwa~1gt~ng with the organization of the K wangtung Provrncial p 1 F U L b D Farmer's Union rovmcia armers n10n on a or ay the first of May, 1925, at Uanton at a gathering of 117 delegates from unions in twenty-two

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272 PEASANT :MOVEMENTS counties. To attain this success many obstacles had to be overcome and it is stated that it cost the lives of ten leaders and nearly 500 union members. A rather elaborate organization was set np with a provincial executive committee and departments, each emboclying the following functions: secretary, propaganda, organization, finance and military. Local unions were ali:;o provided with several officerB on the office staff. The funs for financing the provincial union came from the Mini~try of Farmers and amounte d to about $100 per month at first and then gradually increa.rnd to $EOO per month. It was commonly reported that such a large sum must come in part at least from Soviet Russia. Development took place rapidly and by Rapid May 1, 1925, when the second meeting of the Development provincial union was held there were 214 members present representing forty-nine counties The total membership in tlie local unions was over 600,000. The local and county governments took an ~::u:::~t attitude of ho stility or non-cooperation towards the farmer's unions, but the provincial and Central Kuomintang Government was always friendly and rendered assistance whenever needed. In the first and the second declaration of the Kuomintang concerning the farmer's union movement the following may be noted: 1. The union is independent. 2. The union has the right to organize an army for protection against bandits. 3. The union has the right to warn and to accuse in matters of taxation and may collect taxes. 4. All ranks of uniorn; are to enjoy the protection of law for their contracts and rights of inheritance. 5. The provincial union has the right to request the government to dismiss any official who is autocratic and who oppresses the farmers. 6. The union has the right of representation in any conference of the government in which matters concerning the farmers are being discussed.

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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 273 7. In the second declaration emphasis was placed on the importance of farmers owning their own land and the non-justification of high rent without labor. Important Reforms As an indication of what 1.he leaders of the movement considered a!' desirable reforms the more important ones are given below. These were issued in the third declaration of the Kuomintang government. 1. A reduction of twenty-five per cent in land rent. 2. A unified system of land taxation. 3. Abolition of rent during famine years. 4. Reformation of rural education. 5. Provision for county and provincial farmer's banks, with loan at intere!'t rates of five per cent per year. 6. Distribution of public government land to farmers. 7. Prohibition of rates of interest exceeding twenty per cent. 8. Assistance in the organization of rural cooperative societies. 9. Organization of a special committee in which farmer's unions are allowed to participate to study farmer's opposition to unjustified taxation and other inequalities. 10. The right of farmers to elect a committee for the control of local affairs. 11. Liberty in the organization and protection of unions. Rents At the third conference eleven methods were given for carrying out the twenty-five per cent reduction in rent. Consideration was also given to the organization of a soeiety for tenancy reform At the fifth conference resolutions were passed regarding the system of collecting rent in advance and of landlords renting land to middleman who in turn rented to farmers. Both were prohibited.

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274 PEASANT MOVEMENTS Space does not permit the inclusion of the Tvpe of constitution and bye-laws of the local, diviOrganlzation sional district, district and sectional aml provincial unions. Organization is essentially from the top down There is no freedom of action for the local unions under the Sovif't inspired type of organization and there is even less under the re-organized unions of the puri lied Kuomintang. Ultimate authority is in the next higher body Local unions must carry out the orders of the divisional district or the district union; the district union must carry out the orders of the sectional union and it in turn must effect the orders of the provincial union. Membership The membership of the executive com-mittee of the Kwangtung P1ovincial Union fa composed mostly of non.farmers. 'fhe staff members of the union are almost all of the intellectual class ; The three important men were Luo Yiyuan, Peng Pai and Juan Hsiaohsien. They had practically complete authority over the administrative affairs and policies of the union. Policie:were decided upon at the representative confE>rence of farmers held annually and were formulated largely by the leaders of the union, such as those just mention,-.d. R f tf The farmer's union of K wangtung had eorgan za on always been controlled by Communist s or leaders tinged with "red." Durillg the month of March, 1927, there was propaganda, "down with Chiang Kaishek," and in support of the Wuhan Government. The selfprotecting army of the unions also decided to mobilize and patrol the streets of Canton on April, 16th, to demonstrate their keen opposition to the "bombardment' of Nanking on March, 24th, by foreigners. (False reports were telegraphed by the Communists all over China, stating that the foreign warships had killed a large part of the Nanking population by their firing. Jn Hunan the report in one place was 200,000 killed, whereas the number Qf citizens killed is varioui,ly estimated with six as the maximum). On the tenth of April fighting occmed between the soldiers of the government and those of the unions in an attempt on the part of the goyernment to carry out the purification program. It was only with much bloodshed after an

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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 275 all-day struggle that the government soldiers forced the union armies to surrender. Elimination of Communist Element Before reorganization the Provincial Farmer's Union was entirely independent in that it was free from the interfe rence of any organization a.nrl even the Central Kuomintang Gov ernment did not meddle with its a ffairs. The chief difference afterwards was the elimination, so far as possible, of the communis t element and the direct control of the unions by the government. Under this new arrangement the local unions as before could do nothing without approval from higher up, but in contrast such approval must receive sanction from the government itself. Thus the farmer's union movement lost its independence but remained a tool for the govt-\rnment to manipulate at will. The result, however, hab been inaction rather than action becaus e of the mob psychology which was rapidly develop ing and which the government rightly feared. The government had come to recognize that uncontrolled but organized ignorance is a very great source of danger. It was not until recent months that iil the Na.nkiPg Government territory orders have been issued to discontinue admitting any more now members. Classification The actual accomplishments of the unions depend somewhat on the type of farmers Jommg. The membership in Kwangtung just before the reorganization of the unions in the interests of the purification is shown in Table 1. Table 1. Classification of members Tenants Classification of farmer's union membership and the chief purpose of each class of people in snch adherence, K wangtung Province. Percent of Piirpose in joining the rne111bers in union each class 50 Reduction in rent, privilege of inheriting the right of renting land continuously.

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276 Vagabonds Unemployed Farm laborers Part-owner-farmers Women and others Owner-farmers PEASANT MOVEMENTS 20 13 10 3 2.5 1.5 Ostensibly to become members of self-protect ing society for farmers, but actually to obtain the use of guns for their own evil purposes Desire for assistance as soon as enrolled into the union. ? Reduction of rent. Compelled by threats to join for use by other people. Protection of their land from the Agricultural Societies (.Ila fr). Members The proportion of tenants to the total number of farmers in Kwangtung is thirtyseven percent1 but here we find that fifty per cent of the members of the unions are tenants. The owner-farmers and the part owner-farmers constitute only four and one half per cent of the membership. The vagabonds, unemployed and others make up thirty-five and a half per cent of the total membership. It is conservative to state that at least one-fourth of the membership is made up of undesirable elements. This is very significant in that it constitut.eR a great source of danger and keeps better class farmers from joining. In itself it is not enough to condemn the unions but rather does it point to the necessity of using greater care in admitting members and in methods of organization. Achievements The accomplis?ments of the unions in Kwangtung consist of several types In February, 1925, the unions rendered service to the revolutionary army on its northward march through the lReport of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, Peking (1918).

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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 277 province by transporting supplies, acting as guides, propaganda work, digging trencheR and acting as spies or otherwise in hindering the enemy in various ways. This kind of help was very real and did much to make possible the conquests of the army. Other activities were the reduction of rents paid landlords, opposition to heavy taxation by the citizen's protection society, reduction of high rates of i"nterest and campaigns against evil gentry. They also did some constructive work such as the building of roads and in some case~ erected school buildings. One unsuccesr,:ful f':truggle was that for the right of voting in the mn.rket town elections. Laborers, merchants and students, all have that right but the farmers do not. The members of the unions paraded and shouted out this injustice but to no avail. One report from a native of Hunan gives the accomplishments of the unions as follows: The reduction of rent, increase in the wages of la borers, obtaining of firearms from soldiers for the purpose of enforcing confiscation of property and for robbing money from others. It is the rascals and lazy farmers who favor the unions, the good farmers. object and moreover can get no benefit from them. Quinsan district, Kiangsu, has the best Best Unions unions in the province and the organizer Chiang Ying, a forestry graduate of the University of Nanking, was given special recognition by the government for his good work. When he was first appointed to the district for organizing unions he had about fifty calls a day from the landlords asking him how they could save their lives. These landlords had heard of the confiscation of land in Hunan and of the killing of the landlords themselves. 'fhey were willing to give up all their worldly goods if only they could be spa.red their liveR. These landlords were aware of the Natio11alist program and had prepared for and granted some of the new demands as soon as the Nationalists came and even before the farmers became organized. High rents were reduced, as much as one-third, gratuities of the landlord agents required from the farmers were abolished and tenant's prisons were closed.

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278 PEASANT MOVEMENTS A native of Hupeh reported that about one half of the land that was confiscated was taken by other landlords rather than by the poor farmers! Lack of Constructive Endeavor In g e neral, one is rightly disappointed with the absence of much constructive endeavor on the part of the unions. The farmers are not to blame for this so much as the leaclers who have engaged in a program of "talk" and knocking the other felJow rather than in undertaking agricultural improvement projects of permanent benefit. Of course, now in Kiangsu, Chekiang and Anhwei, at least, the newly orga11ized unions are doing practically nothing because of the attitude of the government, and in some districts, if not all, have even been forbidden to admit new members. Unfortnnately no quantitative data exist indicating the extent to which these various activities have changed the condition of the farmer. Adherence to the farmer's union movement Method of was obtained by propaganda in the nature of Organization posters, slogans, resolutionR, speecheR, and publications such as "The Plough Weekly-" (~ iitt J\'l) 71j) and the official paper of the movement (ttl ISlll ;ffl). The posters and slogans vividly conveyed the idea of oppression of the farmer by other classes such as the landlords, gentry, money lenders, officials, the people\; army, militarists and imperialism (foreign) Several of these posters appear in Mr. Chang's publication. Effect of Propaganda While many members joined as a result of such propaganda, still it was not wholly successful because a fter all the farmer is a practical man and many farmers needed something more concrete. An instance of how this was done fo the E-"arly stages of the mc,vernent follows. A village farmer asked for reduction of rent and upon refusal was sent to the court. Mr. Peng Pai gathered farmers together and went to the court asking for his releaRe. This frightened the officer in charge and the farmer was given his freedom.

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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 279 Military Exem ptlon Membership in the unions exempted people from service to passing armies and this caused many to 30111. Naturally per1oonal benefit was the chief motive in the majority of the adherents. Some, however, were forced to join so that the union w ould become large enough to be used by "bandit-like village autocrats." Before any union could be established the First Steps charter members must meet and elect an organization committee This committee attended to filling in the proper forms of application and information blanks which must be transmitted to the county union and thence to the provincial union which has the power of accepting or rejecting the proposed union Some valuable statistical information about farm conditions was obtained at the time of organization but unfortunately this data is not available since it is reported to have been carried off by the Soviet representative., when they left China. Magistrates and Unions With the organization of farmer's unions there appea1ed considerable opposition from various qmirters, some of which was justifi able. Magistrates often int< rfered with the unions, even to the extent of trying to prevent their organization or disbanding them. Since bandits and other undesirable elements often sought evasion of law by joining the unions the magistrate was frequently in the right in trying to control the unions. However, his methods were 80metimes too severe and cruel. The unions often meddled in political affairs and even violated the right of the magistrate by arresting persons thP.mselves. The resistance of the farmers to taxation may, in many instances, have been justifiable because of its being t.oo heavy a. burden. A group of magistrates in Hsichiang diRtrict finally drafted a letter to the Provincial Government stating that 1 he farmer's unions should observe and obey the law and the magistrates' 0rders. The letter was answered by the Ministry for Farmers to the effect that farmer's unions are a legal organization and that they are to be free from interference or restraint of any kind and since magistrates

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280 PEASANT MOVEMENTS often do not give the farmers justice magistrates are warned and reproached for their attitude. As a result several magist.rates lost their positions. Merchants and Unions Merchants were suspicious of the unions through fear of their being a communist. ic org : inization, while the farmer$ on the other hand felt tha t the merchants were unjust in requiring such high rates of interest. Intellectual classes began to hate the unions and considered them as a mob tinged with "red becau s e thPy delayed or even refused to pay rent for the school land. Unions and Army The unions were opposed to the army which was being used to suppress banditry because of the heavy taxation involved. Even the unions and the people's army were in opposition to each other bccam,e the latter were accused of standing by bad gentry and oppo s ing the pt:ople's army. 'fhe people's army had a strong position in the country and would sometimes arrest members of the unions who were thieves or robbers. This caused much enmity between the two organizations which culminated into several months bitter fighting between them without any very definite outcome Other causes for this conflict were the taxes collected by the people's army, and the facts that the people's army would not give up part of their guns to the unions and the support of landlords by the people's army. All of these conflicts were the result of mistakes on the part of th e unions or conservatism and misunderstanding on the part of existing social groups or desire on the part of magistrates to retain their power and sources of revenue. Future Uprisings Economic and social conditions in rural districts are such that unless an enlightened government emerges soon there is almost certain to be sporadic if not more general uprisings of farmers against the conditions they now have to endure. Oppression by officials and by the wealthy and hence the more educated, constitute the chief sore spots felt and understood by the farmer but not yet articulate in most

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PEASANT MOVEMENTS 281 places. The comparative ease with which farmer's unions have been developed illustrates how quickly the spark may be fanned into a flame. Most farmers endure present conditions because they think such is the lot meted out to them by fate. They know nothing better. This cannot ar,d will not always remain so. A good government fostering the welfare of the farmer is the most desirable outcome. Failing that a real revolution initiated by the farmers themselves is not improbable. Attitude to Unions Many reports indicate that the farmers are not interested in organizing into unions. Good farmers do not want to join because of the bad elements. Owner-farmers are usually better off and hence do not have the same incentives as non owners. Evidently the leaders made the mistake of not laying stress on the possible improvements common to all farmers. The leaders usually were not "of the farmers'' and anyone who knows farmers realizes that city leaders in rural affairs are not usually respected In most cases the leaders knew little or nothing of modern agricultural improvements. l\fany of the aims of the unions were good but the organization was not a spontaneous one developed by the farmers themselves. Moreover, it was always controlled from the top down rather than from the local unions themsfllves. The methods were largely imperialistic" in that local unions had no freedom but must do whatever they were ordered. Cl St I Since the leaders had little knowledge of ass rugg e 'fi l l 1 h sc1entI c agr1cu ture It IS on y natura t at emphasis was placed on a class struggle basis. However, as has already been indicated this was justified within limits. Farmer and Church It is quite evident that the farmers in most regions are not yet ready to organize of their own initiative-except as happens in the people's army or the secret societies for protection of life and property. It is also clear that most of them are too ignorant to organize against certain evils without using mob violence The solution appears to be one of educa-

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282 PEASANT MOVEMENTS -tion and the development of good character. The rural church if it is to survive, to say nothing of bringing the Kingdom of God on earth, must organize itself on the basis of giving a cup of water to one that thirsts. Until some good and strong government emerges in China the rural church is in the best position of any organization to serve the farmer if it can only remove some of its shackles and initiate a program affecting the entire life of the farmer and the rural community. It is an ideal to which church leaders are groping but still unable to meet through lack of vision and coordination of endeavor

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CHAPTER XXVI SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY, AIMS, METHODS AND RESULTS1 Y. S.Djaog In days gone by, waterways and public Situation granaries were kept up with adequate budgets and reserves. In the recent years of internal disturbances, these institutions have been seriously affect e d. This constant negligence of public utilities designed to prevent disasters, the gradual disappearance of accumulated re serves and the
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284 SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF Famine, l 920 In the drought famine of 1920, there were numerous voluntary agencies administering relief work in the affected provinces. They were more or less independent of each other, and in the urgency of the moment no attempt could be made to coordinate their activities. Duplication of efforts and uneven distribution of relief were the unavoidable evils. Through these different committees no less than fifteen million dollars worth of relief was administered, and because of the lack of a central coordinating body very little result of a constructive nature bearing upon famine prevention was obtained. At the close of 1921, these loosely related provincial committees demanded coordination in a national organization, the result being that the Chin:L International Famine Relief Commission was ultimately organized to function for relief work on a national basis l t is now the central national organization of thirteen provincial committees Its first task was to systematize the ad minisCoordination tration of relief activities and to evolve a of Relief constructive policy t ending to prevent famines. It was not long before a new program for famine relief was prescribed aiming mainly at famine prevention. Much stress is placed upon the improvement of public utilities. Causes of Famine Of the famines befalling China, two different causes are prominently evident. Ad verse climatic conditions form the natural or phyt>ical cause, while lack of financial reserve and inadequate economic facilities, available to the Chinese farmers, constitute the economic cause. Human Negligence With but a few exceptions catastrophes attributable to natural causes might be spoken of as also due to the negligence of man. Deforestation causes clogging up of river basins, due to the large amount of silt carried by the rm1-off which washes away the unprotected surface soil of the hills. Even a normal rain-fall would threaten the dikes and the surrounding country with flood. Failure to keep the res ervoirs and irrigation channels in their working order

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SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF 285 make the crops totally dependent upon the undependable rainfall. In a dry year, the growing grain simply withers away through lack of suflicient water Narrow Margin Through force of circumstances and condi tions of life, the farmers have allowed themselves a very narrow margin of livelihood. As long as a farm yield8 enough produce with which to pay the rentals and taxes or to restore the capital invested, and something besides with which to feed the farmer and his family, the ye a r',; operation is considered successful. There is very little saving among the farming population. Any unexpected mcident thus causes the individual farmer 8erious embarrassment. Credit facilities are almost unknown in the country. Wherever practised, it is a form of usury, injuring the borrower instead of helping him. If there is a flood with a bad year, these people inevitably suffer from famine; in most cases their only hope is charity. Having ascertained the fundamental causes ~dtb~dd of famine in China, the China International op e Famine Relief Commission ciecided to pursue a two-fold program; engineering undertakings which would remedy the physical defects, and improvement of rural economics which would help the people out of their financial difficulties Construction Under the first category may be classified such activities as construction of irrigation ditches, roads, dikes, wells, etc. Activities tending to promote agricultural education and rehabilitation of rural finances belong to the second division of tee China International Famine Relief Commission functions. When relief is required, before any action Definition is taken, the ext.ent and intensity of the existing famine conditions are measured. To warrant the action of the China International Famine Relief Commis sion, a famine must be truly a serious one Its definition of famine reads as follows : Famine is that condition, (a) in which by flood or drought or other calamities from natural causes the crops

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286 SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF have failed to such an exfrnt. that seven-tenths of the people suffer in greater or less degree from want of food and three-tenths are reduced to a state of misery and destitution resulting in a diet of unwholesome food subc:titutes, and (b) in which the stores of grnin are be coming exhausted and the condition of the soil and help lessness of the people render the sowing of crops an impossibility for the time being. The above conditions must exist in at least Condition of ten contiguous hsiens (districts) or a total of Assistance one-thirc1 of the non-contiguous hsiens in a province as a requisite for assistance by the Commission. Unless i,uch an area. as is st:ited above shall be in a state of famine it shall be considered as an emergency which should be met locally." Work Relief The definition sets a limit under which the China Intemational Famine Relief Commis sion would consider taking action. Shortage of food in scattered areas can be met locally. When relief is afforded by the China International Famine Relief Commission in line with the program just described, "work relief" is the essential form and "free relief,'' as a rule, is only a supplementary measure. The distribution of free relief is justifiable Free Relief only in cases of absolute emergency when the people are actually suffering from want of food When such relief is afforded in these circumstances, grain rather than cash should as a rule be the article distributed. Free relief is the leabt economical way of relieving public distress and it is almost impossible to reach every needy person. Whenever it is given there is a tendency to create a demoralizing atmosphere. If unrestricted, free relief encourages professional begging and soon induces the people to depend upon charity. Grain Distribution So whenever free relief is justified, grain should be distributed, which is after all the prime necessity in times of famine. Incidentally relief grain given to those who cannot afford it,

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SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF 287 releases food-stuff to that extent for thoee who still can, resulting in a reduction of gm.in price. Private hoarding is thereby discouraged and tlrn local grain situation is bem.ticial ly affecte
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288 SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF 4. As a rule, wages should be paid on a piece work basis in food. Appeals for Assistance It will be readily. f'een that a careful application of the above policy should result in only the needy appealing for assistance The worthless and professional mendicants are automatically eliminatd, and the self-respect of the afflicted community is maintained. Conditions in China make it possible to follow this procedure, for in time of crop failure there is usually no employment in the affected t erritory which may be profitably followed; the distribution of free relief sometimes for a period of months, when their labor might serve not only a s a means for the elimination of the unworthy, but as a b e nefit to the general community. The products of labor relief can be classified r~b:s R~uet as reconstruction measures and as construction of new works For instance, a flood may wash away the river dikes. Their repair then constitutes a distinct class of work. Among the dike repair projects executed by the China Intemational Relief Commission may be mentioned the breach of the Yellow River dike near its mouth at Li Chin, Shn .ntung, in 192l, and also that of the same dike in West Shantung in 1923. Dikes encircling the islands of the Poyang Lake in Kiangsi were repaired by a labor relief operation in 1924. In the same year two important similar projects were undertaken in Hupeh. These are but a few of the major undertakings thus far conclude
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SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF 289 performed in which details of these undertakings are fully given. Waterway Projects Included in the list of projects to be undertaken are the Hwai River conservancy, the reconstruction of the Wei River irrigation channel in Northern Shensi, the Chihli straight-cut channel which would give better outlet to the sea for the main rivers in Northern Chihli and protection and conservation of lands affected by the Yellow River. These projects, which call for large outlay, are all awaiting ex ecution as soon a8 the necessary funds can be obtained. Funds Used for Employment The labor relief policy of the China Inter national Relief Commission as described is now generally understood by the public. Much of the funds enl,rm-ted to it is, there fore, intended by their contributors for employment in accordance with the China International Famine Relief Commission policy. Great care is always exercised when expenditures are made. The Commission is convinced that generosity to the famine stricken demands strict economy on the part of the administration. Economic Value of Work Reliel Free re.lief at its best can only take care of the aged and infirm. Unless the supply of material and funds is without limit the able-bodied, economically valuable members of the villages will have to suffer the effect of famine. This very serio'.ls objection to free relief is automatically removed by the administration of labor relief, which gives the able-bodied an opportunity to earn a more or less normal livelihood and at the same time checks the pauperization of the people. Relief given in this way yields visible and lasting res.ults which are themselves of no small economic value. Funds given for charity are thus utilized in what we consider to be the best possible manner. Inadequate Funds still be far No matter how economically relief funds are applied, the amount of available funds and potential possibilities combined would from adequate to meet all needs. Vast areas

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290 SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF may be affected, often several regions at the same time. Government finances are already embarrassed even to meet regular expenses and the public often shows a spirit of indifference to urgent calls for relief purposes. This situation gave impetus to the developLoan ld
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SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF 291 Loans in Operation Allowed to operate for some years, this policy would enable communities to meet catastrophes of a minor scale and make constant solicitations unnecessary. This system has already been put into succP.ssful operntion, and by the experience gained thereby the China International Famine Relief Com mission is confident that this represents the best policy for the administration of "charity" func'ls. That the Commission is constantly called upon to consider relief or work-projects on a loan basis and has to curtail its activities through lack of sufficient funds, proves that this plan is thoroughly workable and acceptable to the people who need this form of help. These policies form the essential features of Principles the China International Famine Relief Com mission relief methods. They are based on experience and scienti fie principles. Besides thAse principles, as laid down, the Commission has al"o d<:>vised standard methods of ad ministration. Every process is described, from reporting a calamity to the obtaining of inclividual vouchers for doles distributed or wages paid. These rules and descriptions are embodied in two bookletr-: respectively entitlec'I Hacndbookfor Rel1:ef Work,,rs and Field Practice Rules. The Information Bulletin for May 1, 1925, issued by the League of Red Cross Societies made the following comments 0n these pamphlets: The Handbook discussed the Handbook nature of the Commission and its work, established certain guiding principles of operation including particularly that of labor relief, and sketched briefly methods of organization, investigation and distribution. "The New Rules, sixty-four in number, present clearly and concisely, in logical sequence, the skeleton structure and the scheme of administration which can be adapted to either very small or very large relief operations. Methods have been standardized by carefully stndying the reports of previous committees and by consulting with experienced famine relief workers. Statistical studies and improved auditing processes are now assqred. Supporting

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292 SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF these detailed Rules is the large number of forms mentioned above. The routine established from their careful design will enormously facilitate the carrying out of any operation within the purview of the Commis~ion To the administrator not immediately concerned, the forms make a fascinating study." Space does not allow a detailed statistical Statistics resume of the volume of relief operations conducted under the auspices of the China International Famine Relief Commission and its provincial committees, but perhaps it would be useful to mention just a few outstanding figures simply to illustrate the success of the famine prevention policy thus far achieved: (l)Amount administered, "since 1920" over $29,000,000. (2) Work accomplished: Pro,iect Roads Dikes Irrigation ditches Drainage Accomplishment up to the end of 1927 2, 150 miles 590 miles 50 miles Total cost $2,847,000 4,556,000 177,800 C.I.F'.R.C. Contribiit-ion $2,047,000 2,246,200 170,300 ditches 270 miles 219,100 136,300 Wells 3,100 units 226, lOO 126,100 TOTAL: $8,025,UOO $4,7:25,900 (3) Free Relief given since 1920, over $20,000,000. (4) Amount of funds outstanding on loans, since 1923, $910,000. So far we have dealt with the famine Coop.erative prevention side of the China International Credit System F R 1 f C t J amme e 1e omm1ss10n program a ung the physical causes of famine as the center of attention. On the economic side the Commission endeavors to give the farmers a fair opportunity to obtain the decent living to which their toil entitles them. As an initial step the Commission has so far directed a part of its energies to the introduction of a rural cooperative credit system as pro.

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SCIENTIFIC DISASTER REtiE:I<' 293 posed by Herr Raiffeisen. This type of society has been successful wherever it has developed in conditions similar to those obtaining in China. Japan has a romantic story to tell of her cooperatives, while all know the succese that has attended tlie movement in India. E The introduction of this type of credit Vco 1nom,cC d't society into China, might be utilized as a a ue o re I f b f Societies amrne prevent10n measure ecause o its economic value. As has already been stated the Chinese farmers are, under the social and economic condition8 existing in the country, hopelessly burdened by rnmrious interest rates and lack of banking facilities. In normal years all they can manage is, at their best, to make a bare living. Savings are practically unknown among the country folks. These people live from harvest to harvest, and a day of calamity brings them face to face with starvation. The best they can do when in need of some financial assistance is to pawn their personal effects. Their farming implements go next, and finally the farms themselves are offered as security for a loan. Like his Indian brother, years ago, the Chinese farmer when once in debt can scarcely free himself from the clutch of the money lenders. Gradually, in the worst cases, the debtors are re
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294 SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF rural economics. Credit is the first thing recommended to be taken up, so that Raiffeison banks are now being introduced. F B k In these banks or societies, reputable, armers an s earnest farmers are enrolled. They all pleclge to abide by simple rules. Better facilities for obtaining credit go automatically with membership. The societies obtain credit on the combined guarantee of their respective members, who assume unlimited liability. Spread of Cooperative Credit Starting with study and investigation in 1928, the idea of cooperative credit of the Raiffeisen type has been spreading among the farmers. Societies began to be formed in 1924 Careful inspection and thorough training preceeded final registration by the committee. There are now, four years after the organization of the first society, 135 such societies recognized as competent to conduct their business. Over 400 others are in process of formation and await registration. With the excrption of two all these societies are in the province of Chihli and the Metropolitan Area. The commission's policy is to concentrate its efforts in a definite area, in order that societies may be formed into unions. The extent of this experiment can be seen ~:::Ntt s!deties from the following figures which were taken at the end of March, 1928 No. of societies registered, 135. No. of members, 4,544. Amount of capital raised by them, $11,674.93. Amount of capital advanced to them by the Commission, $30,809. No. of societies applying for registration, 439. As soon as conditions will permit, this movement is to be extended to other provinces. Unions will be encouraged, so as to make the organization as effective as possible. Through these unions, the surplus wealth of one district may be utilized in other diRtricts. Great benefit may confidently be expected from these societies.

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SCIENTIFIC DISASTER RELIEF 295 In this article, only the essential featuree of the entire China International Famine Relief Commission program are of necessity very briefly dealt with. Detailed information may be found in the various publications issued from time to time, and copies will be gladly sent to any address upon application. Steps of Charity The Jewish S:want of the 12th century, Moses Ben Mainmon, known as the Second Moses, described the eight stef)S of charity. The last or highest step is to offer help to the needy, so as to enable him to help himself. To give a loan in order to enable a poor man to re-establish himself is far better than merely giving him a little money with no friendly advice or moral teaching of benefit to the recipient. This theory guides the China International Famine Relief Commission. Charity administered scientifically should produce lasting economic value and this is what the China International Famine Relief Commission endeavors to accomplish.

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CHAPTER XX VII ANTI-OPIUM CAMPAIGN Bin~ham Dai P t ~t t The anti-opium campaign in China has a resen a us history of almost a century, but the year 1927 witnessed many changes even more fundamental and significant than those of the well-known Opium War, which occured in 1842 and established a precedence for later "unequal treaties." In former days, it was only the officials who took a leading part in the campaign and it was chiefly as protestors against foreign intrusion that they joined the heroic fight. And even when the opium evil was almost eradicated during the Ching Dynasty, i.e. from 1907-1917, it was the treaty obligation assumed with Great Britain that was the chief stimulant for that drastic action. But now it is different. The anti-opium campaign is no longer the business of the Government alone. The people of China have risen against the use of opium and other narcotics. Nor is it due chiefly to a desire to ful!il treaty obligations that the masses of every province are supporting this campaign. The fight against opium has become an inseparable part of the revolutionary movement. Whenever there is discussion about the "Three People's Principles" or "Sanminism," as some call it, opium is always mentioned as the greatest enemy of reconstruction. The anti-opium forces are now increasing at such a speed and in such volume that no minister or Government can stand long unless a i;,atisfactory solution to the opium problem is offered by them. How all this came about is briefly discussed hereafter. The Menace Before we describe the campaign, let us first have a clear understanding of the menace, against which the people of China are now fighting. This menace appears in three forms, native

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ANTI-OPIUM CAMPAIGN 297 opium, foreign opium and narcotic drugs such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. To show just how this three-headed menace is ruining the lives of the people, we will give a brief review of the extent of the traffic in, and use of, each kind. Native Opium. Although "there is not much evidence this year of compulsory cultivation under military duress," says Dr. W. H. Graham Aspland in The China Year Book, 1928 yet a great quantity of opium was grown in the year 1927, especially in such provinces as Szechwan, Yunnan, Kweichow, Fukien and Manchuria where the Nationalist Government has not assumed direct and efficient control. As a result the illicit traffic has grown to such an extent that the Government is forced to adopt a kind of monopoly, in spite of popular opposition. Judging from the number of licenses issued for registered addicts, the extent of addiction must be alarming. Statistics are still a new science in China; were adequate st atistics available the scourge of Chinese native opium would appear much more appalling than it does.1 Foreign Opium. In addition to the ravages caused by native opium, China suffers greatly also from the imported foreign opium, chiefly Persian and Indian. This latter does not appear very often in the Customs' statement of seizures, although you can buy what is generally known as "Big Opium" and "Small Opium" almost everywhere in China It is often argued that India cannot be held responsible for the presence of such opium since India does not export opium except to a government under certificate. The fact is that, no matter how, an alarming amount of Indian opium has been imported into China, probably through uncontrolled imports and other illicit channels. The case of Persian opium is still more serious. A harbour master of Bushire was reported to have personally told a Chinese traveller that every year there a.re at least twenty ship!'l visiting Bushire which carry thousands of chests of Persian opium to China. So far tFor approximate figures please read the Opium Year Book prepared by the National Anti-Opium Association.

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298 ANTI-OPIUM CAMPAIGN as the writer has been informed during the month of October, 1927, within a period of ten days, two ships, the Kohatsumaru and Hoping visited this Persian port and each carried away 500 chests. If each ship carries 500 chests, then 20 ships will carry at least 10,000 chests, or approximately 1,600,000 pounds of opium each year! This alone suffices to illustrate the present tremendous traffic in foreign opium. And what is the result? The Shantung warlord stated in a proclamation, wherein he temporarily legalized the cultivation of the poppy, that this is the only way to stop the smuggling in of foreign opium! This remark has certainly an element of truth; for how in the world can China possibly suppress the importation of Persian and Indian opium when one of the countries is not in any way bound by international obligations to check or limit the growth of opium and the other is free to export any quantity to any government under certificate, and when China is forbidden by age-old treaties to meddle with the business of foreigners. Thus foreign opium continues to flood China and complicates tremendously the problem of suppression. Narcotic Drugs. The third and the most destructive aspect of this menace is narcotic drugs such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. Dr. Wu Lien-Teh has estimated that about thirty tons of these dangerous drugs are smuggled into China every year. Seizures pf narcotics;made by some Chinese Maritime Customs in the year 1926, reached as high as 30,000 ounces These drugs come from Germany, France, Switzerland, Holland and Japan through all sorts of illicit channels. What are the consequences? In the first place, many opium addicts are substituting morphine pills for opium, because they are cheaper and have a much stronger effect. I learned from reliable sources that about two-thirds of the opium addicts in the province of Chekiang use narcotic pills. In the second place, attempts at opium suppression become futile as they simply increase the number of addicts to morphine pills and injections as has been the case in Shantung in the past and is the case in Shansi at present. In this latter province, we were told by Dr. H. H. Kung, the Nationalist Minister of

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ANTIOPIUM CAMPAIGN 299 Industry and Commerce, that there are about 1,000,000 people taking morphine pills because they are forbidden to smoke opium. If each addict spends $100.00 a year for these drugs, the annual expenditure for narcotic addiction for the province of Shansi alone will he some where around $100,000,000.00. Something much more valuable than the money wasted is concerned! These narcotic pills and injections get a stronger grip on these one million addicts than native opium I It is, therefore, simply useless to suppress opium so long as narcotic drugs continue to come in thus freely. A gigantic seizure made during an anti-opium demonstration on September 15, 1927 at Shichiachuan, Chihli, revealed the facts that Japanese were involved in the trade, and that pills of all Rorts were smuggled into Shansi along the Chen Tai Railway. These narcotic drugs, furthermore, have permeated the length and breadth of Manchuria, Chihli, Honan, Shantung, Kiangsu and Chekiang. It is further to be noted that no narcotic drugs are as yet manufactured in China; all come from foreign countries where no measures have been taken to limit the amount manufactured to legitimate purposes! On account of the horrible havoc created by narcotic drugs, quite a number of prudent cihservors have expressed their doubt of the effectiveness of attempts to suppress opium They have noted something which many others have overlooked. In a word, the name of this menace is legion. It assumes three different forms, native opium, foreign opium and foreign narcotic drugs, and the last is by far the most destructive. The Chinese people, however, are not Campal~o discouraged because the forces of the enemy Headquarters are thus increasing. Remembering what they accomplished in the past, they are bent on eradicating the opium evil in spite of these mountainous obstacles. Headquarters for a nation-wide campaign have been set up in Shanghai; the name is the National Anti-Opium Association of China. This association was organized in 1924. The commanding position of the Association has won

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300 ANTI-OPIUM OAMPAIGN seems beyond the capacity of such a young organization. Hundreds of branches are scattered throughout China, and a host of over five million or more have been mobilized in its support! It is gratifying to note that the National Christian Council of China is one of the institutions which started the fire, and that Dr. T. H. Lee, Miss Shu-ching Ting, Mr. T. Z. Koo and the Rev. K. T. Chung, who are all very closely connected with the Council, are or have been the most important leaders in this anti-opium campaign. This war has been going on for a long time. Let us now look at the tactics employed. The enemy is invading China along three Against lines. We may, accordingly, observe the Native Opium progress of the people's anti-opium campaign along the same lines. To curb the evil of native opium, the National Anti-Opium Association and all the forces under its leadership have set up as their goals the complete prohibition of poppy cultivation (except a limited amount for legitimate purposes), the registration and cure of opium addicts and the effective prevention of future addiction. To reach these goals, the Association thinks it necessary to cooperate with the Government as much as possible. Eight demands were sent to the Nationalist Government as soon as its headquarters moved up to the Yangtze Valley. Another petition was sent when it arrived in Nanking. In June the authorities decided to eradicate the opium evil within the period of three years. In November a new set of regulations were proclaimed. All these attempts, however, tend toward compromise, and a sort of monopoly is being worked in almost every province under the Nationalist regime. The Government seems to be doing what it can under present circumstances, but the people are by no means satisfied. Just recently, another attempt was made by the Association to entrust the work of opium suppression to the Ministry of Home Affairs instead of to that of Finance, so that economic considerations may not further overshadow the moral and physical welfare of the people. The Ministry of Home Affairs has just been inaugurated What will result from this attempt is still to be seen.

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ANTIOPIUM CAMPAIGN 301 Next to the Government's drastic measures, ~~~~~f:usness the consciousness of the people is considered by the Association as its most powerful weapon in this warfare. To arouse and strengthen the conscience of the masses, extensive propaganda and educational work are being carried on by the National Anti-Opium Association. In the form of monthly and weekly periodicals, the Association is sending out a tremendous volume of anti-opium literature, which not only fills the pages of local newspapers and magazines throughout the country, but is also, to a noticeable extent shaping the policy and the tone of the propaganda departments of many Government opium-suppression bureaus. The most outstanding feature of this propagandic work is the annual anti-opium week, which occurs regularly in the beginning of October each year and which has been uniformly observed ever since the present campaign started in 1924 .1 Actual field work is also carried on. At certain periods of the year, the secretaries of the Association are sent out to different provinces to investigate local opium conditions and to promote the anti-opium movement. Everywhere they go they are warmly received and have eager audiences The provinces thus visited in the year 1927 include Manchuria, Chihli, Hupeh, Kiangsi, Anhwei, Kiangsu, Chekiang and Fukien. Other phases of this educational work include a series of interesting posters, pamphlets and tracts, films and lantern slides. By these means, the National Anti-Opium Association is trying to enlist the entire population of the country in this life and death struggle against opium and other narcotics 0 Add' t Another weapon the Association is using p1um 1c s th .1 h f agamst. e oprnm ev1 1s t e cnrmg o oprnm addicts. Efforts are being made everywhere to have both missionary and other hospitals to participate in this important work. New anti-opium hospitals are being established in many places, so that those addicts who desire to be cured may have an easy opportunity therefor. tFor a detailed report of the National Anti-Opium Week 1927, please read Opium: A World Problem, Vol. I, No. 2, page 6-13.

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302 ANTlOPIUM CAMPAIGN In short, native opium is being brought under control to some extent by means of three weapons, law, education and amelioration. As to foreign opium in Chin11., the Chinese Ag~iost Foreign people can do practically nothing except Opium attempt to arouse the sympathy and enhst the aid and good will of their foreign friends, so that they may cooperate with them in this truly world-wide war fare against opium. Existing treaties forbid the Chinese to deal directly with foreign smugglers. They know of no way to stop the smuggling in of the one million pounds from Persia annually. Nor can they stop the coming in of Indian opium, since any quantity can be exported to a government under certificate. To prevent the transhipping of this enormous amount of foreign opium from one place to the other and its final illicit entry into China is quite beyond the power of the Chinese people or Government. They cannot even ascertain the extent of the traffic, leave alone suppress it. Again, many foreign governments have ~~::1:s~lons concessions in China, in which as regards the sale and consumption of opium, the Chinese people are practically helpless! Although it is almost exclusively the Chinese lives and homes which are ruined by opium inside these settlements, yet the Chinese people have no direct:voice in the matter. Take the French Settlement in Shanghai for instance. The National Anti-Opium Associa tion once produced evidence to show that there were thirtysix big opium stores in this Settlement and that the police had been receiving regular contributions from the opium traffickers for their protection-totalling over $150,000.00 a month. The Association rightly asked the French Minister in Peking to take action. The reply that came, two months afterwards, was that the French Minister had ordered several investigations to be made and nothing had been found in the stores specified except seven pounds of opium I In fact quite a number of municipal authorities were at that time in the trade. What can the Chinese people do under such circumstances?

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ANTIOPIU!\I CAMPAIGN 303 Far Eastern Colonies In this connection may also be included the opium scourge in all the Far Eastern colonies of foreign governments, in which the Chinese make up the bulk of the population. There is not one of the governments of these colonies, except that of the Phillipines, which does not depend upon the opium traffic as an important source of revenue. The National Anti-Opium Association simply cannot ignore the hard lot of the opium i=:mokers in these colonies, even though the editor of the South China Morning Post once demanded that it stop meddling with other people's business! 1 In other words, though the Chinese anti-opium campaign has done much to curb the evil of native opium, the Chinese can do pract.ically nothing to check the advance of this menace under the guise of foreign opium or opium traffic in foreign colonies, in which the Chinese are the only opium smokers Against Narcotic Drugs The Chinese people being thus practically helpless in the face of foreign opium, it is simply foolish to expect them alone to conquer the narcotic evil. The crux of the whole problem is that all these dangerous drugs come from foreign countries and that mo8t of the smugglers and traffickers therein are of foreign nationality. How the Japanese headquarters at Shichiachuan, Chihli, supplied morphine pills for illicit use in Shansi province has been mentioned in the preceeding section Herewith is given a short table of foreign traffickers as discovered by some of the Chinese Maritime Customs during 1926. 1see South China Morning Post for July 26, 1927.

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304 ANTI-OPIUM CAMPAIGN LIST OF FOREIGN TRAFFICKERS AS FOUND BY THE CHINESE CUSTOMS IN THE YEAR 1926 Custom s Ji K, R G S Other apane 8 e oreans ussians ermans wiss E uropean Harbin 6 9 9 2 1 1 Dairen 4 1 Kiaochow 19 Tientsin 5 1 Lungkow 1 Antung 2 2 1 Yangchi 1 Shanghai 1 20 Total 38 12 10 3 1 22 Grand total.. ......... ............. .. 86 The above table shows that in the year Seizures 1926 those customs as mentioned made 86 seizures of foreign opium and narcotics, the traffickers of which unfortunately were all foreigners; and that 70 cases out of 86 were seizures of narcotic drugs, such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. All the Chinese people can do is to investigate and make report. In Tsinan alone, it was found that there are at least 160 Japanese shops selling morphine pills. And the traffic still goes on! Convenience of Narcotic Drugs The second reason why the outlook of the campaign against narcotic drugs is rather doubtful is that such drugs as morphine and heroin and the pills made thereof are much more convenient for smuggling than opium. They can be easily mixed with other medicine and are very often sent in in registered letters. It is, as a matter of fact, many times more difficult to suppress narcotic drugs than opium I Future of Traffic The future is made even more hopeless by the fact that while everywhere in China people are making serious efforts to suppress opium, this effort will naturally drive opium addicts to take morphine injections or narcotic pills instead, as

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ANTI-OPIUM CAMPAIGN 305 thousands have done in Shansi, Manchuria and even down south in Chekiang. "Unequal,, Thus the strength of the Chinese people's Fight anti-opium campaign is not equal to that of the narcotic drugs. No nation can hope by itself to suppress these drugs, for they constitute essentially an international evil and can never be driven out of circulation except through international cooperation. To corroborate this statement, I shall reproduce the observa tion of a great authority in this matter, i. e. the Shanghai Maritime Customs Report, for 1926: "The quantity of opium confiscated during the year amounted to 91 piculs, while 404, 133 and 30 pounds were seized of morphia, heroin, and cocaine respectively. The amount of these seizures should not be taken as an index of the extent of the irregnlar trade in narcotics. The local traffic in habit-forming drugs is unquestionably increasing, and in the end the result will probably be more deleterious to the health of the people than opium smoking. The utmost vigilance of Customs officers cannot effectively stop the illicit entry of morphia and other noxious drugs into China, in view of the fact that drugs can be smuggled with impunity in small quantities through the medium of the Post Office, etc., and the remedy, therefore, lies with the manufacturing countries. If productfon is restricted to medical requirements, it follows that this illegal traffic would necessarily be curtailed if not altogether stopped." 1 Dr. F. Rawlinson, Editor of the Chineee Recorder, a long resident in China and an earnest student of the opium problem, made the following remark after years of personal study and observation: "Drug addiction cannot be regulated by national laws so long as the nations have not combined their political and moral convictions in a knock-out blow at the production of narcotic drugs." And he goes on, and offers a remedy: "The conscience of humanity needs to realize this more strongly than it. does. In the Geneva Conferences it looked as though the consciences of some 'Christian' lQhina Year Book, 1928, page 539.

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306 ANTI-OPIUM CAMPAIGN nations needed education as much as, if not more than, their non-Christian contemporaries As a matter of fact the conscience of the whole world needs to be educated on this problem. The Geneva Conferences actually post poned the initiation of drastic measures to suppress the production and distribution of narcotic drugs to an 'indefinite and contingent date'! This hesitation was rooted in a weak international conscience! To vitalize this flabby cornc:cience a campaign of persistent and scientific anti-narcotic education is needed. This must be carried on both by the nations acting together, and by each nation educating its own people." 1 To conclude, I want to emphasjze the fact that the Chinese people are in no way discouraged by the rather doubtful outlook of the anti-opium campaign On the contrary, the National Anti-Opium Association together with all the forces under its leadership are at present engaged in a life and death battle with the opium produced in China, strongly believing that while they are trying their utmost to do what they can, their friends and sympathizers in other quarters of the globe will also arise and do what they can to help relieve the Chinese people from, as well as to safeguard themselves against, the curse of opium and other narcotic drugs. 'fhey are perfectly confident that as soon as the revolutionary movement approaches success, the anti-opium campaign will be half-won, and that if in the next World Opium Conference international agree ments are reached to limit the production of the poppy and the manufacture of narcotic drugs t.o strictly medical and scientific purposes, the ultimate victory of the anti-opium campaign will be as sure as the fact that night follows the day. iQpium: A World Problem, Vol. I, No. 2, page 29-30, an English quart.erly published by the National Anti-Opium As sociation.

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CHAPTER XXVIII SOME RECENT CHRISTIAN SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTS Eleanor M, Hinder While from some points of view it is Experiments obvious that a period of political upheaval is not the period in which one can expect constructive work aimed to improve social conditions and relations, it is also true that such a period frequently throws into relief certain fundamentals which determine future action Indeed, these may be so insistently felt that early outcome of the convictions reached may be expected. Thus it is that, though the period of the last two years has been one of political and social upheaval in China, it has also been responsible for challenging group thinking, and certain experimental results are perhaps worthy of record, less for the tangible assessment therein that can be gauged than for the principles they involve for those concerned with these problems. Elsewhere in this YEAR BooK is an analysis ~i:~:~1sm of the "Labor Situation" of the period under review. The emergence of a labor movement, however incoherent in its peacetime organization, however little a conscious product of the workers themselves, is nevertheless a fact to be reckoned with by those whose concern it is to promote the fullest life of those who work. Perhaps more fundamental still for their consideration is the infiltration into public thinking of the communist concept. Not that it is the belief of the writer that there has been any very widespread adoption of the economic theory underlying Communism, though it is recognized that in some of the provinces confiscation of lands was attempted. Rather, consistent publicity and repetition of the terms, used with reference to all types of lawless action, has induced a fear in the minds of people to an

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308 RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS extent that any dispassionate attempt to understand either Communism itself, or the sources of the mass movements which have been called by its name, has become impossible to the majority of minds That there has been a willing ness to use the methods of violence which the class warfare theory of Communism demands is, however, only too true. For the observant onlooker, China of 1927, containing within it the Hankow regime of radical thinking, the violent repressions and massacres of "communists" from March to August in all parts of the Yangtze Valley and the South, the riot of "white" Russians, turning upon the Soviet Consulate in Shanghai in November, the Canton "communist" uprising in December, followed by the expulsion of Soviet diplomatic representatives from China-was a most revealing experience. World forces became lined up in all their bitterness, and the country was at once the stage of world events and the observation laboratory of the student of world thinking. Faced with this social situation, what had Christianity the Christian forces in China to say ? and Economic C l Relations ategonca pos1t10ns upon so great issues are, of course, impossible But it is most significant that the year which saw these same dramatic events, bringing their enormous effect upon the social mind, saw also the Christians within the country setting up a ten-day conference, the first of its kipd in the country's history, for the consideration of the Christian position with regard to economic relations. In August there was held in Shanghai, a conference attended by more than fifty men and women, mostly Chinese, organized by the National Christian Council's Committee on Christian ising Economic Relations. The delegates, despite the political upheaval, were remarkably representative of both the regions from which they came and in variety of experience. Among them were Chinese men of the highest academic experience in questions of economic import, as well as those who had already, by patient effort in local centers, attempted to modify attitudes in relation to the human aspects involved in economic relationships, as these concern employer and employed in large-scale

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RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 309 industries, master workmen and workers in small-scale occupations and master and servant. in domestic work. The Conference set itself to discover what Resolutions should be the Christian position in these of Conference several relat10nsh1ps. To do so, 1t had to consider the present position in industry in the larger cities, and also-for perhaps more important than those of the industrial masses have been the movements among the rural population in these social-revolutionary days in China-the present position in landlord tenant relation ships, and the economic conditions governing the farm industry. Arising out of the educat.ive work done, through discussion methods cleverly handled, certain conclusions were drawn up and submitted for final consideration by the conference The conclusions are noteworthy. They represent what may be considered by many an "advanced position," yet they are the honest conviction of men and women, facing all the available facts, measuring these in the light of their own experience-and then coming to considered opinions Their conclusions as given in the report are as follows: l. INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS Resolved: 1. That the Conference endorse the principle of freedom of association for all workers. 2 a. That the principle of payment of a minimum wage in all occupations based upon the cost of living, be endorsed. b. That wages be paid in full, at regular intervals of time. c. That, in determination of amount of wages above the minimum wage, the Conference advo cates the principle that, after a just return has been made for the use and risk of capital, for the services of management, and allowing for legitimate activities of the business, all that remains of t he net product of the industrial unit shall be at the disposal of the workers, either as wages or for re-investment in the business.

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310 RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 3. That the principle of limitation of the length of the working day be approved, aiming, by gradual reduc tion, toward the adoption of an eight-hour day. 4. That the Conference endorse the standard of one rest day in seven or its equivalent, with payment for rest time. 5. That the Conference approve the principle of twelve years as the minimum age for employment, which shall be gradually raised. 6. 'l'hat the Conference endorse the principle of protection for women workers, involving prohibition of night work a~1d work in trades dangerous for women, and provision for absence from work with payment for a period of at least one month at the time of childbirth. 7. That, working toward understanding between employer and employee, the formation of shop committees and arbitration boards be urged. 8. That Christian individuals and institutions should give attention to t.he following methods of achieving the standards advocated: a. To obtain trained workers for service among industrial workers, especially for cooperating with the labor movement b. To negotiate--through the combined efforts of the National Christian Council and National Committees of the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A.-with educational institutions to provide courses in labor problems for training such special workers c. To promote a vigorous program of workers' education, including education in social thinking, and, working toward a modification of the apprenticeship system, to encourage technical education. e. To encourage special study by pastors and preachers of the problems of lahor, and further, to encourage them to obtain actual experience of the workers' life. f. To join in the patriotic movements for freedom and justice to the workers, to secure economic freedom for China., and to bring to an end all forms of economic exploitation g. To promote efforts toward obtaining industrial legislation. h. To encourage employers to improve conditions of work, and to provide facilities for recreation, education and

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RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 311 insurance. i. To take steps, through the National Christian Council, tow a rd making possible statistical inquiry into the cost of living in various parts of China. j To hold Christians scrupulously to the above standards in employing labor and in making contracts. II. RURAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS A. Farm Tenancy 1. It is urged that attention be given to the immediate problem of farm tenancy which is one of eliminating the evils in the system. (Some of the many evils are large landholdings, absentee landlordism, collection of rent by a third person, conflicts between the interests of the landlord and tenant). 2. Recognizing that the large landholdings are the cause of the chief evils in farm tenancy, we urge their limitation by means of governmental legislation. 3. In determining a fair rent we recommend a trial in a number of regions of the method of dividing receipts in the same proportion that expenses occur. Non-cash expenses should be included and these consist principally of the tenants' labor and management and interest on the landlord's capital. (Such division takes care of all changes in farming, such, for instance, as the growing of more intensive crops where a large amount of labor is supplied by the tenant. If this method tends to increase the present rent paid by the worthy but destitute tenants, it is recommended that no change be made in the amount of rent). 4. We recognize the fairness of a reduction in the amount of rent paid by the tenant in years of crop failures and we recommend that the following method, or some variation of it, be used: if the crop yield is below sixty per cent of normal for cash rent that such rent be reduced in the same proportion that the yield is below these percentages. For instance, if the yield is forty per cent of normal the reduction in car,h rent would be one-third.

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312 REOENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 5. It is recommended that written contracts be used by JandJords and tenants wherever such leases will insure the improvement of the relations between the two parties, but precautions should be taken to avoid the landlord's taking advantage of the ignorance of the tenant. (Lease contracts should include: length of tenure; amount of rent and reductions, if any, in special cases; time of payment of rent; protection of farm property including the fertility of the laud; and provision for the reimbursement to the tenant for improvements.) 6. The relations between the landlord and tenant should be improved by a better understanding of their mutual interests, a realization of the necessity for mutual trust and for just and honest dealings, and elimination of class distinction. B. Cooperative Marketing 1. It is recommended that experiments in farmers' cooperative marketing societies for the distribution of farm products be made in regions where the existing marketing system of farm products is unsatisfactory because of adulteration of products by middlemen, unnecessary middlemen, absence of grading, lack of credit and storage facilities, inefficiency in shipping, dishonest measurement and other evils. C. Cooperative Credit and Savings 1. It is urged that rural cooperative credit and savings societies be organized to provide adequate capital at reasonable rates of interest 2. It is recommended that the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations establish a .central rural cooperative credit and savings fund, preferably as a department of some bank, as soon as the political situation becomes reasonably stable. (Possible sources of such funds are: (a) savingB by depositors especially interested in the rural cooperative movement and by those who wish to take a Ch. ris.tiiw, ,, \

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RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 313 viewpoint in the investment of their savings at a reasonable rate of interest; and (b) special funds.) 3. Provision should be made for the training of organizers and supervisors of rural cooperative credit and savings' societies in regular university courses, summer schools, and correspondence courses. D. Increased Production 1. It is recommended that production be increased by the use of improved seeds, more thorough cultivation, the application of more fertilizers, the control of insects and diseases, the application of more labor as, for instance, in the thinning of fruit, more and better irrigation and drainage on land already under cultivation, reclamation and colonization. (Increaeed production is necessary for the better economic well-being of the farm family as well as for reducing the cost of living for the consumer. It is practicable because of the importation of foodstuffs which might be replaced with homegrown products, the possible increase in exports of farm products and of waste caused by floods, drought, insect pests and plant diseases.) 2. Special attention should be given to the increase of supplementary industries to that of farming for the purpose of increasing the farmer's income by utilizing idle time. To accomplish this one or more specialists should be allocated by the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations or by other institutions. E. Responsibility of the Individual Christians, Christian Institutions and the Christian Church for the improve-ment of Rural Economic Conditions The function of the church in Christianizing rural economic relations is to educate the whole community to understand the principles of the above recommendations and to participate in concrete forms of service for their accomplishment. The ideal should be constantly upheld of a church in the rural community which shall be the center for constructive efforts in the improvement of

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314 RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS economic relations as well as in other directions like mass education, care of health and other forms of public service. In order to give such help as has been indicated the church should provide a leadership adequately trained and worthy of trust and it should also produce the necessary materials, for instance, such as improved seeds, spray materials, and economic information obtained from investigations. 1. Training should be provided in the following ways: a Correspondence courses on rural economic problems by the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations or by other institutions. Such a course should be initiated with funds from the Committee but should be made self-supporting if at all practicable. b. Distribution and publication of leaflets on rural economic problems by the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations. c. Representatives of the Committee on Chris tianizing Economic Relations should speak in churches as often and in as many places as possible. d Regional institutes by the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations or by other institutions e. Summer school courses in rural economic problems in universities. f. Courses in rural economic problems in theological seminaries and in all training schools of courses for rural Christian leaders. The Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations should get into touch with such institutions and continually urge upon them the importance of this step until it is an accomplished fact 2. In order to obtain the requisite materials it is recommended: a. That the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations provide or obtain funds for an investigation of farm tenancy and farm credit problems in some typical farming region.

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RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 315 b. That rural churches obtain improved seeds, implements, plants and similar materials and multiply them for distribution in the community; and that rural churches make surveys of rural economic conditions independently and in cooperation with other organizations. 3. We recognize the importance of the organization of farmers into farmers' unions and we urge that churches and Christian farmers do all that they can to cooperate in the constructive measures of these unions. Christian Relation to Money But the conference went yet further down into fundamental questions. The communistic theory produces disciples prepared to sacrifice completely all economic advantage. What is the position of the individual Christian with regard to money, its possession, its sources, its uses? What is his position in relation to the whole matter of personal property; or, more fundamental still, of the principle of private property? While there are those who realize that the conclusions of a first conference along these lines could not be expected to be far-reaching, there are others who know that the honest facing of them has laid a ground work for future positions which is extremely significant. In view of the newness of the challenge, seen in the light of recent political events which give to these age-old problems new meanings the conference was wise in concluding that further study must follow its deliberations. This study will point the way to further discussion and other conclusions. The writer, as a worker in China for a period of some two years only, sees in this conference a most significant happening. To the genius which conceived it, and brought its deliberations down to the most fundamental personal relations and applied the principles to mass movements of national importance, she pays a grateful tribute. Housing Problems The conference, though not a tangible "experiment," rightfully takes a primary place in this article Certain social agencies

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316 RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS he.ve, however, attempted to find the methods by which a recognition of the new factors involved in the social and industrial situation in China can produce practical programs in relation thereto. One of the most in teresting of these is the establishment by the Y. M. C. A. of the Model Village (i,;ee page 25) in the industrial district of Pootung, on the bank of the Whangpoo River, opposite the city of Shanghai proper. It is a recognition of the social factor of housing, as part of the problem of making possible a "larger life" for industrial workers It was not only the necessity of creating sanitary conditions of living which was responsible for the erection of, the first unit of twelve houses. It was a recognition that under existing conditions of obtaining shelter, nothing but economic slavery is possible for the worker. There are not enough houses! A countryman comes to the city, lured by the hope of constant factory employment. He is unable to find a house. He therefore rents, at an exhorbitant figure, land from ari owner Next he has to mortgage his earnings in advance to procure the meagre materials from which he can build his "shack." Thus, probably before he obtains employment, he is doubly in debt, and he is never able to overtake it. It hangs over his head interminably. It only remains for social obligations to add to his financial burden and he becomes completely immersed. The village mui:;t, of course, expand, to be i'!:re of a real factor in the housing situation and not I age merely a demonstration. Efforts to insure the necessary finances are being made. Meantime the "demonstration" has been of value, and more than one commercial building proposition has examined the plant, and profited thereby. The mere production of better housing, even if commercial interest demands will be greater, is very necessary. Related to the emergence of common action Women and among industrial groups employed in largeIndustry scale industry are pieces of work undertaken by the Y.W.C.A. in Shanghai, Chefoo and 'fientsin. At the time of writing, it is only in the first named city

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RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS 317 that any "action" has yet been taken, but the work undertaken in the other two cities is of significance for the future. The Association has realized the principle that if a la.bor movement, co-ordinated and functioning, exists, co-operative work in relation to it is a worthy program. But in Shanghai no such unified Jabor movement could be relied upon; its factional and evanescent nature make direct relationship impossible. Thus the Association finds itself faced with a still more fundamental problem-the finding and educating of a potential leadership among industrial women. To this end, literacy classes in Shanghai have been established in seven centers, and contacts among women in tobacco, cotton, silk, match and egg industries have been made. Advantage has been taken of the prolonged industrial upheaval to organize "strike" schools, day-time schools instead of night classes, and of China New Year recess to develop interest among silk women in educational work. Upon this basic work self-governing clubs are being subsequently developed for the purpose of bringing out any latent group-leadership qualities, and of introducing into the club program other social-educative features. A future educational program deals with certain phases of industrial life and the relation of women thereto. In Cbefoo a similar club program is being developed based upon several years of emphasis upon mass education for which that center is famous. In Tientsin, prior to the undertaking of a program of work among industrial women-indeed, as a means of understanding the nature and extent of the problems so that it might be determined whether or not such a program should be undertaken-the Tientsin Y.W.C.A. authorized a "survey" of the situation. It is now known that there are approximately 10,000 women employed in industries in that city-that some of these are in certain stable groups, with fair conditions of work; others are in most depressed groups, employed upon coarse military uniforms, work varying greatly in quantity from time to time; others in seasonal industries like nut-picking; etc. And keeping in mind the long aim of any work which a voluntary

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318 RECENT SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS association like the Y. W.C.A. might undertake among them-the production of a leadership among them to the end that their own movement may become a real factor in their obtaining for themselves satisfactory standards of life-the Tientsin Y.W.C.A. will wisely begin with the most stable and intelligent group available, those employed in the tobacco trades.

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CHAPTER XXIX WORK FOR THE BLIND Miss S. ], Garland At a meeting held on May 8th, 1928 in the offices of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Braille Literaturet Association for China was formally constituted with the object of consolidating what has already been done in the way of preparing Christian literature for the blind of China, and of increasing the output both of printed and hand-written Braille books. The following brief outline of work amongst the blind of this Ja.nd, is taken from the survey volume prepared for the National Christian Conference held in 1922, as it gives some of the facts which have led up to the formation of this new society. I. SCHOOLS FoR THE BLIND Efforts to secure full information as to the work carried on for the blind in this land have met with but partial success. More especially is this so with regard to the number of graduates recorded. Some of the older schools have no detailed records of the earlier years of their work. The returns given here a.re based on the replies received in answer to the questionnaires sent out in 1920, with the addition of some more recent items, and are a.s complete as the information to hand permits. Number of schools for the blind 29 Number of provinces having schools for blind 12 Number of pupils in these schools!-Girls 502 Boys 254 Men 39 Women... 10 Total 805

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320 WORK FOR THE BLIND Number of blind teachers in these schools 40 Number of Christians in these schools 287 Number of graduates from these schools 123 Number of graduates who are self-supporting 87 Number of graduates who are partially Relfsupporting 21 By all that has been done in schools an
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WORK FOR THE BLIND 321 Braille signs were used by him to represent the initials and finals needed to denote all the sound forms used in the Hankow form of Mandarin. In this way no word needed more than two signs or lettters for its formation These two signs could be rhymed together to produce the required sound after the fashion of the "fan-chieh" used in Chinese dictionaries and vocabularies. This system was much easier to learn than those mentioned above, and books were produced which were considerably less bulky and weighty than those which followed the alphabetic plan. (4) The lnitlial and Final Principle as adapted/or use in all Mandarin-Speaking Areas. In 1904, the principle of the Hankow system was followed in preparing a scheme for use anywhere in the Mandarin-speaking area. The books of this system (known as the Tsinchow System, because it emanated from Tsinchow, Kansu) were prepared in such a way as to make home teaching of the blind quite simple and easy, and the books were used with success in several provinces. (5) "The Initial and Final Plan Adopted in South China for Non-Mandarin Dialects. The use of the initial and final plan spread before long to Hongkong, Canton, and Foochow, where the alphabetical systems formerly used were dis carded in favour of the simpler method. The change in each place has been felt t o be of great value. (6) "Union of the Hankow and Tsinchow Initial and Final S .vstems. In 1913 the British and Foreign and the American Bible Societies called a conference of those interested, with the object of combining the Hankow and Tsinchow systems so as to secure a Standard Braille system for all Mandarin-speaking provinces. Language experts representing the main sections of Mandarin were chosen to settle the two chief points on which union was essential, namely, the preparation of a sound sheet which would contain all the sounds needed to represent Pu Tung Kwan Hwa (Universal Mandarin), and the choice of a standard which would serve as a guide in the classification of characters. Without the latter it was realized that there never could be uniformity in the Braille books published

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322 WORK FOR THE BLIND by the Bible Societies or other publishing houses After due consideration, the sound sheet of the Tsinchow System was accepted without a.Iteration, and it was decided to adapt the Syllabary of the Standard Romanized System for the classing of characters under the various sound divisions. Into the more technical points discussed at the Conference it is not necessary to enter here. Union Braille with possibly one exception is now being used in all the schools for the blind in Mandarin-speaking areas. "The Union System, like the one on which it was largely based, is especially adapted for use in home teaching of the blind, and is being widely used for this purpose with very good results. Not only have numbers of blind people learned to read, but in several places schools have been opened as a result of the teaching done by those who had no previous training or experience in teaching the blind. It is not even necessary for a mis sionary or Chinese helper to learn the Braille system before teaching it. Ten or fifteen minutes given to a careful reading of the brief introduction to the Braille Primer will enable almost anyone to grasp the principle of the f'iystem. This being done, the teacher's main work is to give the pupil the sound of the Chinese character which is written over each Braille sign or word: as the pupil fingers bis dots he is at the same time pointing to the character which gives the sound he wants to learn." III. CENTRAL ORGANIZATIONS. Shortly after the adoption of the Union Braille system it became clear that there was urgent need for some central organization which could arrange for the production and distribution of Braille Literature, and in other ways seek to promote and extend all efforts to bring light to the blind of China. .A small Committee, known as the Mandarin Braille Literature Committee, with Dr. G. H. Bondfield as its chairman, was therefore formed in 1914. In a quiet way, and with limited funds, this Committee did useful work: teaching material in the Union system, and other books were published, and Braille requisites

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WORK FOR THE BLIND 323 were stocked and sent to those who would otherwise have been unable to secure them. In 1919 the M.B.L. Committee became affiliated with the China Continuation Committee, and later on with the National Christian Council. Additional members were secured and plans laid for wider work. These plans were followed by a certain measure of success, but while realising the great value of whaL had been accomplished, the Committee not infrequently ardently longed for some more effective way of extending their work. The N.C.C. in 1926, after due consideration, decided that it was unable to give any really effective help in the work of the committee on work for the blind, anJ that it would there fore be better for that committee to stand on its own feet. A deputation from the N .C.C. met with representatives of The Work for the Blind Committee, and the whole matter in its many bearings was very fully discussed. As a consequence of these deliberations a circular letter was sent to all missionaries known to be actively interested in work for the blind, suggesting the formation of a Braille Literature Association for China. The circular met with an encouraging response and the Association was duly constituted at the meeting above mentioned when the former committee's working capital (including stock and cash in hand) and activities were transferred to the new Association. The following are some of the lines of work which the Braille Literature Association hopes to carry on: -1. The production of Braille literature. 2. The promotion of home teaching of the blind. 3. The stocking of Braille requisites. 4. Snch survey work as may be possible. 5. The issuing of bulletins in Chinese and English to stimulate interest in work for the blind. IV. HOME TEACHING OF THE BLIND A great extension of the work of home teaching is needed. It should ever be remembered that the number

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324 WORK !<'OR THE BLIND of blind gathered into schools will always be a very small fraction of the whole. Upon the Chinese Church, as well as upon the missionaries, lies the burden of going after these other sheep" so sorely needy and so far from the fold of the Good Shepherd, until they too are brought again rejoicing. The following hints as to how the '' home teaching '' is done ma.y be of interest. In one station a blind man began to come to meetings Two Christian men with no previous knowledge of Braille or of teaching methods, saving only a brief explanation by the missionary of the principle on which the system was based, undertook to visit the blind man and give one hour a week each to teaching him. It took three months of this teaching and occasional visits to the missionary for the man to learn to read the Gospel of Mark On a visit to a city two day's journey from the central station, a missionary found a bright lad to whom she gave a copy of the Braille alphabet, following it up with a primer sent by the evangelist with directions to him and the local Christians as to the way to teach the system. The lad became an intelligent reader, and being at a later date supplied with a Braille writing slate, learned to write in an astonishingly short time. In another province a worker writes, "Our blind pupil comes to our dining-room every Sunday afternoon, where one of our schoolboys teaches him under my supervision." Some of the fruits of home teaching of the blind in China are as follow: In Shohchow, Shansi, a blind Christian, Mr. Tuan, was taught to read. He began to teach others, and before long a small school for the blind was opened with Mr. Tuan in charge. Four of the meri trained in this school h ave done excellent work as evangelists and hospital preachers.

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WORK FOR THE BLIND 325 A youllg man in Yiyang, Hunan, was taught to read and afterwards became a teacher in a school bpened in his city. At Kuhwo, Shansi, a man of 23 was taught to read, and developed into an efficient and helpful scripture reader; public reading of the scriptures in busy markets proving a very useful form of work. A young man whose eyes had been gouged out in a brawl got medical help from a mii,sionay doctor, and was taught to read and write. Braille. He became a most able preacher and Bible teacher, keeping all his notes in Braille. V. THE PROGRAMME OF THE BRAILLE LITERATURE ASSOCIATION The production and distribution of Christian literature for the blind will be the chief work of the Association and there are hopeful signs of growing interest and activity in this direction. A group of friends in England are showing the keenest interest in helping to prepare fresh literature in Mandarin Union Braille. Miss Branscombe has already completed the manuscript for the "Pilgrim's Progress," and through the kindness of Mr. Yoshimoto the book is to be printed in Japan, the work being done voluntarily by blind Japanese Christians. Hand-written copies of other books are also being prepared and it is hoped that a long-talked-of circulating library may yet become a reality. The Rev. Walter Canner, Principal of the Hill Murray School for the Blind in Peking and Mr. G. B. Fryer of the Institution for Chinese Blind, Shanghai, now have machines for printing Braille, and hope to produce school text-books and other literature as required. The syllabary of the standard romanization system, which was chosen in 1913 as the recognized standard to be followed in all books prin't.ed in Union Braille with a view to secnring a uniform classification of characters according to correct pronounciation, has been out of print for some three years. After prolonged correspondence and discus-

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326 WORK FOR THE BLIND siou it has been decided to print a syllabary giving substantially the same collection of characters with national phonetic equivalents instead of romanized, and a guide list of Braille spellings. This booklet will prove of great value to those who prepare literature in Mandarin Braille, and will meet a long-felt want. The expense connected with its production is being borne by the Phonetic Promotion Committee. Workers for the blind in China owe a great debt of gratitude to the staff of the British and Foreign Bible Society who cheerfully added to their regular work by managing the accounts and handling the stock of the Committee on Work for the Blind. Without this help so willingly and efficiently given tht work of the committee would have been impossible. It is a cause for rejoicing that the same able hands will continue to forward the work of the Braille Literature Association. The Association starts its work with capital in stock and funds as follows:-Braille requisites and books, value Cash in hand and promises Total ... Mex. $ 733.30 $ 814.03 The Committee of the Braille Literature Association for the first year has been constituted as follows: President Rev. G. W. Sheppard Vice-President Rev. D. MacGillivray, D.D. Secretary... Mr. H. L. Bourne Treasurer Mr. U. Briner Miss S. J. Garland Rev. W. A. Main Rev. C. E. Patton The official address of the Association is 3 Hongkong Road, Shanghai.

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PART VII MEDICAL AND HEALTH WORK CHAPTER XXX PUBLIC HEALTH WORK Iva M. Miller The term "Wei Sheng," or sanitation, Introduction is a common expression in the ordinary conversation of many persons in the Republic of China. [t is used as an appellation for laundries, food-shops, clothing-shops, hotels, bookstores, and barber-shops. The popularity of this word would lead one to think that its use was the result of the work of efficient departments of health. But this is not the case. The newspaper publicity men and also educationalists, who realize the advantages of better health and sanitation for the people, have done their utmost to popularize the word and have succeeded although many of those who use it fail to realize its full significance. However, China has made an effort to Departments secure health legislation. When the Nationa of Health list Government was in the process of organization, Mrs. Sun Yat Sen, the wife of the Nationalist leader, suggested that a National Ministry of Health be organized with a branch in every province. The idea met with approval but after discussion it was decided that a Department of Public Health be established in the Ministry of Interior, and also that each provincial government provide for a Department of Health in its organization and its budget. The Ministry of Commerce, Labor and Industry was given power to supervise hygiene in Industries.

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328 PUBLIC HEALTH WORK Boards of Health In two of the provinces, controlled by the Nationalists, boards of health have been established. In Kwantung Province, in the City of Canton, there is a well-organized health department which was started some ten years ago when Dr. Sun Yat Sen 's party was in power. It has had many changes of personnel during that time but it has continued its existence and is now recognized as a vital part of the provincial machinery. Last year the staff was composed of four men and two women physicians in addition to fourteen others, lecturers and clerks. They were doing excellent work in school hygiene by giving health examinations to all the students and teachers in government primary schools Curative clinics were being established and health teaching introduced into the curriculum. Health lectures were being given regularly by lecturers who had been trained for that purpose. The City of Shanghai is fortunate in having ihbifh;; Ith three departments of public health. The u c ea International Settlement, under the Shanghai Municipal Council, has a well-organized and efficient Department of Public Health which was started thirty years ago. The French Concession also assumes respon sibilities for the health of the citizens living under the jurisdiction of the French Municipal Council. In the Province of Kiangsu is the Municipality of Greater Shanghai which is outside the above-mentioned areas, including the sections known as Nan Tao, Chapei, Paoshan, Pootung, W oosung, with a radius of about twenty miles outside the City of Shanghai. The sanitation of this area is the responsibility of the Department of Public Health of the Municipality of Greater Shanghai. This department was organized two years ago under the supervision of Dr. Hou Ki Hu, a graduate from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, and he has been in charge most of the time since. Other Cities In addition to these, a number of cities have made provision under the Department of Police for a Division of Public Health. Nanking, Peking, Swatow, Tientsin, Hankow, and Hangchow, each

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 329 has a division subject to the will of the head of the department. The head of the division is sometimes a trained public health man but frequently an M. D. or, as in one case, a chemist. In Peking, the Department of Police is fortunate in having a Health Demonstration Station with a number of public health men and women and public health nurses on its staff. Epidemic Prevention Public health education is not limited to these organizations. In Peking there is a National Epidemic Prevention Bureau which is doing noble work in promoting better health conditions in China. Mr. Grover Clark of the Peking Leader has given us a bird's eye view of its activities in his article, "A Constructive Institution." "During the September just past, an epidemic of cholera was reported in Tientsin, chiefly among the Chinese soldiers. Special messengers from the Chinese armies and the foreign forces in Tientsin were rushed to Peking to get cholera vaccine. Enough to treat 32,600 persons was supplied from one place here. As a result, the epidemic was quickly brought under control. Instead of raging for weeks and bringing sickness and death to hundreds if not thousands of people, only a few caught the disease, ~nd the total number of deaths was small. Had the same sort of epidemic started in Tientsin ten years ago, unquestionably it would have been much more serious, in no small part because it would have been impossible to get the vaccine for preventive innoculation in anything like so short a time. Stocks on band locally would soon have been exhausted, and Japan would have been the nearest source of further supplies. "Other organizations, of course, helped in checking the Tientsin epidemic. But much of the prompt and effoctive dealing with this epidemic was possible only because of what has been done here in Peking in building up the National Epidemic Prevention Bureau. The savings in life and suffering in this one instance, which were brought about because this organization was able to supply the cholera vaccine promptly and in adequate

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330 PUBLIC HEALTH WORK quantities, far more than justifies all the money and effort which has put into its organizing and equipment. "Most of t.he doctors in Peking, and a Knowledge of good many in various other parts of the Bureau country, know at least m a general way what the bureau is and what it does. A good many of the doctors and hospitals in China have come to rely on it almost exclusively for supplies of serums and vaccines, as well as for laboratory examinations in the diagnosis of disease. Nearly seven thousand people in Peking have come into direct contact with the bureau through submitting themselves to vaccination against smallpox by members of its staff. A good many school children have heard of it vaguely in connection with the 'swat the fly' campaign last spring, and through lectures and demonstrations of various sorts which the bureau has arranged. Thousands of others have seen the handbills and posters which the bureau has distributed in its public health education campaigns. Hundreds of soldiers wounded in the fighting around Peking in recent years have been saved by anti-tetanus inoculations with serum manufactured by the bureau. "Nevertheless, the very existence of the bureau is entirely unknown to many even here in Peking. A large proportion of those who have heard of it have no conception of the scope or importance of the work which it is doing. "Some may have eeen the white signboards out at the Temple of Heaven which indicate where its headquarters are located. But those who have seen and passed by in most cases have had little appreciation of the fascination which a trip through the place offers. I had the privilege of making such a trip recently Work: of Bureau "The significance of the bureau's work came pointedly home in connection with the recent cholera outbreak in 'fientsin, referred to above. In a very real sense, however, the bureau simply took this sudden demand for preventive medical supplies in the stride of its regular work.

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 331 "As one part of its work, it makes a large variety of serums, anti-toxins and vaccines, using the latest scientific methods in manufacture and in testing for purity and quality. It sells these products to hospitals and doctors all over the country, at what are really nominal charges. Demand for Bureau's Products "Some idea of the important contribution it makes to better health in China is given by a few figures. During the past year, for example, it has Sflnt out serums and vaccines in cubic centimeter quantities as follows: Diptheria, 139,030; tetanus, 20,540; cholera, 97,485; triple typhoid, 27,298; besides lesser quantities of preventive and curative materials for some twenty other diseases. The total issued amounte
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332 PUBLIC HEAL'fH WORK members of the staff vaccinated some 3, 762 persons for smallpox during the first nine months of 1927, and, in the same period, gave preventive inoculations for typhoid, cholera and rabies to a total of 734. "Compared with the number of similar Development treatments in a western city with over a of Bureau million population, the figures, of course, are very small. It should be borne in mind, however, that they represent a clear advance in the use of modern scientific medicine to prevent and cure disease. In 1924, the bureau gave only 255 smallpox vaccinations-that was the first year in which this work was clone. In 1925 the figure was 316. For the year 1926 the total reached 4,905. This year, to judge from the record so far, the figure should be considerably a hove last year's total. "This sudden rise from 1925 to 1926 was Public Health a direct result of the bureau's work in another Education field-that of public health education. In May, 1925, a public heaHh demonstration station was started, in cooperation with the metropolitan police department and the department of hygiene of the Peking Union Medical College. "From this beginning, the work has developed in many directions-public lectures in schools and elsewhere on sanitation, on the menace of the fly, and other similar health subjects; circulation of thousands of hand bills and posters explaining the need of precautions against in fection and of the advantages of preventive inoculation; special lectures for local magistrates in various parts of Peking and neighboring areas, etc. "The bureau shared in the anti-fly campaign with the Y.M.C.A. last May and June. It is working with Yenching University in the Yenta Health Center at Chengfu. It joined with the P.U.M.C. in the rat flea survey here last year. These are only a few of its public health activites. To cover the whole of this field even in summary would require far more space than is available here.

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 333 '' In all the fields of its work, of course, the bureau is still far from adequate for the needs even of Peking itself, to say nothing of the whole of China. But the fact that this organization, established in March, 1919, has steadily improved in both the variety and the efficiency of its work is of great interest as demonstrating that in spite of wars and political upheavals really constructive work is going on in China. "The proposal for a special bnreau the Special Public work of which would be to promote public Health Bureau health and, particularly, to check the spread of epidemics which were so serious in China, was discussed for some time in 1917 and 1918. In June of the latter year, following an epidemic of pneumonia, the then minister of the interior issued an order for the establishment of the bureau. "Research in communicable diseases and bacteriology, maenfacture of all types of serums and vaccines, and standardization and examination of drugs, should all be undertaken by the bureau in order that it might assume adequate responsibility in protecting the lives of the people," the order concluded. Dr. L. C. Yen, the director of the government isolation hospital, and Mr. Liu Tao-jen, director of the sanitary bureau of the ministry, were appointed to make preparations. "The bureau was formally established in March, 1919, a hundred acres of Jand in the outer part of the Temple of Heaven grounds being set aside for it. Some old buildings were remodelled and a number of new ones have been built in the intervening years as money was available. The present buildings, in addition to offices, laboratory rooms for various special purposes, etc. include animal rooms, stables, refrigerator plant, and separate laboratory buildings for work on anti-plague vaccine and tetanus antitoxin. Further equipment and buildings are badly needed, particularly as the work is developing so rapidly, but the bureau has enough now to do work of the very highest quality. "The financing of such an institution is always a problem. When the bureau was started, the money was

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334 PUBLIC HEALTH WORK supposed to come from cm,toms' surplus funds, through the ministry of finance. Within a year, however, it became clear that this source was not reliahle enough to insure really efficient operation. Fund From Customs "The proposal was put forward, therefore, to have the bureau paid directly from the customs' administration. This proposal was discussed with the diplomatic corps and the inspectorgeneral of customs. Finally an agreement was reached in 1921, whereby the appropriation of $112,872 annually (the amount decided on by parliament in 1919) should be paid directly from the customs' administration, the control of the money to be in the hands of a finance committee, part of the members of which should be foreigners. "The bureau has been operating on this money since. The income from the oustoms is rnpplemented, now, by receipts from the sale of the bureau's products. In the twelve months ending September HO, 1927, this supplementary amount totalled $17,942.99, making a gross revenue of $130,814.99. Gros~ expenses for the same period amounted to $130,593.97, of which a little over $80,000.00 went for salaries and the rest for chemicals, laboratory equipment, etc. and additions to the buildings. Technical Staff "The success of an institution of this kind depends, of course, primarily on the ability and character of the men who run H. This task has fallen in the main on the technical staff, rather than on the men who, as successive directors, have been the official heads of the bureau. Since the bureau is under the ministry of the interior, the men who have held this position have been somewhat subject, in their tenure of office, to the vagaries of Peking politics, so that it has been impossible for them to plan or carry out a long-view program of development. Fortunately, however, the successive directors, especially when they were not themselves medically trained, have been wise enough to leave the technical side of the bureau's work in the hands of the technically trained men, and even on the administrative side there has been comparatively little political interference.

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 335 "The four men who have been most actively associated with the development of the bureau as a technically efficient institution have been Dr. Tsefang F. Huang, S.B., S.M M.D., Dr. Edgar T. H. Tsen, M.D., Dr. P. Z. King, 1\1.D., C .P.H., and Dr. M Y. Dzen, M.D. All of these men, after taking their medical degrees, have spent various periods in the United States getting special training along the line of their chosen work. "Dr. King, for example, returned only this last summer from a year in the United States where he took the pn blic health course at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Huang now is in the United States on leave, studying the very latest methods of work in organizations there of a nature similar to the bnreau there. Dr. Dzen has been back only a couple of years from an extended study trip in the United States, where he specialized on the methods of mauufacturing serums and vaccines, as this is his particular department. These men and the other technical Advisers experts who have been working with them there now are nine members of the staff with medical degrees from the United States, some of whom also had medical training in Japan and Europe, have had, since the beginning, the advice and cooperation of various foreign and western-trained Chinese doctors here in Peking. Dr. L. C. Yen, head of t,he government isolation hospital, has taken a keen interest in the bureau since its organization. He and Dr. Douglas Gray, formerly of the British Legation, Peking, were largely instrumental in getting it started. When Dr. Gray finally left Peking, Dr. W. H. G. Aspland was elected to the finance board to succeed him. Dr. John Grant has helped largely in getting the public health work of the bureau going. He also is on the finance board. Dr. Carl TenBroeck, as technical advisor, gave a good deal of assistance in developing the technical practice at the bureau. Dr. J. A Bnssiere and Dr. M. Kanno are among the others who have given freely of their advice and cooperation, as have Dr. C E. Lim, Dr. S. P. Chen and former Surgeon-General S. H. Chuan.

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336 PUBLIC HEAL'H WORK "This is, of course, by no means a complete list of those who in one way or another have given their time and help to the development of the bureau. But it serves to indicate the character of the men who have been contributing what they could to building the bureau up to the point where it could meet the great need for just such an institution in China. It shows, too, something of the standing which the institution has won, for men of this sort would not associate themselves with the bureau if it were not doing good work. Relation to League of Nations "Nor is the recognition of the bureau con fined to China alone. To mention only one illustrative fact: the bureau works closely with the Health Organization of the League of Nations, supplying it with data on health conditions in China which are gathered from regular monthly reports sent in by close on 200 doctors in various parts of the country. In connection with this, the following quotation from the minutes of the annual meeting for ll:J26 of the eastern section of League's Health Organization is pertinent: 'The Chairman was surprised at the success the Bureau had met with in obtaining any statistical data from China. It was an augury of better information to come and should be developed He suggested that a letter should be addressed to the Director of the National Epidemic Prevention Bureau expressing the appreciation of the Advisory Council for the work achieved and thanking them for their cooperation in this way. This was agreed to.''' Plague Prevention Another National institution known as the Manchurian Plague Prevention Service under the capable supervision of Dr. Wu Lien Teh, the eminent plague specialist, is helping to solve the problem of plague eradication. In their annual report we read:

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PUBLIC HEAL'rH WORK 337 Antiplagu~ Work: "At the beginning of the year, we were e ngaged in maintaining a quarantine in Manchouli and H a iJar again s t Outer Mongolia where an e pidemic of pnenmonic plague was reported to be preeent. The focus of infection was on the motor car and camel caravan route between Urga and Manchuria. Our work was to prevent the invasion of the disease into the railway-heads of the Chineioe Eastern Railway. "In October we were threatened by plague infec tion from Inner Mongolia on the western border of Fengtien Province. Report.s of about one hundred deaths came to us from Tung Liao, a short distance from the railway-head of the branch line of the Tzepingkai railway Our :::ervice sent a doctor there to cooperate with the railway authorities, and we also supplied vaccine. "In both instances, plague did not invade Manchuria. "Mention must be made with regard to research which is constantly going on in our laboratory in connection with problems as to how plague is propagated. Much has been revealed. We haye shown that plague is endemic among the Marmots living chiefly in the Steppes of Transbaikalia, how man may be infected by direct contact such as the skinning of an infected animal, or the bite of fleas, and how the infection is carried over the winter in the hibernating marmots. There are still many problems in the chain of events beginning with the plague infected marmot to the raging plague epidemic among man that are still to be solved and our laboratory staff is constantly endeavoring to shed light on these problems, the fruits of which may be seen in our reports and publications in other journals. In July, measures were taken against Anti-cholera cholera invasion from Shanghai by our Work medical officer in charge at the Newchwang Quarantine Hospital. Inspection of incoming vessels, and anti-cholera vaccination among the town population were the principal st.eps. Statistics "Our central office keep records of vital statistics and death notification of the towns

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338 PUBLIC HEALTH WORK where out-stations are established. Where possible, infectious disease notification records are gathered. Laboratory activities "Besides plague research, our laboratory manufactures anti-plague and anti-cholera vaccines, and anti-scarlatina inoculation. Autogenous vaccines and anti-scarlatina serum have been made by us. Routine clinical diagnosis of morbid specimens and excretions and analysis of different kinds are done. Post mortem examinations are often performed by our pathologist. Cl .. 1 L "Our hospitals admit any infectious disease 1n1ca worK that may be prevalent. In times of plague or cholera, our infectious disease compound is a boon to the town. Ordinarily we admit into our hospital both medical and surgical cases. Figures for out--patients from the latest annual report may be quoted, showing both the number of visits per year, and also the names of the towns where we have hospitals. Out-patient figures.for 1926-1927 : Harbin .. 1.'aheiho .. Sansing .. Lahasusu Newchwang Manchouli Hailar l~,077 5,443 4,105 1,356 6,588 2,038 5,420 37,027 The Peking Police Health Demonstration Peking Health was established in the fall of 1925 by order Station of the Superintendent of the MetropoHtan Police. 'i'he purpose was to effect a demonstration of modern health procedures adapted to local conditions. Surgeon-Genera.I Shisan C. Fang, the first Director of the Demonstration, obtained the cooperation of the National Epidemic Prevention Bureau and of the Peking Union Medical College in undertaking technical phases of the

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 339 work. The Demonstration covers the second left inner ward of Peking having a population of 58,000. The Health Station of the Demonstration is a converted temple located on 12 Nei Wu Pu Chieh and extending through to Pung Sze Hutung. The activities of the Demonstration are undertaken through the three Divisions of General Sanitation, Vital Statistics and Communicable Diseases, and Medical Ser vices The functions of the Division of General Sanitation are those of general sanitation including sanitary inspections of foods, beverages, drinking water, etc. The func tions of the Division of Vital Statistics and Communicable Diseases are registration of communicable diseases, and preventive inoculations. The Division of Medical Service maintains a School Health Service for two thousand students, an Industrial Medical Service for one thoueand two hundred workers and undertakes the functions of a Health Center for the population through providing the implied Clinics and Public Health Nursing services. The Staff consists of six full-time and two part-time physicians, in addition to consultants for special clinics. There are sixteen nurses, two assistants, three sanitary inspectors and a pharmacist. The Demonstration, in addition to the foregoing health functions, possesses two unique features. One is its adop tion of the principle of combining curative with preventive functions to the extent of providing a health "station" in the full sense of the term, where curative facilities for minor and emergency ailments are available to the population served by means of a daily dispensary. The second feature is the utilization of the Demonstration for teaching of hygiene and public health to undergraduate medical and nursing students through providing them with practice facilities in public health comparable to ward facilities in teaching curative medicine. Essential Features The essential features of the health work from July 1, 1926 to June 30, 1927 may be summarized as follows:

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340 PUBLIC HEAL'rH WORK Sanitation :-124,495 Inspections, 824 tons of refuse incinerated. Statistics:-Birth rate (uncorrected) 21.79 per 1,000 population. Death rate (uncorrected) 21.45 per I ,OOO population. Five chief causes of death: Phthi~is435 per 100,000 population. Heart Disease-254 per 100,000 population. Dysentery-198 per 100 000 p0pulation. Pneumonia-18 L per 100,000 population. Enteritis-147 per 100,000 population (under two years) Clinics:-3,197 Vaccinations for smallpox. \:l8 Vaccinations for typhoid. 5 Vaccinations for cholera. 26,375 Nursing visits to homes. 5,858 Clinic visits 1,646 Medical outcalls. 97 Deliveries in homes Schools:-1,681 Physical examinations. 1, 143 Children possessing 2,224 physical defects. 15 per cent correction of defects. 5,361 Treatments for acnte conditions. 902 Preventive inoculations: smallpox 791, typhoid 111. 93 cases of communicable diseases ex cluded. 46 Health talks, with attendance of 18, 160 Industrial:-1,081 Physical examinations. Counc:il on Health Education 34,603 Curative treatments {eye 28,261) 449 Vaccinations against smallpox. 69 Health talks, with attendance of 7,340 In addition to the govnnment agencies, there is a voluntary agency whose purpose is to promote health ed ncation in school, hospital, church, and community. The Council

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 341 was started in 1912 by Dr. W. W. Peter. It is a national organization with headquarters in Shanghai and is spon sored by six national organization$: The National Com mittee Y M.C.A., the National Committee Y.W.C.A., the China Medical Association, the National Medical Associa tion, the China Christian Educational Association, and the Nurses' Association of China. For the year 1928 it presents the following objectives: To promote health education among the Alm people of the Republic of China by emphasiz ing all the aspects of health-physical, mental, social and moral. To present to them an ideal of health that is not merely freedom from. disease but a realization of the highest physical, mental and spiritual possibilities of the individual. Policy 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. To help establish in China a movement for improving health conditions. To limit our activities to health education by means of lectures, interviews, instruction and preventive measures. To emphasize health rather than disease; where diseases are dealt with, stress those which are preventable. To concentrate our efforts upon the youth by: A. Promoting the Five-Fold School Health Program : ( 1) Periodic health examinations for students and teachers. (2) Improved school sanitation. (3) Physical education and supervised pla.y in every school curriculum. ( 4) Systema.Hc health teaching. (.5) Training of nealth workers. To give our primary attention to the expressed needs of our six: participating organizations and, within the limits of our resources and staff, to render whatever additional service we can to all other organizations.

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342 Program: PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 1. To maintain Central Headquarters and staff in Shanghai. 2. To carry out the Policy laid down by the participating organizations. 3 To produce materials and distribute them through our agents: A For Literature: (1) Kwang Hsueh Publishing Co. (2) Commercial Press. (3) Chung Hwa Book Co. B. For Films and Slides: (1) Association Press. 4. To establish Provincial Councils on Health Education supported locally but related to the Central Headquarters. 5. To act as a clearing house by co-ordinating the results obtained by health workers in all parts of China. 6. To make available nationally, experience gained locally. 7. To devise and promote the use of health literature and posters and make "Health" magazine popular. 8. To promote Health Centers for children. !:I. To promote Annual Health Examinations for all. 10. To promote City Health Campaigns in co-operation with local organizations and furnish leadership for them. 11. To make sanitary surveys of schools. 12. To co-operate with any agency which desires to promote health education. 13. To become a factor in promoting friendly relations among the thre e countries: China, Korea, and Japan. 14. To promote international friendship between China and all other nations. The staff of the Council works through the following different departments:

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PUBLIC HEALTH WORK 343 This department, under the able leader-HI. C?mmunity ship of Dr. C. S. Kim, Korean Public Health n=e Department man, graduate from Johns Hopkms School of Hygiene and Public Health, has become a real factor in the promotion of health education through City Health Campaigns. Since the successful campaign conducted in Canton in November, 1927, requests for such service have come in from no less than eight provinces for similar help for campaigns for a definite purpose. One city deRires to have "Cleanline.,s" for the theme of the campaign, another "Child Health," another "Anti-Plague Measures" and another "phns to take steps to eradicate cholBra. '' Dr. Kim's leqtures against disease and disease germs are giving the students an opportunity to advocate a new variety of warfare. II. Child Hygiene Department This department has been active in cooperating with the numerous health centers in Shanghai. For the past year we have supported a public health nurse at the Health Demonstration Center of the Margaret Williamson Hospital and at present are donating the services of our dental hygienist one day a week to Nan T'ao Health Center. The Health Demonstration Center of the Margaret Williamson Hospital was started in October, 1927. A weekly baby clinic is held at the hospital where every child is examined by the doctor in charge. The public health nurses and student nurses follow up each one by one or more visits in the homes. The Margaret Williamson Hospital has the reputation of having the largest obstetrical service of any hospital in the Orient. Each year more than 1,000 babies are ushered into the world. The public health nurses accept the responsibilit.y to attempt to locate each mother and visit in her home to offer any necessary help or advice. They have become so well-known in the city that they are recognized in almost any part of Shanghai as mother and baby benefactors. III. School Hygiene Department This department, for several years, has attempted to stimulate teachers at summer schools and institutes to teach the fundamentals of health to their students, Health

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344 PUBLIC HEALTH WORK examinations have become a part of the school health service in many schools. Trachoma clinics are being established. Sanitary surveys of schools have become popular. A dental hygienist in the departments has helped much to dispel the superstitious idea that a dentist's desire is to extract all the teeth of the students. IV. Chinese Literature Department This department is co-operating with the Department of Health of the Municipality of Greater Shanghai by giving the services of the head of the department. "Health," formerly our bi-lingual magazine issued quarterly, has now become a monthly magazine in Chinese with an English supplement quarterly. The weekly Health News Service is now regularly used by more than one hundred newspapers. Public health work in China is still in its Summary infancy and there is much hope that through the various agencies already established, it mn.y grow into a lusty child and later a robust adult. With closer co operation between health eease prevention. The cosmopolitan character of the inhabitants of her large cities gives a rare and unusual opportunity for international help in stamping out communicable disease and promoting health not only for China but for every country on the globe. Interest in health is not confined to any one group of people. Students, business men and women, home makers, teachers and preachers are all earnestly seeking to inspire their students with a desire to follow the rules of health so that they may become more efficient workers. Regular exercises, a balanced diet, how to feed and dress the baby, how mnch sleep is required for a normal adult, are among the questions heard every clay. With the present prospect of a stable government in China and a National Health Organization having a branch in every province, China's health future has unlimited possibilities.

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CHAPTER XXXI MISSION HOSPITALS AND MEDICAL RESEARCH James L. Maxwell In medicine perhaps more than in any Investigation other pursuit there is no possibility of Going On standing still. Choice has to be made of going forward or slipping back. Perhaps this may be hardly true in the. strict sense of the word as intelligent volition by no means always comes into the case and certainly never where retreat is implied. Nevertheless the fact remains that by their actions men indicate their choice be it by reasoned desire or not. In a few cases one has been compelled to see doctors of real ability sink to the level of mere mechanicians, doing their work by what might be described as rule-of-thumb methods and becoming less of true physicians from year to year. Such happily in our profession are few, and fewer still in the ranks of our medical missionaries in China, but the only way to avoid the possibility of such a position is to push on with active investigation seeking always new and better methods for the alleviation of suffering. Deliberately or otherwise the medical missionary is almost always to be found in the ranks of the investigators and the role that some of them have played has been no small one. Cinchona Bark The famous instance of Cinchona Bark found and brought into wide use by the Jesuit missionaries of South America is but an example of what has been accomplished in the past anrl has not a few counterparts in more recent years, and it is to the medical missionaries scattered through China that we owe very much of our present knowledge of the distribution, peculiarities and treatment of the disea1oes of this land.

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346 MEDICAL RESEARCH As has been said, the bulk of the doctors Concentratlo,a Needed are rnvest1ga.tors, puf'hing on to new and better treatment of the sufferers committed to their charge and ever delving into the reasons for success and failure in their own methods. But w bile this is true it is also true that mnch effort has been wasted through la.ck of concerted work. Some twenty years a.go the China l\fodical Missionary Association organized a Research Committee with the express aim of such concerted action in the field of investigation. The work of this Research Committee (now known as the Council on Research) proved to be of v ery great value and a good deal was accomplished in this way. On the other hand the lack of any funds for the central organization of such work and the impossibility of helping in individual problems handicapped considerably the endeavoni of the Committee, nor: did the doctors as a whole respond quite as they might have done. This can hardly be considered surprising Obstacles in view of the obstacles that had to be overcome by most of them, often isolated at a considerable distance from other professional men and always with more routine work on their hands than could be properly covered. Under such circmrnitances it is natural that local and pressing problems of the moment should tend to exclude any more general attempt to carry out research. Yet it should be realized that the wider Importance problems of medical research have an importance that cannot be overlooked. The success of the work of mission hospitals from the professional point of view implies a knowledge of the prevalent diseases and the rules that govern their successful treatment and there is no question that there are many diseases in China of whose distribution and methods of cure we are largely jgnorallt. To reach a true knowledge and solution of the problems that these afford combined effort is essential and in some way, small or great, every hospital can and ought to contribute to the general increase of such scientific knowledge.

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MEDICAL RESEARCH 347 To facilitate this two things are necessary:-(1) Some central organization or clearing Central house to gather in the material from indi-Orgaoization viduals and especially from isolated workers, to put workers in touch with others comidering the same problem, to give assistance and advice where that i~ desired, to supply information as required and generally to be at the disposal in any and every way possible of those doing the work. This the Research Committee has been unable to do in the past through no fault of its own, but because it has necessarily been composed of men whose whole time was already fully occupied with their own work and their own problems. It was also without any financial resources. All Must Participate (2) Some method is required that will enable the bu!"y and isolated hospital doctor to take a share, however small in contributing to the sum of knowledge which is the basis of all progress. It cannot be too strongly insisted upon that, while it must undoubtedly fall to specialists usually in large institutions and with ample time and apparatus at their command to work out the details of any complete investigation, the providing of the material and the greater part of the information can only come from individual physicians and hospitals. The importance of their side of the work and what they can themselves accomplish can hardly be overestimated. And here I should like to quote a paragraph which appeared recently in a leading medical periodical. Spirit Important "The scientific worker is not confined to laboratories; it is the spirit and not the place that makes the scientific man. Every practitioner of medicine may be, and should be, a scientific man doing just as much to advance knowledge as any worker in a laboratory. In fact, it is the man in practice who so often starts the hare, finds the problem to be solved, and the credit of the hunt is his, although he may call on his physiologic and pathologic colleagues to help him in the chase."

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348 Crux of Problem MEDICAL RESEARCH The real problem is how can such work be overtaken without adding the last straw to the burden of already overworked men. I believe that it can be done by certain rearrangements of the work and it surely adds inspiration and interest to what is often rather a dull routine. Perhaps the first place might be given to a common system in the record of cases. Practically all hospitals record their cases in some form or other and a number of them publish such records annually. Yet for lack of any common 8ystem of record and publication most of such reports are almost entirely valueless from the point of view of an investigator into the distribution of diseases in China. Here a little common system introduced into our methods would prove of the greatest practical value. But apart from this and in the matter of combined investigation into some special type of disease there is yet much that could be done without adding to the burden of the medical superintendent by the employment of a trained technician in the pathological department. The whole subject of technicians requires Technicians a much more careful consideration than has been given to it yet by either the mission boards at home or the medical superintendents of hospitals on the field. The need for such workers is being increasingly felt by the organizers of hospitals in the West, and there is steadily growing up a separate class of such technicians in America and Europe. It is recognized that much of the work in several of the departments of hospital organization is really more of a technical than a professional nature and that the employment of medical men who have had long and costly training to fit them for more strictly professional work is an uneconomical way of nandling the pro!)lem. Cb" N d Now if this be true in the West where mas ee doctors are rather treading on each others' heels it is infinitely more so in China where well trained physicians both Chinese and foreign are terribly scarce. Here it becomes almost a crime to employ a fully trained man or woman in non-essentials, or in work that could be

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MEDICAL RESEARCH 349 equally well done by a trained technician. Much of hospital management and practically all of the routine work in the departments of pharmacy, X-ray and practical pathology can thus be handle
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350 MEDICAL RESEARCH when the present troubles in China put an end to its career of usefulness. Failing this it might yet be possible to get some sort of training for such men in some of our existing larger hospitals. New A encv There is hope also that the first difficulty g may also shortly be met through the agency of an Institute of Medical Research which may before long be established in Shanghai. Through the beneficence of the late Mr. Henry Lester, who left money for this purpose, it is likely that such an institute will be founded in this city. Further it is hoped that one department of the work of such an institute may be that of field research, the main aim of which would be to provide a solution to this problem which has been hindering the work of research in many of the hospitals in China. Should this prove possible the head of this department would make it an essential part of his work to get in personal touch with the mission hospitals, including those isolated in country districts, as far as this could be done. It should then be possible to give the hospitals all the aid they require in the way of information and advice if desired, and to keep them in touch with other hospitals working on similar problems. It should be the aim of this Department of Field Research to help the hospitals in any medical problems that arise to the fullest extent that it can with a view to solving the individual problem for the common good. It would on its side seek help from the hospitals in the supply of material and information for the solution of special problems of individual diseases and it should also seek with the help of the hospitals for further elucidation of the facts about the distribution of diseases in this country and of the factors which encourage and limit their spread. If, as we s incerely hope may prove possible, such an institute should be established, the relations of the mission hospitals to research will be placed in an infinitely better position and it is surely not too sanguine to believe that a remarkable stimulus to medical progress in this country will be given.

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PART VIII LITERATURE CHAPTER XXXII RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES IN 1927 George A. Clayton Distribution Went On Emphasis must be laid at the beginning of this chapter on the fact that despite the troubles which have occurred in all parts of China the work of the religious tract societies has not ceased for one day during the year under revi ew In Chnngking there w a s intense excitement and much strain, but the d e pot was not closed. In Hankow it was necessa.ry to work for a long time with the shutters up and the front doors closed, but the work went on. In Shanghai, Amoy and Fukien the conditions were full of anxiety, but the work was not st o pped at any time. And at Hongkong m atters were of coun;e quite normal. The note of thanksgiving must therefore be soun
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352 RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES There are still many places where the money order system is not in vogue and the transmission of stamps in letters is not unattended with risk. So the missionary has been looked upon as the agent of the societies, and right graciously has he undertaken the work of forwarrling orders anrl collecting payments. And for this reason the withdrawal of the missionaries had a very serious reaction on the sales of books. It was not till the middle of the year, when it became clear that the missionaries would not soon return to the stations, that the inflow of orders sent direct from individuals and churches began. 'l'his difficulty is thus proving to be a blessing in disguise, for the societies have long wished to establish direct contact with their cuRtomers in inland places. Anti-Communism and Communism Another difficulty arose when the Hankow Government took exception to a number of publications which had been prepared to show that Christianity was neither communistic nor imperialistic. These publications had been received with delight, and orders had poured in from all parts of China. Like a bolt from the blue came an intimation that the Hankow Depot was forbidden to use the mails because of these publications. For two or three weeks it looked as if this hindrance would never be removed while the Government then in power remained in office. But through the kindly intervention of several Chinese pastors a compromise was effected. 'l'he society agreed to destroy its stocks of certain publications and the Government withdrew the ban. Hardly had this arrange ment been made, when the Nanking Government issued orders that all packages bearing the labels of the Religious Tract Society for China were to be seized and destroyed. And these orders were issued because the society was supposed to be sending out pro.communistic propaganda! With the aid of H B. M. Consulate-General this serious accusation was challenged and on investigation it was found that the Communists in Hankow, finding that the society had been allowed to use the mails under the terms of the settlement just mentioned, had printed imitations of the society's labels and used them on its packages of

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RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES 353 propaganda. Acknowledgment must be made of the courtesy of the Nationalist Commissioner in arriving at a settlement of this very difficult matter. It is good to know that the honesty of the society's methods was fully recognized both in Hankow and Nanking. Cl 0 The third and last difficulty to be os111g own d h the Presses ment10ne arose t rough the act10n of the communistic Labor Unions in Hankow, where the printing works of the Religious Tract Society for China are locnted. The trouble did not arise inside the works, but was part of a concerted movement to dislocate trade in Hankow. When the reduced demand for mission printing and the inadvisability of pushing forward new publications were taken into account, it was easier to be reconciled to the suspension of business. But it was with the utmost reluctance that the works were closed and the loyal work men dismissed. The works were closed in March and reopened in September, about half the employees being re-engaged till business revives sufficiently to warrant manning the whole pla.nt. A Successful Turning from the difficulties encountered, Year's Work it is gratifying to record that there has not been anywhere as large a fall in circulation as might have been expected. Unfortunately the figures from the West China Society and the North Fukien Society have not come to hand, so that a complete table of circula tion cannot be given. The South Fukien Society reports a circulation of 65,134 publications as compared with one of 120,000 in the previous year, and quite rightly sees in this decline no ground for discouragement. 'l'he Religious Tract Society for China, which regards North, Central and East China as its immediate field, reports a circulation of 4,813,814 publications as compared with one of 5,958,479 in the previous year. Such figures leave no room for disappointment, for it has to be remembered that 1924-5 was the first year in which a circulation of over four millions was attained. The total in 1925 was 4,143,828 so that 1927 will stand as having attained an even higher figure than that. It is evident that the tract societies have established themselves in the hearts of the Chinese Christians and are

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354 RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES recognized as indispensable helpers in the work of carrying the Gospel to the masses. The Aim of the Tract Societies For, if one may digress for a moment from a review of the one year's work, it is the reaching of the masses which is the primary object for which the various tract societies have been established. They may, and they do, take no Rmall part in the production of commentaries on the Bible, of hymnals and helps to devotion, of biographies and stories for the young: but their chief work must ever be to prepare and circulate bookletfi, tracts and posters announcing in the simplest possible language the good news of salvation from sin through the Son of God, our Savior Jesus Christ. The "Foundation Principles" which govern the work of all the societies associated with the Religious Tract Society of London make this point quite clear, as the following quotation will show. Foundation Principles "In the preparation of the society's tracts, it is the desire and aim of the committee that all such publications shall, as far as possible, contain a clear statement of the method of a sinner's recovery from guilt and misery, by the atonement and grace of the Redeemer. So that, if a person were to read a tract even of the smallest size, and should never have an opportunity of seeing another, he might be plainly taught that, in order to attain salvation, he must be born again of the Holy Spirit, and justified by faith in the perfect obedience unto death of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ." Built upon that foundation, the work of the societies is something which the powers of hell may attack, but cannot overthrow. Publication Deferred Speaking in general terms, the tract societies suspended their publication work during 1927. That is to say, the number of new books and tracts actually published was very small indeed. The Society in Amoy continued to issue the "Amoy Church News" and other publications in the romanized vernacular. The Society in Hankow issued tracts and posters for the Week of Evangelism, some other

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RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES 355 posters and editions in Chinese of Stirling's "Atlas of the Life of Christ" and "Atlas of the Life of Paul." But it was not feasible, with the strikes which prevailed in Shanghai, to transfer any of the work which was in hand in the press in Bankow to Shanghai for completion It is probable that the year l 92f3 will therefore be a record one, since the work of translators and writers was continued and a number of mannscripts were completed. Finances Satisfactory It is essential in thinking of the financial side of this work to remember that the tract societies have no "home base" in the ordinary sense. That is to say, while the various tract societies in China are linked to the Religious Tract Society in London, and to the American and Upper Canada Tract Societies, they are not entitled to submit a budget and ask for an appropriation. They are encouraged to state their needs and outline their pl a ns, and the committees of these three great societies are always sympathetic and ready to help. It is gratifying to know that the societies have collected from various sources enough to meet their immediate needs during 1927, and all of them look forward into 1928 in a spirit of confidence that their strength will be sufficient to their day Lessons Learnt Turning our attention now from the hindrances which have arisen and the work which has been accomplished during 1927, we come to ask what lessons this period of exceptional stress has taught the tract societies. For times of testing may well reveal what lines of activity are no longer of value as well as point to lines which ought to be pursued, and happy is the man or the society which can gather all such instruction. Educational Text Books In the earlier years of missionary work in inland China, before the present elaborate educational system had been thought of or the Commercial Press and the Chung Hwa Book Company had been established, the missionary societies na.turally looked to the tract societies to produce text-books suited for use in primary and middle schools. Beginning with Christian

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356 RELIGIOUS TRAC'r SOCIETIES "Three Character Classics," this work progressed till a fair range of textbooks had been prepared. It has been evident for some years that competition with Lhe larger producers of such books was becoming impossible, whatever might be the special merit of those bearing the R.T.S. imprint. One lesson of 1927 is that with the present emphasis on "approved" textbooks in all subjects except religion, the tract societies must definitely abandon this line of business. It has been a necessary line involving no drain on the ordinary funds and generally yielding a profit, but its abandonment is now certain. Of course text-books and maps connected with the great subject of religious education will still be produced, and the North Fukien Tract Society has embarked on an ambitious cheme for illustrated religious readers, with teacher's helps to match, for an eight year course. Centralized Production The reference which has just been made to the new religious readers leads one to speak of another tendency which is passing into the realm of policy. This is the tendency for the separate tract societies to co-operate in handling the whole output of R.T. S. literature. The history of t.ract society work in China never seems to have been handled by any writer in the "China Christian Year Boole," and so a brief outline of that history may be pardoned here. Tract society work began at a time when there was little steam traffic on inland waterways and when no railways had been built or post offices established. As early as 1844 a committee associated with the Religious Tract Society of London commenced work in Shanghai, but when Hankow developed into the principal missionary center in the Yangtze Valley tract publication was commenced there too to meet local needs; and the first of the societies was formed there in 1876, being followed by the formation of a society in Shanghai two years later. North China and South China being separated from either Hankow or Shanghai by long distances it was natural that societies should be formed in Peking and Canton, while the later extension of missionary work into Szechwan in the days when mail matter could only be forwarded by junk inevitably led to

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RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES 357 the issue in Chungking of a number of tracts suited to local needs and to the formation of the still-existing West China Society. This is the only one of the societies just mentioned which exists in its original form, for the northern, central and eastern societies are now organically united and the South China Society has suspended work. So far as West China is concerned the publication of books is now practically left to the Committee in Ha.nkow because of the facilities which the press there affords for this work. And even the new Foochow religious readers will be partly printed in Hankow and will be handled by all the tract societies so as to secure for them the widest possible circulation. The autonomy of the societies is unimpaired, but the right solution of the problem of economical distribution is 'attained. Advertising in Chinese Reference has already been made to the effect of the withdrawal of the missionaries on the circulation of the R.T.S. publications. The lesson which has been impressed on the societies is that they must arrange that their advertising matter gets right into the hands of the Christian community through the medium of the post offices There are no" very few churches in inland China which are not served by the wonderful postal service which has been built up with such rapidity in recent years. And it is obvious that instead of sending advertising matter in bulk to the missionaries at the head-stations some method must be adopted of sending it direct to the churches. All the evidence goes to show that under the pres,mre of events during 1927 development along these lines has been marked and the problem, if not entirely met, is certainly being solved. It hardly seems necessary to point out that Widespread one of the great lessons which 1927 has Propaganda taught the Church as a whole, and the tract societies in particular, is the power of propaganda. An object lesson has been furnished which will not be forgotten by this generation. Have we the means or the energy to imitate it in the propagation of our Holy Faith? It is not a matter that can be dealt with by providing a

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358 RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIBTIES given number of dollars for the printing of a certain number of posters and tracts, though little can be done without the dollars. It is even more a question of finding the enthusiasts for Christ and His Gospel who will stick up the posters and distribute the tracts. We have had much food for thought about these matters. Take first the money question. Are the Christians giving for purposes of publicity anything like the amount of money which the Buddhists are giving? Such a question is apt to be countered by a reference to the fact that the Buddhists greatly outnumber the Christians. But there is an immediate reply to that. For the propaganda work of the Buddhists is not done by the co-operation of everyone who mutters the prayers or burns an oc c asional stick of incense, nor is it done at the constant urging of the priests as a body. It is done by the Buddhist devotees, and it is a question whether they outnumber the Christians; and every Christia n ought to be a person devoted to Christ, the King. Or again, still thinking of the money question, does not 1927 teach us that enthusiasts for a cause will save money and yet provide the propaganda material by using their own pens and brushes? It is safe to say that half the communist slogans pasted up in Hankow were written by school boys in their zeal for the cause. Or turning to the question of distribution, if men and women hn. ve been found ready to run any risks in pasting up slogans and distributing handbills for the sake of an earthly cause, cannot those be found who will show a like boldness for the greatest of all causes, the s alvation of the world from sin by revealing to it Christ the Savior? Of all the lessons which the tract societies must learn from 1927 this one is perhaps of the greatest importance. They must rouse the Church to undertake propaganda work for the Kingdom of God. Free Grants of Tracts Closely linked to the last mentioned lesson is the further proof which 1927 has afforded that the small country churches in rural areas are ready to use far more posters and tracts that they are able to purchase. This is no contradiction of the remark just made about the Buddhists. It is by no means possible

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RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES 359 for the wealthy Buddhist to circulate all the tracts which he is ready to have printed. In this work he increases his own acquisition of merit by ma.king it possible for poorer brethren to earn merit by distributing the tract!:. And in a totally different way it is possible for the wealthy Chinese Christian to win .the approval of the Master by providing tracts for the poorer brethren to handle, though he must not lea.ve the task to them alone. Bnt every missionary can point to small village churches which do not count one man rich in this world's goods in their membership and so have not the power to do all the tract distributing that they are willing to do. ]fence the last year has shown the great need that exists for funds for free grants of posters and trncts. It is one of the most urgent needs. Stewart Evangelistic Funds No reference to the need just mentioned would be complete nnless generous tribute were paid to the great work on these lines which has been made possible by the funds provided at different times by the brothers, Milton and Lyman Stewart, both now with the Lord they served so well. No statistics of the number of posters and tracts which have been sent out through the agency of those funds are available. The quietness with which this great work has been done is one of the most pleasing of its features. No glory has ever been sought for man or from man. And it is with feelings akin to dismay that the tract societies, as those most keenly interestfld in this problem of free distribution, learn that the funds provided by the brothers iu their lifetime are now nearly exhausted and that the end of this work is in sight. May God in His love for China raise up other stewards of His bounty to continue this work or to develop a new work on similar lines. Books for Preachers There is one activity of the Religious Trnct Society of London which the tract societies in China are copying as far as funds specially given for this purpose will allow. This is the making of grants of usefol books, such as commentaries nnd other Biblical helps, to preachers at greatly reduced prices or even as free grants. Missionaries from Great Britia.n know what a boon it is to be able to secure copies of Young's

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360 RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES Analytical Concordance" or volumes of the Devotional Commentary" on special terms. During 1927 funds were available for supplying 183 small libraries to preachers in Manchuria. In past years such gifts have been sent to preachers in Anhwei, Chekiang, Chihli, Hunan, Kansu, Kiangsi, Shansi, Shensi and Shantung, so this work has been carried on to quite a large extent. There are no regular funds available for this work, and so it is impossible to say when any further gifts can be made or which of the remaining provinces will be the next recipient. One is reminded in this connection of the C Blble t great work which the tract societies have ommen ar1es 1 h d h f accomp 1s e m t e prov1s1on o commentar1ei:; on thfl Bible. They undertook the publication of the "Conference Commentary on the Bible," which was prepared under the direction of a committee appointed by the Conference of 18!:10, in thirty-two volumes. They also brought out the Chinese edition of the "Annotated Paragraph Bible" in ten large volumes. These are now out of print, and. the question of issuing a revised edition is under consideration. Certain volumes of the "Devotional Commentary" are issued in Chinese and others are in preparation; and good progress has been made in preparing the thirty or more volumes which will form the "Mandarin Bible Commentary," specially prepared for the use of the ordinary church member. ]~ight of the volumes are now on sale and eleven others are in various stages of preparation. So whilst the Religious Tract Socidy is by no means the only agency producing commentaries in Chinese, it has certainly taken a leading part in this very important work Another change which has taken place with Hygiene and the passing years has been the development Narcotics of special agencies to undertake certain kinds of propaganda in China. The work of the Council on Health Education has gradually supplanted the work which the religious tract societies did for so many years in the earlier days along this line. In the same way the complete reversal of the Chinese official attitude to opium has necessitated a type of literature dealing with this topic which can be produced by an organization representing all

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RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES 361 classes of the community much better than by a tract society, though the great difficulty remains that this newer literature does not emphasize the saving work of the Lord Jesus Christ as the older literature did. It is for this reason that the tract societies found a steady demand for the older type of anti-opium tracts even in 1927, for the appeal to the individual opium-sot is useless unless it reveals the Saviour from sin. Chinese Cooperation It is almost unnecessary to discuss once again the question of Chinese cooperation in the work of the religious tract societies, even though the year under review has witnessed as much activity in the transfer of control from missionaries to Chinese Christians in churches and schools and hospitals. The work that has l)een carried on for the last fifty years is abundant proof that such cooperation has existed all through the years. That is to say, there has been a steady output of books and tracts by Chinese writers, and yet a larger output of those that have been prepared by Chinese and foreigners working together. Probably no manuscript has ever been printed which had not been submitted to the criticism of Chinese keenly interested in its theme. And certainly no manuscript has ever been rejected because it contained independent Chinese thought on the great theme of salvation from sin, unless that thought belittled the Divin~y of Christ, questioned the need for regeneration or challenged the authority of Holy Scripture. It is constantly necessary to point out to authors and translators, whether Chinese or foreigners, that the religious tract societies are not interested in the least in literature which does not advance the cause for which the societies were founded. Manuscripts of undoubted literary excellence and with a vital meesage of their own are perforce declined because the funds of the societies are not available for publications of their type. Chinese Secretaries Of the four existing societies only one has a Chinese Secretary. This fact has during the period of upheaval called forth some criticism, but it is easy to show that such criticism is ill-informed. The tract societies, as has just been pointed

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362 RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES ont, do not exist to produce literature in its orclinary forms, bnt to stimulate the production ancl i;:ecure the circuli:1tion of a certain range of publicatiom1. Their 1:1ecrt>t11ries are not chMen ht>cause they are authors, or even because they are good tract-writt>rs They a re chosen because they have tha.t pe,..uliar typt> of evangelical fervor which will ensure the limitation of the scope of the societies to their t.rue objective, anrl the pu,.:hing of the circulation of shet>t tractH with even more Zt>St than would be expendt>d in c ; rcula.ting a book If the secretaries had to be the writer8 or editors of the publications of the soc;eties, there are few mif'sionaries who wou]d be suited for the posts Bnt 8ince this is not f'O, there is no need to rahie any questions of race at all. Devotion to a peculiar cause is the sole reason for the appointment, and no gifts of scholarship would compensate for the lack of that devotion. One other point might perhaps be mentioned since it has a distinct bearing on this mat.ter, as far as 1927 is conrer, ed, and that is th:it of the four :senetaries two are honorary workers as fa.r as tract society funcls are concerned, and economy of administration is thus effected T W 't As rf'garcls the 8ecuring of manuf'cripts, ract r1 ers the Pxper1ence of 1927 has not cl 1 ffered from that of previom, years. Even though it may be possible to set men apart to write books along certain lines or1to edit magazines, it is not pof'sible to set men apart to write tracts week in, week out. The method which has heen followecl with unqualified succes8 by the parent society for a hundred and twenty-eight yt>ars is the only one which can be followPd in any land. Ano that is, to look to the evangelical preachers and believers to furnish ma.nuscripts when they :ire constrainecl by the Holy Spirit to write. Tracts are es8entially brief and direct, anti aim to carry a burning message from heart to heart. All the great tractR have been writ.ten by men on fire for the salvation of souli:i. Some of the grea.tef't tracts have been the imlitary written effort of their authors. Some men may be able to write a dozen good tracts; some men are Jed to write a seritis; some few have the special aptitude for gathering material which makes their output greater.

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RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETIES 363 But the man has never yet lived who could be set apart to write a tract a week. An analysis of the series of illustrated tracts issued weekly in London during so many years, shows that the largest number written by any one writer during a period of five years was twenty, the next in order having written nineteen, and the next three having written ten each. Figures such as these show that the setting apart of men as tract-writers is unnecessary, since the societies can draw their supply of manuscripts from men and women who are actively engaged in evangelism and find in that work the seed thoughts from which tracts spring. Area of Operations Once again the publications of the societies have gone forth, not only to every part of the Republic, but to all parts of the world where Chinese settlers are to be found. There is something stimulating and inspiring in the thought that a Christian brother or sister in Kansu or Szechwan may feel led to pen a brief message setting forth the one plan of salvation by the use of a pithy illustration, and that. that same tract may be among tho,:e sent to men of the same race in Australia or the Straits Settlements. In this respect tracts a.re indeed winged with messages from God. On the other hand a missionary resting for a time in England bas felt the call to put pen to paper and the result is a message announcing the Gospel of the Grace of God to the Chinese in their native land. So that whether we think of writers or readers. of contributors or distributors, the work of the tract societies during 1927 has demonstrated that it is for men of all races to contribute to the task of saving men of all other races and that the Kingdom of God is indeed the Kingdom without frontiers.

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CHAPTER XXXIII BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE 1 Z. K. Zia The purpose of this article is not critical but informative: nor is it exhaustively comprehensive. Some good books might be left out: others might be included simply because they were good sellers. This article only serves, therefore, as a guide :-(1) to non-Christian books: (2) to Christian Books: its primary purpose is a practical one. One of the most significant signs of the ~:;..Stores times is that within the last year or so, more than a dozen new book-stores were opened in Shanghai, most of which published books of poems and critical essays, the majority of these being written by young people in their twenties Some good things were produc ed by them; but we do not propose to introduce them all here. A few notable translations might, however, be mentioned, such as Goethe's "Faust," Voltaire's "Candide/' French and Russian Short Stories and Ellen Key's "Love and Marriage," etc. Space forbids mention ing the others Those who are interested in the new literature of young China might do well to visit some of the book stores (:ru: r.s) on Foocbow Road, Shanghai. In passing, we might add that Shanghai is now the center for young Chinese writers, for in Peking, which used to be a center, there is not as much freedom as in Shanghai, especially in the Settlements. Most interesting books are produced by these small book stores; one will find many books produced by the Commercial Press also and other large book companies. The large book companies, how ever, have to pursue a rather conservative policy. 1Published within the last year or two.

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BEST BOOKS IN. CHINESE 365 Sentimentalism In criticising these small book stores, one does not have to read many books and magazines before he can see that a lot of them are books of merely cheap sentimentalism. Especially is this true as regards the so-called "original work" (.nlJ 1~). Old Chinese Stories Another point needs our attention. Quite a lot of old Chinese stories are now being republished with new punctuations and new introductions. Dr. Hu Shih started this a few years ago; many still follow in his foot-steps. No doubt there are some good books among these; but occasionally one finds a very sensual one which, prohibited in previous years, is now reappearing on the basis of the excuse of "art for art's :,;ake." Then there are story writers who use material from Chinese history and call them historical novels, which novels are really neither historical nor artistic but aim to cater to the low desires of pleasure seeking readers only. These novels sell for several dollars per set, and the book stores that put them out make small fortunes. Of course such books appeal more to business men and apprentices in shops than to young China; that is, students who are influenced by romanticists in the West. The best sellers are perhaps stories and Best Sellers critical essays with rather attractive covers and bindings, both of which are new features. Young China is following the West in the decoration of new books. Various Foreign Works Several years ago Tagore's works were great favorites; now it is different. Poems still wield great attraction; but Tagore is apparently too deep. Viewing the whole situation, it seems that the Chinese reading public has no definite aim. Generally speaking, the winner of a Nobel Prize invariably receives due attention and his or her work is translated in part or in whole. That was how Tagore was introduced. This year the works of and articles on Thomas Hardy, Ibanez, Delanda, who is the latest winner of the Nobel Prize, have come to our notice. In this

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366 BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE connection may be mentioned the influences of moving picture:.-1 also. For instance, when Hawthorne's, ''Scarlet Letter" was shown in Shanghai, the Chinese readi11g public wa".' at once informed of who Hawthorne was and what kind of prestige the novel enjoyed in the West ; at the same time a number of eager young Chinese set to work to reproduce the book in Chinese. I predict that before very long we shall see a Chinese edition of Hawthorne's, "Scariet Letter." Oscar Wilde's "~alome" has had three translations in China. All this shows that what the West does, consciously or unconsciously, in art and literature will without doubt influence the artistic and literary tastes of China, as it has already done considerably in recent years. Some Chinese writers have actually used Literary Use the Bible for source material. One story has of Bible this title, "The Command of Jesus." The author is not a Christian, nevertheless he took his theme from John 8 : 3-11, and for a cover used Da Vinci's Head of Jesus. Another young Chinese recently wrote a one-scene play, taking material therefor from the Old Te!>tament, 2 Samuel, 13; he entitled his play, "Amnon." The Bible is also re,1d by Chinese literary men. One author actually recommended it to his admirers! These are interesting points. If the Chinese are going to produce good literature they cannot, of course, ignore the Bible. In modern literature, perhaps the first Ru Sun place should be given to Ru Sun (~ fil real name Nil ffl A), the author of "The True Story of Ah Q Of his many other works, I select three. Hwa Ka (~ ff ~), and The Grave (!J(), are both of them collections of short essays dealing with current events and literary subjects; the third is a collection of eleven short stories, entitled Pung Wang ( W 11). All of his writings are worth reading, especially by those who desire to get acquainted with up-to-date Chinese. Ch T ] His brother, Chow Tsu Jen (ffil f~ A), is ow su en another famous writer whose literary essays, such as "Writings on Rainy Days" (i:fi n9 jf), "Talking

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BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE 367 on the Tiger," (~ ,Jt ;I) an
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368 BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE published and sold at several hundred dollars per set by the same Press, but in the minds of progressive Chinese they are of little worth. Great writers, like Liang Chi Chao (m f ,m), and Chang Tai Yen (:if_ ,;k ~), have been quiet, owing perhaps to the rising tide of young China's opposition to their political views and affiliations. E 1 edi Of books published by church writers in ncyc opa a h 1 t t fi d 11 t e as wo years we n a great co ect10n. Quantitatively, perhaps, their effort has been as significant as that of some of the newly formed book stores. An "Encyclopaedia of Ethics and Religion," edited by James Hastings, D.D., under process of translation for the last ten years, was published in April, 1928, in two volumes, by the Christian Literature Society. It contains more than two thousand pages. Its appearance marks a new epoch not only within the Christian Church but also in the non-Christian Chinese book-world. C t Commentaries on Luke, Mark, etc., have ommen aries come out during the last two years and will be the standard books for years. A "Children's Bible" proved to be a great success: a second edition with improvements is already in the press. Dr. Bonsall translated two substantial books, namely "A Manual of Christian Doctrine" by J. S. Banks, and "The Doctrine of the Prophets," by A. F. Kirkpatrick. A series of middle school text-books, entitled, A Short Study of Religions," A Short Study of Ethics," A Short Study of Life's Practical Philosophy," etc. have been published and have proved of practical use. All these books were published by the Christian Literature Society. Another series worthy of mention consists of books for general reading, a few of which may serve as textbooks for schools. These are such as Moffatt's Everyman's Life of Jesus," published by the National Christian Literature Association. I t t t' Just n t the time of the Red penetration n erpre a rnns into China, Charles Sarolea's "Impressions of Soviet Russia" was translated by Dr. Evan Morgan and thousands of copies of it were sold and distributed amongst

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BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE 369 Chinese leaders. It was probably partly responsible for the push against the "Reds." In order to give Chinese students a clear understanding of Christianity, Dr. Cairns' "The Reasonableness of the Christian Faith" was trans latecl by Rev. A. J. Garnier, and Mr. H. L. Yu. Other books for the defense of the Christian faith, such as "Christ not Mythical," prepared by Rev. J. W. Inglis and translated by E. S. Nieh, and "From the Seen to the Unseen," prepared by Miss White several years ago, have helped Chinese students in their days of doubt. Li f Ch t '' By an Unknown Disciple" was published ves O ris by the Y.M.C.A., and a "Boys' Life of Jesus,'' based on Forbush, was published by the Christian Literature Society; a translation of Papini's "Life of Christ" from the Italian is under way and a "Life of Christ for Children" is alRo in the press. Other Christian writers are preparing the Life of Christ on the basis of their personal experiences. What we have mentioned are mostly translated or adapted lived of Christ. "The Character of Paul," by Charles Paul Jefferson, was published by the Methodist Publication Department. The revised edition of '' The Spiritual Development of St. Paul," by G. Matheson, was published by the C.L.S. "The New Life and Letters of St. Paul," published ~everal years ago went into a second edition. The Chinese Christians begin to appreciate Paul. In meeting the demands of preachers, Sermons sermons by A. MacLaren, Canon Liddon, F. W. Robertson, Spurgeon, Newman, Henry van Dyke, D. L. Moody and Gordon have been translated in part. The first and second series of '' Fifty-two Sermon Outlines," contain some of the above-mentioned preachers' works. Good sermons always have a market. Mr. George W. Hollister wrote a book on Hexateuch "A New Introduction to the Hexateuch," which was translated by Chen Tien Chia. It is rather comprehensive, and suitable for use in theological seminaries. There are not many good books along this line.

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370 BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE Quite a few good foreign novels have been translated. The following is a partial list: Novels Alcott's, "The Four Sif'ters,'' "Good Wi \'es ; Gerard 's, "The Dawn of Hope," "What Hazel Did,'' The "Morning Bell Story" books (6 in the setl, etc. The Christian Literature Society recently i1>sued a seriPs of lives, entit.led "Notable Lives' Series"; there was also another on famous missionaries. The Y. W.C.A. issued a book on "Women Pioneers." The Y.M.C.A. issued one entitled, "Lives of Chinese Great Men These are generally welcomed by young people. In giving the general public Christian Labor interpretations of la bor problems, the C.L.S translated "Christ and Labor" by C. F Andrews; and the Y.M.C.A. published "Rowntree's, "The Human Factor in Business." Dr. Evan Morgan translated "Poverty and Its Vicious Circles" by J. B. Hurry. The Y.W.C.A. also produced a hook on "The Family,i: which proved to be very ui;:efoJ. The Commercial Press, which is not a Religion Christian tirm, has also recently published some good books on religious subjects, namely, "The Origin and Growth of Reiigion," hy G. F. Moore; Comparative Religion" by Jevons; "The lt'oundations of Religion," by Stanley A. Cook; and "History of 'I aoism," trarn~1ated from the Japane,-e. Quite a few books on philosophy were also translated by the same Press. On the other hand, Christian pubfo:hers Character like the Y.M.C.A. have published many books which are not distinctly Christian, such as, "One Thousand Character Readers," books on "Citizenship," and Chinese books for character-building. These generally have good sales. Edward Evans published "The Life and Teachings of .Jesus" as compiled by Y. K. General Chu and C. S. Tseng. This was ust>d by many 1>chools as a textbook. Dr.(.'. H. Fenn prepared "The Complete Go;:pel" in 1925; it has gone through several editionsone in leather. The Y. M. C. A. recently translated "Youth's Eternal Quest and God's Reply," intended for

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BEST BOOKS IN CHINESE 371 Bible classes, the main theme being Jesus Christ Dr. Luella Min, r ancl David Y. Wang translatt>d E. I. Bo:-worth s "What it Means to be a Christian," which was published by Shantung Christian University. "8piritual Nourishment, Day by Day," written by Rev. Chia Yu mi11g had a very good sale and is one of the best books producecl by a Chinese. Other books of devotion have been produced by the Spiritual Light Publishing Society and th~ Nanking Bible Truth Depot This latter has put out quite a few books recently, some of which are "The Christian Life and Warfare," by W. Nee, and "The Spiritual Man," in six volumes The C L S. is also printing a few books entitled, "The Inner Life" Series Mention !,hould be made of some books produced by other publishers: S 1 w k The Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui published pecia or 8 h f 11 h 'l b 1 t e o owrng wort wh1 e oo cs:-Comparative Religion,'' by Rev, Lin Pu-chi; "Religious Development Between the Old and the New Testaments," by R. H Charles, translated by M. H. Throop and Wong Yih-tsieu; "Why I Believe in Religion," by C. R. Brown, translated by J. W. Nichols and Hu Ta-ling. Yenching School of Chinese Studies produced "Religious Thought Movements in China during the Last Decade This was a compilation made by Neander C. S. Char.g. It is the only book of its kind so far as the writer of tliis article knows. It shows careful ,e!ection. The Y M C. A. issued "The Apostolic Age" by W. B. Hill in two volumes and "The Culture of Per:-onality" by N. Z. Zia; this latter is Ollie' of the latest books The C. L. S. issued "The Home of the Opium ~mokt>r," a story aimed at the elimination of opium smoking. It was prepared by the Happy ( hildhood Staff; ()an Religion Survive?", was written by Rev. Djang Fang, a eecretary of the National Christian Council; "A Short 8tudy of Civilization," was prepared hy Z K. Zia: "Picceola," a new tranf'lation by the Woman's Messl'nger Staff; "A Straight Way Toward To-morrow," A Study for Woman's Missionary Societiee, by Mary S. Platt; and" Addresses and Sermons for Preachers," written by Rev. Ch'en Gin-yung.

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CHAPTER XXXIV CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS IN CHINESE K. L. Pao 'l'he Chinese Church Year Book published Growth in 1927 by the National Christian Council gives a list of two hundred Christian periodicals; that in 1925 gives a sum total of one hundred and forty. This shows an increase of sixty new periodical publications issued by various Christian organizations during the past two years. Causes of Growth Three factors can be traced as responsible for this rapid growth. Firstly, a greater Apirit of Christian cooperation and social service has given rise to many more nation-wide denominational and interdenominational committees and organizations set up for the purpose of enabling the Christian Movement in China to have greater efficiency and to hold a stronger position. These national committees and organizations in turn have issued weekly, monthly and quarterly bulletins as organs to advocate their respective policies and to stir up intErest in their particular activities among the churches in China. Secondly, side by side with the new thought movement among the Chinese students, a renaissance movement has been slowly but surely gaining strength among the younger Chinese Christians for the last ten years, which has brought into being some private Christian groups or fellowships of like-minded people in several important centers in China. In Peking ten years ago some missionaries, some Chinese Church leaders, some Y. M. C. A. secretaries, some Christian educators, and some laymen formed themselves into a group which was called the "Life Fellowship," membership in which was irrespective of nationality, denomination, or sex. They published a monthly magazine

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CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS IN CHINESE 373 known as the "Life," which was financed by the members of the fellowship Six years ago in the same city a smaller group was formed consisting of two Anglicans, two Methodists, and four Congregationalists, which published a weekly known as the "Truth." In Canton a group of Christians formed themselves into a fellowship and published a weekly called the "Chin yen" (ID! ~) and another called "Tso Sheng." In Shanghai a group of Christian thinkers and writers published the "Laymen's Semi-Monthly And a similar group in Nanking published the "Chinese Christian Church Monthly." Thirdly, the growing sense of opposition to Christian organizations and the intellectual and political attacks launched against Christianity, all helped to stimulate the publication of more Christian periodicals in Chinese for apologetic purposes. Now a few words may be written to present Attitudes their general attitude towards theological questions, political movements, and national a8pirations. Only four or five among the more or less two hundred Christian papers in China take any interest in theological controversies, and the rest remain indifferent to either modernism or fundamentalism. It is not because they pay no attention to religious and doctrinal matters but because most of the editors of these various Christian papers think it wise to keep aloof from such delicate questions, as they tend to divide Christians into two camps and thus defeat their own cause. For what is most urgent and important for the Christian Movement in China to-day, is to muster all the elements and forces at its disposal into a solid whole in order to be able to withstand the storms and tempests that, on all sides, are threatening to swallow it up. Politically, J1owever, they all look to an early unification of China under a form of popularized democratic government and all are, in varying degrees, sympathetic t.o the nationalist cause; i.e., the freedom and equality of China in the ranks of civilized nations. One significant thing must not escape our attention, that is that the Christian Press though it represents various denomin:ttions, different schools of thinking, yet with one

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37 i CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS IN CHINESE accord aclvocates the abolition of the toleration clauses in the "unequal treaties Some commPnts shoulcl be made here on Outstanding several outstancling Christian papers in Purpose Chinese on account of their inclividual characteristics or of their specific constituencies. "Happy Childhood" The "Happy Childhood" puhlishecl by the Christian Literature Society, Shanghai, under the editorship of Mrs D. MacGillivra.y, has a circulation of about seven thousand copies and is a joy to Chinese children both Christian and non-Christian. It is one of the most ably edited and well-written Christian perioclicals; it oc:cupies a unique position in the field of Christian literature for chilclren. To interpret Chrh,tian truth and to introduce scriptural knowledge to children by means of a correct psy c hological approach is evidently the purpose of its board of editors. For crea.tive and original Christian thinking ~r~~th and by Chinese writers see either "Truth and Life;' a semi-monthly paper issued by the Peking Life Fellowship, the monthly bulletin of the Christian Literature Association, Shanghai, or the "Young Progressive," a monthly magazine published by the' National Committee of Y. M. C. A.'s in China. These magazines reach a large numbers of readers among students in Christian schools and colleges throughout China. "Woman's Magazine" The "Woman's Magazine," a monthly paper published by the Christian Literature Society uncler the editor .-hip of Miss Laura M. White, gives helpful suggestions for home reform and spiritual and moral guidance to young women and women students. "G y a ,, The "Green Year" published by the reen e r National Y. W. C. A Shanghai, in eight issues yearly contains very interesting short stories and articles concerning women's place in the home, church, and the nation. It also supplies news regarding the work of local associations all over China. A campaign is now

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CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS IN CHINESE 375 being c:irried on by the national Y. W. C. A aiming to get ten thousand eubi,criberi:: to the "Gffen Year." The "Christian Intelligencer," a weekly "Chr.istian paper published by the PreRbyterian Mif'sion Intel11gencer" 1s the one that has the largest circulation among Christian periodicals. There are two reasons to account for its wide circulation: (I) it is one of the oldest Christian papers in the China; and (2) it gives news concerning churches and the nation without any political or sectarian bias. "International" Tang. The many yeare. For the promotion of peace an
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CHAPTER XXXV BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA J.B. Powell Flood of Books While the exact figures are not available, it is practically safe to say that there have been as many or possibly more books dealing with China written in the English language in the past two and a half years than were written in the entire previous period of China's relation with the West. I make this statement because in con11ection with the preparation of this article I have tried to compile a list of all of the books written in the English language dealing with China. directly or indirectly which have appeared since M a y 30, 1925, and the list has mounted to approximately 200 and even then I fear some have been overlooked. China in the The date May 30, 1925, has been selected Mind ol the because in a sense it constitutes a milestone World in China's relations with the West I might have selected the Washington Conference in 1921-1922 as a milestone but it occurs to me that May 30, 1925, is of more importance, for while China affairs were aired at the Washington Conference and a serious attempt was made there to bring about a new orientation of western diplomacy in respect to the Far East, the statesmen of the world took very little actual interest in China until the subject was forcibly brought to their attention as a result of the May 30th incident in Shanghai and succeeding incidents in Canton and elsewhere in the country which put China on the front pages of the newspapers of the world and has kept it there quite regularly since that time. In other words, while the Washington Conference definitely constituted a turning point in the affairs of East and West, it required something sensational to force the subject into people's innerm~st consciousness.

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BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA 377 The writer was pre~ent at the Washington Washington Conference al1fl, while many of UR realized Conf,rence what was taking place, I th;nk it is safe to say that very few people on the outside took the matter seriously. They thought it was juf:t another reshuffling of the carks about ( 'hina which have bt-en writtirn since Way 30, 1925 with, those which were written previously but space does not permit.

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378 BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA Howe\Ter, I have attempted to classify the books written since May 30, 1925 under the general headings of Politics, History, Fiction and General Description, and Art. (Later a section on" Religion" was added by the editor of the Year Book). It is interesting to note that books dealing with Politics, Fiction and General Description are more numerous than those dealing with History and Art. The books dealing with History, aside from a new edition of Dr. Gowen's "Outline History of China" which was revised by Dr. Gowen and Mr .Joseph W. Hall, are all more or less specific in character. I mean by this that they deal with particular phases of Chinese history and not with the subject gener ally. There are of course a few revised and modernized editions of older works such as Abbe Hue's, "Travels in Tartary" and the "Travels of Marco Polo" by Mr. Manuel Komroff, but most of the books deal with specific questions and have resulted from serious research into Chinese history. There are books dealing with the Boxer Rebellion, Extraterritoriality, the International Mixed Court and the Shanghai International Settlement, Chinese Abroad and t.he Invention of Printing in China. These books are all real contributions and have done much to enlighten the outside world regarding the fundamental eauses behind certain manifestations which very few of us have under stood heretofore. The next subject of general interest is that Politics and of Politics and here again we find the special-Propaganda ist at work-and also the propagandist. In view of the fact that there are some forty or more books under this heading it is impossible to attempt to say which .are the best ones for they deal with different phases of the subject. Certain books appeal to certain persons and other books to others so that it is impossible and would be distinctly unfair to say that one book is better than another. Some of the books, of course, are superficial but many of them have been written by persons who have made serious study of particular problem .sand know what they are writing about. I would put in this classification such books as Nathaniel Peffer's The White Man's Dilemma," "China-Where It Is Today and Why" by

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BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA 379 Thomas F. Millard, "China-A Nation in Evolution" by Dr. Paul Monroe, Explaining China" by John Earl Baker, "China and the Foreign Powers" by Sir Frederick Whyte, The Chinese Puzzle" by Arthur Ransome, "China Today: Political by Stanley K. Hornbeck and the "Revolt of Asia" by Upton Close, "Whither China" by Scott Nearing, and "What and Why in China" by Paul Hutchimon. Some of these books are not serious studies but they do manage in journalistic fashion to give the real crux of the problem of West and East. For example, Arthur Ransome's book "The Chinese Puzzle," which is a compilation of articles which he wrote for the Manchester Guardian in the spring and summer of 1927, provided the people of England with their first insight into the problems involving British relationship with China The British people at home have been fed on a certain type of colonial imperialistic propag :mda for many years and it required something like this book to let them know about Britain's real destiny in the Orient. The same thing is largely true of a treatese entitled "China and the Foreign Powers" which was written by Sir Frederick Whyte and published by the Royal Institute of International Affairs and pre sented at the meeting of the Institute of Pacific Relations at Honolulu last year. The various crises which have developed in Crises the relations of China and the foreign Powers in the past two or three years have been rei,ponsible for the production of a number of so-called "A. B. C." books, meaning by this a type of primer on Chinese affairs, which attempts to summarize in readable form the essentials of the situation for the general newspaper reader who is not deeply interested in the Chinese problem, but who does demand something which might help him understand the newspaper reports. Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck's "China Today: Political" is an excellent example of this type of book. Another is "Young China," by Lewis Gannett and still others are "What and Why in China," by Paul Hutchinson, ''The Revolt of Youth," by Stanley High, "The Chinese Puzzle," by Arthur Ransome, "China and the Foreign Powers," by Sir Fredel'ick Whyte, "China,

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380 BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHIN A an AnalyRis," by Dr. Frank J. Goodnow, '' China's New Nationalism," by Dr. H. F. MacNair, and "The Youth Movement in China," by Tsai C. Wang. Among the propaganda hooks presented by Propaganda special pleaders interested in bringing about a certain orientation of Western Policy toward China, I would classify Rodney Gilbert's "What's Wrong with China." and Henry Kittredge Norton's "China and the Powers.'' Mr. Norton has not been in China for several years and his book while excellent in many ways, is largely an argument for the kind of China which certain westerners would like to see, and not the China that the Chinese prob,1bly would like to have, that is from the standpoint of China's position in the family of nations. Rodney Gilbert's book was an argument for intervention by the foreign powers, its purpose being to create the imprec:sion that the Chinest> are an inferior race incapable of governing themselves Gilbert did an excellent job but he spoiled his own case by making his book too one-sided. Persons who have made a serious stu
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DEBT BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHI::-TA 381 remember having a conversation along this line with Dr. Paul S. Reinsch, the former American Minister to China, several years ago. He was bemoaning the fact that the fiction writers had overlooked China, his feeling being that more could be done in the interpretation of Ch,na to the West through the writing of fiction than through the production of hea.vy bookR derding with history and politics. Well, the fiction writer has arrived on the scene and some intnesting reRults have been obtained Here again it is impossible to say which is the best book but t.here are several good ones. Among the best I would list "Sun and Moon" a novel by Vincent H. Gowen which tells a story of a westerner who went Chinese." Another book entitled" A Son of the Grand Eunuch" by Charle,, Petitt is one of the finest pieces of satire that has ever been written. It deals with court life under the old empire. AnoLher work to be claRsed in this connection is l\larco Millions" a play by Eugene oNeill which made quite a hit in New York last year. O'Neill, the well-known American playwright, has bronght Marco Polo up to date ancl made a twentieth century "Babbitt out of h m. Another worth while novel is "Crumbling Walls" by Joan Con quest which attempts and succeeds fairly well in depicting the clash between the old an::l new in China from the standpoint of marriage relations and customs Still other books of interest under tht> heading of Fiction are "Manchu Blood" by HuJh Wiley, "The Ressue Hayakawa. This book is especially interesting because it is written in English by a Japanese, Mr. Hayakawa being the wellknown movie actor in the United States. D I tl Among the books of description which give escr P on h eh h "B d an micng t mto me:5e c aracter are eyon the Bund" by Philip Kirby, "The Moon Year" by Juliet Bredon and I. Mitrophanow, "The Autobiography of a Chines1> Dog" by Florence Ayscongh, "Through the Moon Door" by Dorothy Graham, "By the City of the Long Sand" by Alice Tisdahi Hobart and so on. I have also listed "Ten Weeks with Chinese Bandits" by Dr. Harvey

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382 REST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA J. Howard in which he tells of his experience with Manchurian bandits a couple of years ago Another interesting story is "My Chinese Marriage" by M. T. F. G., the initials standing for the American wife of a Chinese student. They were married when he was attending school in America and she returned with him to the old Chinese ancestral home in South China. He died shortly after the birth of their child and the wife has written a facinating story which has been classed as one of the best love stories ever written. The story appeared originally in the Asia Magazine but has gone through four editions in book form. Under the heading of Art there have been several excellent contributions, among the most important being Dr. J. C. Ferguson's "Chinese Painting," a work which has taken a tremendous amount of study and investigation running over a period of more than a quarter of a century. M 11 FinaJJy, we have a long list of books which 1sce aneous "bl t 1 t d h d' 1t 1s 1mposs1 e o 1s un er any ea mg, except "Miscellaneous," which includes books dealing with the study of the Chinese language, year booh, books dealing with minerals, tea, silk, plants, forestry products, finance, industries, currency problems, travel-guides, opium, religious problems, racial problems, the Manchuria question, and so on. In this connection it is gratifying to note an increasing list of books by Chinese writers which indicates a broadening interest on the part of Chinese scholars in studying the problems of their own country and presenting their findings in the English language

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CHAPTER XXXVl NATIONAL CHRlSTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATIONt J. Wesley Shen The National Christian Literature Associa-P~ud~ 1 fl Period tion is the filling of a gap so common y e t by all who are engaged in Christian service in China; that is the serious shortage of Christian literature produced not by people from abroad, but by the Chinese themselves who are thus Jed to find in writing an outlet for their religious experience. 'l'his cry for indigenous Christian literature received a hearing for the 6rst time in 1918 when the China Continuation Com mittee, upon the request of the British and American Conferences of Missionary Societies, appointed the Christian Literature Council. It was heard again in 1922 at the National Christian Conference at which the National Christian Council was organized. In view of the fact that the National Christian Council with its broad objectives could not be bound to a policy which would allow it to publish literature only within the zone of common agreement, a retreat was held under its auspices in September, 1923. Eleven Chinese Christian writers and a few mis sionaries met together for the purpose of finding the legitimate steps to be ta.ken in the solution of the problem. The findings of this gathering confirmed what had been previously said, that the Christian Movement in China cannot be considered mature until its literary production becomes indigenous. In order to carry out the recommendations of the retreat, a second meeting was called on December 28-30 of the same year. At this meeting sixteen persons, mostly Chinese, were present, and the National 1Based upon the report presented before the St. John's Confer ence, January 28tb, 1928, with modifications and additions

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384 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION Christian Literature AsRociation, then called the Society for the Advancement of Christian Litnatnre in China, was formally organized. Dr. T. C Chao was its chairman; Drs. C. Y. Cheng, David Z. T. Yni, Fong F. Sec, 'I'. T. Lew, T. H. Tao, and Mr Peter Chuan were its Executive Committee memherR; Drs Y. F. Li, C. W. Loh, Messrs. T. M Van, T. K. Woo, William Hung, Timothy Jen, and Elijah Nieh, compost>d the Examining Commit.tee on memuersbip; and the present Acting General Secretary became the Association's Executive Secretary. So far, the finances were not assured; it was Trials a matter of a
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NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION 385 of a monthly magazine; second, a membership campaign: and third the holding of a national convention. National Convention The 18th of February of 1926 marks the beginning of the National Christian Literature Association which, for the first year or two, was in embryo. The Convention was not so well attended as it should have been, for unfortunately the Associate Executive Secretary was prevented by illness from attending and no adeqnate arrangemP.nts were ma.de in advance. Those present, however, were well acquainted with the problems raised and the discussionA went on mof.lt successfully. The Constitution and Program were passed. The name, "The Nationa.l Christian Literature Association, in place of "The Society for the Advancement of Christian Literature in China,'' was adopted. Hitherto, the Society had been a self-selectecl and self perpet11ati11g body, but as a result of the National Convention and it;: endor1-ement the Association became legally e,tablished. The new personnel which resulted from the Convention was as follows : Dr. David Z T Yui, Chairruan; Dr~ T. C Chao, 'f. T Lew, C W. Loh, C. Y. Cheng. C. P. Wang, ancl King Chu, Executive Committee meml ers; the Associate Execnti ve Secretary and the Acting General Secretary. One of the resolutions of the National Headquarters Convention was to move the heaclquarters from Soochow to Shanghai. This, however, was not effected until the lOth of July, 1926, chiefly because the Acting General Secretary was physically incapacitated During that period the Acting General Secretary repeatedly offered his resignation, but owing to the kinclness of Dr. David Z. 1'. Yui it was not considered. The work of the Association failed to make much progress for which failure the Acting General Secretary, even until to-day, feels deep rt>gret. However, with the help of -the Execu tive Committee and the close co-operation of the other members of the staff, some achievements were made during that time which are worth mentioning. Dr. T. C. Chau's "The Philosophy of Christianity," and "Jesus' View of Life," were published; several manuscripts were

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386 NATIONAL OHRISTIAN LIT~:RATURE ASSOOIATION published later on such 11.s Mr. C. S. Wang's "Chinese Conception of God," and Mr. Timothy Jen's "Revolutionary Nature of Christianity''; the circulation of the Bulletin also increased. The Association moved to Shanghai on the day mentioned above, and an office was rented in the building of the National Committee of the Young Men's Christian Associati0n, which has been very generous in placing all kinds of facilities, such as book-keeping, printing, etc. at our free disposal. For all this we are deeply indebted to them. In order to develop the work of the Association in fuller measure, an invitation was extended to Mr. C. S. Wang to take charge of the Bulletin, rn as to release the Acting Genera.I Secretary for other important work of the A8sociation. Now there are three editorial secretaries, including the Acting General Secretary, one being Mr. Hottinger S. C. Chang, M.A., who has been with us since the fall of 1927 and has proved to be a competent Christian writer. The Acting General Secretary hopes that Purpose it is not too late to push forward the purpose of the Association. As is stated in the Constitution the Association is intended to stimulate the production and reading of such Chinese Christian literature as will contribute to the growth and development of the indigenous Christian Movement in China. This was a comprehensive aim! The aim is even more comprehensive now; for since the advance of the Nationalist Movement and the evacuation of the missionaries, self-support, self-propagation and self.government are more talked about than ever. But all this will be void until it touches the culture of the people which is, as some one says, the result of long periods of experience, thought and discipline. Historical Christianity should be duly appreciated. But historical Christianity with its ideas and practices must become articulaterl with China's cultural heritage. The dispute between the Christianization of China and the "Chinazation of Christianity iR futile; both processes must go on side by side and be treated as one. This, as the writer sees it, is the motive which led to the formulation of the purpose

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NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION 387 of the Association as stated in the Constitution. We, therefore, are led to see that the literature which we are engaged in producing is nothing more than an instrument by which our religious experiences are expressed, and upon which the future of the Chinese indigenous Christian Movement is, at least in part, dependent. So far, the Association has publish eel ten Publications books with two thousand three hundred and sixty pages. They are: The Philosophy of Christianity, Jesus' View of Life, The Chinese Conception of Go
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388 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION matter of fa.et, many manuscripts have been submitted to us, but were declined, because either they were not in line with the purpose of the Association, or the merits of the manuscripts failed to measure up to our standard. The Bulletin is another one of our publica Bulletin tions. Formerly it was intended to acquaint the Christian leaders within and without the country with the purpose and the work of the Association, and with the contents and nature of current books. But in the fi~xecutive Committee meeting, immediately after the National Convention, it was decided that we should broaden its scope, and include therein articles on Christian thought and practices. The Bulletin has been most favorably reviewed not only by Christian periodicals but also by many secular papers, such as the ::ihen Pao, the Shanghai Times, etc. Another service which we. have rendered in the matter of manu:::cripts is the a'-'sembling of the articles which took final form in the volume entitled "China Her Own Interpreter"; this task was undertaken in response to the request of the Student Volunteer Movement of North America. Since they are not found in our program, Tracts but have proved to be an unprecedented success the writer deems it best to treat tracts under a separate heading. Jn thtl past the Association did not produce tracts as rnch literary cont.ributions were often incorporated in the publications of the IJ;ditorial Department of the National Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association. But this year oince the National Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association has not yet disposed of the material prepared last year, and has no idea of producing a new set, twis Association launched into a new project. Articles on Christianity and the People's Revolution, Christianity and Nationali:.am, Christianity and Democracy, Christianity ancl Livelihood, Chrhitianity and the Labor Movement, Christianity and Mass Education, and Christianity and the Youth Movement, were written by General Chang Chih-Kiang, Messrs.

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NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION 389 L. T. Chen, C. S. Wang, T. L. Shen, Hottinger S. C. Chang, Daniel Fu, and the Acting General Secretary. To our surprise within about a week the demand for them was so great that we had to issue a third edition, each numbering thirty-five thousand copies. Distribution The Association was formerly designed to be a promoter rather than a distributor. But experience has taught us that this is not practicable. Christian publishing enterprises at present are so poorly managed that the Association has to make its own way. At the present time our books are still sold through other agencies; notably, the Mission Book Company and the Association Press, but the A,sociation itself must assume the primary responsibility in matters of advertising, sending samples to the pro,opective customers, and so forth. The income from the books for the past fiscal year, leaving out some of the out-port agencies and agents, was $1,263.96, exceeding the budget estimates by one fourth. The present political unrest has dealt Christian publishers a heavy blow But thP. incomP. from the sale of the books pn blished by the Association from July to Dece111ber, 1927, was even greater than in the year preceding. Several books have gone into second editions and others are expected to do the same. With regard to the circulation of the Bulletin, despite the undeniable influence that it has exerted in the Christian Movement in China, the writer can not speak with much enthusiasm, for it hardly measures up to what we expected. So far, it has not gone over two thousand copies, and the cost is, on the average, two hundred dollars for each issue. What is the remedy? Of course, we mmit not allow it to deteriorate and so lower its prestige But it is the churches that must retrieve our losses. There are over one hundred and thirty Christian societie~ in China. What a relief it would be for the Association if each society would take, i,ay, one hunflred copiel', Preachers are too poor to en:arge tht>ir libraries. Church authorities can make provision for them. What ii:, the gain in saving two or three hundred dollars a year, and having preachers go about their work: with minds

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390 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION unenlightened and poorly informed? We seek, therefore, the cooperation of every Christian institution. We are very thankful for the generous Finances support that the Institute of Social and Religious Research in America has rendered us for some years. Its total gift has amounted to $33,646.22 Owing to political turmoil the contributions secured from Chinese sources have been much limited. It does not, however, necessarily follow that the Association has made no effort to develop additional resources inside China A campaign for $100,000 as a foundation fund is being planned. Its prospects are good Moreover, steps have been taken to increase our annual income in order to set ourselves in due time entirely free from foreign support. Literary Talents If the Association has anything to be proud of, it is its efforts to discover and train literary talent This marks it as unique. Our predecessors deserve every credit that we can think of for the upbuilding of the Kingdom of God in this land. But they had one serious lack in their failure to secure a proper cultivation of indigenous literary talent. We are reaping what they sowed; and are facing an almost insurmountable difficulty in our search for personR who n.re competent to write for the Association This is included in our program and we have now two writers who are receiving support from us: we expect to find more in the future Local Committees We are carrying on a nation-wide move ment, but the limited forces at our headquarters can never direct our work in full measure and at full speed. This situation has given rise to the organization of local committees whose function is to assist headquarters in the assembling of manuscripts, distribution, and the solicitation of members Committees have been organized in Nanking, Foochow, Amoy, Hong kong, Canton, Swatow and so forth; the prospects in Chengtu, Chungking and Shansi are also good. These local Committees have helped to increase otu membership, which numbers 327 up to date.

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NATIONAL OHRISTIAN LITERATURE ASSOOIATION 391 Christian Book Club The Association aims not only to produce Christian literature but also to promote the reading of the same. The Christian Book Club, which we initiated recently, is one of our efforts in this direction. The function of the Club is three-fold. (1) To save the Christian religion from intellectual deterioration. (2) To inspire Christian writers to produce better literature, for only through the formation of the reading habit can literature be appreciated and properly judged. (3) To create a market for the wider distribution of Christian literature in China. Since this article was writen the National Christian Literature Association has suspended operations owing to lack of funds. Editor.

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CHAPTER XXXVII URGENT NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE A. J. Garnier Main Problems The main problems connecteil with Chris-tian literature in China at the present time may conveniently be grouped under two ha.ndR, viz:-pro duction and distribution. What are the kinds of b()ok~', pamphlets or papers which are most needecl, in order to counteract anti-Christian influences and win men to < "hrist: or in order to build up a church in a sound knowledge of the Word of God as well as of His work in the world ? What sort of literary style are we to adopt, in these days of constant changes, when H1tre are some bandits who murder men_, and others who murder the language? And then, havi ng solved these urgent prob Distribution lems related to production, how are we going to solve those related to cfo:tribution? How are we going to get our books and pnmphlets and papers into the homes of the people, and stilJ more into their minds and hearts? The very best of books remains without influence, as long as it re::
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NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 393 purpose of which is to belittle or to ridicule Christianity, but also those which can have upon the reader no other effect but a degrading one: all the trash that leaves a bad savor in the mouth: the worse than useless books which encourage to idleness and vice. Here, it seems to me, lies one of the most urgent needs in Christian literature, viz: to produce Christian writings which will appeal to the ever increasing crowd of readers who, at present, seem to be content with reading books that are little better than trash. St d t N d And then there is another field which is u en ee 5 d f d h h ld rea y or sowmg, an w 1c wou repay our labors with an abundant harvest. I mean the growing school boy and student, often keen of mind, always inquiring, ever ready to receive new ideas, without perhaps digesting them. I can think of few fields of work in China to-day, which have more possibilities than this one. China's youth, like the youth of every nation, is breaking away from conventions, whether they be intellectual, social or religious. A spirit of free enquiry is abroad. What used to be mentioned in the past with bated breath, lest it should scandalize more staid people, is now a common subject for discussion everywhere. Chinese boys and girls who have little or no connection with the Christian Church, and whose homes have never come under the influence of Christ, feel, naturally, the greatest freedom in discussing all possible aspects of our religion: and even those whose upbringing has been under Christian influences are not prepared to accept anything as truth, simply on the authority of either parents or teachers, as such. Who was Christ? Was He the son of God? What does this actually mean in modern phraseology? Is the Bible a work of fiction, or does it relate true history? Did the miracles mentioned in the Bible actually take place, or are they frauds and allegories? Did Christ rise from the dead? What about the world? Is it a farce? In the face of the facts of the natural world and of the course of history, how can one talk about a God of love who is almighty? Is righteousness anything but a convenient password? Has there ever been anybody who has taken the teaching of Christ seriously? All these questions, and many more

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394 NERDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE of the same nature, fill the minds of the young men and women of China who have any knowledge of Christianity, and who are not so engrossed with temporal affairs as to forget higher things. Now, is there not an urgent need to be met in thi8 direction, all the more urgent in that whatever good w01k is done in this field is sure to bring forth fruit? Another field, in some respects akin to the Text-Books one just mentioned, is also waiting. The recent changes in educational methods and outlook make it more imperative than ever that the Christian cchools in China be supplied with good books to be iu,ed as text-books in the various religious courses offered. Whether we approve or disapprove of so culled compulsion in the study of religious subjects, or of the registration of Christian school~ under present conditions in China; we cannot but agree that there is plenty of room for good text-books on religious subjects, for use in our primary and middle schools. One could go on to mention other fields, where the necessity for good Christian literature is evident, but this would, I fear, cause this article to grow beyond the assigned limiL. Types Now, what sort of writings are best suited to convey helpful messages to the various types mentioned above? In order to counteract the effects of anti-Christian nnd generally pernicious literature, it will not suffice to write learned books or articles on Christian Apologetics. These have their place, and will do much, no doubt, to show how Christianity has a broad foundation, anrl how it is possible to be an intelligent person and yet to believe in miracles. But the average reader in modern China, who finds his delight in the cheap literature of the day, will not read a learned treatise written in technical language, and therefore, if we wish to influence him through Christian literature, we must produce such books as he will read. It is of little use to mourn over degenerate tastes, or even to condemn: rather should we endeavour to create a better taste in the average reader. The importllnt thing is to establish a point of contact. The task is full of d,ifficul ties, for, in trying to uplift one's f13llow. man, itis

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NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 395 often easier to be clmgged rlown by him, rather than to lift him up, unless one keeps a very close watch on what is essential. But I woulrl suggest here the possibility of conveying Christian truth by means of interesting works of fiction, written in simple and yet elegant Chinese. Christian Fiction Perhaps to some readers of this article, this suggestion may appear as altogether feeble, anrl even harmful. Why should we mix fiction with the greatest of all realities? And yet I would urge that this suggestion be not too hastily dismissed. A work of fiction, having a lofty purpose, and written in a goorl style, will reach thousands of people who will never look at a theological treatise, however profound We have often been tolrl that the greatest book in the English langnage, next to the Bible, is a work of fiction. And yet "Christian" and ".l:<,orrnalist" and "Talkative,'' as well as many others, are characters which we meet every day. l\:Iay I be allowed to refn tQ a masterpiece in the Italian language, written by Alexander Manzoni, a friend of Sir Walter Hcott. Manzoni wrote a book, I Promessi Sposi, a simple tale of the first part of the I7th century, which has had and still has an immense influence for good. I confess to having again and again found in its pages a new light thrown on the meaning of Christianity and on the work of Chri,.;t Himself. No library or bookshop would include that book in the category of books on "religion": it does not profess to be anything but a novel; and yet there is more religion in it, indeed more of the spirit of Christ, than in many theological or devotional books with which I am familiar. Of course, a work of fiction which is devoid Purpose of a lofty purpose is not the kind of book I have in mind: no one has less use than I have for such literature. Yet, would I see with satisfaction a few really good works on fiction, written bv some one who has a compelling Christian me.3sa.ge to give, and the necessary equipment to convey It in simple and elegant style. Christian Philosophy Bnt this type of work would scarcely meet the need of the inquiring student, who deliberately sets out to solve for himself any

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396 NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE of the problems of Christianity. Here the questions must be faced as such, from a philosophical point of view, shall I say, rather than illustrated or exemplified in the lives of fictitious characters. The great questions connected with religion in gennal, and with Christianity in particular, will ever cause thoughtful minds to ponder. And it is right that it should be so, for a blind acceptance of any creed is surely not what God requires of any of us. But a great danger faces the seeker here: the history of the Church has shown how futile it is to set out in our search for truth merely in order to satisfy intellectual curiosity. The kind of literature I would advocate to meet the needs of the inquiring young minds of our day, therefore, is not the kind of thing which merely gives an opportunity to the writer to show the breadth of his information, or even the depth of his learning. In enquiries of this sort, scholarship is essential, but something more is wanted. The scholar must also be a prophet: he must overflow with his message. The impression must be made upon his readers that he himself believes absolutely in what he tries to prove. Throughout the pages, there must be a glow of life, as well as accuracy in statement and balance in judgment. The older churches of the West and of America have reason to be thankful to God for many saintly scholars, and we can wish nothing better for the Church in China than that she may see some such men rise in her midst. Lives of Christ Meanwhile we should not discourage thoughtful young men and women from working their way through the problems of Christianity, but we should warn them of the dangers of mP.re intel lectnal curiosity, for this does not often lead to the discovery of truth. Emphai,is should be laid on books which deal with the life and teaching of Christ. It is in Christ that all problems are solved: the honest enquirer, who finds that the evidence in favor of the historicity of the resurrection of Christ does not command his intel lectual assent, .will find his doubts disappear as he knows Christ better; Certainty will come to him along un suspected channels.

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NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 397 Religious Text-Books With regard to text-books on religious subjects for Christian schools, I am glad to say that the Department of Religions Educa tion of the China Christian Educat.ional Association is making a special study of this subject, and that the secretaries are keenly alive to the needs in our schools. It is, therefore, not necessary for me to say more about the way in which this particular need should be met. Neither is it my purpose to say much with Style reference to the quei,tion of style, whether "wenli," "kuo yii" or so-called "easy wenli,'' in which Christian publications should be written. Who can say what the Chinese language of to-morrow will be? It would seem safe to say, however, that books which are intended for the rising generation should be written in "kuo yii," which, in spite of its unsettled condition, seems to be the language which most young Chinese read with pleasure. The problem of distribution of Christian Distribution literature is scarcely less important than that of production, for, as has been said already, a book is of no use to anyone so long as it remains on the shelf of the godown or of the library. There are many hindrances to the circulation of Christian books in China just now. There is first of all the irregularity in the public services consequent upon the general unsettled condition of the land since the Revolution: then there is the most important fact that the Chinese Church is not a "reading" Church and that not a few of its members are still unable to read: then it should not be forgotten that the connection between the publishing houses and the constituency they want to reach is not always perfect: and finally there is the fact that books cost money and that there are many potential readers who cannot afford to buy even the cheapest of them. These are only a few of the most obvious hindrances to the circulation of Christian literature. Methods ~ow, having looked at the problems of production and of distribution of Christian literature, let us think of the possibility of some method by which the problems might be solved. The word

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398 NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE cooperation" is often in the mind and on the lips of people who think about modern missionary work: and it is natural that one of the first suggestions with regard to Christian literature should be along the lines of cooperation: cooperation both in production and in distribution. Cooperation Cooperation in this work has unquestioned ad vantages. But let us think clearly : the cooperation desired should not simply mean cooperation among the various societies which prorluce Christian Literature, but also cooperation b e tween these various societies on the one hand and the Christian Church on the other. By combining their efforts more closely, the various societies might be able to produce better books than they are now doing, but it is only when the Christian Church as a whole joins in with their work, that they can produce the best, and, having produced it, ca.n dietribute it. A 1 t' In pTinciple, most people would perhaps ma gama ion agree that cooperation in tlie procluction of Christian littrature would be a good thing, and that much might be gained by some of the existing societies amalgamating in to one body. But when it comes to concrete matters of detail, this univerrnlity of opinion is not likely to be maintained. Some object to the doctrinal position of others, some to their metl1ods, some to their general outlook. Then Borne societies have larger resources than others which, very rightly, they are anxious to safeguard for the purpose for which these resources were obtained: while some have traditions to hand down, which might be lost in too close cooperation with other bodies. Thus it is that some people would fear that, by trying to force cooperation,-if such an expression be permittedone would defeat the very object of it, for cooperation is a method rather than an end in itself. And yet it would seem to me that more united efforts in the production of Christian literature would be a gain. Whether amalgamation be possible or not, I would urge the necessity for cooperation in its more fundamental meaning of working together: and I would urge it, not only between the

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NEEDS IN CHRI:,TIAN LITERATURE 399. various agencies which produce Christian lit.eratnre, because there is already there a fair amount of cooperation, hut more still between these societies a.nd the Christian publie. Chinese Writers It is not a good sign, in my judgment, that the larger number of tramlations of books or of original works for the Church should be attempted by foreign missionaries. At the beginning of things it was perhaps necessary that it should be so, but how long must it remain so? One i,ees with gratification the increasing number of books produced by devoted and well qualified Chinese writers, but it is merely a drop in the bucket. Chinese Christian scholars must set themselves to the ta sk, not out of rivalry against anybody, but out of a compelling desire to bring their contribution to the life of the Church. It must be obvious to every body that one of the most urgent needs of the Church in China to-clay is for Christian literature produced by Chinese Christians for the use of Chinese Christians. Here then is scope for cooperation in the production of Christian literature, between the publishing houses and the Christian public. Unsold Books How great the need for cooperation between the Christian publishing houses and the reading public is today, is known best by those who see with an aching heart thousands of copies of good books left to grow out of date on the bhelves of a godown. We need not have any sorrow for a poor book which does not sell, but there are many good books, which have cost labor and money, which deserve a better fate. They don't seU, not because they are not good, but for various reasons, all connected with faulty relation between the reading public and the publishing houses. It is probably true to say that, up to the present, the most important "dis tributors" of Christian literature in China have been foreign missionaries. Now, while the interest and help of missionaries should not only be retained but increased, yet the final solution of the problem of distribution must rest with the Chinese Church.

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400 NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE Reading Public The various organizations who are publishing Christian books in China must absolutely establish direct connections with the Christian reading public: they have understood this, no doubt, and are doing their utmoRt to increase the circulation of their books and papers through the Chinese Church or through Chinese church members. This is very difficult, however, as it can scarcely be claimed that the Chinese Church is, as yet, a "reading" church. Duty to Read What would appear to me to be of great help towards a solution would be that the duty to read, as well as the advantages of it, be emphasized by the pastors of the churches, both by their example, and by their advice: that simple, but definite organizations be set up in churches or in groups of churches, for the fostering of the desire to read and for the circulation of Christian books: also that each mission station, possibly each church, have a local library of Christian books which could be borrowed by church members who are too poor to purchase the books for themselves Such a library would cost very little, since, so far as I know, Christian publishing agencies offer special discounts for such purposes. It would also materially help if churches and missions, in making their annual budget, always made a definite and adequate allowance for the distribution of literature. Would it be too much to ask that, in every station, one missionary set himself or herself to establish as many direct connections as possible between the Chinese Christians and the various houses who publish Christian books? In a country like China, with differing Conclusion local traditions, dialects, and general outlook, all movements towards real cooperation are difficult, even when leaders agree. Yet they are not impossible, as various movements have shown in recent days As will be plainly seen, the object of this article is not so much to solve problems, for which task the writer is not particularly qualified, as to raise some of the problems connected with the production and the distribution of Christian literature,

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NEEDS IN CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 401 in the hope that the very raising of these problems may set readers thinking of their solution and working towards it. One likes to think with hope of the day when the Chinese Church will take her pface among the great Christian churches of history, and bring her gifts for the good of all.

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PART IX APPENDIX A PRJNCIPLAL EVENTS, J925-28 1925 May 30th ... The Shanghai Riot. 1926 Feb. 2nd 5th ... Conference of Christian Rural Leaders. Feb. 12th-16th .. Second Biennial Meeting of China Association for Christian Higher Education. Feb. 14th-20th ... Week of Evangelism. March 26th .. Chiang Kai-shek arrived in Shanghai. April 6th ... Soviet Embassy Raid at Peking .. April 9th-1 lth ... Meeting of Y. W.C.A. Delegates at Nanking. May lst-12th National Conference at Canton May lOth-June 16th ... Travelling Committee to examine courts, prisons, detention honses, etc., carried out a tour of investigation. June lst-3rd .. Annual Meeting of Kwangtung Di visional Council of the Church of Christ in China. July 11 th ... First open demonstration against Mr. Borodin. July 17th -25th .. Meeting of International Missionary Council. Sept. 20th ... Wanhsien Affair. Piracies ... Oct. lst-" Hsin Fung" Nov. llth-''Hanoi" Nov. 15th-"Sunning." Oct. 8th ... Surrender of Wnchang. Oct. JOth .. Canton shipping strike ended. Oct. 13th 20th ... Fourth Meeting of National Christian Council. Dec. llth Canton Seized; retaken by Li Fu-lin's troops, Dec. 13th. Dec. 14th ... Mandate to expel the soviets.

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PRINCIPLAL EVENTS 403 1926 Dec. 18th British Proposals to Powers concerning China. 1927 Jan. lst .. Provisional Court begun. Piracies .. Jan. 2nd-"Heng An" Jan. 27th-"Seang Bee" March 21st-" Hopsang Ang. 25th-" Hsin Chi" Aug. 30Lh-" Yat Shing" Sept. lst-' 'Koch ow" Oct. J lth-" Shing On" Oct 19th-" Irene" Jan. 3rd .. Hankow British Concession overrun fan. 3rd-17th ... Dr. John R. Mott in Shanghni. Jan. 2oth ... Statement concerning U. S. policy in China. Jan. 27th ... British proposals to China. Feb. 9th-11 th ... N.C.C Executive Meeting. Feb. 19th and 20th .. Hankow agreement. Feb. 28th ... Soviet Boat "Pamiat Lenina ,. seized. March lst and 15th .. Conference at Shanghai on Church and Mission Administration. March 2nd ... Kiukiang Agreement. March 21st ... Shanghai taken by the South. March 24th ... Na.nking outrage. April 13th ... Annnal Meeting of Ratepayers of Shanghai. April 19th ... University Day, West China Union University. May lst ... Labor Day. May 7th .. Day of National Humiliation. June 23rd ... Pan-Pacific Trades' Union Conference. Aug. 3rd-21st ... World Conference on Faith and Order. Aug. 18th-28th ... Conference on Christianizing Eco monic Relations. Oct. lst-llth ... General Assembly of the Church of Christ at Jessfield. Oct. 2nd-8th ... Anti-Opium Week. Oct. lOth .. Birthday of Confucim. Oct 13th-20th ... N.C.C. Fifth Annual Meeting

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404 PRINCIPLAL EVENTS 1927 Nov lst ... Consecration of Archdeacon Ting of Foochow as Bishop. Nov 25th ... Annual Meeting of Christian Literature Society 1928 Jan. 7th-14th ... East Asia Central Conference of Methodists; also Shanghai Nurses' Association Con vention. March 12th Anniversary of the Death of Sun Yat-sen. March 26th-April 8th .. Jerusalem Conference. April 13th .. Shanghai Ratepayers decide to admit Chinese to the Council and to throw open the public parks to the Chinese. April 24th ... Tsinanfu captured by the South.

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APPENDIX B DOCTRINAL BASIS OF UNION AND CONSTITUTION OF CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA Doctrinal Basis of Union The Church of Christ in China being autonomous will have the prerogative of formulating its own doctrinal state ments, but these will, we believe, in the providence of God, and under the teaching of His Spirit, be in essential harmony with the beliefs of the Christian Church in other lands. As such a declaration of belief has not yet been formulated the United Church formulates this statement of fur,damentals. 1. Our bond of union consists: (1) In our faith in Jesus Christ as our Redeemer and Lord on whom the Christian Church is founded; and in an earnest desire for the establishment of His Kingdom throughout the whole earth. (2) In our acceptance of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the divinely inspired word of God, and the supreme authority in matters of faith and duty. (3) In our acknowledgment of the Apostles' Creed as expressing the fundamental doctrine8 of our common evangelical faith. 2. Every office bParer in the District Associations and Local Churches of the Church of Christ in China shall declare his sincere acceptance and observance of this Doctrinal Basis of Union. 3. Believing in the unity of the body of Christ, we declare that every one who from the heart accepts the above statement of faith, is sincerely welcomed by us, and recognized as united with us in the one communion.

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406 DOCTRINAL BASIS OF UNION AND CONSTITUTION 4. Any Divisional Council, in addition to the Doctrinal Basis of Union held in common by the whole Church, may retain its original standards of faith The Constitution Preamble. 1. The Church of Christ in China, recognizing that variety in the operations of the Spirit is as essential to the true welfare of the Church as oneness of spirit, accepts the principle that the powers of the General Assembly shall he confined to such matters only as are P-S8ential for the promotion and conservation of true unity and that each Divisional Council, District Association and Local Church shall have the greatest freedom of self-expression in organization, worship and service, consistent with such unity. 2 We recognize that the missionary is a temporary factor in the Church of Christ and under its authorit. y to assist in thPestablishment of God's Kingrlom. The degree of self -support, independence and self propagation ii:; not uniform and it is therefore impo:;sible to deLermine on a relationship between missiorniry and church uniform for the whole church. Each Divisional Council and District Association has liberty to define for itself what this relationship shall be. I. Name. Chinese: i:p 'I :tt fr. (Chung Hwa Chi Tu Chiao Hwui). In English: The Church of Christ in China. II. Object. Our object is to bind the churches of The Church of Christ in China with united strength to plan and promote the spirit of self-support, !?elf-governance and self-propagation and to unite the Christian Believers to pr