Citation
China mission year book

Material Information

Title:
China mission year book
Added title page title:
China Christian Year Book
Creator:
MacGillivray, D ( Donald ), 1862-
Christian Literature Society for China
National Christian Council of China
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
Christian Literature Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions, Medical -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Directories -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
亞洲 -- 中國
Coordinates:
35 x 103 ( China )

Notes

Bibliography:
Inc. indices.
General Note:
Issues for 1920-1922, 1927, 1930, 1933/4, 1935/6 were not published. After 1925 continues as "China Christian year book".
General Note:
Editors: 1910-1915 D. MacGillivray;

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
353641 ( aleph )
X192075321 ( oclc )

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Full Text
TI-IE
CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK
BEING
"THE CHRISTIAN ME1NT
, i : 'I
/ :I
(FIFTH YEAR OF ISSUE)
EDITED BY
Rev. D. MacOILLIVRAY, M.A., D.D.
A Companion Volume,44 Survey of the Missionary Occupation of China"
By Thos* Cochrane, M.Bt CM, Also an Atlas
THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY FOR CHINA
SHANGHAI
1914


THE YEAR BOOK IS SOLD:
In Groat Britain by
The Religious Tract Society, Si. Paul's Churchyard, Loudon, E. C.
In Canada by
Foreign Mission Commit-too, Presbyterian Church in Canada, Toronlo.
In the United States by
Missionary Education Movement, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York,


PREFACE
The Christian Literature Society again returns thanks
to all who have contributed to the contents of the China
Mission Year Book for ]914. The number of topics to be
handled is not likely to diminish, and the tendency of the
book to become over-grown and unwieldy has all along been
steadily resisted. In any event it was never intended to
treat of every topic every year. Of course some subjects of
outstanding importance and perennial interest must always
find a place, but other subjects are to be found scattered
over the previous Year Books where they can be looked up by
those who wish.
The following among other topics were described in the
Year Book of 1913 and are omitted in this volume:
Christian Endeavour.
The Door of Hope.
School for the deaf at Chefco
The Tsinanfu Institute of the B.M.S.
The International Institute.
Work among Foreigners in China.
Work of the Y.W.C.A.
Leading Colleges of China.
We have been compelled to reluctantly omit the follow-
ing articles, and also some of the usual appendices from lack
of space. They may be used next year. Our apologies are
due to the writers.
Industrial Education.
The Chinese Woman Doctor, by Dr. Tsao.
Some aspects of Literary Work, by Dr. Speicher.
YY'ork for the unlettered masses, by Professor Tung.
Mission Presses in China, by C. M. Meyers.
Among the Women of Peking, by Mrs. Anient.
Chinese Students' Organisations Abroad, by David T. Yui.
Chinese Christian Publications.
We have the following promises for next year:
The Jubilee Year of the China Inland Mission.
Successful Village Missions, English, American and German.
Work among Chinese Abroad.
Survey of the Chinese Secular Press.


ii
In the Statistical Table an attempt lias been made to
make it more complete, and also to classify the returns
according to the Report of the Committee on Missionary
Statistics to the Edinburgh Continuation Committee at its
meeting at The Hague, November, 1913. (See Notes on
Statistics, following the Directory). Many thanks are due
to the Secretary of the China Continuation Committee for
very valuable suggestions in regard to the arrangement and
classification of these Statistics and also for the instructive
diagrams based on these figures. It is hoped that this may
serve as the beginning of more uniformity and accuracy in
Mission Statistical Returns.
Some articles of the present Year Book have been with
our permission reprinted elsewhere. The Year Book is glad
to extend the circulation of such material by giving authors
this privilege.
D. MacGtlljvray.


CONTENTS
PREFACE
Chapter Paue
I. GENERAL SURVEY.
Rev. A. H, Smith, D.J), 1
II. RELIGIOUS ASPECT OF AFFAIRS AND
THE CHURCH IN CHINA.
Bishop J. W. Bashfoicl. 30
1. Confucianism ..................................................................30
2. Buddhism.,..........................................................................34
3. Christianity........................................................................37
4. Christian Education................................................39
5. Christian Federation ..........................................58
III. THE CONFUCIAN REVIVAL.
Rev. H. K. Wright, 01
IV. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE
REPUBLIC. Professor L.R.O.Bevan 73
V. GOVERNMENT CHANGES.
W. Sheldon Ridge 04
V!. NANKING, THE REBELLION AND
THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES.
Rev. P. F. Price 110
VII. WHAT ELEMENTS IN THE GOSPEL
POSSESS THE GREATEST
POWER OF APPEAL TO THE
CHINESE. Rev. C. I-I. Fenn 110
VIII. EVANGELISTIC WORK 127
1. The Need .....................P. F. Huale 127
2. A Journey in Tibet, A. L. Shelton 128
3. Tent Work in and About Poohow,
Rev. W. I). Bostick .130
4. Prospects of Evangelistic Work in
Fukien............ Rt. Rev. Bishop Price 133
5. Preaching in Peking
Rev.W. T. Hobart 137
0 Iisunhsien Fair, llonan
Rev. W. 11. Grant 138
7. Shantung City-Evangelization
Rev. R. M. Mateer 141


ii
CONTENTS.
Chapter Page
8. Some Methods, Results, and Pro-
blems in Connection with Special
Meetings for Students, Dre W. E. Taylor 148
1). The Lecture Department of the
National Department of the Y.M.C.A.
of China............Prof. C. H. Robertson 150
10. Resolutions re New Policy in Using
Evangelists....................................... 1(52
11. To Lead Men Unto the Lord One by
One is a Good Plan for making the
Church Prosperous, Rev. Ting Li-mei 1(34
12. Some Cood Tracts for Evangelistic
Purposes..............................II. L. Xia 108
IX. THE CHINESE STUDENT VOLUNTEER
MOVEMENT FOR THE MINIS-
TRY ......................Rev. W. P. Mills 170
X. THE VARIED WORK OF THE
CHURCHES (Extracts from the
Reports.) ..............................................................................178
Baptist Missionary Society ....................................178
Presbyterian Church of England........................17!)
Reformed Church of America..............................182
American Presbyterian Mission ......................184
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Soc..........188
London Missionary Society ....................................189
Church Missionary Society ....................................192
Southern Baptist Convention ..............................190
Methodist Episcopal Church, South ............197
XI. UNION AND CO-OPERATION 2UU
]. Institutions and Meetings, The Editor 200
2. The Kwangtung-Kwangsi Christian
Council............................................. 207
0. The Third Hunan Missionary Con-
ference and its Continuation Com-
mittee.................. Rev. G. G. Warren 210
4. Hongkong and New Territories
Evangelisation Society........IT, Rivelly 217
5. Provincial Federation Movement
Rev. E. Box 218
Present Status of the Federation
Councils.....................Dr. T. Cochrane 219
XII. THE WORK OF WOMEN FOR WOMEN
AND CHILDREN......................................................221
1. The Need of Women Evangelists
in China.....................Miss S. (jrarland 221
2. Work for Women in Shantung,
Mrs. C. K. Roys 224


CONTENTS.
Ill
Chapter Pake
;-. Women's Work in Manchuria
Mrs. Miskelly 232
4. What Chinese Women Have Done
and are Doing for China
Miss Mary Stone 239
XIII. WORK FOR THE CHILDREN....................................240
1. Sunday School..................................................................24(3
2. Orphanage Work in China
- .J. W. Bovver 249
XIV, THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE CHIN-
ESE CHURCH............................................................255
1. A Chinese View, Prof. Chen Kin-yung 255
2. The Independent Church in Ping-
yuan..................Rev. A. B. De Haan 261
:>. Proposed Constitution of a Chinese
Church.............Rev. W. J. Drumniond 205
4. The Independent Church in other
Provinces.......................................... 270
XV. FIFTY YEARS OF CHURCH ORGANIZA-
TION IN SOUTH FUK1EN
Rev. A. L. Warnshuis 272
XVI. THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT IN
CHINA ........................................................................................281
1. The Chinese Church and Social Ser-
vice ..............................Dr. Y. Y\ Tsu 281
2. Conference on the Social Application
of Christianity.........Rev. E. IL Cressy 285
3. ' The Survey Idea as applied to Mis-
sion Work...."............Rev. Alex. Miller 287
4. The Place of Woman in Social Ser-
vice.....................Miss YingMeiChun 2^9
5. Social Service in Chuchow, Anhwei
E. I. Osgood, M.D. 293
0. The Peking Students' Social Service
Club.................................................. 299
XVII. PROGRESS OF SOCIAL REFORMS............301
1. The Opium Campaign......The Editor 301
2. Ups and Downs of Moral Reform in
Canton........................Rev. A. Baxter 307
XVIIL WORK AMONG THE BLIND OF CHINA.
G. B. Eryei 312
A Union System of Braille for Chinese
Blind............................................. 329


iv
CONTENTS.
Chapter Pacjh
XIX. MEDICAL WORK........................................................................3:51
Number of Students........J. B. Neal, M.D. 33 1
AVest China Union Medical School
0. L. Kilboni, M.D. 331
Need of Union.............T. Gillison, M.D.
Hangchow and Union, D. ]). Main, M.D. 333
Medical Policy ..................Dr. Cochrane 333
Co-operation with the Chinese
Dr. P. J. Todd 334
Publication Committee's Work..............................334
New Union Scheme in Chekiang, Kiang-
su and Peking........................................................................335
Union Medical College for Women..................336
The Nurses' Association of China ..................338
Post-Mortem Examination ....................................338
Chinese or English ............................................................331)
Public Health Service for China ........................339
Medical Education
Dr. Wn's Memorandum 340
Medical Research in China
II. E Eggers, M.D. 341
XX. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MISSION
HELD..................Rev. C. E. Patton 344
XXI. CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 355
1. Semi-Jubilee Report, Rev. J. Menzies 355
3. Suggested Changes in Method of Em-
ploying Evangelists......Rev. J.Griffith 305
XXII. THE WORK OF GERMAN MISSIONS
IN CHINA.........Rev. C. J. Voskamp _ 371
1. The Basel Mission......................................................373
2. Rhenish Mission ......................................................37l>
:). Liebenzeller Mission................................................379
4. The lvieler China Mission..............................382
5. The Pilgermission........................... 382
(). Mission for the Blind........................ <>83
7. Deutsche China Allianz Mission ...... 384
8. Berliner Missionsgesellschaft ......... 385
9. Weimar Mission.............................. 392
XXIII. THE WORK OF THE ANGLICAN COM-
MUNION IN CHINA
The Right Rev. Bishop Graves 394
XXIV. THE WORK OF THE PROTESTANT
MISSIONS IN SHANSI.
Rev. Paul L. Corbin 404


contents. v
Chapter Pagh
XXV MISSIONARY OCCUPATION OF MAN-
CHURIA: MEN'S WORK.
Rev. A. Weir, M.A. 410
XXVI. SCANDINAVIAN MISSIONS IN CHINA.
Professor C. Stokstad 429
Union Work...........................................................................429
Finnish Missionary Society ....................................430
Norwegian Lutheran Mission ..............................4.31
The Norwegian Mission in China........................432
The Norwegian Missionary Society..................432
The Swedish Holiness Mission ........................433
Swedish Missionary Society....................................435
American Lutheran Mission...............................435
The Augustana Synod Mission..............................436
IT.auge's Synod Mission ...............................................438
The Lutheran Brethren Mission........................439
The Lutheran Synod Mission ..............................439
Scandinavian Alliance Mission ........................440
The Swedish American Missionary Co-
venant ..............................................................................441
XXVII. CHRISTIAN LITERATURE....................................443
1. The Christian Literature Society
for China..................Rev. W. II. Rees 443
2. The Work of the Tract Societies
Rev. J. Darroch 445
3. Experiences of a Translator
Rev. A. Nagel 449
4 Bible Translation and Revision
Rev. G. H. Bond field 453
5. British and Foreign Bible Society
Rev. G. H. Bond field 455
6. The American Bible Society............ 457
7. National Bible Society of Scotland ... 460
8. Scripture Commentaries in Chinese,
Rev. G. A. Clayton 462
9. The Chinese Recorder
Rev. F. Rawlinsun 468
XXVIII. THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN AS-
SOCIATIONS OF CHINA IN 1913-
F. S. Brockman. 472
XXIX. THE EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION
OF CHINA. Rev. F. D. Gamevvell. 478
XXX. THE FIRST YEAR OF THE CHINA
CONTINUATION COMMITTEE.
Rev. E. C. Lobenstine. 484


vi
CONTENTS.
Chapter Pafe
XXX!. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND CLASSES
W. B. Pettns. 499
XXXII. RECENT ADVANCES IN SINOLOGY.
Rev. S. Con ling. 502
XXXIII. HOW TWO GREAT LEGACIES HELP
CHINA ..................................................................................507
1. The Arthington Bequest.................. 507
2. The Kennedy Bequest..................... 511
XXXIV. ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN
CHINA....................................................................................517
APPENDICES
I. List of Important Events
II. Missionary Officials
III. Obituaries.
Directory
Statistics
Index


CHAPTER I
GENERAL SURVEY
By Rev A H, Smith, D*D*
CHINESE History, perhaps more than any other in the
world, seems to the Occidental observer to be nearly or
quite indistinguishable from a theatrical play. Especially
has this been the case within the twenty years which have
elapsed since the war between China and Japan. In a
nonchalant manner China comes upon the stage for this
epoch-making conflict for which no preparation had been
made. There is the deadly defeat in Korea, the pictorial
flight from Port Arthur, the peace adjustment in Japan,
the astonishment and exasperation of the People of China
when the news slowly filtered down among them; the
spectacular Reform Decrees of the Emperor Kuang Hsu,
his sudden extinction by his imperious Aunt, the Empress
Dowager; the rapid incubation of the Boxer insanity, its
sickly spring flowers and its acrid summer fruit; the
dramatic Siege of the Legation, China Against the World,"
the Relief Expeditions, the flight of the Court to distant
Sianfu in bitterness and in sorrow andeighteen months
laterits imposing return with a renewed and more decisive
lease of power. Swiftly pass the few succeeding years,
until November 1908 when the Emperor officially died on
the 14th, and the Empress Dowager (by prearrangement)
on the 15th, leaving presumptive chaos. But nothing
happened. The Prince Regent was regent for his own little
son, the Court went on as before, and China entered upon a
Lagoon of Peace. But in October 1911 came the Revolution,
and on the next February 12th, presto, we have a -newly ma-
nufactured Republic all ready for business. Seeing this the
"Throne" pleasantly abdicated, and the Revolution ceased
revolving. Comedy and tragedy upon a continental stage,
with the World as spectators and many of them as partici-
pants.
A-l


2
GENERAL SURVEY.
The present cursory review of the year must for
convenience begin with the assembling of the National
Parliament April 8th, 1913, a body long anticipated as the
Balm for each and all of China's woes, now that representa-
tive institutions were firmly established in the Flowery Land.
It is seldom that a deliberative body meets from which
so much is hoped and with such apparent reason. The
Provincial Councils of 3 909, and the National Assembly of
1910 had displayed on the part of the participants however
casually chosen and however little qualified by experience,
an unanticipated capacity for cautious attention, for biding
their time, for prudent and cogent interrogation of the
government officials, and also for co-operation with one
another. All of that was under "the former Manchu
dynasty," this first Parliamentary meeting was under "a
Republic," where "equality" was a presupposition, and at
a time when the actual domination of China by means of a
Constitution which a large Committee of Parliament was to
form appeared an object of certain and of comparatively
easy attainment
Upon a calm review of its sessions by an impartial
outsider several prominent features attract attention. First
its unwieldy size. A Senate of 300 members, more or less,
and a House more than twice as numerous would under
almost any imaginable conditions have rendered effective
work impossible. Second, its irrational rules, requiring a
majority for a quorum. (The British House of Commons
which gets through with a good deal of business first and
last, requires but forty members in attendance). Thus, to
block any measure nothing was required but to withdraw in
considerable numbers from the chamber, a plan daily
adopted by each clique in turn, thus making nearly every
session a stalemate. Third, an apparently complete indiffer-
ence to the growing Chinese public sentiment. This
sentiment. demanded energy and intelligent zeal such, for
example, as the National Assembly had showed in the winter
of 1910. Instead of this, weeks were wasted in electing offi-
cers, and after that months more in barren and acrimonious
wTrangling. Fourth, party spirit raised to the nth power.
The Parliament was divided into impracticable cabals


THE NATIONAL .PARLIAMENT.
3
termed by courtesy "parties," but which were virtually
secret societies dominated by the personality of some man or
group, without definite principles of action, without a back-
ground of anything actually accomplished, without visible
bond of union other than that of class interest and an
inflexible determination to break up a session rather than
allow an advantage to any other faction. Fifth, inordinate
suspicion of one another and of the President. This
constantly led to scenes alike unexpected and ridiculous.
Members not only attacked one another on the floor of
each house with angry and vituperative language, some
times standing trembling with excitement yet speechless
with rage, and again seizing the brass inkpots of their desks
and hurling them as practically unanswerable arguments, so
that time after time, the sessions ended in confusion and
riot. Lastly, the Parliament was undeniably dominated
by a spirit of greed. The members voted themselves salaries
and allowances on a scale unheard of, amounting to many
times their probable earning power in any other capacity
or incapacity. Amid all the talk of patriotism this indispu-
table worship of filthy lucre probably did more to alienate
popular sympathy than anything else.
The Committee appointed to draw up the constitution
paid little or no attention to precedents, or to Advisers
invited by the President from the ends of the earth. It was
not advice which they wanted, but an instrument which
would tie up the President so that the Parliament should
bear rule, and not the Chief Magistrate. When he sent
eight delegates to the Committee to represent his views,
they were ejected without ceremony, thus showing Ilis
Excellency that the Committee could make a Constitution
without his assistance. In due time he afforded them the
same proof that he was able to conduct the government
without theirs. The signature of the agreement for the Loan
of twenty-five million pounds borrowed from the Quintuple
Syndicate (from which the United States had already
retired) in face of the opposition of Parliament and in
spite of the declaration of prominent members like Mr. C. T.
Wang, Vice-Speaker of the Senate, that this meant War, was
naturally regarded as a defiance of Parliament by the


4
GENERAL SURVEY.
President, who understood much better than his critics how
necessary it was to obtain funds to administer the govern-
ment, and how hopeless it was to expect anything from that
body. The assassination in March at a railway station in
Shanghai of Mr. Sung Chiao-jen, the young Hunanese
leader of the Kuo Min Tang had thrown much of China
into a condition of dangerous political excitement almost
amounting to frenzy. Nothing would convince those who
wished it to be true that the government had not instigated
or even ordered this crime, and doubtless this belief still
remains and will remain, although so far as is generally
known there is nothing in favor of this theory which a
Western Court would admit as evidence. The Kuo Ming
Tang was itself a coalition of different elements, all of them
bitterly dissatisfied with Yuan as President. In central
China the more radical wing led by Huang Using, Chen
Chi-mei and others, planned for an uprising announced as
a "Second Revolution," which was elaborately organized
and equipped throughout the Yangtze valley by the mis-
appropriation of public funds to be used in this "Punitive
Expedition.'' In giving this movement his cordial support
Dr. Sun Wen was most frank, asserting that at the first
show of force Yuan's power would collapse like a house of
cards Without waiting, however, to take any personal part
in the impending renovation of China, Dr. Sun suddenly
sailed for Japan where he has since been living in a more or
less impenetrable obscurity. What was confidently expected
was that upon the delivery of this deadly attack the Pro-
visional President would be put out of business. Things had
been going awry for some months. The President cashiered
Li Lieh-chun, the Tutuh of Kiangsi, Pa Wen-yu the Tutuh of
Anhwei, while Hu Han-ming of Kwangtung was promoted "
to be Frontier Commissioner of Tibet. This was an accept-
ance of the gage of battle and was so regarded. The actual
rebellion, like the Revolution of 1911, broke out at Wuchang
toward the end of June, soon involving practically all the
provinces of the Yangtze valley, the capture of Nanking
(for the fourth time within 60 years) and the loss of a very
great number of lives. To recapitulate even in the merest
outline this "Revolution"marked as a Rebellion by its


THE SECOND REVOLUTION.
5
complete failure in Augustwould occupy all our space and
would be of little permanent interest. The insurgents
counselling with their hot passions rather than with their
cooler judgment, neglected to take account of the essential
fact that the President is himself a military man of long
experience and great skill; that the military Vice-President
was able, energetic and sagacious; that the Government
controlled all the lines of communication by land, by river,
and by sea, with the doubtful exception of some gunboats
and the Shanghai Arsenal; and that it was provided with
men and money adequate to its needs. It was from the
start more or less perfectly informed as to every move of
the rebels, and could choose its time to strike. Moreover,
the Government proved to have upon its side two irresistible
allies with which the revolutionary leaders had not reckoned,
the unwillingness of the merchant class, who wanted rest
and not riot, to furnish the necessary funds for war
expenses; and also the equally emphatic refusal of the
Consular and the Municipal authorities in Shanghai to
allow the International Settlement to be misused as a basis
of attack upon China. The telegraph lines were defended
from rebel seizure, a waspish Shanghai journal printed in
English called the China Republican," devoted to attacking
the President and the government, was suppressed and its
editor deported. Those who are familiar with the outlines
of Chinese history know how great a part of it consists
of insurrections and bloody wars. Notwithstanding the
frightful expenditure of human life in this rebellion, the
horrible sufferings of pillaged and repillaged Nanking, the
worst experiences of 19.13 certainly bear no comparison
to those which marked the downfall of the Mings and the
advent of the Ch'ings. Several groups of foreigners were
caught in the vicious swirl of the revolutionary eddies, and
much mission work was hindered, or stopped altogether.
The rebellion was snulfed out. Had it succeeded it would
probably have been tantamount to the Mexicanization"
of China. Whenever a president had enemies, which
would always happen, they would merely have to lead a
"Punitive Expedition" to demonstrate the unconstitu-
tional" nature of his rule, and their own obvious fitness to


6
GENERAL SURVEY.
supersede him. The outcome of the rebellion was the loss of
great numbers of lives, the extinction of an untold amount
of fixed capital in devastated cities, towns, and villages,
banks looted, merchandise plundered, crops destroyed, and
in general throughout a wide region an impartial dissemina-
tion of wreck and ruin. But after it all the central
government was obviously much stronger than at the
beginning, and the prospect of a stable authority by so
much more secure. In this connection must be mentioned
the name of the dark and baleful shadow which has once
again been thrown across the face of China, its Evil Genius,
Chang llsitn. With headquarters at Siicliowfu, in northern
Kiangsu and in command of a large force, lie controlled
the communications between Tientsin and the Yangtze.
The people did not feel sure of his loyalty to Yuan Shih-
kai, or indeed to any one but himself. His troops, too, were
justly objects of suspicion. Perhaps his course may have
been a source of anxiety to the President himself, who,
however, placed him in command of the army to capture
Nanking, the city from which he been obliged ignominiously
to fly in the spring of 1912. That Gen. Chang should
have allowed liis soldiers three days of unchecked looting
and ravishing in Nanking -is a standing disgrace not to
himself and to his soldiers only, but to the President and to
China.a country just entering the sisterhood of Ncitions as
a Republic. For months later the presence of this bird of
ill omen in Nanking as Governor, was a cause of terror to the
city, to the great province of which it is the capital, and of
unrest to a large part of China. At length Gen. Chang was
"promoted" to a post which he never took. lie then
sullenly retired to his former quarters at Siichowfu, perhaps
at some future crisis again to emerge to work further
devastation. The career of sueh a man is to be studied
as an aid to comprehending the inherent difficulties of
governing a country in the' stage of evolution of China.
During the progress of the rebellion it was well known that
many members of the Parliament were not only in complete
sympathy with the object of the insurrection and expecting
its success, but were actually in communication with the
insurgents.


INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT.
7
On the 27th of August, five senators and three members
of the Lower House were arrested, perhaps as a caution to the
remainder. On the 6th of October the country received with
relief the intelligence that Provisional President Yuan had
been elected permanent President by 507 votes out of 733
cast, out of a combined total of 868 members of both houses.
Li Yuan-hung was chosen Vice-President by a still larger
majority. The Kuo Mm Tang was unable to put forth a
candidate of their own, and many of them must have voted,
however reluctantly, for Yuan as a mere choice of evils.
The foreign powers promptly availed themselves of this
opportunity to recognize the Republic, which had already
been done (May 2nd) by the United States, and in April by
Brazil and Mexico. Towards the end of October the Com-
mittee engaged in drafting the new Constitution produced a
document, the obvious intention of which was to make the
President subordinate to the Parliament, a body which had
produced no other evidence of its ability to govern China,
than (as the President shrewdly remarked) its complete
incapacity to govern itself. -The inauguration of the
President (the Vice-President being still in command at
Wuchang) took place with great ceremony on October 10th,
the anniversary of the revolution against the Manchus two
years before, but the general public, Chinese and foreign,
were carefully excluded; and something of a gloom was
thrown over the proceedings by the discovery at the last
moment of a plot under the lead of a police officer of rank
to assassinate the President. Early in April, just before the
assembling of Parliament, Yuan had moved his headquarters
within the Forbidden City, and in that fortified fastness he
has ever since dwelt. But were he to leave its seclusion
even for a,n hour, there is great reason to fear that his life
might be the forfeit. It should be remarked in passing, that
the difficulty of governing Oriental lands (under whatever.
form of administration) seems distinctly on the increase by
reason of the greater facilities for mischief through the
multiplication of easily concealed and deadly explosives, of
a vicious public sentiment approving of such murders, and
the general popularity of the dare-to-die fanaticism. The
historian Froude mentions that at a certain crisis the face


8
GENERAL SURVEY.
of politics in Western Europe was changed by a pistol shot
from behind a hedge. Such a distance has China already
travelled since December 1905 when the abortive attempt was
made to blow up the Imperial Constitutional Commissioners
on their leaving Peking that it is at present quite possible
that the liberation of the chemical forces imprisoned within
one tiny bomb might reduce China to a wild welter of
chaos.
On the 4th of November, not only Peking, but all
China, and indeed the World was electrified by the issue of
an extended presidential Mandate summarily dissolving the
Kuo Min Tang, on the ground (amply sustained by
incriminating telegrams incorporated in the order) of the
treasonable complicity of its leaders in the late rebellion.
Its members were incapacitated for acting as officials of any
sort, and for membership in the National Parliament, which,
by the lack of a quorum, was thus reduced to non-existence.
For this far reaching and drastic Mandate it wa.s
understood that the President himself, as distinguished from
his Cabinet, was responsible. It was at once greeted with
shouts of unconstitutional,'' by those whose respect for the
provisional Constitution had always been a minus quantity.
But it was everywhere perceived that if China is to be saved
at all, somebody must do it, and that someone must be the
President, for there was no one else in sightor out of sight.
The world at large appeared to agree with Dr. Ariga of Japan
that whatever the crude Provisional Constitution might have
said or left unsaid, the President's action was justified by
the necessity of seeing that the Republic received no detri-
ment. Altogether irrespective, moreover, of constitutional
phrases was the obvious fact that whether he had or had not
a technical "right" to dissolve a political party, he had
done so. He was the power and he had exercised it. From
that time to the present the numerous parties into which
the noisy politicians were of late divided have disappeared
like a swarm of mosquitoes after a heavy frost. They are
not dead, but dormant, and when the climate is more genial
will appear with augmented virulence. For months it was
confidently expected that some other kind of a National
Legislature would be summoned to fill the aching void left


THE CABINET OR THE PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM. 9
by Parliament. Instead of this, however, as an intermediate
step there was appointed a Political Council of seventy or
eighty members, representing merely the government. This
body had advisory functions only, find began its sessions
December 29tli, discussing with great deliberation a wide
variety of topics. In these months everything has been sent
to the melting-pot. The Cabinet system is pitted against
the "Presidential system," and is found to be unsuited to
China. The plan of inquiry adopted is a replica of that of
the Grand Empress Dowager under "the late Manchus."
Orders were issued, for example, to the Political Council
that the two systems just mentioned should be analyzed as
to their feasibility. Then follows the discussion in the
Council. They at length decide that upon the whole the
Presidential system seems the better (for assigned reasons)
upon which the various Military Governors, or Tutuhs, are
instructed to telegraph their opinions upon this topic. This
they do, also the Civil Governors, &e, &c. These views all
display that unanimity which is a characteristic of a well
ordered State Then comes a rain of Memorials upon the
subject. Public Opinion is crystallizing! Then appears a
Mandate ordering a change. In this manner a great variety
of radical steps are just on the point of being taken all the
time.
One of the most intractable subjects has been that of
the abolition of the provinces, with an evident aim at
complete centralization of power. This has passed through
numerous stages, intended perhaps to educate public senti-
ment. The provinces will be divided into Tao or Circuits;
they will be divided into Chun, or military districts; they
will take as their unit the Chou, or Hsien (county), but
each provincial Governor is able to show that in his field this
would not work so well in practice as in theory, and those
who are struggling to govern the outer dependencies (or
independencies) of the New Dominion, &c., can demonstrate
that it would not work at all. Meantime anything is
expected to happen and nothing does happen, or is likely to
do so for an indefinite period. Premier Hsiung Hsi-ling,
a man of undoubted ability, energy, and experience occupied
his post for many months, with a group of Cabinet members
A-2


10
GENERAL SURVEY.
around him of such exceptional capacity that it appeared
that no better choices could have been made. The Premier
began his official career by issuing a long and elaborate
"Policy," a state paper of a kind hitherto unknown in
China, in which lie dealt with existing evils with a refresh-
ing not to say an amazing frankness. But before it had had
time to effect anything of importance this widely adver-
tised collection of All-the-Talents" began to fall to
pieces. In February the Premier resigned, mentioning in
his letter to the President that' he was a man of an obstinate
disposition and did not find it easy to adapt himself to the
views of others! The sudden death of Cliao Ping-chun, a
former Premier, Tutuh of Ohihli, an official of ability and
experience, was a distinct loss to the Government. When
Mr. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao joined the Cabinet it was recognized
that his learning, especially in law affairs, would be a
powerful support to the President. But he, too, abandoned
his office, although he has been appointed to others which
he may or may not continue to hold. Wang Ta-hsieh, the
Minister of Education, also resigned, leaving the affairs of
his department in an unenviable condition. Amid the
uncertainties of tenure of any post it is difficult to induce
men of really first-class talent to undertake the almost
insuperable tasks before them, especially at a time when it
is felt that "the Cabinet system may suddenly disappear,
leaving little or no trace behind. The President has sur-
rounded himself with an army of "Advisers," Chinese and
foreign, apparently sufficient to administeror to wreck
any government on the planet. The number of Chinese
ostensibly employed in this way is very great, many of them
with salaries known to be large, and with duties correspond-
ingly light. The foreign staff is much smaller, comprising,
for example, the famous journalist Dr. George E. Morrison,
Sir Francis Pigott, Prof. Ariga, already mentioned, Dr.
Frank Goodnow of Columbia University,. New York, and
others. Men of this class accustomed to a high degree of in-
tellectual and moral activity have often found their position
as nominal "adviser," when their advice was neither asked
nor taken when offered, uncomfortable and intolerable. Sir
Francis Pigott and Prof. Goodnow especially have, however,


ELIMINATION OF DEMOCRACY.
11
rendered excellent service to educated Chinese by publishing
essays and lectures in English newspapers in Peking upon
themes relating to the principles of government and of re-
form in China.
The existence of an armed rebellion during a consider-
able part of the past year, was not favorable to the exercise
of popular right,s, which day by day visibly diminished.
Martial Law was proclaimed over a large part of China, and
this meant arbitrary arrests, trialif such it could be
termedwith no regard to forms of law, and in secret, and ex-
ecutions continuously and upon a large scale all over China,
particularly in the great centers, such as Peking, and the
leading provincial capitals. To inquire into the aggregate
of the wholly unreported executions is vain, but there is
reason to suppose that for all China the total must have been
many tens of thousands. In the single province of Szechwan
it was said, upon what authority can not be affirmed, that
there must have been between twenty and thirty thousand.
This is, however, merely a reversion to the arbitrary type of
government to which the Chinese have for ages been
accustomed, and does not excite among them the anger and
disgust which would be felt under such conditions in the
West.
The gradual replacement of Civil Governors by the
Military Tutuhs was another inevitable step in the concentra-
tion of power in the hands of the central government, the
effect of which is to unify the provincial administration and
to strengthen it at its weakest point. Of a like nature is the
somewhat unexpected abolition of all Provincials Councils,
many of which no doubt served as thorns in the side of the
Peking authorities. In this, as in other cases, it is alleged
that they will eventually be replaced with some other (doubt-
less more controllable) form of assembly. Still further to
complete the elimination of everything savoring of demo-
cracy the Local Councils in the cities and towns were ordered
to dissolve, their functions being taken over by the District
Magistrates by whom, previous to the Revolution, they had
always been exercised.
Among all the many changes this is the one coming
nearest to the life of the people of China. The District


12
GENERAL SURVEY.
Magistrate, while a man of but the seventh rank on the scale
of degrees, to his "subjects was practically the Emperor.
When the I Shih Iiui, or local bodies, came into existence
they soon found ways to antagonize, to thwart, and even to
impeach and get rid of an obnoxious official, with a celerity
and a certainty never before known within the Four Seas.
Furthermore, the local bodies with Chinese practicality
devoted their attention to taxes and to law-suits, so that
instead of having to reckon with one authority there were a
dozen or more, and the money disappearedsomewhere. As
soon as the rebellion was fully extinguished all this was
recognized in Peking as contrary to the genius of true
republicanism, and early in the present year all the local
bodies were relegated to the obscurity out of which they had
recently emerged. The Magistrates were delighted, and so,
too, were the people, for with ail the corruption of the
Ch'ing period no such flagrant and promiscuous bribery had
ever been known. In some of the large cities, however,
where new ideas and methods have obtained a foothold, the
change is a distinct loss in efficiency and perhaps in
integrity.
When Mr. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao became a member of the
Cabinet it was with the avowed aim of introducing legal
reform into China upon a wide and a thorough scale. Even
before his premature retirement, however, it began to be
bruited about that with some exceptions the higher Law
Courts were to be abolished, most of the lower ones, how-
ever, not having any objective existence, escaped this fate.
This was said to be due (a) to the lack of suitable men for
judges, and (b) to lack of funds to pay them. As the "law
schools" are crowded with students (some being-"for
women only") it is an interesting inquiry what is to
become of all this blighted legal talent. For years the
Chinese have been fretting against the harsh restrictions of
extraterritoriality, which they wrere willing to move heaven
and earth to abolish, after the example of Japan. But until
Western law procedure should have been acclimatized this
was known to be a mere iridescent dream, which the present
procedure seems to have banished for fulfilment to the
Greek Kalends. Presidential Mandates have repeatedly


THE CONSTITUTION.
13
charged that since the revolution men of no experience
and of no worth have been put into the office of Local
Magistrates, and that this vicious condition of things was
responsible for much of China's woes. To remedy it
examinations were to be held in the Capital under specified
conditions, and only those passing these tests would here-
after be able to hold office. Seldom even in China have
so many rice-bowls' been broken at one stroke. The
examinations were so conducted as to exclude those who
were not wanted, such as students from foreign lands, men
of too progressive ideas, &e., on the ground of their lack of
administrative experience. This, it should be said, is the
plaint of those who spent large sums in travelling expenses
only to find themselves ruled out on technical grounds,
regardless of their fitness. To this there are cogent official
replies available, but it is certain that the government has
thus accumulated a great supply of permanent enemies at a
time when there seemed no need of any more. The acting
Premier, Mr. Sun Pao-ch'i, in an address to the successful
candidates, made the statement (not infrequently to be
found in the responsible utterances of those in authority)
that within the past two years corruption had been worse
than at any previous period of contemporaneous history. The
Political Council already mentioned might well be regarded
as a close corporation to give shape to presidential policies.
Its importance during the first three months of its exist-
ence is already eclipsed by the Provisional Constitutional
Conference of about fifty theoretically elected '' members
which met in Peking March 18th. This is a compact and man-
ageable organ through which a Constitution can be forged
agreeable to the man who is to work itnot to work under it.
At one of the earlier sessions a Presidential Delegateor
rather two of themwas present who set forth in detail what
kind of an instrument is desired, and this is probably what
the Council may be expected to evolve. The President is to
be the head of the Government, said his vicegerent on this
occasion; he must have full power to appoint all officers,
contract ordinary treaties (i e. those not involving finan-
cial expenditure), draft all official systems and regulations,
and revise them when they need revision; he is to have the


14
GENERAL SURVEY.
right to issue provisional orders and in emergencies to deal
with finance; the Cabinet is to be a group of advisers and
managers of departments, but is not to be the government;
the power of Parliament is to be curtailed and limited;
special regulations are to be made for auditing and for
accounting, and, whatever may happen, the Budget is to be
provided for; the Constitution is to provide|for the Parlia-
ment, and not a Parliament for a Constitution. One or two
minor questions were asked of the delegates before they
were asked to withdraw, upon which one of the members
made the significant remark that the Bill (introduced by
the President) ''had naturally established itself, so that no
discussion seemed to be needed." A few weeks before this
gathering, some interest was excited by a memorial said to
have been sent in by a local Magistrate of the Szechwan
province, recommending that the President, being the center
of the government, should be appointed by the new
Constitution for life, thus securing the safety of the state.
Newspaper gossip affirmed that on hearing of this the
President was very angry, but was mollified when the entire
' reasonableness of the plan was pointed out.
The swift and silent withdrawal to Peking of the Vice-
President, Li Yuan-hung, from his responsible military
command at Wuchang, where he had been ever since the
revolution of 1911 began, led to much criticism and
comment both in the Chinese Press and that controlled by
foreigners. Li was sent for, it was said, that Yuan might
have him under observation, he was 'a prisoner' in Peking,
he had no visible duties, and was reduced to a nullity, he
had offered to resign as being but a superfluous wheel to a
well equipped coach, &c., &c. More recently this chatter has
ceased, and he is now reported to have declined the important
post of Tutuh in the metropolitan province of Chihli, as lie
needs rest from official cares. Tlis ten year old daughter
is now betrothed to the twelve year old son of the
President, upon which occasion the Vice-President present-
ed to his future son-in-law "a nice frock-coat, a ceremonial
hat, two gold watches, and a number of good books, and the
President sent him in return gold rings, bracelets, other
ornaments worth some two thousand dollarsor more."


REVERSION TO THE PAST.
15
The proper Board is affirmed to be wrestling with the
intricate problem what ceremonies are to be adopted at
weddings, funerals, &c., so as to conserve the old, and not
to ignore the new. At present chaos may be said to pre-
side. Brides arrive in carriages with or without the usual
escort, they wear garlands, veils, and are married with a
ring; the married couple do not ketoiu, but merely bow to all
concerned; there is perhaps (as in a recent wedding in
Peking high life) a brass band which plays both Chinese and
foreign airs, and there is handshaking and an incongruous
mixture of Chinese and of Western ways which is satisfac-
tory neither to the East nor to the West. The policy of the
government appears to have been to encourage a general
return to the old methods of celebrating holidays, and in
1914 the Western New Year was practically ignored all over
China, except in government offices, and the like. The
unfeigned joy of the Chinese people at this return to
rationality was touching. The Moon, which was criticized
a year ago for its obtuseness in not taking the broad hint
that it was no longer either needed or wanted, is now
justified by having regained her place as Queen of Heaven;
fairs, markets, Heaven's Stems and Earth's Branches, the due
admixture of the lunar year with the solar four and twenty
Periods according to which birds come and go, grain is
planted, fur hats are put off and summer hats are put on,
insects stir, and the breath of spring is dividedall these now
go on as before according to the x>attem followed in ancient
times by Yao and by Shun, and by all well regulated
persons since.
No one of the numerous reversions to the past, nor all
of them combined, have attracted so much attention and
excited so much comment as the struggle to re-establish
Confucianism as the State Religion of China." China, like
Japan, is confronted with the unwelcome spectacle of a
visible decay of morals and an abrogation of old standards.
To what wiJJ this lead? How is to be stopped 1 The
Confucian Society, under the energetic lead of Mr. Ch'en
Huan-chang (author of "The Economic Principles of
*See Chap. Ill, Mr. Wright's paper on this subject.


16
GENERAL SURVEY.
Confucius") have a simple remedy- It is that of the
Master himself. When his favorite disciple asked about the
government of a state, he replied: Follow the seasons of
the Hsia dynasty; ride in the state carriage of the Yin
dynasty; wear the ceremonial cap of the Cliou dynasty.
Let the music be the Shao (that of the days of Shun.)
Banish the songs of Chcing, and keep far from specious
talkers." In like manner the Confucian renaissance pro-
poses to make the maxims of the great Sage the subject of
common education, to reintroduce the ceremonies and the
sacrifices, in short to re-enthrone Confucius in China, and
henceforth all will be well. (How it has come about that
while the Sage was enthroned to an extent never seen
elsewhere in human society, China fell to its present
condition is not explained by these learned antiquarians).
The various phases of this discussion have excited pro-
found interest both among Chinese and foreigners, and a
discussion has ensued ever more widely extending in waves
and ripples all over the civilized world.
The controversy has been made to involve the questions:
What is Confucianism?" ""What is the inherent value, and
what is the historical value of Confucianism (whatever
that is) in China?" "Is Confucianism a Religion, or is it
not ?" What is its relation to the other religions of China,
and to those of the World?" "What relation does Confu-
cianism bear to the preservation of morality in China?"
" Should the ceremonies of the worship of Confucius be
revived (a) in Peking, (b) in the provinces, and, if so, at
what times and places?" What is the difference between
the assumption by the President of the Republic of the
right to sacrifice to Confucius, and the assumption by him
of the office of Emperor of China?" "What relation does
this matter bear to Chinese education?" Particularly,
"What is its relation to Christian education in China?"
" What relation does such worship bear to that religious
liberty guaranteed by the Provisional (and as yet unrevised)
Constitution?" "What relation, if any, has it to treaties
guaranteeing certain specified religious rights ?" Will the
proposed worship be compulsory upon all officers, upon
some, or upon none?" Upon every one of these points


C.'ONl UCIANTSM AS THE STATE RELIGION.
17
there lias been wide difference of opinion. Buddhists,
Taoists, Mohammedans, and ail types of Christians have
energetically antagonized the proposal, recognizing its
futility for the end proposed, and its certain divisive and
perversive results in separating the "Five Families" of
China from one another by the bitterest of all enmitiesthat
of religion. To allay these fears the President issued
(March 7th) a Presidential order in which it was explained
that the rite of worshipping Confucius is ancient, that it
has nothing to do with religion (tsnncj-chiao) ; Catholics,
Protestants, Mohammedans, and men of other religious
faiths will find nothing to keep them from entering official
life. If the District Magistrates for any reason are not
able, or do not wish to worship Confucius, the ceremony may
be conducted by some one else." Thus for the present the
matter is shelved, but if it is not heard of again, China will
be an exception to the general history of mankind.*
In a year in which a great and a widespread rebellion
has distracted China it is not to be expected that normal
conditions should prevail. Before the rebellion began there
was trouble over the disbanding of the Chinese troops, and
vast sums were required for this purpose. Yet when the
men ^ere dismissed, not infrequently with a considerable
bonus to mollify them, the country was far worse off than
before. In many cases the soldiers were allowed to carry
their armsor a part of themwith them, and thus there
was formed the nucleus of innumerable hordes of banditti
for which China has always been noted. Men who have
been accustomed to the irregular life of the army, especially
an undisciplined, ill-fed, ill-clothed, and irresponsible body as
most Chinese troops have always been, do not take kindly to
industry. The recklessness with which these masses ol?
potential social devastation were turned loose in China long
ago attracted the attention of both Chinese and foreigners,
but on the part of the government the principal anxiety
always appeared to he to stop payment of wages, and thus
1o reserve funds for other uses. The immediate results of


18
GENERAL SURVEY.
this universal folly were not long in appearing. It was in
October 1913 that the ravages of an ex-military bandit
known as "White Wolf began to attract attention in Honan,
and a little later in Hupeli. He captured the city of Tsao
Yang, and from that time has never ceased to be a peril to
Chinese and foreigners alike. With a military President, a
military Vice-President, and a General at the head- of
the Board of War, it was to have been expected that- the
Government would have instantly perceived the vital
importance of dealing with the robber in the most effective
possible way. But he was allowed to cross his native
province, II on an, to harry and devastate a wide region in
the adjacent province of Anhwei, and then to return on
his tracks to repeat the process elsewhere. After a time the
Government appeared to be roused. The Governor of Iionan
(a relative of President Yuan) was sharply reproved for his
fatal inaction, but was retained at his post to repeat his
inefficiency indefinitely. The President of the Board of
War then went to Ilonan to superintend operations in
person. Troops were to be called in from here and from
there. The large and apparently utterly useless army of
Chang Hsun, at Siichowfu, Kiangsu, were to take the
field. White Wolf would be caught in the jaws of a deadly
steel trap and speedily exterminated. Huge rewards were
offered for his head, to promote military zeal. Instead of
utilizing the Peking-Iiankow railway as a natural barrier
easily occupied and readily guarded, by which means White
Wolf would have been surrounded, he was allowed to
recross the line at will, harrying and pillaging as he went,
and after a few days was heard of on the upper Han river
in Hupeh, where he sacked the great trade center of Laoho-
kow, killed more foreigners, and went at his leisure
westward to enter Sliensi, and perhaps rich and populous
Szechwan.
A fatal paralysis seemed to seize the central govern-
ment, but there were contributory causes which lie deep in
the constitution of the Chinese social order. The army
was composed of units each of which under appropriate
conditions was exactly the kind of material with which the
White Wolf was operating. Loyalty to a commander.


THE WHITE WOLF.
19
fealty to a government does not for a moment compete
with the irresistible temptation to loot and to ravage.
When hard pressed it was everywhere alleged by the
Chinese press and by refugees, that the bandits made
good terms with the soldiers, the latter taking the silver
which the former had carried off, and gaving in ex-
change (by throwing them away to be picked up by their
friends, the robbers) their arms and their ammunition, of
which the bandits were naturally short But this was not
all. Detailed accounts such as those appearing in the
" Central China Post," published near to the scene of action,
showed that cities were delivered over to the robbers by the
deliberate treachery of those within. In some flagrant
cases the military officials were, if not in collusion with the
bandits, at least incompetent and neutral. In ease a village
.sent information to the military authorities of the movements
of the White Wolf marauders, that village was later exter-
minated, men, women, children, dogs, cats, and chickens:
not a living thing remaining. This was naturally regarded
by others (as it always has been in China) as a caution to
be prudent, and most Chinese are prudent, by temperament.
The sufferings of the unhappy foreigners caught in the
coils of these horrors form a replica of the events of 1900,
but without the excuse which might then have been offered
that such disasters no prevision could, have foreseen and no
force have prevented. For all this wild welter of needless
ruin China will have to pay dear, but at the time of writing
these lines there is no sign that the hopeless lethargy of the
Central Government has been seriously disturbed.1"4
* President Yuan has repeatedly stated in his Mandates that
tlie White Wolf brigands are in collusion with the Chinese revolu-
tionaries who have long been in Japan. Even if this were not the
case, the difficulties of the government, already great, must have
been considerably increased by the hope and expectation of aid
from this source. This circumstance, however, only renders the
more inexplicable the signal failure of the government to put forth
its utmost efforts to crush the White Wolf, before (as so often in
Chinese history) his power and prestige had become so great as to
form a nucleus of another widespread rebellion.


20
GENERAL SURVEY.
In almost all parts of China bands of robbers have at
intervals roamed almost at will within certain limits (or
rather highly uncertain limits) from time immemorial.
Whenever the administration of the laws was lax they
gathered. Let an efficient magistrate appear, and they
scattered to fresh woods and pastures new. This state of
things has prevailed during the period since the Revolution,
not only in the remoter parts of China, but within short
distances of the capital. That "quiet anarchy" to which
China is accustomed, has ever and anon resumed its reign,
and then with a change of season, or of officials has
suddenly ceased. These phenomena, none of which are not
constant factors in the history of China, point with un-
mistakable directness to the truth that economic conditions
are the key to the evolution of a new China. No matter
what the form of government is styled, if there is less than
enough for large numbers of the people to eat, brigandage
must ensue, as it always has and always will to the end of
time.
Into a discussion of the Finances of the Chinese
Republic it is hopeless for any one not an expert to enter at
all, much less in their present chaotic condition. What is
evident is that China's greatest need is Money, but after this
has been granted it must be owned that there is another
need even greater, and that is Integrity. Late in January
Premier Ilsiung lectured the officials who had to do with
foreign loans upon the impropriety, the danger and the
disgrace of accepting commissions on such loans. To judge
from the comments of the Chinese press he might as well
have lectured an organization of Metropolitan Cats on the
impropriety of licking cream from the milk-pans of the
numerous foreign dairies. The old system prevails under
worse conditions and amid greater dangers than under the
Ch'ings. "Economy" is the resonant watchword in every
Board. Hundreds of subordinates are discharged to save
money for the State,but it is learned incidentally that their
pay is not on that account necessarily suspended. The
number of persons in government employ in this capacity
or that incapacity is staggering to the contemplation of a
trained accountant who knows what this connotes from a


chtna's finances.
21
linaiieial point of view. China is filled from end to end
and from side to side with Generals wlio never fought a
battle, or even went upon a forced march, other than that
to draw their salaries. As already remarked, the President
has so many ''advisers7' (some of whom he has never seen
and probably never will see) that if every one had three
minutes a day, there would be no time for other labor or
for meals and sleep. Many of these empty the exchequer of
huge sums and not for value received.' Where does the
money come from? The age long struggle between the
Central Government to make the provinces send funds, and
the provinces to compel the Central Government to recognize
that they not only have no funds, but must themselves be
helped out of quagmires, was never so keen as now. A
"Financial Council" in Peking has been illuminating the
darkness by jets of daylight showing how great sums are
wasted in the provinces. The Provincial Councils, for
example, and the Self-Governing bodies already mentioned
regularly got away with great sums, and with still greater
that were obtained by judiciously tapping the government
taxation pipe-lines, to the great advantage of self-govern-
ment," and to the disadvantage of government, in general.
It is probably for this reason that the President has snuffed
out these exotic representatives of "the People," ordering
their funds to be turned into the Bank of China, China
cannot get on without money, money, money. China lias-
no (available) money. Ergo she must borrow. But this
can only be done by offering securities. But China has
already mortgaged everything, has roasted the gold-fish,
and fried the canary-birds," and still is no better off. Salt
has proved a welcome antiseptic, but salt has its limi-
tations, and the management of the salt administration
means the loss of China's sovereign rights." Undoubtedly,
but one must expend two or three grains of rice to catch
a chicken," and the salt achieves this end, so it is (with
many wry faces and much malediction) allowed. But the
thing may be carried too far, and then there will be
trouble. Thus is established the Chinese Vicious Circle.
Poverty, Loans 011 Resources, Development of resources by
foreign experts, revolt against the inevitable loss of China's


32 GENERAL SURVEY.
"sovereign rights." Loans withdrawn, Resources unde-
veloped, general and contagious poverty and pressure,
foreclosure of the mortgage, the only possible remedy
another Foreign Loan. And so on as before. Meantime the
borrowing habit while easily fastened on the Board of
Finance, becomes practically incurable. China is warned
persistently, nay, warns herself, that the end of the road,
unchecked by development of resources, is bankruptcy and
ruin, but tilings go 011 as they have gone 011, idly waiting
for the turn of the tide. When will it come ? One of the
many disquieting symptoms is the constant expenditure of
money to achieve that which ought to be attainable without
money. When heavy rewards are allotted (as has been the
case on a great scale) for ''victories," often, imaginary, over
Mongols, or Tibetans, or others, the inference is that with-
out the reward the "victory" would not have occurred
(which might have been much better in the end).
When local Magistrates are rewarded for obtaining
sums in excess of estimates from certain taxes, the inevitable
result is burning dissatisfaction of outraged people, and a
very natural one the brutal murder of the oppressor, such
as was recently reported in the case of the Magistrate of Le
Leanhsien, in Shantung, killed by angry peasants, not as an
example of self-government, but in self-defence. Fortunate-
ly for the Government the railway receipts have been
heavy, and for the most part steady, though on some .lines
obliterated for a time by the expenses of the rebellion. But
each million dollars is wanted in twenty places at once,
while it can ultimately be used in but one, and in that
one, owing to old time custom," only in part.
The high and still' barbed-wire fence of the Quintuple
Syndicate, long ,ago began to show wide gaps, and, is no
longer protective. But the danger to China from loans
employed to buy useless military bric-a-brac is incomputable.
Sir Charles Beresford nearly two decades since found
the Chinese soldiers armed with weapons which would have
stocked an ancient and a modern museum. The like condi-
tions are said still to continue, especially in artillery, render-
ing the costly equipments much worse than useless when
needed. How is it that the simple lessons of the past have


TRADE OF CHINA.
23
still to be rclearned? Currency reform, of which we seem
to have heard somewhere before, has during the past year
been pushed to great lengths, that, namely, of printing scores
of columns of "Regulations" in the papers, of what is to be
done when it is done. The decisions are for the most part
admirable, but for lack of a Currency Loan into still air
they seem to fleet. The Trade of China for 191-3, in spite
of the Rebellion, was remarkable and encouraging. The
Customs receipts surpassed by more than four million
taels the highest previous record. With peace and order
China would astonish the World. Can she have them?
There is intense activity in every bureau in elaborating
those "Rules and Regulations" in which China delights to
express herself; the most recent output being Mining
Regulations of great minuteness, which are said to be at
once admirable and preposterous, a reincarnation of what
was wrought with great care and at vast expense twenty
years ago,, laid aside and forgotton, but now revived so as to
safeguard "sovereign rights" and at the same time beguile
the dreaded and hoped-for foreign money into the area of
development. Of the merits of the case an outsider is of
necessity no judge, yet despite the appointment of one more
highly capable foreign "Adviser" (Swedish) one may
doubt whether China's hidden wealth is much nearer sight
than it was before.
In this chaos of needs and of fast and furious offers to
supply them, the years 1898-99 with their Human
Cobweb" of struggle for precedence and for 'inside tracks'
appear to have returned. The evil financial genius of
China who was the indirect means of letting loose the
cataract of woes (and joys) of 19.11, Slieng Hsiian-huai,
has apparently mortgaged the Ilanyehping Corporation
which mines iron ore, to the Japanese, upon terms which
when brought to the knowledge of the Minister of Agricul-
ture and Commerce resulted in a formal veto. But owing
to the lapse of time between the signature of the contracts
and public information about them, it is feared that the
veto is not likely to be effective. From a Chinese point of
view to place this vital means of China's future continuance
as a power under Japanese control, with conditions which


24
GENERAL SURVEY.
bind China to i'urnisJi ore at much less tlian market rates
(as is alleged) seems to endanger the autonomy of the
country.
During the past year concessions for railways under
the construction of companies representing many of the
Powers have been agreed upon, to China's presumptive
advantage. But as all these are as yet 'air-lines7 it is not
perhaps worth while to point out where they may eventually
alight.
A few years ago the American lied Cross Society sent
to China an engineer, Mr. C. D. Jameson, to survey the
region inundated by the overflow of the ITuai River (and
other streams) in the Anliwei and Kiangsu provinces. The
Society furnished funds in co-operation with others by which
a large relief work was carried on, the beneficial effect of
which was wide- spread. In the month of January last an
arrangement was concluded by which the Red Cross Society
is allowed a year's option to raise a loan of twenty .million
dollars (gold) for the reclamation of an area estimated at
from fifteen million to sixteen million mo a of land, this land
to serve as security for the loan. This novel and interesting
enterprise has met with an eager welcome by the people of the
two provinces involved, and cynical skepticism on the part
of a cold and critical World which believes (and probably
.hopes) that on such security the funds can not be obtained.
Whatever the outcome in this instance, it is certain that this
is the kind of work by which alone China can be rescued
from economic ruin. China needs assistance, for the power
to rise by herself is totally lacking.
In February much international interest was excited by
the signing of an agreement for what appears to be. a unique
partnership between the Chinese Government and the
Standard Oil Co., of New York. The Company is to have
a year in which to decide what oil fields in China it will
develop. When this shall have been determined a company
is tobeformedwit.il a capital of §100,000,000.00, 55% of ,
the stock of which is owned by the company, 37% is to "1
be presented outright to the Chinese Government with no^
expenditure on their part. If they are able and willing*
to furnish an additional 1%% of the capital they are


OPIUM.
25
entitled to do so. Great expenditure 011 the part of the
Company must first be made, but the Chinese having put
nothing in have nothing to lose and everything to gain. It
is obvious that this enterprise if carried out cannot fail to
produce enormous economic effects beneficial to large dis-
tricts in China. While recognizing that there is no more
philanthropy in this "Big Deal" than there is in a steel
rail, one may perceive that it may likewise make the road
to national prosperity much smoother than it has ever been
before.
Despite the distractions of the rebellion the Government
has not at all altered its policy of repression of the
cultivation of the poppy plant, and of the sale and use of
opium. Within this period there have been more public
burnings of opium than ever before. Backward provinces
such as Kweichow and Kansu have taken efficient steps
to prevent the production of opium, and in the like
efforts several other provinces show conspicuous success.
To prevent the suppression of opium from degenerating
into a system of "squeeze" and of blackmail has re-
quired, and Avill require, unceasing diligence and courage.
A National Prohibition Opium Union was formed during
the past year in Peking, under the lead of Gen. L. Chang,
who was sent as its representative to England to take a
message from the Chinese people, and to urge speedy opium
prohibition. Through the courtesy of the Government in
granting the use of the telegraph the International Reform
Bureau has co-operated in this work in many ways, calling
the attention of Tutuhs and Civil Governors to known
violations of law. The huge stocks of opium held in
Shanghai, amounting to between 13,000 and 14,000 chests,
have been a serious hindrance to China's efforts. It is the
avowed intention of the owners to work off the whole of this
upon China before the traffic has been extinguished. The
great increase of opium-shops in the foreign settlements of
Shanghai stands in marked and depressing contrast to the
repression of opium where the Chinese Government has a
free hand. The issue of China's struggle to be free is no
longer in doubt, but renewed efforts are necessary to
secure the exclusion of morphia and similar drugs, and to
A-4


36 GENERAL SURVEY.
excite public sentiment against alcohol, which has already
become a serious menace to China.
The Chinese postal system during 1913 added 821 new
offices, and handled 591 million articles', 8]/> million of
which were parcels. The increase over 1912 was 150 million
pieces. The growth of this admirably conducted depart-
ment of the government is perhaps the most widely ap-
preciated both by foreigners and by Chinese of all the
improvements of the new China.
During the month of January a Presidential Order was
issued opening seven towns in northern China to foreign
trade: Kalgan, Kueihuach'eng, Chihfeng, Dolonor, Taonanfn,
ITulutao, and Lungkou. The railway opened several years
ago to Kalgan will soon be extended to Kueihuach'eng,
which is in northern Shansi, on the borders of Mongolia.
Taonanf'u is a new city on the Mongolian border of
Manchuria. Iiulutao is on the Gulf of Liaotung, and
Lungkou is about 80 miles west of Cliefoo of which it might
become a serious rival. This movement wliiie obviously of
political importance, is undoubtedly a wise one, and might
be followed up to the advantage of China as well as foreign
countries by a considerable extension* The recent launching
in Shanghai of a new and powerful steamer, the Shuhun,
for the run between Ichang and Chungking on the Up-
per Yangtze is an event of more than local interest.
The Shuhun is a much larger craft than her predecessor
the Shutung, which was 110 feet long. The Shuhun has ac-
commodations for about 400 passengers, and can carry 400
tons of cargo. The trip between the ports named by
houseboat ranged from four to six weeks, and was never
made without considerable danger. The Shuhun is expected
to complete the journey in less than tour days, and passen-
gers will have all the comforts of: travel in a first-class
steamer. This improvement will doubtless bring many
visitors to the wonderful gorges of the Yangtze hitherto
accessible only with great difficulty.
The Chinese have been dabbling in aeronautics and
flights have been made from Peking to Paotingfu, one
traveller reaching Tungchow, and another Tientsin on the
route!


I'KE^NT GOVERNMENT, AN OLIGARCHY.
27
It is much to be regretted that so far as one is able
to discern, educational progress, like that in democracy,
throughout China may be said either to be absent, or that
the 'progress' is "full speed backwards." The story of
the Peking University was for many months most lament-
able. Funds are lacking, experienced instructors are hard
to obtain and difficult to keep, the morale of many schools
is at a low ebb, and primary schools, while still in operation,
are recognized as in a transition state of suspended ani-
mation. This, however, is not true of highly vitalized
centers like the great cities. The dissection of the cadaver
has been authorized in China, a long step in advance which
seems to have caused surprisingly little comment. All
forms of secret societies are rigidly prohibited. Being
unable to catch the White Wolf brigand, the Government
did the next best thing, and imprisoned the editors of an
enterprising journalthe Ta Han Paowhich told the
truth about his career. A harmless Esperanto Society in
Peking was raided and its papers confiscated, turning it
into Desperanto instead. The. iVlanchus and Bannermen are
known to be starving and their wails are heard on all hands,
but the only practical relief of which Ave hear thus far is an
elaborate History of the Ch'ings, in the fulsome and
complimentary Presidential Order authorizing which, we are
told, that the most memorable act of this Dynasty was its
abdication. Many prominent Chinese have died within the
year, but perhaps no one of them was more useful to China
than Mr. Tang Kai-sen, the representative of China at the
International Opium Conference at Shanghai in 1909, and
at the time of his lamented death Director of the Chjmg
Una College for Chinese students preparing for study in
America, an educator and a Christian patriot whom China
can ill afford to lose.
The present government of China is a compact Oligarchy,
few in numbers, but with steadily growing power. It bears
no more resemblance to a "Republic than did the reign
of Julius Caesar. It is, however, a necessary stage through
which China must pass; but that it should be a permanent
stage is neither to be expeded nor desired. All over the
.wide world friends of China are and long have been eagerly


28
GENERAL SURVEY.
inquiring how the experiment of the new government in
China is coming out," To this it may be compendiously
replied that it is not coming out" at all; it is going on,
and like all other governmentsrepublics not exceptedit is
doing it in the midst of storm and stress with the probability
nay, the* certaintyof greater storm and stress yet to
come. It is a difficult but an important lesson to learn that
no individual, and no group of individuals, can advance
from one position to another without'passing through all the
intermediate points. This the ardent young revolutionists
of 1911 refused to believe, and not improbably still refuse
to believe, yet for all that it remains true.
Through what stages China is to pass it is as vain to
endeavor to forecast as it is to predict the history of any
cither modern State, and much more so, since as always
heretofore many of the elements in the China situation are
unknown and to some extent unknowable. What is certain
is that the past is past, and can never return. Progress in
China is assuredly not. to be along a Lover's Lane through
a garden of roses, but is to be rather a fierce, a bitter, and a
bloody struggle in dark valleys and on the upward slopes of
lofty mountains. But the seed of Progress is deathless, and
in time must produce fruit after its kind. Let us again
remind ourselves that China is the vastest and the most
homogeneous aggregation of human units in human history,
and that China is as necessary to the world as the world is
necessary to China. Moreover the types of evolution to be
found elsewhere are no necessary gauge of what under
God's Creative Evolution China may produce. The
easiest but to our impatience the most difficult condition
under which China must develop is the lapse of Time, Time,
Time. Without adequate Time the attempt to transform
an ancient and a civilized people would be hopeless; but
happily in the long run Time is what there is the most of.
It is very difficult even for those cognizant of the present
and the past of China not to underrate the task involved in
the thorough-going transformation of this great segment of
the human race.
But the process is steadily, albeit slowly, going on
under our immediate observation. This process consists in


TIME, THE GREATEST NECESSITY.
29
gradual dissemination of new conceptions, new standards,
new ideals, through all classes of Chinese society, down to
the least intelligent and the most unresponsive. Effectively
to accomplish this, those individuals most obstinately anta-
gonistic to the new and changing order must be successively
and automatically eliminated from Chinese society by the
inexorable laws of Nature. The complete break with the
past will come about, not when there are no Chinese living
who themselves remember the past, but when there are none
who have heard of it at first hand from parents and grand-
parents who themselves lived in it. Intellectual and moral
readjustments cannot be rushed. "Sudden effects in
history," said John Stuart Mill, "are generally superficial;
causes which go down deep into the roots of future events
produce the most serious parts of their effects only slowly,
and must have time to become a part of the familiar order
of things." Before China can be thoroughly adjusted to
her new course, two or three generations must elapse. The
result will then be worth all it will have cost. To a
relatively stationary position China can never return.
While she may be hindered in her course, and may occasion-
ally even appear to be retracing her steps, she can never
again actual]}' stop in her progress, but must advance along
an unending spiral which leads upward in an ever increas-
ing measure to Liberty and to Light.


CHAPTER II
RELTG":OUS ASPECT OF AFFAIRS
and
THE CHURCH IN CHINA
By Bishop J, W. Bashford
L Confucianism
In considering the religious aspect of affairs in China
we are confronted with the anomalous movement of .1913 to
make Confucianism the state religion. This movement arose
in part from a conviction in the unsettled state of affairs
of the nesessity of a more religious life as the only hope of
the nation. The rapidiy growing disregard of customs and
of Confucian ethics upon the part of some people was
resulting in extreme individualism and in laxity of morals.
So far as the revival of Confucianism and even of idol
worship springs from the consciousness of religious need we
respect its motive, and so far as it is an attempt to preserve
the morality of the people we sympathize with its aim.
The visible leader in the attempt to make Confucianism
the state religion is Ch'en Huan-chang, a graduate of
Columbia University who in 1911 prepared for his thesis
for the Ph.D. degree a two volume treatise on The Economic
Principles of Confucius and His School. As early as 1901
he had passed the examination in the Chinese classics at
Peking and won the Chin Shih or Doctor's degree, and he
was for a time before going to Columbia an official in
Peking. lie Avent to America as a firm Confucianist and he
has used his new learning for a fresh interpretation of his
master's teaching. He says in the preface that he has been
very careful not to re'id into the writings of the ancient
Chinese ideas drawn from western economists. The protest
is needed, for western scholars are sure to find in the
treatise state socialism as advocated by Marx, and we think
also modern materialism of the Haeckel typea materialism
now discredited in our European and American universities.


PR. CHEN ON CONFUCIANISM.
31
According to Dr. Chen, Vol. Ipp. 16-19, Confucius
teaches in the Spring and Autumn Annals that civilization
passes through three stages: first, The Disorderly Stage;
second, The Small Tranquillity Stage; third, The Great
Tranquillity Stage, sometimes called the Great Similarity
Stage. Dr. Chen reinterprets Confucius by maintaining
that when the sage enjoins a certain virtue, he enjoins it as
applicable to one of these three stages, and that commenta-
tors blunder in holding that it is applicable to all three
stages. We think Dr. Chen stumbles in his intrepretation
of "the following passage from Confucius: "Thus men do
not regard, as their perents only their own parents." Here
only has the sense of oner el i/, simply or alone and Confucius
clearly means, thus men do not regard their own parents
alone but other parents also with filial piety. This gives a
very definite meaning to Confucius' statement, On the
other hand, Dr. Chen writes, Everyone knows that Confu-
cianism is in favor of monarchical government and of filial
piety. But they are good only in the Small Tranquillity
Stage." Dr. Chen here teaches that filial piety is limited
to the Small Tranquillity Stage and is not obligatory in the
Great Tranquillity Stage. We maintain that Confucius
means just the opposite, and that Confucius is right and
Dr. Chen wrong. With this brief statement of our conflict-
ing views of Confucius' teaching, in order to do Dr. Chen
no injustice, we quote the passage from Confucius in the
translation which Dr. Chen himself furnishes, Vol. I, page
18, and then his interpretation given on the same page.
Confucius says:
"When the Great Principle (of the Great Similarity) prevails,
the whole world becomes a republic; they elect men of talents,
virtue and ability; they talk about sincere agreement and cultivate
universal peace. Thus men do not regard as their own parents
only their own parents, nor treat as their own children only their
own children; a competent provision is secured for the aged till
their death, employment for the middle aged and the means of
growing up to the young. The widowers, widows, orphans, child-
less men, and those who are disabled by disease, are all sufficiently
maintained. Each man has his rights, and each woman her in-
dividuality safe-guarded......Robbers, file hers and rebellious traitors
do not exist. Hence, the outer doors remain open and are not
shut. This is the stage of \vl:at I call the Great Similarity.


32
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
Now that the Great Principle has not yet been developed, the
world is inherited through family. Each one regards as his
parents only his own parents, and treats as his children only his
own children. The wealth of each and his labor are only for his
self-interest......Thus it is that selfish schemes and enterprises are
constantly taking their rise, and war is inevitably forthcoming.
In this course of rites and justice, Yii, T'ang, "Wen, Wn, Ch'eiig
Wang and the Duke of Chou are the best examples of good govern-
ment. Of these six superior men, everyone was attentive to tho
rites, thus to secure the display of justice, the realization of
sincerity, the exhibition of errors, the exemplification of benevo-
lence. and the discussion of courtesy, showing the people all the
constant virtues. If any ruler, having power and position, would
not follow this course, he should be driven away by the multitude
who regard him as a public enemy. This is the stage of what I
call the Small Tranquillity." Thus far Confucius.
Dr. Chen then comments as follows:
"This is the most, important statement of all Confucius'
teachings. The stage of Great Similarity or Extreme Peace is the
final aim of Confucius; it is the golden age of Confucianism. If
we make a comparison between the Great Similarity and the
Small Tranquillity, wre may get a clear view. Everyone knows that
Confucianism lias five social relations and five moral constants:
Ruler and subject, father and son, elder and younger brothers,
husband and wife, friend and friend, make up the five moral
relations; love, justice, rite, wisdom and sincerity, make up the
live moral constants. But according to the statement of Confucius
himself, they belong only to the Small Tranquillity. Everyone
knows that Confucianism is in favor of monarchical government
and filial piety. But they are good only in the Small Tranquillity.
In the Great Similarity, the whole world is the only social
organization, and the individual is the independent unit; both
socialistic and individualistic characters reach the highest point.
There is no national state, so that there is no war, no need of
defense, nor of military ability and cunning. Men of talents,
virtue and ability are chosen by the people, so that the people
themselves are the sovereign, and the relation between ruler and
subject does not exist. Man and woman are not bound by the ties
of marriage, so that the relations between husband and wife,
between father and son and between brothers do not exist. The
only relation that remains is friendship. There is no family, so
that there is no inheritance, no private propert}', no selfish schema.
There is no class so that the only classification is made either
by age or sex; but whether old, middle aged or young, w7hether
man or woman, each satisfies his own needs. The Great Principle
of the Great Similarity prevails, so that everyone is naturally as
good as everyone else and the distinctions of the five moral
constants is gone."


CONFUCIANISM AS THE STATE RELIGION.
A careful reading of. Confucius' statement shows that
in the stage of the Great Tranquillity he is teaching that the
principle of filial piety or love will be extended to all men.
A careful reading of Dr. Chen shows that he is teaching the
abolition of filial piet3r, of the relations between brothers,
between father and son and between husband and wife in
the stage of Great Tranquillity. In a word, Dr. Chen holds
and says in so many words that the live moral constants
belong only to the Small Tranquillity. Indeed, in charac-
terizing the three stages of civilization as they appear in
government and in religion lie goes so far on page seventeen
as to make anarchism the highest stage in government and
atheism the highest stage in religion. He writes, For
example, in politics, despotism, constitutionalism and anar-
chism are three stages; in religion polytheism, monism and
atheism are three stages." If this is not teaching the
principles of philosophical anarchy and of philosophic
atheism as the highest stages in polities and religion we do
not know the meaning of words. In his preface, page xii,
Dr. Chen says: "My greatest indebtedness is to K'ang
Yu-wei, my former teacher from whom I obtained a general
view of Confucianism." This statement throws light not
only upon Dr. Chen's teaching of socialism, but also upon
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's teaching of socialism; for Sun Yat sen
also is a follower of K'ang Yu-wei.
The facts cited above justify the conviction which Yuan
Shih-kai holds if we may trust confidential information, that
the movement to make Confucianism the state religion is
not predominantly a religious movement, but a political
and economic movement. The president also believes,- if
again we may trust confidential information, that the
movement was planned to secure his downfall. In case the
president refused to head the movement and to establish
Confucianism as the state religion he feared the cry would
be raised that lie was disloyal to Confucius whom all'the
nation honors almost to the extent of worship, and that this
cry would lead to his overthrow. On the other hand, in
case the president yielded to the demand and made Confu-
cianism the state religion, he feared that this would lead to
the open alienation of Tibet with her devotion to an extreme
A-5


34 RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
form of Buddhism, to the alienation of the Mohammedans
in China proper and in Mongolia with the loss of that
dependency, to the alienation of the Buddhists and Taoists
in China, probably to complications with foreign govern-
ments over existing treaties which bind China to maintain
freedom of religious worship, and worst of all to the dis-
guised introduction of socialism and anarchy. Hence, we
believe that it has not been displeasing to Yuan Shih-kai that
Chinese Christians and Buddhists and Taoists and Moham-
medans have joined with the more intelligent Confucianists
under the leadership of the secular newspapers in a cam-
paign of protest against the imposition by law of any one
form of worship upon the people of China. Yuan Shih-kai
has indeed recognized with many Chinese the need of a
deeper religious life and has tried to rejuvenate the ethics
of Confucianism by certain proclamations and to claim an
authority for himself equal to that of his predecessors by the
observance of certain rites. But if our analysis of this
movement is correct, and if Yuan Shih-kai continues to exert
the influence which he exercises in China at the present
time, then Chen Huan-chang will not make Confucianism
the state religion of China. We are sorry that western
nations and especially America has been led into the
belief that China already has adopted Confucianism as the
state religion. We have mentioned views and purposes
attributed by others to K'ang Yu-wei. We hope his forth-
coming book will show these to be mistaken.
II. Buddhism
Attention should be called to the fact that Dr. J. M.
DeGroot in the six great volumes which he published on The
Religious System of China and the two additional volumes
on Sectarianism and Religious Persecution in China takes
a much more favorable view of Buddhism, especially in its
higher manifestations than the casual observer of Buddhist
priests and monasteries holds. We think few missionaries
have realized the possible hope for the more rapid spread of
Christianity in China through Buddhism revealed by the
publication in 1910 of Dr. Timothy Richard's book '"The
New Testament of Higher Buddhism/' Dr. Richard's


PRIMITIVE AND HIGHER BUDDHISM.
volume consists of the translation of two Buddhist books,
one, "The Awakening of Faith in the Great Religion,"
written early in the second century after Christ, and the
other, "The Lotus Scripture," written late in the second
century. Dr. Richard holds that these two books gradually
supplanted the teachings of Sakyamuni by presenting a
higher type of religion. Indeed, Dr. Richard goes farther
than the missionary body can follow him in comparing
these two books to the writings of St. Paul and St.
John and entitling his translation, The New Testament of
Higher Buddhism." Dr. Richard has followed that book
by another remarkable volume just published, entitled, "A
Mission to Heaven." This book is a translation of a work
written by a Taoist, Chm Ch'ang-ch'en, in the beginning of
the 13th century. The author adopts the higher views
contained in the two books mentioned above and other sacred
writings of Higher Buddhism.
Dr. Richard sums up the teachings of Sakyamuni on
Primitive Buddhism in four articles of belief, viz:
1. The suffering of the world should he removed.
2. Suffering can he removed only by removing the cause.
?). The cause of suffering is desire.
4. Hence, Sakyamuni taught that deliverance must come from
one's own self by the death of desire: or putting the
matter in positive form, Sakyamuni taught that the
rest of the soul arises from a sort of thought-ecstasy
brought about by the abstraction of the mind from
every earthly object.
Dr. Richard thinks there is strong evidence that this
original Buddhism, called the Hinayana Buddhism, which is
without God and without hope in the world, largely lost its
hold on men's minds and hearts after two or three centuries,
and that Buddhism would have disappeared from the earth
had it not been enlarged and largely supplanted by the
Mahayana doctrine which may be summed up in three
articles:
]. Help from God to save one's self and others from
suffering.
2. Communion with God which gives the highest and most
ecstatic rest to the soul,


36 RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
8. Partaking of the nature of God by a new birth which
insures a sort of divinity or sonship to God and, in
consequence, personal immortality.
Dr. Richard holds that even the first two books which
he translated and published in 1910 as, The New Testament
of Higher Buddhism," contain some of the new wine of
Christianity; he holds that the third book, "A Mission to
Heaven," which he has just now translated and published for
the Christian world, shows clear proofs of the influence of
Nestorian Christianity. Dr. Richard therefore maintains that
the Higher Buddhism is in a large measure Christianity done
over into Buddhistic dress and that it has failed to produce
its proper Christian fruit in China because 'k from the
beginning of the Ming dynasty, A.D. 1368, to the present
time, a period of over 500 years, the only religion patronized
by the state has been Confucianism and all the fat posts of
the government were given to its followers, while Buddhists,
Taoists and Christians in China and Korea have not only
been starved in their education but have also been persecut-
ed without mercy."
As to the persecution of the Higher Buddhism Dr.
Richard's view is amply sustained by Dr. DeGroot in his
last two volumes; and as to the fact that the Higher
Buddhism largely was influenced by Christianity Dr.
Richard's view is sustained by Professor Lloyd of Japan in
his book on," Wheat Among Tares.'' Dr. Richard is generous
enough toward the Buddhists to dwell predominantly on the
fact that these truths now common to Buddhism and
Christianity came from the Ancient of Days," using this
term in a somewhat unusual sense. "We are inclined rather
to claim that they come exclusively through Jesus Christ, and
that the Buddhists have taken them from our Saviour.
But whether these truths come, as the Buddhists may be
inclined to hoM, through a common revelation to them and
to us or, as we hold, through Jesus Christ alone, such a
recognition of the Higher Buddhism as the scholarship of
the twentieth century is almost sure to give ought to prepare
the way, not for a crude syncretism of Christianity and
Buddhism, but for the more speedy enthronement of Jesus
Christ as the Son of God and Saviour of men.


CHRISTIANITY.
37
We cannot belie/e that China has been without Cod or
entirely devoid of Providential Guidance during all her
history. We believe that Confucianism among the Chinese
serves a purpose somewhat similar to the law among the
Jews. And if it should turn out that Buddhism was
reinforced by Nestorian Christianity, it also may serve a
divine purpose as a John the Baptist to lead men to
Christianitv as the final religion of the race.
III. Christianity
Upon the whole the effect of the Revolution of 19.11-12
upon Christianity was helpful. We believe also that the
present political uncertainty in China will in the end fall
out rat her for the progress of the Gospel;" but we must
recognize that a reaction began in some Missions in 1918
following the second revolution or rebellion of Hwang Using
and Sun Yat-sen. So far as we can infer from the meagre
and insufficient statistics available at this writing, some of the
Missions will report smaller gains for 3913 than for 1912,
though the statistics do not indicate that any Mission has
suffered an actual loss in membership. Moreover, the
present uncertainty is full of discouragement to some of
the missionaries. Add to this the fact that considerable
Mission property in various parts of China has been
destroyed by sporadic uprisings, that missionaries have been
driven from their homes, sometimes with the greatest
d-inger, and that in several cases missionaries have suffered
martyrdom for our common faith, and we can well under-
stand the profound sorrow and discouragement through
which some Missions are passing. We are glad to record
the fact that the martyrs of .1913 have died as heroically as
the martyrs of 1900. We thank God for His presence and
keeping power vouchsafed, to our brothers and sisters
in their hour of trial, and we are assured that to-day as of
old the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church."
If we can obtain the names we hope next year to publish the
list of martyrs.
On the other hand, the very uncertainty in political
affairs affords an unparalleled opportunity for service.
Just as Avar and plague especially demand the help of


48 RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
physicians and show the value of their services, so national
distress is the time when missionaries are most needed, and
when Christian work counts for the most. Hence, the
statistics of some Missions show gratifying gains for 1913.
In the Ilinghwa and Yungchun prefectures where through
local disturbances some of the missionaries were driven from
their fields they found on returning after months of absence
that the Christians in most instances not only had remained
true to the faith but had won considerable numbers of converts.
A conference or district in southern China with a church
membership of over 18,000 reports for 1913 an increase of
11% ; another conference in northern China with a member-
ship of some 9,000 reports an increase of 7%; one small
conference in central China reports an increase of 32% and
another in the same region an increase of 37%. Iience, some
churches made large gains in 1913 in spite of, or rather
because of, the unsettled condition of the country. A third
group of missionaries, while not writing in discouragement
over the state of the country or reporting large gains for 1913,
nevertheless report an increasing appreciation of Christianity
upon the part of the Chinese. Political uncertainty has
resulted in a deepening sense of need springing out of the
national crisis and has led to an increasing sense of the
necessity of religion and has revealed a more widespread
knowledge of Christianity, especially among the leaders of
China, than most of the missionaries were aware of.
Missionaries have been surprised repeatedly during the last
two years over the frankness with which leading Chinese
educators, business men and officials, including Yuan Sliili-
kai, have expressed the conviction that a stronger system
of ethics is necessary for China in the present crisis, and
that this stronger system of ethics probably can spring only
from Christianity. Several leaders of special Christian
movements in China, notably Messrs. Mott and Eddy, have
not only addressed students in numbers hitherto unparalleled,
but have heard leading Chinese affirm that while they are
Confucianists they regard Christianity as the chief hope for
China, llence, upon the whole, some of the churches report
for 1913 a large harvest, and all of them enjoyed unprece-
dented opportunities for seed sowing.


CHRISTIAN EDUCATION.
39
IV* Christian Education
We write what follows with three convictions and with
three aims: First, we have learned that the leaders of
Protestant Missions in America are planning a campaign for
Property and Equipment, to be carried out probably in .19.15.
If China is to receive any aid worthy of mention from such
a campaign, she must formulate and present her needs.
Programs drawn up in advance of financial campaigns are
seldom carried out fully. But we have never secured, anv
sum of money worthy of mention for the Lord's work without
formulating our needs definitely and stating them clearly to
those to whom appeal is made. So far as we can learn,
every existing Christian school in China is doing good work
and is worthy of aid. Some of the smaller institutions may
be accomplishing more in proportion to the means put at
their disposal than larger institutions. Indeed, were the
direction of the use of funds within our own power, we
should use a considerable portion of the money contributed
for education for elementary and preparatory schools. But
without attempting to designate the particular institutions,
or even the special forms of work to be aided, we are trying
to set forth the minimum needs in our educational program.
We deem it wise to state these needs clearly and fully, even
though only a small amount should be received toward their
supply. Our second conviction is that if the missionary
forces are to help Christianize China, we must follow the
example of the Master and raise up and train leaders to
carry forward this tremendous task long after we are gone.
Our third conviction is that whether the campaign for
Property and .Equipment yields any considerable returns or
not, whether, indeed, there is any such campaign or not, we
on the Held must co-operate not only in education but in the
use of all the means put at our disposal for the Chrisliauiza-
tion of China. The formulation of some plan of campaign,
however imperfect, the conviction that the winning and
training of Chinese Christians to save China is the best form
of service, and the conviction that larger co-operation is
essential to the best use of the means committed to us, are
the convictions underlying the following pages.


40
RELIGIOUS ASl'ECT AND CHURCli AKEAIUS.
Under Christian education our readers will be inter-
ested in the increasingly favorable attitude of: the Chinese
government toward western medicine as evidenced by a
memorandum on medical education in China submitted to
the Ministry of Education by Dr. Wu Lien-teli. The
memorandum is a reprint from the China Medical Journal
of March 1914. It may be remembered that the change in
the attitude of the government toward western medicine was
inaugurated by the plague conferences held in Moukden in
.1911 under the presidency of Dr. "Wu. Dr. Wu is further
impressed with the action of the Triennial Medical Con-
ference in 1913 expressing the abiding conviction of
missionaries that the missionary medical colleges are of
inestimable value to the Chinese and the desire of the
staffs of these colleges immediately to bring their medical
instruction into line with the regulations of the Ministry of
Education. Dr. Wu Lien-tell who is the most representative
physician serving under the government, responds by
suggesting that a central medical council be organized,
composed of one official from the Ministry of Education
and a representative of each of the approved medical schools
in China. He suggests that this council should have the
power of fixing the medical curriculum for China, of super-
vising medical examinations throughout the nation, and of
granting licenses for medical practice. He also suggests
that as it will be some time before the government is able to
equip thoroughly a medical college according to western
standards, it may be advisable for the government in the
meantime to take over partially any non-government medical
instruction which shows a desire to cooperate with the
Republic. We are not sure that such a project is feasible.
But the establishment of a standard of medical education by
one or two schools equal to the best in Europe or America
would render China a service beyond estimate. Dr. Wu
Lien-teh further suggests that in order to keep abreast of
medical education, indeed, in order to prevent deterioration
in medical standards after graduation, each medical student
should be required to master some modern language, and
suggests the English language as upon the whole the best
language for the government to prescribe for use in any


NlSW STANDARD OF MKD1CAL EDUCATION.
41
medical college over which the government may have any
authority.
In this connection it may be well to suggest the
possibility or the advisability of the Chinese government
following western precedent, and indeed advancing beyond
many western governments by making the care of health
a public function. l)r. 11. M. Biggs, head of the Public
Health Department of New York State, says that the death
rate in the civilized world during the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries as nearly as can be ascertained averaged
from fifty to seventy-five per thousand. Possibly the death
rate may not he far from that figure in some portions of
China to-day. But Dr. Biggs calls attention to the fact
that for every person who dies each year there are some
ten to fifteen persons disqualified for work by illness for a
longer or shorter portion of the year. He further points
out the fact that the death rate in New York has been cut
from thirty-six per thousand in 1866 to fourteen per
thousand in 1913. We may be reasonably sure that the
dentil rate in China is at least as high to-day as it was in
New York in 1866. It is possible from the gains in Jife and
health which have been made in western lands that China
can add an average of five years to tiie length of her
people's life with corresponding gains to the health of the
nation. When we remember that wealth is largely the result
of human labor, such a gain in longevity and health as is
easily possible in China would add to the wealth-producing
capacity of this nation a sum so vast as to be almost in-
calculable. Hence a need not only of a New Standard of
medical education in China, but also of a new Chinese type
of unselfish Christian manhood for physicians. Is not the
present time when few western physicians in China are
engaged in private practice, when modern medical practice
in this land is chiefiy in the hands of missionaries and
represents the high water mark of altruistic service, a
favorable time to advocate those methods for the conserva-
tion of the health of the Chinese people which western
nations are- beginningail introduction which the service of
western physicians on salaries instead of fees would make
especially easy in China at the present time '!
A-(3


RELIGIOUS ASPECT AN 13 CHURCH APFAlfcS.
The view expressed above of the necessity of Chris-
tianity for the national life of China is far more prevalent
among Chinese students than among officials. This convic-
tion is especially strong among Chinese students in America,
and found notable expression in the recent Kansas City
Convention of Student Volunteers. When we remember
that as the students in the universities are thinking to-day
so the nation will be moving to-morrow, this movement is
full of hope. On the other side, we must remember that a
considerable number of students returning in recent years
from Japan, and a lesser number from Europe and America
are affected by the agnosticism of Herbert Spencer, the
socialisjn of Marx and the materialism of Haeekel. Again
we must bear in mind the principle, as think the students
to-day, so moves the nation to-morrow. If the students
accepting the Christian philosophy of life were equal in
numbers, or approximately equal in numbers, to the students
accepting a materialistic or agnostic philosophy, the Chris-
tian students by their strength of character would inevitably
rise to the leadership of the nation. But with the government
sending more students abroad than the Missions can send,
with state teachers in the United States forbidden to teach
Christianity directly, and with some degree of indifference,
worldliness and skepticism affecting university life in
America and Europe, probably more than half of the
students returning from the western nations and from
Japan are non-Christian. We see the critical nature of the
situation from a recent report of the religious condition of
the University of Tokyo where many Chinese are securing
an education and where, according to the statistics of Dr.
Gamewell, out of 4,966 students, 6 enrolled themselves as
Confucianists, 60 as Christians, 300 as Buddhists, 1,000 as
atheists, and 3,000 as agnostics. Surely, if we contemplate
the final evangelization and Christianization of China, not
by foreign missionaries but by the Chinese themsel ves,
Christian education in the key to the situation. Plainly, it
will require many, many millions of converted Chinese
iaymen to transform the civilization of three or four
hundred million people and make China Christian. It will
require many, many thousand Christian leaders willing; to


MATERIAL PROGRESS AND CHRISTIANITY.
43
abandon political and business life and to devote themselves
to the salvation of China in order to train these millions
who in turn are to transform the civilization of the nation.
It will require a speedy and large increase of Christian
schools and colleges in China in order that their graduates
may furnish the Christian leaders of the nation to train
the millions who in turn shall shape the civilization of the
nation.
At this point another problem confronts us. Everyone
who looks ahead a quarter of a century recognizes that the
immens e material resources of China will be opened during
this period, either by the Chinese or by other people. Baron
Kichtofen in 1870 wrote: the world at the present rate
of consumption of coal could be supplied for thousands of
years from Shansi alone." Mr. Willis Bailey, an American
geologist, says that the 500 feet of thickness which Kichtofen
observed in the Shansi strata may be due to folding, and
hence that this thickness may not continue over the entire
coal region in Shansi. Should this particular estimate of
Baron Kiclitofen prove too large, he was here portraying
the coal resources of only a single province; and coal is
known to exist in at least eighteen of the twenty-two
provinces, and in very large quantities in many of them.
Indeed, experts now think that China has the largest
resources in coal, iron, copper and antimony of any nation
on earth. Another fact must be borne in mind, viz. that
pig iron is being produced in Ilanyang at a cost of some
live to seven dollars gold per ton, as compared with a cost
of twenty to twenty-two dollars gold per ton for which pig
iron of no better quality is selling on the Pacific coast of
America. The contract recently made with the Standard
Oil Company promises the early development of the oil
resources of the nation along with a fuller discovery of her
mineral resources. Again, China is introducing western
inventions and is entering upon the era of machine
manufacturing. With her almost inexhaustible supply of
cheap labor of good quality she will soon be competing with
other nations in the manufactures of the world. Ilence,
under whatever form of government the Chinese people may
continue, provided peace and order are assured, the nation


14
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND XI-rURCH AFFAIRS.
is certain to enter upon a stage of great material develop-
ment. Already the leaders of China arc fully awake and
the nation is rapidly awakening. Already China is face to
face with the rest of the world and every missionary might
sail home to-morrow with the assurance that China would
presently enter upon the stage of material civilization which
now characterizes the western nations.
But so far from this material progress marking the close
of missionary labor, it only increases the urgency of our
tasks. The great problem which confronts even the western
world is the Christianization of our commercial and industrial,
of our artistic and social life, of our education and business and
politics. Indeed, without the advance of our ethical standards
the permanent survival of our existing civilization in Europe
and America is by no means assured. But i f the problem which
confronts the western world is a serious one, we are facing a
crisis in the whole eastern world. Here civilization is passing
from a pagan condition into a condition of material progress
without the 2,000 years of Christian discipline and the
existing Christian forces which are influencing our western
civilization. It seems certain that if the civilization of India
and Japan and China simply become so far occidentalized as
to accept our inventions and material civilization, along with
our western vices added to the vices of paganism, the new
civilization of Asia will become rotten before it is ripe. The
only hope of vigorous national life and of permanent progress
in Japan, India and China is a large increase of ethical power.
We may add that the acceptance or rejection of Christianity
by the 800,000,000 people of India, China, Japan and Malay-
sia will determine the triumph or long delay of Christianity
upon our globe; and that this problem will be settled one way
or the other during the present century. Mr. Eddy writes:
" The nations of Europe at the close of the Renaissance and
the Reformation set once for all in either Catholic or Protest-
ant moulds. Northern Europe responded to the new
awakening in the Protestant Reformation. Southern Europe
responded in a Catholic reaction and counter-reformation.
But the map of Europe has been little changed since that day,
and the future centuries took their direction from the form-
ative period. It will be the same in Asia." The crisis is so


THE TRUE ATM IN CHRISTIAN EDUCATION.
45
pressing and the consequences of failure are so appalling
that Japan Avas fully justified in summoning in 1912
Christians, Buddhists, and Shintoists around the council
table and pledging each to do his utmost for the increase of
the moral life of that nation. In the real, not merely formal,
parliamentary government in Japan her leaders recognize
more fully than ever the need of added moral strength, and
some of them are looking to Christianity to supply that
need. This certainty of material development and uncer-
tainty of corresponding moral progress constitutes the crisis
now confronting the whole world, but peculiarly confronting
Asia.
The considerations named above reveal two fundamental
needs in Christian education in China: first, along with the
introduction of the applied sciences of the west already
assured, Christian missions ought to help millions of young
Chinese to experience the life of Christ in the soul of man
and to become strong in morals for the home life, the business
life and the political life of the nation. At least forty or
fifty millions should be led to Christ and trained in Christian
civilization as speedily as possible if the whole three to four
hundred million Chinese are to become so dominated by
Christian ideals that the progress and safety of the nation
are assured. For missionaries alone to undertake this task in
a single generation, or in two or three generations, is simply
hopeless.
Second: in order to supply this pressing need it is even
more important that the missionaries imbue the thousands
or lens of thousands of students coming to them so
fully with the Spirit of Christ that a goodly proportion
of them will abandon all worldly ambitions and like
the original apostles devote their lives to the salvation of
others. In a word, in our Christian education we must
aim at quality even more than quantity. Our only hope
is that the few thousand who complete our courses of
study may themselves become the leaders and teachers of
others, and that thus the Chinese may themselves save the
nation. "We may be sure that this is the divine plan. Weie
we to train 10,000 or even 50,000 young men and women
during the present generation simply to lead Christian lives


56 RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
in their homes and in their business, what would this handful
of laymen be among the countless millions of China? If, on
the other hand, we can train 10,000 or even 5.000 young
people in such a way that they will count their lives not dear
unto themselves, if we can cast this plastic material into such
prophetic moulds that these young people will surrender all
earthly ambitions and comforts and become the preachers
and teachers of China, then there is boundless hope. Provi-
sion for this last need seems to us fundamental in any
far-reaching program for China. In a word, while Christian
statesmanship should make us broad enough to encourage
some of our graduates to enter business and political life,
nevertheless, does not Christian statesmanship compel us to
make one chief aim of our educational wrork identical with
Christ's aim in the training of His disciples?
We dwell upon this aim of our educational work because
the end aimed at will determine the method of doing the
work. No education in Europe or America has been self-
supporting save private schools and some schools for business
the so-called commercial colleges, and for a time in America
some so-called medical colleges. Very wisely, educational
leaders in the home land have seen the need of lifting general,
medical and commercial education above the commercial
plane; and such education is being rapidly transferred to
our endowed or else to our state supported universities. It
is possible for us to repeat in China our American experiment
of commercial and commercialized education. For over
2,000 years the Chinese have sought an education chiefly as a
qualification for securing office; and office holding has been a
profession for personal gain as much as banking or commerce.
Therefore, the Chinese have not fully recognized the necessity
of furnishing general education at the public expense any
more than the necessity of training carpenters or farmers at
public expense. This view of office holding as a profession
for which the Chinese qualified themselves at their own
expense in the same manner in which they qualified them-
selves for banking or merchandise helps to account for the
demoralization of political life in China. The willingness of
the Chinese to pay for their education in case the education
will speedily repay them may constitute a grave temptation


EDUCATION ON A PAYING BASTS.
47
for missionaries to put their schools and colleges upon a
paying basis. While schools largely self-supporting are
possible in China, yet in the nature of the case such schools
must largely lose their practical Christian influence. Such
schools cease to be founded upon the Gospel, i.e. upon the
fact that the teachers are giving themselves without hope of
reward to the service of others. In the nature of the case,
a school conducted on the basis of compensation rather than
the basis of grace cannot win any considerable number of
students who will abandon all thought of compensation and
4 for the sake of love devote their lives to the serviee of China.
We can and we ought to expect Christian parents to help in
the education of their children, and Christian students to
help in paying for their education. This is necessary to
preserve the self-respect of the Chinese and to develop strong
men and women: just as it is necessary that children help in
the common life of the family if they are to become strong.
But it is impossible for a Christian school to demand com-
plete self-support upon the part of its students and yet train
them to lifelong loyalty and sacrifice for its ideals, as it
would be impossible for a Christian home to put every child
upon the basis of self-support and yet expect lifelong loyalty
to the family.
If in China we place our colleges upon a basis of self-
support and are willing to organize classes for high school
and even for intermediate school studies, we shall presently
find our dormitories filled and be able to report hundreds
crowding our so-called colleges. We think we can increase
the charges and yet keep our college hostels filled with
students. But in all such cases we shall soon find three
facts staring us in the face: first, that we are not holding our
students long enough to give them a thorough education;
second: just in proportion as our work leaves the basis of
the Gospel and is done for compensation, the students paying
the bills will regard us as rich men's sons often regard their
tutors, viz. as working for hire, ranking us indeed above
other servants but below themselves; third, we shall find the
student material crowding into our college hostels and
paying the bills largely non-Christian material. We are not
simply taking counsel of our fears at this point. In India


48
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
the Christian Churches have been eager to engage in higher
education, and have been further strengthened in this
work by the generosity of the English government which
consents to pay a considerable sum for the tuition of every
student passing the government examinations, whatever
school may furnish this instruction. Hence, in our eager-
ness to enroll students upon a paying basis, 92% of the
students in the Christian colleges in India are non-
Christian and 8/o are Christian. As the result of this
overwhelming mass of non-Christian material and of the
caste system in India, it is almost impossible during the
four years the students are in college to lead them to
Christmuch less to that consecration absolutely necessary
upon the part of our Chinese students, if they are to save
the great masses of China. We shall indeed be saved in
China from the tremendous weight which, the caste system in
India throws against, Christianity. But no man who looks the
facts fairly in the face will believe it possible to admit into
our so-called Christian colleges an overwhelming mass of
non-Christian material and during the four years of crowded
student life not only lead these young- people to a vital
Christian experience, but also while conducting our own work
upon a paying basis lead them into such a consecrat ion to God
as will put them into the second groupthe group of apostles
and prophets instead of the group entering upon secular
careers.
Here again we are not simply taking counsel of our
fears. We are familiar with a college in China conducted,
with such aid'as could be secured from the Chinese, largely
upon a paying basis. The college did superior work.and
remained thoroughly Christian in the lives and influence of
the missionary teachers. But during a career of almost
twenty years the missionaries were able to turn only two or
three students who completed its course into the Christian
ministry. If, therefore, the Chinese are certain during the
next twenty-five or fifty years to be awakened to the advant-
ages of our material civilization, to introduce our western
inventions and to add our western civilization with our western
vices to the pagan vices already existing here, and if the
supreme need for the preservation of the Chinese nation is not


COST OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION.
49
simply western knowledge but moral character, and if the
supreme aim of missionary statesmanship in educational work
is the training of men who like the apostles will devote them-
selves soul and body to the conversion of China and the
development of moral character, we submit that a system of so-
called Christian education conducted mainly on the lines of
self-support and concentrated chiefly upon college work will
prove utterly disappointing. Christian statesmanship in
Chinese education demands that this education be conducted
to a considerable extent upon a basis of grace and not of
compensation, and the aim be not simply the completion
of the training of persons already prepared for college, but
the training of sufficient material in the primary and
intermediate schools so that a majority of the students
entering college shall come from Christian homes, with a
Christian experience which is genuine so far as it extends.
Again, the overwhelming mass of young people will
never enter college. All the education they acquire must be
through Christian schools of lower than college grade.
ITence, the preparation of the first and the vastly larger
number of students for Christian citizenship as well as of a
small group of students for the ministry and teaching demands
Christian teaching in the lower schools as fully as in the college.
China probably will not excel the United States in the ability
of students to carry their education forward to the completion
of the college course. But there are in the United States
96 students in the schools of lower grade for every student
in college. Hence, the number in the lower schools in China
will be to the number in college substantially 100 to 1.
Certainly, it will cost as much to furnish Christian education
to the 100 in the lower schools as to the one student in the
college. Indeed, any fair calculation will recognize that the
Missions ought to provide for a larger budget for Christian
education below the college rank than for the Christian
colleges. But what must we fix as the budget for a modern
Christian college in China?
Turning to the cost of a Christian college in China, two
or three are now spending fifty to seventy thousand dollars
gold a year in their annual budget. But these colleges must
increase their expenditures in the immediate future if they
A-7


50
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
are to set a standard and exercise a moulding influence upon
the higher education of China. We have spoken of the
grave danger now confronting Christian education in
China, viz., the reaeption into our. so-called Christian
colleges of so large a mass of non-Christian material
that it is impossible to transform this material in four
years. But, on the other hand, we shall make an equally
fatal blunder if we emphasize the Christian character of
our schools in China to the neglect of thorough, honest
work. Indeed, such an attempt involves a contradiction
in tarms, though unfortunately we have seen the effort
made in America. Our Christian colleges in China must
not offer courses simply collegiate in name. In our desire to
maintain separate denominational schools in Japan we
founded more colleges than we are able to maintain upon a
basis sufficiently high to meet the government requirements.
Hence, in part possibly through jealousy of foreign teaching,
but probably more largely through the failure of our higher
institutions in scholastic thoroughness, not a single Christian
college in Japan with the exception of Doshisha has secured
recognition by the government ; and this university was only
recognized in 1912. We ought not to repeat in China the
mistake we have made in some Christian schools in America,
and on mission fields. To offer education which demonstrates
its Christian character by its high quality and its thorough-
ness and which is so thoroughly Christian as to lead the
overwhelming mass of its students into the Christian life and
a goodly number of them into the ministry, we must im-
mediately and largely increase the appropriations for
Christian education.
As to the cost of higher education: in the United States
there are four universities, each of which is spending
annually over two million dollars gold, four more spending
$1,750,000 for their students, and eight more spending
each over $1,000,000 annually. Every American university
does college work as well as university work and is open to
Chinese students and welcomes them to its halls, and
the state universities make a very low charge for tuition.
Ilence, the Chinese student by going to America can take his
college course in a university whose annual budget ranges


UNIVERSITIES AT HOME AND IN THE FAR EAST.
51
from one to two million dollars gold every year. In
addition to these sixteen universities, there are six more each
of which spends over $750,000 gold annually for its
students and several more over $500,000 gold each. There
are forty-four institutions limiting themselves to four years
college instruction, one of which spends over $1,000,000 a
year, four more over $750,000 a year, and ten more over
$500,000 a year, while thirteen more spend over $300,000 a
year. In all, therefore, there are one hundred and nineteen
institutions each of which spends over $300,000 per year for
its students. In Canada there are some twenty-five colleges
whose annual incomes do not average as high as the one
hundred and nineteen already described; but most of these
are doing good scholastic work and all. of them are open to
Chinese students. Turning to Europe, there are thirty-one
universities and colleges in the United Kingdom outside of
Oxford and Cambridge. In Cambridge there are eighteen
colleges and in Oxford there are twenty-two; and most, if not
all, of the English colleges are noted for their thoroughness,
' and all of these colleges welcome Chinese students. In
Belgium and Holland there are seven universities: in Prance
there are seventeen, and in Germany twenty, some of the latter
offering more advanced instruction then can be found in the
United States or perhaps in any other part of Europe, and
these universities also are open to Chinese students. Even
if the Christian churches were willing to offer the Chinese a
cheap quality of education, in view of the knowledge of these
foreign opportunities now spreading throughout the nation,
it would be impossible for them to hold the best Chinese
students. Moreover, superior education is now offered
even in the Far East. Manila University is in the front
dooryard of Asia and her annual budget reached $343,-
000 in 1912 and is advancing by leaps and bounds.
Turning to Japan, the University of Tokyo is also in the
front dooryard of Asia. Her expenses at the present
time are $650,000 gold per year and her courses in
the applied sciences, in engineering and other technical
subject, are unexcelled. Everyone knows that China has
believed in higher education many centuries longer than
Japan and that she yet assigns education a higher relative


52 RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
rank as compared with war and industry than any other
nation upon earth. Hence, it is certain that as soon as the
Chinese nation is established upon a sound basis she will
spend for the education of her young people even larger
sums than Japan. It is worse than idle, therefore, for
Christian missionaries to dream of setting the standard for
higher education in China, of helping cast the education of
this vast nation into Christian moulds, of contributing in
any appreciable measure to the training of millions of young
people for business careers and for cultured Christian
homes, and of tens of thousands of them for teachers,
preachers, writers and political leaders, unless we are
prepared to furnish a college education which in grade and
thoroughness will compare favorably with the first four years
of work offered at other universities and colleges now open to
the Chinese.
We recognize that it will not require vast expenditure
upon the part of Christian colleges in China to offer two or
three college courses as thorough as any offered in Europe
or America. We can offer fewer courses and we can find
American, European and Chinese graduates of the very
finest preparation willing to work on missionary salaries
rather than upon the higher salaries often paid in America.
But with all these considerations in mind, is it statesmanlike
for us to plan to conduct Christian colleges in China without
an annual budget which during the next five years will rise
to $100,000 gold a year for each college"? In addition to
this, in order to have Christian material for our colleges, we
must certainly spend at least as much for the great mass of
students in the schools below the colleges as for the small
group of students in the college proper. This would
demand an annual budget for each Christian plant of
substantially $200,000 gold a year. Moreover, it is simply
impossible to establish and maintain a Christian civilization
without Christian homes and without educated Christian
women in these homes. Inasmuch as coeducation is at
present impracticable in China, the Christian church as a
whole ought to provide for the education of girls in all the
schools below the college on substantially the same basis as
for the education of the boys, and there should be at least


campaign for property and equipment. 53
one or two Christian colleges for women in China. In addi-
tion to all this, we must offer in China first class theological
and medical education and good post-graduate courses in
psychology, philosophy and Chinese history and literature.
Surely if there ever was a time when Christians should
follow the advice of Christ and sit down and count the cost,
missionary statesmen should do so to-day in planning the
Christian work of China for the next twenty-live or fifty years.
Our readers in China and in the home lands may feel
that the task is utterly beyond our reach. Our answer is
twofold: first, it is Christ who summons us to the Christian-
izatiou of China, and by discerning His plan and the
resources He has in store for us, we shall find it possible to
fulfil His commission; second, just because our resources
arc wholly inadequate for our present unplanned enterprises,
and just because we are sure Christ has a plan for us, we
are bound at least to attempt to discover what He would
have us do. If our resources were unlimited, then we would
not need to follow our Saviour's advice and sit down and
count the cost; we would simply meet each demand as it
arose. But if we have not funds sufficient for the tasks
which confront us, what shall we do with the limited means
at our disposal? Is it not simply sinful with means so
inadequate to our tasks for each single Mission without
serious study of its tasks, without thought of the future and
without effort to double or treble its efficiency by cooperation
with other Missions simply to go forward launching enter-
prises which are doomed to failure and which because they
are doomed to failure will break the hopes of the Chinese who
look to us for help, the spirit of our friends at home who
entrust to us the expenditure of their funds, and above all
the heart of Christ ? Providentially, the churches at home
already are grasping the situation and all Protestant
Christianity in America is planning for 1915 a campaign
for Property and Equipment on mission fields. Can we not
in the first place limit ourselves for the present to four or
live Christian colleges or universities for China, and by
properly placing these universities put at least one Christian
University in reach of every earnest student in the land ?
Can we not provide reasonably well for honest college work


54
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
of a high grade and for the post-graduate courses named
on a budget of $100,000 gold a year to begin with? Can
we not depend upon the women of Christendom to provide
for the Chinese girls and young women as well as the men
provide for the Chinese boys and young men ? We do not
think it is impossible, by rallying the forces of Protestant
Christendom for a Property and Equipment Movement in
1915, to secure an endowment of a million dollars gold for
each of the four university centers in China, and of another
million for the maintenance of the lower schools in connec-
tion therewith. This would yield us $50,000 for the lower
education and $50,000 for the higher education. We could
then trust all the Protestant churches combined in the home
lands and the awakening Chinese to raise another $100,000
annually for Christian education in China for each of these
four centers, $50,000 for the university, and $50,000 for the
schools of lower grade. The problem is indeed a large one
and its realization avill send us many times to our knees in
prayer. But the burden is by no means beyond the expecta-
tion of a reasonable Christian faith. Indeed, Ave believe
that by the help of God the first part of the programthe
securing of two million dollars each for the endowment of
four plants can be realized by a united effort of our great
hearted philanthropists on the one side and the Christian
churches in the Property and Equipment Movement in 1915
on the other; and if God helps us to realize the first part,
He will inspire and guide us in carrying the enterprise to a
successful, conclusion. No one can foretell the future.
We are not certain that-our calls for aid will meet a large
response. But should the churches at home fail to make any
effort at all for Property and Equipment, their failure would
render federation all the more imperative in order to make
our limited resources accomplish the most possible for the
salvation of China. The argument for federation rests not
upon prospects of large gilts, but upon the obligation to use
all gifts, large or small, for the best possible service of China.
Clearly, this program is beyond the reach of any
individual church. If we ask the united Protestant churches
to raise some eight million dollars for property and equip-
ment and then raise added funds each year for current


reasons for union and co-operation.
55
expenses for Christian education in China, why may not
one of the strongest churches attempt to raise two million
dollars of this property and equipment fund and then
attempt to raise additional funds for the lower schools
and thus maintain one of these four plants? For the
simple reason that no church strong enough to undertake
any such program is confined to any single spot in China or
is willing to be so confined. Every Protestant church in
China strong enough even to dream of such a work is
scattered over an area of at least one thousand miles in one
direction and four or five hundred miles in another direction.
Such a church would be obliged to spend heavily for medical
and evangelistic work and build up and maintain a Christian
constituency throughout her territory. She would be oblig-
ed to provide not only for the college but for the day
schools, the intermediate schools and the high schools in
order that she might have Christian material for the college:
the women of that church would be obliged to provide for a
somewhat similar course of education for the women of the
territory. These demands would compel her to gather all her
forties and concentrate her efforts upon that particular section
of China which she elected to serve. Again, every strong
Protestant church now at work in China finds the territory
she would need for such a movement already occupied by
other strong churches as well as by herself, and it would be
utterly impracticable to ask all of these other churches to
withdraw from that territory and leave that field to herself.
In a word, with the work in China now marked out along
lines determined by a hundred years of missionary effort,
it is utterly impracticable to draw the leading churches or
the leading denominational families into four separate
sections of China and make such a territorial division of the
nation as will permit the building up of these Christian
colleges along purely denominational lines. Any single
church which attempts the accomplishment of the enterprise
along these lines will be obliged to confine its efforts to a
single portion of China and will find itself overshadowed in
this single portion by the other Protestant churches combined.
It may be said we are appealing to low financial
considerations: that we are making the establishment of


56
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
Christian education in China a mere matter of dollars and
cents. In one sense the charge is a slander; in two other senses
the charge contains some truth. It is a slander to say that
the Christians who are planning for union in the Christian
education of China are governed by mere financial con-
siderations. To plan that our schools and colleges shall
furnish the Chinese thorough scholarship of a high quality
is to be governed, not by love of money, but by the love of
honesty; it is to plan that our education shall be genuine
and Christian throughoutnot a deprivation of young people
of their one opportunity for securing a thorough preparation
for the present life, on the ground that we are thus
guaranteeing their safety for the life that is to come. So
far as the charge that we are reckoning with material as
avell as spiritual forces has any truth, it is this: The
Parable of the Talents and especially the Parable of the
Poor Widow show that Jesus regarded the sacrifice of our
worldly goods for the sake of the kingdom as one of the
highest proofs of the Christian spirit, indeed, lie makes
this so high a test of the genuineness of Christianity that in
His picture of the Last Judgment lie makes clothing
the naked and feeding the hungry, giving drink to the
thirsty and visiting the prisoners, the test of fitness for
heaven. We have a right, therefore, to appeal to the home
churches and to Chinese Christians for funds on the ground
that their financial sacrifices in the Interest of the kingdom
are tests of the genuineness of their piety. We are also
prompted by economic motives, because we believe that
these economic motives wTiil spur the Christian churches
toward and even possibly compel them to a great, spiritual,
forward movement in the direction of Christian unity. Is
it not remarkable that economic motives are now telling
tremendously on the side of sobriety in the great struggle
against the use of liquor % Is it not also significant that eco-
nomic forces are at the bottom of the struggle which is bound
to result in a far better and more Christian adjustment of
the relations between capital and. labor ? It is also striking
that economic forces largely compelled the struggles for the
abolition of slavery. Indeed, it is becoming almost a truism
of history that economic forces underlie every movement of


denominational contributions.
57
society. So it is quite possible that the ruler of the universe
is using economic forces to compel the Christian church to
face the spiritual union embodied in Christ's last prayer for
the unity of believers. As an illustration of the unity of
the Spirit we who faVor cooperation must remember that
those who oppose it are as conscientious as ourselves, that
they hesitate because they fear the truth or the life for
which they stand will be sacrificed in union work. We
must show such appreciation of the truth for which they
stand as to dispel such fears and assure them that we are
aiming at the larger life and glory of each branch of the
church. "And whether one member suffereth, all the
members suffer with it; or one member is honored, all the
members rejoice with it. Now ye are the body of Christ
and severally members thereof."
Our readers will see that the plan outlined contemplates
a system of Christian high schools underlying the college, of
intermediate schools underlying the high schools, and of
Christian day schools underlying the intermediate schools,
in order to furnish sufficient Christian material for the
college each of the cooperating Missions ought to maintain at
least one high school, two or three intermediate schools, and
a score of day schools. In these schools pains should be
taken not only,.to teach the Bible, but to teach all the doc-
trines and the forms which each particular Mission believes
to be essential or helpful to the spiritual life. These forms
and doctrines will be filled with larger and larger meaning
as the student advances in years and knowledge. Certainly
there should be also an earnest effort to lead these children
into a vital Christian experience which should be thoroughly
genuine so far as it extends. This plan contemplates twelve
years of separate denominational work, and if this W'Ork is
done thoroughly, we believe that each Mission'will not only
fully conserve its oavh material but will contribute to the
common Christian education given in the college the special
truth and life for which God has providentially raised up
that church. So far from considering the irreducible
minimum of religious belief in union work, we should aim
throughout at the largeness and richness of the Gospel re-
presented by the various churches. But along with the twelve
A-S


58
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
years of denominational training with which the students
coming from the Christian lower schools wouid enter college,
we believe that four years of common Christian training, dur-
ing which time each student should become familiar with the
peculiar excellency of the other Protestant churches, would
be of priceless benefit to the student, and would save China
from repeating the era of narrow sectarian strife which has
greatly hindered the progress of the kingdom in Christian
lands. Our final plea, therefore, for missionary cooperation
in collegiate and post-graduate work is that only by this
method can the student perceive and in some measure
accept the riches of knowledge and the fulness of power
which reside in the infinite Christ. Like the colors of the
rainbow, one church represents the blue light of truth,
another the red light of zeaJ, a third the green light of the
living world, and a fourth the yellow light of the spiritual
lifebut only as all of these lights are combined do we get
the white light of the living Christ. Infinitely greater,
therefore, than the economic motives which compel our
co-operation, and infinitely greater than the educational
advantage growing out of it are the spiritual gains which
our united churches could insure for the countless millions
of the Far East.
V Christian Federation
In regard to church union, or rather Church Federation
looking toward the ultimate unity of Christendom, greater
progress was made last year under the direct influence of
Dr. Mott's visit than in any preceding year in our entire
history. The China Continuation Committee then organized
is the most practical step yet taken toward helping shape
through moral influence alone the policy of the Protestant
churches in China. The work of the Committee ought to
result in the better coordination of all the agencies working
011 the field, and in the cooperation of all agencies in
literary work, in educational work and to a considerable
extent, in evangelistic work. The independent Chinese
Church was given the same recognition by the sectional
conferences of 1913 and the National Conference at Shang-
hai as other branches of the Christian Church and wisely


the body of christ.
59
was accorded larger representation than on account of its
small numbers it felt free to ask. While we do not think
the independent movement is making rapid progress, never-
theless, the representatives of this movement exercised a
, large and wholesome influence upon the Conferences of 1913.
If all the churches adopt as a common title The Christian
Church in China, and if each church avails itself of the
privilege of reporting along with its own statistics the
common statistics of them all, we may find it easier to sur-
render denominational advantages in the interest of the whole
kingdom, and we may save China from such a multiplication
of rival churches as has constituted one of the weaknesses of
Christendom in the home lands. Moreover, the local control
of the Chinese churches as rapidly as possible should be
transferred to conferences in China composed of Chinese and
missionaries; and in these conferences all members should
be ecclesiastically equal without reference to nationality.
This would steadily and rapidly increase the influence of
the Chinese members and would ultimately lead to their
control in all the churches organized in China.
Certainly we must not repeat in China the shameful
spectacle of a divided Christendom which so seriously mars
the spiritual history of the western world. In the United
States and Canada and to some extent in Europe, in almost
every village of 500 to 1,000 people we have three or four
separate churches each struggling for existence. Each of
these churches is so burdened in maintaining its own life
that it has little strength to give for the larger service of the
community or the salvation of the nation or the world.
Were the largest secular business on earththe largest
railroad, or insurance company, to establish three or four
rival stations and appoint three or four separate agents to
compete with each other in securing business in every town
and village in the land, such a company would bankrupt
itself within twelve months. Perhaps the highest proof of
the divine origin and the supernatural strength of Chris-
tianity is the fact that it has not disappeared during all
these centuries through the follies of its disciples. It is a
sign of the times that there is an increasing burden of prayer
for the unity of Christendom, that there is a growing


70
RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIR?'.
discussion and a frank recognition of the sin of sectarian
strife. We do not know that the divine plan contemplates
the merging of all the existing churches into some existing
church or into a new agglomeration under some fresh Chris-
tian title. It is quite possible that Christ needs the com-
plementary services of various groups of Christendom as a
great commander needs in a campaign the united efforts of
infantry, cavalry and artillery. Indeed, it seems to us
probable that the phrases in the Bible household of faith,"
" vines and branches," body of Christ," reveal the church
as a great family of God composed of different branches,
each fulfilling a different function. We do not think, there-
fore, that the different branches of Christendom are in them-
selves sinful in the sight of God. But we are sure that these
branches should be as vitally united as the different branches
springing out of the same tree. This is the union for which
Christ prayed in the seventeenth of John, and nothing short
of such a union as this should be the aim of Christendom.
Moreover, such a union can be set forward more rapidly 011
the mission field where Christian institutions are plastic than
in the home lands where institutions are already crystallized.
This is a specific service which the mission churches are to
render the home churches in return for the great service
which the home lands render the non-Christian world in
bringing Christianity to it. If, therefore, our discussion helps
in any measure, first, to the recognition of the weakness of
the present movement for Confucianism as the state religion;
second, to the recognition of the underlying desire of the
noblest Chinese for ethical conduct and for supernatural aid
in order that they may realize ethical ideals; third, if it
leads to a stronger attempt of Christians in China to meet
the crisis which confronts the whole eastern world by raising
up through Christian elementary schools and colleges leaders
for the spiritual conquest of the nation; fourth, if this in
turn leads to much intercessory prayer and to all personal
and denominational sacrifices required for Christian co-
operation in college and university work, and thus sets
forward the unity of Christendomthe object of the paper
will be met.


CHAPTER III
THE CONFUCIAN REVIVAL
By Rev* H. K Wright, M.A., Ningpo
The Chinese revolution brought in its train the icono-
clastic camp-followers to which history has grown accustomed.
Europe and America know well the temporary loosening of
moral and religious bonds that follows political revolution,
and the Chinese proved themselves to be of one blood with
all the nations of the earth, in this as in other respects.
Confucius, loving the ancients/' was taken at his word and left to the
company he preferred. At least the vocal part of the nation
said he was to be left there,leaders of the revolution,
editors of Chinese papers, students from abroad, officials
under the new regime, non-Conf ucianists, and many others.
Foreigners in general hailed this development with delight,
as a hopeful sign of the times, thinking it meant freedom
from mental shackles as well as political ones, and supposed
that an era of genuine religious freedom had begun. That
Mencius was nominated for the vacant throne troubled no
one, and it hardly seemed to occur to current thought, that
Mencius was more orthodox, if possible, than Confucius
himself, though he did write that happy sentiment, fit to
have been spoken by Lincoln, Jg jg. The people are
the most important element in a nation." The king is
dead, long live the king, shouted the mentally intoxicated
revellers; but all the while, the solid Confucian sentiment
that had existed before, was hardly' affected, except to be
silenced for the time, and either paid little attention to the
new cries, or looked on as Londoners coldly observant of
Northumberland's efforts to set up Queen Jane.
The question of personal and national loyalty to a.
revered Sage, however, was swallowed up in other questions
more immediately pressing. Whether or not a republican
government is nearer to the political beliefs of Mencius than


62
THE CONFUCIAN "REVIVAL.
Confucius is a question that can afford to wait until we
know whether the new government is really republican in
the western sense, or only of the "imperial republic order,
to use Dr. Arthur Smith's phrase. That point is not yet as
clear as it might be. At all events, the political reaction
was bound to come, and the religious one with it. The two
are closely interwoven at some points, but we must stick to
our text and consider chiefly the religious reaction. In it,
as in the political one, the personality of Confucius becomes
dim, for it plays a subordinate part in the religious system
that bears his name. It is true that this has not been as gene-
rally recognized as it should have been, and much arguing at
cross-purposes has resulted. Roman Christianity contains
much doctrine and practice not authorized in the Scriptures,
but no one argues that for that reason Roman Christianity
is not a religious system and could not logically be made a
state religion. Yet that very view of Confucianism is fre-
quently taken for granted on both sides of the question in
China; the Confucianists have said that inasmuch as Con-
fucianism is not a religion since it includes so much extra-
canonical belief and practice, it will not interfere with
religious liberty to establish it, ( President Yuan has most
recently stated this argument in a form intended to close the
discussion) ; and the non-Confucianists reply, in effect, that
they grant it is not a religion, but that nevertheless it is a
system of belief and practice opposed to other systems that
are religious and that to establish it will interfere with
religious liberty. Much of this is to miss the forest from
the multitude of trees. The position taken in this discussion
is that Confucianism is that religion which has resulted in
China from crossing animism with certain moral maxims
and which has been named after the most prominent man
concerned in the process. Bearing this in mind, let us con-
sider the religious history of the past few months.
In the first flush of the revolution, the old Confucian
ceremonies were discontinued, the Temple of Heaven was
put to secular use, and the study of the Confucian classics
in schools was discouraged. Ancestral worship notably
declined, but at each of the two succeeding New Year
seasons, it was renewed with steadily increasing zeal. Then


petition of the confucian society.
63
on the 22nd of June, 1913, came a Presidential mandate
urging the study of the classics in the schools. On the 27th of
September following, the birthday of the Sage was celebrated
with unwonted fervour, In the meantime, a Confucian
society had been formed in Peking, with an agitation for
establishing Confucianism as the state religion as part of its
avowed program and had sent to Parliament its petition for
that end, a document which was properly regarded as the
party's manifesto, and which became therefore the chief
bone of contention in all the subsequent discussions. This
petition may be summarized as follows:
Morality is the foundation of a nation, and the standard of
morality depends on religion. From the earliest times the moral
spirit of the people remained the same, and gave rise to the
national religion, which became embodied historically in Confu-
cianism. Temples were erected in which prayer was offered to
Confucius, and the nation's Statesmen have always looked to him
for guidance. The number of rulers who were Buddhists or
Taoists has been very few. The basis of a republican form of
government is likewise morality, and the basis of Chinese morality
is Confucianism. It is therefore necessary to revert to Confucian-
ism as the national religion. During thousands of years it has been
our state religion, and perfect religious liberty has existed at the
same time. To adopt Confucianism in the new constitution would
be mere written recognition of existing facts, and the best way of
insuring religious freedom. Statements in the Book of Kites
imply that a state religion was adopted after careful consideration
in the classical period, and that religious freedom was allowed at
the same time. We offer the example of eleven western nations
to show that we propose a plan which offers more religious freedom
than any other nation possesses.
(1) Chile has a state religion without freedom of worship.
(2) Sweden and Norway have a state religion with no
reference to freedom of worship.
(3) Spain has a state religion with restrictions over freedom
of worship.
(4) Luxemburg and Belgium have a state religion with
definite allowance of freedom of worship.
(5) Italy, Turkey, Prussia, Argentina and Denmark have a
state religion with the principle of freedom under
supervision.
Thus we find that absolute religious freedom is not granted
by these nations. If China talks about freedom of worship without
setting up a state religion, people will say that, her Parliament
thinks religion of little worth. The national spirit will decay, the


64
THE CONFUCIAN "REVIVAL.
national character will disappear and the nation will be destroyed.
The formal adoption of a state religion will prevent this and Will
be rather a benefit than otherwise to adherents of other religions.
Such countries as England, America, France and Russia cannot
really be said to be without state religions, for they have them in
their unwritten constitutions. China at present is in so much
confusion that she cannot afford to let this principle remain
unwritten. Confucianism should be laid down in the constitution
as the state religion; by so doing the minds of the people will be
restored to a state of stable equilibrium, and the administration of
tlie country will proceed successfully.
This petition was signed on behalf of the Confucian
Association by five men. Liang Ch i-eli ao, Yen Full, Chen
Huan-chang, Ilsia Tseng-vu and "Wang Shih-tung. Of
these, the first is the well-known reformer, the disciple of
Kang Yn-wei, who has suffered persecution for the sake of
reform, and who prefers a constitutional monarchy to a
republic. The second is almost equally well-known as a
scholar; having been educated abroad, he is noted both as
an educator and as a translator. His version of Huxley's
Evolution, with his own notes and comments is a remarkable
work, known to Chinese students everywhere. To demon-
strate how extremes meet, he has also translated part of the
Gospel of Mark; an interesting but fragmentary experiment.
The fourth and fifth names are of men less generally known,
and the third was likewise not very familiar before this
petition was made public, but it is now understood that he is
the leading spirit of the Confucian association, and the most
zealous agitator for the adoption of Confucianism as the
state religion. Though still a young man he is a Hanlin of
the old educational system, and has also taken a doctorate
in political economy at Columbia University. Certainly
the petitioners cannot be accused of ignorant conservatism,
for western learning, and knowledge of the world, both in
its history and in the present economic and social relations
of the nations, are amply and ably represented among them.
Dr. Chen bids fair to make the third in a latter-day
triumvirate; the influence of the first two petitioners on the
students of China is already wide and profound. Whether
or not they can serve the religious interests of their nation,
they have her welfare truly at heart; if they fail, it will not


anti-state-religion society.
65
be from wilful blindness. But in making morality second-
ary and religion primary as they do in the opening words
of their petition, they have submitted their contentions to be
judged by religious standards; they have ventured to speak
of spiritual things, and cannot complain if religious men
make an effort to learn whether they have discerned these
things spiritually, and whether their conclusions will stand
a spiritual test.
Naturally, however, this test could not be the one used
in opposing the agitation, primary though it be to the inner
interest of Christian believers. That the agitation would
be opposed was a foregone conclusion, and from the
first the Chinese church acted with an independence, ability,
earnestness and unity that gratified all her foreign well-
wishers. The Protestants in Peking quickly formed an
organization to oppose the new movement, and sent requests
to Christians throughout the republic for moral, spiritual and
financial support in their plans. These requests met with
prompt response throughout the provinces. One of the
plans of the Peking committee was the formation of an
anti-State-Religion society to be composed of representatives
of the non-Confucian religions, in order to consolidate and
strengthen the opposition to the measure; this plan roused
some opposition among Christians but not enough to disrupt
the ranks, and it was carried out. Counter petitions poured
in, and the Christian press for weeks was filled with articles
and letters dealing with the subject from every thinkable,
theoretical or practical point of view. The secular press
contributed its share, and in the course of a few months the
literature became really voluminous. When the Peking
committee sent in the national Protestant counter-petition a
few weeks later, it was able to send with it the signatures of
representatives of most of the churches in twenty-one
provinces, and from Christian bodies in America and
Mongolia. This counter-petition may be summarized as
follows:
There are three classes of reasons against the adoption of a
state religion by China.
(1) Legal reasons.
A-9


66
THE CONFUCIAN "REVIVAL.
(a) Liberty of belief and a state religion will mutually conflict,
for the mete existence of a state religion means favors for its
adherents impossible for adherents of other religions to obtain.
(b) The constitution will not have the same relations to all
citizens, for some will adhere to the religion established by it and
some not.
(c) The question of religious qualification for office with all
its attendant woes, will be raised.
(d) The majority of the people do not favor a constitution
containing such a clause. To quote the example of such countries
as Denmark and Turkey, as the Confucian association lias done, is
to remind us that such examples are universally deplored.
(f) The legal principle of the separation of church and state
is gaining constantly wider recognition in the West; it would be a
shameful thing for our young Republic to begin by adopting what
old monarchies are casting off.
(2) Political reasons.
(a) The effect of adopting a state religion will be to destroy
the unity of the live nations which have joined to form the republic,
Mohammedans, Mongolians and Tibetans would consider it
unbearable to be under a constitution in which the Manchus and
Chinese had inserted a clause establishing Confucianism as the
religion of the entire state.
(b) Unity of heart being destroyed, rebellion with loss of
territory to the nation will probably follow.
(c) The example of the Crusades and the Thirty Years' War
in Europe warns us of another possible outcome of the matter,
religious war.
(d) The government should in no degree rest 011 religious
authority. It cannot maintain its-authority in Mongolia and Tibet
if it does so; but if it could it would be imitating the Europe of a
hundred years ago.
(3) Reasons connected with the nature of the Chinese people
and the present tendencies of the world.
(a) No first-class power to-day has a state religion. The
list of eleven nations in the Confucian petition is notable in its
necessary omission of England, America, Germany and France.
History taught those nations the folly of a state religion. The
American nation was founded on a protest against a state religion.
Scotland made away with her state religion; within the last ten
years France has done the same. In view of these facts what call
have wTe to set up a religion?
(b) It is untrue that in China it has been part of the unwrit-
ten constitution that Confucianism should be the state religion, for
the emperors have embraced whatever religion they pleased.


the counter-petition.
67
(c) The relative number of Confucianists and other religion-
ists in Parliament is no true representation of the true strength of
Confucianism in the republic, for the representation of Mongolia
and Tibet is proportionally smaller than that of the rest of China.
Majorities rule in Parliament, but will not rule in sections of the
country whose religious feelings have been offended.
This counter-petition may be taken as a good example
of what is best in them ail. It is not without weaknesses
of its own, but it contains, in one form or another nearly
everything that was in the Chinese mind to say on the
question. The host of petitions and essays printed during
the six months when the agitation was at its height contains
arguments good, bad and indifferent ; some of them childish,
as the complaint that the President should not have asked
for the prayers of Christians if he intended to establish
Confucianism; some of them laughable, as the solemn
asseveration of the moral superiority of Christianity,
followed by the solemn warning that if Confucianism is
established, Christians will fly into a dreadful rage and help
to disrupt the republic; some of them unfair, as the use of
the proverb "it is useless to talk with a well-frog about
the ocean," which hardly applies to the men who signed the
Confucian petition. But these were exceptions; very little
that was said could be called feeble, and much of it reached
deep and far, and was nobly strong and true, revealing in
the apologists a Christian character most encouraging to
the observer from abroad. Fanatics may be martyrs; only
men of ripe and balanced wisdom who have inner acquaint-
ance with the deep tilings of God can be apologists who
command respect, Nor can it be counted a weakness that
the arguments offered were so largely ad captandum. Doubt-
less the statement in the National I\evi.cw that any form of
official religions ritual breeds indifference and a certain
mild hypocrisy (not always so mild either) is true to that
conviction in the hearts of the counter-petitioners- which
had the most personal weight for them; but it is not the
most effective argument in a debate of this kind. It is too
closely akin to religious feeling and conviction, too nearly a
spiritual discernment," if indeed not wholly so.
During the months of discussion, the Confucian
association was not idle, and through their activity, branch


68
THE CONFUCIAN "REVIVAL.
societies were formed in the provinces and additional
petitions favoring the establishment of Confucianism were
sent in by some of the Tutuhs and some of the provincial
assemblies. On the other hand, Vice-President Li, approach-
ed by a delegation of the Christians expressed himself as
opposed to the adoption of a state religion; the premier,
Ilsiung Hsi-ling, echoed the sentiment in unqualified terms.
The dissolution of Parliament in the middle of January
took the question out of their hands, leaving it for the
President with the cabinet and the political council to settle.
Much debate had already taken place over the proposal to
add to section 19 of the provisional constitution, which
reads: "Citizens of China shall be under obligation to
receive general education, the period of which shall be fixed
by law," the words, and the doctrines of Confucius shall
be regarded as the basis of moral education." But the
President and his advisors let the matter of the constitution
rest, and with tactical skill changed the venue of the
question. The Confucian association had clearly asked to
have a religion established; the ruling powers decided to
establish a church instead. In a mandate dated February
8th, the President urged the people to pay the usual honors
to Confucius; he further announced his intention to put the
Temple of Heaven to its ancient use at the winter solstice,
and sacrifice there as representative of the people. He
further announced that he would carry out the semi-annual
honors to Confucius; schools were also permitted to resume
the practice of worshipping the Sage's tablet, but there
should be no compulsion. About a month later another
mandate reiterated the assertion that religious freedom was
to be undisturbed by the resumption of the old rites, and in
a letter to Mr. E. W. Thwing, the President said, The
worship of Confucius is an ancient rite which has been
observed for many ages in China's history and has been
handed down from ancient times. It has nothing to do with
religions. Catholics, Protestants, Mohammedans and men
of other religious faiths find nothing to keep them from
entering official life. If a district magistrate is unable, or
does not wish/to worship Confucius, the ceremony may be


success ok the christians
69
conducted by someone else." Evidently the President
wishes to regard the discussion as closed.
How far may the Christians be considered as having won
the fight in which they have engaged ? They had two main
objects: (1) To ensure religious freedom for all Chinese, in
the western sense; (2) To prevent the Confucian body from
obtaining for the ancient ceremonies in which Christians
cannot join that official recognition and honor which would
give Confucianism the advantage of place over other reli-
gions. In other words, Christians desired that Christianity
should not merely be a rdvrio licita, but also should have no
offi3.ial handicap to its propaganda. Roughly speaking it
has gained the first point and lost the second for the i;ime
being. With regard to religious freedom, the Confucianists
asserted in their petition, as Dr. Chen had previously
asserted in his Columbia dissertation, that China had always
enjoyed it. This was repeated in the course of the discus-
sion, with the implication, sometimes the plain statement,
that controversies which seemed religious were regarded by
the Chinese as wholly political. The Christians retorted, in
effect, that they knew as much as anyone about the amount
of scent in a rose's name, and that religious freedom even
under the treaties had been largely a mockery, which only
the coming of the republic had done anything to remove. In
this section ot! the debate, the contradictions arose, of
course, from a failure to hold the same meaning for the
terms. When the Christians talked about religious freedom,
they meant the western article in its present form. No one
could seriously argue that China had possessed for ages that
precious ultimate flower of civilization; and therefore when
the Confucianists asserted that China had always had
religious freedom, they meant presumably that with the
exception of those intervals when primitive fanatic fear
convulsed the government, the spiritual indifference of the
Chinese made it possible for them to spend their spare time
in telling or hearing some new religious thing; furthermore,
when wars and persecutions arose which in Europe would
have been labelled "religious," the real reasons animating
the zeal of the government were purely political. In reply
to all this transparent special pleading it can only be said,


70
THE CONFUCIAN HEVlVAJ..
that while a government afraid of the political results of the
spread of a religious belief may shelter its persecution behind
the assertion that "this has nothing to do with religion,5'
and may even persuade itself in all sincerity that some form
of politico-religious intoleration (apart from considerations
of religious immorality), some Act of Uniformity which can
take for a motto "ceremonial not religious/' is essential to
its being, or that it is competent to distinguish faith from
morals in alien religious observances, yet it will not deceive
all of the people all of the time, and Avill surely go the way
of the Manchu dynasty. Finally, it is little more than a
platitude to remind ourselves that winning or failing to win
religious freedom rests not on sections in the constitution or
mandates from the President, but in the extent to which the
welt-geist of Toleration has affected the heart of the nation.
The loss for the time being of the second object which
the Christians had in view raises the question whether it
Avould have been a real advantage to them to have realized
their desire. We know that historically handicaps have
been good for the health of a young church, and it may well
be so in China. Here again only the issue can decide; but
for the assistance of clear thinking, it is again necessary to
offer a little first aid to the worst logical muddle in the
entire, discussion. On both sides, the term "state religion"
was in constant use, the term u state church" almost never.
Yet half the time the combatants were talking of one thing
when they meant the other, or else used arguments for or
against the one which would apply only to the other. For
this the Chinese language is partly to blame, for the distinc-
tion between the two ideas is hardly known to classical
scholarship. But writers of English articles and letters,
so far as they have fallen under the writer's eye, have
been equally careless or where they observed the dis-
tinction, they did not make it clear. It began with the
Confucian petition. Confucianism is both a religion and, in
a rudimentary way, a church, and (lie petitioners wauled
both established. They offer eleven western nations
witnesses, and fail to note thai, not one of these, nations has
established a religion, but only a church. f] he difference is
a vital one. A religion in the eyes of the state is the


sTate IieliCtIon oil state cHuhcii.
71
service of supernatural PoAvers, in accordance with a Body
of Belief; to establish it is to define the belief with exactness,
and to make unbelief in any vital point heresy, punishable
as a crime, usually as treason, as a canker-spot in the body
politic. A religion cannot be established without estab-
lishing a church, but a church may be established by itself.
A church, in the eyes of the state, is a body of Ritual
Observances, carried on by a Hierarchy whose members have
subscribed a Creed, and which is supported by those citizens
who care to conform. If all the citizens are required by
law to conform, then a religion is established as well as a
church. If only the church is established, then heresy
ceases to be a political crime, and while its existence may be
determined by the law courts, the possibility of its guilt is
confined to the clergy, and its waning importance is
discerned dwindling from persecutions under Uniformity,
Test and Five Mile Acts down through Colenso trials to
Kikuyu controversies. Such has been the course of things
in the west; such has not been the course in China. This
affords some excuse to the Chinese controversialists for their
historical errors when they referred to the Crusades, the
Thirty Years' War, and the present state of religious
toleration in the west. The President is correct when he
says that he has not interfered with the religious freedom
promised in the provisional constitution, for he has estab-
lished a church and only a church; but if he implies that
Confucianism is not a religion he is of course wrong.
There remains the interesting question whether or not
it was better to establish a Confucian Church than to have
no official ecclesiastical observances at all. Opinions here
are divided sharply. Those who look upon the Confucian
rites as the service of devils will say," Better atheistic
materialism than that." Those who think of them as "lesser
Jiglits" of the service of Hod will say with Mr. 0. G. Warren,
that it is "much more filling that the President should
perform sonic, religious ceremony than that the void of
the last two years should continue." He who docs not see
in Confucius 0110 of that cloud of witnesses who testily that
the Spirit of Cod wrote the laws of God in the hearts of all
the Gentiles will not rejoice to see the ancient ceremonies


72
ME CONFUCIAN REVIVAL.
resumed. But whether or not Confucius would have
approved of the honors paid to him, wherever there is
sincerity behind the rites, they must be regarded as better
than nothing, if they do not deprave tin heart; Avliich moral
test in the only one that should be applied here. That many
will conform from habit, or from convenience, or from outer
influence is certain, and 110 one will approve that. But
whatever of loss or gain conies to the Christian church,
however her propaganda is helped or hindered by the
official decision, the very possibility of such a contro-
versy as the past months have seen shows how far she
has come in fourteen years. Another stage of religious
progress is marked; when we reach the next, we shall hope
to see a church self-supporting, self-governing and self-
propagating, and still militant.


CHAPTER IV
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC
By Professor Bevan, Peking University
The companion chapter of the China Mission Year Book
for 1913 closed with the sentence, "This question which
raises the extremely difficult and delicate matters of National
and State rights, and the equally important question of the
relation between the executive and the legislature are the
two great constitutional problems that will be before the
new parliament." The first of these matters is slowly
working itself out. A strong central government with
power to control the different parts of the nation seems to be
imperative, if China is to be strong enough to present a real
front to foreign nations. Though little progress has been
made, indications are not .wanting that the Peking author-
ities are moving steadily in this direction; even the opinion
of the late parliament was distinctly against the introduc-
tion of any federal principle, though it was not able to
declare itself authoritatively as to the extent or form oC
the control to be exercised by the central government over
the provincial and local, administrations. The central
executive lias continuously though slowly asserted its
authority not only to appoint high provincial officials, but
to control the appointment of officials of all classes. The
power of the formerly almost independent Tutulis is being
gradually checked and limited, while the institution of the
chief civil administrator of the province and the defining of
his power and authority are intended to bring about a real
control over the local administration. Legal theory will
outrun actual fact, but from the point of view of admin-
istration the opening months of 1914 show a distinct
advance on the conditions of a year ago.
The writer does not propose to dwell on this great prob-
lem, but it is safe to say that the central government has
here initiated a policy which shows promise of successful
execution. It is, in part, in accordance with the traditions
A-10


74
Political development*
of the earlier administration, and so far has all the advant-
ages that accompany the continuation of a policy with
which the nation is already familiar; for, though the details
of provincial administration in time past were left to the
almost unfettered action of provincial authorities, the powers
of appointment and removal were jealously guarded as the
high prerogative of Imperial authority; while as going
beyond the old tradition, the larger policy that is more
effectually controlling and directing local administration, is
slowly being recognised as almost inevitable. The new
conditions arising from increased foreign relations and inter-
course, have compelled, and must continue to compel, the
central government to exercise a closer control over the
furthest parts of the nation. The nineteenth century saw
the central government asserting its authority as foreign
governments insisted that Peking should answer for acts
done in its provinces. Under the Manchu regime this same
policy was forced upon the advisers of the Imperial author-
ity, and the cautious and conservative reforms initiated
during the closing years of the rule of Kuang Hsu were
permeated through and through with every kind of centralis-
ing influence.
This part of the policy was not in accord with the
earlier tradition, for apart from an exaction of yearly tribute,
and the exercise of the power of appointment and dismissal,
the Manchu genius had solved the problem of government by
leaving the actual provincial adminstration almost entirely
to itself and its rulers. This departure from established custom
made the policy of centralization difficult of execution and
contributed in an appreciable degree to the revolution. But
recent Presidential orders claiming afresh the powers of'
appointment and removal, and demanding that officials shall
submit to examinations held in Peking, followed by a series
of startling orders that first purged and then dissolved
provincial, parliaments and all classes of local assemblies,
present convincing evidence that the central government will
.succeed in regaining control and, cony<>J.idaliiig .its directive
influences. Traditions, expediency and necessity are all
factors compelling the adoption uf tlihi policy. Whatever may
be the final form of the central government, the prediction


the legislature and the executive.
75
may be hazarded that the central government will make for
itself a position of very real power with regard to the
constituent parts of the commonwealth.
During the year 1913, the topic of supreme interest
from the constitutional point of view has been the struggle
between the legislature and the executive. Here, as was seen
last year in the sketch of the Provisional Constitution, were
all the elements of strife. There was an absence of links
between the executive and the parliament that was bound to
result in friction and deadlock, while the experience of both
sides in this new method of government was too slight to
allow of the growth of machinery outside the constitution
itself which might have harmonised opposing elements and
overcome an antagonism that showed itself from the com-
mencement.
It was impossible that the division of powers as decreed
by the Nanking assembly should have proved workable in
actual practice. Those delicate adjustments which prevent
or overcome friction, and which alone make constitu-
tional government easy and efficient, have been entirely
absent. These small wheels of the machinery of government
are not fashioned by statute, and yet if they do not find their
place in the administrative system, the whole structure is
liable to collapse. The give and take of party and party,
the respect and submission that are due to the majority, the
undoubted rights of a minority, the recognition of the moment
when opposition ceases to be legal and becomes a danger
to the state, the practice of liberty that stops short of license,
the use of power that never becomes the abuse of authority,
these cannot be built into the political machine by rule and
regulation. Political instinct and political conscience of the
constitutional variety are the creatures of slow growth.
There were wanting the traditions, the environment and the
experience which create what may be called the conventions of
constitutional government, without which conflict- within the
administration <'an hardly be avoided.
And further, in the legal sphere, there was wanting thai
which is essentia.! if government is lo be according to law and
the constitution. xYn independent judiciary commanding
the respect of all parties is necessary for the smooth working


political development.
of modern constitutional government. Where the powers of
government are divided between different organs, no one of
which is supreme, it is inevitable that one or another will at
times overstep the limits of its sphere of action. It is
unavoidable that accusations will be made from this side or
that. These are questions of law to be decided by the proper
constituted authority. In the sphere of private law it is
axiomatic that neither of two disputants shall be judge in his
own cause. Similarly in the sphere of public law, where a
complicated system of government has been established to be
administered according to rule of law, it is necessary that
there should be a recognised authority that shall have power
to decide as to the legality or illegality of the actions of the
various parts of the government. In disputes that have
arisen during the past year, recourse has not been had to an
impartial judicial investigation and decision, but appeal has
been made to the passions of the people.
In short the attempt has been made to create a constitu-
tion for which China was not ready. The experiment has
been tried to institute methods of administration for which
the people were not prepared. A machinery of government
was created, but it has not been possible to create the men to
run the machine. China, or rather, a section of the Chinese,
has missed the lesson that might have been learned from
other nations and has run counter to the experience of a
world's political science. It was thought by some that by
the institution of the republic and the adoption of advanced
democratic ideas China had undergone a radical and sudden
transformation, and that "the essential qualities-of the
people had been completely changed and all its social and
political institutions regenerated." This probably exagger-
ates the position of the extreme radical party, but there is 110
doubt that a section of the Chinese and their foreign
admirers did think that the great and sudden change
was possible, and might be permanent. And yet the
experience of the past year is proof positive of the truth of
the foundation principle expressed by Herbert Spencer in
the words'* that human nature though indefinitely modifi-
able, can. be modified but slowly; and that all laws and
institutions and appliances which count on getting from it,


evolution, not revolution, necessary. 77
within a short time, results much better than present ones,
will inevitably fail." Readers of Mill will be familiar with
his insistence on the same principle, and if further testimony
be required, Mr. Woodrow Wilson, a practical statesman
as well as a writer of theoretical political science, in the
conclusion of his book The State writes, ''Whatever view
be taken in each particular case of the rightfulness or
advisability of state regulation or control, one rule there is
which may not be departed from under any circumstances,
and that is the rule of historical continuity. In politics
nothing radically novel may be safely attempted. No result
of value can ever be reached in politics except through slow
and gradual development, the careful adaptation and nice
modification of growth. Nothing may be done by leaps......
The method of political development is conservative adapta-
tion shaping old habits into new ones, modifying old means
to accomplish new-ends."
Students of history, of politics, of sociology with rare
unanimity teach that the principle of evolution, not revolution
is at the basis of political change. Revolution may mark
the change, but revolution is only finally successful when a
long course of preparation and slow evolution has brought
about conditions which are ready for the new thing. The
constitutional struggle of 1913, neglecting altogether the
question of which side is to blame, has again given demon-
stration of this singleness of human nature. The principles
that are shaping development in the East are being found to
he the same as those that have governed change in the West.
Professor Ross in his book, £The Changing Chinese' is wrong
when he says that the renaissance of a quarter of the
human family is occurring before our eyes and Ave have
only to sit in the parquet and watch the stage," for nowa-
days world processes are telescoped and history is made at
aviation speed." It is true that a renaissance is taking
place, but it is nevertheless the slow growth that has marked
the progress of civilisation and the development of politics
all the world over and for all time. Telescopy and aviation
are purely material sciences, but civilisation is not purely a
matter of physics. The progress of civilisation is a double
evolution. There is the evolution of the machine and there


78
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
is the evolution of the man for the machine. It may be true
that China need not evolve afresh the machinery of govern-
ment, but she has to produce the man and the character to
fit the instrument. She has not to invent the ideas of
representation, responsibility, cabinet government, presiden-
tial government and all the other shibboleths of political
sciences. Granted that she has a world's political emporium
to choose and pick from, it can not be forgotten that the
engine without the driver is nothing but useless matter.
Parliamentary and Cabinet government were slowly evolved
through a long thousand years of English history; popular
sovereignty is gradually working itself out into a practi-
cal method of administration in the rush and hurry of
American life; in little Switzerland there is a legislative
assembly governing by means of its own committee and
controlled by the direct will of the people. From monarchy
or republic there is a wide choice, and China's administration
is free to pick what it will. The machine is all ready made,
but China has to find her own men to drive the machine
when it has been put into position. It is the evolution of
the man that takes the time, and he cannot be borrowed from
other nations. The Cabinet was evolved in England during
many centuries and all the time the men evolved along with
it. Traditions were gradually formed, old habits slowly
changed into new ones. The snaillike modification of old
means to accomplish new ends found the snaillike modifica-
tion of human nature adapting itself to the new methods.
The reason for the breakdown of the Provisional Constitution
is to be found here. We need not blame either this party or
that individual. The attempt was made to deny a universal
law, and the complete fulfilment of the experiment failed.
An examination of some of the incidents of the past-
year will anord ample evidence of the applicability of the
above principle to the course of constitutional development
in China.
Parliament confessedly found itself unable to function.
It had not learned the way of conducting itself, nor had it
acquired the art of legislation. This was characteristic of
the provisional assembly and even more strikingly so of the
first parliament that met in April of 1913, During the last


THE RADICAL PARTY.
79
few months of the existence of the provisional assembly
there was rarely a quorum, so that it was not possible to
transact business. This may have been the fault of the
assembly itself, or it may have been the result of influences
brought to bear by the executive, but the fact remains. It is
an indication that the time was not ripe for legislation by a
representative assembly. It is significant that the only
important measure that was made law during these last
months was a bill for legalising the declaration of martial
law. It was surely the irony of nature's unchangeable law
that this gave the executive an instrument it wras able to use
with paralysing effect when occasion arose later. Parliament,
whose function it is to be a check on the action of the
executive, lent itseif to be the means of legally creating the
position from which the President was able to destroy
parliament altogether.
Parliament was elected during the first two months of the
year. It met at the beginning of April. A want of mutual
appreciation between the executive and the legislature was
apparent from the very beginning. The radical party was
stronger than any single party, though it was doubtful
whether it would command a majority in both houses. It
became obvious almost immediately that this party was
determined to thwart and check the President in all ways.
No doubt it was the opinion of the majority of the party, an
opinion honestly held, that unless parliament asserted itself
from the commencement, and claimed and exercised all the
powers given it under the provisional constitution, the
President would act more and more as a dictator and
supreme sovereign and much that had been gained by
successful revolution would be lost. This spirit was shown
at the formal opening. It was first proposed that the
President should open the parliament in person, but an
intimation was conveyed to him that in the opinion of the
radical section of the house he could only attend as a private
citizen. The president accordingly refrained from attending
though he sent a message of greeting and goodwill by his
chief secretary. This was received by the house though the
secretary himself was not permitted to read the message.
This of itself may seem to be merely a detail of procedure,


90 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
but it was an indication of the attitude that the houses were
to take up with regard to the executive.
The first- month was almost entirely taken up over
struggles for the speakerships. This was not unexpected nor
even unnatural. Parliament was a new thing; its members
were inexperienced and unversed in parliamentary proce-
dure, and critics might well be lenient while the new
institution was finding itself. But it becomes significant
when the real nature of the struggle is understood. It was
in effect a fight between the supporters of the parties that
would give the balance of power to the executive, and the
supporters of the party that would center the authority in
parliament itself. The radical party was definitely declaring
itself an enemy of strong executive government. Whether it
consciously realised that this was the position it was taking,
whether it deliberately adopted this policy of antagonisn, if
was the fact. The executive, on whom after all the actual
administration of business would fall, which by tradition,
experience and training had a clear conception what the
every day work of administration meant, and which was in
the position to realize its difficulties, and its dangers, could
not afford to risk the nation's welfare for the sake of
political theories. The executive was more than ever feeling
tlifc necessity of increasing its control and consolidating its
power, and hitherto it had not experienced from the side of
the legislative portion of the government any real assistance
in the imperative work of reconstruction. This antagonism
of the organs of government is no new thing in the ruling of
nations.
It is axiomatic in practical politics that for efficient
government, one ore:a n of the administration must take a
leading place. Divided authority of course exists in theory,
but practically it always happens that one of the partners
is predominant. Contest for supremacy between legislative
and executive authority has been world-wide, and it almost
invariably happens that one or the other rules. The evolution
of government has generally reached the parliamentary
stage, whether it be of the cabinet type as in England, or of
the presidential type as in The United States of America ;
yet in both types, with very few exceptions, of which


EXECUTIVE SUPREMACY, FUNDAMENTAL.
81
Switzerland, a country limited in population and area, is one,
efficiency, stability and popular liberty have been more
effectually attained where the executive has held the larger
share of authority. This is true for England where the
Cabinet not only administrates government affairs but
almost entirely initiates, directs and controls all important
legislation. In Germany it is avowedly so, and in the
United States, in spite of constitutional provision which
separated the legislature and the executive, making each
independent in its own sphere, a party machinery has grown
up outside the law and the constitution, which has brought
together the President and Congress and has given the
President an undoubted supremacy, conditions which the
framers of the constitution had sought to make impossible,-
but which nevertheless the national evolution of government
has rendered inevitable. It was a want of real statesman-
ship and a refusal to recognise fundamental principles that
are true because of their universality, which led the Kuo
Min-tang to run against axioms of political science. It
made a struggle to the end between the two interests unavoid-
able, a struggle which has resulted for a time at any rate, in
the complete and unchecked ascendancy of the executive.
There is no need to apportion blame to one side or the
other. That is not the aim of this chapter. But the
actual situation is another indication that not only the great
mass of the Chinese but even the educated portion of them
are not yet sufficiently prepared either in experience or
temperament to attempt the experiment of advanced parlia-
mentary government. National traditions and environment
are alien to the new method. A lack of experience and
a complete want of constitutional and parliamentary
traditions, which have been insisted on as being essential for
the efficient running of the parliament machine, foredoomed
disaster.
The events connected with the conclusion of the
reorganisation loan are further evidence of the premature
institution of advanced methods of constitutional govern-
ment. "Without touching on the necessity or otherwise of
borrowing, and without discussing the wisdom or otherwise
of the policy of dealing with a particular group of lenders
A-ll


82
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
supported by their respective governments, the antagonism
that was created by the loan controversy between the
executive and parliament is evidence, witli an interest
peculiarly its own, of the utter failure to recognise what
must be owed to constitutionalism.
The loan was signed on the twenty-seventh of April.
The result was an immediate outcry against what was said
to be the illegal action of the government in concluding a
loan without the express consent of parliament. The
government's position was shortly as follows. It claimed
that the act was legal; that it was in accordance with the
provisional constitution. Negotiations had been going on for
twelve months. Hie consent of the provisional assembly had
been given, and though the actual details of the present loan
differed in some respects from those of the loan that was
actually before the assembly Avhen it gave its consent, the
main principles were the same; the divergence was not
fundamental, but only a difference of detail which did not
take the matter out of the consent that had been already
given and which made the action of the government legal.
Parliament, though it admitted that a loan was necessary,
and that the attempt to look to domestic sources for
assistance had failed, accused the government of acting
illegally in that it had not obtained the consent of the
present parliament to the actual loan that was put through.
It maintained, further, that the consent of the assembly was
not given in a formal way; that it was nothing more than a
resolution, while it should have been agreed to in the shape
of a bill with all the formalities of three readings. It was
argued that the differences were not merely differences of
detail, but were sufficiently fundamental to demand a com-
plete reconsideration and a fresh decision by the permanent
parliament.
The question at issue was not one that could be easily
solved, and not to be solved by the heat and passion of party
contention. It was a question which for elucidation needed
the determination of a number of difficult points of law and
the finding of a number of disputed facts, a question to be
submitted to a learned and impartial court of justice.


OPPOSITION TO LOANS.
83
Modern complicated constitutions are incapable of function-
ing unless provision is made for the settling of such
questions; and more important still, a peaceful settlement
by legal procedure is impossible unless there is the environ-
ment that makes a proper solution possible. There was no
suggestion that this matter should be submitted to a legal
tribunal. The appeal that was made was one to the passions
of the people. The Speaker and Vice-Speaker of the Senate
circulated a telegram throughout the country with an
ex-parte statement of the matter in dispute and called to the
people to demand that the government should withdraw
from the position it had taken up. Manifestoes and pro-
clamations were issued by other leaders of the radical
party. It was a difficult question of law and fact, that
would have taxed all the learning and patience of a highly
trained legal mind removed from the heat of party politics
to unravel. The authors of these telegrams and manifestoes
constituted themselves judges in their own cause and laid
the issue directly before the people. But this is the very
thing for which a constitution and constitutional government
exist to prevent. Whether the leaders of the Kuo Min-tang
were conscious of it or not, their action was a direct
incentive to forcible action, an invitation and an incitement
to the people to rebel.
Of course their position is understandable, and in the
circumstances their action was natural. It is absurd to
argue that in the actual circumstances the matter should
have been submitted to a court of justice, and that both
parties should have unhesitatingly accepted a judicial
finding on the issue in question. It is not sufficient that
courts of law shall exist. It is not even sufficient that there
should be judges of high learning and of undoubted im-
partiality. These might or might not have been found. But
it is more necessary still that there should obtain an
environment such that disputants will naturally seek the
solution of controversies by properly constituted methods.
The appeal that was made, was made to a tribunal whose
arbitrament is the clash of arms and civil strife. This fact
is overwhelming proof that the environment has not yet
become sufficiently adapted to the establishment of an


84
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
advanced type of constitution. Constitutionalism in its
more developed characteristics claims a development of the
judiciary which by its traditions, its history and its present
actions commands the respect of a people trained and long
familiar with honest and fearless judicial administration.
The story of the reconstruction loan episode is another
illustration showing that China was not ready to govern her-
self according to the intensely democratic principles which
underlay the provisional constitution, and which must become
ingrained in the nature of the people before an efficient
government can be built upon so modern a foundation.
It is not difficult to realise what the radical party con-
sidered was at stake. There was an increasing tendency on
the part of the government to act without due consideration
for parliament. The impotence of the provisional assembly
in its later days, its clashes with the executive in encounters
over the question of executive responsibility, its opposition to
executive action which often brought the business of adminis-
tration to a standstill, had on the whole left the President in
an increasingly stronger and more stable position. Legisla-
tion that had been effected was rather legislation by presi-
dential order than the making of laws by act of parliament; it
was becoming more and more obvious that a predominant
position was being won by the President and that parliament
was falling behind in the race for power. Popular sympathy
was being gradually alienated from the so-called popular
party. The quarrels in the Houses over the election to speak-
erships, the state of internal anarchy, more especially in
the Senate, the stronghold of the Kuo Min-tang, that marked
the debates in connection with the reconstruction loan
throughout the month of May had brought parliament into
disrepute. The history of parliament since the revolution,
both that of the provisional assembly and that of the per-
manent parliament was one of impotence and ineffectual
accusation of the executive government. It was not doing
the immediate business that the country needed, and it was
waging a war for which the time was not yet ripe. It is not
the business of the writer to apportion blame. Granted that
the popular party was strong for principle and was prepared
to sacrifice immediate reconstruction and restoration of law


HOPES OF THE PEOPLE.
85
and order for the obtaining recognition of political princi-
ples; granted that the j)ownerlessness of parliament, dissension,
and the deplorable lack of dignity were fostered and encour-
aged by the government, the fact remains that parliament
was finding itself unable to assert its position; the normal
course of evolution of government was again being exem-
plified by the executive preserving its position of supremacy.
Popular opinion as shown in the native press/ while
recognising the failure of the present, has nevertheless been
generally optimistic. The conclusion of the revolution looked
forward with high expectation to the meeting of the pro-
visional assembly. The assembly met and proved itself
impotent and captious. With no less optimism, the coming
together of the permanent parliament was hailed as the end
of dissension and the promise of prosperity and coordinated
government. These hopes were again not realised; but the
public press still saw salvation in the adoption of the per-
manent constitution. The drafting and the determination
of the constitution was regarded as the first and greatest
duty to be performed by the new parliament. The realization
of the aims of the revolution was confidently looked for in
the carrying out of this duty, but here again expectation
outran performance.
The country had displayed considerable interest in the
permanent constitution prior to the meeting of the first
parliament. Towards the end of February a telegram was
sent to the government by the Tutuhs of nineteen provinces
insisting 011 the importance of organising a committee for
the drafting of a constitution to be submitted to parliament
for its consideration and acceptance. They urged that a
committee should be formed for this purpose, representative
not only of parliament itself but of the different interests of
the nation. They advised that parliament should appoint
members, that the government should appoint its delegates,
and that the tutuhs and provincial councils should also send
their nominees. A bill was submitted to the provisional
assembly by the government, but its right to do so was
immediately challenged by the Kuo Min-tang. The bill was
summarily rejected. Although the provisional constitution
contained no provisions as to the drafting of a constitution,


86
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
the Regulations for the organisation of a National Parlia-
ment, promulgated on August 10, 1912, contained the
following article, The drafting of the Constitution of the
Republic shall be undertaken by a committee composed of
equal numbers of members elected from each chamber.''1 The
provisional assembly was doubtless within its rights in its
rejection of the Government's bill, but it showed a misunder-
standing of the tendency of events by thus contemptuously
dismissing the assistance which might have been availed of.
Parliament towards the end of June elected a committee
composed of members drawn equally from the two Houses,
which continued in session from July to October when it
concluded its work on the draft constitution. The committee
was radical in character though it included members of all the
more important parties. It interpreted its mandate narrowly
and was unwilling to receive suggestions from any but its own
members. Its debates were marked by dignity of behaviour.
Its members showed a theoretical acquaintance with the
principles and detail of modern constitutions, but from the
po'nt of view of what was required for the actual needs
of the state and its present conditions, it was wanting in
experience and displayed a lack of practical statesmanship.
The same month in which the committee commenced its sittings
saw the outbreak of actual hostilities in the Yangtze valley.
There was the need of strong government to force on the coun-
try the quiet which was called for by the masses of the people.
The course of the rebellion declared itself early in favour of
the constituted authority; nor did it have the popular support
that was given to the revolution of two years ago. The
insurrection was doomed to failure. Whether up to this
time, parliament had been given a fair chance or not, the fact
was that the President's power was growing and was being
accepted by the country at large. It would have been a more
statesmanlike action to have accepted the situation and
recognised that for the time at any rate, a strong executive
was needed, if not altogether unfettered, at least with a
considerable degree of independence and freedom of action.
The continued existence of parliament and parliamentary
government were hanging in the balance. The committee
may not have realised that the situation was thus critical,


parliament and the president.
87
and yet the closing months of the year were to see the
executive willing and in fact conducting the whole of the
affairs of government without the advice and the consent of
the parliament. Those who demand the responsibility of
governing the state will be condemned if they fail to appreci-
ate the conditions under which they are acting, and by
attempting the impossible fail to achieve what might other-
wise have been possible.
The constitution as drafted by the committee contained
radical provisions which experience under the provisional
constitution luid shown were not applicable in practice.
The new plan of government was even more unfitted to the
conditions of the people, nor did it recognise the traditions
of the nation. It contained article after article fettering the
action of the executive and reducing the President to the
level of a mere minister to carry out mandates of the legisla-
tive body or its committee which would be in session when
Parliament was not sitting. Where the provisional constitu-
tion had been wanting a machinery to compel the executive to
act according to the will of the legislature, provision was
made in the new constitution to control and drive both
President and ministers; while from the President's side his
control over parliament was cut down to a very limited
power of adjournment and dismissal, the latter only to be
exercised with the consent of a large majority of one of the
chambers. The Prime Minister could only be appointed with
the consent of the lower house, while the members of the
cabinet, through whom alone the acts of the President would
be operative were liable to be removed on a vote of want of
confidence. Without going into details, for only the clauses
relating to presidential elections have been made into law,
the draft constitution frankly made parliament supreme,
gave the executive practically no legislative authority and
even in administration hedged the President round with
almost every kind of constitutional limitation.
No attention was paid to the opinion of the President
himself. He sent delegates to present his views for the
consideration of the committee, but they were refused a
hearing. The President after two years' experience of the
difficulties of carrying on the administration of the country


88
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
under the conditions of the Provisional Constitution, was
in a position to appreciate, more fully than any other
could, what were the real needs of the moment and
what would make for efficiency in the future. His advice
was not only unsought, it was disdainfully refused a hearing.
Had the committee prepared an instrument which recognised
that the time wras not ripe for a radical and democratic
system of government, had it foreseen the necessity of
proceeding by cautious steps, accepting the fact that change
comes about by slow adaptation of old methods to changing
conditions, had there been an attempt to provide for present
needs instead of endeavouring to determine at the moment,
and finally, a form of government that would need decades
of training and education to make practicable, it is possible
that its experiment might have achieved a measure of success.
In the circumstances, the action of the committee in present-
ing the constitution it did, was the flinging down of the
last defiance, an act which brought a response that cleared the
arena of one of the antagonists.
The struggle between the executive and the parliament
had now reached its last stage. It is only possible to
refer very shortly to the rebellion that broke out in July.
The Tutuh of Kiangsi, early in the year, showed himself an
open enemy of the policy which was consolidating the nation's
power in the central executive. In February the President,
pursuing his policy of centralisation appointed a civil
administrator for the province of Kiangsi. This was resented
by the Tutuh who refused to recognise the new official. For
the time being he was successful in retaining for himself an
undivided authority. He was prepared to resist Peking
authority by force of arms. The central government did
not press matters until May, but in that month the President
decided to assert his power once more. In quick succession
mandates were issued cashiering the Tutuhs of Kiangsi and
Anhwei, and removing the Tutuh of Canton to another place.
These provinces were the strongholds of opposition to the Pre-
sident's policy. Huang Using, another leader of the radical
party, was also impeached. It was obvious to the leaders of the
opposition party in the country, that, if they were to make
any headway against the growing authority of the President,


THE REBELLION.
89
they must act immediately and. with force. It was determin-
ed forthwith to raise the standard of revolt. A succession
of plots was discovered and suppressed in "Wuchang and
its neighbourhood by the vigorous action of Li Yuan-hung
whose unswerving loyalty to the central government
throughout the storm that now broke out was the chief
factor in preventing a complete break between the North and
the South. Kiangsi, Kiangsu, Anliwei and Kwangtung were
quickly in open revolt, and the chief leaders of the Kuo
Min-tang put themselves in charge of the rebellion. It was
feared that other of the provinces south of the Yangtze
would throw in their lot with the rebels, but though great
efforts were made to draw Fukien and Chekiang into the
turmoil, and Ilunan was more than once on the point of
going over, their neutrality was maintained. If it had not
been apparent from an early stage in the campaign that the
rebels had little chance of success, it is hardly possible that
these provinces would not have been drawn into the revolt.
The leaders at the outset declared that their object was
nothing more than the formation of a punitive expedition
for the coercion of Yuan Shih-kai, whom they declared to
be a traitor to the republic as founded on the provisional
constitution. At a later date they went further, and declar-
ed the independence of the South and drew up a plan of
independent government for the southern provinces. The
past history of some of those who were to hold high position
in this new republic, their relations with the former Manchu
rule, their traditions and their training helped to stultify
this movement. It is impossible to regard it as a movement
inspired solely by republican and democratic sentiment.
There can be little doubt that ^it was the last throw of
desperate men whose personal ambitions were understood
and whose designs were being thwarted by the increased
chances of success of the jjolicy of Yuan Shih-kai.
The insurrection failed, with the immediate result that
the chief leaders of the Kuo Min-tang were openly declared
traitors to the republic. The party as a whole was not yet
implicated, though many of its members of parliament had
left Peking, while others were arrested on suspicion of
complicity with the rebel leaders.
A-I2


90
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
The importance of the rebellion from a constitutional
point of view lies in the fact that it afforded the President
some measure of legality for liis stringent action during the
closing months of the year, and the first month of the year
1914. We have seen what was the character of the draft
constitution that had been prepared by the parliamentary
committee, and the response that was given to the President's
attempt to have it modified. The President, thwarted in this
direction, appealed to the Tutuhs and other high provincial
officials requesting their opinions. The result was a flood of
telegrams from the provinces denouncing the draft constitu-
tion, and in many cases demanding the dissolution of parlia-
ment and even the arrest of the Kuo Min-tang members.
It may be remarked incidentally that the telegraph has been
used for political purposes from the beginning of the revolu-
tion. Both sides in the controversy have sought support from
the country by the means of advisory telegrams. This use
of the telegraph would form an interesting comparison with
the earlier use of memorials under the rule of former
dynasties. The telegraph wire has served a useful end in
that it has undoubtedly strengthened the hands of one or the
other party by concentrating at a critical time and giving
expression to the only articulate opinion of the nation at
large. Whether the advice tendered has always been
spontaneous or inspired is of little moment, its practical
effect has been considerable. The flood of telegrams show-
ed the President that the time to act had come. On
November 4 three mandates were issued ordering the
immediate dissolution of the Kuo Min-tang throughout the
country. They contained a summary of the documentary
evidence that had come to light tending to prove that the
radical party was a seditious organisation and justifying
the President in removing from parliament all its members.
The immediate effect of these mandates was to unseat more
than half of the members of parliament, thus depriving it of
its necessary quorun for the transaction of business. It
meant that p lrliament, before it could again move, must wait
the further action of the President who at a stroke had placed
himself unchallenged at the head of the State. The practical
justification of the President's action was shown by the fact


Full Text

PAGE 1

TEI:E CHINi \ ~1ISSION YEAR BOOK EDITED BY Rev. D. MacOILLIVRAV, M.A. D.D. A Co(!lpanion Volume," Survey of the M i ssionary Occupation of China" By Thos, Cochrane, M.13., C.M. Also an Atl a s THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY FOR CHINA SHANGHAI 1914

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THE YEAR BOOK IS SOLD : ln Grc1tt Tirit ain by '!'h e Religion, Tract Sociulr, St. Paul', Churc h n \r
PAGE 3

PREFACE 'l'he Christian Literature Society again returns thanks to all who have contributed to the contents of the Chinn :Mission Y rar Book for 1914. The number of topics to he l1andled is not likely to diminish, and the foudency of the hook to become over-grown and unwieldy has all along lwen st:Padily resisted. In @y event it w11s never intended to treat of every topic every year. Of course some subjects of outstanding importance and perennial interest must always Jind a place, but other subjects are to be found scattered over the previous Year Books where they can be looked np hy tl1ose who wish. The following among other topics were described in the Year Book of 1913 and are omitted in this volume: Christian End ea von r. 'rhe Door of Hope. Sd1ool for the deaf at Chefco The Tsinanfu Jiist.itnte of t.he B.M S. The Int.ernatioual lllstit.11te. Work among Foreigners in Chinn. Work of the Y.W.C.A I.eadi11g Colleges of China. We liave been compelled to reluctantly omit the follow ing articles, and also some of the nsnal appendices from lack of space. They may be used next year. Our npologies are due to the writers. Industrial Education. 'rhe Chinese woman Doctor, by Dr. Tsao. Some aspects of Literary Work, by DI'. Speicher. \Vork for tlie unlettered masses, by Professor Tung. Mission Presses in Chi11a, by C M. Meyers. Among the women of Peking, by Mrs Ame>nt. Chinese Students' OrganisatioJis Abrond, by David T. Yni. Chinese Christian Publications. W r have the following promises for next yenr :The Jubilee Year of the China Jnln11d l\Iission. Snccessful Village Missions, English, Americnn and German. Work among Chinese Abroad. Snrvey of the Chinese Seculnr Press.

PAGE 4

n In the Statistical Table an attempt has been made to make it more complete, aud also to classify the returns according to the Report of the Committee ou Missionary Statistics to the Edinburgh Continuation Committee at its meeting at The Hague, November, 1913. (Sec Notes on Statistics, following the Directory). Many thanks are due to the Secretary of the China Continuation Committee for very valuable suggestions in regard to the arrangement and classification of these Statistics and also for the instructiYe diagrams based on these figures. It is hoped that this may serve as the beginning of more uniformity ,:n
PAGE 5

PREFACE Chapter CONTENTS I. (jENERAL SURVEY. Rev. A. H. Smith, D.I>. II. REL!(ilOUS ASPECT OF AFFAIRS AND THE CHURCH IN CHINA. Bishop J. W. Bashford. 1. Confucianism ................................ > Buclllllis1r1 ...................................... :1. Christianity ................................... -!. Uhristian Edncation ....................... t,. Christian Federation ......... ........... Ill. THE CONFUCIAN REVIVAL. Rev. H .K. Wright. IV. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE 30 H~a7 3n 58 REPUBLIC. Professor L.R.O. Bern11 7 : ; V. GOVERNMENT CHANOES. W. Sheldon Wdge n-t VI. NANKING. THE REBELLION ANO THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. Uev. P. F. Price 110 VII. WHAT -ELEMENTS IN THE OOSPEL POSSESS THE GREATEST POWER OF APPEAL TO THE CHINESE. Rev. U. H. Fenn 1 Hi VIII. EVANGELISTIC WORK 12i 1. The Need ..................... D. E. Hu~te l:!, :!. A ,Journey in Tibet, A. L. Shelton l:!8 ;;. Tent Work in and About Pochow, H.e1. W JJ. Bostick WO -!. Pro~pects of Eva~elistic Work iu Fnkien ............ Rt. Rev. Bishop Price 133 i'i. Preacl1ing iu Peking Rev. W. T Hobart .137 li Hsunhsien Fair, Honan Hev. W. H. l:irnnt 138 :::lrn11tn11g City-Eva11gelization Rev. H. i\I. :Mateer 14 L

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11 Chapter 8. Some Methods, l{esultti, anti Problems i11 Connection with Specia\. Meetings for Stntlents,Dr. W. E. Taylor \1. The Lecture Departme11t of the National Department of the Y l\LC.A. of China ...... ...... Prof. C. H Robertson 10. Resolutions re New Policy in Using Bvangelists .................... .... .............. lL '.l'o Lea
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Chapter CU~TBNTS, ,-,. \\omen's Work in ?llam.:huria Mrs. l\Iiskelly 4. what Chinese Wo111e n Ha1 e Doue and are Doi11g for China Miss Mary Stone XIII. WORK FOR. THE CHILDREN ................. I i',\nmlav Scl1ool .................. .. ... ...... .. 2. Orphn1111ge Work in China J. W. BoYy c r XIV. THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE CHINESE CH UR.CH ......... .. ................. .. I A Chinese \'iew, Prof. Cllen Kiu-ynng ::!. The l 11<. lepende11t Cllllrcl1 in Ping-yna11 .................. He\' .. A. B. De 1-:1.aan ::. Propose,! Constitution of a Chiuese Cht1rcl1. ............ Hev. W. ;J. Drum111011d 4. 'l'h e Independent Chnrch in other Provinces ...................................... .. XV. FIFTY YEARS OF CHUR.CH ORGANIZA TION IN SOUTH FUKIEN R.e1. A. L \Varnshnis XVI. THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT IN CHINA ........................................... 1. The Chiue~e 0hnrc11 and Social 8er-vic e ... ..... .. ..... ............. Dr. Y. Y 'rsu 2. Con(ereure 011 the Social Application of Christiauity ......... ReY, E. H. Cressy 3. The 8nrvey Idea as :ipplied to l\Iititiiun vVork ................ Rev. Alex. Miller 4 The Place of Woman in Social 8 er-vice ... ... ............... Miss Ying l\iei Chun 5. 8ocial Service i u Chnchow, Auhwei E. I. Osgood, lvI.D. U. The Peking Stmlents' f:locial Sclrvice Club ................. ... .. ......................... .. XVII. PROGRESS OF SOCIAL REFORMS ...... 1. The Opium Campaign ...... The Editor 2. "Cps and Dowus uf ?l[ornl Reform iu Canton ...... .................. Rev. A. Baxter XVIII. WORK AMONG THE BLIND OF CHINA. G. B. Frve1 A Union 8ystern of Braille for Chmese Blind ......... .. ................................. 111 239 24u 246 2-l\l 261 2ti5 2,0 281 28ii 28, 2-:i\J 203 301 301 ;J07 312 3211

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iv t:O"''l'EN1':;, Chapter XIX. MEDICAL WORK ...... ........ ............... ..... 2\nm ber of Students ........ ,l. B. Neal, :M.D. ,rest China l;nion J\It>. Hangchow a nd lJnion, D. D. :Main, lvl.D. J\[edical Policy ... ............... Dr. Cochrnne Oo-operatio11 with the Chinese Dr. I'. J. Todd l'nhlication Committee's W0rk .. .......... .. New l:nio11 :"c!ien1e in Chekiang, Kiangsn and Peking ... .. .............................. l" nion i\Iedical College for Women ...... .. The Nnrses' Association of China ........ Post-Mortem Exami11ation ................ .. Cliine,e or English ................... ......... Pnhlic Health Sen-ice for Chiua ........... Medical Education Dr. 'Nn s J\fomornndum Medical Research in China H. E Eggers, i\LD. XX. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MISSION HELD ............ .... Rev. C E. Patton XXI. CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION I. Semi-Jubilee Report, Rev. J. Menzies ;;. S11ggcst11d Chauges in :Method of Employing Evaugelists .. Rev. J. Griffith XXII. THE WORK OF G .ERMAN MISSIONS IN ClilNA ........ Rev. C ,T. Yoskamp I. The Basel iviission ...... .................... > I~.henish Mission ...... ... ......... ... .... :L Liebenzeller :i\1:issiou ....................... -1. 'l'he Kieler China Mission .. ...... ... .. ; ,. '.rhe Pilgermission .......................... Ii. Mission for tl1e Blind .............. ... .... Ventsche China Allianz Mission ..... 8 Berliner Missionsgesellscliaft ....... 9 Weimar Mission ......... ... .. ......... ... XXIII. THE WORK OF THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION IN CHINA The Right Rev. Bisliop Graves XXIV. THE WORK OF THE PROTESTANT MISSIONS IN SHANSI. Uev. Paul L. Corbin P.,,:i-: :;;JI 338 33!J ,)39 ll H ili~ l :JiH :J7H H82 ::s2 i -~83 ;;8,1 :1su 392 ;;, L nn.t 40-!

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CO'.\'l'l :NTS Chapter XXV. MISSIONARY OCCUPATION OF MAN CHURIA: MEN 'S WORK. Rev. A. Weir, l\f.A XXVI. SCAN DINA VIAN MISSIONS IN CHINA Profe8sor C. Htokst ad Union \York ... ............ .......................... Pinnish Missionary Society ..... ............ :Norwegian Lutheran lUission .............. The Norwegi a n Mission in China ..... .... The Norwegi a n Missionary Society ........ The Swedish Holiness Mission .. ... .. Swedish Missionary Society .. ......... ... American Lutheran Mission ................. The J .. u gnstana S y nod Mission .... ......... .. Haug:e's Synod : Mission ...... ... ..... ........ The Lutheran Brethren Mission ........ ... The Lutheran S y nod i\Iission .. .. ......... Scandinavian Alliance Mission ........... The Swedish American l\Iissionary Co-v enant ... .. .. ... ..... .............. ............ XXVII. CHRISTIAN LITERATURE ........... ...... 1. The Christian Literature Society for China ... .. .......... Rev. W. II. Rees The Work of the Trac t 8o c iet.ies U e v .r. Darroch .. ... Experiences of a Translator 4 Bible Translation and Rev. A. Nage l Revision Rev. G. H. Bondfieltl :). British anti Foreign Bible Sol'iety Rev. G. H. Bondfield r.. The American Bible Soci ety ... .. . 7. National Bibl e Society of Scotland .. 8 Scripture Commentaries in Chinese, 9 Rev. G .. \. Clayt o n Tlw Chinl)se Recorder Rev. F. Rawlinsun XXVIII. THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS Of CHINA IN 1913. F. 8. Brockman. XXIX. THE EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHINA. Hev. F. D. Gamewell. xxx. THE FIRST YEAR OF THE CHINA CONTJNUATIO~ COMMITTEE R e v E. C. Lob e nst.in e 4 2 9 430 4:1 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 4;\;J 435 4,l5 4 3 G 4il8 -1:lfl 4:in 440 441 H:\ 44r 4A!I 4;J;J 45, i 457 460 41\2 468 v P I G E 4 lfl 429 -w: 4i2 478 484

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vi CONTENTS. Chapter XXXL LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND CLASSES 'IV. B Pettns. XXXII. RECENT ADVANCES IN SINOLOOY. Rev. S Con ling. XXXIII. HOW TWO GREAT LEGACIES HELP PAFE 4!l9 CHINA ....... .................. ..... .. ..... :-:iOi 1. The Artl1i11gton BeCJnest... ... ... ... ... iiOi 2. Tiie Kennedy Bequest.............. ... ,ill XXXIV. ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA ......................................... APPENDICES I. List of Important Events IT. Missionary Officials III. Obitnnries. Directory StatisticR Jn,lex fili

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CHAPTER I GENERAL SURVEY By Rev. A. H. Smith, D.D. CI-IINESE History, perhaps more than any other in the world, seems to the Occidental observer to bf: nearly or quite indistinguishable from a theatrical play. Especially has this been the case within the twenty years which have elapsed since the war between China and Japan. In a nonchalant manner China comes upon the stage for this epoch-mDking c o11flid for which no preparation had been made There is the deadly defeat in Korea, the pictorial flight from Port Arthur, the peace adjustment in Ja pan, the astonishment and exasperation of the People of China when the news slo.vly filtered down among them; the spectacular Reform Decrees of the Emperor Kuang Hsii, his sudden extinction by his imperious Aunt, the Empress Downger; the rapid incubation of the Boxer insanity, its sickiy spring flowers and its acrid summer fruit; the dramatic Siege of the Legation, "China Against the World," the Helief Expeditions, the flight of the Court to distant Sianfu in bitterness and in sorrow and-eighteen months later-its imposing return with a renewed and more decisive lease of power. Swiftly pass the few succeeding years, until November 1908 when the Emperor officially died on the 14th, and the Empress Dowager (by prearrangement) on the 15th, leaving presumptive chaos. But nothing happened 'l'he Prince Regent was regent for his own little son, the Court went on as before, and China entered upon a Lagoon of Peace. But in Octob~r 1911 came the Revolution, and on the next February 12th, presto, we have a newly ma nufactured Repnblic all ready for lmsiness. Seeing this the "Throne" pleasantly abdicated, and the Revolution ceased revolving. Comedy and tragedy upon a continental stage, with the World as spectators and many of them as partici pants. A-1

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2 GENERAL SURVEY. The present cursory review of the ye a r must for convenience begin with the assembling of the National Parliament April Sth, 1913, a body long anticipated as the Balm for each and all of China's woes, now that representa tive institutions were firmly established in the Flowery Land. It is seldom that a deliberative body meets from which so much is hoped and with such apparent re a son. The Provincial Councils of l 909, and the National Assembly of 1910 had displayed on the part of the participants however casually chosen and however little qualified by experience, an unanticipated c a pacity for cautious attention, for biding their time, for prudent and cogent interroga tion of the government officials, and also for co-opelation with one another. All of that was under "the former l\J anchu dynasty," this first Parliamentary meeting was under a Republic," where "equality" was a presuppositio11, and at a time when the actual domination of China by means of a Constitution which a large Committee of Parliament was to form appe ared a n obje c t of certain and of comparatively easy attainment Upon a calm review of its sessions by an impartial outsider several prominent features attract attention. First its unwieldy size. A Senate of 300 members, more or less, and a House more than twice as numerous would under almost any imaginable conditions have rendered effective work impossible. Second, its irrational rules, requiring a majority for a quorum. (The British House of Commons which gets through w ith a good deal of business first and last, requires but forty members in attendance). 'l'hus, to block any measure nothing was required but to withdraw in consider,1ble numbers from the chamber, a plan daily adopted hy each clique in turn, thus making nearly every session a stalemate Third, an apparently complete indiffer ence to the growing Chinese public sentiment This sentiment demanded energy and intelligent zeal such, for example, as the National Assembly had showed in the winter of 1910. Instead of this, weeks were wasted in electing officers, and after that months more in barren and acrimonious wrangling Fourth, party spirit raised to the nth power. 'l'he Parliament was divided into impractical.Jle cabals

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THE NATIONAL PARLIAMENT. 3 termed by courtesy "parties," but which were virtually secret societies dominated by the personality of some man or group, without definite principles of action, without a back ground of anything a<'tually accomplished, without visible bond of union other than that of elass interest and an inflexible determination to break up a session rather than allow an advantage to any other faction F'ifth, inordinate suspicion of one another and oJ' the President 'l'his constantly led to scenes alike unexpected and ridiculous. Members not only attacked one another on the floor of each house with angry and vituperative lauguage, some times standing trembli11g with excitement yet speechless with rage, and again seizing the brass inkpots of their desks and hurling them as practically unanswerc1ble arguments, so that time after time the sessions ended in confusion and riot. Lastly, the Parliament was undeniably dominated by a spirit of greed The members voted themselves salaries and allowances on a scale unheard of, amounting to many times their probable earning power in any other capacityor incapacity. Amid all the talk of patriotism this indispu table worship of filthy lucre probably did more to alienate popular sympathy tha n anything else. The Committee appointed to draw up the constitution paid little or no attention to precedents, or to Advisers invited by the President from the ends of the earth. It was not advice which they wanted, but an instrument which would tie up the President so that the Parliament should bear rnle, and not the Chief Magistrate. When he sent eight deleg,1tes to the Committee to represent his views, they were ejected without ceremony, thus showing His Excellency that the Committee could make a Constitution without his 1:1ssistance. In due time he afforded them the same proof that he w:::s able to conduct the government without theirs. The signature of the agreement for the Loan of twenty-five million pounds borrowed from the Quintuple Synclirate (from which tile United States had already retired) in face of the opposition of Parliament and in spite of the declaration of prominent members I ike l\fr. C. T. Wang, Vice-Speaker of the Senate, that this meant War, vl'D.S naturally regarded ns a defiance of Parliftment by the

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4 GENERAL SURVEY. President, who understood much better than his critics how necessary it was to obtain funds to administer the govern ment, and how hopeless it was to expect anything from that body. The assassination i.a l\Iarch at a r,1il way station in Shanghai of Mr. Sung Chiao-jen, the young Hunanese leader of the Kuo Min Tang had thrown much of China into a condition of dangerous political excitement almost amounting to frenzy. Nothing would convince those who wished it to be true that the government had not instigated or even ordered this crime, and doubtless this belief still remains and will remain, although so far as is generally known there is nothing in Javor of this theory which a Western Court would admit as evidence The Kuo Ming Tang was itself a coalition of different elements, all of them bitterly dissatisfied with Yuan as Prr.sident. In central China the more rr,dical wing led by Huang Hsing, Chen Chi-mei and others, planned for an uprising announced as a "Ser;ond Revolution,'' whieh was elaborately organized and equipped throughout the Yangtze valley by the misappropriation of public funds to be used in this "PunitiYe Expedition.'' In giving this movement his cordial support Dr. Sun Wen was most frank, asserting that at the first show of force Yuan's power v,ould collapse like a house of cards Without waiting, however, to take any personal part in the impending renovation of China., Dr. Sun suddenly sailed for Ja pan where he has since been living in a more or less impenetrable obscurity. What was confidently expected was that upon the delivery of this deadly attack the Pro visional President would be put out of business Things had been going awry for some months. The President cashiered Li Lieh-chun, the Tutuh of Kiangsi, Pa Wen-yu the Tutuh of Anhwei, whileHuHan-mingofKwangtung was "promoted'' to be Frontier Commissioner of 'Jibe1. This was au accept ance of the gage of battle and was so regarded. The actual rebellion, like the Revolution of 1911, broke out at Wucbang toward the end of June, soon involving practically all the province::, of the Yangtze valley, the capture of Nanking (for the fourth time within 60 years) and the loss of a. very great number of lives. '.i'o recapitulate even in the merest outline this "Revolution"-marked as a Rebellion by its

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THE SECOND REVOLUTION. 5 complete failure in August-would occupy all onr space and ,vould be of little permanent interest. 'l'he insurgents counselling with their hot passions rather than with their cooler j L1dgment, neglected to take account of the essential fact that the President is himself a military man of long experience and great skill; that the military Vice-President was able, energetic and srrgacious; that the Government controlled all the lines of communication by land, by river, and by sea, with the doubtful exception of some gunboats and the Shanghai Arsenal; and that it was provided with men and money adequate to its needs. It was from the start more or less perfectly informed as to every move of the rebels, and could choose its time to strike Moreover, the Government proved to have upon its side two inesistible allies with which the revolutionary leaders had not reckoned, the unwillingness of the merchant class, who wanted rest and not riot, to furnish the necessary funds for war expenses; and also the equally emphatic refusal of the Consular and the .Municipal authorities in Shanghai to allow the International Settlement to he misused as a basis of attack upon China. The telegraph lines were defended from rebel seizure, a waspish Shanghai journal printed in English called the" China Republican," devoted to attacking the President and the government, was suppressed and its editor deported. Those who are familiar with the outlines of Chinese history know how great a part of it consists of insurrections and bloody wars. Notwithstanding the frightful expenditure of human life in this rebellion, the horrible sufferings of pillaged and repillaged Naukiug, the worst experiences of 1913 certainly bear no comparison to those which marked the downfall of the Mings and the advent of the Ch'ings. Several groups of foreigners were eaught in the vicious swirl of the revolutionary eddies, and much mission work was hindered, or stopped altogether The rebellion was snuffed ont. Had it succeeded it would probably have been tantamount to the "Mexicm1ization" of China. Whenever a president had enemies, whieh would al ways happen, they would merely have to l e ad a "Punitive Expedition" to demonstrate the '' uncoustitutional'' nature of his rule, and their own obvious fitness to

PAGE 16

6 GENERAL SUHVEY. supersede him 'l'he outcome of the rebellion was the loss of great numbers of lives, the extinction of an untold amount of fixed capital in devastated cities, towns, aud villages, banks looted, merchandise plundered, crops destroyed, and in general theoughout a wide region an impartial dissemina tion of wreck and ruin. But after it all the central government wns obviously much stronger than at the beginning, and the prospect of a stable authority by so much more secure. In this connection must be mentioned the name of the dark and bal e ful shadow which has once again been thrown a c l'oss the face of China, its Evil Genius, Ch ang Hsiin with headquarters at Siichowfu, in northern Kiangsn a11d in command of a large force, lte controlled the commu11ic ations bet" een Tientsin and the Yangtze. The people did not feel sure of his loyalty to Yuan Shih kai, or inde ed to any one but himself. His troops, too, were justly objects of suspicion. Perhaps his course may have been a source of anxiety to the President himself, who, however, placed him in command of the army to capture Nanking, the city from which lte bee n obliged ignominiously to fly in the spring of 1912 That_ Gen. Chang should have allowed his soldiers tluee days of unchecked looting and ravishing in Nanking .is a standing disgrace not to himself and to his soldiers only, but to the President and to China-a country just entering the sisterhood of Nations as a Republic 1i'or months iater the presence of this bird of ill omen in Nanking as Governor, was a canse of terror to the city, to the great province of which it is the capital, and of unrest to a large part of China. .At length Gen. Chang was "promoted" to a post which he never took. He then sullenly retired to his former quarters at Si"ichowfn, perhaps at some futur0 crisis again to emerge to work further devastation. The career of sueh a man is to be studied as an aid to comprehending the iuherent difliculties of governing a country in the' stage of evolution of Chiua During the progress of the rebellion it was well known that many members of the Parliament were not only in complete sympathy with the object of the insurrection and expecting its sueeess, but were actually in communication with the insurgents.

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INAUGURATION OF 'fHE PRESIDENT. 7 On the 27th of August, five senators and three members of the Lower House were arrested, perhaps as a caution to the remainder. On the 6th of October the country received with relief the intelligence that Provisional President Yuan had been elected permanent President hy 507 votes out of 733 cast, out of a combined total of 868 members of both houses. Li Yuan-hung was chosen Vice-President by a still larger majority. The Kuo l\iin 'fang was unable to put forth a candidate of their own, and many of them must have voted, however reluctantly, for Yuau as a mere choice of evils. The foreign powers promptly availed themselves of this opportunity to recognize the Republic, which had already been done (l\Iay 2nd) by the United States, and in April by Brazil and l\lexico. Towards the end of October the Com mittee engaged in drafting the new Constitution produced a document, the obvious intention of which was to make the President subordinate to the Parliament, a Lody which had produced no other evidence of its ability to govern China, than ( as the President shrewdly remarked) its complete incapacity to govern itself -The inauguration of the President ( the Vice-President being still in command ut Wuchang) took plac e with great ceremony on October lOth, the anniversary of the revolution against the Manclms two years before, but the general public, Chinese and foreign, were carefully excluded; and something of a gloom was thrown over the proceedings by the discovery at the last moment of a plot under the lead of a police officer of rank to assassinate the President. Barly in April, just before the assembling of Parlia ment, Yuan hnd moved his headquarters within the F'orbiclden City, and in that fo1tifiecl fastness he has ever siuce dwelt. But were he to leave its seclusion even for a.n hour, there is great reason to fear that his Ii fe might be the forfeit It should be remarked in passing, that the difficulty of governing Oriental lands ( under whatever form of administration) seems distinctly on the increase by reason of the greater facilities for mischief through the multiplication of easily concealed aud deadly explosives, of a vicious public sentiment approving of such murders, and the general popularity of the dare-to-die fanaticism. 'I'he historian Froude mentions that at a certain crisis the face

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8 GENERAL SURVEY, of politics in Western Europe w~s changed by 3: pistol shot from behind a hedge. Such a distance has Cluna already travelled since December 1905 when the abortive attempt was made to blow up the Imperial Constitutional Commissioners on their leaving Peking that it is at present quite possible that the liberation of the chemical forces imprisoned within one tiny bomb might reduce China to a wild welter of chaos. On the ,1th of November, not only Pekiug, but all China, and indeed the World was electrified by the issue of an extcmled presidential l\Iandate summarily dissolving the Kuo Min Tang, on the ground (amply sustained by incriminating telegrams incorporated in the order) of the treasonable complicity of its leaders in the late rebellion. Its members were incapacitated for acting as officials of any sort, and for membership in the National Parliament, which, by the lack of a quorum, was thus reduced to non-existence. F'or this far reaching and drastic Mandate it was understood that the President himself, as distinguished from his Cabinet, was responsible. It was at once greeted with shouts of "unconstitutional,'' by those whose respect for the provisional Constitution had always been a minus quantity. But it was everywhere perceived that if China is to be saved at all, somebody must do it, and that someone must be the President, for there was no one else in sight-or out of sight. The world at large appeared to agree with Dr. Ariga of ,Ja pan that whatever the crude Provisional Constitution might have said or left unsaid, the President's action was justified by the necessity of seeing that the Republic received no detri meut. Altogether irrespective, moreover, of constitutional phrases was the obvious fact that whether he had or had not a technical "right" to dissolve a political party, he had done so. He was the power and he had exercised it. Ii'rom .that time to the present the 11nmerous parties into which the noisy politicians were or late divided have disappeared like a swarm of mosquitoes after a heavy frost. They are not dead, but dormant, and when the climate is more genial will appear with augmented virulence For months it was confidently expected that some other kind of a National Legislature would be summoned to fill the aching void left

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THE ~ABINE'f OR THE PRESIDlcN'ffAL SYSTEM. 9 by Parliament. Instead of this, however, as an intermediate step there was appointed a Political Council of seventy or eighty members, representing merely the government. This body had advisory functions only, and began its sessions December 29th, discussing with great deliberation a wide variety of topics. In these months everything has been sent to the melting-pot. The Cabinet system is pitted against the "Presidential system,'' and is found to be unsuited to China. 'rhe plan of inquiry adopted is a replica of that of the Grand Empress Dowager under "the late Jfanchus." Orders were issued, for example, to the Politieal Council that the two systems just mentioned should be a nalyzed as to their feasibility. Then follows the discussion in the Conncil. They at length decide that upon the whole the Presidential system seems the better (for ,,ssigned reasons) upon which the various Military Governors, or 'l'utuhs, are instructed to telegraph their opinions upon this topic. This they do, also the Civil Governors, &c, &c. These views all display that unanimity which is a characteristic of a well ordered State '!'hen comes a rain of Memorials upon the subject. Public Opinion is crystallizing i Then appears a Mandate ordering a change. In this manner a great variety of radical steps are just on the point of being taken all the time One of the most intractable subjects has been that of the abolition of the provinces, with an evident aim at complete centralization of power. This has passed through numerous stages, intended perhaps to educate public senti ment. The provinces will be divided into Tao or Circuits; they will be divided into Chilo, or military districts; they will take as their unit the Chou, or Hsien (county), hut each provineial Governor is able to show that in his field this would not work so well in practiee as in theory, and those who are struggling to govern the outer dependencies ( or independencies) of the New Dominion, &c., can demonstrate that it would not work at all. :Meantime anything is expected to happen and nothing does happen, or is likely to do so for an indefinite period. Premier I-Isiung Hsi-ling, a man of undoubted ability, energy, nud experience occupied his post for many months, with a group of Cabinrt members A-2

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10 GJrnERAL SURVEY. around him of such exceptional capacity that it appeared that no better choices could have been made. 'L'he Premier began his official career by issuing a Jong and elaborate "Policy,'' a state paper of a kind hitherto unknown in China, in which lie dealt with existing evils with a refresh ing not to say an amazing frankness. But before it had had time to effect anything of importance this widely adver tised. collection of "All-the-Talents" began to fall to pieces. In February the Premier resigned, mentioning in his letter to the President that" he was a man of an obstinate disposition and did not find it easy to adapt himself to the views of others! The sudden death of Chao Ping-chun, a former Premier, Tutuh of Chihli, an official of ability and experienC'e, wr.s a distinct loss to the Government. When l\'Ir. Liang Oh 'i-ch'ao joined the Cabinet it was recognized. that his learning, especiallJ in law affairs, 1\'ould be a powerful support to the President. But he, too, abandoned his office, although he hns been appointed to others which he may or may not continue to hold. '\Vang Ta-hsieh, the Minister of Education, also resigned, leaving the affairs of his department in an unenviable co11dition. Amid the uncertainties of tenure of any post it is diffieult to induce men of really first-class talent to undertake the almost insuperable tasks before them, especially at a time when it is felt that "the Cabinet system'' may suddenly disappear, leaving little or no trace behind 'rhe President has sur rounded himself with an army of "Advisers," Chinese and foreign, apparently sufficient to administer-or to wreek any government on the planet. The number of Chinese ostensibly employed in this way is very great, many of them with salaries known to be large, and with duties correspond ingly light. The foreign staff is much smaller, comprising, for example, the famous journalist Dr. George E. lVIorrison, Sir Francis Pigott, Prof. Ariga, already mentioned, Dr. Frank Goodnow of Columbia University,. New York, and others. Men of this class accustomed to a high degree of in tellectual and moral activity have often found their position as nominal "adviser," when tbcir advice was neither asked nor taken when offered, uncomfortable and intolerable. Sir Francis Pigott and Prof. Goodnow especially have, howevel',

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ELIMINATION OF DEMOCRACY. 11 rendered excellent service to educated Chinese by publishing essays and lectures in English newspapers in Peking upon themes relating to the principles of government and of re form in China. 'l'he existence of an armed rebellion during a consider able part of the past year, was not favorable to the exercise of popular rights, which clay by day visibly diminished. lVIartial Law was proclaimed over a large part of China, and this meant arbitrary arrests, trial-if such it could be termed-with no regard to forms of law, and in secret, and executions continuously and upon a large sc;.le all over China, particularly in the great centers, such as Peking and the leading provincial capitals. 'l'o inquire into the aggregate of the wholly unreported executions is vain, but there is reason to suppose that for all China the total must have been many tens o!' thousands. In the single province of Siechwan it was said, upon what authority can not be affirmed, that there must have been between twenty and thirty thousand. This is, however, merely a reversion to the arbitrary type of government to which the Chinese have for ages been accustomed, and does not excite among them the anger and disgust which would be felt under sul'h conditions in the West. The gradual replacement of Civil Governors by the l\tliiitary 'l'ntuhs was another inevitable step .in the concentra tion of power in the hands of the central goYernment, the effect of which is to unify the provincial administration -and to strengthen it at its weakest point. Of a like nature is the somewhat unexpected abolition of all Provincials Councils, many of which no doubt served as thorns in the side of the Peking authorities. In this, as in other cases, it is alleged that they will eventually be replaced with some other ( doubtless more controllable) form of ascemhly. StilJ further to complete the elimination of everything savoring of demo cracy the Local Councils in the cities and towns were ordered to dissolve, their functions being taken over by the District Magistrates by whom, previous to the Revolution, they had al ways been exercised. Among all the many changes this is the one coming nearest to the life of the people of China. 'l'he District

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12 GENERAL SURVEY. Magistrate, while a man of but the seventh rank on the scale of degrees, to his "subjects was practically the Emperor. When the I Shih Hui, or lor;al bodies, came into existence they soon found ways to antagonize, to thwart, and even to impeach and get rid of an obnoxious official, with a celerity and a certainty never before known within the Four Seas. :B,urthermore the local bodies .vith Chinese practicality devoted their attention to taxes and to law-suits, so that instead of having to reckon with one authority there were a dozen or more, and the money disappeared-somewhere. As soon as the rebellion was fully extinguished all this was recognized in Peking as contrary to the genius of true republicanism, and early in the present year all the local bodies were relegated to the ob.;;curity out of which they had recently emerged. The Magistrates were delighted, and so, too, were the people, for with ail the corruption of the Ch'ing period no such flagrant and promiscuous bribery had ever been known. In some of the large cities, however, where new ideas and methods have obtained a foothold, the change is a distinct loss in efficiency and perhaps in integrity. When Mr. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao became a member of the Cabinet it was with the avowed aim of introducing legal reform into China upon a wide and a thorough scale. Even before his premature retirement, however, it began to be bruited about that with some exceptions the higher Law Courts were to be abolished, most of the lower ones, how ever, not having any objective existence, escaped this fate. 'rhis was said to be due (a) to the lack of suitable men for judges, and ( b) to lack of funds to pay them. As the "law schools are crowded with students (some being, "for women only") it is an interesting inquiry what is to beeome of all this blighted legal talent. For years the Chinese have been fretting against the harsh restrictions of extraterritoriality, which they were willing to move heaven and earth to abolish, after the example of Japan. But until Western law procedure should have been acclimatized this was known to be a mere iridescent dremn, which the present procedure seems to have banished for fulfilment to the Greek Kalends. Presidential Mandates have repeatedly

PAGE 23

THE CONSTITUTION. 13 charged that since the revolution men of no experience and of no worth have been put into the office of Local Magistrates, and that this vicious condition of things was responsible for much of Chi11a's woes. To remedy it examinations were to be held in the Capital under specified conditions and only those passing these tests would hereafter be able to hold office. Seldom even in China have so many 'rice-bowls been broken at one stroke. The examinations were so conducted as to exclude those who were not wanted such as students from foreign lands, men of too progressive ideas, &c., on the ground of their lack of administrative experience. 'rhis, it should be said, is the plaint of those who spent large sums in travelling expenses only to find themselrns ruled out on technical grounds, regardless of their fitness. To this there are cogent official replies available, but it is certain that the government has thus accumulated a great supply of permanent enemies at a time when there seemed no need of any more. 'l'he acting Premier, Mr. Sun Pao-ch'i, in an address to the successful candidates, made the statement (not infrequently to be found in the responsible utterances of those in authority) that within the past two years corruption had been W()l'Se than at any previous period of contemporaneous history. The Political Council already mentioned might well be regarded as a close corporation to give shape to presidential policies. Its importance during the first three months of its exist ence is already eclipsed by the Provisional Constitutional Conference of about fifty theordicaily "elected" members which met in Peking March 18th. This is a compact and man ageable organ through ,vhich a Constitution can be forged agreeable to the man who is to work it-not to work under it. At one of the earlier sessions a Presidential Delegute-or rather two of them-was present who set forth in detail what kind of an instrument is desired and this is probably what the Council may be expected to evolve. The President is to be the head of the Government, said his vicegerent on this occasion; he must have full power to appoint all offic ers, contract "ordinary treaties (i e those not involving finan cial expenditure), dra ft all official systems and regulations, and revise them when they need revision; he is to have the

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14 GENERAL SURVEY. right to issue provisional orders and in emergencies to deal with fiuanl'.e; the Cabinet is to be a group of advisers and ma11:lgers of departments, but is not to be the government; the power of Parliament is to be curtailed. and limited; special regulfl.tions are to be made for auditing and for accounting, and, whatever may happen, the Dudget is to be provided for; the Constitution is to provide Jfor the Parlia ment, and not a Parliament for a Constitution. One or two minor questions were asked. or the delegates before they were asked to withdraw, upon which one of the members made the siguificant remark that the Bili ( introduced by the President) had naturally established itself, so that no disr.ussion seemed to be needed.'' A few ,..veeks before this gathering, some interest was excited by a memorial said to have been sent in by a local Magistrate of the Szechwau province, recommending that the President, being the center of the government, should be appointed by the new Constitution fo r /,i,fe, thus sewring the safety of the stcite. Newspaper gossip affirmed that on hearing of this the Pre.~ident was very angry, but was moliified when the entire reasonableness' of the plan was pointed out. The swift and silent withdrawal to Peking of the Vice President, Li Yuan-hung, from his responsible military command at Wuchang, where he had been ever since the revolution of 1911 began, led to much criticism and comment both in the Chinese Press and that controlled by foreigners. Li ,vas sent for, it was said, that Yuan might have him under observation, he was 'a prisoner' in Peking, he had no visible duties, and was reduced to a nullity, he had offered to resign as being. but a superfluous wheel to a well equipped coach, &c., &c. Niore recently this chatter has ceased, and he is now reported to have declined the important post of Tntnh in the metropolitan province of Chihli, as he needs rest from official cares His ten year old gaughter is now betrothed to the twelve year old son of the President, upon which occasion the Vice-President present ed to his future son-in-law '' a nice frock-coat, a ceremonial hat, two gold watches, and a number of good books, and the President sent him in return gold rings, braeelets, other ornaments worth some two thousand dollars-or more .''

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REVERSION TO THE PAST. 15 'rhe proper Board is affirmed to be wrestling with the intricate problem what ceremonies are to be adopted at weddings, funerals, &c., so as to conserve the old, and not to ignore the new. At present chaos may be said to pre side. Brides arrive in carriages with or without the usual escort, they wear garlands, veils, and are married with a ring; the married couple do not !.:etow, but merely bow to all concerned; there is perhaps ( as in a recent wedding in Peking high life) a brass band which plays both Chinese nnd foreign airs, and there is handshaking and an incongruous mixture of Chinese and of Western ways which is satisfac tory neither to the East nor to the West The poli, ~ y of the government appears to have been to encour a ge a general return to the old methods of celebrating holidays, and in 1914 the Western New Year WDS practically ignored all over China, except in government offices, and the like 'l'he unfeigned joy of the Chinese people at this return to rationality was touching 'l'he Moon, which was criticized a year ago for its obtuseness in not taking the broad hint that it was no longer either needed or wanted, is now justified by having regained her place as Queen of Heaven; fairs, markets, Heaven's Stems and Earth's Brancl1es, the clue admixture of the lunar year with the solar four and twenty Periods according to which birds come and go, grain is planted, fur hats are put off and summer hats are put on, inseds stir, and the breath of spring is divided-all these now go on as before according to the pattern followed in aneient tim:s by Yao and by Shun, and by all well regulated pt~rsons since. No one of the numerous reversions to the past. nor all of them combined. hawi attracted so much attention and excited so much comment as the struggle to re-est a blish Confucianism as the State Rel i gion of C!tina. i : China, like Japan, is confronted with the unwelcome spectacle of a. visible decay of morals and an abrogation of old standards. To what will this lead ? How is to be stopped I The Confucian Society, under the energetic lc:id of l\Ir. Ch'en Huan-chang ( author of "The Economic Principles of *See Chap. III, i\fr. Wright's paper on this subject..

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16 GENERAL SURVEY. Confucius") have a simple remedy .. It is that of the 1\faster himself. When his favorite disciple asked about the government of a state, he replied: "Follow t!H~ seasons of the Hsia dynasty; ride in the state carriage of the Yin dynasty; wear the ceremonial cap of the Olton dynasty. Let the music be the Shao ( that of the days of Shun.) Banish the songs of Ch'ing, and keep far from specious talkers.'' In like manner the Confucian renaissance pro poses to make the maxims of the great Sage the subject of common education, to reintroduce the ceremonies and the sacrifices, in short to re-enthrone Confucius in China, and henceforth all will be well. (How it has come about that while the Sage 1cas enthroned to an extent never seen elsewhere in human society, China fell to its present condition is not explained by these learned antiquarians) The various phases of this discussion have excited pro found interest both among Chinese and foreigners, and a discussion has ensued ever more widely extending in waves and ripples all over the civilized world. 'l'he controversy has been made to involve the questions: What is Confucianism?" "What is the inherent value, and what is the historical value of Confucianism ( whatever that is) in China 1" "Is Confucianism a Religion, or is it not?'' "What is its relation to the other religions of China, and to those of the World?'' "What relation does Confu cianism bear to the preservation of morality in China 1'' Should the ceremonies of the worship of Confucius be revived (a) in Peking, ( b) in the provinces, and, if so, at what times and places?'' "What is the difference between the assumption by the President of the Republic of the right to sacrifice to Confucius, and the assumption by him of the office of Emperor of China?" "What relation does this matter bear to Chinese education?" Particularly, "What is its relation to Christian education in China?" What relation does such worship bear to that religious liberty guaranteed by the Provisional (and as yet unrevised) Constitutioil?" "What relation, if any, has it to treaties guaranteeing certain specified religious rights?'' Will the proposed worship be compulsory upon all offieers, upon some, or upon none?" Upon every one of these points

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CO:-Sl-UCIANTS,r AS TJm STATE RELJGTON. 17 there has been wide difference of opinion. BuddhistF:, Taoists, l\folrnmrnedans, and all types of Christians have energetically antagonized the proposal, recognizing its fntilitv for the end proposed, and its certain divisive and pel'vc1:sive resulls in separating the "Vive Families" of China from one another by the bitterest of all enmities-that of religion. To allay these fonrs the President issued ("March 7th) a Presidential order in ,d1ich it "as explained that the rite of worshipping Confucius is ancient, that" it has nothing to do with religion (tsun,q-chiao) ; Catholics, Protestants, l\Ioharnmechrns, and men of other re1igiom; faiths will find nothing to keep them from eutering official life. If the District .i.\fagistrates for any renson are not able, or do not wish to won,hip Confucius, tlie ceremony may be conducted by some one else." Thus foe the present the matter is shelved, but if it is not heard of again, China will be an exception Lo the general history of mimkind.':~ In a year in whiclt a great and a widespread rebellion has distracted China it is not to be expected that norrna I conditions should prevail. Befor;e the rebellion began therl' was trouble over the disbandingof the Chinese troops, and vast snrns were rcrtnircd for this purpose. Yet when the men ,, ere dismissed, not infrequently with a considerable bonus to mollify them, the country was far worse off than before. Jn nurny cn~es the soldiers were allowed to carry their arms--or a part of them-with them, and thus there was formed the nucleus of innumerable hordes of banditti for which Chimt has ahrnys been noted. l\Ien who have been accustomed to the irregular life of the army, especially an i.mdiseiplined, ill-fed, ill-clothed, and-irresponsible body as most Chinese troops have always been, do not take kindly to indnstry. The recklessness with which these masses or potential social devastation were turned loose in China long ago attracted the attention of both Chinese and foreigner8, hnt. on the p11rt of the government the principal anxiety Hlw11ys appeared to h to stop payment o.1: wages, and thus 1 o re~:erve fnnds fo1 other nses The imrnedinte rc:mlts of

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18 GENERAL SURVEY. this universal folly were not long in appearing. It was in October 1913 that the ravHges of an ex-military bandit known as White Wolf began to attract attention in Hona11, and a little later in Hupeh. He captured the city of Tsao Yang, and from that time has never ceased to be a peril to Chinese and foreig11ers alike With a military President, a military Vice-President, and a General at the head. of the Board oC War, it was to have been expected that the Government would have im:tantly perceived the vitnl importance of llertling with the robber in the most effective possible wny. But he was allo\\'ed to cross his native province, Honan, to harry and devastate a. wide region in the adjacent province of Anhwei, and then to retnrn on his tracks to repeat the process elsewhere. After a time the Government appeared to be roused. The Governor of Honan (a relative of President Yuan) was slrnrply reproved for his fatal inaction, but wfls retained at his vo s t to repeat his inefficiency indefinitely. The President of the Board of War then went to Honan to superintend operations in person. 'I'roops were to be called in from here m1d from there. 'I'he large and apparently utterly useless army of Chang Hsnn, at Siichowfu, Kiangsu, were to take tl:e field. White Wolf would be caught in the jaws of a deadly steel trap and speedily exterminated. Huge rewards were offered for his head, to promote military 7.eal. Iustead of utilizing_ the Peking-Hankow railway as a natural barrier easily occupied and readily guarded, by which means White Wolf would have been surrounded, he was allowed to recross the line at will, harrying and pillaging as lie ,vent, and after a fow days was heard of on the upper Han rive1 in Uupeh, where he sacked the great trade center of Laoho kow, killed more foreigners, and went at his leisure westward to enter Shensi, and perhaps rich and populous Szechwan A fatal paralysis seemed to seize the central govern ment, but there ,vere contributory causes which lie deep iu the constitution of the Chinese social order. 'l'he army was composed of units each of which under appropriate conditions was exactly the kind of material with which the White Wolf was operating. Loyalty to a commander

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THB \\'IT!TB WOLF. 19 fealty to a government does not fot a moment compete with the irresistible temptation to loot 11nd to ravage. When hard pressed it was every1Yhere alleged by the ChineEe press and hy refugees, that the bandits made good terms with the soldiers, the latter taking tl1e silver which the former had caniecl off, and gaving in exchange (by throwing them away to he picked up by their friends, the robbers) th, 3ir nr. ms and their mnmnnition, of which the br,ndits were naturally short But this was not all. Detailed accounts such a; Lhosc appcariug in the "Central China Post,'' published near to the scene of action, showed th& t cities were delivered O\'er to the robbers by the deliberate treachery of tho~e within. Jn some flagrant eases the military offieials were, if not in coilnsion with the bandits, at least incompetent and neutral. In car-:e a viliagc foent information to the milit.nry nuthoritie;;; of tl18 mo\'ements of the White \Volf marauders, that village was later extei minated, men, women, children, dog~, cats, and chickens: not a iiving thing remnining. This was natnrally regarded by others (as it always has been in China) ns a cantion to l;e prudent, and most Chinern arc prudent, hy tcmpernmcnt. 'rhe s11ffcrings of th e unhappy for eigners caught in 1he f'oils of these horrors form a repLica 9f the events of 1900, hut without the t~xeuse which might then hav e been ofrered that such disasters 110 prevision could have forese en and no force have prevented. For all this wild welter of needless ruin China will have to pay dear, hut at the time of writing these lines there is no sign thrrt the hopeless lethargy of tl1e Central Gowrnment has been r;erionsly (listnr-J,ed .'1 President Y11nn has repeatedly stated in his Jlfantlates thnt. the White Wolf brigands are in collnsion with the Chinese revoJn. tionaries who have lclllg been in Japnn. Even if this were not the case, the bellion.

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20 GF,NERAJ, SURVF.Y. In almost all parts of China bands of robbers have at intervals roamed almost at will within certain limits (or rather highly uncertain limits) from time immemorial. Whenever the administration of the laws was lax they gathered. Let an efficient magistrate appear, and they s~attered to fresh woods and pastures new. 'l'his state of things has prevailed during the period since the Revolution, not only in the remoter parts of China, but within short distances of. the capital. 'l'hat '' quiet anarchy to which China is accustomed, has eYer and anon resumed its reign. and then with a c hauge of season, or of officials has suddenly ceased. 'l'hese phenomena, none of which are not constant faetors in the history of China, point with un mistakable directness to the truth that economic ccndition.s are the key to the evolution of a new China. No matter what tlw form of government is styled, if there is less than enough for h1rge numbers of the people to eat, brigandage mnst ernme as it al ways has and al ways will to the encl of tinw. Into a discussiou of the Finani'es of the Chinese Hepublic it is hopeless for >.1ny one not an expert to enter at all, much less in their present chaotic condition. What is evident is that China's greakst need is Money, hut after thiR has been granted it must be owned thnt there is another need even greater, and tlrnt is Tntegeity. Late in January Premier IIsiung lectured the offieinls who had to do with foreign loans upon the impropriety, the danger and the disgrace of ac1:epting commissions on such Joans To judge from the 1ornments of the Chinese press he rnigl1t as well have lcctnred an organization of l\Jetropolitan Cats on the impropriety of licking cream from the milk-pans of thr numerous foreign dairies. The old system prevails under worse eonditions and amid greater dangers than under thr Ch'ings. "Economy is tlie resonai:t watchword in every Board. Hundreds of subordinates are diseharged to save money for the State,-b11t it is learned incidentally that their pay is not on that account necessarily suspended. The number of persons in government employ in this cnpacity or that incapacity is staggering to the contempiation of a trained arronntant who knows what this ronnotrs from a

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CHINA',; FIXANcu,. tinancial point of view. China is filled from end to end and from side to side with ''Generals'' who never fought a battle, or e,,en went upon a forced march, other than that to draw their salaries. As already remarked, the President has so many "advisers" (some of whom he has never seen and probably uever will see) that if every one had three minutes a day, there would be no time for other labor or for meals aml sleep. Man:,of these empty the exchequer of huge sums and not for value received Where docs the money come from ? The age long struggle between the Central Government to make the provinces send fnnds, and the provinces to compel the Central Government to recognize that they not only have no funds, but must themselves be helped out of quagmires, was never so keen as now. A '' Financial Council '' in Peking has been illuminating the darkness by jets of daylight showing how great sums are wasted in tlrn provinces. The Provincial Councils, for t>x~ui1ple, and the Self-Governing bodies already mentioned regularly got awa~ with great sums, and with still greater that. ,vere obtained by ;judiciously tapping the government taxation pipe-lines, to the great advantage of "self-gowrn ment," and to tlte disadvantag e of govern111eut in general. Lt is pl"ohably !'or this reason that the President has snuffed out the3e exotic representatives of "the People,'' orde1ing their funds to be turned into the Bank of China. China cannot get on without money, money, 111011cy. China has no (available) money. Ergo she must borrow. But this can only be done by offering sec urities. But China has already mortgaged everything, has "roasted the gold-iish, and fried the canary-birds," and still is no better off. Salt has proved a welcome antisepti"c, but salt has its limi tations, and the management of the salt administration means the loss of China's "sovereign rights.'' Undoubtedly, but "one must expend two or three grains of rice to catch a ehicken," and the salt achieves this end, so it is ( with many wry faces and much malediction) allowed. But the thing may be carried too far, and then there will he trouble. 'fhus is established the Chinese Vicious Circle. Poverty, Loans on Resources, De-velopment of resources by foreign experts, revolt against the inevitable loss of China's

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GENERAL SL'HYEY. "soYercign right;;;.'' JJoaus ,vithdrc1,ru, ]{esourees undeYelopcd, general and contttgious poverty and pressme, foteclosure of the mortgage, the only possible remedy anothel' Foreign Loan. And so on as heforc l\foantirne the horrowing habit while easily fastened on tlte Board of l!.,inmwe, he~omes practically incurable. Cli ina is warned persistently, nay, warns her~elf, that. the end of the road, unchecked by development of resources, is bankrnptcy and ruin, but things go 011 as they have gone on, idly waiting for the turn of the tide. When ,rill it come 1 One of the nw.uy dis(1uieting sym ptorns is the eonstant expenditure of money to achieve that which ought to be attainable without money. When heavy rewards are allotted ( as has been the ('HSe on a great scale) for 'vidorie~," ofteu, imaginary, over i\Iongols, or Tibetans, or others, the inference is that without the reward the victorv '' would not have occurred (whieh might have been mnclt lietter in the end). When local r.Iagistrntes are re\l"arded for obtaining stuns in excess of estimates from certain taxes, the inevitable result is bnrning dissatisfaction o[ outrage d people, and a very natural one the brutal murder of the oppressor, sud1 as was recently reported in the case of the l\Iagistrate of Le Leanhsien, in Shantung, killed by augry peasants, not ns an example of self-government but in self-defence. Fortunate ly for the Government the railway receipts have been lieavy, and for the most part steady, though on some .lines obliterated for a time by the expenses of the rebellion. But each million dollars is wanted in twenty places at once, while it can ultimately be used in hut one, and in that one, owing to '' old time cuslom," only in part. The high and stiff barbed-wire fence of the Quintuple Syndicate, long _ago began to show wide f!aps, and, is no longer protective. But the clanger to Chiua front loans employed to buy useless military bric-a-brae is iucomputa1ie. Sir Charles Beresford nearly L wo decades since fouud the Chinese soldiers armed with weapons which would have stocked nn ancient and a modern mm:eum 'fhe like condi tions are said still to c;ontinue, espeljally in artillery, render ing the costly equipments much worse titan useless wlten neetled. How is it, that the simple lessons of the past have

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THADE OF CIUNA. 23 still to be releal'ned 'I Currency reform, of wl1ich ,re seem to have hcarcl somewhere before, has during the past year been pushed to great lengths, that, namely, of printing scores of columns of "Hegulations" in the papers, of what is to be tlone when it is done. The decisions arc for the most part admirable, but for lack of a Ourreuey Loan "into still air they seem to fleet." The Trade of Chiua for 1913, in spite of the Rebellion, was remarkable and encouraging. The Customs receipts surpassed by more than four million taels the highest previous record. With peace and order China would astonish the World. Can she have them Tlte1e is intense activity in every bureau iu elaborating those '' Rules and Regulations" in which China delights to express hcrsel f; the most re,1cut output being Mining Regulations of great minuteness, which are said to be at once admirable and preposterous, a reincarnation of what was wronght ,Yith great care ancl at vast expense twenty ye:1rs ago, laid aside ancl forgotton, but now revived so as to safeguard "sovereign rights" ancl at the same time beguile the dreaded and hoped-for .foreign money into the area of development. Of the merits of the case an outsider is of ne()cssity no judge, yet despite the appointment of one more highly capable foreign "Adviser" (Swedish) one may doubt whet.her China's hidden ,realth is much nearer sight than it was before In this diaos of needs and of fast aucl furious offers to supply them, th~ years 1898-99 with their Human Cobweb'' of struggle for precedence and for 'inside tracks' appear to have returned. 'l'he evil :financial genius of China who was the ilidireet means of letting loose the cataract of woes (and joys) of Hill, Sheng Hsiian-huai, has apparently mortgaged the Ifanyehping Corporation which mine;; iron ore, to the Japanese, upou terms which when brought to the knowledge of the l\finisLcr of Agriculture and Commerce resulted in a formal veto. But owing to the lapse of time between the signature of the contracts and public information about tl1em, it is :feared _that the veto is not likely to Le effective. From a Chinese point of view to place this vital means of China's future continuance as a power nuder J apancse control, with conditions which

PAGE 34

2.J. biud Cl1ina to furnish 01c at much less tlmu marke t rates (as is alleged) seems to enda11ge r the autonomy of the P0tll1try. During tlie past F,u eo11(;c ssions fo1 rail ways uude1 the eow,trnction of companies representing-mauy of the Powers have been agreed upou, to China's presumptive advantage. Bnt as all these are as yet 'air-lines' it is not [)3 l'haps ,vol'th while to point out where they may e ventually alight. A. few years ago the Ameriea11 R e d Cl'O::s Society sent to China an engineer, ;.\fr C D Jamesou, to survey ihc region inundated by the ovedlow of tl1e Huai H,i ver ( and other streams) in the Anltwei and Kiangsu provinces. The Society furnished funds iu co-operation with others by which a large 1elief work was carried on, the beneficial effect ol' which wa:,; ,,vide spl'e ,1d. Jn the month of J anuar,v last an arrangement was eoncludecl by which the Rd Cros;; Soc:iet;r is allowed a ye ,11' 's option to rais8 a ban of tw enty million dollar.-; (gold) for the re::lanntion of an arc:a estimated at from Iiftecf1 million to sixteen milliou mou o[ land, this Janel to serve as security fol' the ioan 'l'his novel ,md i nleresting
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o L' l li .\1. 1)11titletl to do so. Great expenditure on the part of tile Company n111st fil'st be made, but the Chinese having put nothing .in have nothing to lose and eYcrything to gain. It is obvious that this enterprise if carried out cannot fail to proclu~e enormous economic effeets beneficial to large districts in China. 'While recognizing that there is uo more philanthropy in this "Big Deal" than theee is in a steal rail, one may peeceive that it m,ty likewise make the road to national prosperity much smoothet than it has eYel' been before. Despite the distraetions of the rebellio11 the Govemment has 11ot at all altered its policy of repression of the cultivation of the poppy plant, and of the sale and use of opium. Within this pe1iod there have been more public burnings of opium than ,wer before. Backward provinces such as; Kweichow and Kansu have taken efficient steps to prevent the produetion of opium, and in the like efforts several othe1 proviuces show conspicuous success. To prevent the suppression of opium from degenerating into r. system of "squeeze" and of blackmail has re<1uired, and will require, unceasing diligence and courage. A National l'ro1tibition Opium Union was formed during the pnst year in Peking, undet the lead of Gen. L. Chang, who was sent as its representative to England to take a message from the Chinese peopl~, and to urge speedy opium prohibition. 'l'heough the courtesy of the Government in grnnting the use of the telegraph t!Je International Reform Bureau has co-operated in this work in many ,rays, calling the attention of 'l'utuhs and Civil Governors to known violations or law. 'l'he lrnge stocks of. opium held in Shanghai, amounting to between 13,000 and 14,000 chests, have been a serious hindrance to China's efforts. It is the avowed intention of the owners to work off the whole -0f this upon China before the traffic has been extinguished. The great increase of opium-shops in the foreign settlements of Shanghai stands in marked and depressing contrast to the repression of opium where the Chinese Government has a free hand. 'l'he issue of China's struggle to be free is no longer in doubt, but renewed efforts are necessary to secure the exclusion of morphia and similar drugs, a11d to A--!

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21i excite public sentiment against alcohol, whiclt has already become a serious menace to China The Chinese postal system during 1913 added 821 uew offices, and handled 594 million article~, 8~ million of which were parcels. The increarn over 1912 was 150 million pieces. The growth of this admirably conducted depart ment of the government is perhaps the most widely ap preciated both hy foreigners a1td by Chine:se of all the improvements of the new China. During the month of January a Presidential Order was issud openi11g seven towns in northern China to foreign trade: Kalgan, Kueihuach'eng, Chihfeng, Dolonor, 'raonanfu, I-I ul utao, and Lungkou. 'rhe rail way opened several years ngo to Kalgan will soon be extended to Kueihuach'eng, which is in northern Shansi, on the borders of l\Iongolia. Taonanfn is a new city on the l\fongolian border of l\Imwlmria. H ulntao is on the Gulf of Liaotu11g, and fomgkou is about 80 miles west of Chefoo ol' which it might become a seriow; rival. This movement whiie obviously of political importance>, is undoubtedly a wise one, aucl might be followed up to the adrnntage of China as well as foreign countries by a considerable extensiorL The recent launching in Shanghai of a new and powerful steamer, the Shuhun, for the run between Ichang and Chungking on the Upper Yangtze is au event of mor e than local interest. The Shnlmn is a much larger craft than her predecessor the Shutung, which was 110 feet long. The Shuhun has ac commodations for about 400 passengers, and can carry 400 tons of cargo. The trip between the ports named by houseboat ranged from four to six weeks, and was never made without considerable danger. The Slmlmn is e xpected to complete the journey in less than four
PAGE 37

l'J:ESl:"T (;O\'ElilS)lENT, A'.\' OLIGAHCl!Y. 2, It is mue h to be regretted that m far as one is able to discern, educational progress, like that in democracy, throughout China may be said either to be absent, or that the 'progress is "full speed backwards." '!'he story of the Peking University was for 111any months most lament able. F'unds are lacking, experienced instructors are hard to obtain and difficult to keep, the morale of many schooh; is at a low elib, and primary schools, while still in operation, are recognized as in a transition state of suspeuded ani mation. This, however, is not true of highly vitalized centers like the great cities. 'fhe dis:,ection of the cadaver has been authorized in China, a long step in advance which Eeems to have caused surprisingly little comment. All forms of secret societies are rigidly prohibited. Being m1able to catch the White Wolf brigand, the Government did the next best thing. and imprisoned the editors of an enterprisi11g jomnal-the 'l'a Han Pao-which told the truth abont his eare~r. A harmless .Esperanto Soeiet,v in P~kiHg was raicleJ and its papers confiseated, turning it into Desperanto irn;tead. 'l'he.,l\fanchus and Bannermen are known to be starving and their wails are heard on all hands, unt the only practical relief of which we hear thus far is an .daborate History of the Ch'ings, in the fulsome and eomplimentary Presidential Order authorizing which, we are t.olcl, that the most memorable act of this Dynasty was its abdication. Many prominent Chinern have died within the year, but perhaps no one of them was more useful to China than :i\fr. Tang Kai-sen, the representative of China at the Internn.tional Opium Conference at Shanghai in 1909, [,_ ml at the time of his lamented death Director o[ the Ch\ng Hua College for Chinese students preparing for study in America, an eduentor and a Christian patriot whom UhiHa can ill afford to lose. The present government of China is a corn pact Oligareliy, few in numbers, but with steadily growing po\\"er It bears no more resemblance to a "Repuhlic '' than did the reign of ,Julius Cmsar. It i1,, however, a necessary :,tage through which China. must pass; but that it should be a permanent stage is neither to be expected nor desired. All over the :wide world friends of China are and long have been eagerly

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irn1mrrng how t!te experiment of the new goverm11e11t in China is "coming out." 'ro this it may be eompendiously replied that it is not "comiug out" at all; it is ,qoing 011, aud lik e all othei governments-republics not excepted~it is doing it in the midst of storm and stress with the probability -nay, the, certainty-of greate1 storm and stress yet to come. It is a difficult but an important lesson to learn that 110 individual, and no group of individuals, can advance l'rom 011e position to another without'passing through all the intermediate points. This the ardent young revolutionists of 1911 refus e d to believe, a11d unt improb,tbly still refuse to believe, yet for all that it rf'nrnins true. Through what stages Chiua is to pass it is as vain to endeavor to forecast as it is to predict the history of any
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TI~IF:, 'JHE GREATF:S'l' NF:CESSl'TY. 29 gradual dissemination of new conceptions, new standards, new ideals, through all rlasses of Chinese society, down to the least intelligent. and the most miiesponsive. EffectiYely to accomplish this, those individuals most obstinately anta gonistic to the new and ehanging 'order mnst be suecessiYely and automatieally eliminated from Chinese society by the inexorable laws of Nature. The complete break with the past will come about, not when there are no Chinese living who themselves remember the past, but when there are none who have heard of it at first hand from parents and grandparents who themselv1:s lived in it. Intellectual Etnd moral readjustments eannot be rnshed. Sudden effects in history," said John Stuart l\lill, "are generally superficial; eauses which go down deep into the roots of future events produf:e the most c:erions parts of their effeets only slowly, and must have time to become a part of the familiar order of things.'' Defore China can he thoroughly udjm,ted to her new course, two or three generations must elHpse. The result will then be worth all it will have cost To a relatively stationary position China can never return. While she may he hindered in her eonrs0, and may oceasion ally even appear to be retracing her steps, she can neYer again actually stop in her progress, but must ndvance along an unen
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CHAPTER II REL'G'.OUS ASPECT OF AFFAIRS and THE CHURCH IN CHINA By Bishop J. W. Bashford I. Confucianism In considering the religious asper.t of affairs in China we are confronted with the anomalous movement of: 1913 to make Confucianism the state religion. 1'his movement arorn in part from a conviction in the unsettled state of affairs of the ne'.\e:;;sity of a more religions life as the only hope of the nation 'fhe rapidiy gl'Owing disreg,1rd of customs and of Coilfncian ethic-s npon the part of some people was resulting in extreme indiYidnalisrn and in laxity of morals. So far as the revival of Confucianism and even of idol worship springs from the c : mseiornmess of religions need we respect its motive, aucl so far as it is an attempt to preserve the morality of the people we sympathize with its aim. The visible leader in the attempt to make Confucianism the state religion is Oll'en Huan-elrnng, a graduate of Columbia University who in 1911 prepared for his the3is for the Ph.D. degree a two vo!ume treatise on 1.'he Economic Principles of Confucius and His School. .As early as 190~ lie had passed the examination in the Chinese dassies HI Peking and won the Chin 8hih 01. Doctor's degree, and lie was for a time hefo1e going to Columbia ai1 official in Peking. IIe went to America as a firm Confncianist and he has used his new learning for a fresh interpretation of his master's teaching. He says in the preface that he hns been very careful not to re'td into the writings of the ancieut Chineo.e ideas drawn from western economists. 1.'he protest is lleeded, for western scholars He snre to find iu the treatise state socialism as advocated by l\'larx, and we think also modern materialism of the Haeckel type-a materialism HOW disereclited inonr Enropean and American nniversities.

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nR. CHEN ON CONFUCIANnrn. 31 According to Dr. Chen, Vol. I-pp. 16-19, Confucius teaches in the Spring and Autumn Annals that civilization passes through three stages: first, 'l'he Disorderly Stage; seeond, The Small Tranquillity Stage; third, The Great 'l'ranquillit.y Stage, sometimes called the Great Similarity Stage. Dr. Chen reinterprets Confucius by maintaining that when the sage enjoins a certain virtue, he enjoins it as applicable to one of these three stages, and that commentators blunder in holding that it is applicahle to ali three stages. We think Dr. Chen stumble3 in his intrcpretation of the following pr,ssage from Confucius: "Thus men do not regard. as their pereHts only their own parents.'' Here only has the sern;c of merely, simpl11 or r1. lone and Confucius clearly means, thus men do not regard their own p,1rents alone but other parents also wilh filial piety. This gives a very definite me: rning to Confucius' statement. On the other hand, Dr. Chen writes, "Everyone knows that Confn eianism is in favor of monarchical government and of filial piety. But they are good only in the Small Tranquillity Stage.'' Dr. Chen he1e teaches that filial piety is limited to the S1mdl 'l'ranquillity Stage and is not obligatory in tl:e Great 'franqnillity Stage. We rnaiutnin that Confucius means just the opposite, and that Confucius is right and Dr. Chen wroug. With this brief statement of our conflicting views of Confucius' teaching, in order to do Dr. Chen no injnstic:e, we quote the passage from Confucius in the translation which Dr. Chen himself fnruishes, Vol. I, page 18, and then his interpretation g iven on the same page. Confucius says: "When the Great Principle (of the Great Similarity) prevails, tl1e whole world becomes a republic; they elect men of talents, virtue and ability; they talk about sincern agreement and cultivate unive1sal peace. Tltns men do not regard as their own parent;; only their own parentP, nor treat as their own children only their own children; a competent provision ia secured for the nged till their death, employment for the middle aged and the means of growing up to the young. The widowers, widowe, orphans, child less men, and those who are disabled by disease, are all sufficiently maintained. Each man has his rights, and each woman her individuality safe-guarded .. .. Robbers, file hers and rebellions traitors do not ex:ist. Hence, the outer doors remain open and nre not shut. 'l'his is the stage of wl:at I call the Great Similarity.

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32 RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAJR::t. Now that the Great Priuciple has not yet ueen dernloped, tl, c world is inherited through family. Each one regards as his parents only hia own parents, and treats as his children only h i s own children. The wealth of each aud his labor are only for !,is self-interest.. .... Thus it is that seltfrh schemes and euterprises are constantly taking their rise, and war is inevitably forthcoming. Jn this courrn of rites and justite, Yii, T'ang, "'eu, Wn, Ch'eng Wang and the Duke of Chon are the beS't <>xamples of good go1ernment. Of these six superior men, everyone was attentire to the rites, thus to secure the display of jnsticc, the realization of sincerity, the exhibition of errors, the exemplification of bene\'o lence. and the cliscnssion of conrtesy, showing the people all the constant virtues. l any ruler, hal'ing po1rer and rosition, would not follow this course, ho should be driYen a1rny by the multitude who regard liim as a public enemy. This is the stnge of 1,at I call the Small Tranquillity. 'Jhns far Confucius. Dr, Chen then comnH'nts as follows: "This is the most. important statement. of all Confncins' teachings. The stage of Great Similarity or Extreme Peace is the final aim of Confucins; it is the golden age of Confucianism. If we make a comparison between the Grcat. Similarity and the Small Tranqnillit. y, we may get. a clear view. Everyone knows that Confucianism has fi1e social reblions allll fire moral constants: Ruler aud subject, father and son, elder an
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('.ONFllCJANTS)[ AS nrn STATE nELJf:ION. 33 A enrefn l reading of Con fnrins' stntemcnt shows that in the stnge of the Grent Trnnqnillity he is tearhing thnt the principle of :filial piety or love will be extended to nll men. A cr.refnl reading of Dr. Chen :;;hows that he is teaching the abolition of filinl piet.r, of the relations between brothers, hetwccn father and son and between husband and wife in the stage of Grent 'l'rnnq11illity. Jn a wo1cl, Dr. Chen holds :md says in so nrnny words thnt the five morn] constants heloug only to the Snrnll Tranquillity. Indeed, in charnc terizing the three stages of rivilization as they nppear in government and in religion he goes so far on page seventeen ns to make anarchism the highest stage in goyernment mid atheism the highest sfage in religion. He writes "For example, in polities, despotism, ronstitutionalism and anar d1ism are three stngcs; in religion polytheism, monism and athei:;;rn are three stages." lf: this is 11ot teaching the priu1:iples of philosophieal arinr(:hy and of philosophic atheism iis the highest stages in politics and religion we do not know the meaning of words. In his preface, page xii, Dr. Chen says: "lHy greatest indebtedness is to K'ang Yn-wei, my former tear.l1er from whom I obtained a general view of Confnci r rnism." 'l'hii:; statement throws light. not only npon Dr. Chen's teaching of sociHlism, bnt nlso npon Dr. Sun Yat-sen 's t e arhing of socialism; for Snn Yat sen 111,;o is a l'ollowcr of K'nng Yu-wei. 'file facts cited above justify the couvic1ion whith Ynnn Shih-kai holds i I' we may trnst confidential informnti011, that the movement to make Confucianism the state religion is not predominantly a religions movement, hnt a politira I and economic movement. 'l'he president also believes; if :igain we mny trnst confidential information, thnt 1110 movement wns planned to secure his down fn 11. In case the president refused to head the movement and to estab1ish Confncianism ns the state religion lie feared the rry wonld be raised that he was disloyal to Confucius whom all the nation honors nlmost to the extent of worship, and that this el'y w011ld lead t.o his overthrow On the other hand, in rnsc the president yielded 1o the demand and made Confn ("ianism the state religion, he feared that this wonld lead to the open alienntion of Tibet with her derntion to an extreme A-i'i

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8-! REJ,IGIOUS ASPECT AND CHUP.CH AFFAIRS, form of Buddhism, to tlie alieilation ot' the l\loharnmeda11s in China proper and in l\fongolia with the loss of that dependency, to the alienation of the Buddhists and Taoists in China, probably to complications with foreign govern ments over existing treaties which bind China to maintain freedom of religious worship, a11d worst of a11 to the dis gnised introduction of socialism and anarehy. Hence, we lielieve that it has not been displeasing to Yuan Shih-kai that Chinese Christians and Buddhists and Taoists and l\foham medans have joined with the more intellig ent Confucianists under the leadership of the secular uewi::;papers in a cam paign of protest against the imposition hy law of auy 011e form of worship upon the people of China. Y nan Shih-kai has indeed recognized with many Chinese the need of a deeper religious life iillcl has tried to rejuvenate the ethics of Confucianism by certain proclamations and to claim an anthority for himself equal to that of his predecessors by the ohscrvance of certain rites But if onr analysis of this movement is correct, and if Yuan Shih-kai continues to exert the influence which he exercises in China at the present time then Chen Huan-chang will not make Confucianism the state religion of China. We are sorry that western nations and especially America has been led into the belief that China already has adopted Confucianism as the state religion. We have mentioned views and purposes attributed by others to K'ang Yu-wei. We hope hi;; forth corni11g book will show these to be mistaken II. Buddhism .Attention should be called to the fact that Dr. J l\I. DeGroot in the six great volumes which he published on 'l'he Heiigions System of China and the two additional volumes on Sectarianism and Religious Persecution in China fakes a much more favorable view of Buddhism, especially in its higher manifestations than the casual observer of. Buddhist priests and monasteries holds We think few missionaries hnve realized the p0ssible hope for the more rapid spread of Christianity in China through Buddhism revealed by the publication in 1910 of Dr. Timothy Richard's book "The Ne\\' Testament of Higher Buddhism." Dr. Hi chard's

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PRTMITIVJC AND Hic:T-!Elt BUDDHISM. 35 Yolnrne consists of the translation of two Buddhist books, one, '' The A wakening of Faith in the Great Religion,'' written early in the second century aftrr Christ, and tlw other, The Lotus Seripture," written lnte in the seco11d < :entnry. Dr. Richard holds that these two books gradually supplanted the teachings of Sakyamnni by presenting a higher type of religion. Indeed, Dr. Hichard goes farther than tlte rnissionr.iy body can follow him in rnrnparillg these two books to the writings of St. Paul and St .. ,John and entitling his translation, "The Kew 'l1est:m1cnt of Higher Buddhism." Dr. Richard has followed that hook by another remarkable volume jnst pnhlished, entitled, "A l\:fission to Heaven.'; This hook is a translation of a work written by a Taoist, Ch'in Ch'ang-ch'en, in the beginning of the 13th century. 'fhe author adopts the higher views eontained in the two hooks mentionrd above and other sacred writings of Higher Buddhism. Dr. Richard sums up the teachings of Sakyamuni on Primitive Buddhism in fonr articles of belief, viz: 1. The suffering of the worl,l shonltl be remo1ecl. 2 Snffering cnn he remo\'etl only by removing the cnnRc. :I. The cnnse of snffering is desire. 4 Hence, R:1kynm11ni I.aught thatdelilerance 111nstcome from one's own self by t.he denth of desire: or pulling the mntter in positive form, Sakyamnni tn11gl1t that the rest or the son! arises from a sort. of thonght.-ecst.nsy hrouglit nbont hy the abslrnction or the mirnl from evPry enrthly object. Dr. Richard thinks there is strong evidence that this original Buddhism, called the I-Iinayana Buddhism, which is without God and without hope in the world, largely lost its hold on men's minds and hearts after two or three centuries, and that Buddhism would have disappeared from the earth had it not been enlarged and largely supplanted by the l\Iahayaua doetrine whieh rnny be summed up in three articles: 1. Jfolp from God l.o snl'e one' s splf n11Ci otl1erR from suffering. 2. Commnnion with Gost. an,l n10$t. ecstatic rest to the sonl.

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31) HRLinlOUS Ai"PRCT A:-ID CHT!RCH AFFATRP, n Partaking of the nature of God by a new birth which insures a sort of divinity or sonship to Uod an,I, in conseq11e11ce, personal imrnortnlity. Dr. Richard holds that even the first two books which he translated and published in 1910 as, '' The New Testament of Higher Buddhism," contain some of the new wine of: Christianity; he holds that the third book, "A Mission to Heaven," which he has jnst now translated and pnblished for the Christian world, shows clenr proofs of the inflnenre of Nestorian Christianity. Dr. Richard therefore maintains that the Highe r Bnddhism is in a large rneasnre Christianity clone over into Buddhistic dress and that it has failed to produce its proper Christian fruit in China because "from the beginning of the l\fing dynasty, A.D. 1368, to the present time, a period of over 500 years, the only relig ion patronized hy the state has been Confucianism and all the fat posts of the government were given to its followers, while Buddhist$, 'faoists and Christians in China and Korea have not only heeu starved in their eduention but have also been penecnt ed without mercy." As to the persecntion of the Higher Bnddhism Dr. Richard's view is amply sustai11ed by Dr. DeGroot in his last two volumes; and as to the fact that the Higher Buddhism largely was influenced by Chl'istianity Dr. Riclrnrd's view is sustained by Professor Lloyd of Japan in his book on," Wheat Among 'fares.'' Dr. Richard is generous enough toward the Buddhists to dweil predominantly on the f:act that these trnths now eommon to Buddhism r.nd Christianity eamc from the" Ancient of Dayi::," 11sing thiR term in a somewhat nnustrnl r;ense. We are inclined rather to claim that they come exelnRively through Jesns Christ, and that the Buddhists have taken them from our Saviour. But whether these truths corne, as the Buddhists may he inclined to ho'.d, through a common revelation to them find to us or, as we hold, through J esns Christ alone, sueh a recognition of the Higher Buddhism as the scholarship of the twentieth eentnry is a !most snre t.o give ought to prepare the way, not for r crude i,;yncretism of Christianity and Buddhism, but for the more speedy enthronement of ,Je1ms Christ as the Son of God and Savionr of men.

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CH lt!STIANITY. Vve cannot belie;,e that China has been without God or entirely devoid of Providential Guidance during all her l1istory. We believe that Confucianism among the Chinese s2rves a purpose somewhat similar to the law among the Je11' S And if it should turn out that Buddhism wa:,; l't'.inforced by Nestorian Chri:,;tianity, it ,llso may serve a divine purpose as a John the lfaptist to lead men to Cheistiauitv as the final religion of the race. III. Christianity Upon the whole the effect of the Revolut.ion of 1911-12 up;>n Christianity was helpful. \Ve believe also tlwt the present political um.ertainty in China will in the end "fall out rathee for the progress of the Gospel;" but we 111ust recognize tlrnt a !'<~action began in some Missions in 191::l following the second revolution or rebellion of Hwang llsiug aud Sun Yat-sen. So far as we can infer from the meagre and insufficient statistics available at this writing, some of the .Missions will report smaller gains for ] 913 than for 1912, tliough the statistics do not indicate that any JHis~ion has suffered an actual loss in membership. l\Ioreover, tlw pre:,ent nneel'lainty is full o [ diseouragcu1e11t to some of the lllissiouaries. .i\J.d to this the fact that consideral>ll.l Mission propert,x in various parts of C!Jina has been destroyed by sporadic uprisings, that missionaries have been driven from their homes, sometimes with the greatest thnger, and that in severai cases missionaries have suffered martyrdom for our eomrnon faith, and 1re can well under stand the profound sorrow and diseoumgemeut through which some l\Iissions are passing. vVe are glad to record the fact that the martyrs of 191:3 have died as heroieally as the martyrs of 1900. We thank Goel for His presence and keeping power vouchsafed to onr brothers and sisters in their hour of trial, and we are assured that to-day as of old "the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." If we cau obtain the names we hope next year to pul>lislt the list of martyrs. On the other hand, the very uncertainty in political affairs affords an unparalleled opportunity for service. Just as war and plague especially demand the help of

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38 RELIGIOUS ASPJ~Cl' .-\c\D CHlJncu AFFAit:S. phj'sicians and show the value of their services, so national distress is the time when missionaries are mo,c;t needed, and when Christian work cotmts for the most. Hence, the statistics of some l\lissions show gratifying gains for mm. In the Ilinghwa and Y nngchun prefectures where through local disturbances some of tl1e missionaries were driven from theit fields they found on returning after months of a bsenec that the Christians in most instances not only had remained true to the faith but had won considerable numbers of converts. A conference or district i11 southern China with a church lllembership of over 18,000 reports for 1913 an increase of 1-1%; another conference in northern China with a member ship of some 9,000 reports an increase of 7%; one small conference in ceutral Chin:, reports an increase of 32 % and another in the same region an increase of 37%, Hence, some churches made large gains in 1918 in spite of, or rather because of, the unsettled condition of the country. A third group of missionaries, while not writing in discouragement over the state of the country or reporting large gains for 1913, nevertheless rei:>ort an increasing appreciation of Christianity upon the part of the Chines e. Political uncertainty has resulted in a deepening sense of need spriuging out of the national crisis and has led to an increasing sense of the necessity of religion and has revealed a more widespread knowledge of Christianity, especially among the leaders of China, than most of the missionaries were aware of. l\lissionaries have been surprised repeatedly during the last two years over the frankness with which leading Chinese educators, business men and officials, including Y nan Shih kai, have exprtissed the conviction that a stronger system of elhics is necessary for China in the present crisis, aml that this stronger syste !11 of ethics probably ean spring only from Christianity. Several leaders of spcciai Christian movement.3 in China, notably JHessrs l\fott a1tcl Eddy, have not only addressed students in numbers hitherto u11paralleled, I.Jut have heard leading Chinese affirm that while they are Confuciauii;ts they regard Christianity as the chief hope [or China. Hence, upon the whole, som~ of the clmrches repol'L for U!l:::l a large harvest, and all of them eujoyecl unprece dented opportunities for seed sowiug.

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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION. 39 IV. Christian Education We write what follows with three convietions and with three aims: I11irst, we have learned that the leaders of l>rotestant l\lissions in America are planning a campaigu for Property and Equipment, to be carried out probably in 1915. lf China is to r: ccive any aid worthy of mention from sncit a campaign, she must formulate and present her needs. Programs drawn up in advance of finam:ial campaigns arc seldom carried out fnlly. But we have never secured any smn of money worthy of mention for the Lord's work withotit formulating our needs definitely and stating them demly to those to ,vhom appeal is made. So far as we can learn, ever)' existing Christian sd1ool in China is doing good work and is worthy of aid. Some of the smaller institutions may be ,H:. complisl1ing more in proportion to the means put at their disposal than larger iustitutions. Indeed, were the direction of the use of funds within our own power, we should use a considerable portion of the money contributed for education for elementary and preparatory schools. But without attempting to designate the particular institutions, or even the spe c ial forms of work to be aided, we are trying to set forth tlie minimum needs in onr educational program. We deem it wis e to state these needs dearly and fo!ly, even though only a small amount should be received toward their supply. Om second conviction is that if the missionary forces are to help Christianize China, we must follow the example or the Master and raise up and train leaders to carry fon.ard this tremendous task long afte1 we are gone. 0111" tltird ( 011vietiou i:; tliat \\lwtlil'r tlte 1awpaig11 for J'ropLt(.y 11ud E11niprnent yield:; auy co11:;iderablt rellu;11s or 110t, 11ilether, indeed, the1 e is auy Sllth ca111 paign or not, we 011 the Jield !llU:;t i.'.O-opernte 11ot ouly iu tducatioH l,ut iu the u:;1 or ali tit( lllL'HU:; pnt at our di:;posal for the Christiauiza1ion of Ciiiila. 'l'lie fo1utdatiou of :;0111e pla11 or cau1paig, i10w,~ve1 illlpe1J'cd., tl1c convietiou that the "i1rni11g 11J1tl 1 ntining of Chiue:;e Chri:;tia11s to save Chi11a i:; the ue:;t form ol' service, and tlte couvictiou that large1 t:o-operatiou is essential to tile best use of the means committed to us, are the convictions underlying the following pages

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40 llELIGtous Ash;C'i' Al\]) ci-ltmcH AFL\li::=:. Under Christian edueatiou om readers will be inter ested in the increasingly favorable attitude of' the Chinese government toward western medicine as evidenced by a 111emo1cmdmn on medical education in China submitted to the l\linistry of Education by Dr. vV u Lieu-tell. The memorandum is a reprint from the China l\fodical J Olll'llal of March 1914. It may be remembered that the cliange iu the attitude of the government toward western medicine w,1s inaugurated by the plague conferences held in l\Ioukden in 1911 under the presidency of Dr. \Vu. Dr. Wn is further impresf'ed with the action ol' the Triennial l\Ieclical Conference in 1913 expressing the abiding conviction of missionaries tliat the missionary medical colleges are of inestimable value to the Chinese and the desire of tl1e staffs o [ these colleges immediately to bring their medical instruction into line with the regulations of the l\Iinistry of Education. Dr. Wu Lien-teh who is the JUO!:it repl'escntative physie.ian servingnuder 1 he gover11111eut, responds by suggesting that a central medical comwil be organi;1,ed, e.omposcd of one official from the i\Jiuistey o[ Bducatiou and a representative of each o[ the approved llleLlical sd10ols in China. He snggests that this couneil should have tlte po\\'er of fixing the medieal e.nrrienlum for China, of super vising medical examinations throughout the nation, and of granting licenses for medical practice He also suggests that as it will be some time before the government is able to e<1uip thoroughly a medical coliege according to western standards, it may be advisable for the gove1n11wnt in the rneantime to take over partially any 11011-government medi~al instruction which shows a desire to cooperate with the l{epublic. We are not sure that sue.It a project is feasible. But the establishment of a standard o~ llll'die.al ednent.ion bv one or two schools equal to the best in Europe or Amerie;1 would reuder China a serviee beyond estimate. Dr. Wu Lien-teh further suggests that in order to keep abreast of rnedie.al education, indeed, in orde1 to prevent deterioration in medical standards after graduation, each medical studeut should be required to master some modern language, and suggests the :English language as upon the whole the best language for the government to prescribe for use in auy

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medical colleg e over ,., hich the goveinment uwy have any authority. In this couuedion it rnay he well to suggest th e possibility or the advisabiiity of the Chinese govermueat following western precedent, and indeed advancing beyond many ,restern governments by 111aking the care of health n public function. Dr. 11. l\l. Diggs, head of iltc Pnblie llealtl1 Departrnc:>Ht of New York State, says that the dl! :ttlt rate in the civilized world during the seventeenth aml l i ighteenth ceuturies as nearly as can he ascertained a re raged from fifty to seventy.Jive per tlwusaud. Possibly the death rate nwy not he fa1 from that figul'e in some portions o[ Chi ua to-day. But Di. Biggs e alls attention to the fad that for e1e1y per.;;on who dies each year thcte are some ten to fil'teen p nson8 dis<1ualilied for work by illness for a longer or shortc1 pol'tiou of the year. He fllrthct points out the fact that the death rate in New York has been cut fl'Olll thirty-six per thousand in 1866 to fourtew per thousand in l!H3. vVe nuty be re,1sonauly sure that the de.tth raL(~ in China is at least as high to-day as it was iu New York iu 1866. It is possible from the gaills in Ji[e and health whieh have been made in western lauds that Chiua ean add au avernge o[ five years to t-lw length of he1 p eople's life with cotTC3ponding gains to the healLh of the uatiou. When we remembe1 that wealth is lal'gely the result of hunrnn labor, such a gain in longevity and health as is e:isily possible in China would add to the wealth-producing cap teity o[ this n ation a smn so vast as to be almost in ealeulable. Hence a need not oulv ol' a ?\cw Standard of rn~clieal e ducation in China, but aiso of a new Chines~ type of unsdfi8h Christi tn 1tnnlt0od for physicians. ls not the preseut time when few western physicians in China. are engaged in i,tivate pt;adiee, when modern medical prndiee in tliis land is ehi efiv in the haucl3 of missiouaries aml represents the higlt watel' mark of altntistie s e rvice, a favorable time to advorntc tlwse methods for the conserva tion of the health of the Chine,e people whidt western nations are beginning-au intrnduction ,d1ich the sel'vicc of we:stem physieians on salaries i118teacl of foes would make especially easy in China at tlie present ti1ue Ati

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42 I:1..IGtous ASl'i!'.CT A!Sb CHUilCI-1 .H'FAinS. 'l'he view expressed above of the necessity of Chris tianity for the national life of China is far more prevalent among Chinese students than among officials. 'l'his convic tion is especially strong among Chinese students in America, and found notable expression in the recent Kansas City Convention of Student Volunteers. When we remember that as the students in the universities are thinking to-day so the nation will he moving to-morrow, this moverneut is full of hope. Ou the other side, we must remember that a eonsiderable number of students returning in recent years from Japan, and a lesser number from Europe and Ameriea are affected hy the agnost.icism of Herbert Spencer, the soeialis~11 of l\larx and the materialism of Haeckel. Again we must bear in mind the principle, as think the students to-day, so moves the nation to-morrow. If the students accepting the Christian philosophy of life were equal in numbers, or approximately equal in nnmbers, to the students accepting a rnaterialistie or agnostic philosophy, the Chris tian students by their stre11gth of character would inevitably rise to the leadership of the nation. But with the government sending more students abroad than the l\Iissious can send, with state teachers in the United States forbidden to teach Christianity dire c tly, and with some degree of indifference, worldliness and skepticism affecti11g university life in America and Europe, probably more than half of the students returning from the western nations and from Japan are non-Christian. We sec the critical nature of the si tudion from a reeent report of the religious condition of the University of Tokyo where many Chinese are securing an education and where, according to Ute statisti<:1:i of Dr. Gamewell, out of 4,966 students, (j eurnlled themselves a:; Uonfueianists, 60 as Uhristiat1s, JOO as lluddhi:,;ts, 1,000 a:,; atheists, and 8,000 as agnosties. Surely, if we eouternplale the tinal evangelizaliou and Uhri;-;tiauizatiou ol' Cl1ina, uot by foreign rnissiouaries but by the Chinese thern:,;dves, Uhristian ed11catiou in the key to the situation. Plainly, it will require 111cmy, many millions of couverted Ul1iucse laymen to transform the eivilization ol' three or four hundred million people and make China Christian. It will require many, many thousand Christian leaders willing to

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)L\TEUIAL Pltol,HESS ,\NIJ ci-inrstrA:N!'l'Y. 43 abandon political and business life and to devote themselves to the salvation o [ China in order to train these rnillioLs ,rho in turn are to tnmsform the civilization of the nation. It will require a speedy and large increase of Christian :d1ools and college s in China in order that their graduates may furnish the Christian l e aders of the nation to train the millions who in turn shall shape the civilization of the nation. At this point another problem confronts us. J~vcryone who looks ahead a r1uarter of a eentury recognizes that the immeJJS: ) material resources of China will be opened during this period, either by the Chinese or by other people. Baron Hichtofen in 1870 wrote: "the world at the present rate of eonsumption of eoal eould be supplied for thousands of years from 8hansi alone." i\Ir. Willis Bailey, an American geologist, says that the 500 feet of thiekne,s which H,ichtofen observed in the Shansi strata may be due to folding, and hence that this thickness may not continue over the entire coal region in Shansi. Should this particular estimate of Baron Hichtofen prove too large, he was here portraying the coal resources of only a single province ; and coai is !mown to exist in at least eight e en of the twenty-two provinces, find in very large quantities in many of them lndeed, experts now think that China has the largest resources in coal, iron, copper and antimony of any nation on earth. Another fact must be borne in mind, viz. that pig iron is being produced in IIanyang at a cost of some iive to :-even dollars gold per ton, as compared with a eost of twenty to twenty two dollar8 gold per ton for whieh pig iron of no better quality is selling on the Pacific coast of America. The contract recently made with the Standard Vil Company promises the early development of the oil resources of the 1iation along with a fuller discovery of her mineral resources. Again, China is iJJtroducing western inventions and is entering upon the era of machine 11rnnufaetnring With her almost inexhaustible s11ppiy of l'heap labor of good r111ality she will soon be eompeting with other nations in the 111auufoetu1cs of the world llenl'e, under whatever form of government the Chinese people may continue, provided peace and order arc assured, the natiou

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HELWIOCS ASPECT ,\Xl> .c1-runcH AFJ.'AIJlS. is certain to enter upon a stage of gl'eaL material develop rneut. Already the leaders of Chin a arc fully awake aml the nation is rapidly awakening Already China is face to face with the rest of tlte world mid every missiouary might :,;ail home to-morrow with the assurance that Chiua would presently enter upon th0 stage of material civilization ,vhich 11ow characterizes tile western nation:,;. But so far from this material pl'ogress marking the dose of missionary labor, it only increases the urgency of our tasks. The great problem which eonfronts even the ,resteru world is the Christianization of om conunereial and industrial, of our artistic and social life, of onr education and business and politics. Indeed, without the advanee ol' our ethical standards the permanent survival of our existing civilization in Emope and .America is by no means assured. Hut if the problem which eonfronts the western world is a serious one, we are facing a erisis in the whole eastern world. Here civilization is pa:,;sing from a pagan condition into a eoudition of material progress without the 2 000 y ears of Christian discipline and the existing Christian forces wltielt are influencing our western civilization. It seems certain that if the civilization of India and Japan and China simply become so far occidentalized as to aeeept our inve11tions and material civilization, along with our ,restem vices added to the vices of pag anism, the new ci \'ilization of Asia will b e eome rotten before it is ripe. 'l'he only hope of vigorous national life and of permanent progress in Japai1, India and China is a large inerease of ethical power. We may add that the ac<:eptance or reje c tion of Christianity by the 800,000,000 people of India, China, ,Japan and l\Ialay sia will determine the triumph or long delay of Christianity upon our globe; and that this probiem will be settled one way or the other during the present century. l\lr. Eddy writes: 'l'he nations of Europe at the close of the Heuaissanec and the Reformation set onee for all in either Catholie or Protestant moulds. Northern Europe responded to the new awc1kening iu the Protestant Reformation. Southern Europe responded in a Catholic reaetion and eountcr-refornrntiou. But the map of Europe has been little changed since that day, and the future centnric1 took their direction from the forrn ati ve period. It will IJe the same in Asia." The crisis is so

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'flm Tntm AD[ JN Clffi!STTA'.', EDUCATfON, 4 5 pressing ancl lhe (onseq1wnces of fnilnrr are so appalli11g that Japan was fully justified in summoning in 1!)12 Christians, Buddhists, and Shintoists around the council table and pledging each to do hi8 utmost for the increase of the moral Ii fe of that nntion. In the real, not 11wrely formal, parliamentary government in Ja pan her leaders recognize more folly thnn ever the need of added moral strength, nnd some of them are looking to Christianity to snpply that need. This cerfainty of material developrne11t and u11cer tainty of corresponding moral progress constitutes the erisis now t>onfrouting the whole worhl, hut pecnlimly eonfronting Asia. The considerations named ahove reveal two fundamental needs in Christian education in China: first, along with the introduetion of the applied sciences of the west already assured, Christinn missions ought to help millions of yonng ChiEe~e to experience the Ji fe of Christ in the sonl of nrnn nnd to be c ome strong in morals for the home Ii fe, the lmsincss life and the politica l life of the nation. At least forty or fifty millions should be led to Christ and trai necl in ChriRtian civili zation as sreedily i!S possihle if the ,rhole three to fom hundred million Chinese are to l:ecome so domin ated bv Christian itlen ls that the progress and safety of the natioi'1 are assured. :B'or missionaries alone to undertake this task in a single generation, or in two or three generations, is simply hopeless. Second: in onlcr to supply this prel'.sing need it is even more important that the missionaries imbue the thousands or iens of thousands of students 1 .0111ing to them so fully with the Spirit of Christ that a goodly proportion of them will abandon all worldly nrnbitions aucl like the original apostles devote their li,es to the salrntion of others. In a word, in onr Christian education ,rn rnnst aim at quality even more than c1mmtity. Onr only hope i,; that the few thousand who complete our eonr,es or study may themselves become the leaders and teachers of of-her:::, aml tl1at thus the Chines e may the1m :ehes save tlw nation. 'vVe may be sme tli a t tliis is the divine plan. \Vere we to train 10,000 or even 50,000 young men aucl women during the present generation simply to lend Christian liYes

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4G HELlG!OUS ASPEC'f AND CHURCH AFFArns. in their homes and in their business, what would this handfnl of laymen he among the count.less millions of China ? If, on the other hand, we can train 10.000 or even !'>,OOO young people in such a way that they will count their lives not denr unto themselves, if we can rast this plastic material into such proplietic moulds that these young people will surrende r all earthly ambitions and comforts and hecome the preacl1ers and teachers of China, then there is boundless hope Pro\'i sion for this last need seems lo us fundamental in any far-reaching program for China. In a word while Christian statesmanship should make us brond enough to cnrourage some of our graduates to enter business and political life, nevertheless, does not Christian statesmam;J1ip compel us to nrnke one chief aim of our educational work identical with Christ's aim in the training of His disciple,'? vVe dwell upon this aim of our educational work hecausc the end aimed at will determine the method of doing the work. No education in Europe or America has been i,elfsupporting save private schools and some schools for hnsine3s -the so-called commercial colleges and for a time in America. some so-called medical colleges. Very wisely, educational leaders in the home land have seen the need of lifting general, medical and commercial education above the cornmereial plane; and such education is being rapidly transferred to our endowed or else to our state supported universities. It is possible for ns to repeat in China our American experiment of commercial and eomrnercialized education. Por over 2,000 years the Chinese have sought an education chiefly as a qualification for i;;e2uring office; and offiee holding has been a profession for personal gain as much as banking or commerce. 'I'herefore, the Chinese have not fuily recognized the necessity of furnishing general education at the public expense any more than the necessity of. training carpenters or farmers at public expense 'fhis view of office holding as a profession for which the Chinese qualified themselves at their own expense in the same manner in which they qualified them selves for banking or merchandise helps to account for the demoralization of political life in China. The willingness of the Chinese to pay for their education in case the education will speedily repay them may c onstitute a grave temptation

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EDUCATION ON A PAYING BASIS, 47 for missionaries to put their schools and colleges upon a paying hasis. While schools largely self -supporting are possible in China, yet in the nature of the case such schools must largely lose their practical Christian influence Such schools cense to be founded upon the Gospel, i.e. npon the fact that the teachers are giving themselves withont hope of rewnrd to the service of others. In the nature of the cnse, a school conducted on the basis of compensation rather thnn the basis of grace cannot win any considerable number of students who will abandon all thought of compensation and for the sake .of love devote their lives to the service of China We can and we ought to expect Christian parents to help in the education of their children, and Christinn students to l1elp in payi11g for their education This is necessary to preserve the self-respect of the Chinese and to develop strong men and women: just as it is necessary that children help in the common life of the family if they are to become strong. But it is impossible for a Christian school to demand complete self-support upon the part of its students and yet irain them to lifelong loyalty and sacrifice for its ideals, ns it would be impossible for a Christian home to put every child upon the basis of self-support nnd yet. expect lifelong loyalty to the family If in China we place our colleges upon a basis of self support and are willing to organize classes for high school and even for intermediate school studies, we shall presently find our dormitories filled and be able to report hundreds crowding our so-called colleges. We think we cnn increase the charges and yet keep our college hostels :filled with students But in all such cases we slrnll soon find three facts staring ns in the face : first, that we are not holding our students long enough to give them a thorough education; second: just in proportion as our work leaves the bnsis oJ' the Gospel and is done for coinpensation, the students paying the bills will regard us as rich men's sons often regi:,rcl their tutors, viz as working for hire, ranking us indeed nhove other servants but below themselves; third, ,re shall :fiml thr student material crowding into our college hostels and paying the hills largely non-Christian material. We are not simply taking counsel of our fenrs at this point. Jn India

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48 nELIGTOllS Af'PEC'f AND cmmcn AFFAIR". the Chrisfom C'hnrehrR hnvc )1r,cn r,nger to engage in highe1 edncatio11, and have heeu further sfrcngthe11ed in 1!1is work by the generosity of the English government which consents to pay a consicforablc sum for the tuition of C\'ery student passing the government examinations, whatever school may furnish this instrnction. Hence, in onr eager ness to enroll students upon a paying basis, 92% of the f'tudents in the Christian colleges in India are non Christian 1md So/c, arc Christian. As the resnlt of this overwhelming nrnic:s of: non-Chrislinn material and of tlw caste system in India, it is almost impossihle dnriug the four years the students are in college to lead them to Christ-much less to that com:ecration ahsolnlely necessary upon the part of onr Chinese students, if they are to save the great masses of China vV c shall indeed be saved in Chinn from the tremendous weight which the cast e system in J ndin throws against Chrislirmity. But no man who looks the facts fnirly in the faee will believe it possible to ndrnit into onr so-called Chrisfom colleg e s nn overwh elming mnss of: non-Christiau material and dnring the fone years of crowded student life not only lead these young. peopie to a vital Christian experience, but also while concluding our own work upon a paying basis lead them into such a conseeration to Goel as \vill put them into the R e eoud gronp-the gronp of apostlrs and prophe ts instencl of the group entering upon secular careers. Ilere again \Ye nre not r;imply tnking courn,el of onr fears. "\Ve are familiar with a eollege in China conducted, with such aid as eonld be se c ured from the Chinesl', largely upon a paying bnsis. 'l'hc c;ollege did superior work.and r e maine:d thoroughly Ci1ristin11 in th lives nnd infl.ne111>.c of the missionary teachers But clming n rnreer of almoi:;t twenty years the missionaries were nble to turn only two or three stud ents who completed its eourse into the Chrifitian ministry. lf, therefore, the Chiuese are certniu timing the next twenty-five or :fifty years to be awakened to the adnrntnges of our rnaterinl civilization, to introduce om ,vestern inventions and to add our western civilization with our \restern vices to the pagan vices already e xisting here, and if the 8npreme need for the preserviltion of the Chinese nation is not

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COST OF CHr:ISTIAN EDUCATION. 49 simply western knowledge but moral character, and if the supreme aim of mission:iry statesmanship in educational work is the training of men who like the apostles will devote them selves soul and body to the conversion of China and the development of moral character, we submit that a system of so called Christian education conducted mainly on the lines of self-support and concentrated chiefly upon college work will prove utterly disappointing. Christian states1m;nship in Chinese education demands that this education be conducted to a considerable extent upon a basis of grace and not of compensation, and the aim be not simply the completion of the training of persons already prepared for college, but the training of sufficient material in the primary :ind intermediate schools so that a majority of the students entering college shall come from Christian homes, with a Christian experience which is genuine so far as it extends. Again, the overwhelming mass of young people will never enter college. All the education they acquire must be through Christian schools of lower than college grade. Hence; the pn,paration of the first and the vastly larger nnrnher of students for Christian citizenship as well as of a small group of students for the ministry and teaching demands Christian teaching in the lower schools as fully as in the college. China probably will 1Jot excel the United States in the ability of students to carry their education forw:ird to the completion of the college course. Bnt there arc in the united States 96 stndents in the schools of lower grade for every stndent in 1 1 ollege. Hence; the nnrnher in the lowe1 ~:choo]R in Chinn will he to the nnmber in c ollege :mhstanti:i lly 100 to l Certaiuly, it will coRt 88 mnch to fnrnish Christian ednration to the 100 in the lo\1 er sc hools as to the one Rtndent in the f ollcge. Indeed, :my fair cnJ,,nlation will reeognizc that th1 J\IisRionR onght to provide for a l:irger hudget for Christim1 e
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50 RELTGIOU.3 ASPECT AND CHURCH AFFAIRS. are to set a standard and exercise a moulding influence upon the higher education of China. We have spoken of the grave danger now confronting Christian education in China, viz., the re2eption into our. so-called Cluistian colleges of so lnrge a nrnss of non-Christian material that it is impossible to transform this materir,l in fonr years. But, on the other hand, we shall make an equally fatal blunder if we emphasize the Christian character of our schools in China to the neglect of thorough, honest work. Indeed, such an attempt involves a (,ontradiction in t~rms, though unforlnnately we have seen the effort made in America Our Christian eollege8 in China must not offer courses simply collegiate in name. In our desire to mnintain separate denominational sehools in Japan \\'C fonnded more colleges than we are ahlc to maintain upon n hnsis suffieiently high to meet the goveenrnent requirements. TTenre, in part possibly through jealousy of foreign teaching, hut peobahly more largely through the failure of our highrr i,mtitntions in scholastic thoroughness, not a single Christian collrge in Japan with the exeeption of Dosltisha has scenre
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TJ'.'\[\'l':Rs!'rrns AT Ho:\rn AND IN THE FAil EAST. 51 from one to two million dollars gold every year. In addition to these sixteen universities, there are six more each of which spends over $750,000 gold annually for its students and :-:everal more over $500,000 gold each. There are forty-four institutions limiting themselves to four years college instruction, one of which spends over l\il,000,000 a yenr, four more over $750,000 a year, and ten more over $500,000 a ye11r, while thirteen more spend over $300,000 a ye!'lr. In all, therefore, there are one hundred and nineteen institutions eaeh of \\'hich spends over $300,000 per yenr for its students. In Canada there are some twenty-five colleges whose annual incomes do not average as high as the one hundred and nineteen already described; but most of the~c are doing good scholastic work aiid all of them are open to Chinese students. 'i'uming to Europe, there arc thirty-one universities and eolleges in the United Kingdom outside of Oxford and Cambridge In Cambridge there are eighteen colleges and in Oxford there are twenty-two; and most, if not nll, of the English colleges are note.cl for their thoroughness, and all of these r olleges weleorne Chinese students. In Belgium and Holland there m;e seven 1111iversitie::;: in Frame there are seventeen, and in Gernrnny tw enty, some of tlw latter offering more advamcd instruction then can he fonud in tl1e U11ited States or perhaps in any other part of Europe, and these universities also are open to Chinese students. Even if the Christian drnrchcs were willing to offer the Chinese a cheap quality of education, in view of the knowledge of these foreign opportunities now spreadiug throughout the nation, it would be impossible for them to hold the best Chinrn,m students. Moreover, superior education is now offered even in the li'ar East. l\fanih Universitv is iu the front dooryard of Asia and her annual hudgct reached $:H:3,-000 in 1912 and is advanciug hy leaps and hounds. Turning to Japan, the University of Tokyo is also in the front dooryard of Asia. Iler expenses at the present time arc $650,000 gold per year and her courses in the applied science3, in engineeriug and other teehnieal subject, are unexcellcd. Everyone knows that China has believed in higher ed11eation many centuries longei: than Japan and th:1t she yet nssigns .erlnc,1tion a higher relative

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:"5~ RELIGIOUS ASPECT AND C'HUTICI-1 AFFAIRS. rank as compared with war and industry than any other nation upon earth. Hence, it is certain that as soon as the Chinese nation is established upon a sound basis she will spend for the education of her young people even larger sums than Japan. It is worse than idle, therefore, for Christian missionaries to dream of setting the standnrd for higher education in China, of helping cast the education of this vast nation into Christian moulds, of contributing in any appreciable measure to the training of millions of young people for business careers and for cultured Christian homes, and of tens of thousands of them for teachers, preachers, writers and political leaders, unless Fe are prepared to furnish a college education which in grade and thoroughness will compare favorably with the first four years of work offered at other universities and colleges uow open to the Chinese We recognize that it will not 1equire vast expenditure upon the part of Christian colleges in China to offer two or three college courses as thorough as any offered in Europe or America. We can offer fewer courses and 1ve can find American, European and Chinese graduates of the very finest preparatiou willing to work on missionary salaries rather than upon the higher salaries often paid in America. But with all these considerations in mind, is it statesmanlike for us to plan to conduct Christian colleges in China without Rn annual budget which during the nr.xt five years will rise to $100,000 gold a year for each college? In addition to this, in order to have Christian material for our colleges, we must certainly spend at least as much for the great mass of students in the schools below the colleges as for the small group of students in the college proper. This would demand an annual budget for eaeh Christian plant of substantially $200,000 gold a year ]\[oreovcr, it is simply impossible to establish and maintain a Christian civilization without Christian homes and without educated Christian women in these homes. Inasmuch as coeducation is at present impracticable i11 China, the Christian church HS r, whole ought to provide for the education of girls in all the schools below the college 011 substantialiy the same basis as for the education of the boys, and there should be at least

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C .\i\IPAIGN FOR PROPERTY AN l) EQUil'~IEl\'l'. l)3 one or two Christian colleges for women in China In addi tion to all this, we must offer in China first class theological and medical education and good post -graduate courses in psychology, philosophy and Chinese history and literature. Surely if there ever was a time when Christians should follow the advice of Christ and sit down and count the cost, missionary statesmen should do so to-clay in planning the Christian work of China for the next twenty five or fifty years. Onr readers in China and in the home lands may feel that the task is utterly beyond our reach. Our answer is twofold: fast, it is Christ who summons us to the Christian i z atiou of China, and by discerning His plan and the resources He has in store for us, we shall Jind it possible to fulfil His commission; sceoml, jnst because our resour1:cs aic wholly)nacleqnate for our present mtplannccl cnterpri8es, all([ just b e cause 1ie arc sure Christ has a plau for us, we are bound at least to at.tempt to discover what He would haYe us do. If ou1 r e sources ,vc1e unlimited, then w e would not need to follow oul' Saviour's mhice and sit down aml count the cost; we would simply meet each demand as it arose. But if we lnvc not funds sufficient for the tasks which confront us, what shall we do with the limited means at our disposal 'I ls it not simply sinful with means so inadequate to om tasks for each single l\Iission wilhout serious study of its tasks, without thought of the future and without effort to double or treble its efficiency by eoc >peration with other Missions simply to go forward launching enter prises which are doomed to failure and which because they are doomed to failure will break the hopes of the Chinese who look to us for help, the spirit of our friends at home 'who entrust to us the expenditure of their funds, and above all the heart of Christ' ? Providentiallv. the chill'ches at home already are grasping the situation and all Protestant Christianity in America is planning for 1915 a campaign for Property and Equipment on mission fields. Can we not in the first place limit ourselves for the present to four or fh-e Christian colleges or universities for China, and J;y properly placing these universities put at least one Christian University in reach of every earnest stnclent in the land I Can we not provide r e asonably well for honest college work

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54 RF.:LIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHURCH AFlcAIHS, of a high grade and for the post-gradnate courses named on a budget of $100,000 gold a year to begin with 1 Can we not depend 11po1; the women of Christendom to provide for the Chinese girls and young wornen us well as the men provide for the Chine!'e boys and young men? We do not think it is impossible, IJy rallying the forces of Protestant Christendom for a Property and Equipment l\Iovemcnt in l 915, to secure an endowment of a million dollars gold for each of the four university centers in China, and of anothe1 million for the mainternmce of the lower schools in connec tion therewith. 'l'his would yield us $50,000 for the lo.rer education and $50,000 for the higher education. We could then trust all the Protestant churches combined in the home lands and the awakeuing Chinese to raifc another $100,000 annually for Christian education in China for each of these four centers, $50,000 for the university, and $50,000 for the schools of lower grade. The problem is indeed a large one and its realization will r,eml ns many times to our knees in prayer. But the burden is by no n{eans b e yond the expecta tion of a reasonable Christian faith Indeed, we believe that by the help of God the first part of the program-the securing of two million dollars each for the endowment of four plants can be realized by a united effort of our greathearted philanthropists on the one ;;,ide nml the Christian churches in the Property and Equipment l\Ioveme11t in } 915 on the other; and if God helps us to realize the first part, He will inspire and guide ns in ea rryiug the enterprise to a i:;uccesi:;l'ul conclusion. No one can foretell the future. \Ve arc uot certain tliat. 011 t ealls for aid ,ril I meet a large resrtonse. But should the churches at home fail to make any effort at all for Property aud E<1uipment, their failure would render federation all the more imperative in order to make our limited resources ac<:ornplish the most possible for the salvation of China. 'l'he argumeut for federation rests not upon prospects of larg0 gifts, but upon the obligation to use all gifts, large or small, for Lhe best possibie service of China. Clearly, this program is beyond the reach of any individual church. If we ask the united Protestant churches to raise some eight million dollars for property and equipment and then raise added funds each year for current

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REASONS FOR U:SJO~ Al\D CO-(>PERA'fION, 55 expenses for Christian education in China, why may not one of the strongest churches attempt to raise two million dollars of this property and equipment fund and then attempt to raise additional fonds for the lower sc:hools and thus maintain one of these four plants~ For the simple reason that no dmrch strong enough to undertake any such program is confined to any single spot in China or is willing to be so confined. Every Protestant church in China strong enough even to dream of such a work is scattered over an area of at least one thousand miles in one direction and four or five hundred miles in another direction. Such a church would be obliged to spend heavily for medical and evangelistic work and buiid up and maintain a Christian constituency throughout her territory. She would be obliged to provide not only for the college but for the day school~, the intermediate schools and the high schools in order that she might have Christiau material for the college: the women of that church would be obliged to provide for a somewhat similar course of education for the women of the territory These demands would compel her to gather all hel' fol'l;cs aml coneentrate he!' l:fforts upon that particular section of China which :;he cleetcd to serYP. Again, every :;trong l'rotcstant church no11 at work in China Jind:; tl1e territory she would need for s11ch a movement alt-eady occupied by other strong churches as well a8 by her:;elf, and it would be utterly impracticahle to ask. all of these other tlrnrclws to li'ithtlraw from that territory aud leave that field to herself. la a word, with the work in China now JHarlrnd out along lines determined hy a hundred years of rnis:;ionary c ffort, it i:,; utterly impractieable to draw the leading ehurehe:,; or lhe leading denomiuatioual families into four separate scdiou:; of China and make such a territorial division of the 1rntio11 as will permit the lmilding up of the:,;e Chri:;tiau eo!lege:; aloug purely denomiuationi.tl lines. Any :;ingk: cltuich which attempts the aceon1plishmcnt of the enterpri:;e along these lines will he obliged to confine its efforts to a :;ingle portion of China and will find itself overshadowed in this single portion by the other Protestant clmrches combiDed. It may he said we are appealing to low financial considel'ations: that we are making the esbtblislunent of

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5G RlsLlGIOUS ASPgcT A'.\D CHURCH AFFAillS. Christian edneation in China a mere matter of dollars aud eeuts. In one sense the charge is a slander; in two other senses the charge contains some truth. lt is a slander to say that the Christians who are planning for union i11 the Christian education of China ar0 governed by mere financial con siderations. 'I'o plan that our srhools and colleges shall furnish th0 Chinese thorough scholarship of a high quality is to be governed, not by love of money, but by the love of honesty; it is to plan that our education shall he genuine and Christian throughout-not a deprivation of young people of their one opportunity for securing a thorough preparation for the present life, on the ground that we are thns guaranteeing their safety for the life tlrnt is to eotnc. :-;o far as the charge that we are rccko11i11g witlt mate,ial 11s ,i ell as spiritual forces has any tl'lltl1, it is this: 'J'lin Parable of the Talents and especially the Parable o I' the J'oor Widow show that Jesus regarded tlte sadifice of' 011t worldly goods for the sake o[ the kiugdom as one o[ tile highest proofs of tlw Chl'istiau s1Jirit. Judccd, He makes this so high a test ot: tlw geuuineness ol' Christiauity that i11 I Lis pidnrc of the Last Jndgmeut lle makes clothing the naked and feeding the h uugry, giving drink to the thirsty and visiting the prisoners, the test of fitness for heaven. We have a right, therefore, to appeal to the home churches and to Chinese Christians for funds on the ground tha.t their financial sacrifices in the interest of the kingdom are tests of the genuineness of their piety. W c are also prompted by economic motives, because we believe that these economic motives will spur the Christian churches toward and even possibly compel them to a great, spiritunl, forward movement in the direction of Christian unity. ls it not remarkable that economic motives are now telling tremendously on the side of sobriet~, in the great struggle against the use of liquor 'I Is it not also significant that eco nomic forces are at the bottom of the struggle which is bound to result in a far better and more Christian adjustment of the relations between capital and labor? It is also striking that ecouomic forces largely compelled the struggles for the abolition of slavery. Indeed, it is becoming almost a trnisn1 of history that ccouomic forces underlie every movement of

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DENO MTN AT!O.N AL CONTRIBUTION 8. 57 soeiety. So it is <1uite pnssible that the ruler of the universe 1s nsmg e~onomic forces to compel the Christian ehurch to face the spiritual union embodied in Christ's last prayer for the unity of believers As an illustration of the uuity of the Spirit we who favor eoiiperatiou must remember tlwt those ,,ho oppose it are as consci entious as ourselves, that they hesitate because they fear the trnth or the life for which they stand will lJe sacrifo:ed in union work. We musl show snch appreeiation of the truth for which they stand as to dispei such fears and assure theni that we are aiming at the larger life and glory of each branch of the church. "And whether one member snffereth. all the 111c1111Jers su lfor with it; 01. u1w membee is !touor~d, all the 11wrnbers rejoice with it. Now ye arc the body o[ Christ a 1td several lv rnemhcn; tlwr,of." Our readers will SC'C that tlie plau Oltlliucd coulelllplatcs .i syskm o[ Chrislia11 higlt schools uuderlyiug the college, oJ: i utcrrncdiatc school:,; 11mkl'ly ing the l1igh school:;, and of Christia1t day sdtools uuclerlyiug the internwdiatc sdiools. ln order to furnish suftieieut Christiau material for the college each of the cooperntiug l\lissions ought to maintain at le:ist one high school, two or three iutermediate schools, and a score of clay schools. In these sC'hools pains should be take.u not only,.to teach the Bible, but to teach all the doctrines and the forms which each particular Mission believes to he e:;seutial or helpful to the spiritual life. These forms and doctrines will be filled with larger and larger meaning as the student advances in years and knowledge. Certainly there should be also an earnest effort to lead these children into a vital Christian experience which should be thoroughly genuine so far as it extends. 'l'ltis plan contemplates twelve years of separate denominational work, and if this work is done thoroughly, we believe that each Mission will not only fully conserve its own material but will coutributc to the common Christian education given in the college the special truth aucl life for which God has providentially raised up that church. So far from considering the irreducible minimum of religious belief in union work, we should aim throughout at the largeness and richness of the Gospel represented by the vJrious churches. But along with the twelve A

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58 UELTGJOllS ASPECT AND CHUHCH Al'FAlHS. years of denomiuational training with which the students coming from the Christian lower schools wouid enter college, we believe that four years of common Christian training, during which time each student should become familiar with the peculiar excellency of the other Protestant churches, would be of priceless bellefit to the student, and would save China from repeating the era of narrow sectarian strife which has greatly hindered the progress of ihe kingdom in Christian lands. Our final plea, therefore, for mis:,:ionary cooperation in collegiate and post-graduate work is that only by this method can tlte student perceive and in some measure accept the riches of knowledge and the fulness of power which reside in the infinite Christ. Like the colors of the rainbow, one church represents the blue light of truth, another the reel light of zeal, a third the green light of the living world, and a foudh the yellow light of the spiritnal life-hut only as all of these lights are combined do we get the white light of the living Christ InI-initely greater, therefore, than the economi c motives which compel our co-operation, and iu(initely greater than the educational advantage growiug out of it are the spiritual gains which our united churches could insure fo1 the eountless rnillioJJs of the J<'ar East. V. Christian Federation In regard to church union, or rather Clrnrch li'ederatiun looking towanl the ultimate uuity of {)]Jristendorn, greater progress was made last vear under the direct influence of Dr. Mott's visit than in any preceding year iu our entire history. The China Continuation Co1t1111ittee then organized is the most practical step yet taken toward helping shape through moral influence alone the policy of the Protest.nit churches iu China. The work of the Committee ought to result i11 the bettet coordination of all the agencies working 011 the field, and in the eoiiperatiou of all agencies in literary work, in educational work and to a considerable extent, in evangelistic work. The independent Chinese Church was given the same recognition by the sectional conferences of 1913 and the National Conference at Shang hai nR other branches of the Christian Church and wisely

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'l'HE BODY OF CHHIST. was accorded larger representation than on account of its small numbers it felt free to ask. While we do not think the independent movement is making rapid progress, never theless, the representatives of this movement exerci~cd a large and wholesome intluence upon the Conferences of 1913. If all the churches adopt as a common title THE CmtrsTL\N CHuncn JN CHINA, a11Cl if cad1 church avails itself of the privilege of reporting along with its own statistics the common statistics of them all, we may find it easier to sur render denon1inational advantages in the interest of the whole kingdom, and we may save China from such a multiplication of rival churches as has coLstituted one of tl1e weaknesses of Christendom in the home lands. :Moreover, the local control of the Chinese churches as rapidly as possible should be transferred to conferences in China composed of Chinese and missionaries; und in these conferences all members should be ecclesiastically equal ,1ithout reference to nationality. 'l'his would steadily and rapidly increase the influence of the Chinese members and would ultimately lead to their eo11trol in all the churches organized in China. C ertainly we must not n\peat in China the sliarneful :,;pedad e of a divided Cl1ristendolll whidt so S
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GO HELIGIOUS ASPECT AND CHU!lCH AFFAIR~. discussion and a frank reeognition of the :sin of sectarian strife. We do not know that the di vine plan eontemplates the merging of all the existing elmrehes into some existing elmrch or into a new agglome1ation uncle1 some fresh Chris tian title. It is quite possible that Christ needs the e0111plemeutary services of vaeious groups of Christendom as a great commander needs in a campaign the united efforts of infantry, cavalry and artillery. il.ndeed, it seems to us probable that the phrases in the Bible "household of faith," "vines and branches,'' body of Christ," rev~al the church as a great family of God composed of different branches, each fulfilling a different function. We do not think, there l'ore, that the different branehes of Christendom are in the111:,elvcs sinful in tlw sight of God. But we are sure that these hrnndws should he as vitallv nuited as tlw different brauchi:s springing out or tlH' same t;:el'. This is the union for ll"liich Cl1rist prnJtd iu tlw :;enntet.utl1 of ,Tohu, and Hotliiug short o[ s1Lt; h a unilH .is this shonkl lw the aim of Christendom. ~Ioreon:'.r, sudt a union can be Sl'l fonrnnl more rapidly ou the mi:;sion field where Christian institutions are plastic tha11 in the home lands where institutions are already crystallized. This is a specific service which the mission ehurches are to render the home churches in return for the great service which the home lands render the non-Christian world in bringing Christianity to it. If, therefore, our discussion helps in any measure, first, to the recognition of the weakness of the present movement for Confucianism as the state religion; second, to the recognition of the underlying desire of the noblest Chinese for ethical conduct and for supernatural aid in order that they may realize ethical ideals; third, if it leads to a i,trouger attempt of Christians in China to meet the crisis which confronts the whole eastern wol'ld by raising up through Christian elementary schools and colleges leaders for the spiritud conquest of the nation; fourth, if this in turn leads to nrnch intercessory prayer and to all personal and denominational sacrifices required for Christian eooperation in eollege and university work, and thus sets forward the unity of Christendom-the object of the paper will be met.

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CHAPTER III THE CONFUCIAN REVIVAL By Rev, H K. Wright, M.A., Ningpo The Chinern revolution brought in its train the icono clastic camp-followers to which history has grown accustomed. Europe and Ameri<:a kuow well the temporm-y loosening of moral and religious bonds that follows political revolution, a11Cl the Chinese proved themselves to he of one blood with all the nations of the earth, in this as in other respects Confucius, '' a transmitter and not a maker, believing in and loviug the ancients,'' was taken at his word and left to the company he preferred. .At least the vocal part of the nation said he was to be left there,-leaders of the revolution, editors of Chinese papers, students from abroad, officials under the new regime, non-Confncianists, and mauy others. Foreigners in general hailed this development with delight, as a hopeful sign of the times, thinkiug it meant freedom from mental shackles as well as political ones, and snppowd that au era of genuine religions freedom had begun. That i\Icncius was nominated for the vacant throne troubled no oue, and it hardly seemed to occur to current thought, that l\Iencius was more orthodox, if possible, tlrnn Confucius himself, though he did write that happy sentiment, tit to have been svoken by Lincoln, B. f;i; ~"The people are the most important element in a nntiou. The king is dead, long live the king, shouted the mentally intoxirated revellers; bnt all the \1-Jiile, the solid Conftwian s e ntinwnt that had existed before, was hardly affrctNl, txcept to lw silenced for the time, and e ither paid little nttention to the new cries, or looked on as Londoners coldly observant of Northumberland's efforts to set up Queen Jane. The question of personal and national loyalty to a revered Sage, however was swallowed up in other questions more immediately pressing. Whether or not a republican government is nearer to the political beliefs of JHenci us than

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THI~ CONFUCIAN REVIVAL, Confueius is a question that can afford to wait until we know whether the new government is really republican in the western sense, or only of the "imperial rqmblic '' order, to use Dr. Arthur Smith's phrase. That point is not yet as clear as it might be. At all events, the poEtical reaction was hound to come, and the religious one with it. 'l'he two are closely interwoven at some points, but we must stick to our text and consider chiefly the religious reaction. In it, as in the political one, the personality of Confucius becomes dim, for it plays a subordinate part in the religious system that hears his name. It is true that this has not teen as generally recognized as it should have been, and much arguing at cross-purposes hns resulted. Roman Christianity contains much doctrine and pra ctice not authorized in the Scriptures, but no one argues that for that reason Roman Christianity is not a religions system and could not logically he made a state religion Yet that ver1 view of Confucianism is frc (Jnently taken for granted on both sides of the <111estion in China; the Confnrianist8 have said that inasmuch as Con fiwianism is not a religion since it includes so much extra < anonical heliel' and practiee, it will not interfere with religions liberty to establish it, (President Y nan has most recently stated this argument in a form intended to clo8e the discussion) ; and the non-Confucianists reply, in effect, that they grant it is not a religion, but that nevertheless it is a system of belief and practice opposed to other systems that are religious and that to establish it will interfere with religious liberty. l\Iuch of this is to miss the forest from the multitude of trees. The position taken in this discussion is that Confueianism is that religion which has resulted in China from crossing animism with certain moral maxims and which has been rnu~1ed after the most prominent man concerned in the process. Bearing this in mind, let ns con sider the religious history ot' the past few months. In the first flush or the revol11tion, the old Confucian ceremonies were discontinued, the Temple of Heaven was put to secular use, and the study of the Confueian classics in schools was discouraged. Ancestral worship notabiy declined, but at each of the two succeeding New Year seasons, it was renewed :with steadily ill('.reasing ze1l. Then

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PETITION OF THE CONFVCJAN SOCIETY. 63 on the 22nd of ,Tune, 1913, came a Presidential mandate urging the study of the classics in the schools. On the 27th of September following, the birthday of the Sage was celebrated with unwonted fervour. In the meantime, a Confucian society had been formed in Peking, with an agitation for establishing Confucianism as the state religion as part of its a.vowed program and had sent to Parliament its petition for th a t end, a document which ,vas properly regarded as the party's manifesto, and which became therefore the chief bone of eontentiou in all the subsequent discussions. This petition may be summarized as follows:.l\lornlity is the fonmlatio11 of a nation, and the st.andard of mornlity depe!llls on religion Frnm the earlieRt t.imes the moral spirit of the people remained the same, and gave rise to the national religion, which became embulied historically in Confu cianism. Temples were erected in which prayer was offered to Confncins, nnd the nntion's St.atesmen l1ave alwnys looked to him for gnidnnce. The nnmbrr of rnlers wl10 were Rnddhists or .Taoists has been very few. '.I.'he basis of a repnblican form of government is likewise mornlit.y, mH.l the basis of Chinese moralit.y is Confncinnism. It is therefore necessary to revert to Confncianism ns the national religion During thousands of years it has been our state 1eligio11, and perfect. religio ns liberty has e xist1d nt the same time, 'l'o adopt Confncianism in tl1e new const.itntion "onl
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64 THE CONFl:CIAN REVIVAL. national character trill disappear and the nation will be destroyed. The formal adoption of a state religion will pre\'ent this and will be rather a benefit than otherwise to adherents of other religion~. St1ch countries as England, America, France and Rt1ssia cannot really be said to be without state religions, for tl1ey lia\'e them in their uml'l'itten constitutions. China at present is in so mt1cli confusion that she cannot afford to let this principle remain unwritten. Confnci:rnism should be laid down in the constitntion ns the state religion: by so doing the minds of the peopl e wi II L e restored to a state of stable fq11i!ibrit1m, and the administrntion of the country will proceeLl successfully. This petition wns signed on IJehalf of the Confucian Association by five men, Lia11g Ch'i-r,h'ao, Yen I!1'i1h, Chen Huan-chang, Hsia Tseng-yn ::iml Wang Shih-tung Of these, 1he first is the well-known reformer, the disciple of Kang Yn-wei, who has suffered persecution for the sake of reform, and who prefers a constituiional monarchy to a republic. The second is almost equally well-known as a scholar; having been educated abroad, he is noted both ar; an educator and as a translator. nis version of H uxiey 's Evolution, with his own notes and comments is a remarkable work, known to Chinese students everywhere. 'ro demo11-strate how extremes meet, he hafl also translated pal't of the Gospel of Mark; an interesting but fragmentary experiment. The fourth and fifth names are of men less generally knowu, and the third was likewise not verv familiar before this petition was made public, but it is now understood that he is the leading spirit of the Confucian association, and the most zealous agitator for 1he adoption of Confnrinnism as 1he state religion. Though still a yonng rn:m he is n Hanlin of the old educational system, and lrns also taken n dortorate in politirnl eronomy nt. Columhia Univ ersity. Crrtainl)' the petitioners r:mnot be :wcnsed of ignOJnnt. consrrvafonn, for wrst. crn learning, nnd lmowfoclge ot' 1l1e ,rorld, hoth i11 its history :md in the pref':ent eeonomi< and social relatiomi of the nations, nre amply nnd nhly represented nmong them. Dr. Chen bids fair to make the third in a latter-dav triumvirate; the infl11e1we of the first two pe1itionel's on tl{e stridents of China is alread:;r wide and profound. Whether or not they can serve the religious interests of their nation they have her welfare truly at heart; if they fnil, it ,,ill not

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ANTI-STATE-RELIGION i:'OCIETY. 65 be from wilful blindness. But in making morality seeond ary and religion primary as they do in the opening words of their petition, they have submitted their contentions to be judged by religious standards; they have ventured to speak of spiritual things, aml cannot complain if religions men make an effort to learn whether they have discerned these things spiritually, and whe1her 1heir conclusions will stand a ~piritual test. Naturally, however, this test could not be the one i1Eed in opposing the ~gitatiou, primary though it be to the inner interest of Christian believers. That the agitation would be opposed was a foregone conclusion, and from the first the Chinese church aded with au independence, ahility, earnestness and unity tlwt gratified all her foreign ,rell wishers. The Protestants in Peking c1nir kly formed an organization to oppose the new rnoveme11t, and sent requests to Christians throughout the republic for moral, spiritual and financial support in their plans. These requests met with prompt response throughout the provinces. One of the plans of the Peking committee was the formation of an anti-State-Religion society to be cornpoi,cd of representatives of' the non-Confucian religions, in order to consolidate and strengthen the opposition to the rneasme; this plan roused some opposition among Christians but not enough to disrupt the ranks, aud it was carried out. Counter petitions poured in, and the Christian press for weeks was ii1led with articles and letters dealing with the subject from every thinkable, theoretical or practical point of view. The secular press contributed its share, and in the course of a few months the literature became really voluminous. When the Peking committee sent in the national Protestant counter-petition a few weeks later, it was able to send with it the signatures of representatives of most of the churches in twenty-one provinces, and from Christian bodies in America and l\iongolia. This counter-petition may be summarized as follows:'Jliere are three classes of reasons :gainst the adoption of a state religion by China. (1) Legal reasons. A-fl

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66 THE CO~FUCIAN REVIVAJ,. (rt) Liberty of beliefand a state religion will mntnally conflict, for the mete existence of a stnte religion means favors for its ndherents impossible for ndherents of other religions to obtain. (b) The const.!tntion wiil not hav_e _the same_relations_to nil citizens, fo1 some will adhere to the religion est.abl1shed by 1t anti some not. (c) The q1wstion of religions qualification fnr offiep with all its nttendant woes, will be raised. (d) The nrnjnrit y of the peopln ,lo not f:tror n. eonst.iint,ion containing snch a clanse. To quote the example of sneh conntrieR as Denmark and Tnrkey, as the Confucian association hns done, is to remincl ns thnt snch examples are nnil'er~ally ,Teplore
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THE COUNTER-PETLTION. 67 (c) The relative number of Confncianists and other religionists in Parliament is no trne representation of the trne strength of Confnrianism in the repnblic, for the representation of Mongolia and Tibet is proportionally smaller than that of tlie rest of Chinn. i\Jnjorities rule in Parliament., Jrnt will not rnle in sections of the con n try whose religions fee I ings have been offencled. 'I'his counter-petition may be taken as a good example of what is best in them all. It is not without weaknesses of its own, but it contains, in one form or auother nearly everything that was in the Chinese miud to say on the question. The host of petitions mid essays printed during the six months when the agitation was at its height contains arguments good, bad aud iudiffereut; some of them cl1ildish, as the complaint that the President should not have asked for the prayers of Christians if he iutended to establish Confuciirnism; some of them lnughahle, as the solemn ns<'.everation of the moral superiority of Christ.ianitv. followed hy the solemn warning that if Confucianism is efltahlished, Christians will fly into a dreadful rage ,md help to disrupt the repuhlic; some o I'. them unfair, as the me of the provefl1 '' It is useless to talk with a well-frog abont the ocean," whieh hardly applies to the men who signed the Confucian petition. Bnt these were exr:eptio11s; very little that waB said could be called feeble, and nrneh of it reached deep and far, and was nobly strong and true, rovealiug in the apologists a Christian character most encouraging to the observer from abroad. Fanatir:s may be martyrs; only men of ripe nnd balanced wisdom who have innee acquaint ance with the deep things of Goel can he apologists who command respeet. Nor can it be cc,nnted n weakness that the r..rguments offered were so largely arl captandHm. Doubt less the statement in the National Review that "any form of official religions ritual breeds indifference and a certain mild hypocrisy" (not always so mild either) is true to that conviction in the hearts of the counter-petitioners which had the most personal weight for them; but it is not the most effective argument in a debntc of this kind. It is too .losely akin to religious feeling and conviction, too nearly a spiritual discernment," if indeed uot wholly so. Dnring the months of discussion, the Confucian assodation was not idle, nnd through the1r activity, hranch

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GS THF: CO:SFUC[AN RRVIV AJ.. societies were formed in the provinees and additional petitions favoring the establishment of Confucianism were sent in by some of the Tutuhs and some of the provincial m;scmblies. On the other hand, Vice-President Li, approar'.hcd hy a delegation of the Christians expressed hi1m:cl I' as opposed to the adoption of a state rr.ligion; the premier, Hsiung Hsi-ling, echoed the sentiment in unc1nalified terms The dissolution of Parliament in the middle of Jamrnry took the question out of their hands, leaving it for 1he President with the cabinet nnd the political council to settle. Much debate had ~dready taken place ove1; the proposal to add to ~ection 19 of the provisional constitution, which reads: "Citizens of China slrnll be under obligation to receive general education, the period of which shall be fixed hy law," the words, "and the doctrines of ConfnC'ins ~hall he regarded as the basis of moral education." But the President nnd his advisors let the matter of the constitution rest, and with tactical skill changed the vem1e of the question The Confucian association had clearly asked to haxe a religion estnblished; the ruling powers (focided to establish a church instead. In a mandate dated Febrnary 8th, the President urged the people to pay the usual honors to Confucius; he further announced his intention to put tl:e Temple of Heaven to its :mcieut m : e at the winter solsticl', :md sacrifice there ns reprernntative of the people. He further announced that he would carry out the semi-nnnual honors to Confucius; schools ,rerc also permitted to resume the praetice of worshipping the Sage's t.nblet, but there should be no eompulsion. About a month later another numdate reiterated the assertion that r e ligions freedom was io be undisturbed hy the resumptio11 of the old rites, and in a letter to .J\Tr. E. W. 'l'l1Wing, the President said, '' 'fhe worship of Confucius is an ancient rite which has heen observed for many nges in China's history and hss been handed clown from ancient times It has nothing to do ,rith religions Catholics, Protestants, l\lohammedans and men of other religions faiths find nothing to keep them from entering official life. If' a district magistrate is unable, or does not wish, to worship Confncirn,, the ceremony may be

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SUCCl~SS OF THE Cl rHISTIAN'S, 69 conducted by someone else." Evidently the President wishes to regard the discussion as closed. How far may the Christi-ans be considered as having won the figl1t in which they have engaged 'l'hey had two main obje~ts: ( l) 'l'o ensure religions freedom for all Uhinese, in the western sense ; ( 2) 'l'o prevent the Con f'ucim1 body from obtaining for the ancient cei'emonies iu which Christians cannot join that official recognition and honor which would give Confucianislll the advantage of place over other reli gions. In other words, Christians desired that Christianity should not merely be a reli:1io licita, but also should have no offbial handicap to its propaganda. Roughly speaking it has gained the first point and lost the second for the time being. With regard to religious freedom, the Confucianists asserted in their 1ntition, as Dr. Cheu had previously asserted in his Columbia dissertation, that China had always enjoyed it. 'l'his was repeated in the course of the discus sion, with the implication, sometimes the plain statement, that controversies which secmeJ religious were regarded by the Chinese as wholly political. The Uhristiaus retorted, in effect, that they knew as mnclt as anyone abont the amount of seent in a rose's name, and that religions freedom even under the tecatie3 had been largely a mockeey, which only the coming of the republic lrnd done anything to remove. In this section of. the debate, the contradictions arose, of co11rse, from a failure to hold the same meaning for the terms. When the Christians falked aboL1t religious freedom, they meant the western article in its present form. :No one could seriously argnc that China had possessed for ages that precious ultimate flower of civilization; and therefore when the Confueianists asserted that China had always had religious freedom, they meimt presumably that with the exeption of th0se intervals when primitive fanatic fear convulsed the government, the spiritual indifference of the Chinese made it possible for them to spend their spare time in telling or liea1ing some new religious thing; furthermore, when wars and persecutions arose which in Europe would have been labelled "religious,'' the real reasons animatiug the zeal of the government were purely political. lu reply to all this transparent special pleading it ean only be said,

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iO 'l'HE C O);FUCTAN HE\'JVAJ., that while a government afraid of the political results of the spread of a religions belief may shelter its persecution behiml the assertion that '' this has nothing to do with religion," and may eYen lJersnade itself in all sincerity tlu1t some form of politico-religions iutolerntion ( apart from considerations of religious immorality), some Act of Uniformity which can take for a motto '' ceremonial not religious,'' is essential to its being, or tltat it is competent to distinguish faith from morals iu alien religious observances, et it will not deceive all of the p eople all of the time, and will surely go the ,my of the l\fanclrn dynar;ty. Vinally, it is little more thau a platitude to remind onri,elves that winning or failing to wi11 religious freedom rests not on sections in the constitution or mandates from the President, but in th1, extent to which the welt-geist of Toleration has affected the heart of the natio11 'l'he loss fo1 the time beiug of the second object which tlie Clirir;tians had i11 Yicw raises the question whether it would liave been a real ad nmtage to them to have realized their desire. \Ve know that hi1;toricall:r handicaps have been good for the health o[ a young clrnrcli, and it may well be so in China. Here 1gain ouly tlte issue cau decide; but for the assistance of clear thinking, it is c1gai11 necessary to offer a little first aid to the worst logical muddie in the entire discussion. On both sides, the term "state rehgiou" was in constant use, the term "state drnrch" almost never. Yet half the time the comuatants "ere talking of one thiug when they rner:nt the other, or els e u:-:ed arguments for or against the one wltich 'onld apply ouly to the other. For this the Chinese language is partly to blame, for the distiue tion between the bro ideas is liardlv kuown to classital scholarship. But writel'S of English articles and letters, so far as they have fallen under the writer's eye, liavc been e
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S'l'ATI~ hELit.tON OR s'i'ATE l'i-iu1wH. 71 serviee of supcruatueal Powers, in accordance with a Body of Belief; to establish it is to define the belief with exactness, mid to make unbelief in any vital point heresy, punishable ai; a erime, usually as treason, as a canker-spot in the body politic. A religion cannot be established v ithout estab lishing a church, but a chnreh may be established by itself. A drnrch, in the eyes of' the state, is a body of Rituul Observances, carried on by a Hierarchy whose members have subscribed a Creed, and which is supported by those citizens who care to conform. If all the citizens arc required by law to conform, then a religion is established c1s well as a ehurch. 1f only the ehureh is established, then heresy ceases to he a political crime, and while its existence may be determined by the law courts, the possibility of its guilt is confined to tlte clergy, and its waning importance is diseerned dwindling from pei secutions under Uniformity, Test and Five l\Iile Acts down through Colenso trials to Kikuyu contl'oversies. Such has been the course of things in the west; suelt has not been the course in China. This affords some exense to the Chinese controversialists for their historical errors when they refel'red to the Crnsades, the 'l'hirty Years' war, and the present state of religious toleration in the ,rest. 'l'he Prer;ident is correct when he says that he has not intel' fcred with the religious freedom promised in the provisional constitution, for ltc has estab lished a clturclt and only a churelt; but if lte implies tltat Confucianism is uot a religion he is of comse wrong 'l'het"e remai11s tlie iHteresting \lilestiou whether ur not it was better to establish a Uou [1wia11 Clnm:lt 1.han to have 110 uffi,;ial ecclesiastical ouservawes at all. Opinions here are divided sharply. Tlt0:se who look upon tl1e Cuu[nciau rites as the sc1vice ol' devils will say," Better atheistic lllalet'ialism than that." 'J'Jtus11 who tlii11k of them as" lesser lights" of the s1riee u[ Uod will sav 1ritlt Air. 0. G. Warrell, llia1 iL is "Jt1ud1 J11or1i fit1iug 11,;,l the l'rcsidcut :;l1uuld ['GdH111 :;111111. ndig-ious 1 ,<0t11011y 1 ltuu llwt tl1e void ol' lhi: last l \\'o 1an; slw11ld e uHliuw ." I k \\IJ,.1 \loe:; wA :;,T ill ( __ 'oufociu~ (lll\' U J' t!taL dcrnd O l' ,,il!!'JtiS\'S \\ ho kslif,-l!w l Lile Spirit of Uod 11Tolc the hms of God iu the hearts of all Ute Gentiles will uot rejoi1\e tu see the anl'.ient ceremonies

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i2 fHE CO:SlTCI..\cs REVIVAL. resumed. But whether or not Confucius would have approved of the honors paid to him, wherever there is sincerity behind the rites, they must be regarded as better than nothing, if they do not depmi:e th1 heart; which moral test in the only one that should be applied here. That many will. conform from habit, or from cmn-euience, or from outer influence is certain, and no one will approve that. But whatever of loss or gain cornes to tile Christiau clmreh, howevei her propaganda is helped or hindered by the official decision, the very possibility of such a contro versy as the past months have seeu shows how far she has come in fourteen years. Another stage of religious progress is marked; when we reach the next, we shall hope to see a chureh self-supporting, self-governing and self propagating, and still militant.

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CHAPTER IV POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC By Professor Bevan, Peking _University The cJm1Janion cltaph'r ot' the China Mission Year Book for 1913 closed with the sentence, "This question which raises the extremely difficult and delicate matters of National and State rights, and the equally important question of the relation b e tween the executive and the legislature are the two great com;titntional problems that will b2 before the new parliament." The first of these matters is slowly working itself out. A strong central government with power to control the different parts of the nation seems to be imperative, if China is to be strong enough to present a real front to foreign nations. Though little progress has been made, indications are not _wanting that the Peking author ities are moving steadily in this direction; even the opinion oJ' the late parliament was distinctly 11gainst the introduc tion of' any feLforal prinl:iple, though it was not able to declare itself anthoritati\ely as to the extent or form of the control to be exercised by tl1e central government over the provincial and local. administrations. The central executive has continnously thoug h slowly asserted its authority uot only to appoint high provincial officials, but to eontrol the appointment of officials of all classes. The power of the formerly almost independent Tutults is being gradually checked and limited, while the institution of the chief ciYil administrator of the province and the defining of his power and authority are i ntencled to bring about a real control over the local administration. Legal theory will ontnrn.actual fact, but from the point of view of admin istration the opening months Qf 1914 show a distinct advarn : e on the conditions of a year ago. 'l'he writer does not propose to dwell on this grea t prob lem, but it is safe to say that the central government has here initiated a policy which shows prnmise of successful exe:mtion. It is, in part, iu accordance with the traditions A-10

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i4 l'OLITI C AL DEVELOl>~IEI\T, of the earlie r adminii;trntiou, and so far has all the advant ages that accompany the i :ontinuation of a policy with which the nation is already familiar; for, though the details of provincial administration in time past were left to the almost unfettered action of provinc .ial authorities, the powern of appointment and removal were jealously guarded as the hig h prerogative of Imperial authority; while as goi11g beyond the old tr'-'dition, the large r policy that is more effectually controlling and directing loc}1l administration, is slowly being recognised as almost inevitable. The new conditions arising from inc reased foreign relations and inter eourse, have compelled, and must continue to compel, the central government to exercise a e.loser control over th e furthest parts of the nation. 'l'he nineteenth century saw the central government as,,erting its authority as foreign governments insisted that Peking shonld answer for acts done in its proYiuces. Under the l\fanchn regime this same policy was forced upon the advisers of the Imperial author ity, and the cautious and cons<;rvativ e reforms initiated during the closing years of the rule of Kuang Hsu were permeated through and through with every kind of centralis-ing influence. 'l'his part of the poli e y ,1as not in aeeord with the l:'arlier tradition, for apart from an exaction of yearly tribute, and the exercise of the power of appointment and dismissal, the l\Ianchu genius had solved the woblem of government by leaving the actual provincial adminstration almost entirely to itself and its rulers. This departure from established custom made the policy of eentralization difficult of execution and contributed in an appreciable degree to the revolution. But recent Presidential orders elaiming afresh the powers of appointment and rl:'moval, and demanding that officials shall submit to examinations held in Peking, followed by a series of startli11g orders that first purged arnl then tlissolvcd provirn : i.il lliii'liu1111 J1h nwl all ,Jm,s,s ol' Jo .. .il m;s,.>li~, pl'L'Stut t'lri1wi11g :rid, w : !ltal llw Tutrnl gu1 rJt11w.11t ,rill sut : cctl in r egui11i11g: : tulro1 :1wl 1:..1,;nlidali11g it~ : dircdiw inth1e110:c:,;. TraditiL'll8, .\.p\'die!lry awl w:: :.;sily an all factor s curnpelliug tll' o adoptio!l uf thir; pvli,y. WlrnteY e r may be the final form of the central government, the prediction

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'.l'HE LEGISLATURE AND THE EXECU'l'!VF. 75 may be hazarded that the central goYernrncnt ,rill make for itself a position of very real power ,rith regard to tlw ('.onstituent parts of the commonwealth. During the year 1913, the topic of supreme interest Jrom the constitutional point of vie,v has been the struggle bet\reen the legislature and the executive. Here, ai, was seen last vear in the skrtch of the Provisional Constitution, were all tl1e elements of strife. There was an absence of links lwtween the executive and the parliament that was bound to result in friction and deadlock, while the experience of both sidefl in this new method of governmmt WEIS too slight to allow of tlw gro,rth of machinery outside the constitution itself whidt might ltaYe lwrmonised opposing elemeuts aml owreome an antagonisrn tlint sho\\'ed itstlf from the com mencement. It was impossible that the division of powers as decreed b,v the 1\'auking assembly sl1onld have proved workable in actual practice. Those delicate adjustments whiel1 prevent or overcome friction, and which alone make constitutional government easy and effieie11t, have been entirely absent. These small wl1eels of the rnaehinery of gowr11me11t are not fashioned by statute, aml yet if they do not find their place i11 tlte administrative syste1u, the whole i,tructnre is liable to eollapse Tltc giw and take of party and party, the rcsi,eet and submission that are clue to the majority, the undoubted rights of a minority, the reeognition of the moment when oppositi'o11 ceases to be legal and becomes a danger to the state, the practice of liberty that stops short of license, the use of power tliat never becomes the abuse of authorit,y, these cannot he built into the political machine hy rule and regulation. Political instinct and political eonseienee of the constitutional variety are the creatures of slow growth. 'l'here were wanting the traditions, the environment and the experi,:nce whid1 create what may be called the conventions ol constit11tiorntl gownrnwut, 1ritl1011t ,rhi..J1 1!Iid williin 1li1: ,11l1ui11ist1a[io1t ,:iu ha1.dl\' IJ: ;,1ojtl .. ,.I. ,\ml J11rt1t,r, i11 tll" J .. gal. s1d1,T. Llwr, 1rns 11,1uli1tg t!Fil 11ltid1 i,,; ,sstutial ii: go, tnuw:ul is,., IJ,, :ic:rdiug t0 law ;md ti1e euustiluiiun. Au i11Jepende11l j udici:.uy cul!ll!Hlllding the respect of all parties is necessary fur the smooth working

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iG l', lLl'rIC.-\L bE\' ELOP'IE:N'l'. of modern constitutional g0\enrn1ent. Where the powers of government are divided between different organs, no one of which is supreme, it is inevitable that one or another will at times overstep the limits of its spherl~ of action. It is unavoidable that acensations will be made from this side or that. These are questions of law to b8 decided by the proper constituted authority. In the sphere of private law it is axiomatic that neither c,f two disputants shall be judge in his o\\'n cause. Similarly in the sphere of public law, where a complicated system of government has been established to be administered a\:cording to rnle of law, it is necessary that there should be a reeognisecl a nthority that shall have power to decide as to the legality or illeg:ality of the actions of the various parts of the government. In disputes that hflVe al'isen during the past year, recourse has 110t been had to an impartial judieial investigation and deeision, but appeal has been made to the passions ol tlw people Iu short the attempt lias bl!en made to create a constitu tion for whil'!1 China was not ready. The experiment has been tl'ied to institute methods of administration for which the people were not prepared. A rnaehinery of government was created, hut it hus not been possible to create the men to run the machine. China, or rather, a section of the Chinese, has missed the lesson that might have been learned from other nations and has run counter to the experie1we of a world's political science. It was thought by some that by the institution of the republic and the adoption of advamed democratic ideas China had undergone 1J radical and sudden transformation, and that the essential c1ttalitiesof th,~ people Jrnd been cornpletely changed and all its social aud political institutions regenerated.'' 'l'his probably exagger ates the position of the extreme radieal party, but there is no doubt that a sedion of the Chinese and their foreign mlmirers did think that the great and sudden ehange was possible, and might he permanent. And yet the experienec of the past year is proof positive of the truth of the foundation prineiple expressed by Herbert Spcneer in the words that human nature though indefinitely modifi able can be modified but slowly; and that all laws and institutions and appliances whieh count on getting from it,

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JWOLUTION, KOT RRVOLUTfON, KEC'E:'S,\RY. ,-' I within a short time, results much better than present ones, will inevibhly fail." Headers of Mill will be familiar with his insistence on the same princip!e, and if further testimony be required, Mr. Woodrow Wilson, a practical statesman as well as a writer of theoreti('.111 political sciencr, in thr conclusion of his hook ''l'he State write~, "Whatever Yiew he taken in ca<'h particular case oE the rightfulness or advisability of state regnlr.tion or control, one rule there is whieh may not he departed from under any ('.ircurnstances, mid tlwt is the rule of historical continuity. In politics nothing r1.dically novel rnay be safely attrrnpted. No result of value can eHr he reaehcd in politics rxeept through slow and gradual development, lhe careful adaptation and nice modific:1tion of growth. Nothing may l w done by leaps .... 'l'he method of politir : al deYelopnwut is eonservative adaptation shaping old habits into n e w ones, modifying old nwans to accomplish new -ends.'' Students of history, of politics, of sociology with rare unanimity teach that the principle of evolution, not revolution is at the hasis of political ehange. Revolution rnny mark the change, hut revolution is only finally successful when n long
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78 POLI'fICAL DEVELOPMENT, is the evolution of the man for the machine. It may be true that China need not evolve afresh the machinery of govern ment, but she has to produce the man and the character to fit the instrument. She has not to invent the icfo1s of rPprcsentation, responsibility, cabinet government, presidential government and all the other shibboleths of political sciences. Grantrd thnt she has a world's political emporium to choose and pick from, it can not he forgot.ten that the engine without the driYer is uothing hut useless matter. Parliamentary and Cabinet govemment were slowly evolved throngli a long thousand years of Bnglish history; popular sovereignty is gradually working itself out into a practi cal method of administeation in the rush and hurry or American life; in little Switzerland there is a legislative assembly governing by means of its own eomrnittee and controlled by the direct will of the people. l!'rom monarehy or rrpuhlie thrre is a wide choicr, and China's administration is frr, to piek what it ,rill. 'l'hr machine is all ready made, hut China Jws to find hrr own men to drive the machine when it has heen put into position. It is the evolution of the man that takes the timr, and he cannot be borrowed from other nations. The Cabinet was evolved in England during many centuries and all the time the men evolved along with it. Traditions were gradually formed, olrl hahits slowly c hanged into new ones. 'I'he snaillike modification of old means to ace:omplish new ellds found the snaillike modification of lnunnn nature adapting itself to the new methods. 'fhe reason for the breakdown of the Provisional Constitution is to be found here. We need not blame either this party or that individual. The attempt was made to deny a nniversal law, and the complete fnlfllment of the experiment failed. An examination of some of the ineidents of the past year will afford ample evidenee of the applicability of the above principle to the course of eonstitutional development in China Parliament confosscdly found itself nnahle to function. It had not learned the way of conducting itself, nor had it acquired the art of legislation. 'l'his was char:=tcteristic of the provisional assembly and even more strikingly so of the first parliament that met in April of 1913. Dnring the last

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THE RADICAL PAHTY. 79 few months of the existence of the provisional assembly there was rarely a quorum, so that it vms not possible to transact business. This may have been the fault of the assembly i_tsclf, or it may have been the result of influences brought to hear by the executive, hut the fact remains. It. is an indication that the time was not ripe for legislation hy a representniive assemhly. It is Bignificant that the only important mensure that wns made Jaw during lhes8 last months was a bill for legalising the declaration of martial law. It was surely the irony of nature's unchangeable law tlrnt this gnve the executive an instrument it was able to use with paralysing effect when ocrasion arose later. Parliament, whose fntH tiori it is to he a ehedc on the adion of the cxe('utive, lent itself to b(, the means of Jc,gally creating the position from whieh tlic President wns nhl<> to destroy parliament altogether. Par liamcnt was elected during the first two months of tllP yt ar. It met at the heginning of April. A want.of mntual appreeiation between the executive and the legislature "as apparent from the very brginning. 'rlie radical party was stronger than any single party, though it wns donhtfn l wlwthcr it \\'onl
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POLITICAL DEVF.LOP~lRNT, but it was an indication of the attitude that the honsrs were to tHke up with regard to the executive. The first month was almost entirely taken up ()Ve r struggles for the speakerships. This was not unexpected nor even umrntural. Parliamrnt ,HiS a Hew thing; its mernbrrs were in e xp( rienced nnd unversed in parliamentary proce dnre, and critics might well be h'nient while the new institution was finding itself. But it becomes significant when the renl nature of the struggle is understood. It wns in effed a fight betwee11 the supporters of tlte parties tlrnt would give the balance of power to the executive, 11nd the snpportl'rs of the party that would center the authority in parliament itself. The radical party was definitely declaring itself an enemy of strong executive government. Whether it consciously renliscd that this \vas the position it was taking, whether it delilwrately r.dopkd this po!i( Y of nntagonisn, it was the faet. The exec:ntive, on whom after all the aetual administration of lrnsintrn "onld fall, whi!:lt by tradition, 1 xpcri1'ner and training had a
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EX!sCUTlVE SUPR]sl\IACY, FUNDAillEN'rAL, 81 8witzerlancl, a eountry limited in population and area, is oue, efficiency, stability and popular liberty have lJeen more effectually attained where the cxeeutive has held the larger share of authority. This is true for England where the Cabinet not only administrates government affair:s bnt almost entirely initiates, directs and controls all important legislation In Germany it is avowedly so, and in the United States, in spite of constitutional provision which separated the legislature and the executive, making each ind e pendent in its own sphere, a party machinery has grown up outside the law and the constitution, which has brought together the President and Congress and has given the President an undonhted supremacy, CQnditions which the framers of the constitution had sought to make impossible, bnt which nevedheless the national evolution of government has rendered inevitable. It was a want of real statesman ship and a refusal to recognise fundamental principles that are true because of their universality, which led the Kuo Min-tang to rnn against axioms of political science. It made a struggle to the end between the two interests unavoid able, a struggle which hns resulted for a time at any rate, in the eompldc and rmcltecked asc e ndancy of tlie executive Th e re is no 1wed to apportion blame to one side or the other. That is not the aim of this chapter. But the vctnal situation is another indication that not only the great mass of the Chinese but even the educated portion of them are not yet sufficiently prepared either in experience or temperament to attempt the experiment of advanced parlia mentary government. National traditions and environment are ali e n to the new method. A lack of experience and a c:ornplete want of constitutional and parliamentary traditions, which have been insisted on as being essential for the efficient running of the parliament machine, foredoomed disaster. The events connected with the conclusion of the reorganisation loan are further evidence of the premature institution of advanced methods of. constitutional govern ment. Witho11t touching on the necessity or otherwise of borrowiug, and without discussing the wisdom or otherwise of the policy of dealing with a particular group of lenders A-11

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82 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. supported by their respective governments, the antagonism that was created by the loan controversy between the executive and parliament is evide11ce, with an interest peculiarly its own, of the utter fa.ilnre to recognise what must be owed to constitutionalism. 'fhe loan was signed on the twenty seventh of .April. 'l'he result was an immediate outcry against what was said to be the illegal action of the government in concluding a loan without the express consent of parliament. 'rhe government's poic:ition wiis shortly a8 follows It claimed that the act was legal; that it was in accordance with the provisional coLstitution. Negotiations had been going on for twelve months. The consent of the provisional assembly had been given, and though the actual details of the present loan differed in some respects from those of the loan that was actually before the assembly when it gave its consent, the main principles were the same; the divergence was not fundamental, but only a difference of detail which did not take the matter out of the consent that had been already given and which made the action of the government legal. Parliament, though it admitted that a loan was necessary, and that the attempt to look to domestic sources for assistance had failed, accused the government of acting illegally in that it had not obtained the consent of the present parliament to the actual loan that was put through. It maintained, furth? r, that the consent of the assembly was not given in a formal way; that it was nothing more than a resolution, while it should have been agreed to in the shape of a bill with all the formalities of three readings. It was argued that the differences were not merely differences of detail, but were sufficiently fundamental to demand a complete reconsideration and a fresh decision by the permanent parliament. The question at issue was not one that could be easily solved, and not to be solved by the heat and passiou of party contention. It was a question which for elucidation needed the determination of a number of difficult points of law and the finding of a number of disputed facts, a question to be submitted to a learned and impartial court of justice

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OPPOSITION TO LOANS. 83 l\Iodern complicated constitutions are incapable 0 function ing unless provision is made for the settling of such quest.ions; and more important still, a peaceful settlement by legal procedure is impossible unless there is the environ ment that makes a proper solution possible. 'I'here was no sriggestion that this matter should be submitted to a legal tribunal. The appeal that was made was oue to the passions of the people. The Speaker and Vice-Speaker of the Senate circulated a telegram throughout the country with an ex-parte statement of the matter iu dispute and called to the people to demand that the government should withdraw from the position it had taken up. i\ianifestoes and proclamations were issued by other leaders of the radical party. It was a difficult question of law and fact, that would have taxed all the learning and patience of a highly trained legal mind removed from the heat of party politics to unravel. The authors of these telegrams and manifestoes constituted themselves judges in their own cause and laid the issue directly before the people. But this is the ver,v thing for which a constitution and constitntional government exist to prevent. Whether the leaders of the Kuo l\Iin-tang ,vere conscious of it or not, theit aetiou was a direct incentive to forcible action, an invitation and an incitement to the people to rebel. Of cour:se their position is nnder;,tandable, and in the circumstances their action was natural. It is absurd to argue that in the actual circumstances the matte1 should have been submitted to a court of justice, and that both parties should have unhesitatingly accepted a judicial finding on the issue in question. It is not sufficient that courts of lr,w shall exist. It is not even suffieient that there should be judges of high leaming and of undot,bted im partiality. These might or might not have been found. But it is more necessary still that there should obtain au environment such that disputants will naturally seek the solution of controversies by properly constituted methods. 'l'he appeal that was made, was made to a tribunal whose arbitrament is the clash of arms and civil strife. This faet is overwhelming proof that the environment has not yet become sufficiently adapted to the establishment of an

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84 POLITICAL DJWELOPMENT. advanced type of eonstitution. Constitutivnnlism in its more developed characteristics claims ,i development of the judiciary which by its traditions, its history and its present actions commands the respect of a people trained and long familiar with honest and fearless judicial admi11istration. 'I'he story of the reconstruction loan episode is another illustration showing that China was not ready to govern her self according to the intensely democratic principles which underlay the provisional constitution, and which must become ingrained in the nature of the people before an efficient government can be built upon so modern a foundation. It is not difficult to realise what the radical party con sidered was at stake. There was an increasing tendency on the part of the govcrnrnrnt to act without dnc co11sideration for parliament. The impotence of the provisional assembly in its later days, its clashes ,vith the executive in encounters over the question of executive responsibility, its opposition to executive action which often brought the business of administration to a standstill, had on the whole left the President in an increasingly stronger and more stable position. Legisla tion that had been effected was rather legislation by presi dential order than the making of laws by act of parliamc11t; it was becoming more and more obvious that a predominant position was beiug won by the President and that parliament was falling behind in the race for power. Popular sympathy was being gr:idually alienated from the so-called populD r party. The quarrels in the Houses owr the election to speak crships, the state of intermtl anarchy, more especially in the Senate, the stronghold of the Kuo Min-tang, that marked the debates in connection with the reconstruction loan throughout the month of May had broug-ht parliament into disr0pute. 'rhe history of pcirliarnent sinec the revolutiou, both that of the provisional assembly and thnt of the permanent parliament was one of impotence and ineffectual accusation of the executive government. It was not doing the immediate busineRs that the country needed, and it was waging a war for which the time was not yet ripe. It ir, not the business of the writer to apportion blame. Granted that the popular party was strong for princ iple aud was prepared to sacrifice immediate reconstruction and restol'ation of law

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HOPES OF THE PEOPLE. 85 and order for the obtaining recognition of political princi ples; granted that the powerlessness of parliament, dissension, and the deplorable lack of dignity were fostered and rncour aged by the government, the fact remains that parliament was finding itself unable to assert its position; the normal course of evolution of government was again being exem plified by the executive preserving its position of supremacy. Popular opinion as shown in the native press,' while recognising the failure of the present, has nevertheless been generally optimistic The conelusion of the revolution looked forward with high expectation to the meeting of the pro visional assembly. The assembly met and proved itself impotent and captious. With no less optimism, the coming together of the permanent parliament was hailed as the encl of dissension and the promise of prosperity and coordinated government 'rI1ese hopes were again not realised; but the public press still saw salvation in the adoption of the permanent constitution 'l'he drafting and the determination of the constitution was regarded as the first and greatest clnty to be performed by the new parliament. 'l'he realization of the aims of the revolution was confidently looked for in the carrying out of this duty, lmt IHre again expectation on tran performance. 'J'lte country had displayed considerable interest in the permanent eonstitution prior to the meeting of the first parliament. Towards the encl of Febenary a telegram was sent to the government by the 'l'ntuhs of nineteen provinces insisting on the importance of organising a committee for the drafting of a constitution to he submitted to parliament for its consideration ::md acceptance 'l'hey urged that a comrniltee should be formed for this pmpose, representative not only of pill'liament itself but of the different interests of the nation 'fhey advised that parliament should appoint members, that the government should appoint its delegates, and t.hat the tutnhs and provincial councils should also send their nominees. A bill was submitted to the provisional assembly hy the government, but its right to do so was i 111mediately c.lrnllenged by the K no l\'Iin-tang. The bill was summarily rejectetl. Although tlw provisional constitution contained no provisions as to the drafting of a constitution,

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86 l'O Ll'rICAL DEVELOPMENT. the Regulations for the organisation of a National Parliament, promulgated on August 10, 1912, contained the follo\1 ing article, 'l'he drafting of the Constitution of the Hepuhlic shall he undertaken by a committee composed of ec11rnl numbers of members elected from each chamber." The provisional assembly was doubtless ,vithin its rights in its rrjectioi1 of the Government's bill, but it showed a 1nisnnder standii1g of the tendency of events by thus contemptuously dismissing the assistance which might have been availed of. Parliament towards the end of June elected a committee composed of members drawn equally from the two Houses, which continued in session from July to October when it concluded its work on the draft constitution. The comrnittee was radical in character though it included members of all the more important parties. 1t interpreted its mandate narrowly and was unwilling to receive suggestions from any but its own members. Its debates were marked by dignity of behaviour. Its members showed a theoretieal acquaintance with the prin<:iples and detail of modern constitutions, but from the po"nt of view of what was required for the actual needs of the state and its present conditions, it was wanting in experience and displayed a lack of practical statesmanship. 'l'he same month in which the committee commenced its sittings saw the outbreak o [ actual hostilities in the Yangtze valley. There was the neecl of strong government to force on the country the quiet which was called for by the masses of the people. 'J'hu course of the rebellion declared itself eariy in favour of the constituted authority; nor did it have the popular support that was given to the revolution of two years ago. The insurrection was doomed to failure. Whether up to this time, parliament had been given a fair chance or not, the fart was tlrnt the President's power was growing and was being aeeepted by the country nt large. It would have been a more statesmnnlike actiou to have accepted the situation :md recognised that for the time at any rate, a strong executive was needed, if not altogether unfettered, at least with a considerable degree of independence and freedom of action. The contillnecl existence of parliament and parliamentary governn1ent were hanging in the balance. 'fhe committee may not han reafo;ecl that the situation was thus critical,

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PARLIAMEN'l' AND THE PRESIDENT. 87 and yet the closing months of the year were to see the executive willing and in fact conducting the whole of the affairs of government without the advice and the consent of the parliament. Those who demand the responsibility of governing the state will be condemned if they fail to appreci ate the conditions under which they are acting, and by attempting the impossible fail to achieve what might otherwise have been possible. The constitution as drafted by the committee contained radical provisions which experience under the provisional constitution h:id shown were not applicable in practice. The new plan of government was even more unfitted to the r,onditions of the peopl(~, nor did it recognise the traditions of the nation. It contained article after article fettering the r,ction of the executive and reducing the President to the level of a mere minister to carry out mandates of the legisla tive body or its committee whieh would be in session when Parliament was not sit.ting. Where the provisional constitu tion had been wanting a machinery to compel the executive to act according to the wiU of the legislature, provision was made in the new constitution to control and drive hor.h President and ministers; while from the President's side his control over parliament was cut down t.o a very limited power of adjournment and dismissal, the latter only to be exercised with the consent of a large majority of one of the chambers. 'l'he Prime Minister could only be appointed with the consent of the lower house, while the members of the cabinet, through whom alone the acts of the President would be operative were liable to be removed on a vote of want of confidence. Without going into details, for only the clauses relating to presidential elections have been made into la,v, the draft constitution frankly made parliament supreme, gave the executive practically no legislative authority and even in administration hedged the President round with almost every kind of constitutional limitation. No attention was paid to the opinion of the President himself He sent delegates to present his views for the consideration of the committee, but they were refused a hearing 'fhe President after two years' experience of the difficulties of carrying on the administration of: the country

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88 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. under the conditions of the Provisioual Constitution, was in a position to appreciate, more fully than any other could, what were the real needs of the moment and what would make for efficiency in the future. His advice ,vas not only unsought, it was disdainfully refused a hearing. Had the committee prepared an instrument which recognised that the time was not rine for a radical and democratic system of government, };ad it foreseen the necessity of pl'oceeding hy cautious steps, accepting the fact that change comes ahout by slow adaptation o[ old met.hods to changing condition:;, had there becu an attempt to provide for present needs instead of endeavom ing to determine at the rnoment., and fiually, a form of government that would need decades of training and education to make practicable, it is possible that its experiment might have achieved a measure of success. 1 n the eircurnstanc ,es, the action of the committee in presenting the constitution it did, was the flinging down of the last defiauce, an aet which hrougltt a response thnt cleared the arena of one of the antagonists. The struggle between the executive and the parliament had now reaehed its last stage. It is only possible to refer very shortly to the rebellion that broke out in Jnly. 'l'he 'l'utuh of Kiangsi, early in the year, showed himself an open enemy of the poliey whieh was consolidating the nation's power in the central exeeutive. In ]'ebrnary the President, pursuing his policy of centralisation appointed a civil administrator for the province of Kiangi-:i. 'J'his was resented hy the 'l'utnh who refused to recognise the new official. For the time being he was suceessful in retaining for himself: rin undivided authority. He wris prepared to resist Peking authority by force of arms. The central govemrnent did not press matters until l\Iny, but in that month the President decided to assert his power onee more. In quick suecessiou mandates were issued cashiering the Tutuhs of Kiangsi and Anhwei, and removing the 'fntuh of Canton to another place. These provinces were tl1e strongholds of opposition to the President's policy. Huang Hsing, another leader of the radical patty, was also impeached. It was obvions to the leaders of the opposition party in the country, that., if they were to make any headway against the growing authority of the President,

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T}fll: REBELLION. 89 they must act immediately and with force. It was determined forthwith to raise the stnndard of revolt. A succession of plots was discovered and suppressed in Wuchang and its ucighbourhood by the vigorous action of Li Yuan-hnng whose unswerving loyalty to the central government throughout the storm that now broke ont was the chief factor in preventing a complete break between the North and the Sonth. Kiangsi, Kiangsu, Anhwci and Kwangtung were qnickiy in open revolt., and the chief leaders of the Kno l\Iin-tang put thc1nsehes in charge of the rebellion. It was feared that other of the provinces south of the Yangtze would throw in their lot with the rebels, but though great efforts were made to draw Fnkien and Chekiang into the turmoil, aucl IInnau v.ras 1nore than once on the point of going over, their neutrnlity was maintained. Ii' it had not been apparent from an early stage in the campaign that the rebels had little chance of success, it is hardly possible that these provinces would not have been drawn into the revolt 'l'hc leaders at the outset declared that their object was 110tl1ing more than the formation of a punitive expedition for the coercion of' Y11an Shih-kai, whom tlwy declared to he a t.l'nitoe to the repnhlic ns founded on the provisional constitntion. At. a lritc:r date they went furtlt, ~r, and dcl'iar ecl t.hL~ indepemlence of the South and drew up a plan of imlepcndm1t government for the southern provinces. The pust history of some of those who were to hold high positjon in this new republic, their relations with the former l\Ianehn rnle, their traditions and thei1 training helped to stultify this movement. It is impossible to regard it as a movement inspired solely by republican and democratic sentiment. 'l'herc can be little doubt that it was the last throw of clr1-1peratc men whose personal ambitions were understood and whose designs were being thwarted by the increased ehances of success of the policy of Yuan Shih-kai. The insurrection failed, ,,,ith the immediate result that the chief leaders of the Kuo i\lin-tang were openly declared traitors to the republic. 'l'he party as a whole was 11ot yet implicated, though many of its members of parlianl('nt had left Peking, whilci othe1s were arrested on suspicion of complicity with the rebel IMders. A-12

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90 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. 'l'he importance of the reb2llion from a constitutional point of view lies in the fact that it afforded the President some measure of legality for his stringent action during the closing months of the year, and the first month of the year 1914. We have seen what was the character of the drnft com,titution that had been prepared by the parliamentary comrnitte( and the response that was given to the President's ntternpt to have it modified. 'l'he President, thwarted iu this direction, appealed to the Tutults and other high provincial officials rergwsting l"lll'ir opinions. 'l'he resnlt was a flood of telegrnms from the provinecs denouncing the draft constitu tion, and in nuny cases demanding the dissolution of parlia ment nnd even the arrest of the Kuo iVIin-tang 1nembcrs. It may be remarked incidentally that the telegraph has been used for political purposes from the beginning of the revolu tion. Both sidrs in the controversy have sought support from the country by the nwans of advisory trll'gTnrns. 'l'his use of tlw tPhgr,iph \\'onkl form an interesting < omparison with the earlitr nsc ol' nwmorials nndc>r the rnle of former dynasties. The tclegrnph ,virc has served a useful end in tlrnt it has undoubtedly strengthened the hands of one or the other pa.rty by concentrating at a critical time and giving expression to the only articulate opinion of the nation at large Whether the advice tendered has always been spontaneous or inspired is of little momeut, its practical effect has been considrrablc. The flood of te::legrams show ed the President that the time to act had conw. On November 4 three mandates were issued ordering the immediate dissolution of the Kuo 1\Iin-taug throughout the country. '!'hey contained a snmrnary of the documentary evidence that had come tD light tending to prove that the radical party was a seditious organisation and justifying the President in removing from parliament all its members. The immediate effect of these mandates was to unser,t more than half of the members of parliament, thus depriving it of its necessary qnorun for the transaction of business. lt meant that p 1rliame11t, before it could again move, must wait the fnrther action of th8 President who at a stroke had placed himself unchallenged at the head o[ the State. The practical j ustiiication of the President's action was shown by the fact

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BROKEN CONTRACT. 91 that it was accepted quietly, without opposition and almost without comment. 'l'he struggle for supremacy between the executive and the parliament had run its course and the country seemed willing to admit that parliament had failed, a failure, if it be trne that the course of political d1ange is evolutionary and not revolutionary, that ,v1:s inevitable. 'l'here are articles in the provisional constitution and the organic laws that have been promulgated that rnigltt have been used to revive the parliament and enable it again to operate. It was discussed as a plan to be pursued and preliminary steps were taken to put a strictly constitutional procedure into movement io attain these objects. There were supplementary members available, but elections would liave had to he held in a numb e r of places. This ,vould have entailed delay, and although there was reason for urging that action should if possible be snch as would still be constitutional, the President decided finally to act otherwise As a matter of fact the time \Vas gone for too close nttention to he paid to legal teclmiealities A too nice attachment to the constitutional forms of the Nanking ngreement might again lead to a recurrence of the old difficulties and the old strife. 'l'h e r e comes a time \Yhen the needs of a situation will ovenide the claims of a strict observance of Jaw and stfltute. Inde e d it might he argued that the rebellion of July and August had already broken the contract between the North and South \l'hich had brought about the union and closed the revolution. There is some ground for holding that the other party was released to some extent from the strict obligations entered into at that time. Yuan Shih-kai 's position from the l ega l point of view is to be discovered with reference to the authority conferred upon him by the abdication edicts as well as from the terms of the contract that was entered into b e tween the agenc of the Ex-Emperor and th e Nanking r e volutionary Government If the contract was broken by the action of the Routh in July and August, from the legal point of view it is by no means c~rtain that the other party to the agreement must be held bonnd by its conditions. This view of the question has not been d e finitely put forward, but there is a feeling that Yuan Shih-kai is not bound solely by the terms of the Provisional

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92 POLITICAL DE\'ELOP1IEJST. Constitution. There is a tendency to go back further, and to refer once again to the authority that stood behind the agreement that was made at that time The Emperor gave his authority back to the people for whom he had exercised it, and the appeal perhaps will be made to the people again. The Nanking constitution was rnad0 by the representatives, such as they were, of the people of but fourteen provinces; Y nan Shih-kai is appealing to the representatives, such as they may be, of the eighteen provinces and all the divisions of th1l live racc ,s. H out of disorder shall come order, if from strife and the noise of war there shall come peace and the hum of: industry, if the attempt to jump into an advanced constitutional ism shall change into a slow but certain advance along the path of political development, if it he recognised that the goal which is before the nation can not he reached without patient and ho11est. lauour, ruler and people uniting with earne:-;t intention for the common welfare, then it will be no longer nceessary to r. rgue the elose legality of this word and the constitutional ar:curaey of that" dcC'd. We may regret that the attempt to govern through parliament has proved unsuccessful. We may lmnent. tliat reputations lwve been broken aml that some who strow under the banner of patriotism have been shown to have heen animated by sentiments that were not born of a single love for the fotherlrmd. lt is a nation's loss that a whole pnrty has ucen discredited for the sake of some o.f its leaders 'l'hat many of them, the large majority, were not traitors of deliberate intention to their country can hardly be doubted; that they were determined on a policy that missed its mark beeanse it refused to recognise a natural law was due to a lack of experience and a failure to appreciate what was needed. Success would have been a victory more luirmful than defeat, for it would luwe been i.von before its time. A constitution such as was contemplated would have been built on insecure foundations. National traditions and national chnra<:ter can not be ehanged and formed anew except through a Jong course of education and development. :B'reedom that is too easily won is loosely secured. 'L'he year 1Dl2 has lJeen described as a year of pretences characterised by a government that could not govern and a parliament

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THI~ OUTLOOK 'fO-DAY, 93 that made no attempt to lcgislak 'l'he year 1Dl3 has been a return to saner and more natural methock 'l'ltc outlook to-(fay is better than it was a year ago. There is more chance of final success when the initial steps arc being slowly and cautiously made. 'l'hc writer has consistently regretted that the conservative reforms of the last of the great lVIanclrns were not given an extended trial. 'l'hcy were eonccivecl on the right prineiple of slow change They were intended to unite a composite empire into a homoge11eons whole, and they were eapable of being modified as experience nnd education warranted a more liberal administration It may have been true that the revolution was inevitable. Perhaps by 110 other means could the JHanclm rule have been 'prirgcd from certain characteristics that were strang ling the gro,1th of the state. 'l'he revolntion in certain
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CHAPTER V GOVERNMENT CHANGES By W. Sheldon Ridge, Editor of' The National Review' The chapter on this topic iu the Year Book for Hll2 closed with a record of Dr. Sun v\Ten 's speech committing the destinies of China to the keeping of the people, urging the people to shoulder responsibility and to work harmonious ly, placing before them the ideal of universal peace. 'l'he injunction was as wise as it was doubtless sincere, and the period that has passed since tlien has demonstrated how urgently necessary the injunction was. The two thiugs most remarkable for their absence in the national political life duriug the past two years have been th e shouldering of responsibility and harmonious co-operation. The one man \\"ho has sl1own any real sense of the necessity for shouldering responsibility has been the President, and it is to be noted that he
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EXECU'rJO)l OF GENERALI:', 95 not feel himself equal to the responsibility of intlicting capital punishment on army officers guilty of sedition. It is possible that the President's constant reference of state affairs to the Provisional Parliament was partly due to the fact that as yet he did not feel himself strong enough to act entirely on his own responsibility. It was gradually forced upon the President, l1owewr, that he must act very decisively if any semblance of law and order was to be maintained. He took an opportunity of testing his own position. A plot against General Li 's life and government was diseoYered, and General Chang Chen-wu and thirteen others of fairly high rank were implicated. Genera~ Li collected abundant evidence of their guilt and then managed to send them off to Peking, where they were tried by court-martial, General Li 's accumulated evidence being placed before them in documentary form. When confronted with this evidence they had nothing to say, and two of them were shot, whilst the others were imprisoned. 'rhis incident caused an immense sensation. Just as it took place Dr. Sun Wen and General I-I wang I-Isin were on the point of starting for Peking, from Shanghai. In an interview Dr. Sun refused to make any comment upon the affair as-and lie was emphatic upon this point-he ,vas without full information and believed that possibly the publication of full information might embarrass the Government in dealing witlt other suspects. General Hwang Hsin, on the other hand, sent telegrams to Peking demanding many things, q,1ite in vain, and refusing to go to Peking until there was complete compliance with his demands. Eventually Dr. Sun went to Peking without him, arriving there on the 24th August. He had several Jong inteniews with the President, and on his return to Shanghai admitted that the President had uo alternative but to execute the two generals. It is necessary to note this incident in detail hecause it bert1s upon a very essential point: the necessity, under which the President very soon felt himself, of acting on his own responsibility. In June he had issued a striking declaration of his policy, in the course of which he called upon all provincial authorities to work together with him for the promotion of peace and good order. This step had been rendered necessary by the way in

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96 GOVERNMENT CHANGES. which the Provisional Parliament had questioned some of his nppointrnents. The perils of decentralization become more and more evident, and in September the President invited the tutnhs to send representatives to Peking to discuss national affairs. The conference was quite informal, hut it is significant that two months later the Vice-President and numerous other tutuhs telegraphed jointly to Peking recommending that the central Government should appoint tutuhs, and that they should not he elected by the people of the provinces Ther e is little to record in presidential history until the meeting of Parliament. The President had intended to be present, but eventually Parliament was opened by deputy, the reason being that the President received an intimation from the Kwoming Tang, which was the majority party, that he would only he allowed to attend as a spectator; for the same reason, the President's form a l message was not read. 'l'hese things sufficiently indicate the temper of the K woming Tang, at the time the strongest party in the state. Dr. Sun's advice about co-opervtion had long been forgotten Early in May the Cabinet reeeived telegrams from the tutuhs, who were still mainly men appointed by the Na1lking Assembly, stating that conspinwies were being hatched in the Yangtze Valley, and recommending that the election of the perm,ment Preside11t should take pla,e as soon as possible, and that as soon as he ,ms established in the permanent office he should take strong measures for the suppression of the movement, which was nominally directed against the President's loan policy It was then expected that the presidential election would take place at an early date, but tile intrigues in Parliament rendered postponem ent advisable. It was at this juncture that the two II ouses selected a Committee to draft the Constitution, a proc ess that was productive of intense bitterness. 'l'he President stuck to his guns throughout the summer, conducting the business of the country more and more on his own rcsp _on sibility, as he was indeed obliged to do since Parliament was conducting its business in an utterly futile way, largely through a complete misunderstanding of the meaning of the phrase party politics.'' Through the trying time of the rebellion the Provisional President forged ahead, until, on

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nm ELEC'rION:3. 97 the 6th October, the elections took place. It was known that an attempt would be made by the Provisional President's opponents to frustrate the election by preventing his getting an adec1uate majority at the earlier ballots and thus ,rearing ont some of the less ardent voters, who would leave the balloting hall, a few after eaclt fresh ballot, and eventually the number of electors would he so reduced that no candidate could secure a quorum. The plot leaked out, however, and tlie Provisional President frustrated it by placing military guards at every exit from the House of Representatives, where the election was to take place; and once an elector entered the House he was not allowed to leave it again until the election was over. This expedient lias been construed in a sense inimical to the Provisional President, but we have the very 'best authority, supported by evidence from the other side, for the foregoing version of the affair. The electors were thus obliged to hold an effective election or starYe. They took the less heroic course and eventually elected tltc Provisional President to the substantive office of President. Of the 759 members of the two Houses present, 507 voted for Yuan Shih-k'ai, 196 for Li Yuan-hung, and 56 did not vote. Hardly was the result of the voting known than the foreign l\Tinisters in Peking were on the doorstep 0 the W aichiao Pu with letters of recognition of the Republic :B.,rom that time to the end of the period of our survey the President has proceeded to consolidate his position. The Vice-President's career
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98 GOVERNMENT CHANGES. cnpital became again the supreme centre of authority, and this accounts to some extent for the relaxing of control in the Yangtze Valley that made possible the rebellion of the summer of 1913. The Vice-President became more lenient and this leniency was mistaken for a cooling of his loyalty to the President; when the outbreak came, however, there w,is no mistaking his attitude. No man saw more of the horrors of the Revolution; perhaps that is one reason ,vhy he was so determined to have no more of them. Ile stood bv the President through thick and thin, and his own troops stood hy him as loyally as he stood by his chief. He remained at his post until December, when, quite unexpectedly, he went to Peking, and was reph1ced in his office of tutuh by Tmm Ch'i jui. He arrived in ?eking on the ] lth December, and apparently his first act on arrival there, when he was met by the.President, the Cabinet rmd the speakers of the two. Houses of Parliament, was to propose the dissolution of Parliament. fo this proposal he ,vas supported by all the provincial Tutuhs and rivil governors. From the time that he arrived in Peking to the present he has kept in the background, devoting himself to his dutil's as Chief of the General staff. At the tilm of writing it is quite on the C 'trds that he may resign this office to become chairman of the Adrninisti-ntive Council, shortly to be convened. We have noted above that he received 196 votes for the presidency but it is to be remembered that he re.fused nomination for the office. He was dnlv eleckd Vice-President however; and recently a daughter o.f his was formally l!eLrothecl to a son of the President. vVlti!st President and Vice-President have remained 1ml:ltanged during the period under review there have been 1111rny c hanges in the offir:r of Prime Minister. The Provisional Parliament had searc e ly met in Peking when the question of a new Cabinet arose 'l'he roalitiou Cabinet that came into existenec 011 the di~solutiou of the Nanhing Assembly was disorgani z ed by the sudden resignation or 'l''ang Shao-yi, on the 15th ,June, and Lu Cheng-hsiang was appointed Acting Prime l\iinister the next day. 'l'he Provisional Parliament spent a fortnight wrangling as to this appointment, but finally on the lst J nly the Acting Prime :Minister was elected to the

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'HIE CABfNET. 99 substantive office. Six weeks later a bill for his impeachment was introduced in the Provisional Parliament, but there was not a quorum present to discuss it. Eventually Lu Cheng hsiang resigned on account of ill health, and was succeeded by Chao Ping-chun, on 24tb September. Chao Ping-chun remained in office until July 1913 when, after the murder of Sung Chiao-jen and the agitation arising therefrom, he resigned office and was succeeded by Hsiung Hsi-ling. Hsiung, who also held the office of Minister of Finance, retained office until a few weeks ago (13th February 1914). The office of Prime Minister implies the existence of a Cabinet. The changes in the Cabinet have been even more numerous than the changes of Prime lWinister. Vle cannot record them all, but some have been of importance When the Nanking Government ,vas dissolved a coalition Cabinet was formed in Peking, the personnel of which was published on the 30tlt March. Its comp_ositiou was as follows: T'ang Shao-yi, Prime Minister; Lu Cheng-hsiang, Foreign Affairs; Chao Ping-chun, Interior; Tuan Chi-jui, Army; Liu Kuan-hsung, Navy; Hsiung Hsi-ling, Finance; Tsai Yuan-pei, Education; wang Chung-hui, Justice; Sung Chiao jen, Agriculture; Chen Chi-rnei, Commerce; Shih Shao-yih, Communieations. This Cabinet held together for about four months, when it fell to pieces, partly in consequence of the retire ment of T'ang Shao-yi from the office of Prime Minister. On the l8th J nly the President nominated a second coalition Cabinet, but the nominations were rejected by the Provisional Parliament. The adverse vote was given from various causes: some objected to a coalition Cabinet; some objected to certain members proposed; and others, in defiance of the Kanking Collstitution, desired to deprive the President of all part or lot in Cabinet-making. On the 26th many telegrams, some of them couched in very strong terms, reached the Provision al Parliament from the provineial authorities, urging the acceptance of the Provisional President's nominations. l\Iuch private discussion followed, with the result tlrnt five out of the Rix ministers were accepted, and the sixth only defeated by seven votes. The 11e\1 Cabinet consisted of Ln Chcng-hsi,mg (Prime i'viinister), Chao Ping-clrnn (Interior), Admiral Lin

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100 GOVEl{NMEN'r CHANGES. (Navy), Tuan Chilt-jui(Army),Fan Yuan-lin, (Education), Chen Chen-ltsien (Agriculture), Chon Hsueh-hsi (Finance) Chu Ch 'i-chien (Communications), Hsu Shih-ying (J usticc), and Liu Kwei-yi(Conunerc e ). The a c ceptance of the Provi sional President's nominations was considered to be a great personal victory. This Cabinet held office until the agitation against Chao Pingclnm on account of the Sung murder led to a reorganization with Hsinng Hsi-ling as Prime Minister From July to Oetober the Cabinet was admittedly a stop-gap Cabinet, in view of the on-coming of the election of a substantive President. Follo" ing the election of the Presi dent several changes were made, the most notable being the appointment of Chang Chien as Minister of Commerce and .Agriculture (the two miuistries of Agriculture and Forestry and of Commerce and Industries being cumbined) and of Liang Ch'ih-d1'ao as Minister of ,Justice Chow Tze--chi became l\Iinister of Communications and Wang Ta-hsi eh, Minister of Ednc ation. This Cabinet was known for a time as the Confucianist Cabinet, as Hsiung Hsi-ling. Chang Chirn, W a ng Ta-hsieh, and Liang Ch'ih-c!t'ao were all supposed to favour the establishment of Confucianism as the state religion of China. We have surveyed the chief changes in the Central Government during a stressful period of i wenty months We cannot follow in d etail the changes in the provinces, but some of these should be noted .. As the President began to realize the ne c essity for the appointment of stroug men, loyal to Peking, to provincial offices he gradually placed trusfod supporte rs in the various tutuhships. One of the 1nost important of these was the tutuhship of Nanking, to whielt Chen Teh-clman was appointed He held office until the time of the "Punitive Expedition," when for a few days he was practi c ally a prisoner &ding under orders from the rebels. As soon as he conld he left Nanking, and when that city was taken by the loyal troops under General Chang Hsun that redoubtable warrior became 'l'utuh This offiee he held until replaced by Genernl Feng K wo-rhang, in Jannary of this year Vve may now record briefly the c hanges that took place in the composition of the various bodies aeting as Parliament

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PROVISIONAL PARLIA.i\IEN't, 101 in Peking. When the Nanking Government was formed, a National Assembly, representative of fourteen provinces, met there. On the dissolution of this Government this Assembly transferred itself to Peking. Here it was known under several names-Provisional Parliainent, Natiollal Assembly, National Council, and Advisory Conneil. By the end of September this body had compiled and issnccl the Election Laws for the National Parliament, and thns prepared the way for its own dissolution. The elect.ion took place in February of 19U~, and the results were significaut For the Honse of Representatives the Kwoming 'l'ang had 19 repres.entatives, the Knngho Tang 120, the T11ngyi Tang 90, and the Minchu Tang 40. None of these partie s had a clear majority over the others, and it was only by the combination of the moderate parties that a party known as the Chinpn Ttmg was formed. 'l'his party and the K womiug Tang practically became the two chief parties, and either, by absenting itself from the House, could suspend all business, for the rules of the Honse made it necessary that there shoalcl be three-fourths of the members present to make a quorum. 'l'his impracticable rule was used hy each party alternately to dislocate the work of the House, and as a matter of fact there remains at the present time only one single constructive piece of legislation enacted by Parliament, which, we may note, iirst met on Sth April 1913. The constitutional aspects of Parliament arc dealt with elsewhere:::, We are only conceined here ,vith its acts and practice. The history of China's first Parliament is bound up ,:vith three questions-the constitution, loans, and the murder of Sung Chiao-jen. From the dc1te of its meeting Parliament devoted itself to one long wrangle. 'l'hc Provisional Parliament had appointed a Committee to draft a permanent constitution, but this committee did not act. The committee eventually appoi11ted to deal with this matter consisted of thirty representatives of each House of Parliament, and its grouping was as follows: Kworning Tang members, ::i2; Chinpn Tang, 17; Kungho Tang, 11 ; thus the K woming 'l'ang had a clear majority. 'l'he constitution drafted by this Committee made See Professor Bevan's article p. 73.

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102 GOVERNMENT CHANGES. the President a mere figurehead. The draft constitution was to be revised by a committee of five. The Revision Committee met at tlte Temple of Heaven, and the Provisional President asked to be represented at the deliberations of the committee. This request was refused, and the Committee went on with its work, the final revision and report being made on the 25th October. 'l'he President was dissatisfied with this draft and a ppealed to the judgement of the tutuhs and civil governors on the questions at issue, and they supported him wholeh e artedly. The refusal of the Houses of Parliament to aceede to th e President's wishes was undoubtedly an important factor in the President's ultimate decision to dissolve Parliament, after purging it by expelling the Kwoming Tang members. The one practical piece of work aecomplished by P1,rliament was the adoption as a substan tive law, a fundamental constitutional instrument, of the provisions of the Constitution for the election of a president and vice-president. This law was enacted on the 17th September, 19la, and it was under the provision~ of this law that th e elec tions took place on the 6th October following. 'l'he constitutional points to which the President took exception were those which made the President 3, figurehead. 'l'he opposition to the President arose chiefly from two causes : first, a general feeling of distrust in the minds of the Kwoming Tang, a heritage of hate the reasons for which lie in the distant past; and second, resentment at his action with regard to loans and to the murder of Sung Chiao-jen To take the last point first Sung Shiao-jen was about to proceed to Peking, for the opening of Parliament, of which he was a member, when he was shot on the platform of the Shanghai Railway Station. The actual assassin was arrested, and from confessions made by him and other evidence, it appeared as if persons high in the confidence of the President had instigated the murder, and the President's enemies went so far as to state that he wa.s himself privy to the act. Political murder is no new thing in China, but it was hoped that the coming of the Republic had swept away all that sort of thing. The person whose name was most persistently associated with the instigation of the crime was the Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, Chao Ping-chun,

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l\lURDER OF SUNG CI-IIAO-JEN 103 Various side issues of the case were brought Lefore the courts in Shanghai and in 'l'singtao. In both cases Chao's name was introduced. Chao ot1ght to have come forward to give evidence, but with all his abilities, and he waB undoubtedly an able 1nan, lie knew nothing of modern judicial procedure, and-either through ignorance, if we assume him to have been innocent; or through fear, if we assume his gni it.y complicity-he made no move. It was alleged by tl1e Kwoming Tang that he was shielding the Presid e nt. It w1,s also alleged that he feared Sung Chiao-jen as a rival for the office o.t' Prime Minister. We find it difficult to accept either theory, and as the discussion of this subject is hardly likely to form part of any other chapter o[ the "Year 13ook it may be worth while to s e t down here very briefly why we cannot accept the Kwoming 'l\111g view. To deal with the Prime Minister first. 'J'he present writer was in England at the time of the murder, but arrived in Peking whilst Parliament was still angry about the matter, and just at the time when it was being sifted to the bottom by a representative of the Kwoming Tang and a representative of President, and may therefore be pardoned f e r quoting two statements th,1t appeared in his absence in "The National Review "-and possibly elsewhere-just before and jnst after the event. Ou the 8th March, we read, "Chao Ping-clum, the Premier wishes to resign." A Prime Minister desirous of resigning would not be likely to fear a rival. Personal enquiry in Peking has fully substantiated the accuracy of the fitatement. Not once or twice but a number of times the Prime l\Iinister had mentioned to his colleagues and to the President also his desire to resign. There seems, therefore, to be no motive for Chao Ping-chun 's association with the crime on these grounds. 'rhe idea that Chao was shielding the Provisional President seems to be equally unacceptable. On the Wth March, we read, '' Opinion prevails in official circles that the murder was the result of rivalries and jealousies prevailing in Dr. Sun's own camp of the Kwoming Tang. [Dr. Sun was himself in Japan at the time ] Sung Chiao-jen is said to have made himself many ene1i1ies because he warmly recommended the election of Yuan Shih-k'ai to Le President and thereby attempted to take away from others the desirab'.e

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104 GOVERNMENT CHANGES, post of President. 'The Peking Daily News rejects the suspicion expressed at Shanghai most emphatically to the effect that the North or even the President himself had heeome implicated in the murder of Sung Chiao-jen. Yuan Shih-k'ai had himself summoned Sung to Peking, and had urged his candidature to become Premier. It was impossible therefore that a reason was existing for him to make away with a partisan worthy of confidence, the murder of ,, horn, in case that it should haYe beeu caused by him would, as he must say to himself, lead to incal
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LOAN CONTRAc'r. 105 0 state, without the knowledge of the Provisional Parlia ment, but when the negociations were completed and the loan an accomplished fact, the Provisional Parliament was officially informed and gave ex post facto sanction to the transaction. The constitutional principle that Parliament should control finanee wns thus observed. The Crisp loan effectively checkmated the Sextuple Group in its d e signs on China's millions, and the action of the United States Govern ment in withdrawing its support from the Group, and, at a later date, the very definite change o_f policy on the part of the British Government, may be taken as ample condemna tion of the Group's poli c y. Tltat policy, there is not the slightest doubt, appeared to very many members of Parlia ment, highly inimical to Chin a 's best interests, partly because it threatened to place China under the domination of a group of foreign financiers, and partly because they believed it would make the President independent of l'nrliament Henc e Parliament demanded that no loan should be contracted for without its sanction. The President was probably misled as to the depth of feeling on this snbjtct, but the bankers liad no e xcuse. On the -:1:th January, 1918, the Provisional Parliament had confirmed a resolution passed on the 27th December, 1912, in favour of accepting a loan of ,000,000 on terms theu outlined by the Bankers. Between the n and the 26th April, however, the Chinese Government continually negociated ,vith the Bankers to secure better terms, and there is no doubt that, because the Bankers saw their monopoly slipping away from them, very much better terms were secured when the loan was signed in tlie early hours of 'l'nesday morning, the 27th April-the memorable "day of prayer" for China throughout Christendom-than had been sanctioned by the Provisional Parliament in December and January. Parliament held, however, that without its express consent, the loan contract would be illegal. In view of the decisions of 27th December and 4th Jannary, this is a legal point of an arguable cliaracter; but Parliament made its mind quite clearly known. Just before midnight on Saturday night, the 26th .April, l\Ir. C. T. Wang and other memb ers of Parliament visited the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank and, in an interview with the bankers, A-14

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106 GOVERNi\IENT CHANGE8. explained their attitude. There was no demonstration, no disorder, no threatening, and nothing occurred to excite npprehension. '' The hankers ought, under the circumstances, to have postponed signing the contract pending further consultation with their Governments; and those Governments -most of them profesrndly democratic Britain, France, Germany, at any rate; and tlte others did not count-ought to have upheld the constitutional principle which lies very near the basis o E their own constitntional liberties, that the power of the purse belongs to the people, not to the ruler, elected or hereditary. Had they done so, the President would doubtless have 1 >lated the matte r before Pariiarnent, since the Powers wished it, and he would have been able to explain that he was getting better terms than had already been sanctioned, and he would haYe oLtained the desired sandion. As it was, he doubtle.5s relied on the precedent of the Crisp lonn, and expected that, the agreement being con cluded without any furthe r sanetion, he would again obtain e :i: postfacto a uthorization for the transn c tion. On the 29th .April, a representative of the Government stated the Government's case in the Senate, and asked for the Senate's approval, but the Senate by a majority of 102 in a House of 171 refused the approval required. These two questions, the Sung murder and the loan, have Leen examined in some detail because they were two principal counts in the indictment brought against the President by the Kwoming Tang. It is not for us to judge of the sincerity of the Kwoming 'l'ang, or rather of that section of the party chiefly responsible for the inflammatory activities of the party. These two things were the ostensible reasons or excuses for the great event of the ye:,r 1913, the rebellion, which at first called itself a "Punitive Bxpedition.'' This cannot be called in any sense a national mornment, though it caused nationftl disturbance. The general causes that created the conditions more or less favourable to it we have noted above. To these add the inordinate ambition of some of the K warning Tang leaders. 'l'he exciting cause was the Provisional President's determination to be served by loyal provincial officiak,..._--'he Tutuh of Kiangsi, Li Lieh clrnn was suspected of intrigmng against the Government,

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THE REBEL l\lOVEllrnNT. 107 and the Provisional President decided to remove him Li was called to Peking. A revolntionary plot had been dis covered in "\Vuchang, in which Li was implicated. Li shuffied, and the President, to en force his order, sent loyal Government troops across the Yangtze to Kiukiang. The Kiangsi troops under Li opposed the passage of the loyalists. 'l'he first skirmish took place on the 12th July and fighting con tinued on and off for three days. No sooner did the news of this outbreak reach Shanghai than the extreme elements in the Kworning 'l'ang, under the leadership of General I-I wa11g Hsiu, scizedth~ occasion to nttcrnpt a generai revolt against the Provisional President. General II wang II sin left for Nanking and there held a eunncil of war with 'fsen Clum hsuan, Li Lieh-chun, and Pah Wenayn. Martial law was proclaimed, and General II wang Hsin announced his in tention of proceeding in person to Peking to punish the Provisional President for his misdeeds; but he finally decided to stay in Nanking, whence Shanghai and Japan are easily accessible, and to send 'fsen Chnn-hsuan as commander in-chief of the Punitive Expedition to the north. The expedi tion never got beyond the Grand Canal, for General Chang Hsun, who ever since the Revolution had been sitting as0 stride the Tsinpu Rail way at Yenchow-fu with a strong body of troops, moved southwards and drove the Pukow-Peking Punitive procession pell-mell back to Nankii:1g. There was a good deal of fighting iu the Yangtze valley, and Shanghai became the focus of a somewhat lengthy tussle between rebels and loyalists. Nanking bore the brunt of the whole disturbance, however, and suffered wry severely not only from the rebels, but from Chang IIsun's troops when they occupied the city. There is one very important point to be considered in estimating the significance of this rebel movement. Some time before the loan was signed Dr. Sun declared that its signature without the consent of Parliament would lead to civil war. Dr. Sun did not threaten: he besought and warned-and prophesied lVIany circumstances go to show that he was in no sense responsible for the preparation or the campaign itself. Dr. Sun is not a great judge of character. He is himself so candid and unselfish and honest that he

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108 GOVERNMENT CHANGES, does not :;uspect other qualities in others. He is quite unfit to deal with cut-throats like Hwang Hsin, or ambitions adventurers like Chen Chi-mei; and he had made an unfortunate choice of advisors, guileless youths, some of them full of courage and spirit and of the highest moral ehart~cter, but entirely lacking in judgement and intellectual ballast. Dr. Sun saw how things were drifting, probably suspected the preparations that were being made, and uttered his warning; but when the outbreak came neither he nor Dr. Wu Ting-fang supported it at first. 'l'he latter never did, but was not in Shanghai at the time, so that lie could not be coerced. Dr. Sun, unfortunately, was in Shanghai, and when it began to be noted by the foreign press that 11either Dr. Wu nor Dr. Sun, neither of whom was afraid of championing a just cause, had said a word in support of the rebels, these gentry determined to have such moral support as a declaration by Dr. Sun could give. He was accordingly surrounded in his own house, all communication cut off, and he was giYell twenty-four hours in which to consider his position. This was on Saturday the 19th July. .At four o'clock on Sunday afternoon, under the muzzle of a revolver, he wrote, at the dictation of others, the dee! aration published the next clay, in which he was made the mouth-piece to declare that 'J'he sole object of the rising is to remove Yuan from the Presideney." Very shortly .1Jterwards Dr. Sun left for the south and then \ient to Ja pan In ,Tap an, Dr. Sun refused to meet the members of the Kwoming 'l'ang who were in Tokyo, and Miss Snug, liis former secretary, denies thr.t Dr. Sun has any connexion at present with the K woming 'l'ang." On the 2nd .August '' the leaders of the K warning 'l'ang in Peking, addressed a letter to Chao Ping chun, the Chief of Police, in which they stated that the riots caused by Hwang Hsin and others had been the private machinations of those persons, and had no connexion whatever with the Kwoming 'l'ang as such They further stated that, at a meeting of the party committee, the names of the five rebels had been erased from tlie list of the party members. Chao Ping-chun submitted the letter to President Y nan Shih-k'ai. On the 5th August the leaders of the Kwoming Tang in Peking, including Mr. C. 'I'. Wang, the

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S'l'ABILI'fY AND pgACE, 109 Deputy-Spenker of the Senate, called on the Provisional President and on Chao Ping-chun. This is considered to be virtual repudiation of the Punitive Expedition by the K woming Tang.'' It is beyond question that the outbreak of the rebellion gave the Provisional President an opportunity of showing his strength, and that its suppression greatly strengthened his position. Whatever may have been the oflicial connexion of the Kwoming 'rang "ith the outbreak the repudiation noted above did not save the K,voming Tang. On the 5th November, three ,reeks after his inauguration to substantive offo:e, the President issued three mandates, beari11g his own 8ignatnre and those of the Prime l\linister, and the l\Iinister of tlte Interior, dissolving the Kwoming Tang. 'l'he dissolu tion of the K woming Tang, and the unseating of all K woming Tang members of Parliament facilitatrd the dissolution of Parliament itself in ,January 1914. 'l'he dissolution of the K woming 'rang was evidently an unpremeditated step, for it was not until the Government accidentally obtained possession of several dozen cipher telegrams that had passed between Kwoming Tang leaders in Peking, including members of Parliament, and several leaders of the rebellion, and also obtained the cii1her code thereto, that this drastic action was taken At the time that this record closes an A mended Provisional Constitution lias just been issued, the work of a Political Council convened hy the President to assist him in the \\'Ork of Government. Under this Amended Constitution an Administrative Council will shortly be convened, the business of which will lie to prepare a final coustitution, under which there! will be OJ1ly one elected chamber, and to act administratively until that elected House of Legislature meets, whereafter tl,e Administrative Council "ill be come a consullative body, with powers of veto on Loth Legisla tnre and President.. The otlice of Prillle Minist~r has ceased to exist aud instead there is a Secretary of State, Hsu Shih-chang. i\Iany former officials who h:we heen out of office siuce the inangnrntion of the R epublic arc beiug persuaded to take office; and the general feeling throughout the country is that things are yery much more stable thau they !,ave been for two years. Oue may legitimately hope that a period of stability, of pence and law and order, is here at last, for the country cannot affonl to nm the risks attendant on fnrther nphearnl. The priuie necessity is peace; this it is evident the President iH determined to secun,; and provided he secures that m nch else may be for~i l'E'n him.

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CHAPTER VI NANKING, THE REBELLION AND THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES By Rev. P. F. Price, D.D., Nanking Every great upheaval in China has, nuder thr overruling providence of God, been followed by the wider opening of doors for the preaehing of the gospel. This was true even of the shameless Opi nm war, after which there were new treaties giving larger protection to missionaries and Chinese Christians. Jt was trne of the Chinese-Japanese War, of the Boxer uprising and of every other great overturning in the history of rnis~ions in China The Rebellion of 1913, known as the" Second Rebellion;" was no exception to this rule. 'fhe centre of this rebellion was at Nanking and while the people of the cit.v have passed through harrowing experiences, yet the outcome has been for the strengthening of mission work, and for the wider dissemination of the missionery appeal. The history of the strenuous weeks during which Nanking was under fire and of the subsequent days afte r the entrance of the government troops, when Chang llsun and his men sacked the c .ity at will, is a part of Chinese history that will be written by others. Jt only remains for us to uote lHre the effect "hich this rebellion and its aftermath had on Mission work. Before Genera~ Chai1g and his men had entered the city the terror of his name ltnd his previous reputation for iooting and lawlessuess strnck terror into the hearts of the people. Despite assurances to the contrary, it was generally believed that on entrance into the city his men would he frre to prey upon the people at will. A nmnher of people fled from the city. Others songht refuge in the mission componnds which were believed to he havens of retreat from the depradation of Ch:111g Hsun and his robber soldiers, and so they proved to be. 'I'he number of snch refugees increased, until within the

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THE CONSULS AND 11!ISSIONARIES 111 various mission lrnildings or camped upon their grounds were some 2,000 p e ople. The largest number were at the Universit.)' of Nhnking, at the Nanking School of Theology, and at the two hospitals, the hospital of the Christian :Mission at the Drum Tower, and that of the Methodist Mission near tl,e West (fate (Ilansimen). Dut there was hardly a mission institution of auy sort ( in which there was a missionary) that was not full of refugees. About a dozen missionaries remained in Nanking during the whole of the siege, each principal centre having at least one foreign representative on the ground. The gathering of so many refugees within mission wal1s gave an unparalleled opportunity for getting near to the people, and for giving them under most fayourable circum stanees the gospel message. To anticipate in a word, not a few of those who found a retreat within these missionary institutions are now seeking as their p e rsonal Saviour the Christ in whose name they were received During days of extreme tension when the capitulation of the city seemed near at hand, and when the people feared the worst, Dr. W. E. Macklin accompanied by Rev. J M 13. Gill, representing the missionaries in the city, and Oll b ehalf of the people, went out t.o secure, if possible, a promise from Chang Hsun not to molest non-combatants within the city. Gen. Chang received Dr. : Macklin and Mr. Gill with all due courtesy, and gave abundant promises which he did not keep. During the siege when the situation became more and more tense, the two classes of persons whom the people seemed to look to more than any others were the consuls nnd the missionaricsY It was under foieign protection that many persons were able to get out of the city, the ga.tcs being opened to foreigners when they wonld not be opened to Chinese. It ,rns the missionaries whose going about freely i,eemed to have a Fteadying effect, a11d it is not exaggerating to say, that if at that particular time the While l\'e are speaking specially of the m1ss1onaries, we would not forget that the work of the co11snls deserve heart.y recog11it.ion.

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112 NANKING. nuss10naries had l eft in a body there would undoubtedly hav e been a g eneral panic It was only under the prote ction of Ame ric a n missionaries that the mails of the Chinese Post Office could be gotten in and ont of the city. General Chang and his men entered the city on September lst, r,,nd then there began three days and nights of an ordeal tlu, t those who passed through will not forget. 'l'h e passions of men were let loose, the sold; ers b eing allowed, without restraint, to plunder, loot and shoot e verywhere Houses and shops were stripped clean. 1n mnny instances peopl e were ruthlessly stabb e d to death. I-I nndreds of thousands of dollars worth of property were seen carrie d or hauled through the streets, to be piled up in huts on the out-skirts, or taken to boats for transport across the river. 'l'herc were also unnameable crimes committed dming those awful days. But the mission centres w e r e unmolested, and those who were in the mission c omponnds es c ape _cl all personal violenee and ,rere able to k e(p their b e longings whi c h they had with them though m any of th eir hom e s were loot
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CHJNEi\E GRATITUDE. 113 days of looting when the streets were almost deserted in the day time, and absolutely deserted at night, the missionaries and other foreigners were the one class of people who went about everywhere unmolested ; and it was possible under the1;e circumstances to do many acts of kindness for the people who were in distress. During all this time also, when many soldiers were being killed on both sides and many of the people men, women and children were being wounded, a Hed Cross society unlpfuluess pt>rformed hr r, presf."ntatives of the Chrisfom rrligion stood ont in bold eontrast to the hellish wOJk don e hy GoYernrnent soldiers aud by the local rowdi e s and robbers who handird with 11wm a11d who listened to ~no,1 cry for mercy The Chinese have : not heen slow in manifestiug their appreciation of' the work of the missionarif's during the tinw ot' stresf! Nnmbers of serolls were given ns tokrns ol' appreeiatim1. The 'l'lwological Sd1ool r<'C<' ived :t most signifkant one whic h is now hanging in their 1pception room. On it is ins c ribed in large rharar1e1s "By th<> Grar< or God Re-established.'' 'fhis ::;ent.i1m'nt, roming from no11Christians, is very significant of the kindly feelings kindled hy contact with the Christian Church. Shortly aft.er the trouble had subsided, Mr. Ting, a prominent and wenlthy resident of the city and an ex-high official, prepared a feast for the foreigners who were in Nanking and in commemoration of their work. He entertained his guests in a most gracions manner, being himself a striking ex : imple of a gentleman of the old school. 'l'he address which he delivered on the occasion was a remarkable recognition of the inflnence and fruitfulness of the Christian religion. But the most gratifying result of all is that the door of opportunity is now open in Nanking as never before Mis sionaries who have resided in the city for thirty or forty years have never seen anything like it. All classes of people seem to be accessible Whenever the preaching halls are open they are full. 'fhere is a readin e ss to listen and an Al.'i

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114 NANKING. inclination to b2lieve. A striking example of this is the fruitfn!iless of the work being done flmong the literati of the city. E1-ery Sunday afternoon Bible clf,sses are held for them, at whirh time there is also singing and a Gospel n1essn'-'e. 'I'hcv attend in numbers varving from two to four lnmdr~d, and 1nore than two hundred have put down their names signifying their desire to become Christians.. These are men who only a year or two ago were knoll'n flS proud nnd seemingly inapproaehahle Confncinnists. In a wor all thes1' se(mingly 1111toward events redonrnlto ihn glory of' ITis namP nrnl ilte 1'11rtl1< raiM of the Gospel. After the general looting of Nanking and ilw d1vnsbttion of the homes, rrlicf work wa::; promptly llll(fortnken. 'l'hrough the Helief Connnittl'e in Shanghai nncl tht> g('Jwrons eontrihutions f"rom Bympathizers in that ,ity rrnd 1lsewilPrP, fnmls ,rere furnished to workl'rs in Nankin:, nlmost nil of whom were missionnriPs, and who 11nol, in Yarions forms the work of relief. This work went for1rnrd for s,re:. l month:;; 'l'lw rltss 11!' p e ople hardest hit by the looting wcr, tlll' s1. l10lar 1lns,.; and for the3P 8pc~r.ial efforts ,wrc rn111lP. A g-1rat llHlll.1" people applied for :lid nnrl tlw m1rits o[ npplicnnts mr< rnrefnlly investigat1 d :ind srrn1inis1d. l\for, 1lt.111 ] ,OOO families ol' tlw srholar 1lass WPl'<' aidrd, togPthn with ,1 large m1111her of people of all <"lnss1's, aml to tlw limit o[ 111< fnnrls furnished hy the Rhnnghai Relief Commil tee nnd from other somces. Professor Bailie of' the :\:anking t;niversity distributed relief in the form of work, which was given to several thqusand people through several \\ eek's time Through such work as this Mr. Bailie's colonii1ttio11 plant on Pnrple Mountain wrrs improved, and a lrnmber of roads within this city were remade. Aid was given to a nnmber of the scholar class through the normal department of the University of Nanking. Some seventy or more of thesr gentlemen were given free tuition for several months, receiving instruction in western branches and in methods of teaching, and many of them havi11g completed the course flre doing work in Christian day-schools in various ,entrcs. A notable work was done through several of the ladies, who

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RELIEF WOHK. 115 distributed c l oth for the makin g of garm e nts p aying genero u s prices for the work don e large numb e r of women w ere aided in this way, and women of over seventy received also free gifts of rice r..nd clothing. The relief work thus under taken has qe_e_n praetiea]Iy the only r e lief wol'k within th e city worth mentioning.

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CHAPTER VII WHAT ELEMENTS IN THE GOSPEL POSSESS THE GREATEST POWER OF APPEAL TO THE CHINESE? By Rev, Courtenay H. Fenn, D.D., Peking It is hardly to be expected that any new treatment of one of the great themes of the Edinburgh Conference will be markedly original. Commission IV, in preparation for that great Conference, gathered opinions from scores of mission aries in all parts of this land; and the Report of that Commission is, snpposrdly, on the shclws of rvery one of ns. i\forrovrr, as thr lnt.est contrihnt.ion to the discussion, WP have almost the mtite Derrrnher 191:1 nnmhrr of 'Pill' Chinese R.eeorder give11 np to srwral strong papers, roveriug the gronnd with a good degree of thoronghness. It would he quite impossible for the preseut writer to treat. thr snhjeet with any approach to completeness without trespasR ing npon the gronnd already thns covered hy others, to whom a large indehtedness is herehy aeknowledged. At. tlw same time it seemed worth while to make a limited emwass of personal friends, both foreign and Chinese, in the hope of securing a few new points from their personal experience One of the most interesting impressions received from the comparison of all these sources of information, part.ieularly from the laying of the Chinese view beside the foreign view, is that there is no little danger of our over-emphasizing that frequent caution of modern days against the Occident.al attempt to formulate creeds and theologies for the Oriental Church. Not that. the caution is not needed, but the absolute universality of the Gospel of Jesus Christ., not merely in its essence, nor merely in its Scriptural statement, but also iu the credal sta.t.ement.s of the Church's history, is emphasized even more by the Chinese than by foreigners. One of the former says emphatically, "There is nothing distinctively Western in the Gospel Mcsimge." A missionary of large evangelistic experil'nc:e and suecess declares it l1is strong

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APPEAL ro A POSSESSION. lli conviction that the Gospel proclaimed b.r the Christian Church "makes the same appeal to the Chinese that it always has to the l'est of the world." Wherever an attempt has been made to materially change the expression of Christian truth in line with national predilections and peculiarities of thought, the result has been a divergence from the truth itself and an accommodation either to old religious concep tions or to new ideas making less demand than the old Gospel for pure spiritual living. Not merely the four Gospels of the Bible, but also the great fundamental doctrines of the Christian Faith as formulated thcrefrom, have served every need, temporal and eternal, of Jew and Greek, Roman, Teuton, Saxon and Slav; and they will meet every need of the Oriental as well. If the Chinese wish, by and by, to attempt to re-orientalize a theology which was originally oriental, and which, to the mind of many, has never lost an essential feature of its orientalism in becoming also occidental, let the responsibility rest upon them; but let it not some day be eharged to the account of missionaries from the West that they robbed their message of its virility and its positiveness through their fear of forcing Western formnlaries upon an Eastern people. Our propaganda is in <1uite as much clanger from lack of positiveness as from lack of courtesy Perhaps one cannot do better than to divide the Appeals of the Gospel to the Chinese into three forms, namely, its Appeal to a Possession, its Appeal to a Pereein-d Need, and its Appeal to a Pursuit. As to the first form of Appe,d, the early Possession by tlie Chinese of many truths which form a part of the Gospel ~Iessage, it may be said that, while it does constitute one of the strongest forms of appeal, yet it is by no means an unmitigated advantage to the Gospel messenger. Not only in China, but throughout the world, one of the great difficul ties encountered in winning the l\Ioharnmtdan to Christ is the fact that his pres ent belief contains so many elements in common with the Christian l!.,aith, that he sees no advantage in making a elwnge In like manner it is true that while the first approach to the Chinese should usually be mad e through this form of appeal, he will f.cldom be won to Christ

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118 ELE~IE.KTS POSSESSI.r;G THE GREATEST APi'EAt. tlrrough the mere conviction that Christianity is little more than a happy combination of the beauties of his old '' Three Religions." Iudeed, in these latter days, the mere thought that the new religion is only the ol
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APPEAL 'l'O A PERCEIVED .KEED. li9 of appeal all the stronger for the fact that their individual and eollective inadequaey is so readily demonstrable; and this for the simple reason that the realized possession then at once becomes a Perceived Need, this perception profoundly increased by the further realization of the total lack of spiritual dynamic in what is already possessed. Turning, then, from this frequ0 ntly-ernplwsized form of appeal, may we nut at once repeat the list just given, under the second form of appeal, namely, The Appeal of a Perceived Need I One of the first impressions usually made by the prese11tation of the Gospel to the average Chinese is the utter inade([lHH :y. of his own previous notions as to the Existence of a Supreme Being. The schohir kno\ls that tLe name of Sltang Ti has been reverenced from early ages, and explained as the equivalent of T'ien, or Heaven, the Supreme Power in heaven and 011 earth; but thanks to what Dr. Gibson calh; the" disservi< e" of ()oufucius to his country,U1e idea is rather abstl'ad, impersonal, agno1:;tic, than concrete, pel'sounl, re<'.Ognized. The man in the street uses indifferent ly the tp1nu,, 'J''ien, Lao 'l''ien-yeh, Lao Fo-yeh, Lao T'ie11 Fo yeh, ,rith tlw inddinib, notion that the powers uf 11atu1e are somewhere above him iu the IJlue expai1:c,e, from whielt shim the "Tlll'ee Lights," and from whieh dl 'See11ds tlw rain; and he, in a niam1er, identifies them with the Buddl111, whose image ltas IJe<:ume tu him thtJ chief visible l'X pr<:ssiuu uf his hazy torn : l'Ption of an imi8ible spirit world. The first <1msliu11 put tu liirn as to the Personality of this Powerful ~pirit nduces fiirn to hopeless con[usio11 lie adrnits that the images iu the tewples a1 e Htan-rnade awl llWn-eontL'ollcd. How lleave11 ean of it1:;elr prodwe the four :;;easons aml make seed tu grow, lw lws 11ut the slightest idea. He believes i11 111c11i's pOWl'l' to propitiate, tu eajol.e, to buy, even to outwit aml deceive the Spirit, or spirit:,;; but of a holy, wise and !o,i11g Fathtr in II ea ven, neither lie nor the scl1oh,r knows anythiug, until the Gospel comes aml proclaims to him the L :nity, .Personality and Universal Fatherhood of God, aml oprns to his eyes the vast outreaches of those realities iu relation to his own present and future. The seeond and the third items in tl1e list of correspundrnees are so closely co1rntded ,rith th10 1ir8t, the second is

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120 ELE~IENTS POSSESSING THE GREATEST APPEAL. indeed so necessarily involved in the conception of the Fatherhood of God, as hardly to require separate considera tion. Suffice it to say that the Christian Providence is always and invariably a Beneficent Providence, and the spirit-world one in which the good is assured of ultimate victory. 'l'he Christian idea of Prayer does away ht once with all idea of bribery, cajolery and deceit, and at the same time introduces the spiritual end as the essential condition of the petition, and a. life in harmony with God's Will as the essential condition of the petitioner. Moreover it broadens out the single concept of petition into the manifold concept of adoration, tha nksgiving, confession, petition, intercession, which concept finds its consummation in a fellowship with the Heavenly li,ather and with His Son Jesus Christ, which knows no limits of time or place or theme Im,tead of the prevailing idea of SaeriJices us providing Uods or departed spirits with something to eat 01 drink, or wherewithal they may be clothed, and so either mauifesting simple reverence or seekiug to purchase a benetit, the Gos1wl, in the foreshadowings of the Old Testament, the Great Atonement of Christ, and the" living sacrifice" of Apostolic teaching, offers to the Chinese the renunciation of all claim to merit, the contrite appeal for mercy, the giving up of self for others, and a life devotion to the Giver of all good. This is not apt to be among the first or strongest appeals to the Chinese. The Christian i\Iiracle is no mere womler \\'rought for spedacular vmposes; but an attestatiou ot the commission of a divine messenger through some unusual exhibition of the loving sympathy of God toward men, a unique manifesta tion of God Himself in that most heautiful of His attributes, His passion for the gracious bestowal of Himself, which, as noted below, presents a strong appeal. That righteousness has a righteous reward, and eYil an evil recompense; tlrnt the soul of man,-~or his souls,--lin: after death a con::;cious existence, whether in the trnnsmigra tion of the Buddhists or the hazy Paradise of the 'l'aoists, all Chinese are supposed to beliew, according to tl1e rites assoeiated with death and bnrial,-and according to the

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TilE DYNAMIC OF THE GOSPEL. 121 pictures on the walls of the temples; but few live in fear of any other than an earthly judgment, and the hope of Paradise lightens no afflictions, brightens HO death-beds. The joyous hope of eternal life in fellowship with God and with all the good, with the continuation and beatification of all the sweetest associations of earth, all earth's sorrows and limitations forever left behind; this is emphasized on all hands as one of the strongest of all appeals to the Chinese How infinitely the Gospel exalts the '' :five relations," and all that Chinese thought has to offer with regard to virtue! It take s the element of selfishness out of every relation: it introduces the positive element of love into every virtue It makes the father as careful not to provoke his son as the son not to disobey his father. It leads the husband to love his ,vife as well as the wife to reverence her husband,and thns giws her reason to reverence. In the relations of brothers, sisters and friends it emphasizes gi viug instead of getting; and in tlw relation of ruler and subject it goes far beyond Chinese thought in making the glory of the ruler t.o eonsist in his surpassing opportunity to serve his eountry and all cla:,;ses of its people. It may safely be said that the Golden Rule in its negative Confucian form will never be truly put in operation until it is also known and adopted in its positive Christian form, and with the powet that is in Christ Jesus behind it. As to the Confucian emphasis on the Value of Sineet it:,r aud Truth, it ean only be said that it is repeatedly modified by the law of the five relations and the prineiple of expe diency, and heuee is rendere d of little effieaey; while the Uhristian rule is absolute arnl universal. Truth is of God, who cannot lie; therefore His children have no right to play fast and loose with that whieh is of His very essence This constitutes more of an appeal than many think, and often preseuts itself in the forrn of admiration for the true Hero, as exemplified in Jesus Christ who came into the world to live and suffer and die for the Truth. But the strongest of all appeals to a p e re e ived Chin e s e need, is, probably, the Dynamic ol' the Gospel. It is so ofte n emphasized iu our preaehing as to n e ed little more than meution, that what the Law,-Confucian as well as l\Iosaic,A-lU

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J:22 ELE)iENTS l'OSSESSII\G 'fl-IJ,; GRBATEST APPEAL. could not do, that Christ, alone of all who ever lived, cau do, will do, is doing every day, namely, both doing away with the eondemnation and curse of a broken la,r, and providing an uninterrupted source of power for the keeping of the law and the working of all righteousness. And the too often unpreachcd and unrealized fact, which constitutes the heart of the Dynamic, and will make its appeal ten-fold greater when realized, is the fact that Christ Himself IS the Dynamic. China's teachers when on earth added their personal influence to their teachings, but they could not personally lit:e in even one of thei1 disciples, and it was not good for those disciples that their teachers should go 1tway. But ,Jesus went away in the flesh that He mig:ht return in the Spirit, and henceforth abide in, and be the life of, every sincere disciple. The Gospel's appeal to the Chinese perceiv ed need of a Dynami1 : is in its offer o[ fiOmetlting more than a doctri1w, something lllOl'e thau a theology, something more even thau a ltistorie Savio1, even a present Christ, to be with ead1 one '' al way, even unto the t'nd of the world.'' It is often stated titat the Chinese have no sense of sin, and that it is so difficult to arouse that sense in ti1em that the majority are admitted to the clrnreh, not on confes sion of sin, but on profession of faith in a system of doetrine set forth in a catechism which has been eornrnitted to memory. Opinions differ greatly with regard to the real signiticanee of phenomena which too readily bear this interpretatioll. It m1s wisely urged at Edinburgh that a part of the diffienlty lies in the fact that the language possesses no general word for sin in its scri ptnral sense. .The word in eon1111on use lwlongs 1o a purely etiJical voeabulary, and i;o, while it embral'eS both erirne and its punishment, and, d erivatiYely, any hardship, does 11ot represent adetiuately either opell sin agninst God or seeret ltear.t-sin against either God or rnan As with tlie am:ient Hebrews, !:iO wit.ii the U11inese, these heart-sins are too little recog _niied as tliings ,rortl1y .of punishment; yet the Chinese conscience, like any other, responds to enlightenment on this subject; and few there are among this people, who, if questioned by means ol' specific words as to their regular performance of all their duties, ,rill not feel compelled to admit that in many thi11gs we offend all.

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'Il-!E BROTHERHOOD Qi,' illAN. 123 Therefore it is that many emphasize as one of the chief appeals of the Gospel to the Chinese, first, its 1wwer to convict of far more sin than ever before realized; and, second, its provision of a fnll and free forgiveness :for :,in and salvation from its power, through the infinitely condes cendiug love of God and the gra,:ions propitiatory sacrifice of our Lord and Savi or J esns Christ. l\fore than one has assured me that the Chinese have no difficulty at all in aeeepting the idea of a vicarious atonement, nnd they care little for speculat1on iis to its mystery. Forgiveness is so uw:ornmon, revl~nge so common, in their relations with one another; love for enemies was so remote from the teachings of their sages, that the thought that while we were yet enemies, God loved us, iind sent His Sou, a "illing sacrifice in our places, tliat we rnigltt be forgiven and reconciled, fJOSEesses great power of appeai to their ltem ts. Asked whethe1 the preaching of the Cl'oss ii; to the Chinese "a stnmbling-bloek '' and ''foolishness,'' the general reply has been that, a few years ag0, it ,;as mul'h more so than no,r: that at the present tiiue ewn :;dwlars do not f;tumble over the foolishness of the Cross, partly because they have realized, as uever before, the moral corruption wltil'h their old systems of philosophy and religion have proved impotent to cure, nncl partly because they have seen tlie most enlightened nations of the world united in tlti~ exaltation of the Cross as an emblem of salvation aml vidory. ~\nother appeal of the Gospd to the Chimse folt need is ll1ut whid1 gol's hand in haml with the Yery first of this l'las:,; of appeals, 'l'hl' Fatherhood of God, namely, The llrot.herlrnod of Man. H \\'ords alwa.rs stood for facts, one who sl10u1Ll hear the ordinary greetings o[ the Chinese to one another, and the language of smne of their public addresses, might be almost inclined to think that they could give many points to Christians along this line. Their proverbs and their saluta tious wonld seem to indicate that they not_ only were one great family, hut that they realized it to the full. Ho,r is it then that Chinese as "ell as forei1mers unite in snyiug that one of the greatest appeals of the Gospel to a felt necd in China manifests itself in the loving personal interest of Christians, both in other Christim1s and in those who are outside I The

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12-i ELEMENTS POSSESSING THE GREATES'f APPEAL. explanation, of course, is that, in this matter as in so many others, the word does not represent a general fact; the greeting only occasionally represents a feeling; the proverb only e xpresses an ideal, the proverbial expression of which seems to be regarded as the equivalent of the reality. There fore it is true that, in family life, in social life, in business life, in political life, the manner in which Christians love one a.nother,-and others also,-is an amazing and attractive indication to the non-Christian eomnnmity that we are Christ's disciples, for we are, in s mie degree like our Master and our Heavenly Father. In this, and in many other resp~cts, the Gospel makes to the need of the Chinese the appeal of 'l'he 'l'ransformed Life, the new creature in Christ ,Jesus, taken right out of the midst of the impurity and deceit and mutual enmity, so common in home and soeietl, aud made ovt'r into the pure, the true, the lovi1;g; no less l'flieient a brr:icl ll'inner, more con:,iderate of all hu11mn relatiolls 11101e able to eudnre adven;ity but hatillg the degrading thing:, on c e loved, and loving the ennobling things once despi.;;ed, patient and long sutreri_ng, demanding less and bestowing more There may be reviling, but there is 110 gainsaying such an appeal. What do I mean by the Gospel's Appeal to Pursuit' Just this; that there are many features about the Gospel of Jesus Christ which do not meet a perceiv e d ncel of the Chinese ; but do appeal to him 1110re and mol'e str-ongly the farther he pursues them in the imtuiry either of curiosity or of scientiffo interest. H e re it i:, not pos:,ible to draw a i;harp line, for that which i:, a felt nee d of one may only whet the eurio::;ity of another; and that whieh may appear at the beginning as an object of specula tive inte rest may prove itself the remedy for a quit e unrealized defieiency. For example, the Universality of the Gospel may at first seem rather a disadvantage to one of the upper classes, as it did to the Je,rs; but th e pursuit of the theme, along with som:: of thos e alre ady mentioned, convinces a man that a 11ation1tl religion is an anomaly, a elass religion an absurdity, and certainly neither of them in consonance with republican id eas or international fellowship. In like manner the Exclusiveness of the Gospel

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APPEAL TO A PURSUIT. 12-5 seems to co 11tradict its Universality, but soon appears ns its necessary complement. If the Gospel is to be universal, it must ultimately take the place of all other religions, re cognizing what is true in them, but maintaining and demonstrating its own unique and exclusive sufficiency. To the reasoning man it soon becomes evident that the mutual toleration and assimilation of the Three Heligions of China is fairly grotesqu~ in its illogical absurdity; and the Exclusiv eness of the Gospel will b ecome one o.f its strongest claims to divinity. Interwown with these two themes, yet :tppareutly at strife with both, appears the Gospel's insistence upon l~eligious Freedom. No doubt it has been a great snrprise to many a Confneianist to find thr Christian Church, throughout the country, a nuit, not rnrrPly in deprP t1ating the establishment of ConfnC'ianism as tlw National Religion, but also in unwillingness tlwt Christianity should he thus estab li shed. Yet it is trne that. Christianity is qnih as free as it i s <'xclnsivP, for it will ,,,nit, and knows that it ran afford to wait, for tl1e williug adh<'sion of all rne11. In this qnietiwss 11nd <'onlidenee,'' the thinker <'onw,; to SPP nnothPr <>vidr>ncP of the strength of Christianity. Clos<'ly co unec-ted with tlw prinriplr of' R r ligions I<'rrr
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126 ELE~IENTS POSSESSING THE GREATEST APPEAL, of men, women and ehildre n should be willing to suffer the most cruel tortures and even death itself rather than deny their faith in" a crucified man" and the things that he taught. Y e t the pursuit of the thought c onvin< tecl many a man that the worth of life to the Christian was not in the temporary body, but in the eternal spirit; and h e came to know that it w a s true. One of the chief powers of appeal of the Gospel, in these latter days, is the slwrp li:r:ic which it draws between Faith and Snperstition. At first glanc e botit appear to he unscientifi c ; bnt fnrtl1er thonght makes plain that there is all the differ('lwe in tlw world Jetween that whi
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CHAPTER VIII EVANGELISTIC WORK The Need By D. E. Hoste, Director of the C, I. M. It is impressed upon me earnestly to request yonr prayers that, ii' it he Gon's holy will, there rnny he a marked inerensr in tl1e nnmhrr of snitnhl( f'andidHfos aeerpted in the llorne co1rnt.ries d11ri11g tlu fomi ng yrm. H mw mny spri1k for others, we are too npt. to allow the <'irc11mstmwt'S ro11-ferning the growth of tlH' Mission, l'Pl!Hlrlrnhle ns tlwy hnw hecn, t.o dose our r,\'f'S to the 1-r of mgr1w,y which was so cl(c p and powerful in 011r hrloved founder, as to nu, n(rd of' prcssing on to rrgions hfyond, is r;aclly Jar.king. Whilst it is prohnhly true thnt, in the providenc, of' Urn,, we lrnve
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128 EV.U,GELTSTIC WORK death to self; a laying nside of self will, self-seeking and self. assertion, which can almost insensibly creep into the life, rendering it impossible for the Spirit of Goo to be with us in real power. While thanking Goo for all that He has accomplished through His servants during the comparatively short period since missionary work in the interior became possible, let us seek to remember the vast unevang elized regions of that laud. A memher of the l\Iission speaking only a few days ago at a :B'arewell l\Ieeting, mentioned the fact that in the county iu which she laboured-one out of eighty-five in the province of SHENSI-therc were no few e r than uine hundred walled villagei:;. She nnd lwr hni:;hnnd \\er e the onl.r Pro1- 8tlmt rnisi:;ionnriei:; in this ronnty, nnd it wonld fake them threr yeari:; to go ronnd thr villages alone, if only 01w day ( 811nday exeluckd) wrre 8JWnt in Pach. One sny, ]!)H. 2. A Journey in Tibet By A. L Shelton, M.D., Batang As 11 11i:;ual thing th11 foreigner is of ronsiderahlt intrr f st in th e ronntry round Bntang, bnt bring invi1e
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.rounNEY TO TTnET. 120 pride you know, your hat fits better). So on ,ve went till noon when we stopped for a lmwh under a tree near some honses, while there tlir. prople krpt eoming round with small prrsents for the Living Bnddha, a c1nart of lrnrlty, a fe" rggs, a. little ehrrsr, or butte1, etc., de., hut. invariably with the p1esents they also handed him a little piece of string in whid1 he til'd a knot, blew his frolh upon it and lrnnded it hack. I could restrain my curiosity no longrr. '' Wl1y in the world arr yon tying all those knots and blowing on all those strings? I exclaimed Oh," said he, my froth is supposed to keep them from taking small.pox." (They come to he vaccinatrd whrn people are dying all ar01md with i:;ma ll-pox, hnt not othcrwisr). We jourm,:yed on in nnwh the same way for two days-lir doing 1l1e rnedieal by papr:r pills ,rith prayers written on them, inenntations, etc., and I doing thr surgical part as any came np, and giving 011t tracts and gospels and preaching to little groups as occnsion offered hc doing what to thrm was the old and familiar and I, the new nnd strange. 'fhe second night \\'e stopped in the villages far up in the mountains ,rhere his parents come in from the rnnges during the coldest of the \\inter. Here he was received with much honour, the native son having achieved much greatness returns-and many and various were tlw tales of sickness and trouble brought to him that night till far in the night, in some of which I was able to help. Each man who came brought a smull present. At last there came in a man with a very great present-a bushel of barley, ehcese, several pounds of butter, etc., and after he had present rd his pi:csent and properly f'alnted, Gozl1ok said "And now what is it you would like?'' '' vVell," said he, '' it's pretty serious. About three rnontJ1s ago my father died, a little later n horse died, then a yak and now :mother horse is sick and I'll soon lose all I'm got, and I wnnt yon to tell my fortune and see what is tlie matter, if you will.'' Gozhok looked very serious enough and feeling in his gown got ont his letter box with two dice in it, and taki11g the dice in his fingers solem11iy east them into the box and studied them. This he did three times, then looking np and pointing his finger at the poor 1111111, said, I'll tell you what is the matter, ;\-] i

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130 EVAKGELISTIC wonK. you're not nearly as good a man as your father: dnring his life tinw, the good spirits took care of him, since his death the evil oues have taken charge of you, and you are in a bm1 way."" La so, La so," (yes, yes) sitid the man, "I had an idea it. was about that way, now can you please tell me what to do." Gozhok manreuvered his dice again and then said, '' You send to Bat.ang and g e t ten priests and have them come read prayers (naming the books to be read) for ten days and sec to it that thes are well paid and w e ll fed \\'hile they are here, and things will p e rhaps he b etter ,;-itlt yon." See how Lamaism works! He had gin'n the priests rr 100 days work in a few mome nts. As soon as the mnn \\'as gone I turne d to him and ex claimed Gozhok, what did you want. to tell that poor fellow all that stuff for, you know b etter and he is in real trouble.'' Sh sh don't talk so lo11cl, '' he whispered '' somebody will hear yon, I don't know whrt.hrr it will do any good or not but I don't dare tell them so." H e Gozhok, is renlly a be liever in the Lord, hut is afraid to comr out boldly. 'l'he next day we went over the pass and camped in the snow (in August) with his father and brotherr,; in their black tent that night, and we talked with them about Christ too in their own home, but I never suffered myself to say anything slightingly or act in any but a respectful way toward their religion and I love them-they are true folks and I never was treated better any where with more kindliuess or r 2sped, and some day they too will he His. 3. Tent Work in and about Pochow, Anhwei By Rev. Wade D. Bostick We have used a teut :for some time in our work. It was IJonght of l\Iontgomery ward and Company. It cost. ij;45, gold, including freight, to Slrnngliai. It also has a double roof at an additional cost of $22 which can he used as an awing and make the tent c~o:1ble its size, which is 18 hy 20. 'l'lte material is heavy c,mvass, with patent rope holders We carry with it, as furnishiugs, a light folding table, two lanterns some scrolls witl1 song.3 nnd hen<:lws and stools,

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Tlrn'r WORK. 131 r:;nfficient to seat abont seventy persons. With this seventy seated and others standing about the end, listening, I have often counted about two hnndred. 'l'he tent with its furnishings requires t.\\'O wheel harrows for moving We try to have at least. three of our preachers or J .e'pers with it, who are willing to trike some pait in the witnessing. The places visited are mostly the market towns. However we have done some work with it in eaeh of the cities, where we have work. We clo not try to spend only the market days at these places, bnt oft.en stay some clays at a plaee and find that we have a good hearing at the tent on the off days In some respects these arc the best days. There is not the rnsh and cnrions crowds lint 011 ly tho"c who lrnve some interest. to h ear, and, 11.erefore, tliry give better and more considerate attrntion. "\Vlien we have it in the citil'f', \\'e have found, that ,re can have :m unbroken crowd from early morning till bed time. vVhen we have had sufficient help, we have, n few time:,, kept preaching going for as m:my as fourteen hours a day. And we ei-tirnate that on such a clay, the number wl,o ltenr is well al,ove a thousand. Now as to some of the definite advantt:ges of the tent work. I would mention in the first place t.hat \H' get a hctter clm,s of hearers there than we usua1ly get at our chapels or in the open :,treet preaching. "\Ve have had many mcrchrmts and other men of business and some teachers to come there for preaching. Not a few times, we have had them mention to us later that they had heard under the tent. We have, at most places, reserved a little space for women and mally of them have heard under the tent. 1t seems that both men and women feel that they can go to the tent without the nsnal loss of face that they fear by going to t!te chapels or churches. Seeondly, we can pitch it in public placEs, that is, busy streets or at markets or fairs. 'I'o get houses at such places is often entirely out of the question. And so far we have not had even a little trouble about places for pitcl,ing the tent. And in two cities, we have had it immcdiatlev in fr01Jt ( practically in the yard) of the "yarn~n," and 'irnYe had courteous attention all the time.

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132 EY,\XGELISTfC WORK. Thirdly, often one wants to test a place before he sees sufficient encouragement to justify his renting property, in fact one sees places wlwrc he would like to open lrnt cannot get a foot hold. 'fhe tent is Jine for testing snch places and is fine for getting this "foot hold '' under circurnstmwrs that often exist in our work. Some times we find that the interest soon grovvs in a inarket place, as the result of tent. work, so that places are easily rented rmd there are even those ,rho beg 1is to open np plaers. at or nriir tlieir homes. Fourthly, one is mastrr of t!w sihrntion under his tent, as there is more or kss of consciousness that the tent and the place it stands on, is the property of the missionary Thus he is able to keep far better order tlrnn lie f'an in open air preaching ,md at the snrne time not have to be offensivr n bout. it. But while he um tlrns keep ord<>r, tht>re is 11 freeness on the part of thos e who rome, which we cmmot get them to feel at our regnlnr meeting places. We have had nrnny friendly inquirirn there and in many instances these inq11iriEs have strung out to long conversations ahont the Way of Life. Our helpers all sleep under the tent at nights [tncl up to ns late as they are willing' to talk, there are the few who stny and talk, and we are glad that most of the talk is trying to direct them to Christ. Tl1e helpers all seem to enjoy tl1e work mid even like it with the tent hetter tlrnu to he placed at a chapel or a regn1ar prrnehing place. We have sold a goodly number of hooks and Gospels along with this particular work. And, without nny explanation of it to my mind, thrre have been more false gods delivered to thr tent tlrnn to all the other five placES of preaching. We find that the we&ther is, for about eight months in the year, such as to make it praetic11 ble to he out witlt thr tent. It is fairly comfortable in it all the winter except about two months and the rainy season hinders it for about that length of time. For nny one caring to use the tent in itinerating work, I would heartily recommend it, as a saving on the physical, nervous and spiritual man1 hrside;, rnnking his ,rork much more effleien1.

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HE\'IYAL OF tnoL,\TRY. 133 4. Prospects of Evangelistic Work in Fukien By Rt. Rev. Bishop Price, Fo:>chow The population of this l'roviuee is now put down as a little under twelve lllilliom;, Jrnt until the last Government eensus in 1910, it was gemrally estimated at about twenty two millions. The Chl'istian population is comparatively large. The Clrnrehes connected with the A. B. C. l'. l\I., tl1e l\L B. l\L, and the 0. of K l\lissions, whieh are working iu tlte Nortltern s::diou of the Provinee, have about 28,000 ehureh members or Oommnnicant standing. ln both the Northern and Southern Seetions the Churches have rl':tehed a fairly advanced stage in their organization. With the heartiest desire to s2e these clturehes alo1w the lines of their several organizations take the responsibility for the work of evangelizing the Provinee and the ehief plaee in carrying out tltis task, we can hardly yet affirm that they are doing so thoroughly. We trust that they are in some districts really making progress in tl1is direction; but llluch prayer must be made for them that they may have a deeper sense of their responsibility and of their presrmt opportunity and a t1t1ickened evangelistie spirit. During the past year both the need for the proclamation of the Gospel of the True God and the favourable opp_ortunit.)' for pressing on the work have bee11 strikingly rnanifest. Here as elsewhere thtre has been a 11u1,rked revival of idolatrous praetiees. For example last summer, when Foo elww suffered from severe epidemics first of typhus and then of cholera, the idea was spread abroad that the idols "ere punishing the people for neglecting them Idol processions wl1id1 had been given up were rcvi ved, and temples repaired. This reaction from the movement against idolatry at the time of the l{evolution seems to have been general throughout the Province. A l\Iissionary from Chinchow writes, ''A maker of idols told me that in the year of the Revolution and the subsequent year he had practically decided to give up his trade and S8ek another holding out better prospects, but that last year there had been a sort of renascence of idolworship, and he lud decided to continue as before.''

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13 l EVANGELISTIC \\'OHR. On the other hand there is rnosL encouraging evidence of a generally favotmtble attitude amongst leaders of the people. l\fr. liiunson of the Y.:i\I.C.A. lms recently visited tile cities of Kutien, Kienning, Shaowu and Yen ping, in company with one o[ the Pastors in preparation for the Autumn Campaign to which we shall refer later. In each centre which they visited they found that either the Local l\lagistrate, the President of the Chamber of Commerce, or the Representative to the Provin~ 1 ial Assembly were members of the Foochow Y l\I.C.A. In every instance they secured the hearty supp_ort and co-operation of the local officials, the gentry and the Heads of Government Sehools At Kieuning the Senior l\Iissionary, the Rev. H. S. Phillips, invited about twenty-five leading men of the city to a feast Amongst them were Government School Presidents, the President and Secretary o.f the Cham ber of Commerce, a leading Banker and several prominent Gentry, some of wltom !tad years before joined in expelling their host from the citv. These n1tn were entlmsiastic over the Meetings to be he.ld in the Autumn and offered their support. 'l'heir Representative to the Provincial A:,;sembly who had been in Fooc!tow last year at the time of Mr. Bddy 's l\Ieetings said: ,; The most pressing need of our city is the moral uplift ot' our young men," and he gives the move ment his hearty backing. 'l'he Taotai who has jurisdiction oYer the three Prefee tures of Yenping, Kienning, and Shaowu resides at Yenping. \Vhen the plan of the Autumn Evangelistie Campaign was put before him in the presence of thirty leadiug men of the eity 113 gave his unqualified approval of such meetings. He said: The great weakness in our nation is that we have so Jew real leaders an1011g our people ,vl10 can go from city to city lecturingon morality and religion. We in thesB cities talk much about morality, but we do not practise it. Vv e need some one to teach how to live moral li \'es, and I most heartily weicome this opportunity.'' When the local l\Jagistrate himself suggested to the repr( Sentati.-e of the Kiangsi Guild that they should loan their hall for the l\Ieetinl{s, the latter replied, '' We shall be holding our theatres in the .J\inth l\loon, but they can eai:;ily IJe postpoued for these meetings.''

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PHO\'JNCJ..\L EVAl\GELJSTIC CAMPAIGN, ] 3o These instanees, whieh arc, we believe, typical, may serve to illnstrate the need of tlie people, the realisation of this need in the minds of some of the more thoughtful aud responsible of their leaders, and the consequently favourable opportunity for a special effort on a large scale to bring the knowledge of Salvation in Christ to the people of this Provine(~. Jn view of the great measure of success which was granted to the effort made in the Spring of last year when Mr. Sherwood Eddy aml Prof. Robertson held meetiugs in Foochow, it has been arranged to hold a Provineial Ev.mgck;tic Campaign in the Autumn of this year. Preparations for this have bet~n iu hand since last sum111e1. All the Missions are joining and all the Churehes will beudit, and all mnst recoguiz0 their debt to the Y 1\LC.A. \l'hidt lends itself so admirably to the effective carrying ont of a united effort of this kind. The best purpose which this brief artiele can serve is to call special attention to, and to invite earnest prayer on behalf of this proposed Campaign. The general plan is that 1\Ir. Bddy and his associates should first ho I cl a \V or kers' Conference in Foochow. 'l'his will he attended by a large rnunber of delegates, Chinese and Foreign workers from .l?oochQw itsel [ and also from tlte chief centres in the Province. The Workers' Conference will be followed at once by the series of Evangel istic 1\Ieetings, ineluding Scientific lel'turcs by Prof. Robert son, in Foochow Citv and Suburbs. 'l'lie workers from the other centres as welf as those belonging to Food1ow will be present and take part in the work of these meetings; and then they will return to their several centres and take the leading part themselves in the Rvangdistic Meetings in those centres. lVIr. Eddy ,rill in all probability himself visit Arnoy and possibly one other centre There is every promise of enthusiastic gatherings, which should by God's blessing greatly iuerease the zea,l and faith of the Christian Workers, Chinese and Foreig11, and of the Cl1incse Church Members. As one important result of the experience of last year still more special attention is being paid in the preparation this year to the follow-up woi:'k, upon whieh the permanence of the results of these large Evangehstic efforts so much depends.

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13G EVAl\GELISTIC \\"OHK. It will he obvious tltat tfo value of nn effort like thi:,; lies not only in its eanl(>st and arresting manuer of prodaiming the' Gospel, and in the large inceease of Chmch l\Iembership for whieh we may hope, ii' the follow-np work is carried out witli faitl1, pcrsewranc<', and careful organization, but also in the effect upon the Evangelistic Spirit of the Churches It is to the ordinary lifo and evangelistic work of the Chine s ~ Church organizations to which we must more and more look for the steady ini;reas e of the Kingdom of God here. \Ve must earnesLly pray that thes s may be quickened to 1ww life aml npliftccl to new faith and courage and self-sacrifice as one gTeat r esult of this approaehing campaign. With refere nce to the regular evaug-elistic work and its prospel'ts as distinc : t from the special union effort, one co1T,~spondcnt writes: The usual conditions prevail,large opportunities everywhere and a great lack of workers This is prolnbly true all orer the Province in spite of the fact that the forc e of men and women employed by the ::.\fissions and the Chines e Churches in Fukien is in the aggeegate a comparatively large um ~ It is pleasi11g to be able to record that there are clistinet evidences of progress in the raising of the stauchrds of training for Clrnrch workers; at the sam~ time the case of the lonely Catechist or Evangelist rather burdened with family enres and lacking in the spiritual initiative and perscverance which can resist and overwme the drag of. depressing surroundings remains au anxious problem. On the other hand much encouragement has been derived from concerted evangelistic efforts in wltid1 Chines workers and Church members have taken a leading part, as, for instance, recently in the Chinchow district, and in the Amoy neighbourhood and elsewhere. Special mention may be made also ot large efforts which are being planned by the l\lethodist Episcopal Church and ?ilission in llinghwa l'refeeture and Futsing eounty, in which the Anglicans will, y,-e hope, gladly p,ntake.

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5. Preaching in Peking By Rev. W. T. Hobart, D.D. 137 l'readiiug iu i'ekiug is carried 011 from many eeutres and is \\'ell distributed owl' t!te city. There are thirteen street diapels where there is daily prenching. ]!'our of these are in the Southern or Chinese citv. Two are outside the East gates of the Tartar city. 'l'h e re are tltl'ee in the East Tartar city and two in the \Vest. In thes e chapels we pread1 not only to the residents of Peking, but to strangers from every part of the Republic. Sabbath services me also held iu twelve different ehurches in the city. 'l'h e largest eongl' ega tion averages nearly a thousand people. 'l}wn "e have a strong Y.l\LC.A. with its varied forms of activity. Besides this regular work all the l\Iissions except one united in l [I 10 in forming the Peking Union Evangelistic Association. The object was to carry on a union preaching campaign at the various temple fairs in and near the city. It has been very successful in this. Many have heard the Gospel, n large number have become inquirers and a goodly number of them have been baptized and entered the church. We have reached not oniy the men but the women as well. Since the first year we have provided a separate tent for them and an other for children. 'l'he ladies, both foreign and Chinese, have carried on their part of the work with zer,l and success. In his report for 1913 l\fr. Drown says : "'l'his year to the great delight and surp!'ise of all wr were able to hold our iirst campaig n in the 'l'emple of Heavrn. 'l'he covered altar did duty as a platform and for ten days preaching was carried on in this sacred building, the Chinese Holy of Holies. 'l'he Emperors of China had supplicated here for five hundred years. But on January lst UJ13 tlie Gospd of our Saviour J csns Christ was proclaimed here by an earnest band of. prea:ehcrs and thousands lt?ard for the first time the message of salvation A Christian service was also eonduded at the open Altar to Heaven for the first tin!':. So God is removing the barriers and opening the way for tirn triumph of His glorious Gospel. .-\.-1::,

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J 38 EVA~l,ELl!;Tl
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1-ISUNHSIJ~;,; J:.-Ui:, HON. \~. 13\J consumed as her companions ,rere. That her body was not completely eommmed was believed to prove her innocence and she was canonized as tlte goddes,3 "Lao Nai Nai with power to bestow offspring upon all her faithful worshippers. It is reckoned that 100,000 p_ersons annually t:ongregate at this fair; these generally come in companies of 25 to 40, chiefly middle-agec'i or elderly women with a sprinkling of young<~r women, a few men accompany them as their escort, and in the processions to the temples carry the banners, beat the gongs, ignite the :firecrackers, etc. They find accommodation in the iuns and priv,1te houses of the city and when not worshipp_ing in the tempbs sp~nd their time in feasting, drinking, gambling, buying what articles they may need aud seeing the ~ights including the infamous peep-shows. Each eompany remains for only three days, those who depart being replaced by others who are daily arriving. 'l'hus there is a continuous rotation of people :it the fair, and while the fair lasts there is alwavs a crowd. Hsuuhsien, with its templ('-capped mountains, has been for many years one of the greatest strongholds of idolatry in ::--iorth Honan and as such has offered a strong attradion to Christ's militant Church. Moreover, the fact that these trowels hav e gathered to worship, even though it he only an 'idol,' in some resp_ects renders them more receptive of teaching concerning the Living Goel, Jesus Christ and the divine plan of salvation. 'l'ltis provides for God's servants a rare opp_ortunity for effective effort. F't:om the very beginning of missionary occupation of North Honan ( 1890) the missionaries have regarded this fail' as a strategic point, and have annually placed as large an effedive force of preachers then) as possible, a force wliidt has constantly increas e d witl1 the gt"Owth of the chnreh both in mtmbers and in efficiency. ln 1893 we nmnbered 3 missionaries, ass:sted by 3 Cltinese only one of whom was an effective speaker; in El03-1010 onr force had increased to 6 to 10 missionaries, assisted by 40 to SO Chinese men and women, several of them most effeetive sp_eakcrs, and for the most part giving their s e rvices voluntarily to this fortnight's evangelisti(: campaign. In early years the smallness of our forces rendE::ted it impossible to acle(1uately occupy more than one

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140 preaching-placL', so a v a ntage-point at tlw foot of th e southern mountain and IM;ide tlie road leading up to 'Lao Nai Nai 's temple was rented, a mat-booth ereded, and lwre pre aehing and book-s e lling 1not eed e d clay by day. Lat terly, owing to greatly multiplied forces, several buildings in hworable locations in differ ent parts of the fair have bee11 s:~eured where pre aehing and tl1e sal e of Chl'istian literature has been earrled on both by day 8 .ud by night. The night audienees, after the rush of the d,:y 's business is 0Ye1, have bt>en tlie most satisfactory listen e rs. The bitte1 hatred experiem:ed in early years has gi VL~ n place to mani fe:,tations of friendly recog nition. As regards results much migltt be recorded, but a fow instances will suffice. One day a middle-aged man of w ellto-clo appearanc e on his way to the fomple with a bundle of incwse in his hand paused at our Gosp e l Tent 1.o see the 'foreigu devils.' He was arrest e d by the preaching of our first convert Chou Lao-ch'ang (the ex-yamen runner). 11e was astonished at the fearl e ss way in which l\Ir. Chon denounced "Lao Nai Nai,' but felt that tlie statements made were unanswerable Ac c ordingly he dismissi:ld the idea of thanking 'Lao Nai Nai for the son which Imel been born to him and returned to his inn resolving to return next day and hear more about J e sus. A few days later he went home carrying with him several Christian books, himself born again as a babe in Christ. He become th::i uwans of leading many in his villag e to believe in the Lord Jesus som::i of whom a.re to-da.y rendering valuable service to our l\Iisf'ion This ufan for s 2 veral years renderc>d excellent s e rvice as an evangelist., anc.i wELs finally given a triumphant entrance into Glory One of the passing crowd, a young man, stopped at the book-table where tlw young missionary in charge ,vas ex plaining the contents of the cateehism whieh he was offering for sale. 'l'he young man listened with inteeest, bought the book, read it anrl believed; he afterwards sllrved th.e Lord as an elder Another man, the leader of the company of idolaters from his village, as he returned with his band from worship ping in tht! temple, \\'JS arrested by the voice of a missionary preaching by the wayside. He joined the group gathered

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sn ANTn,n CTTV-EVANC:ET.IZA'flO'.'<. 14] about the speaker, was convinecd of the truth of the message, afterward inquired more diligently about the \Vay, after some years of instruction became an evangelist and still r1'nders valunhle srrvicc in this eaparity. In addition to the:-;e and othrr signal conversions whidt might Jw mentionrcl, many others have come to know tl,e truth nt this fair who lat<>r have, macfo oprn profession of faith in Christ in that part of the <'Onntry in whirlt they r e sidr. This yearly evangelism and otl1er ca11srs have greatly ,ycakrned the st.r@gth of idolatrv and thr fail' has bee n mauifestly for several years past losing its popularity, and the crowds have hcen gradually diminishing. A cnlminat.ion was reached this year (1914) in the issur of proclanrntious hy the Tutult and Civil GoYr.mor of Honan, probably on ncconnt of White Wolf, forbidding the nssnnbly of people nt the Fair. The doors of the Lao Nai Kai temple and of other large temples were built up with bricks, and the priests made to mount guard outside the doors to k~ep people out. .A 11 inus were forbidden to reeeive m1y worshippers as guests, and patrols of police made frequent rounds to enforce tlicsr orders. Whether this real].', is thr end, or not, of this idoln trous fair, only time cnn tell. But it seems cert.nin tlrnt it:-; power has bren so wcnkenrd tlrnt it cnn never recowr its former prestige. 7. Shantung City-EvangeHzation By Rev. R. M. Mateer, D D. With China's awakeni r:g the-re comes to the Church a new and unparalleled opportnnity and a corresponding responsibility in regard to the cities What is to be clone 'I Even if we had the men and the money, a foreign occupation of all these
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142 EVANGELISTIC WORK. Chinese church; bnt some of our high grade Chinese have proposed instead, that we cor\perate by occupying at ]east fifte e n cities within our Presbyterian territory, thry to furnish the men and th e l\Ii:;;s:on the p]ant. Our l\Iission promptly met them half way, by voting to ask for s e venty-five thousand dollars gold, being an average of five thousand dollars for eaelt plant to be rented, bought or built flS cireumstances may indicate. It is planned to have current expenses provided locally; but. we are asking for twenty-five thousand dollars to snpport the work in these cities temporarily. Subject to modifkatiom;, the hnildings are to emhrace auditorium, street chapel, guest room for men and one for women, and sehool rooms to be used both day and e vening. With a separate entrance from the street, there are to b e buildings for a Y.l\LC .A. Employed in this work are to be an older and a somewhat yonnger colleg e graduate, a Bible woman and a gatenrnn. Th ese salarie s together witl1 in c identals, to amount in all to five hundred dollars gold annually. Ovr r all thtse citi e s there is to be one or two Chinese moving among them, holdi11g inspirational meetings, also directing, sugg esting and insisting upon effieie u e y in each c:ity. 'l'his whole ente:rprise is to be entrusted to the over sight of six men, three Chines~ elected by the Synod and three foreigners selected by the l\Iission Under this com mittee is to be a subcommittee fol' each city, consisting of two Chinese and two foreigners We hope that all denominations in this Province will work this plan in the cities of their respective territories. 'l'he English Baptists are moving enthusiastically in this direction. This plan has the following to eommend it:-First; It does something promptly, in the use of avail abie resources, and plans for permanency rather than something sporadic. Second; It looks toward Chin ese and foeeign coiiperation instead of separation. Third; It is calculated to clirninat ~ the idea that a foreign churc h is occupying China.

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SPEUIAL :ilrEET!NGS FOR STUDF.:NTS. 143 Fourth; It gaLhers fruit in an evangelistic way from the l11rge amount of money and effort put into higher education. Fifth; It will give prestige to the dire<'t evangelistic work in the eyes of the educated, influential classes, both in and out of the church. Sixth; It promises to save from spiritual bankruptcy the educated classes and stem the rising tide of an atheistic, materialistic p_hilosophy of life. 8. Some Methods, Results, and Problems in connection with Special Meetings for Students held in China, led b7 Dr. Mott and Mr. Eddy Dr. W. E. Taylor, Organizing Secretary (a) Jlfelhocl~. The evangelistic results of the organized meetings for st.ndents held in fomteen of the leading student l'.'entre:;; through China in the first three months of 1913 have been the most fruitful which mission work for these classc-s has so far know11. Jn the first one hundred years of missionary effort in China not so many were won from the inaccessible student and official classes as during these special meetings of foe last year. The interest of the Government students in all the cities visited may be fairly judged by the attendance as compared with similar meetings led by the same speakers held in India and Japan. The student audiences in Ja pan averaged eight hundred a night, those in India, one thousand a night, and in China, two thousand a night, while the attendance in the last two cities visited in China iweraged between four and fiyc thousand a day. In Foochow there wl:'re ti1irt.y thousand in six days, more than seven thousand signed cards during' the meetings, promising to st.ndy the Bible aud investigate the claims of Christianity. They \\'ere not so much inquirers in the ordinary sense of the word as investigators. 'J'he genuineness of their promise is shown by the fact that within three months after i lie meetings nearly four thonsaud were rnrollecl in org'anized

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14-l EV .\.NGELTS'IfC "onK. Bible study classes. Do11bt.lE8s many others fulfilled their promise by reading the Bible in tl1eir hornrn. Another test of the permanrncy of the enmgelistic results of the meetings is provided by the cnrefnlly rolleded record:;,, \i hith sho\\ that. six months n fter the meetings had h1: n held, one thousand and twenty-four of the inquirers or investigntors had been related to the clnuchcs, either by baptism or as probationers preparing for baptism No one is better qualifi ed to give an accnrate vaination of t!1e meetings than Dr. ~ folm R. Mott, who visited most of the cities and addressed the st.udentx At the conclusion of the mission Dr. 1\Iott stated: '' In my visits to the students in over forty eountri<,:,; I have never seen meetings so largely attEnded r,nd so marked hy the spirit of open-rnindedmss aml serious enquiry." Later in his quadrennial report to the World's Student Christian Pederation, Dr. l\Iott made tl1e following stntemrnt in relation to the meetings:"In the an11als of the Federation 1]1ere h1\'e been no snch experie11ces in student ernngelistic "ork ns those crowded into t.lie early months of the present yrar in Chinn. The situntion in China to-Ll:iy seems to be strikingly like thnt in Japan in the late eii:;:htie~, with a most significant difference that in China now t.here is n strong Christian stndenl moyement to cope with the situntion The opportnnit.y is, howe,er, so vast., nnd may pa;,s so soon that to meet it. calls for the combined coiiperntion of all the Christian forces. East stmlent lllovement in tl: e West should be ambitions to help to train ant! release for senice nmong the st.nclents in China some oi the choicc~t leaders and workers for whom the Nnlional Committee may rail. The i\Iissionary Societies of Enrope ancl North America shonl(l he willing to follow the Pxamp!es of those Boards which hnYe gladly allocated to the work of the Stnt!ent. J\Io\'ement some of th<>ir .l\Iissio11aries who are pre-eminently fitted for student. "ork. ]\fen and women of consecrated mea11s should give prompLly ancl generonsly to the large fn 11<1 neeclc:>
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,mTHODS FOlt SECUnTXG LASTTN({ RESULTS. 145 than hitherto, and it is not strange, therefore, to :find that a great majority of decisions to join the churches have taken plac3 in connection with the Bible classes. The meetings were held not so much as an end in themselves but m; an occasion and opportunity to enrol the most thoughtful and serious minded .students into Bible classes, in order to make a careful study of Christianity, and later on to make decision to begin the Christian life. Addresses were also given in Christian schools and wherein students had been previonsly exposed to Christianity. Here further opportunity ,nis afforded to make immediate decision. Artificial or forceful methods were studiously avoided. l\Ien were givrn an op-port.unity to sign cards to become investigators of Chris tianity. It was explained with great care and reiterated that only those who were seriously in earnest and who woulcl he willing to make a careful investigation of Christian teaching and the claims of J csus Christ, ,vere asked to take this action. The actual wording of the promise made by the seven thousand who signed cards was as follows:-1 To st.udy the four Gospels wit.It open mind and l1onest heart., and \\'here possible to join a Bible class. 2. To prny to God daily for guidance aud help. 3. To follow Christ ns inst ns their conscience said '' He is the trnth," nnd if they found Him true, to accept Him nt nny cost.. Certain metho
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146 EVANGELTSTTC WOltK if: possible, half the entire num!Jcr of students in the middle and higher schools. If plan;; are fer the accomplishment of small results, small results will generally follow. It is a mistake to imagine that smallness of: effort is necessary in order to have thoroughness. The Christian leaders and workers will respond with extraordinary efforts ,,hen ex-traordinary demands are made 3. 'l'he Christian leaders, Chinese aml foreign, must defiuitely and early decide to carry out the preparation and conservation of the results in an organized and thorough wav that will, humanly speaking, ensure large apd permanent res11lts. At least two experienced leaders, preferably one Chinese and one foreign, should l1e set apart as Executive Secretaries to giv~ all their time to the movement for not less than one month before and three mouths after the meetings Part of the time of thes0 two m0n will be re
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RESULTS OF STUDENT MEETINGS. 147 as possible meet here together. Such a method gives strength of numbel'S, <'8r,rit d,~ corrs, and greater effieieney with tlH' limited staff of pastors and workers, than with scatfrred and kss closely supepviscd classes. This central organization m1d ::mpervision is essential io thorough and sustained effort. (/,) Results. The immediate fruitage of the recent meetings has been very great in the large numbers of students who have been fo1 the first time exposed to Christian teaehing, in the thousands who lw.ve joined Bible classes in order to givc more careful study to the teaching of Christianity, and in the wry con siderable number who l1ave made dceisiom: and have come into definite relation with the Christian churches, either by baptism or on probation The results large as they are would doubtless have been still larger if the Christian workers in some cities had gone into the movement "ith a larger faith and more careful organization. Experience has shown that where the workers are early prepared and are not. dii,courageahlc: in the persistent work of conservation, sub stantial results can be secur ed. The best nsults W('rc obtained where the objective was made the end and not tlie beginning of the year's work. In many cases students who at the outset did not fully understand the promise they had made, or ltacl not fully counted the cost., were held a.ncl led on to t ake more ach:anced steps. Some men may not mean nnwh at the beginning, but God means mnch for evrr.r mm1. Wlwrever tile workers were united, prep ared, tmcritical, and undiscourageable, the results have been uniformly large and permanent 'l'he meetings liave (lif:COVPrNl sucr,el,(sfu l me thods of approach to the formerly almost 1111tom:hcd and practically inaccessible Government student field,--the largest and most potent student field in the world. Up to a year ago the Christian forces in Cltiua could not be said to have gained more than an entrance into the Government schools and colleges of any city. To-day there are several cities where not only has an enh'ance been i,ecurcd, but Christian work and inflnence are irnpla.ntecl and actively cooperating in thes e citadels which were aptly named ten ye:ws ago the

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EVANGELISTIC WORK. Gibraltar of China. 'fhe city of Tientsin is typical of a student centre of the first class. The results achieved in this citv reveal the possibilities of sud1 a movement in occupying the Government schools and colleges. Two years ago Bible study in 'l'ientsin was practically unknown in Gov0rnn1ent institutions. Three months after the meetings, out of five hundred and forty-five who signed cards, four lnmdred and thirty-four, or eighty per cc,nt. were studying in fifty-four Bible classes in the Government schools, in the Young l\fen 's Christian Associations, m1d in the churches. These ,n:rr mainly students who came from eighteen different schools and colleges, of which fourteen were Government institutions Bible study groups were successfully organized in every 0110 of the upper grade Government colleges The evangelistic value of such Bible study organization is clearly shown by the fact that at the end of six months after the meetings, thirtynine of the investigators enrolled had been baptised into the Churches and one hundred and fifty-one more were entered on probation preparing for baptism. Such r e sults as this do not merely happen. They were the result of cvreful preparation in cultivation of heads of schools, in months of preliminary training of leaders for Bible elasses, in careful supervision of Bible Study organiza tion, and in the refusal to accept defeat when circumstances would have seemed under conditions to warrant a letti11g up in the follow-up work. In Tientsin three months after the meet ing the work of holding results had been seriously broken into by the closing of the schools for the summer vacation, and hy the unexpected serious disturbances of the second revolution. 'l'he Committee in charge rose to the occasion ancl decided to hold a Bible Institute in the fall to re-enrol members in the classes, and to secure new members. Two night meetings were held in the largest Chinese Guildhall in the city, the same place where the Mission had been held. Three thousand attended aud four hundred and thirty were enrolled iJ1 classes. Addresses on the general theme of '' 'l'he Bible and Society '' were given by leaders known to the students, nm011g them l\fr. Chnng Po-ling, head of the Government Middle School, and Dr. Arthur Smith, and Pastor l\Jeng of Peking A four-roonwd huilding was rented in the student

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C..\.REi<'UL PREJ:lARATION ESSENTL\L district and a large temple was borrowed from the Chinese allthorities to carry on the Bible Study classes which in a few weeks increased in number to fifty-five, with five hundred and fifty-five enrolled. Later on, nine months after the meetings, the Secretary in cha.rge writes as follows: '' You will be interested to know the Bible Study movement in the Government colleges in 'rientsin continues to grow. Aftee the New Year we found it unnsllally difficult to enlist the interest of the students in some of the schools, without the aid of a general rally. In this we thought we could detect the influence of the recent Confucian agitation. W c have, however, rallied our forces and have condnctE:d a munber of meetings in tlrn various schools. vVe have been able to start classes in four new middle schools, where we did not enter last year, and have continued classes in all of the former in .. stitutions except two where we hope to start classes next week. The Bible Study has been related to Social Service under Christian leadership. Before the holidays three hundred and fifty-eight students from twenty-one Govern ment and Oheistian schools united in distributing :fifty thousand welfare calendars. A large nurnbee also carried calendars back to their home towns and villages.'' The above is an excellent illustration of what can he clone where the work is organized and the workers are persistent in their follow-up. Another result of the meetings has been secured in the adaptation of improved 1mthods of evangelistic Bible study, to the Churches of the city. A geeat weakness of 1nany Churches in the past has been clue to the small emphasis placed upon Bible study in the Chmchcs. Little has been done in an organized and scientific way to instruct large numbers in the Bible, to train teachers, and to discover and adapt courses of study, all with a view to securing the ultimate evangelistic results in this fruitful field. The city of Canton has made a valuable contribution to the whole Oheistian movement in China by experimenting on Bible Study in the Churches. This experiment has grown out of the follow-up work in connection with tl1e Student meetings recently held in Canton The Christian forces in this city weee very closely united in carrying on tlte meetings, with

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150 EVANGEtlSTIC 'l'OHi;:. the result that inside six months oue hundred of the inquirers had been baptised into the various communions. 'l'he Christian workers. both Chinese and foreign, were encouraged by these results to plan for a city-wide ev. angel istic movement to embrace the memb.:rship of all the Churches. The Bible Study method had proved itself so fruitful in evangelistic results that it was de1:icled to make Bible Study in the Churches the centre of tlte wider movement. A couference was held for three days, where forty delegates met together, representing eighteen Churches and seventeen Missions and other chapels. A Bible Study Committee for the Churches of Canton was ap_pointed, whose duties were outlined as follows: To set aside a Bible Study Sunday for all the churches; to prepare suitable Bible Study courses for Christians and non-Christians in the clmrcltes; to discove1 ancl train capable leaders for the classes; to conduct a Bible Study Institute at least once a year; to issu e monthl,y reports of a ll the clturches on the condition and progress of Bible Study; to help organize neighborhood classes, to serve the churches wherever possible, and be alert to new oppor tunities. The conference in addition led to the creation of a weekly church pape r to print the new aud important announcements of the churches. One of the Chinese pastors commenting on the results of the conference said: We have hoped for this in the churches of Canton for the past twelve years. Now at last it is an assured fact." A Bible 'reachers' Training School has been organized, meeting for two ltours every two weeks, and lecl alterm1tively by three Chinese pastors and three foreign l\lissionaries. 'l'he course covers six months. Fortv-four men and ten women have been eurolled, all of whom lrn've shown their serious intention b y paying an entrance fee of $1.00. The Secretary writing some ,,.:eeks later says: "'l'he Bible 'l'eaehers' Training School has been organized long enough. to put it to a real test. It will be a great step in advance in helping to solve our important problem of Bible Study in the Churches." A third resultant movement with practically unlimited possibilities can bi; traced direC'.tly to the recent meetings. An experiment is being made this year to ex t en d the evange listic meetings in a city so as to reach out to all the

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l'IWVLNCE-\l'IDE C.-Ull'AIGN. 151 secondary eities of a Province. For reasons that have been carefully gone into this experiment will be limited this year to the one Province of Fukien. The meetings last year ill Foochow were the most largely attended in China .An unprecedented number, one thousand five hundred and thirty students, signed cards as investigators, almost as many as in all the cities of India combined. Although handicapped with too small a force of Christian workers to hold sneh unexpected numbers, the united Christian Committee had succeeded so well that within six montils after the meetings, over six hundred were in Bible Classes and two hundred and fifty-five of the inquirers had been related to the Churches. In Fooehow the Christian leaders have for several years been eal'efnl to cultivate friendly relationships ,rith the govern ment officials and heads of school1; in the city and through the province. The val ne of such c ulti vat.ion is sho"n by the action of these authorities in the meetings o[ last year. In l!'oochow the Provincial Assembly adjourned and invited the speakers to address them. The Board of Trade attended one lecture and met the speakers at a clinne1. The Presidents of all the GoYernment colleges, together with the Commissioner of Education, were interested in advarn:e, officially invited the speakers to visit the city, postponed the Government examinations for a week, closed their colleges during the afternoons that all the students might attend the meetings, and gave a special dinner to the speakers. 'l'Jie Province of Fukien is one of the earliest occupied by Christian Missions. Its large membership of thirty-two thousand Christians and it8 strong Christian Chinese leadership present conditions which are particularly hopeful for carrying on a Province0wide movement. The preparatory organization has alreaoy been thor oughly planned. Representatives of the :,;ix Missions working in the Provin:ce of l<.,ukien niet at Kuliang in the summer of 191:3, in otdel' to plan a year ahead for the Provi1ice~wide meetings to be held in thi.l foll of 1914. A1i Executive Committee was appointed representiug all the l\Iissions. Two Executive Secretaries, one Chinese and 01ie foreign, were set apart to serve the Provincic1l l\loYement for 0110 year. Plans were made to hold central meetings in l<'ood10w

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1.52 EVANGELIS'l'lc \\'oHK. and later to carry these meetings out through the twelve prefcctural or secondary cities of the Province. Each of these cities has appointed its own representatives on the Provincial Executive Committee. An estimated Budget of l\Iexican $4,500 was presented and approved and covered by liberal grants from the Missions and by Chinese Christians, one Mission giving $700 and two others, $600 each for this purpose 'l'he general pian of the Province-wide rnovement is diYided into three parts. A Trainiug Conference will be held in Ii'oochow for thl'e e days immediately preceding the l\lission l\Ieetings in the ca pital. To this Training Con ference each of the secondary cities will seud from six to ten of their leadingChristian workers. These workers will rem:iin in Foochow for seven days, taking an active part in the Meetings 'l'he delegates will live together during their stay in Foochow, thus getting the benefit of common life and intercourse with the Christian lead ers of the Province. After the 'l'raining Conference and the Foochow Meetings the workers will return to their respective cities, and after two weeks in completing proparations, will begin a series of simultaneous Evangelistic Meetings through the twelve secondary cities. Where the student population is not sufficient to warrant meetings being limited to this one class, the officials and gentry will be induded. The speakers have already heeen selected with great care. 'l'hey will include Chinese as well as foreigners who have had experience in the conduct of such meetings. Some weeks after the meetings, bands of trained workers may carry the message and methods into the small towns and outlying villages through the Prov ince 'l'he movement has wide extensive scope. It has also in tensive power in training Christian workers and in strength ening Church memb e rship. The experiment in the Province of Fukien will be watched with great interest hy the Christian Churches throngliout China, who shall hope to see the discovery of methods which can be applied in the other Provinces. The work of organization and pl'eparation has already hew sta rted. A Training and Setting lJ p Conference has

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co-Oi'ERA'l'ION OF CI-IINES.I~ 1,J~AD~W:l, 153 been held iu :B.,oocho,v, at which the delcgates from all the secondary cities were present. The two Executive Secre taries have entered upon the extended tour of the secondary cities, in order to see that thorough preparation is made in each centre A letter has just been reeeived at the time of writing from i\Ir. l'\funson, Foreign Executive Secretary. In the course of his report he writes as follows: Pastor Ling and I have already touched two cities, Kueheng and Kienning-most important in their prefectures. In each city a very rcpresentati ve and strong Committee is at work. W L\ have had most profitable meetings with each of these Com mittees, have spoken to Christian audiences in schools and churches, held union meetings of Christian workers of different Missions, had feasts with representative business men, literati, and heads of Government schools, to secure points of contact and put before them the plan in general. I feel that even these visits arc distinct contributions in themselves to each city. The Christians are being stirred up to the importance of personal work, both Chinese and foreigners are realizing increasingly the possibilities for work among these upper classes and in several ways our brief investigations and eontact with leading gentry of the city are revealing new conditions and new possibilities even to those Missionaries who have been on the field for twenty Ot' thirty years. We met with most hearty welcome and cooperation in every case and with all classes. Kienning is a city of about sixty thousand. Last night we had a feast and met the Presidents of three Government schools, the President and Secretary of the Chamber of Conunerce, leaders of the Anti-Opium Society, the most ,realthy banker of the city, the heads of several Guilds, also the Provincial Assembly representative for this prefecture. Pastor Ling and I had no sooner told of the meetings and askeu Eor their cooperation, than the head of the Chamber of Commerce himself suggested that we use their large lecture !tall. It is the most central and one of the largest in the city. To-morrow we leave for another three days' overland trip to Shaowu, the farthest interior city away from :B.,oochow." .\.-21)

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( c) Probl ew. Difficulty has been experienced in some cities in getting all the Churches orgfl.nically connected with the movement from tile beginning Another problem is the clos:ely relat e d one of strengthe11ing up the leading existing Churches in the eitics where such meetings are held, so us to hold and develop the new type of membership which i:,; now coming in large and increasing numucrs. The problem has shifted within recent years. The most difficult problem is not how to hold large meetings in a city, or how to get several hundreds of inquirers, but how to hold and train the inquirers after they arc related to the Churches. A larger share of the respon sibility for caring for these men should be transferred from the special Committees in charge of the meetings, and should be definitely accepted by the pastors of the Churches at the point where inquirers come into this relationship by baptism or on probation. Several drnrches ha\'e made vnluablc experiments in trying to solve this difficult and important problem. In one city a Church has within the year appointed as assistant pastor, a recent graduate from the Theological Seminary, with special gifts ::md qualifications for work with youug men. He has given his wltole time to bringing in and dCYeloping inquirers in his church. A consider able number of new and thoughtful members have been secured in this way. As a result the whole work of the Church has been stimulated and strengthened. 'l'he time has come when the leaders of the Christian Church in China must give far more thorough study to this and other questions related to the evangelization of the peo ple, and especially the educated classes. The number of capable evangelists must be rapidly increased. Missions in possession of such leaders must be willing to release them for larger service for the whok Clrnreh. M.uch must be done to discover and calJ out the evangelistic gift which lies latent in many men both amongst the Chinese Christians and the foreign workers. It is inconceivable that God should have prepared :melt an extensive and ripe harvest without having liad in preparation a sufficient number of capable reapers. The

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E\' ANG Et!ZATIO:-; OF SPECIAL CLA~SES. lbo truth of the matter is we have not given sufficiently intern':e and prolonged attention to the discovery, the enlisting and training of such reapers. While we need and may con fidently expect to :;:ecure more ministers and laymen who can conduct succe3sfully large student evangelistic meetings or l\Iissions, we must have many-fold more skilled personal workers. No matter how powerful and fruitful the great Evangelistic Missions may be,. if we do not ha Ye a sufficient number of tactful indivia.nal workers to help those who have expressed an interest in Christian truth, the best results of the meetings will not be conserved. We need a more scienti fic study of the recent experiences in evangelistic work for these classes, because it has been a rich and increasingly suggestive experience.'' The National Conference held in Slumghai last year under the leadership of Dr. l\fott took constructive action in regard to the question of evangelistic meeting s for special classes of young men. Finding 7 of the Committee on Evangelization reported as follows: '' The Conference believes that the time has arriYed for a great forward movement in the e\'angelization of special classes in cities. The call is urgent for compreheusi\'e plans carried out with careful organization that will em !.>race the actual work and the conserrn tion of results. We appeal, therefore, to the Churches in Chiua to plan together coordinated evangelistic meetings in the immediate future, beginning with tlie larger cities. To ensnre the success of such a National Evangelistic Campaign, united effort on the part of the Christian forces in each locality is a first reqnisite. Recent ex perience has shown that there is no other line of effort in which the cooperation o[ all communions is easier to bring abont or more frnitfnl in results, aml we reqnest the China Continuation Com mittee to take such action as mny be necessnry for the prosecntion oi such a movement." 'l'he China Continuation Committee has since take11 action in reaffirming the conviction of the National Confer ence as expressed in Finding 7 and in recommending to the Churches the essential lines of action to be taken in pre paring for and conserving a series of evangelistic meetings. It has also offered its cooperation in finding a Nntional Evangelistic Ser.retary who shall be appointed to represent the Churches of China in a Forward Evangelistic Movement )JQtwithsta11cling the unprecedented results of the last year we nre without douht on the threshold of e;-en more

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i5G EV AKGELISTIC WORK. remarkable results of this kind It is the op1111on of those who have made a careful study of the situation that all over China students are open and serious minded, and ready to respond favorably to the appeal to intellect, conscience and will if it be made with wisdom, spiritual sympathy, and faith in the ability of God immediately and decisively 9, The Lecture Department of the.. National Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations of China (April t9H) By Professor C. H. Robertson The Lecture Department of the National Committee of Young i\Ien 's Christian Associations is the result of an experimental study of strategy in the campaign for Christ in China This study began nearly twenty years ago at the time of Dr. i\Iott 's first visit to China ( 1896) and was followed by a strong appeal about three years later from l\Ir. Brockman for a special form of work to rea c h China's literati. 'l'his resulted in the writer being invited in 1902 to begin the experiment of using science as a point of contact for reaching Chin1:i's literati with the message of the Kingdom.'' Since that time the Association movement has been bending its energies to the occupation and manning of the provincial and commercial capitals, and during this period its secr e tarial force has increased from two Chin ese and six foreigners in 1902 to 65 Chinese and 88 foreigners in 1914. At the same time, the author, while participating in this expansion of the Association, was giving as much time as possible to investigating conditions and testing scien c e lectures as a point of contact for reaching the leading men of the cities. A furlough period in 1909-10 gave opportunity for a visit to America and Europe to secure ideas, assemble equipment, and through the co-operation of Dr. Mott and l\Ir. Brockman to provide funds for a further four-years' experiment. Iu 1911 spe c ial headquarters for the Lecture Department were established in Shanghai, consii,ting of an

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SCIENCE LECTURE CA~fPAIC.N. office, a shop for the construction and repair of apparatus, and a laboratory where it could be conveniently assembled and adjusted to the speeial needs of the movement. The expansion of the Association movement and the equipping of the Department has made possible the develop ing of a particular type of s'.'.ieuce lectnre campaign, with the following characteristics:(o. ) A graphic and thoroughly demonstrated lecture on such topies as The Gyroscope and Its Applications," "Wireless Messages," "Temperatnre and the Universe," "Aeronautics and !'.,lying Machines," Electricity and ;\fognetism. '' ( b) The repeating of one of these leetures in a city before as many and as large audiences as the time, the sixe oi' the hall, and the strength of the lectnrer will permit. ( c) Admission to the lectures without cost, bnt by ticket; thus permitting control of the class and of the numher of people to whom the privilege is extended. (cl) In securing the audienees, the principle is observed of beginning with the leading classes of the city, for example the officials, educators, gentry, merchant~ and students, and then reaching to the general public. ( e) while the instructional value o.f the leetures is ~,;ery g-reat, the object is to make them of even more value on the iuspirational side, so as to move men to new viewpoints and to make them sensitive to a higher message. (.f) By the use of analogies, the wonder and beauty of natural laws a.re paralleled to those in the spiritunl world, thus preparing the rni11cl for the evangelistic appeal. Prom the standpoint of principles, the guiding features in the devdopment nnd application of the lecture enmpaign have heeu, (a) Quality first, then quantity. ( b) Serve China through her leaders ( c) Reach through the point of contact won by science to definit,3 results on the evangelistic side. (d) Go to those ciiies where thorough preparation and follow-up work is assured.

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1.58 EVANGELISTIC WORK, ( e) Seek to use the utmost strategy in point of geor;rnphy ( that is, to visit the places of greatest influence); in point of time ( that is, to be there at the time of special opportuni ty) ; and in point of class ( that is, hy r e aehing the leaders in the community). (f) While we seek to know as much as we practically can about the lecture subjects, it is regarded as of even more importance to specialize in the presentation so as to make the subjects as vivid, objeetive and graphic. as possible. (g) To limit the work to a eonstrnetive, demonstrated leclme enterprise, seeking to stimulate other organizations to take advantage of the multitudinons points of contaC"t won for advancing the Kingdom. Some results of this type of lc(tnrc campaign on thes e principles are as follows:-In Hangehow, the occasion was the formal opening of the Association, when the interest and support of the whole rommunity was desired. Fifteen lectures were given in six clays on the topic "Wireless l\lessages .'' The offic.iab mid influential and potential people of the city came to tlw kcturo s and showed their enthusiastic appreciation by instant and continued co-operation in the work of the .As sociation. 'rhe attendances totalled 5,667, and included thr students of the institutions for advanced e(lncation in the citv, ,vomen as well as men In Hankow and Wuchang, an effort was being made to secure a site for the Association building, for which a friend in Canada had contributed the huilding fnnds. Ni1iekeu leetnres were given in eight days on "Temperature and thP Universe "and the attendance totalled 9,871. General J,i Yuan-hung showed himself spceially interested, not only in the lectures hut also in the work of the Association. In Uhangsha the work of the Association was to be brought before the city prepar~tory to launching so:re special social service enterprises. Elcveu lectures on The Gyroscope and Its .Applications were given in four and a half days, with an attendanee of over 10,000. One inspiring incident following the campaign was the decision of one of the younger leaders in the official set to devote his life to Christian servic-e, beginning as a s(eretar.Y of the AssOl'iation.

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TIP.'lULT:3 OF J,ECTUllE CAMPAIG'.'IS. In Kirin the visit was a~ain to mark the formal oprning of the Association which had shown itself to he one of tlw most vigorons in the country sincr its orga11i:n1tion. Rlcvrn lr.ctures on "Wireless l\[c-ssages brought ont all the im portant people in the city, with the schools, which the Commissioner of I~ducation arranged should attend on a regular schedule, the aggregate attendance bei11g 3,514. As a result of the campaign, the Association was formally re quested by the Provincial Assembly to take a share in the Provincial educational programme; and permission to hold Bible classes in the Government schools was gladly taken advantage of. In Foochow Wire less lHcssagcs was used in con junetion with the evangelistic campaign for which prepara tion had been made for many weeks. Ten lectures during the five days attracted audiences to the number of 15,800. This was introductory to evangelistic meetings conducted by l\Ir. G. Sherwood Eddy, when more than 1,500 signed as inquirers into Christianity. 'fhe follow-up work by pastors, rnmgelists, and the Christian workers of the f'ity has been remarkable. So far in tl1is paper rcforeme has heen made only to the work of the Science Division of the Lecture Department. But much mor e significant even than anything thus far mentioned has bee n the manifestation of multiplying power in other directions. One of these has been the inspiration of other men to take up n similar work in othe r subjects. As a resnlt of this, l\'fr. David Z. 1'. Y ni, a grachrnte of St. ,Tohn 's University, Shanghai, on the faculty of Boone University, Wnclumg, for a tinw, ancl a post-gradnatc student at 1-Iarvarcl, where he took his Master s degree in pedag'ogy, accepted a call to the Dt>partment to head a Division on Education, similar to the Science Division Even more imporbmt was his acceptance of the work of Executive Sccreta1y for the Department. as a whole. That same year, 1913, Dr. W W. Peter acc e pted the call to head a Division on Health, which will lwgin active operations as soon as Dr. Peter 's langmige study permits In the autumn of 191:3, lVlr. G H. Cole, M.Se., former demonstrator in science at l\lcGill University, l\Iontreal, joined the Sciene<>

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rno EYAXGEJ,TSTIC ,YORK Division. He also has responsibility for the Division on Visual Instri.1ction, which now serves twenty centres ( divid ed into five circuits) with lantern slides on a variety of topics, equipped with manuscript lectures; and prepares exhibits of charts, diagrams, pictures, and other forms of mstruction ,vhich can best be so given One city in the interior wrote reeently that thE' material on Athletics sup plied by this Division had been presented before some four thousand students in that provincr, arousing great interest in physical development; and that the Tuberculosis Jecture had heen given before sonw ten thousand people in that ci(I' ,rnd in neighbouring towns Another result has been the making of an appropriation by the Famine Relief Committee of the sum of 'raels 15,000.00 towards a Division for lectures on Conservation. W or
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LECTURE ON RELIGION IN PREPARATION. 161 The experience and results of the extended evangelistic campaigns of two years ago lead ns to look forward with great faith and enthusiasm to great.er achievements as a result of the more thoroughly devPlopN1 plans for this year's campaign. Although the events in the above programme have bP<'ll nineteen years d(wdoping, it is rst.imated that it will take at least five years more to round ont tlw incornpfote parts of the programme and especially to carry through another supremely important element, namel,, a. special Divisio11 for the originating and giving of lectures, demonstrated, on Religion,-cornparable in attractiveness and powrr with the demonstrated lectures of th e other Divisions and especially designed to put another and greatly need e d featme into the science lecture-evangelistic campaigns, so as to make a more thorough and appropriat<, preparation for the decisions of multitudes to enter upon an eternal life in the service of Goel. Tabular Statement of Lecture Department,National Committee Y.M.C.A. FULL:TJME STAFF .Joined tlte Department Name aud Degree Division 1918 ... D. Z. T Yui (M.A., Harvard) ...... .. Edncat.ion lll14 D. Y. Liu (M. F., Yale) .................. Conservation. J\111 ... C. H. Robertsnn (M. E., Pnnlue) .. Science. 1913 ... H. H. Cole (M.Sc., McGill) ......... Science and Visnal Instruction. HIJ3 ... W. W Peter (:VI. D., Chicago) ........ HPalth. 1\)11 ... H. Barchet .................................. Office Hll3 .. C. H. I-Ian .................................... Lahoratory. 19 I I .. H C. 'l's'ao & five mecha11ics ......... Shop. VOLUNTEER LECTURERS, SCIENCE DIVISION, 1911-1913 C. D Hayes ............................................. Ynnnanfn. C. H. Corbett .......................................... Peking and Paoti11gfu, S. V. Boxer .............................................. Wuhan and Ku ling. A. Q Adamson .. ...................... ................. Foochow. G. A. Fitch .................................... ...... Shanghai. G. A Gregg ............................................. Seonl, Korea. A-21

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162 EVANGELISTIC WORK. CENTRES YrSITED BY LECTURE DEPARTMENT STAFF Shanghai Soochow Hangchow Nanking Kiukiang Hankow Wnchan" Changsl~t 'l'aiynanfu Peking Tientsin Tsinanfn Kirin Changdrnn Tokyo Hongkong Can\.1)11 Foochow A.moy Swn tow Mokanshan Ran wan fan Kn ling Vlnfossn Peitaiho LECTURE RECORDS, SCIENCE DIVISION, 1911-1913 Number of Lecturers Volunteer l 1912 7 Lecturers i 19rn r c. H. rnn 11 Robertson 1\112 I 2 191:) II Numbe r Number of of Citi c,; Lectures 11 82 (i 42 'l'otal Attenrhncc 2ti,G7G 12,533 Total for the tw0 ycars .. .... ... :J\1,20\l lti.!iOO 17,153 ~ti,717 Total for the thre e y car; ...... ... 120,:170 Average Attendance H:2;) 29S 200 490 70;) Grancl total nttcnrln ,ncc ....... 1,;n,,;;n SUBJECTS USED "The Gyroscope and Its Applications.'' "Wireless Messages." "Electricity and M agnetism." '' Aeronautics and Flying Machines." "Temperature and the Universe. LANTERN SLIDE EXCHANGE = There are twenty centres served in five circuits; mont. hly lectures for eaclt city, with others for special occasions. There are Forty (40) subject8. The attendance in 1913 was nbont 20,000(six cities not report.eel) tO. Resolutions re New Policy in Using Evangelists The Presbytery of Honan in connection with the Presbyterian, Church in Canada having taken into its earuest consideration the condition of this mission field after a quarter century of evangelistie work along the lines generally prevailing in North China, feels that there is little

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POLICY OF USING EVANGELISTS 163 ground for expecting any reasonably rapid development of sf!lf-support under the present system. l\foreoYer, it feels that the dependen<~c of a large body of evangelistie workers entirely upon Foreign l\fission funds makes neither for the cultivation of the best spirit of service in themselves, nor for a sense of personal responsibility for Christian servic e in those to whom they minister. Recognizing also the necessity for some method which will gradually prepare Christian communities for self snpport by an educative process of giving-for, and manag ing, their own evangelistic work, and which will throw upon them the responsibility for deciding what salaries ought to be paid to evangelists, Presbytery, as a praetieable half way step towards a higher ideal, hereby adopts the following resolutions:-1. That the whole region covered by our work be divided into parishes, or Mission Fields, the Christians in each of which shall be encouraged to choose an evangelist, approved by those charged with the administration of the scheme, toward the salary of which evangelist the Mission shall make a contribution to he equitably fixed in each individual case. 2. That the maximum conh'ibution from Foreign Mission Funds to any field be seven thousand cash per month. 3. That every year this contribution be reduced by the sum of seven hundred cash per month, so that it shall cease in ten years. 4 That the initial minimum sum to be raised bv each field receiving such contribution from Foreign Mission Funds he one thousand cash per month. 5. That the division into mission fields, and the working of the scheme be entrusted to the Chinese Presbytery, in order that the Chinese church may realize, and assume its responsibility for the evangelizatio11 of the entire field. 6. That any self-supporting congregation desiring to secure one evangelist as assistant for its pastor he permit ted to take advantage of this scheme upon the same terms as apply to mission fields.

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lM E\'ANGELTSTIC WORK. 7. That the Canadian Prm,bytery may appoint one evangelist for each working pastor to he paid entirely from l<-,oreign J\.Iissi on Funds. 8. That each F'oreign pastor be all'red to employ with foreign funds not more than two itinerating Christians at a time, none of whom shall be used more than five months in any one year. 9. That each medical missionarv he allowed the 11se of one evangelist. paid from foreign f1~nds for work in the hospital. 10. 'J'hat the sch1me f01 the presn1t apply only to rvanglistic workers not to sd1ool teaehers or medical ns sistants. In Relation to Woman's Work. Tlrnt, while we cannot expect that the who!e field can he divided inLo mission fields foi woman's "ork, \\'e nevertheless 11111ke some provision for encouraging such congTegations as wish to use Christian women asBihle women within their hounds. 1. 'l'he maxi mum contri bntion from Foreign :Mission Funds shall be three thousand cash per month, which amount shall be reduced annually by three hundred cash per month. 2. 'l'he initial minimum sum raised for this purpose hy each congregation benefitting by this seherne shall be five hundred cash per month. 8 In other respeets, the same rules as to administration shall apply 11s in the case of. male evangelists. The foregoing new policy was unanimously adopted hy the Presbytery, and also later hy the CIIincsc Prcshytery in the same spirit. H. To Lead men unto the Lord one by one is a good plan for making the Church Prosperous (IB -lOC A iffl .:!:. !!'!! fr tt it: lllli) By Rev. Ting Li-mei, Travell'ng Secretary of the Student Volunteer Movement. Translated[by Mr. Lo Heng-sbeng [Note by Editor.-The orhiinal idea of a" One by One.Society" appears to belong to Mr. Tsni of Paotingfn, North China, wl10

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"ONE BY ONE H SUL'lETY, 165 founded a society in 1911 known by the na111e of (~ 1! A i:f). It is not known whence he derived the idea alti,011g11 tlie E11glish movement of the same name associated with the name of Mr. I-Iogben was described some years ago iu the Chinese Chl'istian Review of the C. L. S. Missionaries have preached the metho
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166 :BVANGELISTIC WORK. (2) The action of the Holy '." pirit. On the day of Pentecost, the disciples were all filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke with other tongues, so the men of different nation alities, then dwelling at Jerusalem, could hear the Word of God. If men of the present day strive to perform the duty of saving others, the Holy Spirit will come down on them in the same way; Many of us long to be filled with the Spirit but in vain, because ,ve do not put enough emphasis on the work of leading men unto the Lord to give an opportunity to the Spirit to act through us. ( 3.) The proper work of Christians. Jesus said: I will make you fishers .'' ( Matt. :I:: 19). 'fhe Apostle Paul said: I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ, which is far better: yet to abide in the flesh is more needful for your sake." Thus we see that the Apostles, if pursuing only their own salvation and blessings, could leave the world and go up to heaven as soon as they believed in Jesus. Our Lord left them on the earth simply for the sake of saving others and l(~ading other men unto Him to enjoy the same blessings. Therefore, if the Christians do not undertake the work of leading men unto the Lord, they not only abuse the Lord's good idea, but also greatly neglect their proper duties ( 4) The best fruit. In the eighth verse of the fifteenth chapter of ,John, Jesus said: Herein is my Father glorified that vc bear much fruit. What does the fruit mean here I Som; may say that it means one s own virtue, but it would be very much better to say that it means the men led unto the Lord For one's own virtue may be much, but it is limited only to one man who is entitled to only one seat in the Kingdom of Heave11. If we can lead many men unto the Lord, we save many souls and secure many seats in Heaven. Then is it not the everlasting fruit on earth and in heaven to do much of this holy work?

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REASONS FOR PERSONAL WORK. 167 (5) The proof of being saved :-St. Paul, in his letter to the Romans, said: I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. .B'or I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren 's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh.'' He said again in another place, "Brethren, my heart's desire and my supplication to Goel is for them that they may be saved.'' I'rom this we clearly see how Paul was willing to sacrifice himself for the sake of saving others. He was so sincere, because he himself, being truly saved, felt how miserable and terrible it ,vas for his countrymen to fail in securing salvation. A story is told that one man, being saved from fire by others, stood looking for a while and rushed again into the burning house 'l'he men who stood by stopped him &ncl asked him the reason. He cried and said: "Do not withhold me, for my mother is still in the fire.'' Thus we may see that to lead others unto the Lord is a very reliable proof of one's self being saved. (6) The Perfect Church:-ln writing to the members of the Corinthian Church, Paul said: Ye arc the body of Christ and severally members thereof.'' This shows that the Church is made up both of officers and members. Therefore, not only the officers but the members also are under obligation to do the work of leading men unto the Lord. In I Cor. 14: :n, Paul said: Ye may all prophesy one by one, that all may learn.'' If the members do not co-operate with the officers in saving men, how can the multitude be persuaded to learn the Word of God 1 Can a man's body be considered perfect and sound, if its four limbs only are serviceable and the other parts all useless 1 It is the same with a Church. In order to make it perfect, all of its members should do the work of leading men unto the Lord. As to the methods of. performing this important work, there are two, which may be treated as follows: I. The Church should hold a big meeting, during which four things should be done. (1) Experienced men who are pious and earnest, should be invited to explain by the Bible and facts the

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168 EVANGEtrs'i'rc \\'OR1'importance and value of the work of leading men unto the Lord. (2) .All should erncstly pray aud ask the Holy Spirit to illfluence the members so that they may be stinm lated to do this important work. .Encomagernent and l"acility must h e given to all the members to make this prayer. un Blank papers should be distri butcd among the members so that they may i,ritc down the nmnes of those whom they wish to be saved such as their families, 11eighbors, relatives, etc. ( 4) The members should be asked to bring the persons, whom they wish to save, to the Clrnrch so all may pray alld ask for blessing-s for them. II. Every ehnrc h should establish special organizations for doing this work, a nd elect officers to plan and snpport the things necessary for its ptogress. It is ho1wd that all who read this will do so at onc e with the help of the Lord. I am sure that by doing so tlw members' zeal will be inr.reased, the Church will b e come more prosperous, our countrymen may be saved, the angels will be pleased, the l.iord Jesus Christ will get the victory and God will be still more greatly glorified. Amen. 12. Some Good Tracts for Evangelistic Purposes. Selected by Mr. H. L. Zia, Y. M. C. A. A. For Common People, ..! A Cnllf'ctio11 of New Ballads for Awakening the l'eoplt, (if *i W; t}J W!) by Mr. T. P. ~z, p ;1ulished at. :C:oochow :!. T1,e 1n1\'<'lier's G11id1J from Death to Life, (:X J& ffi iti) C. T. S. H T\\'o Frit,ds, (jilij fr. tll 1~) C. T. S. 4. Short Skp~ t" ureal. Trnths, (W rl:},. ~) C. T. S. 5 .. Leading the Family in the H ig11t Way, (91 *~iii) :i'v landal"ll1. C. T S. 6. Easy J:x planation of Christianity, (lilt FI.Ii j;U ~&) C. T. S. B. For Literary Class. 7. China's Need, (lfl l~ B z. lfr ~) J.,y R. E. Cha111l>ers. B. P S.

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USEl'UL TRACTS. 169 8. Digest of Christian Teaching, C;M: 11 kt.} f,ff). C L. S. !). Relation of Education to Religiuu, Cl!;; Z. lffl f*) C. L. S. 10. The Relation of Christianity to the Ho111e, ff~ !~*ff! z. WM i*) C. L S ll. The Benelits of Christianity to tire Republic. !ta 11 ~;fj N; ~). C. L. S l:l. A Dialogue on Christianity, cgili 19~ ia). C. T. S. 13. A lhlW View of the Three Religio118, C=. *fr ~l). B. P. S. 14. The Balallce of Tm th, ( ili 1lti .2jt). 1-J. K. T. ~. 15 Religious Allegories, Cllf ia (i/j:). U. T. S. Hi. The Gate of Virtue and K11.,wledge Cm A P'1) C. T. 8. 17. Trne Doctrine Explained, (jf{ ill: W{,). (). 1. :-i. 18. Wiry am I a Christia11, CW fuJ ilti ;$ :l: 11 fill 'f-). C. L. 8. Hl. .lllJ f,i! i~ B. P 8. 20. J1i. iii i ~ B. P. 8

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CHAPTER IX THE CHINESE STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT FOR THE MINISTRY By Rev, W P. Mills, B.A., B.D., Nanking Beginnings :-The Chinese Student Volunteer 1\fowment for the Ministry had its beginning in February 1910 at Shantung Union College, Weihsien. No further steps towards a definite organization were taken, however, until the summer of the same year at the Student Conferenc:e at Tungchow near Peking. At that time over forty men declared their purpose to enter the Christian ministry, and joined themselves into a band for mnLual encouragement and for the further purpose of eulisting others of their fellow students in the same cause Following this Conference a call was extended to the Rev Ting Li-mei, to become the first travelling Secretary of the Movement. 'l'he choice was the more appropriate inasmuch as it was ~Jr. Ting's fervent evangelistic spirit that had at first aroused the colleges to the importance of the Christian ministry. Ting Li-mei:-Being impressed by the wonderful opportunity thus opened before him to present the claims of the ministry in all the colleges of the land, Mr. Ting decided to resign his local pastorate in Shantung and accept the call to this new work. Since entering upon it he has travelled all over China, iu certain sections several times, and has presented to thousands of students the call to the Christian ministry. As a result of his labours over forty men have alre~dy begun their theological studies, while the number of those who have declared their intention of entering the ministry runs into hundreds. Although lVIr. Ting's main work is to present the claims of the ministry to students, he never loses an opportunity to deliver a straight evangelistic message, and his appeals have had great effect in many schools. One student centre writes,

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o'l'Ul>EN'r VOLUNTEll:R TRAVELLING SECll.ETARIES. 171 that between one hundred and fifty and two hundred per sons were led to Christ at meetings conducted by him A missionary in another city reports,-" Mr. 'l'ing's stay with us has completely changed the atmosphere of the school." Similar testimonies have been given from all parts of the country. Everywhere he has gone students have been brought to realise the importance of personcil religion. It should also be noted that Mr. 'ring's ,York is not entirely eonfined to mis:-;ion schools. In certain places opportunity has been given him to address the students in government institutions, where he has always been heard with favourable attention Other Workers :-But however earnest a man may be it is physieally impossible for one individual to cover the whole of China, and present his message adequately to all the students in the colleges This is even more evident this year, when Mr. Ting is away in distant Szechwan, and there is no one else available to give his whole time to the work of presenting the Christian ministry to the students in other sections of the country The Execntive Committee of the Student V oluuteer Movement, realising this, asked certain gentlemen to take upon themselves for their section, the work which l\Ir. Ting was accustomed to do. There WcJS a ready response to this appeal, even though at the cost of consider able sacrifice of time and convenience. In the Yangtze Valley seetion, Rev. Z. 'l'. Kaung and Rev. Ch'en Chin-yung have visited many of the more important schools, while in the south Rev Yeung at Canton, and Rev Uong De-gi at Foocho,, have pressed home the call to the students in those centres. 'l'h a t the labours of these Volunteer workers bear abundant fruit is shown by a letter received from Foochow, which states that in three schools visited by Mr. Uong, there were one hundred and twenty-six decisions for Christ cJnd eighty nine men who declared their purpose of entering the Christian ministry. Of the one hundred and twenty-six who decided for the Christian life, seventy-four have already been taken into the various churches of the city. Plans have already been completed for similar visita tions, among the colleges in Central and North China during the coming months 'rhe student Secretaries of the Y.M:.C.A.

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172 S'l'UDEN'I' VOLlJN'J'EER MOVE1II~N'l' FOR '11HI~ MINISTRY. have also visited widely among the colleges, ~md sought to serve the Volunteer B a nds as far as possib!(~ in matters of organiza.tiou and practical detail. Student Conferences :-One feature of the work of the Voluntc(r l\lovernent is so important 11s to deserve special mention Every year at half a dozen or 111or< centre s in China, Student Confer emes are held, lasting about ten days 'l'hese conforences are attended eac Ii yt':1r by about six hundred students in tlte aggregate. 'l'hesc are usually the picked men of the colleges. .It will readily be seen what an opportunity these conferences afford of pressing the claims of the Christian ministry, and the Volunteer l\lovem ent seek,; to use these advantages to the utmost. Strong speakers are sec ured to present the call to th e ministry; thos e at the conference who arc already looking foniard to the ministry, are gotten togetlwr in prayer cireles, and urged to work and pray for their fellow students at the conference, that some of them may be led to decide for the ministry. Out of this ex perience, those who m e Volunteers go back to their colleges greatly strengthened in their own purpose and with a new determination to lead all their fellow students to Christ and some of the best of them into the ministry. A quotation from a letter, describing the work of the Student Volunteer movement at one of last summer's Conferences ( 'l'he Kiang nan Conference held at :::\t. John's University, Shanghai), is given herewith as it shows very clearly the wonderful fruitage of such work:-" 'l'hose who realise that the raisi11g up of an educated Chinese Christian ministry, is the key problem in China's evangelization, would have see n much in this Conference to inspire them with hope and expectation. 'What is God's will for my life 'I 'seemed to he the question on every heart. One third of the student delegates settled this question by dedicating their lives to the Christian ministry A few years ago it was difficult to find one Volunteer for the ministry in the Conference. This year there were torty-five. And they were the best men in the Conference. Eight of the forty-five volunteered during the Conferenc e One of those who decided for the Ministry was a Government student from the National University,

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STUDENT CONFERENCES; 173 Nanking. Converted in, Eddy's Nanking meetings three months ago, he has since joined the Church ; and now he has decided to enter a Christian University in the Fall to prepare himself for the Ministry.'' It should Le added that the student referred to in this letter is holding steadily to his purpose, and has already entered rr theological Seminary. Other Activities :-Another feature of the work of the Student Volunteer Movement, is tlie securing of such informa0 tion from the colleges and theological i;eminaries, as relates to the matter of developing an increasing number of properly qualified candidates foi the ministry, and the placing of this information at the disposal of the missionary body and the Chinese Church. Only by careful study of the whole field from year to year can the best plans be wrought out, so that the Church as a whole may consciously work towHrd this great end. 'I'he National Con ferenc-e of the Continuation Committee, held in Shanghai in l\farch 1913, under the Presidency of Dr. Mott pas~ed the following resolution:" We urge increased efforts to promote the work of the Stndent Volunteer Movement for the Ministry, and other similar organizations with distinct vocational aims, aud suggest that the leaders of these movements make careful investigation of the obstacles which prevent men from enlisting in definite service for Christ." As it happened the S. V. l\f. M. had already nndertaken srn.:h an inquiry. Heplies, bearing evidence of accuracy and thoughtfulness in preparc1tion, were received from the presidents of most of the collegiate and theological sehools in t.he country, and the inforriiation they contained was coiiperated into a pamphlet by Rev. ;r. Leighton St.nart of Nanking on, '' Chinese Students and the Christian Ministry" and published by the Movement. Rev Ch'en Chin ynng, usiug the same informa tion, issned i n Chine8e, also under the auspices of the l\'Iovemrnt, '' An Open Letter to the Youth of China," in which he discussed both the call to the Christian ministry, and the difficulties in the way of Chinese students entering upon it. These pamphlets can he had on application from the office of the l\foyement (;1 (~uinsan Gardens, Shanghai), and as they are based upon the results of a very wide

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174 STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVE~fENT FOR THE il!INISTRY. eorrespondence with the colleges and theological seminaries, they deserve to be read by all those interested in the cause of theological education. Mr Ch'en s pamphlet especially should be put in the hands of all Students whom one is seeking to interest in the ministry Object :-In all this work of presenting the claims of the ministry to the students in the colleges and at the summer conferences, in all its personal dealing with students, in the gathering of information for the use of missionary societies and the Chinese Church, and in the preparation of literature on the ministry for students. the Movement has but one object-to serve the missions, all of them and through them the whole Church in China. 'fhe Executive Committee and the Secretaries will gladly welcome advice, suggestion and criticism, from any source whatsoever The problem of a native ministry, adequate both in numbers and education, is the problem of the whole Church, and as such, demands the united efforts of the whole Church for its solution. 'fhe Student Volunteer Movement for the Ministry has no other function than simply to render to the Church in China sueh service as it can iu this regard. Organization :-The Student Volunteer Movement for the Ministry is now thoroughly organized, with an Executive Committee consisting of the following gentlemen:Mr. Chang Po-ling, Tientsin. Mr. W. B. Pettus, Shanghai. Rev. Ch 'en Chin-yung, Nan king. Rt,. Rev L. H. Roots, Ha11kow. l\lr. "\V K. Chung, Canton Rev .. J. L. Stuart, Nanking. Rev R. K. Evans, Hwangpei. Dr. Y. Y. Tsu, Shanghai. Dr. J Walter Lowrie, Si1a11ghai. Mr. C T Wang, Tientsin. Rev Z. T. Kaung, Chairman, Shanghai. Rev. Wang Shan-chih of Nanchangfu has been called to act as Executive Se cretary of the Movement, and will enter upon his work in June He will have special respon sibility for following up the results of Mr. Ting's work among the colleges, a.nd will seek hy visits and by eo1Tes pondence to keep the volunteers faithful to their purpose, and to direct their attention steadily towards the completion of their theological course. lVIr. S. E. Hening, 3 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai, is acting as Treasurer of the :Movement

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OUTLOOK FOR l\HNISTgRIAL EDUCATION. 175 Enrollment in Theological Schools :--According to letters received by the office of the Student Volunteer Movement from some fifteen of the more important theolog ical schools in China, it appears that during the present year, about four hundred and fifty men have been engaged in preparation for the ministry in these schools. If these figures were doubled one would probably have the maximum number of men in China who are studying for the Christian ministry. These same schools report thafthere have been graduated during the year a little over one hundred men If these figures are again doubled, we would probably have the maximum number by which the Chinese ministry is being recruited from year to year. These figures are significant, because it is upon the Chinese preachers that the ultimate success of the country's evangelization depends li,rom one standpoint, it should give great cause for gratifica tion that about ni,ne hundred men are now preparing them selves to preach the Gospel, and that over two hundred are being sent out each J'.ear to the churc~hes as ministers, or as cate(;hists and lay evangelists. But on the other hand, when we view the immensity of the work to he accomplished, and the compr.ratively small number of the labourers in training for the task we realise that the Church needs to be mightily moved to prayer and to larger effort to secure a greater number of candidates for the ministry. Outlook for Ministerial Education :-On the whole, the outlook for ministerial education seems to be bright. Many of the schools report that more and better men are steadily offering themselves for the ministry, and that these m e n are desiring a more thorough training than formerly, thus making possible an advance in the standards of theological educatiQn To quote from a few of the letters received:-'' The outlook in our seminary was never better than now. Our teaching force is being increased both in numbers and efficiency, and the students are doing the best work that has been done in the history of the school, and we are hearing from all over the field about bright, well prepared young men who are planning to come to the seminary.'' We hear from another school,-'' The

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176 STUDENT VOLUNTF.ER l\!OVEJIIF.NT FOR 'fHE l\lINISTRY. men .admitted this year are much hetter equipped thaii any admitted previously 'l'he requirements for admission are being advanced steadily.'' Another writes,-'' The prospect is now much brighter than it has been for !>Orne years. By the reopening of the theological college on a higher standard of admission-admitting only college graduates-we are attraeting more students and those who are hettei prepared.'' Another says,-" The outlook is good and more of the promising young men of the church seem to he inclined to offer themselves for church work than formerly.'' Still tmother writes,-" It is beginning to takr hold of men of a much better class. We can now begin to look forward to the time when all renl evangelistic work will be more effectively done by Chinese, than it has ever been done by foreigners." Certain letters received point clearly, however, to real difficulties in the way of the advance of theologieal education. One says,-'' Th e re is far more dernand for training of lower grade non-graduate men for evangelism, than for the training of graduates; and graduates of that lowrr training are averaging more fruitful work than the college men who are rarely evangelistic enthusiasts, being l'Specially unwilling to go to country clrnrchcs Another clearly points to what is one of the ehief difficulties in the way,~" Something should be done to provide graduates with scholarships while attending theological colleges. At present these men, although pledged to enter theological colleges, are enrolled in variow, departments of active service with the :Missions. The need of an ineome inclines them to such service, ratlter than to study under the theologir.al professors; and there is ground for asserting that sinee the need for money gradually increases with the years, they will simply settle down ancl abandon the idea of entering the ministry.'' StiII another finds that,-" There is a, t(mdency on the pa.rt of students educated in our schools, to seek for better paid positions than we ean offer. Undoubtedly, the type of men employed in days gone by has caused better educated men to regard the position of an evangelist as an inferior one. c:onseqnently we have a difficulty in securing any suitable men.'' It is apparent from the r1uotations given from these letters, that while the outlook for ministerial education

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OB.TECT OF THE STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT. 177 is distinctly eneouraging, there are still many difficulties in the way which call for the earnest prayer and the deepest thonght of the Church for their solution Student Volunteer Movement :-As has been said, the Student Volunteer l\fovement for the Ministry stauds pledged through its Executive Committee and its Secretaries, to do all within its power to help the Church meet these diffieulties, and secure from year to year a larger body of better equipped men for the glorious task of winning China for Christ 'l'he Movement seeks solely to be the servant of the Church in this most important work

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CHAPTER X THE VARIED WORK OF THE CHURCHES Baptist Missionary Society Chinese Home Missions:-The "Save the World Society," whose members went out two by two one day a week to preach, continued its labours till the approach of the bean harvest, and would have resumed them afterwards but for the unrest produced by the Revolution. This effort will presently be revived, for it did much good. Pledge Cards :-As an experiment towards fostering this sense of responsibility I have had a number of books of pledges printed at Weihsien through .Mr. Whitcher's kind ness Though using the word ''pledges,'' all I have ventured to urge members to pl e dge themselves to do is to pray that the Lord may use them to help anotlwr to know Him. Each pastor has a book containing 100 of theSL1 cards. In this city of Tsingchowfu the pastor has alrPady issued some 60 cards ( or rather he and the Bible-wom an) to persons willing to t ake the matter np. Poor Relief :-Since our workers luwe been able to return, much good work has been done in tending the sick and wounded and in the relief of the famine-stricken lH r Kao, a deacon of our church, has successfully organised the relief work among the poor. Lantern and Museum :-The lantern services at Sinchow duriug the winter months drew crowded attendances, and invitations sent to tlrn Government schools brought both teachers and scholars in good numbers. The museum, too, attrac ted many, over 10,000 visits being recorded since the opening in February Love to Men:-'l'he services ,vhich our missionari e s have be e n able to render in the city since the revolution broke out have been most gratefully recognised by the people 'rhe tending of the wounded in the hospital, the Red Cross work in the camps, and the ~Tacious ministry of Mr. a~1d

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PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 179 Mrs. Shoriock, who, with the doctors, have remained all through the troubles, have sow11 the seeds of confidence and esteem, which will bear good fruit in days to come. Presbyterian Church of England The Kindergarten :-The Kindergarten idea has caught the imagination of the Chinese The Amoy Kindergarten is numerously attended, ;:i,nd similar schools are crowded in Amoy city and in Unsio, Changpu, Changchow, Chinchow, Huian, and Yungchun. The Kindergarten opens the door into the homes of the people. It carries religious instruc tion into these homes, and often draws parents and relations to attend the church services. Ting Li Mei :-1\fr. Ting gave several days to the Chinchow Mission Schools and to the Amoy Anglo-Chinese College and High School, holding meetings and haviug private talks ,vith the lads. '!'here were three or four meet ings daily in the Amoy School Chapels and in the large London l\EssiOJ?. Church on Kulangsu. The High School boys have banded themselves into a society (29 members) to keep before themselves and others Mr Ting's appeal for workers. Christian Electors :-A striking illustration of the public spirit which is a by-peoduct of Christian faith, is lVIr. Beattie'!, account of the election in Amoy last December of members of the Fukien Provincial Assembly. 'rhe Chinese do not yet know the way to the polling booth; some, indeed, keep back in fear of increased taxation. Out of 9,000 on the electoral roll only 2,000 voted, though the town crier and bell went round the streets seeking to rouse up lethargic townsmen to a sense of their rights and privileges as citizens of the Hepublic, and to induce them to record their votes. Of the votes cast a large number were those of Christian men, who of course form a small part of the Amoy popula tion. 'rhe local newspaper praises the Christians for this exhibition of interest and understanding in public affairs The voting qualification is somewhat u11certain. Christian pastors are classed with Buddhists and other priests and denie<;l the e~ercise of the franchise, hut teachers and preacher~

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180 VARIED WORK OF 'fHE CHURCHES, in Christian schools may vote, as also lads who are of age and hold a Primary School certificate 'l'he theological students secured a place on the electoral roll, and an hour later recorded their votes. Preacher's Examination:-'l'his year tlrn subjects of ex amination set by all three Amoy Protestant Missions for their preachers were Regeueration, the Life of the Apostle Paul up to the Planting of the Church at Philippi, with Zephaniah and Philippians for exposition On Zephaniah there was a very usefnl aid specially prepared by Mr. Oldham. Ou Philippians there is an excellent commentary by Mr. Campbell Brown. Self-government, Self-support and Self-propagation :-On behalf. of the Mission Council, Dr. Campbell Gibson invited the Swatow Presbytery, at its October meeting (1912), to assent to an important step towards the goal of the Mission -a self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating Chnrch Seven years ago ( in 1905) the Churt:hes of the Swatow district ( including, also, those connected with Chaochowfn and Swabue), 73 in number, contributed 80 per cent. ( $5,009) of the salaries of their ministers, preachers, and teachers, the home Church finding the remaining 20 per cent. ($1,270). In 1911 the native Churches (no,v 78 in number) contributed for the same purpose $7,587; 50 per cent. more than in 1905, but only 67 per cent. of the whole sum needed for salaries; the home Missions funds being called on for $3,770. More stations require more preachers. The new educational demands necessitate more and better qualified teachers. The Missionaries trusted :-'l'he missionaries were entrust ed by the Swatow Chamber of Commerce ,~;ith the admini stration of its Relief Fund. They visited three places requiring embankment repair, to decide what grants should be given. They interviewed the village elders at each place; examined the gaps in the embankments, and then re.ported to the Relief Committee. The kindly succour so administered could not but prepare an easy road for the missiouarie:,' message.

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181 Idolatry not Dead:-'l'he people round about us have great faith in their idols, and are often slow to come to us for help. A woman who lived just opposite the Mission compound was very ill after the birth of a child. Her :friends know that I attend such cases at any hour of the night or day, but instead of calling me, went to the Temple of l\fatsou, and by throwing up banyan roots before the idol, sought its help. 'rhey were told that the woman would get better. When at last they called me in, I found her breath ing her last, thoug h the idols had said that very morning that there was no cause to fear. The husband beat his breast in despair and said, '' 'l'he idols deceive us.'' 'l'he people in the east end of the town subscribed $6,000 last spring to improve a temple, and $3,000 more to rebuild a tiny temple under a banyan tree just outside our compound. I believe the poorest gave not less than $6, yet they grudge ten cents for medicine to make them well when they are ill. Idols shot to pieces :-Idols are faring badly; a tiine honoured temple at 'l'haima, near Samhopa, was visited recently by a band of young men carrying rifles in thefr hands, who opened fire on the dead idols, which soon lay a mass of rubbish on the floor. Often the temples are requisitioned for school accommodation. Officials and people are united in an anti-gambling crus~de. In a neighbouring town two men who gambled in defiance of official orders were seized and shot without a word of explanation asked or offered. But opium growing has been renewed; the Republi can officials are not yet strong enough to prevent or punish offenders. Here as elsewhere there are signs of a wish for a Chinese Church independent of the foreign missionary, a move ment the missionaries will not oppose bnt only seek to guide. Special Evangelist: -The W ukingfu College tutor, lVfr. Pang Khi-fnug, with the consent of the missionaries, still devotes much of his time to special evangelistic meetings at different stations, as he has done since the visit to Swatow and \Vukingfu two or three years ago of l\Iiss Yu, the Chinese lady evangelist. Last October he held a week's meeting in Samhopa The preachers from the stations round about came in to the meetings.

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182 VARIED WORR oi<' 'tHE Cl-IURUHl<~s. "I heard more than one,'' writes l\Ir. Rentoul, "person ally attest how much he owed to the meetings. One man in especial said that he would return to his ,, ork with a new outlook on the aim, scope, and method of preaching, together with a fresh hope ~~nd a greater inspiration for his work At the closing meeting, iifter a powerful address, lVIrPang offered prayer, and" in the middle of the prayer the whole of the audience burst simultaneously into prayer, a wonderful outburst of prayer, an overawing manifestation of the Holy Spirit. The Chinese were trembling like aspen leaves.'' The Printing Press and Bookroom :-'l'he chief work of the printing press is the production of 1,000 copies monthly of the Church News," now in its 332nd number,'' Mr. Barclay writes, '' and one of the very oldest papers printed in Chinese." Probably one Church paper may now serve for the Yvhole Presbyterian Church of l<'ormosa. Discovery of the Acetylene Lamp :-Borrowing a. suggestion from one of the Canadian missionaries, l\fr. Moncrieff, by the help of the acetylene lamp, has done more preaching at night than ever before. Reformed Church of America. Sunday Schools:-In this connection the grov:th of Sunday Schools must be mentioned This has been one of the characteristic features of the year. Although the organization and methods are not equally good, the Sunday School is now a recognised part of the Church's activity in most of the places where a pastor is stationed. Bible exposi tion has ahvays occupied an important place in the Sunday services, but the organization of these Sunday Schools means that classes are organized and the teaching si being graded according to the needs of the pupils Of course, the difficulties in seeming teachers areuot small. But, on the other hand, the benefit of giving definite work to the clmrch members is very great. 'rhe attendance at a '' Teachers' Meeting" conducted by one of the missionaries for the three churches of Amoy varies from thirty to fifty each Thursday evening. lvlorever, the organization of these schools is placing a new empliasis on the early training of the children.

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RElrnmtED CHURCH OF Al\iERICA. 183 Literature :-The members of our own m1ss10n also continue to be active in the preparation of Chinese literature in the Romanized Vernacular. 'rhe third edition of Dr. Talmage 's Dioetionary, which has done so much to extend the knowledge of the Romanized among the Chinei;;e, is being printed, and the correcting of these proof sheets has occupied a considerable part of the time of some mii;;sionaries. 'rhe columns of the "Church Messenger,'' the lfomanized bi weekly paper of the South Fukien churches, contain a liberal share of l3ontributions from the members of our mission. The Wise use of Money :-Not long ngo a brother married his second wife '.L'hey economized on wedding garments and wedding feasts, and sent what they saved from the amount previously laid aside for these pnrposcs to the missionary, to be sent to the flood sufferers in Chekiat1g province, of whom they had just heard Another member of the same church, living an hour's walk from the clmrch, who w,ts about to celebrate a birthday by great festivity, decided it would b e better to use the money to erect a small chapel than for meat and drink and the things th a t perish in the using 'l'he diapel lrns been built, imd each Sunday brethren go ont there to hold services. All Sorts of Societies :-'l'he reason given for the lack of an ingathering of members and no increase o.l' hearers is the popularity of all sorts of societies which for a few dollars' membership fee agree to right all the wrongs of those who join Iu China the people have always desired the prestige and influence of persons 01 societies to be exerted in their behalf, and this idea has still a great influence among the people. If the church would only stand for t.ltis, many would flock to it. Many of those who have begun to attend its services finding that it does not do this, soon break off attendance. With the H,epublie, the number of societies in the comnnrnity, with all kinds of aims and purposes, has greatly increased, and these have kept many away who might otherwise have come to find for themselves what the church stands for. At the close of the year, a great idolatrous festival was held in Chioh-be, in which :,;hops and

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184 VARIED WORk OF 'fHE CHURCHES. houses were torn down to make room for the paper pagodas that were put np. The whole festival cost probably $20,000. Increased Cost of Living :-But there are many and serious difficulties to be overcome in the effoH to increase the proportion of church salaries that the native church pays. One of the principal difficulties is the rapidly increasing cost of living. For example, in the course of the past five years the Chiang-chin church has found it necessary to increase their pastor's salary from $18 to $25 per month. A principal question to be considered at the next meeting of the synod will he the ways and means by which the salaries of all preachers may be c~nsiderably increased. American Presbyterian Mission Opposition of Christianity :-Within a few miles of the capital, Kiungchow, flt the market of 'l'ap-tu-lou, the centre of a large region of the more civilized Loi, the local gentry had organised a Self-government Societ.r and attempted to use their power to stop tile progress of Christianity. To this end they posted anti-Christian placards. One mau s house was raided, and all the Christians were obliged to flee. Another trip of five weeks was made in company with the British consul in Hoihow and an artillery officer from Hongkong, visiting the Lois in the region of the Five-finger Mountains, the central valley, and in the country south of Namfong, returning by way of Nodoa The Church as a Cloak :-This man had feigned a great interest in the Gospel, but the insincerity of his moti ves was shown a little later ween he tried to convince the Heng clan that he was the gate-keeper of the church, and offered to open the doors for the sum of $30. His company was dispensed with after that. Four young men of the Lim clan also accompanied us. Our entry into the market of Kaikham on the morning of the third day was made amid a blaze of fire-crackers, the gentry giving us a Chinese welcome at the gate of the chapel they had them selves rented and :fitted up for the occasion. Although wholly unauthorized to do so, they had had a bell cast with the inscription, "Moe kok oh-do (American school) on it.

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AMERICA:t. PRESBY'fERIAN MissroN. 185 Ten days were spent among them, teaching classes of people daily and receiving calls from dozens of men; mostly of the scholar class. Preparation for Communion :-Amid the events of the past year there stand out prominently those seasons when the catechumens have gathered for instruction, which the people have come to call the '' big Sundays.'' 'fhese are the Communion Sabbaths which come every two months, the time being fixed and announced at the beginning of the year. At this time all who are interested spend from two to five days on the compound, giving all their time to the study of the truth. Comity among Missions :-With the exception of Kan Kong, a large city in the Namhoi District, there art other mis sions at work in the same territory, but there is the best of good feelings. 'l'his is seen in the quarterly union meetings, in the bi-mouthly conferences of the Christian workers and in the union cemetery that has just been bought and is being_ improved by the Cemetery Association at 'l'ai Leung At K wei Chou the work has not gone as far as in Tai Leung, but there is a fine spirit of co-operation in the street preaching at the Baptist and United Brethren Mission chapels, as our chapel is not so well situated At Kam Li in the Ko Iu District we find the best of feelings between ours and the London Mission. The same is true in Kong l\'Iei, where we nome in touch with the Berlin Mission. Improved Plant and Self-Respect :-During the past year the reading room and library have been better equipped. We now have table and chairs that give a dignity to the place. It has been porssible to add new books to the library. This year has also seen the addition of the new club house and the teariug down of the old disreputable shack where the students lost their self-respect every time they dined. Difficulties of Sick Wives:-I t is not easy for the ordinary Chinese mother to leave her house She must watch the door, attend to the children, must cook, mend, etc She has control of no money, and it is given only grudgingly if she must enter a hospital. I have known husbands to COlllP, to our sick women and scold them for not getting well A-24

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186 VARIED \\'ORK OF THE t..:HUl.Wi-IES. of some serious illness after a residence with us of a few days. One woman said she must hurry home or her husband would bring back another wife during her absence. With the men it is different. They go where and when they please and carry all the money with them. Betrothing of Pupils :-'rhe rule of the school is to help the pupils with half the cost of their rice, and all who are helped must have the promise of their parents to study several years and the promise that they will be betrothed to Christians and not to non-Christians. 'fhere was good opportunity to make this rule emphatic when one of the older girls came near being betrothed to a man of bad character. It was the coveting of worldly things that tempted the parents, for the girl would have brought a good price. The affair was broken up the very morning set for the betrothal. Aged Believer :-One of the baptisms which afforded special satisfaction was that of an old white-haired woman, nearly blind, the mother of two Christian sons. When the Gospel first came to the city, unlike 1nost Chinese women, she encouraged her sons in their acceptance of it as soon as she knew its teachings. When she was being examined for baptism and the questions of her attitude to idols was raised, she said, I disbelieved in them before ever I heard of the Gospel,'' and her denunciation of them was like an extract from Isaiah. She was nearly seventy when she learned to read her first character, but made good progre:,;s, and understood and believed as she learned. Persec:ution :-The Kiaho Church, Hnnau, has :,;uffercd sharp and continued persecution. In one vilh,ge there were only three Christians, and when they refused to contribute funds for an idolatrous fe:,;tival they were driven out of their homes, their houses were looted and their fields spoiled. When Elder Li tried to effect a reconciliation between tlte heathen villagers and their Christian neighbours, he was assaulted and foully abused. Having suffered much the refugees were finally permitted to return to what was left of their homes. The Bane of Examinations:-The girls were tired out with the examinations and preparations for them, so this year

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TENT MEETINGS. 187 the principal limited the exumiuations to certain subjects with better results. Only Two Kindergartens in Shanghai:-In the entire city of Shanghai there are as yet but two kindergartens under fully trained teachers ; one conducted by the Commercial Press and the one at t)le South Gate. 'l'he demand for such schools is great, and only the lack of trained teachers pre vents the takiug up of this much ueeded work. Circulating Library :-A circulating library of several hundred volumes has been placed in the library room of the bell tower of the Bi z Church. A Gospel Mat-shed :-About the middle of May all the churches united in an effort to reach the outsiders in Soochow. A mat-shed was erected at the Kong-hong, which could accommodate some 1,200 peopie. 'l'he Chinese did all the preaching, but every department ,vas heartily backed by the foreigners. 'l'he music was very good, beiug led by an organ, two cornets and a mixed choir. It is variously estimated that from 2,000 to 5,000 people heard the Gospel every day, and many for the first time No one will ever know the results of the seed-sowing, for thousands of Gospels and tracts were carried away. 'l'his much we do know, that about 1,600 people signed cards expressing a desire to know more about the doctrine and a willingness to be visited by a religious teacher Tent Meeting :--The great tent mectiug at 1-Iu-lm-giai, Nanking, at the China New Year formed perhaps the great est experience of the ;year. 'rhis was a union of our five Missions in l\anking, the Methodists, Disciples, Advent Mission, quakers and Presbyterians uniting in the work and responsibility. An immense tent was secured and from 1,200 to 2,000 people were present twicA daily, reaching high-water mark ou Sunday, when uearly 3,000 were in and about the tent 'l'he meetings were for outsiders only and were an outgrowth of the great revival meetings held by Mr. Goforth the previous year. 'rhe rich people came and sat on the hard benches side by side with poorest. Even some of the officials, we have been assured, dressed in plain clothes, came to listen secretly.

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iss VARIED WORK oi ritE CHUl:WHl~S. Students and teachers and soldiers came in great numbers. The weakest church member went to work, faithfully doing the part assigned, or helping in after-meetings, witnessing and speaking a good word for Jesus Christ. The singing was a remarkable feature; two cornets helped in leading, school children and even the little orphan boys helping in the beautiful hvmns. Days afterwards I heard a group of dirty little chiidren in a distant part of the city trying to sing "Jesus loves me." 1\'Iore than 400 people expressed a desire to learn more of the Gospel-a very large percentage of these are now gathered into inquiry classes which have been kept up for their instruction in the various chapels of the :Missions At our Communion in April 100 people applied for baptism. Faithful personal work has been done not only by the missionaries, but by the Church Members. The church has been aroused and the attention of the whole city hus been called to the Gospel in a way never accom plished before. Twelve thousand Gospels and about 25,000 tracts were distributed. Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society A Venture of Faith :-Our people are also undertaking various philanthropic efforts. At.the close of 1911 a num ber of farmers at lmpo, the l{ev. Leung Chakslrnng 's native place, \Vere feeling the stress of hard times, and began to sell their daughters into slavery Mr. Leung heard of this, and although the slender stipend which the Chinese Church pays him was overdue, he determined to make a venture of faith. He made himself responsible for finding the support. of fourteen children, and brought them to our 'l'ai Mi Girl's School, where they are now being cared for and taught by members of Mr. Leung's family. God has not dishonoured the faith of his servant, and though the most rigid economy has always been necessary, food has always been found. Christians Love one another :-A member failed in business. He was in a fairly large way, but a sudden rush for cash on bills threw him into difficulties With rare self-denia.1, and from no other motive than the honour of the Name of Christ, one of 'his fellow-Christians sold his ancestral

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WESLEY AN METHODIST I\IJSSIONARY SOCIETY, 189 property for the reudy cash needed to meet the run on his brother's shop, ,vhile other Christians who had claims on the unfortunate business man waived them for the time being, and yet others contributed large snms-large and small sufficient to meet all the demands, iu order that no man holding a cash bill with the name of a Christian upou it should suffer loss 'fhis practical demonstration of Christian ethics stood out in fine contrast to quite a number of other similar cases of financial failure that happened at the same time and in which the heathen shopkeepers involved met their obligations in quite another way. London Missionary Society Chinese Assume Burdens :-In this relation it is worthy of note that we have not only au Advisory Council for our mission for the whole of China, but a Chinese Advisory Council in which the foreign missionary has l)O place, with Provincial Local Councils which are, among other things, enabling Chinese Christians to see that the little piece of work with which each is individually connected does not stand in isolation, but is a part of a great general move ment. The Chi.nese Advisory Council has expressed its desire to organise an exhibition and the sale of gifts from various parts of the mission field in order to help the parent society. Union Mission to Boat People :-During the year it has been decided to start a Harbour Mission for the purpo:;;e of evangelising the boat population. Representatives of all the churches and l\fissions are on the Religious Work Committee of the Y M C. A., which has undertaken this. A sailing boat is being purchased for this purpose. Some boat people l1ave already come to the church through the work of 'this mission Religious Evolution :-It would seem that idolc1try with its deg-rading associations is fast disappearing amongst the more educated classes, especially amongst students. A Chinese teacher in one of the large Government schools said the other day that the usual religious evolution of a student in his school was this: The student came, respecting idols

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rno VARIED WORK OF THE CHURCHES. and a diligent worshipper of the tablets of his ancestors Very soon all respect for idols went, and in the end the worship of ancestral tablets went also, leaving agnosticism, or materialism, or total religious indifference. The Provincial President said to Mr. Chung (Commissioner of Education) on one occasion, while discussing the worship of Confucius' Tablet in the Sehoois, "As far as I am concerned you can do as you like ahont it. I'm not going to worship f, piece of firewood.'' A Strange Book:-The effect of the swift decay of idolatry is in some respeets serious, paradoxical as that may appear to be, unless the Christiim Church can itself meet it with Christian Literature and the Christian Gospel Mr. Baxter has in his possession a book, elegantly printed and bound, which was given away in thousands in Canton till stopped by the Government It advocated no Government, no religion and no marriage. That book and others like it, arc in the hands of hundreds of students. Copying us in. one way :-A somewhat different so2iety has been started in Canton chiefly by young women vrho have been abroad. It is not Christian in aim, but its idea seems to be to lrad the way in the introduction of foreign customs, etc., "at homes,'' and so on, and has a membership of about sixty. Student Volunteers:-While Pastor Ting was in Amoy undrr the appeal for church workers, including both teach ing and preaching, 29 young men volunteered, reserving their decision as to choice between these two callings until a later date. They have since formed a society, adopted a constitution, and chosen their officers. Under their auspices a public lecture is given once a fortnight, and they are definitely planning for student Bible classes, under the leadership of pupil teadiers, who in turn are to be formed into a normal Bible study class with a foreign teacher. Anti-Footbinding :-The Church has stood for many years as the great advocate of the unbinding of the feet of hound footed women, and for the suppression of the practice of binding the feet of young girls, but until the present year there has been no :public effort, apart from the Church, in

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LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 191 this direction. Quite recently th e officials and gentry 0 the city have wished to further this movement, but they did not know how to go about it, alid a very real difficulty they encounter e d was that it was necessary for women to take the lead in this propaganda, but outside the churches there were no women capable of doing this. After consultation with some leading Christians, the :Mandarins put out proclama tions in which they stated that they had iuvited the three Protestant Churches in Chang Chow to form this Society, and they having agreed to do so, the people were urged to join. 'l'he officials and gentry have provided $18 per month for working expenses, $10 for rent of a house as headquarters, and $8 as th e salary of two women advocates of the movement. 'J'he wife of the Pastor of our East Gate Church has been elected president, and the mam1gement is in the hands of the Christians. Opium Refuges :-Another reform in whid1 Christians are taking a prominent part in the city is the Opium Refuge The expenses for the carrying on of this work are provided by the officials, but the management is in the hands 0 two of our Christi a ns connected with the South Gate Church The refuge is doing ft good work. Christians as Peacemakers :-In one distrir,t where a t e rrible clan strife was raging a most savage and vindictive spirit being shown, it was most welcome news that a body of arbitrators, in which our Christians largely predominated, had succeeded in effecting a settlement and had restored peace in the neighbourhood. The preacher at our church there, who belonged to a different clan from the combatants and so was not involved in the strife, arrauged to pass through the area of conflict and hold periodic services with th a t section of his flock which could not attend to his ministrations h1 the chapel. The C. L. S. :-The power of Literature is indicated in that a Chinese sc:hola.r of good family has been baptised in one 0 our country stations, and attributes his conversion to the study of publications of the Christian Literature Society, of whose books he has quite a library.

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192 VARIED WORK OF THE CHURCHES. Temple for Christian Girls' School :-It is striking that in Ying Shan City in the Riaokan district a temple adjoining our premises has heen made over to us by the City officials to be used "for ever as a Girl's Christian School. 'l'he large brass Buddha has been removed, and the priests sent to their homes to engage in lay occupations Church Missionary Society Novel use for old Yamen :-'l'he new spirit abroad mani fested itself in a greater self-reliance b.mong the converts and an increase of initiative The latter quality has several times been displayed in the past by the Rev. Fong Y at Sau, the Pastor at Kowloon, and in 1912 he gave a fresh example of it by collecting enough money to procure the buildings which used to form the city yamen; these he r e paired so as to furnish clean, brig ht dwellings for more than 100 poor Christian families, while he converted the yamen temple into a hall, where he proceeded to hold evangelistic meetings twice a week and to conduct a night school for meu in which English is taught and Christian instruction imparted. Comfort in Sorrow :--The woman was first visited two years ago by the Bible women, because they had heard of the loss of her son under exceptionally sad circumstances. He was an only child, twelve years of age; h0 was said to have been suddenly possessed by the evil one and lay down struggling in front of a shop in the main street of Kowloon City. The shopkeeper beat him to make him go away, and the boy ran, men chasing him to some fields outside the city, where he jumped into a dirty pool and was drowned. His parents who had formerly been earnest idol-worshippers, and had specially presented offerings for their precious son's pro tection, were terribly upset; the father in his anger and sorrow tore clown the idols and symbols of ~vorship in the home; the mother would take little notice of anyone, but seemed quite abandoned to her sorrow. By degress her heart was awakened, and she began to be interested in all the Bible women had to tell of the true Comforter, and in time she believed and asked to he taught more in order to be baptised.

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CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 193 Co-operation and Union:-A Union Bible School for Christian Workers in the prefectures of Shaowu, Yenping and Kienning was held at Kienning in November 1912, and was attended by 98 students, more than forty of them con nected with the Methodist and Congregational Churches. At a similar gathering at Kutien the catechists and school masters eonnected with the Methodist Episcopal Mission and the C. M. S. in that district listened to a series of addresses from Dr. Worlev of the formar Mission. Moreover the C. M:. S. co-opeiates in the Union 'rheological School at Foochow, and negotiations are in progress by which its medical college in that city may be thrown open to men connected with other societies. The Rev. LI. Lloyd, the secretary of the Mission, was a member of a committee entrusted with the task of pre paring a Union Hymn Book. A bout 100 new hymns were translated, and those already in use were revised. Mr Lloyd also serves 011 another committee ,vhieh is translating the Bible into higher W enli. C1re of the Sick :-Four of the elder girls assist in the .evangelistic work among the boatwomen on the Min, and as many as 45 pupils take it in turns to devote their half holidays and Sunday afternoons to work in the villages of the neighbourhood. One of the changes ,, rought in the country by the Revolution is said to be that while in the past it has always been di:ffic mlt to get anyoue to look after the sick, quite a number of educated women are now desirous of undertaking the work. Five women, all of them belonging to literary families, were under training at Foochow, and four of them did well in an examination in elementary physiology and general nursing. The Higher Classes :-Several workers speak of the higher <:lasses being more accessible than before Among the signs of these may be mentioned that Arc hdeacon J. H. Wolfe was permitted by the teachers to visit several non mission schools and address the pupils; that a. meetiug for rich ladies, at whiC'h various Christian workers spoke on such subjects as "Health,'' The bringing up of Children,'' and :\.-25

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HJ-! VARIED WORK OF THE CHURCHES. Liberty was successfoily organised at Ningteh; that members of the city gnilds at Kienning accepted invitations to the mission house and there, after social intercourse, listened to Christian addresses; and that at Foochow }Hiss E. S Goldie wtts invited by the head of a large opium club to attend a meeting held on the anniversary of the Re Yolution. Revival of Idolatry :-":\fany households in Foochow have given up idol-worship, though the people still make offerings to Heaven and Earth; but strangely enough the worship of the municipal god was revived in 1912, and little ehildren could be seen kneeling by the side of the road with their heads to the geonnd as tlw idol was carried past. Causes of Lapsing :-It is stated that 42 of the 207 Christiaus whose names are in the baptismal register at Puan have lapsed into utter indifference or into actual heathenism, and this sad state of affairs is attributed to many m e n having been drawn away hy their heathen wives, to tile unsatisfactory character of some of the mission agents in the past, and to the illiteracy of the converts; of the present adult members of the Clrnreh in F'nan only 64 pee cent. can read properly, while another twelve per cent. can just manage to spell through a chapter of the Bible. Union and Co-operation :-Considerable progress has been made in the cultivation of friendly relations with other missionary societies at work in Chekiang. During 1912 an agreement v,as made with the C. I. l\f. as to work in Taichow and the country districts around; negotiatio11s were set on foot \vith the American Baptist Mission in Shaohing with a view to co-operation in higher elementary school work among boys; ancl at every station weekly prayer meetings are held at which the representatiws of all the societies meet. Still more important, perhaps, was the action of the Chekiang Federation Council, which is representative of all Protestant Missious. Under its auspices a Summer School was held at Hangchow for pastors, ministers, catechists and eYa.ngeli:-;ts. Fifty or sixty were expected to attend, hnt the munlwr steadily rose until tlwrc wc1c 199, representing eight diffrrent soeicfr'.S a)l(l (fonominationf'. Other nnited gatherings for

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THE r1rnss. 1\)5 the edification of the Christians are held annually at :Ningpo and 'J'aichow, and occasionally at other eentres, and thc~se have been the means of leacling many definitely to eonseerate their lives to God's service. The Pdnted Page :-'J'lto distrilmtiou of tracts was almost a feature of the year aml 150,000 were distributed in Hangchow (;ity and neighbourhood aloue. The coloured posters are sometimes framed and placed on stalls outside shops or on the walls in houses, and they often afford au opportn11ity for preaching the Gospel. As an insta11ce of the good do11e by these siient wit11esser,,, l\Ir. Coultas mentious that he received a letter one clay from a man i11 his district, saying that the writer had read a certain tract, believed it entirely, and would like further instruction. He was visited, and afterwards wrote for more tracts, as he had friends who wished to read them. Now five young men, fairly well educated, are reading the New Testament as a result of the work done by that orn~ tract. Notice in Local Press :-In conllection with this effort 11 notic e is inserted in the Local Press each day to tlte effect that anyone desirous of inquiring abont Christiani1y may write dire('tly to the Rev Nyi Liaug-p'ing, who has been pl:wed iu charge of the institute. Vigorous wOl'k is carried on in the Hangchow River district by the Chinese 0. M. S., who are pnshiug to the extreme western boundary of the province. About 70 members of the China Inland l\fission in the neighbourhood have, with the consent of that mission, joined the Chines e C. ]H. S What Impressed a Buddhist :--l\lr. 11-,n is a fairly wealthy and a well edneate:1 gentleman, who had inquired into most religions, and inclined chiefly to Buddhism. One day I preached on the Incarnation and the absolute necessity for it. 'l'he Chinese in their Book of Odes have tlie idea of God descending on man. l\Ir Fu was much impressed with the difference in the Christian thought that not only did God take of man's natnrr, but that Tfo also wishrs ns to Jin pael:akers of' the divine nntnre and 1:o chvc>!l m 11s. :\fr. Ji'n tr:u:es his eonv01:sion to that dah>.

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v.umm 1\"0RK OF 'f.HE CHURCHES. Government Schools :--'l'he Hev. J. R. Stewart, the C. l\I. S. representative on the staff of the Diocesan Hostel at Chengtu, had many opportunities of influencing the profes sors and students of the gover11ment sehools in the provincial capital. He taught English regularly in a number of them, and also from time to time delivered lectmes on ethics and religion to large gatlwrings of members of the educated dasses. A Growing Christian :-A school for the sons of Chinese gentlemen was opened at Sintn in the spring with a remarkable man, a keen Chri~tian, as teacher. Mr. Hamilton says of him:-" One of the joys of my -.York has been to see his character develop and his nnderstanding of the Christian position deepen. A few weeks ago I heard him say, 'Christianity is a religion apart; it is loyalty to Christ Who is Goel manifest in the flesh; it admits of no rivals, whilst it is full of tenderness and love for all; it is the wori:;hip and adoration of God 'l'his man is a student, a great reader; and in these days when a great deal of broadness abounds and the Christian position is oftcil apologized for, it does one good to hear such an out-and-ont statement.'' Southern Baptist Convention Chinese Home Mission Board :-In eonneetion with the oral proclamation of the Gospel, mention should he made of the work of our Chinei!e Home Mission Board. 'fhis is one of the Boards of the two Kwangs Baptist Assoeiation, and is strietlv under the control of the Chinese. Several mis sio11aries are memberi:; of this Board, but by virtue of the fad that they are appointed by the Chinese. The mission caeh year turns over to this Board, to he used at their diseretion, an amount of money equal to the amount they raised for evangelistie work during the preceding year. During the year 1912 they have used in their work about $1,800 U. S. gold, with which they have helped six churches and six ont-stationi:;, supported, in whole or in pnrt, nine pnstms and p1f'aclicrs and one General 8N:. ret.ary.

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PETISECU'l'TON 107 Methodist Episcopal Church, South Persecution :--During the lilst t.hre e months, persecution has visited some of onr people. On the 18th of August tlw Chnrch at Sz Keu, of which Brother Bang Kwe-yong is pastor, was visited by a mob that wreck e d both the chapel and parsonage, and cruelly heat the pastor. One of his ribs was broken His life was saved by a man who kee ps a stor e in the town The cas e has been settled so as to do 110 lrnrt either to the Churc h or the outside people who did the damage The chapel has been put in nic\e repair and also the furniture has heeu renewed, as ,r e ll as the brok e n fnrniture of the pastor. A few da y s ago the preach e rs re-open e d the chapel with a large number in attendance. On the Nanzing circ:uit on e of our m e mbers was c aught hy a 1noh and huug np by his neck, with his hands tied hehiud his back, till he was almost dead. This eas e has not hee n settled to this day. It is onr hope that tlte authorities will soon do the right thing by onr poor brother who lrns suff e red so greatly. Still more r e cently, a case of perser ution ltas occmTctl on the Zang Zah circuit. The relatives of a young hrothtt determined that the y would ask the Hnddhist and Taoist priests to come to the home of this broth e r and hold several days' services for his dead relatives, as he was himself a Christian and would not act in the matte r At the time set the priests came and carried ont the progrnmme as arranged. And now the case is being taken to the court for decision. Jn each of these cases, the real cause of the persecution ,.;as th) refusal of the Christians to pay the theatre and t e mple expenses as they had form e ely done b afore the y becam e Christians. The Motor Boat :-Beginning with December journeys wiU be made much quicker through the generosity Qf Mr. Pepp e r of, :i\fomphis, 'renn. who h a s contributed the money necessary for tile purchas e of a motor boat whieh is now hring constrnded. Kindergarten Work :-In the Training S c hool, th e student hod.v has in e r eased in si7.e and improycd in quality.

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19.S VAHnm WOHK OF 'l'HE CHURCHES. 'J'he course of study is gradnally assuming more permanent form. The facilities for practical training have been greatly increased by acquiring the Senah Staley Kindergarten and by opening a new one in the neighbourhood of the Training Schools. (This one we have named" Sunshine because of its mission in a rich conservative Chinese community). With ten graduates at work, our influence is beginning to be felt as a small part of the new education of China. This is evidenced by the continued urgent calls for our students and the frequent inqniries and visits of Chinese educators. One of our graduates is opening Government work in a neighbouring city. Music Department :-It was my privilege to be called to take charge of the music department of l\fo1'yeire School, Shanghai, in February 1913. 'I'he work of the department includes instrmnental, piano and violin music, chorus work and classes in History of music and in Harmony. Bach of the 109 pupils taking piano music has lrnd lessons twiee weekly of a half-hour each. They are expected to devotr from a half-hour to two hourH daily to practice-the time varying according to their advancement in 1.he eonrsr. At the present date the clai,s m1111bers 90. For this work there are four teachers, : Miss 'l'sa11g, l\frs. Long, 1\Iiss Lew and myself giving full time to instruct.ion with exception of .i\Irs. Long and i\Iiss Lew. In addition to these, there are two post-graduate students, }Hisses K woh and 'I'sang, who act as assistants in the department. with the desire for modern learning is evinced a strong desire for instruction i11 1nusic. The Chinese are mm;i<' lovers and the ministration of music in the development of' the Republic will be no small part.. The department of music in l\lcTyeire is already taxed beyond its limit; students are asking for longer periods of practice and more frer1uent instruction. II ow can we meet these? Already all music rooms, both dining rooms and the church are in constant use for practice, and the overflow has gone into the home of thr prineipal. From 6 :30 in the morning to nine o'elork at night thP pianos arc ro11:;;tantly in nsr.

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\\'ORK AilJONG WOl\IEN. 199 Then and Now:-It is interesting to note a few com parisons between the work among women now and what it. was eight or ten years ago. Now the m0etings for heathen women are almost as quiet as a church service. Even an outsider herself will look with annoya11ce upon r.ny lond talking and inattention upon the part of the hearers. Ten years ago all was noise and confusion. It took special grace to lead a meeting when the babies ,vere crying or mnning around the floor and the women themselves talking out loud or calling across the room to greet a newly arrived acquaintance. Now, if the outside women do not kneel in prayer, they sit quietly and listen. 'l'hen it was almost impossible to have a prayer at all. Once, I remember, as soon as we knelt there was a sudde n pattering of many frpt toward the door; and when the prayer was finished, our heathen sisters had disappeared. Now they will make an effort to sing a hymn and will not be frightened if a slip of paper with a Bible vnse is offerrd them. (The above chapter is composed of extracts from mission Repol'!s without any change.-Rd.)

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CHAPTER XI UNION AND CO-OPERATiON By the Editor There never vas a time whe1'e more Unions were ?'.n rroce-~s of cry8tall-ization than now. 1. Institutions and Meetings The followillg questions were se!lt out by the Editor and reports 1is unde1 were re~eived. 1. What unio1, institutions are fonnd within the 1wov ince, and where? 2. What denomi11ations unite in them? 3 What note.vorthy union meetings of any descrip tion have been held during the year' ? Formosa: The Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Formosa united in the presbyteries of North and South Formosa. l\'orth Formosa is a Mission of the Canadian Presbyterian Church, South Formosa, the Presbyterian Church of England. Union effected 24th October, 1912. First ordinary meeting 21-23 l\Tay, 1913. We unite in. a monthly Romanized Newspaper ( circulation about 1,300 copies monthly). Originally ,'.onducted by South Formo:;a l\Iis:;ion, hut now by the whole church. United 'fheologieal College is proposed, but. not yet found practicable. Kwangtung: 1. The only institution approaching Union in K wangtung is the '' Presbyterian Theological Sehool," in which American l'resbyterian, United Brethren, Canadian Presbyterian nnd New Zealand Presbyterian missions are nnited. 2. The Kwangtung Christian Council met'ting was held ,January 14th, 1914. 3 A quarterly union service is held in Canton embracing all Chinese churches. d. for Progms, Year Book of l9JI, pp. J88-l89

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UNION JN WEST CHINA. 201 4. Canton lHissionary Conference meets five times during the yenr. All :Missions included. Szechwan: UNION :iV[OVEMENTS AND INSTITUTIONS IN WEST CHINA West China Union University } Cl t "!e.st China Union Medicnl College A.B.F.l\ts~ C.M.l\I., Cmon Normal School for l\Ien FF M lVI EM Union Middle School 1. Union Normal School for Women (opening September, 1914 Chengtu. A .B.F.M.S., C .lVI.lVL (W.lVI.S.), F.F.lVf .. l\LE. lVI. (W.F.M.S.) Union Language School for New Missionaries, Chengtu, Under direction of Union University. Union Middle School (boys), Chungking, C.:i\l.lVL, l\LE.M., Diocesan Training College, Paoning, C .1\1.S., C.LM. Advisory Board, representing all missions in the provinre. Advisory Council (includes foreigner,; and Chinese). West China Tract Society, including all missions West China Christinn Educational Union, including all missions. International Educational Association, Chengtu-a union of individual missionaries with government educationalists. UNION MEETINGS First Meeting of the Advisory Council, Chengtu, Oefo bcr 29, 30, 1913. Union Series of :Meetings by Pastor Ting throughout the province under the direction of the Advisory Board Fcbruary-1\lay, 1914. ChibH: 1. North China Union l\Jedical College for Women, M.E.M., A .B.C.F.1\1., A.P.lVI. 2. Union 'rheological College, Peking, L.M.S., l\f.E l\f., A.B C F.M., A.I' 1\1. 3. North China union Women's College, Peking, A.13. C.F. M., A.P.l\i., L.1\T.S. A-26

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202 UNION AND CO-OPERATION, 4. Union Memorial School ( Girls) Paotingfu, A.P.III., A B.C.F.l\J 5. North China Union College, 'l'ungchow, A.B.C F.l\L, L.l\I.S., A.P.l\L 6. Union :Medical College, Peking, A P .i\J., A.B.C.F.l\f., L.l\LS., M.E.lU., S.P.G. (C.E M.) 7. Union in Hospital work under cousideration. 8. Union Language School, Peking. 9. Y.l\I.C.A. National Conference. If the Peking University decides to join the Union, this will he the greatest event of the year in Union Movements. It would then be said that Christian Education in the Capitnl of China is a Unit. Hupeh: 1 The C. C. R. T. S. All local Protestant Missions flre represeuted on the Board, and an attempt is now being made to secure a larger measure of co-operation between tlw C. C.R. T. S. (Hankow) and the C. 'l'. S. (Shanghai) which it is hoped and believed will result ultimately in the union of the two societies. Committees representing both of these Societies are engaged discussing and arranging a mod11g riven di. 2. Union JHedical College, Hankow. 'rhe teaching staff is composed of foreign doctors belonging to the L. l\L S., and W. M. M. S. and these aTe assisted hy graduates from the School. 3. Union Theological College, at Kingchow. S. A. l\I. Covenant and L M. Society, also Union Middle Schools 11t the same place. 4. Central China Union Lutheran Seminary at Shekow. Norwegian M. S., Pinnish lH. S., American Lutheran and 1-Iauge's Synod Mission. G. High School, Girls. Swedish A. l\L C and IIange's Synod. G. rTnion Hospital. Siangya.ngfn, thr sa.nw missions.

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UNION IN FUKJEN. 203 7. School for : Missionaries' Children. Sinyangchow, .American Lutheran and Hauge':; Synod Mission 8. Union Normal School, Wuclumg. Wesleyan l\I. l\L S., and .American Church Mission. North F ukien : Foochow 1. Union Theological Seminary-C. M. S., l\L E. l\f., A. B. C. F. l\I. Faculty, three foreigners, three Chinese pastors, three Chinese class ical teachers. Students, one lmn dred and Jive. Has graduated two classes, oue in ] 913, one in 1914. 2. Union l\Cedical College-C. M. S., l\I. E l\f. 1\. B. C. F. l\f., Faculty, three foreign e rs, five Chinese. F'orty-Jive students. Courses two and three years Began in 1918. Owns its own property, suitable for one hundred students. :3. Union Kindergarten-to begin next fall. C. l\L S., l\f. E. l\l., A. B. C. F l\I. 4. Foor.how Christian University, C. l\.I. S M. E. l\f., A B. C F. l\J., of Poochow, B. P. M., L l\I. S .. Arn. Heform rd, of Amoy Constitution adopted, plans to open in 1915. G. Union Evangelistic services in J\Inrth in l<'ooelio\\, C. M. S., l\f. R :i\f., A. B. C. P. l\L, attend,me( rn.ooo. Tn-qnirers J ,500. South Fukien: J. Union 'l'heological College, R.C. in A., L l\f.S., B.P.i.\f 2. 'l'alrnage College, ,, :3. South l<.,ukien Missionary Confercnr.e, ,, 4 South Pnkien Presbyterian Church, R .C. in A.,E.P.l\L 5. 'l'he Union Church of Amoy, (for the foreign community) maintained by the union of the three missions. 6. South li'ukien Religions Traet Society, R. C in ..\., L. ~'L S., E. P. i\J. 7. Union Missionary Cemetery. R. C. in A., L. l\tI. S., E. P. lVI. 8. Orphanage, R. C. in A., E. P. M Ladies. 'l'he chureh officers of all the churches in Amoy arc organised, and have frequent meetings to arrange for nu1tters of common interest. l\Temhers of all clrnrches nre assoeiatcd in the' Y. l\f. C. A.

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204 UNION AND C:0-0P!cRA'rION. 9. Woman's Bible Training School, All three missions. Local Committee of the B. F. B. S., L. M. S., E. P. l\L 10. Committee for the Revision of Amoy Vernaenlar New Testament. All three missions. 11. Joint Committee of the S. F. Presbyterian Church and S. F. Congregational union, discussing the steps to lw taken to unite the two churches. 12. 'rhe Union Meetings of the year have been those of the Missionary Conference, and Presbyterian and Synod and 'fract Society, and varions church meetings of genrrn I in terest. Manchuria: ]. (a) Manchuria Christian Collrge (Arts), Monk(kn. U. F. C. S., I. P. lVI., D. L. lVI. (h) l\Toukden Medical Coilegr, U. I<.,. C. 8., T. P. l\f., n. L. l\L (c) Theological College, u. F C. S., I. P. lVI. 2. The Mott Conference in March 1913 in which all three missions united. The Annual Conference of Scotch and Irish Missionaries in August. In 1913 in August there was a special conference held between representatives of the three missions (Danish, Irish, Scotch) to consider proposals witlt regard to division of territory and possihle fnrthrr union in rertain departments, educational, ete. Shantung: 1. Shantung Christian University--Tsinan, including Arts College, A. P. JH., E. B. lVI., and C. E. l\L 2, 3, 4. Normal School, Theological College and l\Tedical College 5. South Shantung Bible and Normal School. A. P. l\f. North and South. 6. Dr. lVIott's Conference in February in Tsinan. 7. Presbyterian General Meeting in 'l'sinan in Mny. 8. Y. M C. A. conference in August in Weihsien. Chekiang: 1, 2. The Hangchow Presbyterian College. The Hang chow Union Girls' School. In the first the American Presbyterian Missions, North and South. In the second ihe above two missions and the Northern Baptist :Mission.

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UNWN IN KIANGSL'. 20-5 3. ]'or the last two summers a Preacher's Institute has held a ten days' meeting at the Hangchow Presbyterian College with from one hundred to two hundred preachers and Christian wodcern in attendance. Eight different communions united in the institute. It will also meet this summer, and it is the hope to make it permanent. 4. A union evangelistic committee has been formed in Hangchow City composed of representatives of the five missions ,vorking in Hangchow, i.e., C l\J. S., C. I. ]VI., A. B. F. lVI. S,, A. P. l\I A. P. M So. Kiangsu: 1. 'l'he university of Nanking. N Presbyterian S. Presbyterian. N. l\Iethodist. l!.,oreign Christian. N. & S. Baptist. 2. Union Medic11l School. A.P.1\1., A.B.P.l\J.S., C.~LS. 3. Nanking School of Theology and Bible School. N. & S. Presbyterian, N. & S. l\fothodist and Foreign Christian 4. Women's College (in process of organisation ) 5. Union Evangelistic meetings are held each China New Year with good results. 6. Union Hospital, liuchow. S. l\Iethoclist and S. Baptist-also in school work, and at Clrnngchow. 7. Union Baptist College, Shanghai-A. B. J:i'. :M. S, S. B. C. (Amer. Bapt. So) 8. East China Educational Commission is planning further unions. 9 Sunday School Institutes at various places. 10. l!.,ederation meeting at Chinkiang. ll. Educational Associatiou (branch.) Kwangsi: There are no union iustitutions in Kwangsi, though we have united in Union Special meetings in W uchow. 'l'he three missions represented here join in this,-namely,-The Bnglish Wesleyan Methodist. The American Baptistt_South) and the Christian and Missionary Alliance. We are at present planning for the special meetings to he held this yenr, nnrl nre l10ping to he nhlr. to arrange for Mr. Eddy.

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206 UNION ,\ND CO-OPERA'flON. Honan: As far ni,; I know there are no union institutions as yet in the province of Honan thong-11 facilities for union Normal work (men and women) have been arranged between the Canadian Presbyterian and the Canadian Church of Bngland l\lissions. The American Lutheran Mission of Honan join in the Union Lutheran 'fheological Seminary at Shekow, near Hankow. No union meetings have bern held in the p1ovinee during the year. Hunan: 1 I know of none alreadv established. The near future will probably see the achieveinent of a Gnion Theological School in Changsha. Finland and Norwegian Lutherani-; ot' Hunan now unite in a union Theological School in Hankow (Hupeh.) Presbyterians (North) have a seltool for Bible women in Cliangsha that is accepted as the nncleus of a union school. 2. In the Union 'l'heologieal i::lehool plan are (1) Presbyterian (North) (2) Wesley1m l\Iethodist (3) United Evangelic'.al (4) Reformed Chureh in the United States. 3. Hunan Continuation Commission and Conferenee. Shansi: 'l'he field in Shansi has been so ,ren divided that there is no city in which two missions are working. Each mission occupies a definite section of the province. 'l'his very fact has made union efforts lei-;s necessarv, and at the same time more difficult. 'fhere are no union institutions of ally kind in Shansi. 'fhe missions however take advantage of one another's educational institutions aud hospitals to a certain extent. Xo union meeti11gs were held during 1!)13. The difficulty of t1:avelling and tl1e amount of time taken iu me<1ting from sndt long distances inalw nnion meetingi-; almost imposRihle. l!.,rienclly eOJT<'spornlP11c looking to 1-he estahlislnne11i of one clrnrr:h is going 011.

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KWANG'fUNG-KWANGSI CHRIS'l'IAN COUNCIL. :207 Anhwei: In answer to question 1, I know of only one union institution in the province, and this is our Union Middle and High School here in Wuhu. American Advent Christian Mission and Foreign Christian lVIissionary Society. There have been no union m e etings held during the year Lhat I know of. Shensi, Yunnan, Kweichow, Kansu :-:~fone. Other Bodies 'J'he Evangelical Alliance. Christian Literature Society China Continuation Committee. The Tract Societies. 'l'he Edncational .Association of China. 'l'he Medical Association ol' China. The Evangelistic Association of China The Provincial Federations. 'l'he Sunday School Union of Chiua. 'l'he Bible Soei e ties The Board of the CHl:\'ESE RECOlWElt. The Various Missionnry Aslioeiations 2. The Kwangtung-Kwangsi Christian Council In the month of Deeember Hill, the Board of Co6pera tion of the Canton Missionary Conference called a meeting of the missionaries of the Province to confer together concerning the effects of the chang ing times upon the work of Christian missions. .At this meeting the discussion cen tered round the qnestion of l1ow to present a solid front to the difficulties and opportunities that tl1e ne,1order of things is presenting. A committee of seven was appointed to draw up a tentative eonstitntion, translated it into Chinese, discuss ed it with Chinese who were interested, enlarged its scope, and :finally presented it to another called meeting of the missionaries of the 'l'wo Kwang Provinces held at Canton. 'Phis meeting discussed it, adopted it, and raised mon<.>y to print it and have it sent out to all missionaries and ( lim(hcs with an appeal to give it most careful attention.

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208 UNION AND CO-OPERATION. The proposed Constitution for this Liang-Kwang Christian Council is based upon that of the similar Council of Kiangsu Province. It will, we think, be clear and will itself explain both the character and purpose of the Council. The idea is that all the missions and churches in these two provinces or having their hea.dquartl>rs therein should at the earliest meet ings of their provincial organizations elect delegates according to the rules laid clown in the Constitution, and when these delegates have been appointed, or a majority of them, a meeting of the Cotillcil will be held, and at that meeting the detailed organiu,tion of the Council and any further n ecessary revision of the Constitution together with the election of officers, will be consummated. Yours in his service, G. H. M 'Neur, Chairm:m. H 0. T. Burkwall, C. A. Nelson, A. Kollecker, H.. E. Chambers, Edgar Dewstoe, H. B. Giayhill, Secretary PHOPOSED CO:\TSTITUTION OF THE LIANG-KWANG CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 1. Name. This Council, advisory in its Datur e aud representing the Protestant Christian l\Iissions and Chueches of the Liang-Kwang Provinces of China shall be called '' 'J'he Linug-K wang Christian Council." 2 Purpose. Its purpose shall be to manifest unity iu the spirit of Christ's prayer for the oneness of believers, and to promote sympathetic cooperation in all work for His Kingdom. 3. Membership. Bach Mission having work in the Liang-Kwang Provinc e s may appoint onr. representative as it::; delegate to t.hP Conneil.

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CONS'fITUTION OF LIANG-KW Al\G C<>UKUIL. 209 It may appoint one additional delegate for the first twenty-five missionaries'-;, and one more for each additional twenty-five or major fraction thereof. Each denomieation through its provincial church organisation may appoint one delegate to the Council, and for the fir~t 500 communicants one more, and one for each suceeediug 500 or major fraction thereof. There should always be substitute delegates elected, so that there would be representatives in case the regular ones were unavoidably absent. 4. Off:cers. The officers shall be elected at the close of each annual meeting, and shall consist of a President, Vice President:::, and a Chinese and a Foreign Secretary. 5. Meeting. The Couneil shall meet at least once a year, in the month of .January, two-thirds of the delegates elect constituting a quorum. 6. Business. whatever promotes the spiritual growth of the Church universal and draws together the cooperatiug organisations of the Couneil may be the subject of such conference and action as shall manifest their unitv. For examples the following :(a) Uniou and coi.iperation in evangelistic, educational, medical, social, and literary work; (/1) 'l'he occupation of vacant fields; ( c) A union hymn-book; (d) Common terminology; ( e) The consideration of all questions that will assist in the establishing of a strong, pure Christianity in China. 7. A two-thirds majority of those present shall be neee;;;sary for the adoption of any proposal. 8. Executive, There shall be an Execntive Committee, eomposed of the five officers and two others elected by the Council, for the transuction of any extraordinary or unfore seen business. Five members shall constitL1te a quorum. 'l'his committee shall have power to call an extra session of the Council on one month's notice, and to fix or change the time and place of the meetings of the Council. The 11ord "mi~sionaries '' includes wives and single latlies as well as men having their headquarters in the Liang Kwang or Hongkong, or Macao. A-27

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210 UNION AND CO-OPERATION. 9. Amendments. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of all the members after one yeiir's notice has been given. The Committee instructed to prepare and cir1~ ulate this tentative Constitution calls the preliminary meeting of delt>gates duly elected for Wednesday January 15th at 10 a.rn. in the Y.M.C.A. Building:_;,, The Hund, Canton, when the Christian Council will be formed and a eonstitntion adopted. It is requested that when dl;legates are appointed they will kindly notify Mr H. H. Graybill, Canton Christian College. Two meetings of the Council Jian\ been held ( J r.nuary 1913 and January 1914.) Both were very well attended and thoroughly representative The proportion of Chinese deleg ntes to foreign delegates was about :J : l. Owing partly to the change in the governmental adininis tration of the two Kwang Provinces, the name of the Council was last year changed to-" The K wangtung Christian Council." Proposals are now, I believe, under consideration for forming a similar Council in Kwangsi. -A. Baxter. 3. The Third Hunan Missionary Conference and its Continuation Committee By Rev. G. G. Warren, Cbangsba, Hunan 'l'he missionary event of 1913 in the provi11ce of Hunan was the missionary conference that met at Changsha from J nne 24th to 27th It was called, and actually was the third missionary conference. Yet hy common consent it wa. s practically treated as the second. Almost all references to previous gatherings \rere to those of the first conference in 1903 ; very few to the f'econd in 1907. The reason of this lay in the fact that in Hl07, the senior missio1rnries of the province had attended the great Centenary Conference at Shanghai, and, to use a colloquialism, they were "frd up with the particular kind of diet supplied at conferences, and did not, therefore, come for such an after-fe\lst as was ali that Changsha could provide in the autumn. The young missionaries who did come douhtless enjoyed the meetings,

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'l'HIRD HUN,\N ilIISSIONARY CONFEllENCE. 211 but they made no attempt to guide the course of missionary work for the coming years. The first conference, on the other haud was a great success. It was a success as judged by the enjoyment given at the m eetings; but it was equally a success as judged by its results that we have heen able to review after a decade. To those who maintain that conferences are not worth the time and labour expended on them, the results of the first Hunan c onference are a matter for consideration. Dividing the 7 4 counties of the province into four classes: "A '' those in which there are, or were, workers of two missionary societies, '' B those witlt workers of one only; "C those with unordained Chinese workers only and "D '' those with no representative of any Christiun Cliurch, we find the following table exhibits the growth of the ten years between the first and third conference: A H C D Total rno: : 4 G 58 74 101:i \) 24 l\J The development in no less Uum 39 counties was dis tinctly along lines that were the subject of talk rather than of legislation in the earlier confereuce; but which were nevertheless effectual in their result. The report of the 1903 conference tells us that on June 20th the subjeet of the morning's discussion was '' Division of territory for the purpose of making each mission society responsiLle for a given section." There was a paper read and that was "foitowed by a general discussion." Then "members of the various missions told the conference of their present intentions regarding occupation of territory." '' The conference took no action upon these plans.'' One member of the con ference said, and no member gainsaid that for small hsien <:ities at the beginning it should suffice if there were workers of one society only. ln 1913 our brethren of the Seventh Day Adventist movement felt coustrained to tell us that they <:ould not be guided by that principle If we may omit their work, we are able to say that in 58 out of the 55 counties in which there is Christian work to-day that general under standing of 1903 is maintained.

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212 UN CON AN l> CO-OPEl{A'l'ION. It is no vain boast, therefore, that we make when we say that our first conference was a success. We who have attended the third confereuce believe that it also has been worth its cost. The third conference had a very dit'eet connection with the Hankow conference which met in l\Iarch under the presidency of Dr. l\fott Some eight or nine Hunan mission aries from Hunan met together one day Yery informally iu one of the window recesses of the hall in which the Ifankow conference was held to talk over the question as to whether the time were ripe for :1 Hunan missionary conference \Ve were unanimous that it was. 'l'he chief thing that appealed to us was the fact that we had no provinc-.ial organisation in working order. Both in 1903 and again in 1907 we had organised a very good affair on paper-but neither the original scheme, nor its amendment gave the help that we folt was needed. Perh~1ps none of us just then realised how the very conference we were attending was going to take its share in solving the similm problem for a national organisa tion. Certainly none of us forecast a" Hunan Continuation Committee.'' Preliminary .meetings were held in Chaugsha which were attended by some of the Siangtan missionaries, and a program for the conference was arranged on the main lines of the Mott Conferemcs. The first day w,1s to be given up to the reading of papers by selected writers without discussion; the second day, to Committee work on special aspects of the work and each member of the conference was drafted into one or other of these committees, so that for one day each one was able to give concentrated attention to one aspect of the work. (Naturally, in the selection of the com mittee members, each person attending the conference was allotted to what was eonsidered his or her special subject. It was quite eas~, to rearrange debils after the conference meetings had commenced. Some w1,re present who had not expected to be, and vice versa; some workers asked to be allotted to a different committee from that first proposed.) The last t,,o days of the conference were taken np with a consideration o I" the findings of these committees. 'l'hus each

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HUNAN CON'fINUA'l'ION COMilfl'fTim. member of the conference was able to have a share in the discussion of every aspect of the work. The 'l'utuh of the province, l\fr. T 'an Y en~lrni honourrd us with an official visit to welcome us to Changsha and to assure us of his appreciation of the work that missionaries were doing in the province. The government also gave the conference a reception at the Foreign Office. In addition to these more festive incidents there was an ''At Home" in tl,e grounds of the Vf esleyan :Methodist Mission on the afternoon before the first session so that the members of the conference had an opportunity of getting to know one another. At the first meeting, the Rev. W. H. Watson who had been the chairman of the first and second conferences was nnanimously elected to the chair of the third. The Rev A. H Kepler was appointed Secretary, and as we had in our midst. the able Editor of the :findings of the National Conference at Shanghai, we naturally asked him to be so good as to do for ns a similar work. Altogether 63 members of: the conference registered Amongst these were representatives of all hut two of the churches working in the province (the British C I. l\l. and the Canadian Holiness Mission). Every aspect of the work was represented and well represented, not merely from the numbers present, but also because of the standing of the workers present. It is therefore fair to say that the :findings of the conference represent generally the ideas of the mis sionaries of the province on the various matters discussed. The conference was a mis.siono.r,11 conference and its language was English Perhaps it is well to say a few words on this belated state of affairs. No Chinese attended the conference who were not well enough acquainted with English to follow the speakers This was a matter that was keenly discussed in the preliminary meetings. Those of ns who had attended the Mott Conference 'will never forget the inimitable translations that were given by Mr. Ch'eng Ching ri. We had no l\1r. Ch'eng in Hunan. But even if we had had one, I doubt whether we should have used him. If Chinese representatives are invited it seems to be only rea sonable that Chinese and not English should be the official language. In regard to printed matter, had we Euglish

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214 UNION AND CO-OPERA'rION. speaking members of the :Mott Conferences been treated as onr Chinese brethren were-well. I will not finish th e sentence. 'l'here is absoluteiy no. blame in regard to the l\Iott Conferences. As things are at present, it is compara tively easy to arrange for programs, papers, syllabuses, etc etc., in English. It is not easy to arrange in Chinese. This applies specially to such a centre as Changsha. Our work is almost the work of a decade. "\Ve have very few Chinese colleagues who have had any experience in the thousand and one details of preparation which make all the difference be tween a well aud an ill planned conference. We all felt that we could not prepare for a Chinese conference in the short space of a few months that remained ; we could-and did prepare for a conference in English. Every centre must settle such a matter as this according to its circumstances There need be no reflection either way on those centres that adopt the alternative method of arrangement. Suffice it that as we advance, English must decrease and Chinese increase. It was during the sessions of the conference that the solution of the problem of a provineial organisation became evident. As Edinburgh solved tlte question of a world organisation, and Calcutta, Shanghai and Tokyo, the question of national organisations for India, China and Ja pan, so Changsha solved the provincial difficulty by its Continua tion Committee.'' The great difference between this new form of organisa tion and previous attempts lies in-and underlies-the method of election. The old style wc1s to ask the component parts of a national or provincial constituency to elect re presentatives. The foundation principle in all such elections was the denominational division-a principle that in reality is merely one and not even the most important of many that need to be represented. Some of these committees were to be elected in a second proportion also, viz., the number of church members or workers A large mission '' was to have proportionately larger representation than a small one. Such a mode of election labours under a good many difficulties. First of these is the indisputable fact that God l1m; not distributed the particular men who are needed on

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HUNAN CONTINUATION COMMl'fTJm. 2l5 these committees in just the proportion that we men have divided ourselves up into "denominations." While it is pel'feetly true that all the good men are not found inside any one denomination, it is equally true that they are not distributed in exact proportion either with the members or the workers of a church. In the "diversity of gifts, ministra tions and workings, the One Spirit still divides "to each one severally as he will." Hence it has always been in such committees that some needed men have been shut out. Next, may be mentioned the impossibility of co-ordinating the full representation of all interests on a committee elected by a number of groups acting independently It has happened that a provincial organisation lrns met without a single medic.al representative. It has not been the business of any one denomination to send a doctor as its representatiw. 'fhere are other difficulties connected with the inherent lack of organisation of a number of men of whom 110 one i::; appoiHted to aet as convener. But there is no need to en large on these minor matters ( which lmve nevertheless in 1I unan, for example, seriously !tampered the attempts to form a provincial organisation). On behalf of the old form of organisation it will l.H' urged that it was at any rate truly representative." II' e.g. the Methodists themselves elected a man, such a man could act as their representative. Under the new plan, even if a Methodist is put ou a continuation committee, he is not the representative of the Methodist churches of that province, or nation. He has been selected by others than :Methodists, and moreover, only such Methodists as have attended the selecting conference have had any hand in selecting him. This is all perfectly true. But it leaves out of sight that even when a Methodist has been elected by Methodists only, he has no power to say how l'vlethoclists will accept some pro position that has never been laid before them. The fact is the old scheme assumed that the provincial or national organisation would be legislative and would try to bind the churches within its jurisdiction. Most of the antagonism aroused by schemes of provincial and national organisation were directed against this very fear. There was ground for such a fear as long as members were elected on the old lines

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2rn UNIO)I AND CO-OPE!lA'.rIO:'<'. On the new plan, in the very n11tnre of things, a "Continuation Committee knows it is not representative in such a way as to enable it to legislate. Its work i:s necessarily confined to that of advice and help. The worth of advice always depends entirely on the character of the advice, and that is largely judged beforehand by the repntation of the adviser. "When a eomm'ittee includes in its numbers the men and women who are acknowledg ed to be worke.rs of experience and leaders in forwa1;d movements the advice of such a committee is valued How could it ever b e expected that doctors should eare at all for the help of a provincial organisa.tiou that had uot a single doctor amongst its members? Should we evangelists care to refer matters of difficulty in our work to a committee eomposed entirely of teachers or managers of business departments 1 The real strength of the new plan lies in the fac t that it allows of the selection of a body of \Yorkers that includes rcpre~entatives of all the phases of interest in the work as a whole. It does not need either all the do ctors in a province, or even an exact proportion of tlrnm; but it does need some doctors. It ran appoint a medical sub-committee the chairmanship, but not the membership of which is con fined to its own members As in medical matters, so in all other, denomination a l, nation a l, etc., e t c The Hunan Educatiomil sub-committee as first appointed ( whi ch had power to add to its numbers, and was instructed to add Chinese members) was composed of niue members, but only three of the nine are members of the continuation committet,: "\\Then the sub-committee's report is presented to the com mittee those three members are there to give any explanations needed Perhaps some one will say: But can you really point to anything that a continuation committee has done that shows its worth. It is somewhat early to ask such a question of a committee that \\'as only appointed last June and h eld its first meeting in December. Nevertheless it can be [,.nswcrecl in the case of the Hunan Continuation Committee. 'l'he medical sub-committee-those of us who were present at Shanghai will recall how Dr. Mott told us of the way in which the medical workers had impressed him. He warned

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HONGKONG EVANGELTSA'rION SOCIETY. 217 us that neither the teachers nor the evangelists seemed to know what they wanted anything like as clearly as the doctors and uurses did. Hunan keeps in line in this matter also. When its Continuation Committee met for the first time, the evangelists and teachers awoke to the fact that they had an opportunity to organise; the doctors presented a re port of what they wanted and asked ns to do something, whieh thirig ''"e immediately proeeeded to do. The medical sub-committee asked us amongst other things to set apart a Hospital Sunday at whic,h the work of the hospitals should be spe~ially brought before the churches and special offer ings taken for hospital work. 'l'he Continuation Committee recommended the second Sunday in March. There has been no time to receive reports from other places as I am writing this in the third week in March; but here in Changsha the day was well observed. We have received reports of eight collections varying from $3 to $52 ( this last sum at the Union English Service) giving a total of considerably over a hundred dollars that has been distributed amongst the three hospitals working in the city. Be it noted that not only have the hosi:>itals in question benefitted to this amount, but the contributing churches have still more benefitted Their benefit has been as much beyond that of the hospitals as is that '' better part the giver has than that of the receiver. 4. Hongkong and New Territories Evangelisation Society By H. Rivelly, Hongkong This Society which is controlled by a committee of 12, 6 Europeans and 6 Chinese, representing Union Church and the To Tsai Independent Church respectively, has just issued its 10th annual report. During the 10 years the growth has been very rapid. ln 1912 the numbers rose from 100 to 250 and during 1913 D9 people including 36 children were baptised. The work is carried on on the mainland immediately opposite Hongkong and on the islands adjoined to Hongkong included in the late lease to Great Britain of certain territories for the period of 75 years from 1899. During the past year the chief increase has been at a place called Tsin Wan, which with its A-~8

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218 UNION AND CO-OPERA'fION. surrounding villages form this neighbourhood. The people here are looking forward to building a new chapel which will be used for school purposes during the week. There are severnl features of the work here which are of more than passing interest Iu the school a number of boys mix with the girls and a few grown up girls also take their place in the classes. The local people send 14 of their boys to the Presbyterian s,:hools in Canton where they get higher primary and middle school education. Their expenses are met by the parents except that two are assisted Four of the boys have been baptised during the year and also some of their parents. The parents of a number of them were not Christians formerly, but were willing to put their children under missionaries' care for the purpose of obtaining a good education for them. In two other places the Christians few in number have themselves undertaken the task of opening schools. At Tai O where there are not more than 6 or 7 Christians $200 was raised locally for furniture and equipment of a school, and $200 towards the teacher's salary was guaranteed from fe es. The Evangelisation Society was asked to make up a balanc:e of $130 if necessary. At Cheung Chan where there are also less than 10 Christians a girls' school has been started, and the people are themselves arranging to collect money though again they ask the Evangelisation Society to assist them in case of any adverse balance. At other places on the Territories there 11. re movements and we hope for progress on all sides. In the three principal stations where -,ve have about 300 Christians including children the contributions for all purposes were over $430 00 5, Provincial Federation Movement By Rev, E. Box, Secretary of the Centenary Conference Committee on Federation (See Yem Books of 1912 cmd 1913) The Federation Movement in China was inaugurated in 1903, 10 years ago Though the progress of the movement has been slow, yet there has nbee a steady development and

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PROVINCIAL FEDERATION lllOVEMENT. 21\:J at the present time ,\'e are able to report that Provincial Federation CouLcils have been formed in 11 provinces as enumerated bel'" Jn addition there is a West China Advisory Council federating the missionary forces in Szcchwa.n, Kweichow and Ynnnan. Where these councils have been formed and energetically worked they have been most helpful in drawing together the foreign and Chinese workers of the different churches into closer union and more effective co-operation, and have thus helped to quicken the consciousness of a corporate church life and to prepare the way for a federateil Christian Church of China 'l'hey have also been splendid training schools for Chinese Christian leadership. There has been a desire to unite the various Provincial Federations into a National Organization, but the formation of the China Continuation Committee has rendered this sl:\,p for the present unnecessary The two organizations will work together in mutual helpfulness, and later on it may be possible to link them together more closely in organization. l\Ianchuria, Shansi, Shensi, Kansu and Fnkicn are still without organised Provincial Councils. Present Status of the Federation Councils Prepared by Dr. T. Cochrane 1. Provinces with Federation Councils that have met in 1913 and 1914. Chekiang Kiangsu Kwangtung (organized January 1913) 2. Provinces with Federation Councils organized m 1913, but which have not yet met, so far as I am aware. l\fanchuria Kwa.ngsi 3. Provinces with Pcdcration Conneils that have not met for several years Chihli Shantung Honan Hnpeh

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220 UNION AND CO-OPlntATION. 'l'he Hunan Continuation Committee now takes the pl:w e of the former Hnnan ~-,ecleration Council. 1 Provinces with other provincial mwmizations (not Flderation Councils.) Szechwan An Advisory Board of the Missions. (Chinese) Advisory Council, organized 1913. Hunan Continuation Committee, organized summer 1913 Fukien. No general organization for the provin<)e. Churches in South Fukien closely linked together. In North Fnkien there is some kind of Inter-mission Body. G. Provinces with no general provineinl organization. Shensi Shansi ('I'hry :irr talking of forming one ) Kansn Anhwei Kiangsi Kv:eichow (Affiliated with faechwan Advisory Board ) Yuunan(Affiliated with Szechwan Advi:;,ory Board.)

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CHAPTER XII THE WORK OF WOMEN FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN f. The Need of Women Evangelists in China Miss S. Garland, Changsha "The fundamental and indispensable condition of the New China is the new Chinaman." The words are Bishop Bashford 's, and are profoundly true. They will perhaps be 1JOne the less true if we alter the last word to C'hincmomnn, for this will bring us to the heart of the home life of this nation, the place where our work mnst tcli if it is to accomplish anything worth while. When she saw that she was steadfastly minded .... then she left speaking unto her.,,,::, We all know the story. A moLher-in-law is telling her daughter-in-law to do something, but she finds her "steadfastly minded '' to do something else, so she "leaves speaking unto her '' and the '' s teadfa s tly 111iJ1d<'d wo111.rrn gels her way! How often in every age and country and with what a variety of settings, has the story been enacted--whether for good or evil. Some woman is "steadfastly minded about something, and the destinies of homes, and even of empires, are changed 'l'his has happened quile a.~ ofte11 in Cha a s in crn11 othe,land, as her history cle,trly proves. Woman is a force in China as in other lands. How can we c,mvert this force into a power which shall work for righteousness'! I ... have taught yon publieiy, and from house to house." Paul is speaking of that strenuous three years at Ephesus when "all they which dweit in Asia heard the Word of God;" when he was working night and day, and might ha Ye been forgiven if he had "not found time for visiting." We may be sure he did not find it, he must have macle it. This mnn wlto '' turned the world upside down '' Rnl.h 1. 18.

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WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHILDRiiN. did not fail to make use of every lever within reach, having dealt with the rnen in street and synagogue he went to the homes, to bring the power of Christ to bear on the centre of things In his remarkable l,ook '' Thinking Black,'' Daniel Crawford quotes an African proverb which is brief but telling:..._" Come near and l ll /,c11r; Perhaps sometimes in China, as in .Africa, the people do not hear because the speaker Jails to get near enough to t,mch the heart and life of the hearer. Crawford lying iu the dark in an African kraal listening to the unrestrained talk of the people, learning to "think black '' and to find the '' way in'' to that innermost A Erie a-the heart life of its people: is surely also showing the wgy to enter a China which is unknown to many of us who have lived long in this land. The homes of China must be visited if they arc to he won for Christ, they need to be lived in if the need of its women is to he fully understood and met. In this day of great opportunity and altered conditions, nre we not in danger of doing supedicial work ? Medicine mixed by the pailful and ladled out to all c omers, and plasters applied to wounds that have never been probed, will uot bring lasting credit to the physician, and the result to the patient may b e wholly disastrous. Hospital ,vork nowadays is emphatically not done on these lines, can we always say the same of work for souls 1 Are we sufficiently in touch with those whom we seek to help to really grapple with their deepest needs Do we really know the people ,1e are dealing with 1 Are we applying plasters where there is tirgent need for the lance? "J\Ianifold transgressions ..... mighty sins," .. .... '' desperate sorrow ''-The words of the old time prophet are true in China to-day, but it is easy to keep ont of range of realizing their terrible reality To come within range is to be staggered at times with the realization of the stern fight to be fought, if lives and homes are to be made pure and fair. l\Iessengers with a message powerful enough to work this miracle, what need is more pressing in China to-day'! Apollos '' mightily convinced the Jews,'' and we may only hope to do the same with th e Chinesr, when we are as

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:MESSENGERS AND i\rnSSACms. 223 '' mighty in the Scriptures '' as he was and as sure of our message "Steadfastly mi11ded because '' mightily conyincecl '' must the messengers be who would wi11 eonverts of like quality. "JWessengers from the Lord, but not messengers only, we are to be mesi'11r,es also, as being personalities trans formed and occupied by Hirn.'' Messengers-those who have been'' sent ''* with a message which has so,Possessed and permeated them that they have become the genuine and complete result of its principles and power "-this is the ueed or China in 1914 just as truly and urgently as in 1807. Rather for the women it is greater than then, for old barriers and restraints have been broken down and many are adrift on currents the foree nnd direction of whiC'h they kuow hnt little. Pastor Hsi once wrote, "Lord, if Thou dost waut to arouse the people, I would be a golden bell, with an echoing note that will arouse the drunken, wake the sleeping and make even deaf ears to hear .'' Bells with an '' echoing note,'' how they are wanted in China to-clay. The old legend told of one of the big bells in Peking comes to mind with fresh meani11g. The man who east tile bell is said to have spent all he had in vain attempts to produce a bell with a full clear echoing note which should satisfy the ear of the Emperor. Parting with his last belongings and begging and borrowing amongst his friends he prepared to mr,ke c,nc last attempt-his life depended on the result. Before the fun1ace was heated the oraele was consulted and this ,vas the message. '' The tone of the bell ,\'ill never be right till your most precious thing is put into it.'' His most precious thing 'I Why everything had been sacrificed to the bell. No, not everything-his most precious thing was surely hi.s only child, a beautiful girl of 16. Bravely she counted the cost-her life for her father's-and gladly she threw herself into the molten mass of metal. Once more the bell was hung and full and clear and true echoed its tones, in the service of the gods, at the pleasure of the Emperor. "'.Tel'. 23. 21, 22.

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2:24 WORK FOR WOlllEN AND CHILDRE:--. How about the note of our bells 'I Do they eeho fnll and clear, or is the sound dull and dead'? Has the most ptecious thing been put into the melting pot, or is there a xeser-ve somewhere that just robs the note of its sweetness and power I New beils are wanted in plenty, but perhaps the recasting of some old ones might do something towards meeting the present need. Surely the greatness of the present opportunities with the rapidly changing conditions, whieh may soon bring a closing of doors that are now open, plead as never, never before for a fresh and more intense eousecration of all reserYes, both in the home churches and on the field. Event.he bell with an'' echoing note" may leave something to be desired, for the. end of the old legend says that, standing near the bell, as the sound dies away, the listener hears a sighing sound that shapes itself into the word hsiai (shoe) And the story goes that as the girl threw herself into the molten metal one of her shoes fell off, and her last word was a regretful sigh-hsiai Alas, how often is ow sacrifice lnarred hy a desire to look well in the act, and the last effect on the minds of those we touch is '' I not ''Christ." 1 Know the people and their l'eal need 2. Know your message and its power. Tnt8l it. L ve it. 3 Give your best and that a/1ca)ls. 4. See to it that the last effect on those you touch is not I but Christ .'' 5. Learn to pray as uever before, for prayer bri11gs Uod ou the scene,'' and God alone can make new China women aud through them a ne1\ China. These five things the writer would say to her own hrnrt and to all those who would help the women of China. 2. Work for Women in Shantung By Mrs. C. K. Roys, W eibsien, Shantung There is probably no work in all China which presents stronger contrasts than that which is done for women. It is a loug cry from the professional Chinese woman of culture to the ignorant product of the typical native village. :Many

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MEDICAL WORK IN SHANTUNG. 225 are the erroneous deductions made by the West in regard to the progress of women in the new Republic. From America one hears much of woman suffrage in China; hut it is not apparent to the naked eye in old Shantung! The keynote of Shantung is conservatism, and we must not expect to find many startling incidents in the emancipation of her women. As we watch the progress of affairs in China, let us never lose sight of the fact that one of the fundamental and indispensable conditions of a new China is a new Chinese womanhood. What are we doing toward this end in the second largest province of the Republic, Shantung? In this paper the most promising work of all, that of the education of girls, must be omitted. It means comparatively little to look over the table of statistics and see how many women patients were cared for in the past year. No one grasps the full meaning of the merciful ministry of medical missions who has not gone into the clinic and visited the ~1ospital. Surely one may safely say that no form of missionary effort demands a fuller consecration of every power of mind and of body than does the medical work. Undoubtedly this is true to even a greater degree of the women's work than of the men's. Who has to give more largely of herself than the woman physician or nurse, with the tremendous strains of heavy night work and the ner,essity of travelling along unspeakable roads in all sorts of weather, and of meeting the colossal ignorance and positive inhumanity of many heathen customs of caring for the sick? Surely it is no wonder that so great a gift of loving and costly service on the part of devoted doctors and nurses has been signally blessed of God. From the first, the gospel of the love of the Almighty seems to have needed some form of mercy to commend itself to men. Medical mercy has been greatly used by God in dispersing ignorance, and in gaining access into many a home In one of our Shantung villages there is now a flourish ing church where several years ago there was no Christian. 'l'he woman doctor went one night in a heavy snow-storm and spent hours working over a sick woman. I cannot now say whether the woman was restored to health or not, but this I do know: the influence of that deed of mercy was so great A-29

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226 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN. that the villagers said: "A doctrine which teaches that. sort o.f kindness is worth investigating." And the church there is a direct result of the woman physician's service to humanity that night. From a neighboring mission comes the word: One-half of our out-station churches had their origin in hospital patients A little old woman, but recently returned from the mission hospital, and the only one in the village who has heard of Christ, singing day by day ~tt her work: Jesus Loves Me," -this is a true picture of what the hospital is doing all over Shantung. One could multiply indefinitely the illustrations, but more pertinent to the present paper is the question: What new developments are there in this phase of the work 1 Shantung has at last re~ched the point. to which Central China came long ago: we realize that without efficieut native nurses we are but playing with the tremendous opportunity. In several missions, the effort is being made this year to found nurses' training schools. Hongkong and Canton have already established a standard of efficiency for native nurses, and grant certificates This is our ideal, and an inestimable advance will be made in the medical work when fully quali fied obstetrical nurs,~s are available to attend pnt.ients in their homes. Who can doubt that the heavy toll Shantung has paid in broken down women doctors has been largely due to the lack of native nurses 1 We note with interest, as this paper goes to press, that the American Board has just broken ground for its new training school for nurses in connection with the hospital at Techow Changing conditions now make possible what a few years ago would have been impossi ble in Shantung,-namely: to have a ,voman stay single and follow a profession without losing the respect of her people. Parents who a few years ago would have scorned such a pro posal are now asking to have their daughters join this first class The second line along which advance has been made is that many hospitals are now making plans to increase the private ward accommodations for the wealthier class of women. Many wish comfort, cleanliness and privacy; and are willing to pay for them. But up to the present time our hospitals have been constrained, because .of lack of. funds, to huddle

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JN.DUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK. 227 poor and rich alike in such undesirable quarters that it is no wonder that even tlrn Chinese themselves feel that the accom modations are inadequate. As we face the fact that in Shan tung the wealthy class of women are not being reached as we could wish, let us bear in mind these two lines of advance along which there is promise of a large~ return. Aside from the well-known work of the Industrial l\1is sion in Chefoo, the industrial work for women has not as yet been well developed in this province 'fhe English Baptists have for many years carried on a lace-making industry, and this year the American Presbyterians have opened a similar work in order to help the deserving poor to become self-sup porting. But the work along this line is still in an experi mental stage. A unique opportunity was this year offered to the missionaries in Chefoo: the official in charge of the jail asked that preaching be done to the men and the women p_risoners. It will be a matter of great interest to see the results of this visiting in the prison by a woman missionary and a Bible woman. It remains to consider what is popularly known as evangelistic '' work for women, though in au enterprise of which every branch is striving to win women to Christ, it is iuaccurate to characterize any single phase as" evangelistic." For the women of the official or wealthy classes, a splen did work is being done in several centres in connection with the museums and institutional work. Tsinan offers an in spiring example of this form of work in its perfectly equipped Institute. Instructive lectures, lantern exhibitions, or merely a look-see '' at the educational exhibits and a social cup of tea, are used to establish friendly relations with women of all classes. Pitiful in the extreme is the restricted life of many of the ladies of high caste, and the museum is offering an enviable opportunity to come into touch with them. One has a sad commentary on the shut-in condition of many women of this class in the fact that when one of them was asked to express the dearest desire of her life, she said: '' To become in the next life a dog, for then I can go outside the court-yard whenever I wish."

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-228 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, Edur,ational work for the children of the upper classes is going to reach the moth ers too, as we have seen in seve ral places the past year. One is forced to admit, however, that in spite of a noticeable advance along this line this past year, the work for women in Shantung is largely among the wome n of the poorer and more ignorant class. The very emptiness of the lives of these women constitutes our greatest opportunity. A call in the foreigner's home is circus, vaudeville; and grand opera combined. No form of work is more tedious to the busy house-wife than the enter taining of the average villager in the missionary's home. The caller must personally inspect everything in the house; feel of the mattresses; penetrate the chiffonier drawers; and ask to be shown if the baby is white all over or is just kalsomined as to face and hands. But it has been proved that this slow torture,-and none know without trying it how v ery. SLOW it is,-is worth all it costs, if by this means tile friendship may be won which shall be a basis for future influence. One of our Shantung women has the exce llent custom of open house on l\Iondays. The invitation is given out on Sunday and the Chinese are not apt to forget which day to come. Noris visiting in the native homes without great im portance if we would win the women. In several cities a systematic plan is made by which each foreign woman takes a day in the week to visit the city and suburbs, in company with a Bible woman. 13y a very easy transition, the neigh borhood Bible class come s out of this visiting. Often these calls count for good out of all proportion to the time and effort expended. A worker spent the whole forenoon in teaching an old woman to recognize five sirnp'.e i;haracters on slips of paper. When the husband came home in the evening, the old Granny proudly rehearsed her lesson. It so pleased the man that he said: I always thought you w ere wooden, but in the future I will help you to learn to read." A year passed and this same old Granny hobbled over many a long mile to attend a one-week Bible class. To the utter amazement of the original teacher she sat with a large-print Testament and with a chop-stick for a pointer, read correctly each verse as it came

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BIBLE INSTITUTES AND TRAINING SCHOOLS. 229 her turn. One morning's work with a hopelessly ( ? ) stupid old woman,-how well it paid! 'l'he natural outcome of the visit in the home is the short-period Bible class :Measured by the ignorance of the Pupil, one week seems a lam e ntably short time; but it is often that or nothing and it is better to have women in a class for r,onsecutive work than it is to attempt to te a ch them amid the distractions of their home life. Some of our missions plan to have two or three hundred women in one w eck classes, numbering from ten to twelve in a class. It is self-evident that if one week is so well worth-while three months are better still. 'l'he crushing thing which we have to meet in all our Shantung work for women is COLOSSAL ignorance, and the marvel is that so much has been accomplished. In some places the proportion of women in the catcchumenatc used to be one-third in the past four years. It is now one-half, in some places. Although Shantung niay be justly proud of several native pastors and elders of remarkable gifts, there is a lamentable dearth of pastors' and elders' ,rives of sufficient education to be valuable helpers. what is to be done when a talented, educated man is married to a woman whose ignoranc e is at every step a hindrance to him? To meet just such a need the Bible Institute came into being. For the woman who had no chanc e at education in her youth there is thus offered a valubable course in the elements of Christian ,vomanhood. Be~idcs reading and simple arithmetic, she is given instruc tion in the practic1~l problems of the home and the commu nity College m e n are in ever increasing numbers bringing their wives to these institutes and are finding that a four or five month course can change the entire point of view of the wife. It broadens her interests so that she is able to intelligently enter into his life; and above all it dignifies her existence by implanting the new purpose to be of use in the advance of God's Kingdom. An outgrowth of the institutes is the Bible Training School. Several stations have oiganized such schools. A three0year course is mapped out, with reading, simple arithmetic, geography, and physiology in addition to thorough

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230 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHIJ.DREN. and progressive Bible study That such schools are greatly in demand is evidenced by the fact that in most places all the books and the incidental expenses werfl paid for by those attending. Eventually our greatest need, that of trained Bible women, will be met by such schools Our ambition is to have an advanced Bible School for all missions in the province, to which selected ,vomen might be sent. If it could be established in connection with the Union Theological School, there would be a minimum expense, for some profes sors could be used in both schools and in many cases men and \\'omen could attend the same lectures. Shantung deserves honourable mention in regard to ih; splendidly organized womeu 's conferences. Nearly ten years ago, the pioneer effort in this line was made, when over three hundred women gathered at Weihsien, represent ing the out-station churches. Last year there were three co11fercnees; one in Tsingehowfu, one in Tsining with one hundred attending; and the other at W eihsien, with four hundred and fifty attending. Twenty-six of these women walked over twenty-seven English miles to attend the conference. Nine of these women were over seventy years old. The programmes included all subjects connected with practical Christianity: "Living the Gospel Truth;'' 'l'he Right Relation of Husband and Wife;" 'l'he Education of W omeu;" "Woman's Part in the Religion of the Rome;" '' The Care of Children;" and '' Unbinding of Feet,' '-still an issue in l3hantung. At the W eihsien conference, one hundred and twenty-five women decided to unbind their feet. One enthusiastic old dame said in an outburst of generosity that she would go home and give all her small shoes to a friend. But she was promptly sat upon by the other women who said: If you had a bottle of poison which you dare not take yourself, would you be doing your neighl>or a kindness to give it to her1" 'l'he discussions showed an earnestness and ability ,i hich surprised even the morst optimistic. The influence set in motion by such gatherings cannot fail to be wide-spread and potent.

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HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 231 This, then, is a part. of the work done for women in Shantnng. The difficulties felt by all are: the absence of trained native workers, and the appalling ignorance of the women. But even these clouds have a silver lining The dearth of workers has developed a sense of responsibility among the church members themselves. One day a week is definitely set aside by the Christians in some places to visit the adjoining villages and preach. The Home Missionary Societies which are flourishing in many places, send ont each Sunday groups of women to preach and distribute printed matter. Surely no condition which places the responsibility for evangelization on the Christians is wholly to be deplored. In spite of the appalling ignorance of the women, there are many lessons which even the most favoured may learn from them One often i::ees beautiful examples of that child like simplicity and faith which the Master valued far above all education It is a constant rebuke to us who have known the potential power of prayer for years, to see these women just emerging from the darlruess of heathenism actually understanding prayer better than we. The simple way in which prayer is taken into eYery experience of life, is a lesson which we all need A sixty year old woman hud walked twenty miles in deep snow on her way home from the Bible Institute. It grew dark and her strength gave out Wet to the knees, and stiff with the cold, she kneeled down in the snow and prayed; '' Dear Lord, do not leave me here to die Looking up she saw in the distance a man leading a donkey, and as he came up she begged for a ride. The man told her he had just bought the donkey and that it would doubtless throw her. But the woman's faith that she was in God's keeping was so strong that she got on the animal, and she afterward said: "The Lord controlled that donkey, r.nd it Lever showed a particle of objection!'' '' I have learned to be thankful that I am deaf and blind," said one old woman, who goes from house to house preaching, because I can neither see nor hear the angry dogs.'

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232 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHtLbimN. Another old woman was asked how many there were in her family. She replied: Before I became a Christian there was only one. Now there are two,-Christ and I.'' Who shall call ignorant those who have learned such lessons as these 3. Women's Work.in Manchuria By Mrs. Miskelly, Moukden The Christian work at present being carried on among women in Manchuria comprises three kinds :-Evangelistic; Medical and Educational. These cannot be rigidly defined, for the first rightly interpenetrates the other two, but for purposes of treatment they may thus be outlined. The Churches occupying the field are three, the United Free Church of Scotland, the Irish Presbyterian and the Danish Lutheran Church. The first two include 18 largti circuits in their mission area and the territory occupied by the Danes is an extensive region, lying to the south and stretching east to the border of Corea. Harbin, Port Arthur, Takushan, Anting, Siuycn, Kwantien, and Fenghuangcheng ~re their stations. 1. Evangelistic. 'fhe evang elistic work carried on in cludes teaching, visiting people in their homes, itinerating, teaching young married women who cannot be admitted as pupils in school, and training Bible women. In lVIoukden and Liaoyang, where there are two teaching ladies one of whom can give a good deal of time to this branch of the work, regular Institutes for Bible women have been established, and Spring and Autumn classes are held But, in other stations, where the care of a girls' school as well as of a large distriet has to be undertaken by the lady in charge, she is often obliged to send out her women to tell the message to others, whi:le they would fain stay longer with her and gain a clearer idea of God's great truths, as revealed in His works and His Word. Still, following the example of the l\Iaster she sends forth the little group who have been "with her,'' and from these Bible women, of whom tl:ere are over a hundred throughout Manchuria, many doubters in those numerous small, brown villages, which bask in sun-swept spaces or nestle among the hills, hear the Word of Life.

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EVANGELISTIC WORK IN MANCllURIA. 233 The eagerness of old women to hear is sometimes reminis cent of the days of old romance, when a great purpose domis nat.es and subdues the ordinary things of life. In Chao yangchen one of the far eastern stations, where the popula tion in considerable part is composed of immigrants, characterized by impulsiveness and ambition, the women were very anxious for a lady teacher, and when it was ar ranged that l\Iiss Caroline Davidson, who had gone temporarily to them, should devote herself henceforth to Normal school work, they united to write an appeal to the Hom~ Church, begging that she might be allowed to stay. At Kuyushu, in the north, there had been for a long time no lady missionary, till l\Iiss weir went there two years ago After the missionary conference held at :i\'Ioukden during Dr. l\fott's visit in March 1913, the church members of Kuyushu along with delegates from the out-stations met and a Committee com-. posed solely of Chinese, drew up resolutions for the training of Bible ,vomen, which may be summarized as follows:-' ,, That women's training classes should be held at Kuyushu, the expense partly to be borne by the mission, and partly by the native churches sending the women, and that the standard of knowledge required of each lvoma.n entering should be decided by the native church sending her.'' 'l'he l\foukden Conference presided over by Dr. Mott was helpful and inspiring in many ways The way had been prepared by earnest prayer, as well as by organization, and the discussions that took place combined with the addresses, gave clearer insight into the vital issues of our work as a whole, and into the intimate way in which our Chinese fellow-helpers shared.it with us. Our sense of responsibility and joy in the opportunities of service was deepened, as well as the conviction that God's people should come to Him no"', Willing in the day of His power.'' 'rhose who heard l\Irs. Martha Chang of Fakumen, advocating the need of parents teaching their little ones to become early systematic givers to God, beginning with copper cash earned by themRelves, will not soon forget her e arnest appeal. An Infnnt Department, or Children's Church with hymns and stories and occupations suitahle for children had been carried on for many years by Mrs. Keers at Chinchow, but A-30

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234 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN. no,v several are established throughout Manchuria, and are proving attractive and helpful. The plan of the "Gradeu Sunday School "introduced by Rev. K G. Tewkesbury who lectured to evangelists and teachers in l\foukden is also being adopt e d Truly, it is "twice blest:" "it blesses her that gives and her that takes,'' for the Senior School girls in the Training class which precedes the lesson, learn more tho roughly that which they must afterwards teach to the chil dren, than they would a lesson merely for themselves The favour which the proposal to bi'ing Government School Stude nts into touch with Young l\Ien 's Christian Association work found with the authorities at l\foukden dur ing the Conference, made us hope that a cordial reception would be given to Young Women's Uhristian A.3socfotion work and though a Lady Secretary has not yet been obtained for l\fancJrnria, negotiations are opened, and the way is being prepared by specially endeavouring to win Government School Students, and to awaken in those girls who belong to Christian families a sense of responsibility towards their school fello\vs who are outsiders, so that they may tenderly lead them to Christ. It is hoped that this will prove a means of reaching the higher classes of Chinese ladies who, so far in :Manchuria, have been accessible through medical work alone. And, for the great numbers of poor girls, more sin:ned against than sinning, from whom society drawing aside her dainty garments shrinks back with aversion, special work must also be organized. Deep_ indeed must be the channel that is dug so that the stream of love may tlow broadly to them. Doctors and teachers find alike that the need of a Ohristinn Resciie Home is a crying one. In one Institution however work of a kindred nature has been happily done for years This is in the School for Blind Girls, carried on by l\'Irs. Turley in East Moukden Many little girls are being led from darkness to light, gather ed from the neglect and worse than neglect of a Chinese household iuto the midst of a real home, where love and order reign, and where they are truly educated. It now has 25 pupils, none of whom, as they grow older, ca11 leave school, for no outside sphere of usefulness awaits them. Most of the: children received are feeble or sickly, so they need great care,

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EDUCATIONAL WORK IN MANCHURIA 235 and the manifold duties of teaching and superintendency added to the incrensed difficulty under the new regime in China, of finding financial support, to supplement the earn ings of the girls by knitting, form a weight of responsibility too great for anyone who does not realize that "the govern ment shall be upon His shoulder." Educational. In educational work one of the most signi ficant and joyful events of the year was the graduation in December 1913 of the first group of trained teachers. Thc.-se girls had had the first part of their training in the Normal college, founded at Moukden in 1911, and had been for the past year at the K wanchcngtze centre, :under Miss Grills, B.A., and .i\1iss Caroline Davidson, M.A. They have quickly found spheres of work. The need of Christian assistant teacher.;; and mistresses Irnd been keenly felt for years, and had been partly met by the Senior Students of the Sinminfu :Mission School, who have taken teaching posts in various places and filled them well. At Takushan is the Normal School of the Danish 1\lis sion, presided over by Miss Nielson, and throughout the diitereut mission stations of the province are Girls' Schools, provided with primary and in most cases with secondary departments. The number of pupils varies from about 30 to 100 or more, day pupils and boarders At Kirin, ]'aku meu and Ashiho, the pupils had far outgrown their original premises, and new school buildings, well equipped, were opened in the Autumn. The course of study agreed on by the Education Committee is so arranged that the girls in the highest class can take the entrance examination to the Normal College, and some of them qualify by examination for ad mission to be trained as dispensers, while others would like to take a full medical course if such were provided. From Sinminfu and Kwangning senior girls have also taken as a test the entrance examination of the l\lanchuria Christian College. Hand work and housewifery have their place on the school programmes, and at Kirin laundry work is being successfully developed by :M:iss l\fol\fordie. The eagerness of good and clever girls to follow in the steps of Christian men students, thinking that the achievement of a high

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236 WORl.t FOR WO:\
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MEHICAL WORK IN MANCHURIA. .237 In some of the Girls' Schools, there is ::i special prayer on Sabbath evening for the former pupils, now scattered here and there, and the thought that they are thus remember ed acts as a strong bond, binding them to ,vhat is good. Medical work. To turn to medical work we find that there are Women's Hospitals in l\foukden, Liaoyaug, Kirin, Kaiyucn, Kwanchengtze. Hulan, Ashiho, Chinchow, : Sin minfn, Kwangning, 'l'iehling, Yinkou Chaoyangchen and Yungling. Ther~ is also a dispens;;ry for W()men on certain days, carried on in connection with the Men's Hospitals at the Danish stations. In some places the premi8es are very inadequate, but the statistics show records of much good work. In Moukden wher e there are two lady doctors and three Chinese assistants the number of patients seen in 1913 was over thirty thousand, and more tlrnn eleven hundred operations yearly were performed. In other centres statis tics vary according to the population, etc but there is usually a record of several thousands of out-patients and well up to, 9r over one hundred operations yearly. Dr. Beatty at K wangning, has hospital work among men as well as women In Ashiho, Hulan and Kirin new hospitals greatly needed have been opened. In several stations there is no lady :rnissionary appointed by the W. F. M of the U. F Church, or by the Irish Presbyterian Church, but the wife of the doctor or missionary in ehm;ge, herself a physician or a trained nurse, carr~es on the medical work and manages the hospital. The reading of the Scriptures and the distribution and the sales of Gospel portions by the Bible women as evangel ists, to the out-patients and their friends as they wait, is a means of scattering the seed broadcast, but the regular teaching and the Christian atmosphere in the hospitals cannot fail to make an impre1,sion on those who rema .i:n. for some time as patients In selecting their dispensers the doctors endeavour to obtain girls with a good standard of scientific knowledge, and by example and precept they teach them to bring the patients into touch with the Gospel, exempJifying it in a holy unselfish life. l\'lany a picture could be given of the variou8 doctors, each surrounded bv her own band of workers In Moukden under Dr, ,Horner 'and Dr. Starmer there hav~ been special

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238 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, advantages for the student dispensers. Dr. Starmer has conducted series of lectures in Physiology and Chemistry, and a class in Anatomy has been taught by one of the trained Chinese assistants There have also been classes in Mid wifery, open to intelligent women from all parts of Manchuria, and they have been instrumental in bringing skilled ministrations to the bedside of poor women in their hour of anguish, and saving both mothers and babes from the risks of careless and ignorant treatment. Nor is it to the stations only that the lady doctors confine their ministrations. They take long tours, and many village people have the opportunity of hearing the Gospel from them, as well as of gaining advice and treatment. A hearty welcome is given to the lady Doctor, as she itinerates, and after, amid the duties of prescribing and teaching she has scarcely a free moment. Exhausting it certainly is, but "the value of the priceless" fills her heart with gladn0ss. Here is an extract from a letter written after a tour. '' I tried to see all the women members, though it was only a two or three minutes call. There were a good many at the larger places, but I could not do much visiting, as patients were so numerous. Counting prescriptions written, (there wrre quite a nurnber who could not come on account of di:stance,) there were over six hundred. At far-away places the people were mostly outsiders, and hardly knew anything How could they 1 Then follo\\s a tribute to the work of the Chinese assistant who combined the \\'Ork of Bible woman, companion and attendant. She is only one of many, who show them selves so capable in various lines of work that their British sisters sometimes feel that the best way for them to influence Manchuria is to give their strength to the training of such women The marginal reading of St. Paul's prayer for the Philippians is a very suggestive one. He asks that their love may abound more and more in all kno,dedgc and in all sense, that they may approve things which differ, and may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ. It is the earnest wish of the women workers of Manchuria, both British and Danish, that in things which differ,'' they

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WHAT CHINESE WOMEN HAVE DONE. 239 might be guided in selecting and testing those which are truly excellent, whether ancient or new, kno\Ying that:" The old order changeth, giving place to new An
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240 WORK FOR WOIIIEN ANDCHILDREN. of womanhood in China, when they are given opportunity. Now Chinese womanhood has come to a. new consciousness of itself With opportunity there comes the sense of responsi bility. So like the magic touch of spring new life has sprung up everywhere Woman's work is a hidden work in all parts of the world. This is specially true in China. The l1andful of faithful women missionaries has brought into China the leaven uf Christ's love and has hidden it in the '' three measures of flour," namely, women, girls and. children and to-day we are asking to see the results. First, let us take up the schools. There is where the leaven was first plaeed. 'fientsin, JH. E. :Mission. One missionary writes, '' While kn e eling at the communion table one Sunday, there came with a thrill of joy the realization that the woman on the right, and the woman on the left were students of the old days, in the Peking School. Since tl1en many Peking girls have bee n found Making good in happy homes in 'l'ientsin, and doing well their part in Christian work. Two have taught in Keen School, Ticntsin, five are day school teacliers, one is wife of the assistant p rincipal of our boys' school, another wife of a p_rofe ssor of the Anglo-Chinese College, one is president and another vice president of the Tientsin Y. W. C A while their husbands are respectively president and viee-president of the Y. M. C. A." Shanghai, Am. Church Mission. Another writes the following as an outline of the practical missionary work some of the school girls are doing '' 1. There are two missionary societies in the school, one for communicants of the church, the other for the younger Christian girls. Non-Christians are eligible for the latter and have been a great help to the society. These socie ties raise annually a certain amount of money which is turned into the fund of the Women's Auxiliary of the Diocese. Half of this goes every three years to America for the Women's United Offerings whid1 are used for Missions all over the world. The other half is used eYery year for practical work among women of the Diocese in Shanghai.

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WORK OF CHINESE WOMEN IN SHMW. HAT. 241 Last year the older of the two soeieties at St. l\fary 's raised $138.62, in addition to $10 which they sent to a scheol for child-widows in India, aml the younger about $80. 2. Every Sunday during the school term there is the Sunday school in tl1is compound for the children of the near by village, in which about six of the normal students do the teaching 3. Last year a day school of about twenty children was opened in the village, taught by a gra.duate of St. Mary's and almost entirely supported by the St. Mary's students. At Christmas time a play and Christmas tree were given here for the pupils of this little schooi, and another for the Sunday' school. 4. At Christmas the girls gave an offering of over $150 for the Nankiug sufferers." Woman's Union Mission, Shanghai. At the West Gate, one writes, "For two years we have made clothes to sen d to Nanking. This year twenty girls out of our thirty boarders made each one full snit of clothes for Nanking. The cloth was furnished them. At this Christmas time, the girls earned money by their own efforts and bought doth and made and filled seventy Christmas bags for the Municipal Court waifs and strays who \Vere given over into the diarge of a missionary." At the McTyeire School, "The students themselves carry on Sunday schools on Sunday afternoons for the street children around us. There are fifty of the Christian girfa and teachers engaged in this work, and the nurriber of children touched runs from five hundred to one thousand children a Sunday. A number of the girl~ are members of a missionary society which supports a day school near us, and whose members go to a village not very far away to do BiblE: woman's work. All the Christians are real : missionaries to their homes .'' Chefoo. A Presbyterian m1ss10nary writes, The Christian women are for the most part poor and very con servative and yet their faithfulness puts us to shame. The women's weekly ohurch prayer meeting has an average attendance of over thirty-five Christians, The wife of op~ ASl

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242 WORK FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, of our elders is quite well educated and is our leader. She is always busy and tukes no compensation but gives most liberally of her means She is president of the Home Missionary society This society was organized last April. At the end of December a little less than sixty dollars had been paid in as dues. This society last September began the support of a Bible woman to visit the homes of the day school pupilssome two hundred boys and girls The same society gave a nice reception to our new native pastor. The entire congregation was invited. .A tea and program were all arranged by the women themselves. Some of these women have days when they do house-to-house visiting. They also preach in the dispensary. Best of all, most of this society really try to read a little every day in their Bibles. Through the influ ence of another woman, a self-supporting girls' school is just starting its second year." Sianfu, "Since the Revolution our opportunities seem to have increased a hundred fold in all directions. It is interesting to note that a large proportion of the teachers in the new goYernmcnt schools consist of old scholars of a missionary wJ1ose excellent methods of education are now receiving recognition at the hands of the local educational board.'' Kiukiang Over fifty undergraduates of the Knowles Bible Training School are out in the district teaching dayschool1,. Each teacher has a Bible woman to live with her and to visit the homes of the day school pupils. Every week the Bible woman brings the mothers into the schools to hold a special meeting with them. Several times in the week there is a station class where the Bible is taught and the women taught to read. In the Training School the advanced classes have an afternoon each week for house to-house visitation On Sunday afternoons they hold Sunday Schools in several sections of the city. These have numbered as high as twelve hundred chiidren. Last year the native clmrch in Kiukiang undertook the entire supp_ort of a P astor's salary and current expenses of the church This year in addition it supports a mission station in a neighboring city Much of the sup .port is earned during vacation by woman's needle work and by systematic tithing.

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CHINESE WOMEN IN PROJ<'ESSIONS. 243 Nanking. Chinei;;e women and especially the College girls in the Lawrence School have helped in the editing of the ''Woman's Messenger,'' (Nu 'fo Pao) a very useful paper that is after the style of the Ladies' Home Journal. These are only a few samples of the practical work the women and girls from the sdwols are doing for the good of the country. Kianfu. C. I. M A woman walked a great dist a nce to a rrnss10nary who sold her a Bible and a hymn book and taught her to read a little during the two days of her stay. She took the books home and learn e d to read them. She acted literally a c cording to what the Bible taught her. 'l'he missionary afterwards found her not only the sole missionary in her own village, but a faith-healer as well. 'l'his is a sample of the great army of women who have lea:r;ned to read the Bible and have been used of the Lord to leaJ many lives to the Light. The professional women of China Dr. King of 'l'ientsin, Dr. Hu King-eng of Poochow, Dr. Ida Kahn of Nanchang, Dr. Hwang of $hanghai, Dr. Li Bi-elm of Nguchen, Dr. Tsao of Nanking, besides myself are practising medicine amongst the women and children. Last year we treated over ninety thousand dispensary patients, nearly three thousand hospital in-patients, visited hundreds of homes and operated on hundreds of patients both major and minor cases The above are all gr aduates of medical Colleges in the United States except Dr. Hwang who graduat ed from 'l'oronto, Canada Numerous graduates from Can ton and other medical schools in China are doing a greP.t deal to relieve the sufferings of the people In connection with the medical work there is the training of nurses and assistants who are able to help perform opera tions, undertake difficult obstetric cases, besides giving lectures on physiology, hygiene, the care of children, and first aid to the injured, which mothers should know. JsURSEs. Throughout China where there are medical missionaries there are women devoting their Jh :es to the eare of the sick women and children in hospitals. Graduates of

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2-14 WORK FOR WOMEN ANO CHILDREN. Nursing Schools have not only found it profitable to remain in the profession, but found it a profession where they can literally fulfil Christ's command of feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, comforting the suffering and sorrowing, giving a drink of cold water to the thirsty and dying soul. Inas much as ye did it unto the least of these my brethren, ye did it unto me." KINDERGARTEN. l\Iiss Ilien Tang, a College graduate, took her specialt,y in kindergarten in the United States and has her kindergarten in connection with the Baldwin School of Nanchang. In addition to this Bhe has been teaching half of the day in a kindergarten financed by the Chinese, who leave her free in the matter of teaching Christianity both to the little folks and to their mothers. Under the Y. W C. A. such leaders as Miss F. Y Tsao, a Columbia University graduate, is acting as educational director, Miss Y. W. Chun of Wellesley College as physical director. l\fany other graduates from Colleges have gone into educational work, like l\fary Caleton, and Ruby Sia of Foochow, or as musical direetors like Miss Tze, Miss Li and others not m e ntioned lwre Miss Dora Yu, the evangelist, had a summer school for Bible study in Slmng hai last July. This was specially for v 1 omen. To it many women from other parts of the country went at their own expense She also publishes a Hymn Book and most helpful Bible text calendar in both English and Chines e PHILANTHROPIC WORK Peking. "Two ladies from the weBt city started an orp_hanage after the Revolution. They were already teachers in a large school. They became Clnistians during the year of the Revolution, but this plan had no connection with the church. It came from their p _ity for the numbers of children left orphans by the war. 'l'hey felt that to help them would be to help their country. They brought some children from Hankow an
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HOM!~ ilfAKlsRS. 245 Several years ago in famine time, some ladies opened a fair and met ridicule by aiding in selling things, in order to get money for famine sufferers. '' rn~1PERANCE. Christian women who have imbibed the principles of temperance are having a fine chance to testify in both high and low circles of lifo ANTI-FOOT BINDING. In schools wher~ Christian influence is marked women and girls who are admitted with band ages on soon find that it is to their advantage to unbind as fast as possible. 8pccial talks are given them so that the cruel custom is forever banished from themselves as well as their children. In 8tations newly opened, we find these women teachers giving out in every way the lessons the.r received while in schools and the little girls form themselves iuto bands called Natural Footed Bauds,'' wearing silver medals, testifying with their lives their desire to help their country. HO~rn MAKI:-<;. The majority of women have taken up the common and fundamental task of home making. Home is the unit of a country.'' The beautiful path of loving 8ervice to little children, the charm of iilial piety and wifely devotion, safeguard women from going astray or taking up tasks to which Nature does not call them. '' Home, Home, Sweet, Sweet Home." '' The hand that rocks the cradle moves the world.'' I am indebted to missionaries of many mission boards for supplying information about Christian women under their charge. Many now are the government reforms where Chinese women fill important posts, but these arc enough samples that serve as straws, telling which way the wind is blowing in China '' Fear not, 0 fond; be glad and rejoice: for the Lord will do great things .''

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CHAPTER XIII WORK FOR THE CHILDREN L Sunday School 'l'he year mm is notable in the history of the Sunday School Movement in China for the visit to the ll'ar East of Commission No. 1 of the Woi'ld's Sunday School Association The party consisted of 28 Sunday School friends, led hy l\lr. H J Heinz as Chairman, and Mr. Frank L Brown as Secretary. In coujnuction with the visit of this Commission Tour Party'' the China Suncfay School Union held its First National Convention, and sectional meetings were held as planned: Slia11ghai. .. .. May rn and 1-J. Jla11knw ........ l\lay 22 an
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MEETINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 247 The General Secretary, Mr E. G. Tewksbury, was unable to secure adequate and illuminating answers to the 75 questions of the questionnaire circulated in China A shorter list, containing some l 4 questions was also mailed by the Union, in connection with the first number of the China Sun day School ,Journal, to some 3,700 missionaries. Here again but a meagre statistical response was secured li'or aceurate information as to the present condition of the Sunday School : Movement in China we are therefore compelled to await some definite survey, perhaps undertaken by the China Continuation Committee. 'he General Secretary followed up the l\Ioukden Convention of tha Commission Tour Party with a series of lectures on Sunday School l\fothods, before a gathering of some 130 Junior Preachers and Evangelists of the Manchurian Missions. 'fhe interest manifested ,tt this conference was great ; some 115 of the number subscribed for the 'l'eachcr Training series and passed an examination which entitled them to receive the Teacher Training Certificates of the China Sunday School Union About the middle of June Mr Tewksbury left Moukden to attend the convention of the World's Sunday School Association Convention at Zurich LITERATURE TfIE l'NTFOR)[ LESSONS. The circulation of the Inter national Uniform Lesson publications has continued to in crease during the year in spite of revolution, little advertising, and the augmented sale of the Graded Lessons The great est increase has been in Uniform No. 2 Pupil's Folder, which was issued this year for the first time, at the request of the N9rth China Tract Society. The "Supplement to the Teacher's Quarterly'' by Prof. C A. 'fong, Yoted by the Executive Committee, and advertised in the Recorder and Journal, through misunderstanding was not issued. We are gla d to state, however, that arrangements have been made with Prof. 'fong whereby he will work in conjunction witl1 Prof. J. B. Webster of the Shanghai Baptist College in the

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248 WORK FOR THE CHILDRRN. preparation of a Supplement of slightly different character, for the 3rd. and 4th quarters of 1914. A summary of the circulation of the Uniform Lesson Helps, from the formation of the Union up to the present time, is hereby appended. 1911: Hll2: 1!)13: Total per Sabbath: rot.al per Sabbath: Tot.al pi,r Sabbath: lst Qt. 2li\l50 Jst Qt. 3,)750 lot Qt. 48400 2nd 275:!5 2n,1 3(il50 2ml 59800 3rd :!0550 : )rd 45,150 ,In\ ,, 5\l720 4th 31:-lOO 41 h ,, 44100 4th 613."lO (Orders for 21111. Qt. ]!)14, 68000) TllE GRADED LESSONS. The absence of the General Secretary has necessarily prenmted further issues of this series. 'l'hree series have, however, been completed, and the sales of the same are indicated below. To l\Iarch 9 mos. Dec. 31 20, l!Jl3 interval 1913 Beginners lst. Yr. Leaflets, Mandarin. 5850 moo 74-50 Primary ,, Folders, ,, 974 1646 21~20 Be~inners ,, Leaflets, Wenli ..... ll84 33H 1520 Junior ,, ,, Pad, Mamla1in.. .. 2731 (l!ll 3422 Junior ,, Pad, Wenli......... ... 71 I 120 s:n l 145ll 43!);:I lb843 TEACHER TRAINING SERIES. 'fhe reprints in English of our six Teacher Training books are finished and two volumes have been issued in Chinese translation. Translations of the remaining four are awaiting final revision by the Secretary. The present circulation of the books is shown by the table given below: p,.int, Jcl English Teacher Training series: (Ed. 1,000 each) (6 books) 6000 The S. S. of To-morrow 2000 Chinese Teacl,er Training series: Primary Dept. 2000 FINANCf.S Sold 1870 1000 1000 In stock 4130 1000 1000 A Traiuiug Sehool opportunity for picked men is a fundamental need. Occasional Sunday School Conventions and six-months' Summer Schools fire not sufficient to plant deeply the principles of Religious Pedagogy; much less are

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LOCATION ~{ISSION OPENED Orphanages in China INDUSTRIAL WORK OCCUPATION FOLLOWED AFTER LEAVING ORPHANAGE I I YEAR ------,-----:-Antung, Ku. Canton, Tung. Canton, .. Chefoo. Shantung Changsha, Hun. Chungtu, Sz. Chinkiang, Ku. Chinkiang, Ku, l<'aneheng, Hup. Foochow, l!'u. ~'oochow, Fu. Hangchow, C heHa.nkow, Hup. Hinghwa, l!'u. Hongkong. Hongkong. Hsuchowfn, An. Ichang, Hup. Kiukiaug, Ki. Nanking, Ku, Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku, Nanking, Ku. Ngucheng, Che, Piugtingchow. Shausi Saratsi, Shansi, Shanghai. Ku. Shanghai. Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Sinchanghsieu, Che. Sianfu, Shensi Suichow, Hup. Sungkiang, Ku. Tsnohsien, Shan. Tsingkiangpu, Ku. T s tngkltu1gpu, Ku. rszho, Hup. Yuyao, Che. China Inland Mission United Brethren s Bapti,t Indu,trial Baptist C:,,n. Methodist s Presbyterian Meth. Epis, Hauges' Synod M -E., A Bel., C,M S, M.E. N, Prus. Wes, Methodist M.E. C-MS l!l09 1007 No data 1911 1006 1896 l\J09 lWH 1890 1009 19[0 lnM 1897 1800 Berlin Foundling Home Nodata s. Pres, 1008 A.C M. lUOu M.E. Advent Christian 1009 N, Pres. I\J09 Am. Friends 1909 M .E. l!l09 M ,E, Church of Brethren 1Ul2 Scan. Mis. All. A C.M. 1881 Com of Chr. and others 1004 near Arsenal with 3 other places Door of Hope l!lOl China Inland. 1909 S can. Alliance 1899 WesMis, Soc. 1898 M E Mennonite l!l05 S. Pres. Free Methodist Ha.uges' Synod N. Prcs-1007 "" u,, 30 ,j(l lli 13 10 '2 '2 9-_, Iii 130 11;1 l7 lnclu,1 ing Au tuni::-!) 17 tl lV United with :If. E. Orphanage, Chin kiang, June 191:; Girls assist in household work and ga.rde11ing Wciwing, knitting, lace work Girls make clothing, sew and bind In training for Christian work books, Boys print tracts, 999,000 in one year Dmwn work-Make clothing. Assist in cooking Boys do work on farm. Girls make clothing ,ind shoes. In training for Christian work Knitting, crocheting a.nd general sewing, and house-work Weaving, embroidery, tailoring and shoemaking Weadng cloth Sewing and cmbroi,lery, and Hollile work Printing, machine work, Pho tography, tailoring, etc. 17 In7 100 17 130 ti7 Weaving, printing Joined colony in Borneo, 100 General house work, eookiug,w,tshing Evangelists, printing (i7 7 125 80 8 7 37 22 55 42 178 2 5 1 31 50 40 180 35 tl ilO 4!) 85 5 i 18 15 50 40 100 22 old 50 18 .JO I,, > 80 wo1nen ] .. ,) and sewing Cloth making, s hoe making, needle work Carpentry, shoemaking, weaving, gar. dcning, hitrbcring, and tailoring \\'caving, carpentry, tailoring, brass. work, training for foreign servants. Carpe11try, brass-work, tailoring, printing, gardening, photogmphy, and training for foreign servants Carpentr.r, sewing anrl house-work Hope to start soon Crochet, knitting.drawn-work, mend ing clothes and shoes, house-work, and cooking_ Carpentry, Tailoring, painting, printing, Silk industry, sewing, nursing. mfg. a.rt. flowers and cloth, etc. Embroidery, crochet and weaving Tailoring, shoemaking, knitting, embroidery Girls do sewing and cooking Teachers, helpers. Carpentry, Shoemaking.weaving Gardening, training for teachers and Enmgelists, Christian workers Uhristiu.u workers, nurses Making of shoes caps, rugs, bags, chail'5, brooms. weaving, tailoring, carpentry, masonry, dairying, farming, spinning, fancy n eedlework \\ea.ving, shocmakiilg, talloring, and 'railoriug,."weaving, hat and knitting. Training for Christian cap making, silk spinning, work nursing Will soon be transfer red to another loca lity. Probably unit ed with another orphanage In Addition to the above under Missionary direction are the foHowing supported and run by non-Christian Chinese. Chcngtu, Sze. Nanking, Ku. Sungkiang, Ku. Canton, Sinchanghsien Soochow Three or four boys' orphanages with about J,000 children in all. Two small 1:!rls' orphanages. Number not given. (Information came through Miss Sparling, Can. Meth. Miss., Chengtu.) Partly Govt. Orphan Asylum Chinese Government has large orphanage for rescued slave girls and Buddhist nuns Foundling Hospital Privtt.te 191~ 1912 620 uO 1 5 0 J40 oO 180 Weaving of cloth and girdles. and tailoring Industrial work pa.rt of day Industries

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252 WORK FOR 'l'Hi~ CHitDREN. citizens. Secondly, in teaching the dignity of honest labor. That there is uo disgrace in clerm work, only in idleness. Thirdly, the incakulable benefit morally, mentally and physically to the persons themselves. It. also enables them to understand better and choose more intelligently their life's work. 'l'he very fe,r orphanages who have approached anything like self-support or perhaps better, who hope to accomplish that end, are those that in addition to the common trades, have taken up gardening and farming, with the accompanying brauches, stock-raising and dairying. The cry now in some countries, especially in America is, 'Back to .the land,' and there is an exodus from the city to the farm. 'l'he whole world's commelce is dependant on the cultivation of the soil, and outside of the tropics we would fare l.Ja. dly without the farmer. What China needs most is practical demonstration in Western scientific methods of agriculture. It has been said that the Chinese are an economical race and that they know more about indnstrial nrntters than we do. This is not so. 'l'he average carpenter at home would make a fortune on what the Chinese chop off in waste wood. The Chinese craftsmen are sitti11g idle or earning a mere pittance, while China in one year imported five million dollars worth of hats, caps, woollen and cotton goods, etc., from ,Japan. The Chine$e g a rdener c a nnot produce ns much as we can in our home gardens Millions of acres of good agricultural land are lying idle, which should be supporting poor families The hills and mountains are bare, which should be covered with forests producing lumber, retaining moisture, 1rnd regulating the rain supply. The Bailie Colonization Scheme at Nanking is making a praetical demonstration along some of these so much needed lines. 'l'he Canton Christian College has done mnch to further the cause of Western Scientific agriculture in South China. 'l'hey :;.ecured some worn -out land, of little agricultural value in the eyes of the Chinese I and in one year's time by improved methods of irrigation, underdraining, and fertilization made it profitable for market gardening. They are also demonstrating the sanitary use of sewerage by septic tanks, and sub-irrigating before the sowing of the seed or planting. The l\fareh issue of the Chinese Recorder '' has several instructive and valuable

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R.EQUIRElllEN'fS JN THE; WORK. 253 articles ou Industrial education which would be of great interest and help to all engaged in this braneh of work. Another helpful thought given in one of the '' Recorder articles related to the choice of indus1riai work for any district. Studv tlie n:1tural resources. The Basel Mission in South India, in providing labor for their members who had lost cas1e, found that the soil was well suited for tile making, and now they make two million tiles a year for export. They also took advantage of the growing of cotton and were the lirst to manufacture the khaki eloth used in the Indian armv. The same will apply to our ,vork in China. Orphanage work is one of the most difficult branches of Christian labor. 'l'he expression,-" Eternal vigilance is the price of safety,'' applies here. It means long hours every day, twelve mouths in the year, which is a s1rain on the nerves and a sapping of one's strength. For this reason it is desirable that there be a sufilciency of workers to divjde the responsibility, and make the burdens lighter. Orphanage work is a combination of different lines of work and may be considered in a class by itself. We are gracious ly entrusted with the spiritual, mental, and physical training and restraining of growing, active, overflowing life, from l,abyhood to rmmhood. The three fold nature of man requires the development of the heart, the head, and the haud. The neglect of any one of these means a dwarfed character. How much is needed the wisdom that cometh from above," to understand the peeuliar traits and talents of the children and win their love and confidence that the best in each child may be brought out; to know how to eurb and eliminate hereditary and acquired praetices; and how to find the work suitable to the physieal and mental eondition, and the adaptibility, and inclination of each child. On the whole the results along the lines of the spiritual and mental have been very encouraging. Some are in training for teachers, helpers, and evangelists, and some are already engaged in active Christian work. From many orphanages come encouraging reports and thanksgiving to God for what has been done There is one serious fault with the present system of or pharnige work, whieh iu time could be remedied. Jnstitutional

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25! WORK FOR THE CHILDREN! work at best is far from the ideal. One hundred chil dren in one compound, treated in many respects as a whole, miss that personal touch of love, sympathy and help fulness found in the true home among parents, brothers and sisters. I have heard of two institutions, one in Scotland and one in Japan, where this condition is much improved on, with good results. The whole orphanage was divided into separate parts of from eight to ten children of different ages in each part under the care of a Christian matron. Each group had a cottage and piece of ground which they looked upon as their home, and in which they took deep interest. '!'heir industrial work, school room, and place of worship were common to all. I have heard that the Door of Hope in Shanghai has followed this plan somewhat. It would mean the expenditure of a considerable sum as initial expense, and the upkeep would perhaps be more than under the ordinary way, but the benefit to the children would well repay the adoption of such a plan.

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CHAPTER XIV THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE CHINESE CHURCH J A Chinese View : Translation of a paper by Professor Chen Kin-yung, Nanking Union Seminary For some years there has been an insistent cry that the Chinese Church should be independent of foreign aid. If, alas, it does not try hard to make itself independent, it will either be for ever in an infantile and feeble state, or. never be able to shake off its yoke. If a Church always remains servile, it not only loses its proper standing as a Church, but the hope of the coming of the Kingdom of Heaven will be a mere fantastic dream. Therefore it is natural and self evident that the Chinese Christians should be the first to speak of the independence of their Church, and plan for it with all their might. But, though there are some churches that are already independent, yet they are independent only in name, and lack the self-governing spirit; they have the ambition to be independent, but they lack the proper methods. Some wish it for self praise, or from an anti-foreign spirit. Consequently, the more they shout for independence, the harder the process becomes. Thinking men, seeing this, shake their heads and sigh: The time for the Chinese Church to become independent is not yet ripe Chiuese Christians who prefer to rely on others and the few mission aries who like to be autocratic also use this as an argument against Chinese Church lndependenC'e. Eight years ago, I wrote an essay on The Chinese Church. should at once strive for Progress and pay close at tention to the Problem of Independence.'' ( This was first published in the "Chinese Christian Intelligencer No. 210, and .afterwards republished in "The Radiator, California." In the past few years I have neith e r spoken of independence, nor had any share in its discussion, because the attitude that

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256 lNDEPENDENCEFO THE CHINESE CHURCH. some of the churches had taken and the talk that was in circulation, in respect to independence, were quite contrary to my hopes in regard to it. Still the problem of indepen dence has always been revolving in my mind, and when Dr. l\lacGillivray requested me to write this paper in Chinese, I consented, and now I beg to state my opinion along with the facts that I have noticed: AS TO l\IEN OF TALENT. The reason why indepen dence though talked about so often, can not be effected, is lack of competent men. For, to make a church independent, men of talent are first of all necessary. In Ja.pan, it was Rev. Joseph Neesima who founded the Doshisha Christian University, and Pastor Yama who organized independent churches in the interior Were there any such men in China"? I should say there were almost none. But, ever since the rhange of the form of goYernment, the Chinese Churcli, though showing no independent form, has begun to display signs of corning independence. For example, they who formerly were intoxicated with the race for wealth arc now working for the Church (Kg., A certain man who has worked for years in the Chinese Post Office for a high salary, has lately resigned iu order to do God's work.) He, who formerly despised the work of preaching, now regards it as a very important thing. ( E.g., A certain Christian had two sons, one bright, and tl,e other, stupid. He had the bright one educated to be a teacher, and the stupid one trained to be a prea c her This used to be a prevalent defect among tlie Chinese Christians.) Those who once looked on the Church as an exotic, transplanted from the West, are now endeavouring to make it a product of their ow11 country. (The Chinese Clnjstians of the present day dislike to see the word 'Church' preceded by the name of a foreign country.) 1'hose, who forrnerly honored only the missionaries for expounding the true doctrine, now also praise the Chinese preachers for having a good knowledge of the Gospel. (Messrs. Cheng Chiug-yi, uud Yang W ei-hau Hre both held in high esteem by foreign ers and Chinese alike ) Things like these all tend to bring forth men of talent to work in the interests of independence. Furthermore, we may prove this from facts Seven Jears

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MEN AND CON'fRJRU'flONS 257 ago when the Nauking School of Theology was first founded, there were about only ten students, among whom only two were grnduates of the High School. Since its reconstruction, not three years ago, the number of the students has grown to about one luindred, and many of them have been graduates of High Schools aud Colleges. l\fany of the rest, though not from High Schools, are also quite up to that grade. 'l'en years ago, it was very difficult to get even one such student, and now there are plenty. In the past, money was required to support all the students, hut at present there are two self supporting pupils. ( One is Li Tsang-kiang and the other is Ko Wei-dih. The former is a native of Kiangsu and the latter a native of Chekim1g ) By the end of this term, sewn students will have finished the College course, and thirteen, the Prepnratory course. After a few years I am sure that the number will grow much larger. While one School of Theology is making such rapid progress, it is certainly the same with others ( The prizes offered by the Evangelistic Association of China for the best 'rracts were won by Canton Theological College men ) Hence, Church ind<~pendence will be like turning over your palm, to the great joy of all concerned. 2. AS TO CONTRIBUTIONS Although the strength, activ ity, and growth of a Chureh do not depend upon money, the liberality or niggardliness of the contributions shows whether the Church is making progress or the reverse. If the moucy contributed is abundant, the members themselves can support their pastors, can appoint their agents, erect their Church building, and manage their Church affairs, for, as the saying is, where the money is, there is power. Free of any rheck from without, they can readily carry into effect their proper plans. But, as the Chinese Church has had the foreign mis sions for its compassionate mother, nursing and leading it by the hand all the time, it has already become a spoiled child. If it is made independent all at onee, it will not only tremble with tear, bi1t will fall down immediately How e ver, the Church belongs to our Lord, so ,Jesus Christ can make it strong and prosperous, at His will. In considering the question of coptributions these few years have proven to be .A-3::\

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2,58 INDEPENDENCE OF THI, CHlNESE CHURCH, the most difficult l!'or there has been a series of revolutions Cannon, discharged soldiers, and robbers luve done great destruction to life and property, thus greatly increasing the financial diffil'ulties The p e ople have had a constant strug gle with poverty, so the Church naturally suffers the same fate. But news concerning the independence of the churches in different places still often appc,ars in the papers Thus the Chinese Episcopa1ian Church has already been organized. Mr. Liu Shou-san of Shantung has contributed a large sum of money for erecting an independent Church building in the provincial capital, and Mr. Liang Chia I of Hunan and his friends are establishing an independent church. The Independent Church of Tientsin, founded by l\Ir. Chang Po ling has a sound financial basis, and that of Shanghai, established by the local Chinese Christians, is doing pro gressive work. Though at pres011t the people a re poor and money is scarce, all the Chinese Christians perform their duty as usual in reference to contribution A few days ago; the I-Ian Si l\Ien Orphanage at Nanking held a Christrrt}lS meeting. A certain orphan, in his address to the guests, gave a slight hint that, because a clock used in the school had been stolen, he wished to ask the persons present for a new one. Therefore I got up and spoke a few words. Ten dollars were collected on the spot. Everybody knows how much the people at the White Gate suffered during the recent insurrection, so it was quite unexpected that such an amount could be collected at once. We may take this one thing as a proof that the time for the Chinese Church to become independent is at hand. 3. ENERGY. In view of the facts stated above, the independence of the Chinese Ohureh is already in a very promising condition. But from my point of view, these two things, men of talent and contributions, are merely super ficial. The real ground on which the hope for the independent Chinese Churches is well based, is that they are full of energy. When a church is in possession of energy, it can lay the foundation of independence, notwithstan
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UNION AND BIBLE STUDY, 259 (a) The different churches seek to have nnion. Indepeudence without union means merely isolation, and is not reliable. Therefore, in order to secure real independence, union and co-operation are indispensable and must first be secured Then a good foundation can be laid and a satisfac tory result may be obtained. In recent years, the different churches have been doing exceedingly well in the question of of union and co-operation, especially in charities and schools. A few years ago, the missionaries had the full power in laying plans for various things, but now the Chiliese teachers also discuss the business Before, whenever a meeting was held, the majority of persons present were missionaries and it was seldom that the Chinese teachers stood up and spoke Now it appears that the case is reversed. As the Church is thus strengthened little by little, self-governing ability is making gradual progress. Since its self-governing ability advances, its independence is moving forward step by step. Although the Churches are still called by the names of their mother Churches, and the property is not yet the members' own, the Church as a whole has grown more active in spirit. The time of its becoming independent is, therefore, near at hand. (b) Bible-study. Jn order to foster the spirit of independence Bible study is quite necessary. The former members of the Church were mostly ignorant people, the majority of whom were peasants, labourers and traders. l\Ioreover, as the educational system was then very defecti\ :e, only a few persons could read. Even though they desired to study the Dible, they were nnable to do it. It is not so at present. New text books for teaching persons to read have been published, and methods of teaching have been improved. New Bible study books have grown more imd more in number. The profit they are doing to the spiritual world and stimulant the y give to men's minds are indescribably great. Bible Study being easily practicable, the members are refreshed in spirit. Dr. Hallock's 'Almanac,' Miss Dora Yu's Bible Study 'Date Block, and Hev. Yang Wei Han's ''rract on the Advantages of Bible Study' aie welcomed everywhere. Thus we m::ty see that the Christians of the present day look npon Bible Study as an indispensable thing in daily life. The Christian EndeaYonr Society, and the

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260 INDEPENDENCE OF THE CHINE8E CHURCH. Y. M. C. A., have Bible Study for their chief objects. The more the Christiaus study the Bible, the better they see that their Church should be independent. 'l'he people at the White Gate' Nanking have repented of their sins since the recent looting by the military men The Church there, taking advantage of the opportunity, arranged to get the scholars to study the Bible, and declared that this was done only for the purpose of promoting morality and studying religioll, without any connection 1:J.t all ,vith pecuninry problems. At once the Pf~rsons who registered their names amounted to about fonr hundred. It has been two months since then, :md they have been working very diligently. They ure gradually getting hold of the important ideas of the Bible. This is a co-operative work of the different Churches at the 'White Gate.' When it bears fruit in future, the glory is certainly not denominational. 'fhus an independent ('hurch may come into existence. ( c) The missionaries introduce d the Gospel into China because they believed that this was their duty. At first the Chinese Christians did not understand that they themselves also had the duty and responsibility to preach to others the true doctrine they had reeeived from the missionaries. Therefore, whellever they were appointed to do something, they would enquire about the salary, and if they w e re trusted with any work they would refuse that whid1 was difficult They pretended that they were doing their duty, but in reality, they did nothing valm,hle. Ten years ago, Pastor Hsi of Slurnsi, and Dr. Li of Kiangsn, because of their possessing the vigour of a St. Paul, were held in very high esteem, and considered the only great men among the Chinese Christians both by foreigners an
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et,URctt A't PINGYUAN, SUNG, 261 the native teachers and Christians, although living among the roar of cannon and muskets, were not only not afraid, but also arranged to provide shelter for the refugees and care for the wounded soldiers. More praiseworthy than this, they took 1idvantage of this critical moment and did with energy much evangelistic w-0rk. 'l'hey did this neither through the encouragement of the missionaries, nor for the purpose of making money. They were driven to it by their own piety and enthusiasm, as if by not doing so they would fall into great danger. During the time of trouble, each Church discharged its own responsibility and did its own work without mutual consultation When the trouble was over, each reported the work it had done and the result that was obtaine
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26:2 JNDF.J>ENDENCE oi Tim CfUNESE cr-1tmci-t. along these lines. The leaders in this movement have been our college and semin~ry trained men, all of whom have reeeived their training at 'l'ungchow and Peking. At the time 01' writing you last year the movement had not settled down to ally regular \vork We are now able to judge of the progress of this movement by what has been done during the p,;st months. The movement is supporting two men, both of whom were forrnf.rly working under the American Board interests, Mr. Li Fu-hsiang and Rev Wu Yii-hsiang. The former is a young man thirty years of age while the latter is nearly fifty. 'fhe question of support is the crucial one in this movement. It happens tlrnt there is in the hands of this organization a small fund which was left over from a Home Missionary Organiu,tion of some years ago 'l'his fund has been bringing about $100 a year in interest money The basis of operation of the former society was that there should be an endowment. 'l'his idea is very strongly intrmchcd in the minds of the Chinese in this region The thought of trusting the Lord to raise the funds for each year is not yet a part and parcel of their consciousness The weakness of the church as a whole is probably largely re sponsible for this I understand that this fund was not only the result of contributions in this region but also of contri hutions from other centers where the American Board has work. For .a great number of years this old missionary societv has been defunct so far as active work is concerned 'l'his fund has been the backbone of this new movement thus far. I glean from various sources that the contributions together with the interest from the above named fund have not been sufficient to meet running expenses. I do not know what their budget calls for. 'l'he balance is being made 11p from the principal of this fund. If this continues until the fund is totally depleted one wonders what the ultimate outcome will be. 'l'he central point for all work is the city of Pingyuan. There the American Board had purchased in recent years a suitable place for chapel purposes. 'l'his hfls been loaned to the Independent Church for their use. Recently the Christians together with the preachers have renovated the sfreet chapel, and have repaired other parts of the chapel

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CO-OPERATION AND INDEPENDENCE. 263 buildings. The total number of Christians is not large in the vicinity of this city. More Christians are to be found at three village centers in the county, distant from the city several miles These centers are Li Lu Chuang, Kan Fen, and Liu wang Chuang. These also are centers established in ye11rs past by the American -Board work. At each center is to he found a bovs' school. These schools arc all recei ving grants in aid .f;om the government which enables them to make up the loss in aid not rel..'eived from here this past year; These schools are open to non-Christian boys who help towurd meeting the expense of teachers. They are all nffiliated with our Doardi11g school at Pangchuang, so that we shall continue to receive the pupils after they have finished the work in these day srhools. The work in the city of Pingyuan is hampered hy lack of funds. There is a desire for a reading room which would help to draw the reading cfass of men in the city. It is also hoped that a boys' school may be started in the city chapel next. year. Other forms of ,vork are carried on as usual. During the year two station classes for men were held, one at Li Lu Chuang and one at Kan Fen. The woman's work iu this r egion is still carried on by the women from Pangchuang as heretofore. While the Independent ehurrh would like to carry this on they firid themselves unable to meet the financial burdens connected with it. Two girls' school are to be found in this region, one at Li Lu Chuang and one at Kan Fen. The relation between the Independent work and our own work has been a happy one indeed. The preachers con nected with that work come here and our workers go there. There have been inany expressions of sympathy for the work of both sides by all concerned. The leading man in this organization stated to me that in his own mind the only difference between us was that they were carrying the re sponsibility for the financial end oJ the work and that in all other things they feel themselves at one with us. There has been a little difficultv which is still unsolved with regard to church members received by them. The past year has seen very few received by them. 'l'he foaders seem to be unusually silent about this. When asked recently how

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26-! INDEPENDENCE OF 'ffiE CHINESE CHURCH. many had been haptized one of the preachers said that he did not recall how many. It was on the books. The hope had been that we might have a complete record of their Christians and .ours, if you can so divide them, in one central place, available for all. But we have been unable to make this plan carry thus far. In all matters of import we are otherwise at one. They get Bible portions from us. We do such corresponding as they cannot conveniently do We send monev for them. More and more has there been a return to complete co-operation with the exception of financ ing and directing the work. We as a Mission have no share in that. It is a very interesting fact and worthy of recording that the leaders in this movement outside of their employed preachers are almost all men under the employ of the American Board. 'l'hese include both preachers and teachers in our schools. I am glad to record that the trouble last year has made for a larger life in the church itself. There is a new spirit at work in the ranks of all connected with the church. This spirit prevades both church and school. The storm of last y ear seems to have cleared the atmosphere of some very dis agreeable and unwholesome elements. One is convinced that through a!l this difficult past there has been the leading of God. Nothing astonishing has happened But in the every day matters connected with the church we feel a new element. I believe it is a portent of greater things in the future. We may well believe that the strong emphasis last year hy the leaders in this movement in their crusade to all our out-stations in the interest of Independeucy has awakened a new interest in making our church self-supporting, self governing and self-propagating. The idea. that the church is a Chinese church and not a foreign church has gotten into the consciousness of a few. This at least lays a foundation for a movement for further self-support on the part of the Chinese. What the future has in store for this lndep_endent church who will dare to predict l We hope that it will con tinue and that it will grow This is a matter for the future.

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CONSTITUTION OF A CHINESE CHURCH. 265 3. Proposed Constitution of a Chinese Church Translated by Rev. W. J. Drummond, Nanking (For another form see Year Book of JDH, v11. :!!07-8) In l\Iarch last l\Ir. Eddy visited Nankiug as he
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266 INDEPENDENCE OF THE CHINESE CHURCH. 4. Organisation. It is organised by the Chinese leaders of the :Nanking Evangelistic Association. (a) 'l'RUlTEES (OH MANAGERS). These shall be chosen by the Nanking Evangelistic Association; one Chinese leader from each denomination represented therein. ( {J) Dl'1'JES 01' THE TlffSTEES. (I.) To put into effect the rules of this Chureh. (2 ) To control the property, provide for the mainte nance, and devise means for the advancement of this Church. (;J.) To tlect officers for the Church and to determine the amount, etc ., of the pastor's salary. ( 4.) If Hny elder or deacon shall resign his office, or cease to abide by the creed and constitution of this Church, the trustees have full power to elect another in his place But if the pastor l{reaks his agreement (lllJ JJ{) the Board of Tnrstees must in conjunction with the Association decide his case. (5.) It shall be the duty of the trustees to meet once a month just before the meeting of the Association aud prepare a report on the methods of progress proposed together with the transactions of the past month to present to the Association for its approval or disapproval. ( c) TERM OF OFFICE. The term of office shall be for two years; half of the number to be changed each year. Any vacancy shall be filled by the Association from the denomination of the one leaving office. 5. Confession of Faith. ( 1j" M) The Chinese Christian Church of Nanking has exerted itself to devise on general lines a constitution that will make for progress, ernbraee what we hold i.n common, recognize our Saviour as head and be iu accord with Scripture. It also carefully records its Confession of Faith in order that it may be reverently kept:-(1.) We recognize the one and only God as Lord over all creation and as Father of all men. (2.) We recognize Jesus Christ as the only begotten Son of God who came into the world and became man that he might be the Saviour of all men. ( ill; A) (3.) We recognize the Holy Spirit as the third person in the Trinity, our Regenerator and Sanctifier.

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SACRAilIENTS AND OF'FICERf'. 2G7 ( 4.) We recognize the Old and New Testaments as the revealed Word of God and our rule of faith and practice. 6 The Sacraments. The Sacraments are two, Yiz., Baptism and the Lord's Supper. (a) Baptism. There are two methods of administeriIJg Baptism, viz., Inimersion and Sprinkling. Of these two moreover, each applicant for admission to the Church is at liberty to choose for himself. ( b) The Lord's Supper. (1) The Lord's Supper must be administered by the pastor. The paRtor and the elders together shall determine how often it shall be administered. (2) Only those .vho have received Baptism and are members of the Church shall partake. JHcmbers of other Churches desiring to part&ke with us shall be welcome .. 7. Officers. (a) PASTOR. (l) His character and attainments. The pastor's moral character must be perfectly righteous, "his scholarship aspiring, his sympathies broad. He must have a thorough knowledge of the Scriptures; he must be diligent in business; moreover he must have no evil habits, in order to become pastor of this Church. (2) Hisduties. (a) Internally. 'l'hcpastormustreceive and welcome as members only those who ha,.:e been approved by the officers of the Church. He must administer the Lord's Supper, look after the. Church mei-nbers, officiate at marriages and funerals, teach as opportmiity offers, administer baptism in accordance with the wish of the appli-cant, either by immersion or sprinkling. ( b) Externally. He must as opportunity offers lead men to Christ, initiate methods of social progress, do aU he can to preaeh the Gospel, extend education, lift up wom(!n hood, and care for the little children. (3) Authority. The pastor has the power of executive. He shall together with the elders and deacons in council, administer the affairs of the Chureh. ( 4) Term of Service. The term of service shall be three years. At the expiration of the term the trustees shall determine whether to retain or discharge him.

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268 JNDEPENt>ENCE OF THE ct-ITNESE ct-rtmcH. ( h) ELDERS. ( 1) The Board of Trustees may elect three elders to assist in the management of the affairs of the Church. (i) This Council of elders must together with the pastor examine all applicants for the catecluuuenate or for Church membership and decide on their qualifications in accordance with the Confession of Faith. They have full power to receive or rejeet. (3) The ciders with the pastor and deacons must on all occasions co11sult together on all methods of progress. ( 4) If the pastor has any difficult problem to solve he may on occasion consult with the Council of Blders. But if there is any need for it, he may apply to the Board of Trustees for consultation and solution. (5) Althongh the elders have the duties of assisting in the manageme11t of Church affairs, but no powers of re pression, yet in agreement, and after consnltation with the pastor they shall assist the Church to advance towards the aim of Church union. ( r,) DEACONS ( 1) The pastor and elders may recommend three deacons and divi(le the responsibility with them. These deacons must be men who understand the truth, who are faithful, earnest and capable Church members. They shall assist in the management of miscellaneons business, but they must first have the consent of the Board of Trustees before taking office. (2) The deacons are to nrrange for the pastor's salary and keep account of the Church's receipts and expenditures. Every month they shall present to the Board of Trustees an account of receipts and expenditures aud other statistics, for their information (:1) Deacons shall assist the pastor in providing the bread and wine and utensils for Communion, Church furnishing and printing. ( ,1) Beside the ordinary methods of raisiug contribu tions the deacons shall as opportunity offers exert themselves to raise funds to make up deficiencies. ( 5) They shall report all outside occurrences, slrnll assist in the settlement of quarrels among Church members, initiate business euterprises for Church members, and advance indm,tries.

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IIIEMBERSHJP. 269 8. Church Members. (a) REcEP'fION. ( f) Members shall be divided into two classes, viz, Primary or Associate ('j'.,JJ *&) and Advanced l~ ft!!). Associates are those who are under probation, i.e. learners; Advm1ced are full members. All these desirous of eutering the Church must become inquirers for at least three months before their enrolment as associf,te members can be considered. After enrolment they must be ur1der instruction for half a year, then if after examination of the pastor they have made satisfactory progress they shall receive baptism and become full members. (2) All those who desire to enter this Church must be examined by the pastor aud elders as to tl1eir faith and moral clu,racter. 'l'hose not at variance with the Confession of Faith of this Church aud who giv e good eviclc11cc of being born again may then regularly be reecived as members of this Church. Auy member, Chinese or foreigner, of any denomination in Nanking who approves of the aim of this Church and who wishes to make contributions to its support, this Church will cordially welcome; but unless such an one comes with the unanimous approval of his original Church he will not be received as a member. Neither will expelled members of other Churches be received iuto membership. (h) DUTIES OF ME)IBEHS. ( 1) As a means of cultivating and nourishing body and soul, mem!Jers ought daily to pray, examine the Scriptures, keep holy the Lord's Day, attend Church services, reverently pm-take of the Lord's Supper, attend prayer meeting, etc. (2) It is proper that members should cherish the holy teaching: "Freely ye have received, freely give,'' and to take every opportunity to lead others to the Lord. ( r:) c.x)~TltlBUTro1-s. ( 1) It is the duty of members to support their Church. They ought to make generous con trilmtions either monthly or quarterly for the mainten ance of their own Church and for preaching the Gospel abroad. (2) l\lernbers although dismissed by letter to other Churches ought still to do their utmost by way of coutribu tiou to the mother Church. (d) 1omovALs. (1) l\Iembers of this Church sojourn ing in Nanking and removing to another place, or sojourning

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270 INDEPENDE:
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AT TAIYUANFU 271 At Taiyuanfu the missionaries have held aloof from the movement owing to the character of its leaders, but the local authorities have come to the rescue in a manner thoroughly Chinese. In 1905 there was a very serious drought in the district, and after all the local gods had been appealed to in vain, a toddess,. whose temple was two days' journey to the north, was brought to the city. Soon after her arrival the rain came, and the then Acting-Gov0rnor set on foot a movement to erect a temple in her honour, the people eontributing generously. This temple has now been handed over to the new Independent Chinese Church, much to the annoyance of some of those ,vho helped to build it. The idols were, of course, removed from their places and buried.

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CHAPTER XV FIFTY YEARS OF CHURCH ORGANIZATION IN SOUTH FUKIEN By Rev, A, L. W arnsbuis, Amoy On the Ji"'irst of April, 1862i there was organized in Amoy the Chiaug-Choan Preshytety. It was a union organiza tion, consisting of the churches established by the Missions of the Heforrned Church in America and the English Presb;vterian Church. It was also independent of all church organization in England and America. Both of these characteristics, and the early date when this organization was accomplished, make the history of this Union Presbyterian Church of South Fukien significant, especially in these days when independence and union are such important subjects of continuous discussion in the Chinese Church. The J uhilee of the organization of this Presbytery was celebrated in Amoy in September 1912. Delegates from the Churches in England, Formosa, and Manchuria, and from those nearer by attended these meetings. Letters of greeting were received from the Church iu America, the Church of Christ in Japan, and from other churches in China. The meetings lasted for three days, and a series of valuable and interesting addresses were given, discussing both the past history of the Church _and its growth, and also its future development and tasks. These addresses have now been printed, and form a book of considerable value to the student of missions and church history in China.* It is impossible in a brief paper to deal with the whole contents of the book, aud in the foliowing pnragraphs nothing more is attempted than a summary of the history of the organization of the Presbytery, with a brier statement of the present state of the Church. The American Mission began its work in Amoy in 1842, u few months l,efore the formal opening of the port. In Printe tfand or sale at the l'resuyt
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EARLY YEARS 273 1850, Dr. Young of the English Presbyterian l\'Iission arrived in Amoy, and fiuding that the American missionaries differed in no respert from the faith (l,nd practice of his own church, he at once united with them in their work, and dee.lined to attempt any iudeprndent work. The Chinese Church in Amoy at that time numbered six communicants. An Anglo-Chinese School had been opened by i\fr. Doty of the American Missiou, and Dr. Young was. asked to take charge of this in addition to such medical work as h e was able to do. In this way, l\'Ir. Doty and Dr. Young were of mutual assistance to each other, and were aided by the converts already won by the American Mission. A year later Rev. vV. C Burns arrived in Amoy. l\Ir. Burns desired to devote himself wholly to evangelistic work, without any responsibilty for organization or administration. Shortly after his arrival, th e re was a remarkable outpouring of the Spirit of God in Amoy :md vicinity, and a large number were added to the clmreh At this time the Church succeeded in gaining a permanent foothold on the mainland. The members of the American :Mission urged Mr. Burns to take charge of that work, and gather a chur c h at Pd1-chui-iD, under the care of the Bnglish l\Iission This he declined to do, and at his urgent request, the American missionaries took the pastoral oversight of the work in that region, administer ing the sacraments to the converts. Rev. James Johnston, of the Bnglish Presbyterian Mission, arrived in December 1853. He undertook the car e of the Peh-chui-ia church, assuming in behalf of his Mission; all the expenses thereof, but the American missionaries still continued their pa:a;toral oversight of the church until such a time as his knowledge of the languag1: should be sufficient to enable him to relieve them. But, before that time came, because of ill-health, he was eornpelled to leave the field. However, in July, 1855, the Rev. Carstairs Douglas, of the same Mission, arrived, and immediately entered on the work of Mr. Johnston. Before he was able to assume the pastoral responsibility, the work spread from Peh0chui-ia to Chioh-be. It was thought best that the American Mission should take full charge of that station. A-35

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274 FIFTY YEARS OF CHURCH ORGANIZATION. After the departure of Dr. Young, all the English missionaries, for several years, were unmarried men. There fore, they resolved to devote themselves more especially to work in the country, leaving to the especial care of the American Mission the church in the city of Amoy, and the one out-station at Chioh-be. Amoy was still necessarily the place of residence for all of them. All the work in .Amoy was in connection with the church under the care of the American Mission In the country, the work was done principally by the English missionaries. The Americans assisted them as they had opportunity, and as occasion demanded. 'fhe English did the same for the Americans in the city. The missionaries 'A>Orked together as one Church, and almost as one :Mission, with the exception of keeping financial matters distinct. The first organization of a church took plar.e in 1856 by the ordination of a Consistory (Session). Heretofore the Customs and usages of the Reformed Church in America had been followed in the Amoy churches. The English mission aries adopted the same, acquiescing even in the observance of the few, slight peeuliarities differing from those of their own church. The American missionaries cordially invited Mr. Douglas to unite with them in the organization of the Church, and he as cordially accepted the invitation. In reference to this subject, Mr. Douglas wrote to his Home Church as follows : "I need hardly say that this transaction does not consist in members of one church joini11g another, nor in two churches uniting, but it is an attempt to build up on the soil of China, with the lively stones prepared by the great Masterbuilder, an eclesiastical body holding the grand doctrines enunciated at W estrninster and Dort, and the principles of Presbyterian polity embraced at the Reformation by the purest churches on the continent and in Britain; it will also be a beautiful point in the history of this infant Church that the under-builders employ ed in shaping and arranging the stones, were messengers of two different (though not differing) churches in the two great nations on either side of the Atlantic The course ofl Mr. Douglas met with the decided approval of the Church inj England. The Church in America did not fully approveJ

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ORGANISING THE CHURCHES. 275 what had been done, but it did not at this time take decisive action, and the missionaries continued to work with their English brethren, receiving and giving mutual asr:;istance. Jn the course of the next few y e ars, four other churches were organized, making a total of five. Two of these churches were under the especial care of the English Presby terians. 'l'he other three were under the care of the American Church. The financial support of these churches, beyond what the native churches could themselves raise, ,vas also divided between the two foreign missions in that way. It was now felt that these churches should be no longer independent of each other, but should be organized as a Presbytery. The first formal meeting of all these churches was held at Chion-be in 1861. No ecclesiastical power was assumed. The n ext similar meeting was held in April 1862, in the churches at Amoy. This was more formal. lt was composed of all the missionaries of both ]\fissions, and of one repre sentative Elde r from each of the five organized churches. 'l'his body may be called an incipient Presbytery. The only ecelesiastical power exercised, however, was connected with church discipli:q.e. In the autumn of the same year, the Presbytery met again a.t Peh-chui-ia, and became a real Presbytery possessing the necessary constituent elements and performing the functions of sueh a court. Not only were there cases of discipline to act on, but a distinct ap plication was made by one of the churches that a pastor be ordained and placed over them. The body decided that it had the right and that the plain call of the Great Hea
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276 FIFTY YEARS OF CHURCH ORGANIZATION. "The Presbyterian Church in Amoy is one Church because God made it so." The other feature of this organizatioll that is important is its relation to the churches in America and England The Presbytery ,vas not only a unioll, but was also an inde pendent organization. It was not organically related to any other church, and this was so from the date o:f its first meeting in 1862. In forming this Presbytery, the missionaries in Amoy were agreed that it should not be either an American Church, nor an Eng:ish Church. They had also agreed that it should not be two churches. Ummirnously they proposed that this Presbytery should be simply one of those forming the Chinese Presbyterian Church which they believed would be organiz~d in course of time. Out of their unity grew the necessity of rnakillg this an independent presbytery, and this duty they accepted in confident faith that this was the beginning of a national Presbyterian ehurch. The parent churches viewed this action in different lights. The Chur c h in England heartily approved what had been done, as they had previously approved the action of their missionaries in nniting ,rith their American colleagues in organizing union congregations that had grown out of their joint work. 'fhe General Synod of the Church in America took decisiv e action disapprovillg \Yhat had been clone. In 1857, the General Synod had adopted a resolution instructing its missionaries in Amoy that their newly organ ized churches should be related to the Classis of Albany. 'fhe missionaries attempted in every possible way to make clear to the home church that this was impossible. When the time approached for the organization of the Presbytery, they prepared a long letter of appeal, stating plainly what t.hey believed to he their duty and the reasons for it. 'l'he reply of the Synod was simply to reaffirm with ernp_hasis its previous action. For this, five reasons were given. (1) No presbytery can be independent. It must be subject to some Synod. 'rhere must be some higher court of appeal. (2) The importance of maintaining the feelings of sympathy and loyalty of the home church in behalf of their own Mission at Amoy was urged. The missionary \\'Ork of the church had

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bH'FICULTIES. 271 previously been carried on as a part of the work of the American Board, and it was only in ] 857 that the Synod had organized its separate denominational Board of Foreign l\lissions. Such a drnominational hoard was created in order to appeal to the loyalty of the churches to support and en large their own work. It was .missionilry zeal that prompted that denominational organization, and the Amoy missionaries were charged with throwi11g obstacles in the way of their own work. ( 3) Consisteucy was another argument that ,v11s used. 'l'he Mission of this Board in the Arcot District in India had organized a Presbytery organically related to the Church iu America. The Missions of other Presbyterian Churches had also taken similar action. Wliy sho~1ld the missionaries in Amoy act differently 'I ( 4) Union tends to increase difficulties. It is a splendid ideal, but in practice it leads to jealousy, quarreling, rivalry, and faction. ( 5) Jt was a time of pecl,liar difficulty at home. Civil war made tile collec.tion of benevolent funds increasingly difficult The missionaries were urged to submit to the decision of the home church and to unite with the Board in urgent appeals for their own necessary sup_port. The Amoy missionaries could reply only that the request of the home church was an impossible one. In 1863, Dr. Talmage was compelled to return to America by reason of the death of his wife and the necessity of making provision for his children. He spent three years in most difficult and painful work, campaigning throughout all the churches in behalf of the position taken by himself and his eolleagues in Amoy. The General Synod cousistently maintained its posi tion Finally, when the five men, remaining in Amoy, came to realize the determination of the leaders of the Home Church, they presented a last appeal, stating that they recog nized their duty to be obedient to the authorities 3t home, but on the other hand they were prevented by their consciences from dividing the Chinese Church that had been established. In this dilemma, their only course mnst be to ask the home church to accept their resignations, and to send out men to take their places who could conscientiously obey the instructions of the General Synod. To this appeal the Synod replied that it still believed that its action was correct in

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278 FIFTY YEARS OF CHURCH ORGANIZA'l'ION. principle and should be maintained, but that it would leave it to the judgm ent of the brethren in Amoy to determine the time when they should organize their churches as an organic part of the church in America. Although the Synod has never taken any formal action to modify that decision, it has in later years repeatedly taken other action that shows that it has recognized the corre c tness of the course of action taken by the Amoy missionaries The leaders of the church, who in those early years so strenuously objected to the Arnoy plan, in later years frankly admitted that they had beeu mistaken, and gave Dr. Talmage and his fellow-workers the credit they deserved for having shown great wisdom and splendid faith in planting an independent church in Amoy. The continued growth of the church in Amoy has been abundant evidence that the missionaries were right, so that it is now unnecessary to give in detail the reasons which they urged in answer to the argument presented by the Home Churd1. If more proof were need e d, it could be found in the fact that there are direct lines of connection between the form of organization in Amoy and the organization of the Church of Christ in Japan, the Presbyterian Church in lYianchnria, and the Presbyterian Church in India. The prosperity of these churches has resulted in the general adoption of union and independence of national churches in all the Presbyterian Missions in .Asia. There is no place here to describe the history of the past :fifty years, and we can only very bri.efl.v call attention to some of the characteristics of this Church as these seem to be related to its independent organization. 'l'he naturalizing of the Church in this part of China has been greatly advanced by the fact that it has not been an organic part of any western ecclesiastic organization, and much less has the influence of foreigners dominated its development. As we meet in annual meeting of Synod, the highest clmrelt court now organized, there are usually not more than ten foreigners present with eighty pastors and representative elders. Foreigners and natives speak and vote on a basis of equal parity as individuals. The financial sel,fsupport of the church has been p.1ore readily developed than it might otherwise have been. There

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SELF-SUPPORT AND DISCIPLINE. 279 are now forty pastorates paying in full the salaries of their ministers, and all the other current expenses oJ' the church, and contributing besides to benevolent work outside the bounds of their local congregation. The report for the year 1913 shows that the Church now numbers exactly 4,500 communicants, and that the total contributions were $36,159, which makes the average gift per communicant amount to $8.03. At its last meeting, large plans were adopted by the Synod by which it accepts joint responsibility for the support and control of all evangelistic work, and by which the Missions have agreed to give their funds for evangelistic work as a subsidy to the Synod. The discipline of the Church has been maintained at a high standard. J<,or many years the admission of church members and the discipline of those who were unworthy has been entirely in the hands of the Chinese ministers and elders. It may be that in a few isolated instances mission aries have given advice, hut they have never attempted to exercise any authority, which, of course, they did not possess. It has been a cause of great encouragement to observe these church officers realizing a sense of their responsibility, and la.boring to maintain the purity of the Church The Lord's Day is kept more faithfully perhaps than in any other part of China. No polygamist is admitted into the church, and this rule ,vas reaffirmed by a unanimous rnte of the Synod two years ago. The rule forbidding not merely the smoking of opium, but also the planting of poppy has been strictly enforced. So other details might be given to show that with out fear of loss of money or favor a high standard of Christian practice is being developed, and this is being done by the Chinese Church itself. The relations with the Missions and missionaries have continued to be most cordial. This is not to denv that there have been misunderstandings, but it is to say tliat our rela tions have been such that such misunderstandings were read ily explained and cleared away. 'l'here has never been any serious attempt to organize a so-called "Independent Church .'' South Fukien has not been outside the currents of Chinese national life, and anti-foreign feelings have also been express ed here. The Christian young men here know of the

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280 FIFTY YEARS OF CituRCH ORGANIZATION, "Independent Churches '' that have been organized in other places, but when they have made suggestions to organize a chur c h in which foreigners should have no part, it has been very easy to show to them that this Chur~h is now as inde p e ndent of foreigners as it can be, and not nearly as indepen dent as the foreigners themselves would like it to be. As a matter of fact, there is no longer any indication of a desire on the part of the members of the Church to modify their organization so as to change its relation to the foreign missionaries. Altogetl1er, the Church has shown a deep consciousness of its own life aud work. Its rnles of organization are not a tra nslation of any set of rules of any western church, but such rules as have been adopted are the product of its owu experience These rnlcs were made, and are now added to, onlv when th e Church has faced some 11ew situation or cir cu1{1Stances whi c h are not provid e d for in the rules previous ly adopted and which require specific legislation. In such cases, the experience of the Churches in western lands is con sulted, but the rule is framed in Chinese form for the Chinese church and is not imposed upon the Church, but is an expres sion of its own faith and interpretation of Christian duty. It is noteworthy that the united co-operation of the two l\Iissions in est a blishing this Church has not given to it any positive characteristics peculiar to a union organization. Indeed, the Chinese Christians still distinguish between the t,vo Missions, and the work of these Missions, much more than the missionaries approve of. On the other hand, it must be rel'.ognizecl that the union oi the work of the two Missions has given to the Church so much greater strength that its development of independent organization, and the character istics derived from that, have been more rapid, larger, and bettel' than these could otherwise have been With profound gratitude to Goel for the wisdom and gra, : e given to the early missionaries in this field in the organization of this united, independent church, this Church has now entered upon its second period of :fifty years with faith and hope that it may be the means of speedily establish ing the Kingdom of God in full power and glory in South Fukien.

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CHAPTER XVI THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT IN CHINA I. The Chinese Church and Social Service By Y. Y. Tsu, Ph.D., St. John's University, Shanghai l. '.L'JIE CHURCH AiD THE 00)D!l;NITY The Christian Church in China has always connected herself-in fact has been the moving force-with adivities that have for their end, social well-being, such as, opium reform, medical work, charities, female education, et cetem. And so the present social service movement has not been an entire stranger to her. 'l'he value of the new movement to the Church has been in its emphasis upon systematization of social work, study of social needs as a pre-requisite, volunteer service of church-members, and co-operation with secular agencies similarly engaged. Another very valuable truth taught by the movement is the fact that the Church (or the parish) is an integral part of the community in which she is situated, and it is both her privilege and her duty to share in the community life, to receive and to give in mutual service. In so doing the Church is at the same time putting herself in the position most effedively to influence society ,vitlt her Cbristian ideals, or to use Rauschenbuseh 's phrase, to Christianize the social order. While keeping in mind this Church-and-community relationship, we may describe the mission of the Church as follows : i. The Church, as Prophet :-Her divine mission lies primarily in her being keeper and mouthpiece of God's commandments. She must declare the life of charity, purity, justice and righteousness. She must condenrn the evils of society. Dut mere verbalism is ineffective to convict the public conscience. The Church should not merely hold opinions as to the conditions of society, bnt should also be A-3G

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282 TlIE SOCIAL SERVICE l\IOVEMEN'l', able to substantiate them by presentation of appropriate facts. Hence the importance of sociological study. 2. The Church,as Educator :-This has been her role through out historv. She has b e en the world's torch-bearer. In China she has been pre-eminently noted for her educational activities. She is helping the State to lay the foundation of true national stability and progress, namely, by building up enlightened Christian manhood and womanhood. 3. The Church, as Guardian of Youth :-The Church has taken after her Founder in giving due respect to childhood and holding herself responsible for the young A standing witne8s is the Sunday School. But her solicitude for the young has expressed itself in many new ways in recent years, for example, clubs and societies for the double purpose of recreation and instruetion. 4. The Church, as Defender of the Down-trodden :-'l'he Church was the friend of the poor the down trodden, the social outcast, in the early centuries. She was the champion of social justice. She followed the example of her Founder in being friend to the publican, the sinner, the poor. But in her prosperity, she almost forgot her own position. The 'rwentieth century sees her return to her primal spirit and devotion. 5. The Church, as Supporter of all Agencies of Social Up-lift:Christ said, "For he that is not against us is on our part. 'l'he Church is now applying these words in a better under standing of social movements that aim at improvement of physical, moral, and economic conditions of men, women and children. 2. A Socr.11, SJmYICII PROGH,HDrn FOR Tim CHURCH The following programme is offered without desiring that it be adopted, but with the hope that it will suggest methods and ways to churches and parishes that are planning for social service. l. Organization :-In a small community, little organiza tion is necessary. The pastor serves as agent of social work of the church. In a large community or in a church whose pastor is already fully occupied, a social service secretary

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PROGRA)JM}i; FOR THE Cl-IURCl-I, 283 may be employed. The point is that some one person should be officially responsible for the work. Co-operating with him, there may be a eommittee of church-members, men and women, who will represent the church congregation and serve as medium of communication between pastor, or secretary, and congregation. .The aim should be to interest the entire congregation in the work. 2, nvestigation of social conditions :-This will be the chief work of the social service secretary He will need the assist ance of others, The object is to know the needs of society. The kno-wledg e of actual needs will both energize and enlighten social work. In investigation specific phases of social life should be the subject of study so that knowledge may be definite The followiug list suggests other topics not inelucle
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284 tHE SOCIAL SERVICE l\IOVEMEN'r. be made to finance the social service programme of the Church. 4. Some practical lines of work for a church :-In offering the following list, we would cantion a church not to underfake too many things at once. Circumstances and surrounding conditions will be the best guide for a church in the selection of lines of work. (1) To have a series of Sundays in a year specially devoted to socinl themes, as Child Labor Sunday, Peace Sunday, Prison Sunday, Civic Life Sunday, Mother's Sun day, Sabbath Observance Sunday, etc. ( 2) 'l'o make wider use of the preaching hall or the church-building as a popular eclucatio11al agency. A series of Jectlll'es may be planned on various subjects of general interest, such as education, hygil'ne, ci vies, preventive med icine, labor, agrieultural and industrial subjects, etc. Ex perts should be invited to ~peak. The lectures should be adequately advertised to secure fair attendance. ( 3) Recreation for the young. Nothing that the church does will be more profitable, productive of good re sults, or responded to, than work clone for the boys and girls, ?Oung men and women. Onr people have no idea of proper recreation. Various forms of recreation under wise adult supervision, such as foot-ball clubs, Boy Scouts, evening recreation hours, social parties, reading hours, etc., will create healthy habits and tastes, build character, and produce such virtues as honest,y, sympathy, fair play, sportsmanship. This will further create lasting attachment of the young to the church. ( 4) To promote neighborhood feeling The church should bring together families of the neighborl10od to form a closer unit by various means, such as entertainments, mothers' meetings, sewing classes, etc. Such neighborliness is a real force in social improvement. ( 5) 'l'o plan a health campaign aimed at specific objects, such as flies and mosquitoes, tuberculosis, house cleaning, personal hygiene, drinking water, etc. ( 6) Parish vi8itation. Some volunteer visitors may be enlisted for visiting families of the roor, whether connect

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CONFERENCE ON THE SOCIAL APPLICATION. 285 ed with the church or 11ot, and for giving instructions to them in domestic economy or house-keeping, care of children etc. ( 7) To seek ways of co-operating with secular agen cies. Generally such co-operation will be welcomed by the latter. Certainly the church cannot afford to stand and work alone in social matters. 'ro befriend secular agencies may prove an education to the church. 5, Equipment for social service :-Besides the workers, secretary, agent, committee, volunteer visitors, etc.,-effective work requires adequate material eqni pment .An indispensable factor is a fairly large and equipped parish house It will serve as the centre of social activities, the head-quarters of social work In large cities, where several churches are located, there is need of some central organization to c o-ordi nate the work of the different churches Some central or ganization may be also valuable for churches of the same denomination. 'l'o conclude, let us remind ourselves of the fundamental principles that must underlie the social service of the Christian Church. First, socir.l cousciousness has made us realize more than ever that we are 01ir brother's keep er. Secondly, Religion, especially the Chr. istian religion is life and love, rather than theology and mystic ecstasy. Thirdly, in social service, we are humbly following in the footsteps of Christ, who prayed '' Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven .'' II. Conference on the Social Application of Christianity (Shcm qhai, .kinvary 16-17 1914) By Earl Herbert Cressy, Kinhwa The morning session of the conference on the social application of Christianity was given up to an exposition of the SURVEY foEA. Before it is possible to accomplish much in the line of social service, it is necessary to make a study of conditious. This must be accurately and scientifically done. The first paper was given on the very efficient work of the Shanghai Health Department, by Mr. E. Kilner. He put

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286 THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT. on exhibition a number of maps and charts, showing how the city is divided into districts and subdistricts, and how all cases of contagious diseases are located on the map, so that it is possible to tell at a glance the health conditions of the city at a given time. He told of the precautions that are taken to guard against plague. This dread disease is carried by rats, and therefore all dead rats are made the subject of careful laboratory investigation. The rats, whether picked up on the street, or found in the garbage receptacles, are tagged with the place of location, and sent to a central laboratory for examination. This is then located on the map. Careful and minute records are thus kept as to all matters that concern the health of the city. Jn response to numerous questions at the conclusion of his paper, Mr. Kilner gave much very interesting information as to housing and health conditions in Shanghai. The paper on the survey of an educational centre was given by Mr. J. H. Geldart, and was an exposition of _the methods used by the National Committee of the Young l\ien's Christian Association in making a preliminary survey of an educational centre 'rwo men of experience are sent to locate on a map the schools, and other institutions and to collect data bearing on the educational situation in the centre under investigation This was followed by a paper on the survey idea in mission work by Rev. Alexander l\Iiller of the China Inland Mission. The last paper of the morning was presented by Mr. E. II. Cressy on, How to l\Iake a Survey. The speaker pointed out that a survey should be of a practical nature, and at least until there might be experts available, should not under take too much, but should rather study some definite problem ou which there was a felt need of light. Beginners who attempt to make a survey should cndeavor to familiarize themselves with the subject they ,vere to look into in order to know what to look for, and what constitute good and bad conditions In the making of a survey, maps and statistics are of importance, but a matter of even greater value is the use of the case method. By this is meant the investigation of the human factor, the study of individual cases, so as to

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A l\JTS3IONARY SURVEY, 287 present typical cases of the human interest. A survey is not an amusement or a luxury. When it is completed, the work is not over. The results must he put into such form as to make them intelligible to all. Few people will spend much time over statistics. 'I'hese must be analysed and compared with certain standards. Thus the figure as to the number of cases of contagious diseases in Shanghai during a given y(:>ar might not mean much, until compared with the rate per thousand in the average city of the same size These results must be then presented graphieally so that the people of the city which is being studied may at a glance grasp the salient facts brought out by the survey The final task is the construction of a program of im provement based upon the needs manifested by such an inventory of civic conditions. The speaker then enumerated the questions on which every social worker ought to be informed to some degree at least. He should know something of the government of the city, its history and indiYiduality Then he should be intelligent concerning the following community problems; health, housing, industrinl conditions, recreation, child welfare, and vice and crime. Every social worker should also know something eoncerning the social institutions of his city, such as churches, clubs, and business orgauizations as well as philanthropic institutions of all sorts. Ill. The Survey Idea as applied to Mission Work By Rev. Alex Miller, Ninghaihsien In these days of missionary effort there is a very real need of knowing what is being done and where, that time may be best expended and service made most efficient '' Not looking each of you to his own things, but each of you to the things of others," is as appropriate a word to us as it was to the Philippians. A detailed missionary surYey of the field has long been called for. Three years ago the writer began a series of studies which led up to a considerable col lection of reliable data, sufficient for the compilation and

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288 THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT. publication of a general missionary map of Chekiang Province The need of such a survey was very evident, and the results have well repaid all time given lo it. What was being done by the many missionary agencies--where and by whom were the principal queries one wished to have answered. Much travelling about had made plain to the writer that there were many regions beyond systematic missionary effort in comparatively well worked Chekiang. The need was felt of knowing what and where the limits of present day evangel ism and effort were, and where advance W?S called for. More united endeavours and fellowship in some spheres was needed, that the oneness of the Church might be better realized. Encouragement to continue at a difficult task and other gains were confidently looked for as the work of others was considered. 'l'hese have been abundantly g'ivcn, and all time and thought expended on the survey has been fully justified. The method of making this general survey of Chekiang may be briefly stated. A carefully thought out and not over elaborate schedule was specially prepared and sent along with small blank sketch maps showing Hsien boundaries, to thirty of the chief mission centres in the Province. Patienee was rewarded b~, these being returned in due time well filled in with figures and notes. It was then an easy matter to collate and put in map form. The data supplied permitted the locating of missions and their missionaries, and the number of these, Chinese workers and communicants; churches, chapels, high schools and hospitals. It was also possible from the accurate statistics returned to construct a map showing the spheres of work of the various missions and those too of the Chinese Missionary Societies belonging to them. Further, one was able to outline areas in which there ,vere no chapels. Thus much valuable material was gathered and put together in convenient map form, enabling one to get an idea of the united efforts of the missionary and his helpers. See Yenr Book of Hll3, pp. 281-284.

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WOl\IAN IN SOCIAL SERVICE. 289 Among the results of this missionary survey of Che kiang, may be noted the discussion for two evenings at a for eign missionaries' Society of the questions of Church Union in this part of the China Field. Two years ago a Chinese Missionary Society was started in one place after an address and study of the map had bee n given, and work in that district has been forwarded by it as was proved at a recent conferen ce. vVe have had the pleasure, too, of learning that a similar survey has been made by the missionaries of Hunan Province. Beyond China the Missionary Survey has proved useful in stirring up others to make similar studies 'J'he ext cnt of the evangelisation and missionary occupa tion of the :field will become bett e r known as a result of such surveys. A b etter apprec~ation of the onen e ss of the Church and of the need of fellowship and co-operation in praye r and work, ,ve may hope will follow. The Master saw the :field white and its n e ed of labourers: and prayed that His fol lowers might be one, that the W01:ld might believe in Him. We to-day, look upon the China field to see it ready for labourers of all kinds; and ean hear too the call from mauy quarters for united working. By some suc h surv e y of the social need as that of the more direct missionarv ministry just referred to, similar helpful returns m a y be ex' i)ected and more efficient service in the :field rendered to the Master's praise. IV. The Place of Woman in Social Service By Miss Ying Mei Chun, B.A. In all the big movements of the world aimed directly to ameliorat e society, women hav e taken a very prominent, if not, the leading part. vVe have heard of Florence Nightin gale in the Red Cross Work, Frances Willard in the Woman's Temperance Union, Mrs. Alicia Little in the Anti-Foot binding Society and Jane Addams in the social settlement. 'rJ1ere are many other women who are directing various forms of work such as refuge homes, asylums, hospitals, and other philanthropic activities with gre&t success. The place of women in social service is strategic and her opportunities are limitless 'fo clean her door steps, to take a lost child to A-37

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290 THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT. its mother, and to introduce a bill into the legislature for better sanitary conditions in the streets are all her opportu nities to serve the society in which she lives. As a matter of convenience, it is necessary to divide woman's services to society into two classes-the organi2;ed and the unofganized. 'l'he organized is service rendered tlirol.igh or under some institutions or societies. The unorganized is service rendered outside of organizations and is chiefly found in the home Let us consider briefly the organized service. When Florence Nightingale projected the Red Cross Work, women were made indispensable in times of war. The women co-operating with men make bandages, bind up wounds, and minister to the injured soldiers in general. The Red Cross Society has extended its sphere of work hy meeting the need of sufferers from other disasters such as volcanic eruptions, famines, floods, earthquakes, and fires It is out of the love for humanity that this form of work is undertaken. Through the Society, food, money, and clothing are collected to send to the distressed districts. The women who are collecting and making clothes to send to the Nanking sufferers are occupying an important place in social service. Again, many may make themselves invaluable through the Woman's Christian 'remperance Union. Owing to the excessive use of liquor many families are separated and honest workers are tempted to become criminals and public charges The Woman's Temperance Union states that some 90 % of the crimes committed are due directly or indirectly to drink. Through the influence of this Society, many states in Am e rica have gone dry," which means that the sale of liquor has been made illegal. Although the excessive use of liquor is not great enough in China as yet to become a problem, yet it is well to note that an evil of such great strength abroad should not be allo\\ed to increase in China If the American women could influence the decrease of the use of liquor in their country, would it not be possible for our women to prevent the introduction of it into our country, as well as to influence our compatriots to refrain from other excesses? The Anti-Footbinding Society organized by l\Irs. Little and directed by Chinese women has to a certain extent done

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ANTIFOOTBINDING. 291 something for the emancipation of our women.
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292 THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT. our women doctors are rendering through the hospitals. Just here on the south Bund, we have a hospital directed by Dr. Chang 'l'soh-kwan. Connected ,\ith this hospital is a nurses' training school, a medical school, an insane asylum and an orphanage. Her great desire for service has inspired her to undertake all this. l\Iany of the poorer patients are taken in free of charge and the orphans have been picked up from the streets. Instead of letting the homeless children grow up in the streets to become beggars, thieves, and robbers to menace society, they are given food, shelter and education. 'l'his ork of Dr. Chang is certainly worth while, and its future possibilities may be greater than we can conceive, provided that it has sufficient financial support to put it on a firmer basii;-. The hospital alone is rendering varions services to society. Through its medical work, it ministers to the si ck, through its ai:;ylnm it keeps the insane from injuring society, through its orphanage, it attempts to decrease the number of paupers and increase the number of useful citizens. Aside from the above, there are other forms of organized work. Some are carried on by women entirely, others are carried on in co-operation with m e n. Seeing that so much may be aceomplished through organized work, it is worth while for us to baud together to wage war against the evils of society Nothing is too gigantic, if we have sufficient will power and work together in co-operation. Two forms of service are indispensable to organized work and these are the gi viug of money and the making of laws. Without money it is not possible to do anything. Even talent is useless in face of poverty. Do we not know of many an artist and writer who died of starvation? The success of the different movements to uplift society is dne to generous donors as well as good leaders. l\fa11y organi zations owe their support to Helen Gould Shepherd, Grace Dodge and other women. If the women are not able to give time and service they may give money. In order to make the plans and efforts of the social workers universally effective, legislation is necessary. Laws have been employed to remove certain evils in society and womeR have been largely respon sible for the introduction of the minimum wage bill, the

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SOCIAL SERVICE IN CHUCHOW! 293 bills for more sanitary conditio11 in the factories, tenements and streets, and the bill for the prevention of child labor m certain states of America. . Whether a woman is rich or poor, in public service or private home she has limitless opportmiities to do social servi( : e in contributing to the good of society and raisi11g the standard of community r c spousibility. V. Social Service in Chuchowt AnhweP By Elliott I Osgood, M D. In November, 1911, while the city elders were in session devising means for the protection of the city during the Rev. olution, we visited their meeting and asked a qu e stion which for the first time led the city to consider officially whether we were a serviceable part of the city or 11ot. Did those city elders consider our presence in the city at that dangerous period a help or a hindrance ? We had been urged to leave the city until the war cloud blew ove r. Yet there were a number of e~idences which made us believe that our place was to remain in the city. "\Ve knew the attitude of both parties was to protect foreigners. The local people had already suggested the formation of a Red Cross ,vork. W e were in the midst of build i ng operations. So we discussed the question in our home and decided to lay the matter before the city elders If they did not want us in the city at that time we would leave. Not our interests and desires, but the protection of the people was the important question \Ve are happy to say that in their discussion there was not a hint that our presence would be a hindrance to them. There would be no danger to us from within the city, hut they did not know ,vhat would happen from forces withont. They felt a certain responsibility for our protection, but also believed we could aid them. However, they asked us to make the decision independently of them Read at Social Sel'\'ice Conference, Shanghai. Jan 16-17, Hll4

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294 THE SOCIAL SERYICE MOYEMEN'f. We remained, and within twenty days were so inter woven with them in the events which followed that there has not since been any question as to our usefulness in the city life. Over and over again by their direct request, we visited rival commanders on both sides, stood between warring parties, were let down over the city wall to push Chang Hsun on up the line, and even were elected to preside over an officially called meeting at our hospital where warring elements met on neutral ground and settled their differences. Besides this w e carried on an actiY e R e d Cross work for which the people subscrib e d the money After the Revolution their repeated invitations to attend and address various public meetings showed their complete acceptance of us into the city life. We also gave series of lectures in the church and invited the city public schools to attend and many attend e d in body. The celebration of America's recognition of the Republi c becam e a great ovation in which the clrnrch was filled and emptied no less than three times by those who wished to attend and express their approbation. In the spring of 1913, the An-ching Ban, a secret organization to whose doors may be laid the blame for the large amount of robbery which has b e en going on in the country round about, bec::nne so bold as to make a night attack on the city, looting the yamen and letting out the prisoners in jail. Their temporary success was their undoing, for soldiers were hurried to our city, the robbers follo"ed up, a number killed and exeeuted, and all other known leaders not caught were outlawed To us it was an event over which we rejoieed, for we foresaw the lines which immediately began to be drawn between the good and eYil forces in the city. We visited various ones of the better classes and urged the formation of a good citizenship l e ague or reform society. Such a society would work toward preventing the return of the evil forces after the matter had blown over. It took hard work to get the ball a rolling, for mutual distrust had prevailed so long that even the better classes found it difficult to get together. They finally agreed to enter into such a league upon the understanding that we would take the presidency

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LOCAL REFORM SOCIETY, 295 of the society, for they said there existed among the people more of a unanimous confidence in us than in any single Chinese We finally consented and can say that we have never lacked their loyal co-operation in any forward measure we have proposed. At first it was proposed to make the society a branch of the International Reform Bureau, but while the members were willing to eschew cigarettes, opium and immorality they had no other forms of relaxation than wine feasts and gambling. As we were working for the uniting of the better forces and believed all these questions could be settled in the future, we made up a local constitution with the International Reform Bureau constitution as an ultimate aim. Special stationery, a flag, buttons, and official chop ,vere designed both to giv2 status to the society and advertise it. The charter membership was carefully selected and further membership was not hurried, as we wished it to be under stood that it was a worh.ing body and a body working toward reform both personally and for the city. The scope of the society's activities has been laid out to include reforms in sanitation, public morals, unified educational system, lecture halls and public leetures, city park and playgrounds with both indoor and outdoor recreations, macadamized roads and streets, market places and even new public administration buildings. Our city is a typical interior city. The surrounding country is thinly populated, having been devastated by the Taiping Rebellion. The city population is 13,000. The streets are sewers, the street corners are dumps. A mountain stream flows through the city and acts as a natural sewer. Heavy rains flush the streets and sweep out the refuse. This same stream furnishes water for the restaurants, and homes, is the washing place for clothes, rice and vegetables, and its sides a convenient garbage dump Vacant lots are nuisances as there were previously no public lavatories. The n.arrow streets are stone paved and the children's only playground. The reflected heat in the summer makes these streets unbear able. This heat upon the cl1ildren, together with the swarms of flies bred in the nearby garden pits, furnish the annual crop of boils, abscesses and deaths. Small dealers, money

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296 THE SOCIAL SERVI0E MOVEMENT, challgers, vegetable and fish hawkers, take up one-half of the street space. Frequent quarrels happen. The city schools run independently of one another, only uniting in the general scramble to get as much as possible of public funds for their maintenance. A dead and alive grammar school has been carried on, but no high school. The Rebellion burst out before we had accomplished but one thing. This was the setting aside of n fine piece of public land for a park and playground. We were away from the city this time at the outbreak. But city leaders did not wait to see if we would come back, but sent tel<' grams and letters to hurry us home to the city. On reaching the city we found them waiting our arrival to form a Red Cross Branch. Pifty men within a few days stepped forward and paid the money for life memberships in the general Red Cross Society and our leading evangelist was one of those chosen by them to take the money through dangerous routes to Shanghai. \Ve organized a relief c orps, co-operating with the army ambulance corps and the Tientsin Relief corps which came clown the line. This latter asked our services in aiding to get a portion of their corps into Nanking city before its fall, and while doing this we were providen tially able to give aid in protecting the family and property of our Clrnchow magistrate who had placed them there thinking Nanking the safer place. 'l'his added to our influence in Chuchow. \Vhile the work we were able to do for Clrnchow during the Revolution and Rebellion was a great asset in the carrying out of the social service we have rendered to the city, the twenty-five years of mission work in the district have given us a high moral standard in the minds of the people One of the leaders said recently, "I have a high respect for Christianity. It seems to have the power of taking hold of a characterless person and making a man of him.'' Another one persuaded his brother to enter our hospital and break o(i'. opium "I not only want you to help him break off opium,'' he told us, "but if you can get him interested in the church and lead him to become a Christian I shall be happy. There is nothing like the church to really reform men .''

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STREET l\IACADAl\IIZING. 297 "You don't know us Chinese,' one said. '' We quarrel and drink and gamble. We are immoral. We cannot trust each other. We are not like those you make in the church. You seem to be able to put character into men .'' when we returned at the time of the Rebellion, we found the streets full of rotting veg e table matter. As most of the members of the Reform Society had also taken mem bership in the Red Cross Branch, we told them of the danger to the city of allowing this d e caying matter to remain on the streets. Voluntarily they raised a subscription and put on a real street cleaning force for two months. Then the city saw the efficiency of the work, and said they would pay the bills, but a1;ked the Society to take charg e of the Board of Health. The magistrate turne d over $300 00 of opium fines and asked us to ere c t some model lavatories. Four were put up in cro,vded sections We had not yet reached the place where we could lead the members to pledge themselves against wine and gambling for recreation So we proposed a campaign among the school children under the auspices of the Society and several hundreds of peovle have been led to pledge themselves against opium, cig arett<::R, wine, gambling and immorality. This was done in public meetings and members of the .Reform Society addressed the children. We were thus given opportunity to press home upon the msel\'es the necessity of setting a good example. The greatest test of our influence has been in the raising of a subscription for the macadamizing of the street from the railroad to the city We are on the edge of the famine districts and the local crops have been nearly a failure, but many refugees have poured into the c ity just the same. The railroad willingly gave \vhat broken stone was needed when they were given proof that the people would pay for the labor and put through the project A third of the money needed was subscribed by the people living on the street to be macadamized. The Reform Society spread a feast at our hospital and invited the monied men of the city. Another third was subscribed. Then some of the biggest men asked us to accompany them to other men who had not appeared at A-38

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298 THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT, the feast and we gave a couple of days to this. Only one direct refusal came. A street is being laid down that is not surpassed outside of Shanghai. They asked us to act as treasurer of the fund and to watch over the construction. 1'he railroad engineer has greatly aided in this. We have recently changed magistrates. 1rhe new in cumbent was slow in recognizing the bills for street cleaning which we sent in as usual. But ;he took pains to enquire into the work of the Society. He had dismissed the police force and substituted his own men. Our street cleaning had been paid from this same fund. In other places various societies which had sprung up since the Revolution were being adjourned and disbanded by official proclamation. Our district council and city council were thus adjourned sine die. We did not know but it might be wise to adjourn our meetings as well, and for thiR purpose visited the magis trate and laid before him the work of the Society, offering to turn it over to him. We oversee the burial of the pauper dead and the fire department as well as street cleaning. After discussing the matter, the magistrate said he surely ,vould not think of having our Society adjourn, and he would not only pay the bills as the former magistrate had done but he would turn over to us miscellaneous fines that might be collected at the yamen and these we could use as we saw fit. This he is now doing. In all these activities the church building Im~ been the centre. 'l'he Society proposes to eventually build its own place on the park grounds. Mea nwhile they have asked that we meet at the church. Our reading room is the only one in the city. Our church is the largest seated auditorium. A seri e s of lectures this winter has been attendc{l by full audiences from amoug these leaders ThcEe lectures have been given largely by missionaries and the tone was predomi nantly Christian. These men are often seen in our other servic e s. School children attend our Bible School. We have an adult Bible class organized from among shopkeepers and lmsiness men with a membership of eighty and a number of them have been baptized. The Sunday morning services are now attended by a class of people who remain throughout the services, and are a great contrast to the former shifting,

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STUDENTS' SOCIAL CLUB. 299 restless and inattentive audiences. They show more respect for the church. The Christian workers are given much recognition in the general city activities. The Christians themselves are learning to take pride in these activities and have become real workers. So social service is not onlv uplifting the city but lifting up the shmdard of the Christiai1 community we have established. VI. The Peking Students' Social Service Club The membership of this Club which consists of 210 students from 13 of the colleges and universities of this city shows at once the interest of the older students of Peking in movements for public welfare. 'l'he Club was started in October of 1912 and in the F'all of that year it conducted three 11ight schools for servants and two schools for yotmg boys. College men taught and books were supplied free. These schools continued through to the Summer vacations. For several months lectures on Hygiene and Citizenship were also given by the students in lecture halls in the East city. In October 1913 the students started their first playgrounds work. On every Saturday afternoon in the lot near the West City Public Library, 40 to 80 small boys are instructed in outdoor games and in callisthenics 'l'he programme of work for 1914 has just been drawn up. It includes many new features and will require the faithful work of the 200 and more students who have offered their leisure time for the good of their less fortunate brothers and sisters. 'l'he Educational Department of the Club plans to open 3 ne,v schools which will give free education to 120 poor boys and young men. The Lecture Department will conduct a series of talks in the public halls of the city, for which carefully prepared leeture outlines are now being compiled. Household Sanitation, personal hygiene, the duties of citizenship and such subjects are to be discussed. A phonograph nnd a stereopticon are to he purchased and an attempt is to be made to get permission to give series of lecture and social entertaiuments in the orphanages and poor-houses of this city.

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300 THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT. 'rhe Playgrounds Committee which now has 30 pro spective playgrounds leaders in training at the Y. lH. C. A. will soon open two new grounds on wh}ch it is hoped that hundreds of boys and girls will not only enjoy games, but 'will gain a permanent foundation of good health. 'ruber culosis is bt,ing defeated in at least one skirmish in this broad land. The Social Study Committee last year made the first scientific investigation of the rickshaw coolies ever made in China NoTE:-See Chinese Recorder,April 1914, for a paper by J. S. Burgess, "Peking as a field for f::iocial Service:'

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CHAPTER XVII (PROGRESS OF SOCIAL REFORMS L The Op'ium Campaign Sep. 1906. June 20, ] 907. By the Editor Important Dates Barliest Edict against poppy cultivation. All opium dens in Shanghai native city closed. July 1, 1908. Twenty-five per eent. of dens in Shanghai Jan. 1, 1909. 1910. J unr, 1910. May 8, Hill. Settlement elosed. Importation of opium prohibited. Last of the opium dens in Shanghai closed Importation of cocaine prohibited. New Indian opium agreement came into force The duty was raised from Taels 110 to Taels 350 per picnl. April 1, 1913. Indian Government stops sale of opium for China l\farch 4, 1913. National Opium Conference op.ened at Peking. The words of Dr. A. H Smith in the Year Book of 1913 deserve to be repeated:" The Auti-opium Couferenccs in Shanghai in 1\l09 aud at The lfa~ue in 1911 were not an asseml>lage of Qnixotes tilting against wimlmills seen in a mirage, but a company of sober-minded experts in economics, statecraft, and philanthropy, gat.hered in the interests of Hnman Civilization to preveut its destruction by the monsters it.self had produced. Viewed in this light the Chinese people are engaged in an unconscious strnggle for self-preser.vatiou. They must succeed. The instincts of a race are generally as trnst worthy as their reasoned jndgments, and when reinforced by their judgments they become indisputable. The intellect of the Chinese people has become thoroughly convinced of the evils of opium. Its conscience has been profoundly stirred. Self-preservatiou is the first law of nature, and self-preservation and the use of opium are coutradictories. Therefore opium must go."

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302 PROGRESS OF SOCIAL REFORMS, Opium in England and India: An International Conference on Opium met at The Hague, July, 1913 The only countries which did not sign the protocol, July 9th, were, Austria Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria, Uruguay, Servia and Greece, but the last two declared that they would shortly sign. In the House of Commons, February 27, 1914, it was stated that the stock of Indian opium awaiting entry into China amounted on February 1 to 13,213 chests. General L Chang visited England on a special visit to prevent the absorp tion of this opium, but in vain. China's offer to pay the freight on it to other places was also declined. The same fate overtook other plans out of the difficulty. Meantime the Government of India has dis c ontinued auction sales to China, and has instructed foe provincial governments including Burma to absolutely prohibit opium smoking in saloons or gatherings exceeding two persons. It is also prop .o8ed to reduce the amount of opium an individnal may possess, to increase the price, and to revise the regula tions governing the sale of morphia and allied opium compounds Provinces barred to Indian opium: After Sir Alexander Hosie 's tour of investigation a new Agreement was signed with China according to which provinces proved to be practieally free from the native growth were to be free from the import of Indian opium The following were the first provinces to win this distinction : the three Manchurian provinces, Shausi and Szechwan Since then the following have secured the privilege, namely, Chihli, Shantung, .Anhwei, Hunan, and Kwangsi. On February 13 the Government asked the British Government to inspect Ji'ukien, Chekiang, Kwangtung and Hupeh with a view to prohibiting Indian opium in these Provinces. From May 1st. Fukien is declared barred, and Hupeh is also barred from June lst. Chekiang and Honan from June 15th. Thus there are seven provinces not yet free. Opium in Hongkong: The Gove rnment of Hongkong has for many years farmed the sale of opium in tl1e Colony. In 1901 the price paid was $750,000, in 1903, $2,200,000, in 1907, $1,452,000, in 1910, $1,180,200. In that year all

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IN SHANGHAI. 303 opium dens in the colony were closed, but the sale of opium is still continued under GovernmEmt supervision. New legislation has become necessary. It is said that the legislat ure passed bills to make the regulations very rigid and to leave no loop-hole for illicit practices in the handling of the drug. Opium in Shanghai: The price of opium has been m creased through the efforts of the Opium Trust during the past few months from something like Tls. 4,000 to nearly Tls. 7,000 per chest. The latest quotation is Tls. 6,830 per chest on February 20. The Chairman of the l\1unicipal Council at the ratepayers' meeting held in March referred to opium shops in the following words: The increase in Lice11ce Fees of Tls. 43,000 is less satisfactory, for the reaso11 that more tha11 half of the total is traceable to receipts from Opium Shops. In spite of prel'sure from within and without. it is very evident that the c,rnsnmption of opium in Shanghai shows no falling off. We have cle,sed, as you know,. the opium houses: we prohil>it opium smoking in the various public places of entertai11ment, theatres, tea-shops and the like: but nevertheless opium is still retailed in the Settleme11t in a growing num her of shops. In spite of the fact that the licence fee is now double what it was three years ago, opiu111 produced last year an income of Tls. 86,000. This source of reve11ue is likely, of course, to disappear in a short distance of time. (In 1911, 31G shops were licenced, iu 1912, 374, in 1913, 449). Synopsis of Reports Regarding the Shanghai Opium Stocks From Angust 22nd, 1913 to March 20th 1914. Rerna.ining Delivcrie!='. Selling Price. Barg.iincd No. of chest Date 8tock, No. No. of per chest. for No. same time of ca:-:es. chest~. of Che~ts last year. August 8 n,i25 August 22 1!">.2tiH-5 4;)(j.;) Tls 2,G425 Tls. 8..10[> J.000 17.130.fi S:wt, 1\) 18,il'O ],fifi9.5 ;,;,225 4,400 ,),800 J7,93H.5 Oct, 17 12,,'iO!l 1.rn1 3,;175 ,J.11,() ~.860 ]!1,022 Oct 31 11,9 \i\ 0!).l :\ffi5 J.400 3.000 1 ~1.0'1:J Nov 14 1t,:;nn ;)HJ : uoo 4.U:O 2,800 UlA2 ) Nov. 28 ]0,89:l !")04 ::;,:12;) 4,rno 2,li2! l\l,956 Dec 12 10,a53 : )i19 iLH25 4,180 2,ti09 19,97:l Dec. 26 !), 977.5 :375, 5 3 850 4,180 2.000 20,4JC, Jan. 9 !)/>11 481.;i :{,8:!5 4,,1:;o 2,000 21,107 Jan. 9,, 8,8!10 (i;J3 4 ~25 5 .180 2,000 :l0,!128 _,, Feb, G 8,f)-1;) : Vi4 4 ,2:!;) 5,nso 2,000 20. H3it5 Feb, 20 8,JHO 415 !">,:JOO (i.~HO J,500 20,161 .i\ lllar. 20 7, i43 5 801,5 f>,475 G,830 1,100 18.7U8 5 Between Jan nary first 1914 and .l\farch 20th 1914, sixty-six (66) chests were imported.

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304 PROGRESS OF SOCIAL REFORMS. Opium suppression in China: During the attempted second revolution, opium had a temporary chance of revival, but reports from the various provinces indicate that the Government is once more exerting itself successfully to stop the growth. Many law breakers have been shot and opium uprooted. The Secretary of the International Reform Bureau, Peking, has been given a Watching Brief by the Government, and ,vherever he :finds that opium is once more seeking to raise its head he has the use of the Govern ment telegraph$ to warn the officinls concerned. Kweichow and Yunnan: A correspondent (Jl,far lOth) reported that he saw no opium in extensive vnmderings whereas he lmd seen some last year. But smokers seemed as abundant as ever, and some are slaves of the drug in the shape of Anti-op_inm pills. The opium crops were rooted up in Y mman in Pebruarv. Kansu: The Governm ent says that strong measures must he taken this year against the cultivation of opium. Steps have already been taken in the southern part of the province where officials, gentry and troops are all working hard to prevent th0 cultivation of the poppy. 'l'hree of the leading officials, two civil and one military, have been cashiered by the President for allowing opium to grow. Fines are being collected on the land sown with the poppy and some Tls 70,000 was collected in one district. On January 16 it was reported from Sining that the biggest harvest ever known in this country had been reaped. The farmers had just run crazy in growing opium, many of them not having sufficient grain for their own households. Well to-do people are buying it in large quantities as it is now an aecepted fact that this will be tile last year. Reuter 's correspondent said that a million Taels had been made this year from the tax on opium alone. Szechwan: '' News from the western borderland is to the effect that officials are very active in hunting out opium dealers, searching for secret stores of opium, confiscating and burning it, and arresting and detaining the headmen in districts where opium is found to be growing, until the offending farmers are delivered up to justice. Twenty special inspectors are at work.''

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IN CHEKIANG AND HUNAN, 305 Some officials are reported to be very active, while others are lax, but it is difficult to prevent secret growth amongst border tribes and in lon e ly valleys. Chekiang: Ou 1\farch llth, it was reported from Wenchow, which has had the notoriety of being a great opium growing district that'' during the past two years a most de termined and sincere effort has been made by the officials to suppress the cultivation of the poppy. Fifteen montlts ago, tens of thousands of acres were under cultivation despite the proclamations in every town and village forbidding the planting of the poppy under most severe penalties ..... Now the reward of such consistent and strenuous action by the officials is being rea ped in that the vast areas of land formerly given ove r to the cultivation of poppy are bearing a most promising crop of wheat. With the exception of four villages in Sieh 'i and two in Noech 'i, it can be said the old area is clear. Only in out-of-the-way places, amongst the in numerable hills, do we hear of small patches here and there. Even these are being diligently sought out. To day, the officials in charge of the bureau for the suppression of opium growing, made au appeal to the missions working in Wen chowfu for co-operation in finding out any places where opium is still grown He suggest e d that the native pastors and evangelists should report any crops, great or small, seen by them during their journeys. He further stated that a number of soldiers would b0 sent to the six villages mentioned above for the purpose of destroying the crops and arresting their planters. The impossible is thus being accomplished .'' Hunan: Ou October 27, the opium suppression bureau of II unan burned a vast quantity of opium on the drill ground of Changsha, as follows: Weight in ounces. Bought from Opium dealers..... .... .. .. .... ........... 4,300 00 Stock unsold and held by opium-merchants...... 34,8i6.W Bnn ght from small dealers .... ... ......... ..... ...... 2,850.00 Delivered by branch offices of the B,ll'ean ......... 31.361.80 Deposited by smokers.................................... 319 .00 Discovered from secret stores ......... ............ ...... lfUl44.00 Total ... ..... ... .. 9 I .fi5 T 00 A-39

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306 PROGRl~SS OF SOCIAL RRFORMS. Of the total : Canton opium ... .. .. .... .. ......... ........ ........ Szechwan opium .... ............................. Yun nan opium ..................... .. ............. Kwangsi-Yunnan opium ........ ........ .. .. ...... Native (Hunan) opium ........................ .. Opium residue ......................................... Faked Opium ........................... ... ...... ... .. Weight. in O\lllC.eS. 3fi,OO 19,774.50 22 8!50.00 10,470.00 4,!'i50.!'i0 ]30.00 ~ 3 740.00 Total .............. 91.551.00 Shantung: On September 13th, a correspondent at Taianfu reported that opium seemed to have been grown freely all over the province, and apparently nothing had been done by the authoriti e s to carry out the law, but we do not know what a.mount of trnth there is in this report. But on J anua.ry 2 lst, a letter from the same place stated: '' There is one thing to the credit of our Government, however. They have completely stopped the growth of opium in this part of Sh antung and smuggled opium from the north-west has much decreased in quantity. The price of the drug has gone up enormously and is out of the re ach of ordinary people. The consequence is many of the old habitual smokers are dying off while by far the greater number have ceased to use it." Manchuria: 'l'he Chinese officials complain that opium is being smuggled over from the Russian side. The Primorsk country is suitable for the rearing of opium and very much is grown there for smuggling p_urposes. The Rev E. W. Thwing, Secretary of the International Reform Bureau, continues his activities against opium and other forms of vice. The Bureau has lately purchased a fine site in Peking for permanent headquarters, on Morrison St. Dr. W. W Yen, the well-known son of the late pastor Yen of Shanghai, has been appointed Chinese representative at the Hague Opinm Prohibition Conference. Ci:;areltes cind Foreign Liquors: 'fhere are rumours of a tax on these but nothing definite has been done.

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>!ORAL REFORYI IN C.\'.'lTO:>I. 307 II. Ups and Downs of Moral Reform in Canton By Rev. A. Baxter, L. M. S., Canton 'l'he story of ~\Ioral H.eform in Canton since the l{evolu tion is certainly one of ups a~d downs. Generally speakiug, the upward process lasted from the Revolution until the rising in July last when the reform party were overthrown and the downward process began. A few instances will indicate the nature of the reforms attempted and the final result as we see it to-day. Gambling: To the credit of the old Government and especially the Canton Viceroy belougs the initial step in the suppression of this vice. A pleasing feature of the movement however was that the best of public opinion was on the side of the Viceroy. In March, 1911, all licensed gambling houses were finally closed and a monster p_rocession was organised to celebrate the event. As soon as the revolution broke out gambling booths began to appear again in the streets, and for a time the new Government had their hands too full with other things to pay attention to them. As soon as the politil:al situation was got somewhat in hand, however, an order was issued prohibiting pt1blic gambling, and this order was couched in such terms as left no doubt c1s to the intentions of the Government in the matter. ln a short time all street gambling disappeared. I came across one booth in the process of being literally torn to pieces by soldiers, and on another occasion found my way liloeked hy a crowd who were witnessing a raid on a gambling house by troops who wern using their pistols freely in ousting the gamblers. Naturally this prohibition order was noi carried out so thoroughly in country districts as it was in Canton, y0t, so far as my knowledge goes, up to ,July of last year very little public gambling ,ms in evidenee throughout the Province. Since the abortive rising iu ,T uly last, however, which placed officials of the old style 011<:e again in power, the gambling vice has gradually been coming into evidence again until now the business Guilds of Canton ,n-f petitioning

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308 PHO(;RJ<:f;:-OF SOCIAL REFORMS. the President to re-license the vice. I am told that the present local officials for the most part fayour snch a course although the Press and the best of the people are against it. We await with some anxiety the final result. Opium: The attitude of the new officials in this matter has, all along, left little to be desired. From time to time during 1913 provincial orders W8re issued aiming directly at the total suppression of opinm trade and opium smoking, and the end of the year was marked as the time when all traffic in the drug must cease. In this reform, as in gambling the weight of public opinion was with the Government, and this fact accounts largely for the great measure of success achieved. It was not a very ur1commo11 sight a year ago to see an opium smoker carrying his pipe and accessories on a tray in front of him, a chain round his neck, being escorted to prison by a company of soldiers. l\leasures much less drastic seem to be in vogue now and indeed, if reports are true, attempts are being made to try and revive trade in the drug, and tlw local officials do not seem to be greatly exercised about it. Child Slavery: The credit of initiating reform in this sphere belongs entirely to the reform party. If, during their short time in power, they had done nothing more than the noble work they have done for the emancipation of child slaves in Canton, they deserve to he held in memory. In 1912 a law was passed that no girl need be a slm:e who desired her freedom. This legislation soon landed the Government. with a crowd of slave girls who had no means of earning a livelihood and something had to be done for them. The Government therefore took over the grounds and buildings of one of the best known templ e s in Cantonthe abode of a famous idol-and turned the whole place into a school and dormitories for the slave girls. Early in tlw year I had an opportunity to visit this school and w:1s most interested in what I saw. Several hundred girls were there, divided into classes nnd taught, for the most part, by C_hristian teachers. A foreign missionary lady was teaching kmdergarten, and the girls were also taught machine knitting and manual work of various kindi::. 'l'he grounds of the temple made a splendid play-gronnd. The actual temple-a

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CHILD SLAVERY AND PB.ISON WORK. 309 beautiful hall richly ornamented-was the children's dining room. As for the famous idol, I came across him, still in good condition, but reposing in a most undignified manner on the floor of a tea cher's room. During last year the school was carried on, and I am told that between 700 and 800 children were cared for. Since July, however, it has been more and more obvious that the present offic ials are somewhat embarrassed with the s c hool. They do not likr to close it, but they have not much enthusiasm for keeping it open. 'l'he cost of running the school is also being brought forward as a reason for discontinuing it. At present there fore while the school is still in existence, the general opinion seems to be that the Government will grasp the first opportunity that offers to dose it, and may then permit the previous owners of the children to buy them back again. Prison Reform: Scarcely l e ss interesting and gratifying to the Chl'istiau worker has been the policy of prison reform initiated by the r e form government. Soon after the Revolution, a large Prison Reformatory was erected outside the city on the site of an old fort. It is planned along the lines of a modern convict prison, and is in complete contrast to the oldtime Chinese prisons. It is well built and airy, and some of the cells are, I inutgine, from the point of view of those likely to live in them, almost comfortable. 'l'he chief of police, Chan King-wa, who was done to death a few months ago, was a broadminded and able official, and though not a Christian was well dispos e d towards Christ ianity In addition to providing work for the prisoners he was not unmindful of their moral need. He invited the Christian Church in Canton to preach Christianity to the prison e rs. Needless to say both foreigners and Chiu-ese took np the work with enthusiasm. The Government provided a steam launch to convey workers to the prison and back twice a week, and did everything to encourage the work. Those of us who took part in this form of service can testify to the quiet attention of the prisoners to the preaching and their eagerness to possess the tracts we were allowed to d.istribute It was at once a splendid opportnnity and a spfondid challenge to our Christianity.

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:no PIWGRE:-S 01' S()CfAL JH(FOR!Vf:'<. Siuee the troubles in July last the Christian work in tho new prison has had to be discontinued. In some of the oid prisons in the city, however, work is still being carried on, and an attempt is likely to be made soon to try and gain entrance again into the new prison. Whether the officials will allow the preaching to be resumed is doubtful, but at any rate the attempt is worth making. Immorality: Canton has long been disfigured by houses of ill-repute with their glaring lights and blaring music A large revenue was drawn by the Government from these houses as was the case with the licensed gambling houses, and this made the old government slow to deal with the evil. However, a large :fire burned out several of the larger of these houses, and the new reform government shortly afterwards issued an order for the closing of them all. So long as they ,rere in power the reform party enforced the order. Of conrsP one is well aware that the closing of these houses docs not mean that this form of immorality was thereby suppressed. At the same time it was a large step in that direction. It is r,11 the more saddening therefore to have to report that these houses are being fitted up again as dens of vice, and the government now in power is once more to draw a large revenue from them Idol Worship: ( Abolition of Street Shrines.) I suppose that for ages the people of Canton have been accustomed to burn their incense and worship at tlie little street shrines of the city seeking the blessing they believed the idols could convey. In recent years the number of men seen at these shrines has been very few, but women continued to use them in great 1mmbers. Proclamations were issued by the reform Government ordering the removal of obstructions in the streets that hindered the access of fresh air, and amongst these were the gates in the smaller streets and the street shrines-where they u:ere obstriictions. The result was that in a very short time practically all street shrines were demolish ed. A reform like this, carried out in the course of a few weeks almost makes a foreigner living in Canton rub his eyes in bewilderment. \Vhat the change meant to some of tl1e poor ignorant women was pointed out in a Chinese newspaper afterwards where instance were given of how at

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ATTITUDE OF 'fHI~ GOVJmNMENT. 311 places where formerly shrines had been, women were found weeping. It was the old story-" Ye have taken away my gods ...... what have I more ?". The application of this to the Christian Church is obvious In regard to this reform the attitude of the present officials has not been so marked as in some of the others. Not a few of the shrines however have lately been rebuilt, and if it did not cost money to rebuild them, probably many more would be rebuilt. Interest in the matter on the part of influential people, however, does 11ot seem to be strong enough to reviv e the use of the shrines so it is likely that Canton has seen the last of most of them. The above will perhaps suffice to indicate specific cases of morill reforms and the present situation in regard to them. It is easy now to say that the reform Government went too fast and it is true as many felt at the time. Such legislation, for instance, as the following took one bark in thought to the days of Calvin's rule in Geneva. Last y ear a ban was placed on several of the popular Chinese novels. The Benevolent Guilds were forbidden to circulate them, and booksellers were not allowed to sell them. Street acting was forbidden because, amongst other things, it collected crowds and wasted peopl es' time. .Public celebration of old time feast days and holidays was strongly discouraged and even the Dragon Boat Festival was forbidden. In such a poliry of course the Government did not carry the rank and file of the people with them. Moreover, the avowed Christian sympathies of some of the officials caused much opposition. The downfall of the reform party was looked upon by many as the defeat of Christianity. Confucius is now the watch word, and the name of this good man is used to coYer a multitude of beliefs and practices that he, no less than Christ, would have indignantly repudiated However, amongst the student classes and, of course, the Christians there now exists a disappointment, keen and sometimes bitter In what way this disappointment will ultimately express itself it is hard to say The forces of reform are not yet altogether spent, and what the near future may hold for this great old heathen city he would be a rash man who dared to predict

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CHAPTER XVIII WORK AMOMG THE BLIND OF CHINA By George B. Fryer, Superintendent, Institution for the Chinese Blind, Shanghai What is being done to assist the million or more Blind of China is ver~ little ]mown to the readers of the Year Book. i\fany are aware that institutions and schools have been established to alleviate the snfferings of the Blind and to give them a start in the battle of life, but their numbers, scope, methods and results, are known only to a few who have given the subject their special attention. It is to be my privilege to acquaint you with what has so far been aecomplished. Th e exa ct number of Blind in China can only be a matter of conjecture, as it is impossible to form a correct estimate. When we consider the many causes for blindness among the Chinese and their ignorance of the proper means of prevention and cure, it may be safely supposed that the percentage is considerably above that of Europe or America, notwithstanding the infanticide of girl babies, and the high rate of mortality among the poorer classes. In the United States the ratio in proportion to the inhabitants is about 1-1,300; in Europe 1-800/1,200 .. In Africa, especially Egypt, 1-100/ 300; in India 1-500, and in China it is probably not more that 1-400 which makes the enormous number of a million. Provision for the Blind in China : The Chinese are, as a na tion, very philanthropic, as they believe that by giving money to paupers they obtain merit in heaven. In nearly all parts the Blind are unfortunately counted with the paupers, and thus share the pittance that falls to beggars and others who receive small sums of money, or a bowl of congee, if applied for in person to the proper quarters. This relieves for a time, it is true, the physical needs, but it wounds the spirit at the same time. No notice is taken of the moral or spiritual needs In Canton there is a Blind village '' where all the blind in the vicinity may obtain a small hovel, rent free, and

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BEGINNINGS. 313 receive a couple of dollars a months for food and necessities .Jn large centres such as Shanghai and Hankow thel'e are guilds where on the payment of a certain amount blind men or boys may learn to become fortune tellers and singers. They learn popular songs of a questionable charaeter or pre tend to tell fortunes. The case of blind girls is hopeless; they are either done away with in infancy, or sold for im moral purposes. All real provision for the Blind in China has therefore been made by Christian Missionaries. Beginning with Mr. Syle's work in Shanghai in 1845, Mr. IVIurray's in Peking in 1874, and Mr. Hill and Mr. Crossette's in 1888, the wor k has steadily increased until now there arc eleven schools in working order, and more are to be started next year. There are two asylums or workshops for men and in many parts of the Republic missionaries are te:iChing from one to six to read and write and work. In these institutions or s(;hools there are from five to six hundred boys and girls being taught, while over four hundred have graduated and most of those at p resent living, are leading usefol lives in Christian or educational work. These schools are in different parts of China and are almost e ntirely supported by foreign fuuds. The Chinese Officials have from time to time given generous donations, and had it not been for their kindly help the schools would be in a less flourishing state Some schools have an endowment or are supported by Mission Boards at Home, while others depend entirely upon local subscriptions and profit on the sale of work When possible the pupils pay for their board and extras, but tuition is in nearly all cases free There are schools in five provinces and in Manchuria (1), Chihli (2), I-Iupeh (1). Kwangtung (3), FL1kien (2), Hunan ( 2), Kia.ngsu (I). F'our take only boys, four only girls, and four both boys and girls The pupils are all supposed to return home after graclua tion, but provision is made for the girls to remain in the school for life if they are unable to do anything else. They are kept in separate quarters, thus making a sort of Industrial Home. A-40

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314 WORK AMONG THE BLIND OF L'HINA. Courses of Study: These schools generally have a literary department, a department for music, an industrial department and something in the way of ph,rsical and domestic work. The Literary work varies a great deal, but a number aim to give a course modelled after that prescribed by the Board of Education at Peking. The chief difficulty is in the absence of text-books. The Bible is the chief Book u,ecl, and nearly all of the graduates know the four Gospels by heart, besides understanding the meaning of the important passages of the whole Bible Blementary geography, arithmetic and sciences are taught, while one or two schools take up the Chinese Classics and more advanred work. In Music, as many as show ability are taught to play the organ and other instruments One or two schools have an orchestra A graduate is supposed to be able to play and sing over oue thousand hymn tunes besides organ voluntaries and other pieces The Industrial is one of tlie most important depart ments. The schools in :F'oochow, Kowloon and Moukden make a good profit on their work. 'J he boys in Foochow make matting, blinds, string and bamboo basket ware. Gir]s in Kowloon, Moukden and Canton knit, finding a good sale for their articles. Hankow has had to close its department owing to lack of funds, but the other schools are making good progress under the many adverse circumstances. Physical education is not up to the standard it might be. Nearly all of the schools have house work or calisthenies from one to six hours a week, but nor:e have anv kind of a gymnasium or much of any outdoor athletics an account of lack of room or of funds. It is hoped that before long a National Athletic League will be formed among the sehools for the Blind, whieh will foster this much needed side of the work. Graduates: There have been in all over four hundred graduates. Some have been retained as teachers or have gone to assist in the same capacity in other schools. Some are Evangelists, Bible-workers or Organists. Only a very few besides those engaged in Christian work are among seeing people. This will of coursPcome in time, especially when

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DIFFICULTms AND NEJWc'. they are able to support themselves by rneaus of manual work or enter the business world. Difficulties and Needs. I!'rom the reports following it will be seen that what is being done for the Blind in China is but as a drop in the bucket." Not more that one thousand are being in any way assisted, or one out of every thousand blind persons. Is it not time for us to look the problem sq1rnrely in the face as has been done in other countries ? The work iu China is very urgent especially among girls and women. Kindergartens, day and boarding Schools and Universities have been established in nearly all important centres for seeing children, but no note has been taken of those who are defective and cannot attend these schools. What lrns so far been done has been by a few devoted missionaries who have given from their scanty store of time and funds for the furtherance of this part of missionary work The Mission Boards at Home ought to give this important work their most serious attention The Chinese Government will not move in the matter until we have something more to show. The general cry from all the existing schools all over China is "More buildings; more money; more workers.'' One of the greatest diffieulties in the way is the prejudice that exists not only among the Chinese themselves but even among the foreigners. Blindness is synonymous with beggary and lmtil this barrier is overcome we will be seriously handicapped. The Blind usually have brains as good as, and sometimes even better than, those who can see, and it is our duty to give them as good, or even a better, education than their more favoured brothers. We need then more buildiugs, more money and more workers. 'l'he existing Institutions should be strengthened and supported by all missionaries in the vicinity. New Union Institutions should be started in every Jorge centre, v,ith a capable experienced Missionary in eharge who can give his or her whole time. The work in each centre should comprise homes for blind babies ; kindergartens ; primary and middle schools; and arrangements made with the uni versities for the admission for such as wish higher learning; industrial homes mid workshops for adults and homes

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STATISTICS PROVINCE I( w ANOTUNO I I MANCHUIUA CHIHU I KWANOTUNO KI ANOSU Nllmeollnitltlltlon, Dn,ld n m i;.-hool fortl wl!liu,I, }l ,1~~nj1~:::tl lor Ll11g Gw1111 Cu Tcn~. llllnd I, StirimJ;J\~~ r l.'.u Nil n,ioh n ,1,u -------1-----1----,,----1-----1---,---,-----,--~----,----1-----1 llnnR" Yl11 lbh10 11,!oh. / Pcntee<>.'IMIO rph1111, IIR' ln<1lt11tlonforthe l'.h h l o!SCblf n d ==-----l-----l--,----l-----c---l------,-----ll'-'-'"'~'01111, .,.,llkhn~. f,: { l!<.S..~. DnteOIA,lnu1"ln!ln11 h, 01~mllllf, Tin"' nmlnu,inc.olnun1l~ln11, K t n,len:t1 ten b, 11<:10de1nl c e, Musi< 1m?'on.l Class c, O r chl:! lndn~trlnl Wnrk, n, l,l,t nl nrtlc1cs mn,lc. b. Which PH'9thebet J:<'''"'"1r. ...... F.~ t llllll tNI :-;n, of hlini,.r,; ,,u,1,ott$ h)' >uh.<, )lo.,tlr ~or.,i1111. Gcora:oA,Clarto n. a. ;. h.M, ,1.10. Cloocd h 19(11 Xolumb1omect1 hc lus.es, l>r. llurr Nil e 11ml J.ll~ Luer nnrh11m (11)20. (clll. Hou1chohl 11nI Kul ttl11g. linh1cl 11rtlclcsofelot11 lng. 1l n uknwl11i1i11l11n,l l11itinl111,.1 'i11ul FlnnlH,atcm lln,ille8rsie111, Abou t l~'ll. H,,.,or,l s olcrn,,r.,1h11t1 :l,OW \'ilh, i. c 11c11r lor !il:O fnrm11e ,~Iler. lilluJ-rom free, Nothhurmorodonc, ,rntk,u s A ll renI t1111 f41.R',"OOki111t, ~l\'(111[, (11).jz, (J.J;\I. (cl Hairl,. (,1),1,; Kn1n.,<1 u r t lclel, "",.,,tH:1 & IJ11bic, J11ckuts. n.2. b.2. 11,'l. i,.a. 11. ~-1, \1,r.cven dAl n.2. :;:lmt.lcwom on. Subsrrlntlnu,""' 1,ro11tn11 U'ork. linittiutt. n.l. n .l. Nouc. -~ ,,.; l!Wl):, h.S.l>t ,1911.'1,I Sub1el1>tlo11>, P,.otfn11fu. Sub~trlp1lons. 1!11:!. 1\11~. Snl,,.niptions. ~nroht:11, ShullR"hnl. 1911 rnn F.mlowmcnt. Ford111. )11,;,,llnthlloo t!11ro hllnd, !:'{t d.1 7, a.,. ~: lt d,11, Knilllnrworkonl r Toh~bcr1111soon. We 1111\'c mnrlcstrh,r, blind~ nnd rope s ,mnpl0$, n.1. h.1. llch>ltllt' n hli1 n,~11. 11 Chrl1tl~' 1oro11J,.adw1i 1. b,J, 11, 1 b. l 11,2, a.I I ~:li:lu 1>oi11tsy,uem. lnltl11l11ndnnn l lnltllltnndFhI. ,-, Oho,N. Hho1.1..,, R11n11ln. Jumpln1. foot1w,ll,bu111"0111HI :-----+-----~ tnol hnltcdform11ch f1-I-F

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l!'>STITl!TJO N ~ TH~: 111,INI>, SIIANGIIAT 317 tbat time th e pupil will spec. ialbie on t he subjC<'ts lw is most suited for. The fodustrial department Jtt present consists or fraiuing the hnnds aud fingers, similnr to an ordiun1y kiudergnl.en. We make rope and string, nud luwe started ou reed hliuds but Out' present qua1ers nre inaded by Dr. Giitxlaff about. 18-10, when he rcsc,ncd :.ix blind girli. in Cant.lJn. Two we!"e sent to America to the l'hilndelphia Justitutiou, wh1:1-c the writer hnd the plrn,surc of seeing them about two yea1s :,go. The othts wc1-c scut to Loudou Ouc subsequcntlv returned to China to assist Miss .Aldcrse, in her school "io Niugpo, while tht' otlwr th1cc died a fell' y('fll'S afterwards. Industrial Work in the Native City, Shanghai An Institution m1s stnrtcd in Shnughni ahont the ye11r 1845 resulting from collections take n at the communion servfocs he ld at the honsc of Bishop Boone 11<'111' 'J'nng Ka Doo. l\fr. M 'Clutchic, Mr. Sp11ldiug and the He\'. Jo:. W. Syle distributed these funds mnong the needy Chinese around ~hem. All kinds of impositions were of course attempted, 80 tt was decided to c onfiue their dinrity to the many lllind.

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11\ST!Tl'TION ~on Tim 111,IND, SHA1'GHAT. 317 that time the pupil will spe<'ialir.e on the subjects he is most suited for. The I'udustrial department at present consists of training the hands aud fingers, similar to an ordiua1y kiudcrgarl.cn We make rope and string, and h11vc started on reed blinds, but om present qumters arc innde(tuate. In the Literary department the same subjeds are taught as in schools for t.he seeing, tlw courRe prcsc ribccl by t.he Government schools being followed as closely as possihl<'. In l\lusi< : Uw pupils have l earned to sing about. sevcntyth e hymns. On the organ they haV!l leamcd to pl11y from ten to fifty pie c,es according to the ability of the pupil. The Physic11l work is greatlv enjoyed by all, and has re ceived mu c h h e lp from the Physical Dircdor of the Chincsli Y.l\LC.A. The boys have an hour a day in wand or dumh. bell drill, besides outdoo1 athlrtics, running, jumping, et!' 'l'he Institution is uncle1; t.he superintendence of the writer who is supported by a strong Committ e e of Busines.'I Men and i\Iissionarics. Schools and lns:itutions in Operation The ffrst work of which w< have record, ,rns started by Dr. Giitr.laff about 1840, when he r1sened six blind !!'iris in Canton Two were sent to America to the l'hil11delphia Justitutiou, where the writer had lhe plcasmc of seeing them about two years ago. The otlwrs were sent to London. One subsequently returned to China to assist l\liss Aldcrsey in her school in Ningpo, while till' othl'r th1ec died a few yrars afterwards. Industrial Work in the Native City, Shanghai An Institution was started in Shanghai about the year 1845 resulting from collections taken at the conununion services held at the house of Dishop Boone near Tung Ka Doo l\lr. l\l'CJatchic, Mr. Spalding and the Hcv. K W Syle distributed these funds among the needy Chinese around them .All kinds of impositions were of course ;tttcmptcd, so it was decided to confine their charity to the many Blind.

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:H8 WORK .B!ONG THE BLIND OF CHINA. Several soon became applicants for baptism, but there was a langour and inertness, so it was soon perceived that thev wanted ,, something to do.,, 'l'he idea of a blind man working seemed out of the question. However they were persuaded to try and before long about fifty were making string and straw sandals, coir door mats; and other things which found a ready sale, and thus was founded the first Institution for the Blind in China. This Institution still exists in the native City of Shanghai, under the auspices of the Church Missionary and American Church :Missionary Societies. It has received funds and endowments from benevolent people, and now holds some valuable property and sufficient income from its endowment to pay the running expenses. There are now eleven old men and two women who knit stockings and make straw rope and receive about a hundred and fifty cash a day for remuneration. This amount serves to keep the wolf from the door, and at the same time makes them more self-respecting than if they received the same amount gratuitously. There is a big future for this Institution, and it is hoped that it will soon extend its field of influence and assist the several hundreds of blind men and women in and about Shanghai. Mission to Chinese Blind in Peking (Mrs. Murray, Superintendent) This school was organised in 1874 by the late lamented Rev. W Hill ?IIurray, who at that time was in the service of the National Bible Society of Scotland, and had travelled greatly in the northern provinces. Mr. l\Iurray was as well known in Peking as almost any foreign resident, and more so than most. He was much touched by the number of beggars who were also blind. He started his work on a small scale but it gradually grew, aud a visit from l\fiss C. Gordon.Cumming of Scotland, enabled the intrepid man to acquire larger premises for the ever increasing uumber of Blind who applied for admission. To-day the I-Iill Murray Institute is quite a feature of Peking, and l\Iiss. Gordon Cumming has raised an endowment fund, without which the work could never have been carried on. Altogether over ~50 Blind have been trained in the school To-day quite a number

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MISSION 'fO CHINESE JlLIND, PEKING, 3] 9 of them may be found active in Christian work, some as organists, some as evange!ists, some as teac hers of other Blind, and some as Bible readers. 'l'hey are to be met with in Manchuria, Shansi, Shantung and Chihli, and the headmaster at the I-Iankow School for Chinese Blind was a pupil of Mr. Murray's. At present there ate 7 girls and :H boys in the School. :Most of these are able to re11d correctly and quickly, many play the organ with wonderful accuracy, and the girls receive special training in needle work, knitting, etc. Since the death of Mr Murray, his devoted widow and daughter have carried on the work without a break, and with great success. There are three Chinese helpers. A son of l\fr. and lVIrs. Murray is now in Scotland being pre pared to take the oversight of the school. Mr. Murray started out to invent a system for the Blind. He hewm with the initial and final system but, after some experience, abandoned that in favour of the numeral system. It was from Mr. Murray that Mr. Crossette, who lived with him, became interested in the work, and, as a result, he visited the Rev. D Hill at I-Iankow, who, later, organised a school there for the many Blind, and through Mr. Crossette one of Mr. Murray's pupils, v:ho was an expert in the system originally taught by him, that of initials and finals, b e came a teacher in Hankow. Mr. Murray also invented a system of shorthand for the Blind, as also a type writer, and, oftent.imes, visitors have been surprised to notice the accuracy and speed with which some of the Blind can reproduce with ease portions dictated in Chinese. l\1r. Murray also invented a system cif reading for the uneducated Chinese who are not blind. By this system a man or woman of ordinary intelligence can learn to read and write in from two to three months The books issued in Murray's system are prepared at the School in Peking, and a number of the Blind, under the superintendence of a competent Chinese, are able to do this work without error.

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320 WORK AMONG 'fHE BLIND OF CHINA. One of the most touching sights is to watch these scores of blind people at service in their chapel, joining in Christian hymns with great heartiness and sweetness, and following the lessons read, in their owu Bi~les. The school, in nddition to .Mrs. and Miss Murray, is nrnnnged by a committee, on which members of the various Missions and the Community are represented David Hill School for the Blind, Hankow (Rev. George A. Clayton, Superintendent) The David Hill School for the Blind in Hankow was founded in 1888. At :Mr. Hill's request, l\fr. Crossette came from Peking, walking the entire distance. He found an empty school house suitable for forty pupils, and gathering six blind boys together with the assistance of Mr. Yii, a blind man whom he had rescued in former years and a graduate of the Peki11g school, spent the mornings in giving instruction in Christian Truth. He engaged a Christian basket maker to teach them to make baskets in the afternoons. Mr. Crossette :md Mr. Hill worked out another system of Braille as that used by Peking was not suited for the Hankow dialect. Under the fostering care of David Hill, and those whom he from time to time assot:iated with him in the work, the school pursued its course of usefulness till the time of his death. Since then the school has been under the auspices of the Wesleyan :Methodist Mission. Space would not suffice to tell the story of the develop ments that have taken place during the past quarter of a century. The industrial departme.at has proved a failure, the scholastic side has increased in the influence and the breadth of its curriculum. Arithmetic, geography, history, and the Chinese Classics are taught, as efficiently as in any school for the sighted. Music and singing are an integral part of the training of each pupil. The Scriptures are taught as carefully as in a. Bible school. The original structures have been pulled down, and buildings especially adapted for the Blind have been

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MENG S.B[ SCHOOL FOR DLIND, CANTON 321 erected. A girls' department was opened a couple of years ago, and now five girls are in the school. Only the lack of accommodation prevents there being many more. There are in all 45 boys, of whom thirty-five have been led to take Christ as their personal Saviour. About a hundred and twenty have graduated from the school, some of whom are holding responsible positions in other schools or in private work. Ivleng Sam School for Blind, Canton 'l'his School is in charge of Dr. Mary Niles and Miss Lucy Durham and the following is an extract from their last Report: The school for blind girls, that was started twenty years ago in Canton by Dr. Niles, has within a year expanded into three A few boys lrnd been under instruction from time to time, and last year a school for them was opened on grounds adjoining the girls' property. It is limited to fourteen pupils at present; but a building that can accom modate forty boys has just been erected. The pupils of these two schools come from families, and must return to their parents during the summer vacations and must leave school when the course is completed, thus avoiding the breaking of family ties. The aim is to teach parents their responsibility toward their children, even though blind or otherwise defective. We steadily refuse to accept children as gifts. Parents must do something towards the support of their ehildren. 'l'l1e amount paid is often 8mall in proportion to the expense incurred hy the school, bnt it helps to hind tl,e parent to the child. 'l'he girls rec:eive a good common education that fits them to be teachers or eva11gcli8ts, 1md the best ones find ready employment Two schools for Blind in other places are supplied with teachers from among our graduates, and some assist in schools for sighted people Our pupils are t:~ught to knit and to clo housework except cooking, which some learn at home. Six girls have rect~ived certificates in massage. l\Iusic holds an important place in the sehool and th e ability to play the organ and sing has helped many a girl to get employment. A-41

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322 WORK AMONG THE BLIND OF CHINA. The work of the pupils grades from the kindergarten to normal training. Some of our girls are selected yearly to atteud other schools that they may have the benefit of being with seeing people before they go out to support themselves. Or they may be placed with Bible-women till they learn to carry on work by themselves Sometimes we lo:m them an organ, although the Chinese nsm,. lly provide an organ if we send some one to pl a y. 'l'he curriculum for boys will be similar to the girls', but there will be more industrial work, to enable the boys to supplement the money paid by the parents. The aim is to make that school largely self-supporting. Probably the trade of making bristle brushes will be taught. Friends from New Zealand have contrilmted liberally towards purchasing the property, but ,vish the support of the school to come from China. One young man, who learned to read Braille here, was educated for the ministry by the C. i\I. S. and has been preaching for three years. Another has done well in a hospital as an evangelist and masseur. One man is studying in the Theological College at Fati, Canton. The third school came to us from the Chief of Poli c e He visited our school last June and said there were many blind girls that he wished to save from evil lives, and he must look to us for help. We offered to take 100 girls under ten years of nge and to conduct a school for them. As th e re was no building available, we proposed to crert a mat house on our land, and began to prepare for a new school. Everything was ready, and teachers, and servants on hand, when one afternoon in August, police officers cmnc to say that some 66 girls had b em1 brought by the m to our river landing. Dr. Niles used advanced pupils as helpers and taught. reading in Braille, thus giving them a good start. In a little while they and the new teachers were all doing regular work. 'l'hese government wards are eager to learn whatever is taught them and enjoy their work and play. Some show gre a t interest in the Christian life and even pray in the evening meetings There has heen no trouble ,vitlt improper

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BLIND BOYS' SCl!OOL, l~OOCHO\\'; language althongh many came from the worst of houses. \Ve keep this school separate from the other one, and do not allow the inmates to mingle on the playground with tlw oth1~r girls, except by speeial invitation. .c\s many of these wards are from three to fi vc years of age, we started a kinder garten class, taught by one of 011r experienced graduates and a seeing teacher who w::is sent to a training class thrce days in the v.eek, to learn methods. A Chinese gentleman lrns given $15,000 l\Iex. for a building. As this money has heen promised to Dr. N"iles we hope soon to build on land adjoining the present srhool for girls. There are still mally more girls to he rescued and we hope they may he soon taken from their dark snrronndingr.; nrnl shown the Light, that shines to lighten them also 'L'here are &t present 126 pupils, 110 g'irls and 16 boy~:. Blind Boys' Schoof, Foochow (Mrs. George Wilkinson, Superintendent) This work was opened by i\Irs. Wilkinson in ] 898. By untiring and self-sacrificing effort a school has been ]milt entirely on ]?aith lines, the money coming from local subserip t.iou and from sale of work done The pupils have, however, paid a small fee wlHne\er able The emphasis has been placed on the Industrial work, and after a great many failures, the department at last pays for itself. 'l'he boys make floor-matting, wintr>r straw nrn.ts, suu blinds, baskets and string. Tl,e matting is shipped to England and other countries, aud during the past fonr rnonth8 over $:300.00 worth has been sold. Tlwre are now seventy~1\ight boys, which taxes the hnildings to thei1 utmost capacity. They read for half a day and work the rrst. A 8pccial featnre is the singing an(1 organ playing, and anyone who has been able to visit thiR r.;chool wi U remember the blending of their voices in earols and hymns. The buildings arc of native construction and the industrial slwd is (ntirely in the open; the climate making thir.; possible. The boys spend as rn1wh time as possihl1\ in the opc>n air. They haYc out-door athletie:,; Pvcryclay ancl

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324 WORK A~IONG nm BLIND OF CHINA. physical exercise every other day for an hour. Of the grad11ates ele\-en are working in the school and prove efficient in every particular. Blind Girls' School, Foochow (Miss E. Stevens, uperintendent) 'l'his work began in 1900 with just half a dozen hlind girls who had beeu snvrd from death and misery by some missionaries. Year hy year it has grown, until there are uow forty girls. Sewral of those reeeived have died and others have married, and quite a number have become Christians. At first it seemed the number must be limited to twelve, as we had no buildingand no funds, but when little half-starved blind girls appeared, led by a small brother or relative, who calmly announced that if they were not taken in by ns, it did not matter, as they would now have to be given to the beggars, it became impossible to refuse one and, just trusting God for everything, the work expanded. "He is faithful," and now we have a large red hriek building eapab'e of reeeiviug fifty or more girls. l\lost of them read the Braille fluently. Different books of the Bible have been supplied liy the British and Foreign Bible Society, which have been printed liy them in this system, and which are a great help to the girls. These blind girls memorise a grent cleHl of Scriptme. They also learn to m::ike matting and string, and they know how to spin and weave and knit, hesidrs helping in the cook ing of the Home and learning to sew. There is a kindergarten for the younger ones, and they e1}te1 into the joy of it all with great spirit. A little time ago a small baby appeared, brought hy a company of heutheu women, as her mother had recentlv died. As the b,tby was blind her father had decided she m'tlSt. he thrown ont. on the hill to die, and these poor women rescued her and heggrd me to take her, whieh I did. She is now adopted hy a lady in Canad11. I am hoping next month to !mild a wing for old blind women, the money for it h a ving nlr<'ady hren given hy a Canadian lady in memory of her rnother.-11 'oman '.s Wurl.: in the Far Ha.sf.

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INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, MOUKDEN. "Blindenheim" School for Blind Girls, Kowloon (Miss J. Reineke, Superintendent) 'l'his homL' for Blind girls was founded in 1901 by sisters of the Hildesheim Mission. It has steadily grown, uotwithstanding its many troubles. Now there are HO blind girls under the care of the Sistns. 'l'he girls are tanght the nsual subject:,;, and when old enough become teachers, Bible workers or remain in the i11dnstrial department. 'l'hey rnakc knitted garnieuts for which is fonud a ready sa 'e in llonglrnng and other places. They are thus provided witl1 a home where they may remain all their lives One feahire of the school de:;:erves special notice, aml that ii; the ednca.tion of a hlind, deal' and dnmh girl. Shl' was sent to the sd10ol for the deaf in Chefoo, .where she wi1s taught to read and wrik, besides being able to conven,e by means of the finger language to those around her. She has now returned to her native sphere ~;nd is able to eonver~e with her blind sisters who have eagerly learned to com municate with her. She kuits very pretty things whidt arc much admired bv visitors. This school has opened two or three branches, in other parts of the province, Shuirhowfu, where there are nine girls, Kayinchow eight girls, nnd the Erse-refuge two: 'l'wo girls are iu the school at Canton as tliere is no room for them. A new building has just been erected in Hougkong to accommodate the school proper, and the little ones and the industrial home will remain in the present building. St. Nicholas' Industrial School for Blin:l Chinese Girls, Moukden (Mrs. Frances A. Turley, Honorary Superintendent) The school opened with two pupils iu 1902. It elosed during 1D04 a11d part. of 1905, owing to the war, ete., and also because l\Trs. Turley was at home With reference to the work l\Ir. Turley writes: ''It is supported partly from prof-its of work and largely from free contributions. We l1ope to make it more and more selr-su p porting.

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::26 \H>HK ,UIONl; 'JJ-IJ, BLI:'-ID OF \'Ill.NA. "At prese11t the foreign contributions, mostly raised in l\lu11tl111ria and particularly by tbe Congregatiou ol' St. 1\icholas' Clmrdi, ?\ewchwang, are far in exce:;s of the Native. Previous to the Hernlution of 1911 tile local Chiuesc aud l\Ianclrn officinls contributed very liberally. ''There are now twenty-eight pupils. Six entered during Lhe curre11t year, and as we expect a considerable in,~rease uext year, a s eeoucl con:pouml for extra work has been hired. '' The sdt0ol is for girls, but at first we took in small hoy~, ,rho when too big to be with the girls were sent on to .Peking. One very bright little follow would haw gone but died Two girls came for a short time and left. .Another died, making altogether 35 pupils sime the opening. "The school was practically started as r, proper school in ] 906 The children ,,re taugl1t to r ea d and write and then they pass on into the industrial d epartment, after an avl'rage of three years in the ordirn1ry school, but in the meantime, they will have l earned to kuit. '' W e nse and greatly admire i\Iurray 's System, findiug it suitable for our northern Chinese. We have mtmerous hooks of the Bible and several well known religious book:,; aud a hyrnu book, also some of the elementary Chinese governmeut :,;ehool books, etc. '' Singing is ta11gl1t as a matter of conrse. vVe expeet the brightest girls to lenrn to play tlw organ, hut the main idea of this school after teaehing the girls to read and write readily, is to te11eh them to support themselv e s with houci,t work and to rnnkc, if possible, good wives and mothers. "Our chief industrial 1rork is knitting which promises to pay well. We may introduce other industries later on "Besides the liouonrary superintendent, who devotes practieally all lier tirnc and energies to the school, we have two thoroughly competent native women teachers and a blind girl, who has been long with llf!, for the sehool. For the industrial i;;ection we have a native woman and a well trained sighted girl, who ei-pecially is for machine work."

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SCHOOLS IN CHANGSHA AND PAOTINGFU. 327 School for Blind Girls, Changsha, Hunan (In charge of Miss Mathilde Vase!) 'l'his sehool '' writes l\Jiss Vase], was founded by l\1iss P. Kumm, in April 1908, with a deep sense of the need and helplessness of the blind girls, who, not being loved or cared for, are often given over to a bad and useless life. Our aim is to give them a comfort!tble home and such training as will enable them in the future to earn their own living:, and to become useful women. Our greatest desire is that they should learn to love and serve the Lord ,Jesus and to be His witnesses to others. '' Our girls have been able to earn some money towards their support., orders having been received from foreigners and Chinese. We also try to teach them to do cane work, bnt as much of their time is taken np by their studies this has been dropped for the present; we also hope to teach them to make brushes and brooms. Our greatest desire is that some of the girls may be used in the Lord's work as teachers, Bible-women or Bible readers in hospitals One difficulty \\'e have to face is that we have girls who are entirely given to us, and some of them have not so far shown much ability to help themselves. 'l'lie future of these girls is a problem. During the past few years there has been a. good deal of suspicion among the Chinese with regard to our work, but this i:;. quite different now. Several times articles have been inserted in the local newspapers acknowledging the work of our school and pointing out the lack of such work among the Chinese themselves. At Christmas a number of Chinese students from Yale College visited our school bringing a very substantial present for tl1e blind girls." Mang Yia Hsioh Hsiao, Paotingfu, Chihli 'l'his school was founded by the Chinese officials at Paotingfu at the instigation of Mrs. l\iills of Chcfoo. One of her graduates Mr. Sung Dzung-shi was placed in charge in 1909. It ,,as a dual sehool as there were both blind and deaf pupils. Soon after the rebellion of 1911 the officials were transferred so the school was closed last year owing to lack of funds.

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828 WORK AlliONG 'fHE BL1Nb Ol CHINA, There were sixteen blind boys in the school who were taught the usual subjeets. The system used was "the eigh l point system'' probably founded on the New York Point. It is to be much regretted that it was necessary to close the school as the students have had to return to their former life, and the little light they received will make the returning darkness doubly black. Pentecostal Orphanage, Sainam, K wan5tung (In charge of Mrs, Addell Harrison) This is an orphanage where destitnte children are c:a,ed for and taught to be respectable citizens. There arc in all thirty-seven children among whom arc many who are blind. It was opened last year by l\Irs. Harrison and her daughter. Mrs. J.:Iarrison writes:-'' I was never in a work that looked more eneouraging and nu~king such rapid strides forward as the work with the Blind." "Considering the difficulties we have encountered, loss ol' our building by the typhoon and many other disarraJ1gc ments, we feel much encouraged with the work of last ye;.i and its results. Praise God for the good work begun in China for the help of the Blind.'' School for the Blind, Yiyang, Hunan A school for the Blind has recently been opened 111 Yi yang. Both men and boys are admitted. 'rhere are at present fifteen. The Union Braille system is used and the course of study is similar to other schools They are weaving the cloth with which all their clothes and quilts are made, and hope soon to be able to place some on the market where it should :find a ready sale. Other School and Institutions 'l'here are other schools just opened or about to be opened, e g. one in Takhing on the West River, South China, A Union School in Chengtu, Szechwan, and another under the auspices of the llauges' Synod Mission in Honan.

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UNCON SYSTEM OF BIL\ILLE, 829 A Union System of Braille for Ch:nese Blind One great ohstaele to progTess in teaehing tltP Blind ltas hecn the difficulty of producing and multiplying text books. The hooks now in use, save such parts of the Holy Scriptures as have been stereotyped, have had to he prepared by the teachers of each school, and laboriously t:opied by hand by the P.npils. 'l'he time spent in copying out :,;uelt books eould in most cases be more profitably employed, wltil:,;t of nec'.essity books thm; prepared are sddom free from serious errors. Before this diflieulty could be overeome iL was necessary that a standard or Union Braille System should lw accepted hy those at work amongst .Mandarin speaking Blind, and to this end a conferenec was eonvclH!d in Shanghai in Deeenil .Hr last by the Briti:,;lt and Poreign Bible Soeiety and tltt: Ameriean Bible Soeiety. 'l'he two s:,,stems are the lfankow and Tsinehow Syskrns. The former l1as h,~en used in Hankow for 2!> years, anm was of later date, and was being used in school:,; for the Blind in Shanghai and Changsha. The following are the most i1uportant of the findings o[ the Conference:-(1) It was agreed that the Union System should he based on the h1iti:1l and fiwtl principle, and that the sbwdard of vronunciatio11 of Braille signs or combinations of signs, should he the Chinese elrnraeter and not romanised Chinese. (2) 'J'he sound chart prepared for tlte Tsinehow system, containing 448 sounds was adopted. (3) A standard of. character classifieation was adopted, and 1Hr. G. B. Fryer, of the Institution for Chinese Blind Shanghai, was requested to prepare a hook containing tlw grouping of Chinese charaeters with Braille equivalents. 'l'l1is book wili be most helpfnl to those who have the work of preparing books for the Blind, but it does not specially concern those who will use the Braille system for teaching 011ly. Tilfse points having been settled a good deal of time A-4:l

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330 WORK Al\lONG THE BLrND OF CHI~A. was spent in disc ussing questions relating more espec:ially to technical details which are of no interest to outsiders. The possible plan of adding a sufficient number of signs to those in use in the Hankow system, and so extending it as to make it express all the sounds needed in general Mandarin, \\as discussed for some time, the advantages of the Hankow system for sc-hool \i ork being recognised. On the other hand, the Tsinl'how system was shown to have speeial aclapta bility for use in teaching blind people in their own hom es And, as it was realised that the numher of Blind who enter schools will always be small compared with those who do not, it was decided that the system which was best calculated to meet their needs should be adopted. After the conference was over the Tsinchow code was subjected to a thorough reYision, the outcome bC'ing a <,ode ,Yhich contains what was he;;t in both the Hankow and Tsin1:how systems. This code is now being taught in tile Sehools for the Blind in Hankow, Shanghai and Tsinchow, and "ill in future be used in all the )Iandarin Braille Scriptures i:ssncd by the British and Foreign and the American Bihle Societies and in the books prepared for use in the diffe1ent sehools. A primer has already been prepared and sent to London to be printed. Striptures and other books ";n follow as soo n as possiblr. It is specially hoped that the missionaries who eanuot open sehools for the Ulind, but who may be interested in one or two blind persons, will proture primers and find out for t.hemselns how easv \t will lw to l1aYe these blind ones tanght. Those desiring copies of the primer may order from : David Hill SL'l.1001 for th1c Blind, Hankow. Sehool for the lllind, Liebenzell 1lission, Cha.nb,sha, Hunan. Institution for the Chinese Blind, 1,6 Korth Szedrnen Road, Shanghai. i\liss S. J. Garland, Tsinehow, K.n1su. American Bible Soeit>t.y, H Kiuhiang Road, Shanghai. British and Foreign Bible Society, 17 Peking Road, Shaughai.-7'/ic Chim.se Recorder.

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CHAPTER XIX MEDICAL WORK By the Editor Number of Students. So far only the l'cking Col11ge approxi111ates to 1lic iclntl staudarcl, and even there they have eorrntant difficnlty in heping their teachini; staff up to the point desired in number and effkiency. 1t is impossible to s11y d e finiteiy how many nre now under instruction in the l\Iedical schooli;, but probably, iucluding the preparatory year, something over 1.hree hundred. In addition there are a goodly number still being tl'ained aeeording to the old methods in smail hospital dasses, and these possibly may aggregate two hundred rnore, so that it seems :,;afe to say that probably live hundred medical students ;ire now g1tting some knowledge of westci'n rncditine under Christian influe111':cs.-J. B. Ne1:il, l\LD. West China Union Medical School. Iu Chengtu we m:e :;till strnggling to rncure a sufficient number of l\Jedical men and women to ad as t ea ehers, in order to begin the medicnl department of the vVest Chi11a Union University. We hav<~ hopes of launrhing the new enterprise in 1914.-0. L. Kil born, l\I.A., l\J.D. Need of Union what llOl'i' of our medical 11uss1011 colhg(s I think that there are some ten or twelve of these colleges so ca.lled But what an\ the y, these institutions to which we give this exalted name ? They arc tiny struggling schools, threatening to die any year, if one of the teachers breaks down. i.\Iost of them have only two, three or four teachers, and the Union l\Jcdical College, Peking-one of the best staff~d-is in urirent need of reinforcements in order that it nrny reach efficiency. The strain is tremendous, the need elam,mt, aml to meet it individual rnen are going hc~ ond their streugth,

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332 MJWICAL \\'OltK. aml threatening b!'e11kdown is the eonstaut state of the staff. Students are eager to enter in large numbers. li"ees are easily obtained, hut the staff is nnequal t<, the burden. 11 ow is this difficulty to be met t The an swer is simply, ''Union." By co-operation, every mission will benefit, every mission therefore should help. Large1 missions shonld allocate one fonrth of their medical staff to the tr.iiniug of students in onr-of the tr-n alerndy established schools, and each of these should have a stafT of at least six foreign and four Chinese teadwrs. Sporadic teaching should be discomagt'd, except a.s preparatoty for entnmee to these ,:ollegc,s. Missions that <:annot spa.re a man should make au anmrnl grunt. Promising students should be supported with tlw 1mderstanding that they will help with the five years in a mission hospital. tteasonable sularics sltunlll br given to graduates and no more efficient band of (;Jiristian workers will be found than um Chiuesc medieal missional'ies.Thomas Gillis.m, l\l.13., C.l\f. Hangchow and Union. As a matter of fact there are very few places at present wi1ere more than one mission has hospital worl, going on; so there has been, so far, little 01 no demand for union along this line. The work has lJeen so gr0at and the workers so few nncl the places where titey have been workiug su isolated, and distant from each other, that union more lhan in spirit has not been possible. As regards Hangchow, which is to be 1rftiliated in medi cal educ11tiu11 work with the medical education department of the Nanking University, we have a union of sorts; that is, the C. 1\1. 8. undertakes to do all the medical work for the varions missions working in this city and district, so that it is not necessary for another l\Jission to establish hospital work here, but if it so desires in another centre where there is greater need. This is because there has al ways been here a distinct policy of the various Mission Boards, not to overlap in medical work, and the plan has so far worked very well; hut with our medical school becoming an important centre for clinical instruction, in c01mection with Nanking, and in consequence thereof a large

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A ll!EDICAL POLICY. :1;J3 increase in our work, we would welrome help from other missio11s both in teaching and in dinical work, although we should he very sorry to see a sister mi,;sion plant down another hospital in this city while there are many large towns without onc.-D. Duncan l\lnin, 1\T.D. Medical Policy, It may be well to focus upon tlw following points:1. What is our aim to be' How much is Christian medical edncat\on to attempt'? ls it possible for Christian missions to take a consideralile part in the training of China's doctors from the point of view of ( a) money, (b) staff, ( c) clinical opportunities' Should we train rneclical mission aries only, or should we in addition train men for posts in the medical services and for general practice Are we to attempt to cover the whole field with medical eolleges, or should we concentrate on a few type institutions? Our aim should be related to what we consider to be a sound and practicable policy. 2. If concentration and consolidation are considered wise, how should these be effected, and to what extent! If further extension is called for, in what order should this take place? Can we frame a poliey on a minimum hnd maximum basis c1rranged in order of urgeney, and show clearly what societies are included in the scheme, and what it would involve for these sociefo:s ? :i. '\Ve should consider the effect of medical edneatiou on genera.I medical mission work, and our whole point of view as a missionary ageney should I.Je steadily borne in mind. 4. In any schem e which may he suggested, the possibility of co-operation of hospitals where medical work is carried on other than those which give a full course should be kept in vie,1. li'or instance, it would he well to consider whether the general seientiiic part of the medical conrse could take place in one centre. and the later stages at specially selected clinical schools 5 The minimum reqnirt'ments of an rffieient rnc,di,al school should be clearly statrd. This statemeut shon Id indnde accommodation, rquipment, staff, clinitiil work, the

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334 ;,r EDICAL \VOTI.K. number of beds to each student, aud the maximum number of students to each teacher 6. A policy should show the relation of medical educ:a tion to schemes of general education. 7. In addition, it wonld lw well to decide what is ne c essary for the training of medical assistants.--Dt. Cochrane. Co-operation with the Chinese in Medical Educational Work. 'l'he following summary of experience and answers have heen snpplicd by Dr. P. J. Todd, of Canton: ] 908 Private hospital of eighteen beds in rented building. 1909 Building rented for medical school. Forty-two stndents and thirteen teachers. 1!}10 Larger building, next hospital site, rented for medical college. 1911 New hospital opened with sixty beds, at a cost of $29,000.00 J 912 l\Ien 's sc:hool, 110 stude11ts and twenty-two teachers. What does co-operation ml'an to the missionary vhysic ian? In my experience it means: 1. 'l'he Chinese a.re made pa.rtners~an opposi1 '1g forre is turned into a promoting one. 2. Closer touch with the Chinese. 3. :iHore effediYe work with less expense to the Home Board. 4. It means, in our institution, that the Chines e are so pleasrd with the seheme, they expressed a wish that the different missions would appoint men to the work, with the understanding that they have a free ltaml in CJ11istian teachiug. H'!,11.t does co-orerr1.tion mean to the CMnesc? ] Greater eonfalence in the foreigner. 2. PPrsonal intere:;;t in helping bnild np th e institution. :',. 'I'he right spirit of depend e nc e and indepencleuee. Publication Committee's Work. 'l'he work of the Pnl1liention Committee drngs heavily. No new translators have eome forwnrd and some of tlw old ones n.t'e uow so busy they can

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UNION sc,mm.: 335 give little or no help. Books undertaken years ago are still on the stocks, new editions cannot be adequately revised and new books cannot be translated. It is absolutely essential for the publication work that one experienced man be set aside to give his whole time to translating and publishing work in China, taking the place of the present editorial secretary. All resolutions on the subject passed by Conference seem to be quite futile. It is high. time that at least one man is set free and the whole membership is uot exclusively occupied in healing and teaching. 'I'he hope that teachers would.find time to translate books on their subjects has had a very poor materafo:ation so far. Even the contrilmtion of short articles to the Chinese iWedical Journal is lnrgely limited to Canton. Dr. Cousland, the Publications Secretm y, has resigned for health reasons. China Medical Journal ( tfl {.i !/@ ~). This is the firbt l\fodic:al Journal in Chinese and was starfod in l\Iay 1912 with Dr. William W. Cadbury, University Medical School, Canton, as Rditor-in-chief. It is published every 2 months. 'fhere is a large staff of assistant editors both ChinN
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MIWTCAL \\'OUK. English is limited. But medical colleges in all parts of China which do th eir teaching in Chinese report large numbers of stndents. The missions interested in the N. China Educational nnion are planning that the present Union of teachillg in the Union l\fodical College is to be ext ended to the Hospital work as w e ll, and the new L. lW. S Hospital is to become a Union hospit a l and be largely extended Union Medical College for Women. Th e first commencement day of the North China Union Medical College for women, which was h e ld in the Asbury l\Iethodist Episcopal Church 11ear the I -Iatamen Gate, February J;3th, 1914, was of unique significance. Tt ww:; unique because the two ladies who re c eived the diplornfls of a fully qualified doctor are, as far as is known, the first Chinese young Ja(ties in North China to receive the western doctor's degree It was unique be c ause they earned their diplomas under great difficulty as the report of the dean, Dr. Eliza E. Leonard shows. THE DEAK's REPORT-'l'he Dean gav e a g eneral report as follows: It may not be out of place at this time to give, in a few words, the history of our school. The Union l\Iedical S c hool for Women was the child of onr hope and imagination for a number of years. A very short r e sidence in China is amply suffici ent to convinc e one of the needs of China's women nnd children :for the r1nalifiecl women physicinns and nurses of their race. The probl e m w11s how should wr. physi c ians from the ,rest, with hearts nnd hands and time filled with the a.llevi a tion of suffering, find an opportunity to instruc t others in the healing a1t. Our first eudeavour took the form of a Union Training School for Wom e n, the Arn e ricnn Methodist., l'resbyterian and London l\Iissions uniting in this under taking. A few years later the A meri<'an_ Board, A rnerican l\Iethodist and Presbyterian l\Tissions agre 2 d to nnite in teaching medicine to wom en. A cours e of six years, eight months p e r ye a r, with high entrm1e e rer1niremrnts \HIS arranged. Of intent we made our entrance reqnircments high, for our aims were high. We wished to turn ont well

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UNTON MEDICAL COLLEGE FOR WO)TEN. ;337 qualified women physicians, and only from seleet material can a. good prodrn.:t be obtained. With the then obtaining educational facilities for women we could not expect many pupils to meet our requirements, and at the same time pos sess tile necessary qualifications, ph,vsical and temperamental, for the life of a busy physician. In February 1908 onr coll ege doors ,rere opened and two young women entered, one from Chihli province and one from Kiangsu Our teaching staff is drawn in the main from the participating missions, and others particularly interested in the medical education of women have joined 11s. No member of our faculty is asked to giv e full time to the college. Hospitll l and teaching responsibilites in other schools claim a good shar e of time Fully appre ciating in the beginning that wr should find difficulty in staffing our school we dared not contemplate receiving students each year, and adopted au alternate year entrance scheme. Tims far we have entered but three dasses Our students represent the provinc e s of Chihli, Shantung, Szechwan, Kiangsn and Fukie n Instruction is given in the mandarin dialect Two years of English is an entrance reqnirement and English is taught throughout the course, our aim being to make medical literature in English available to om graduates, for 11s yet medical literature in the Chinese langw1ge is very inadequat e to the needs of a progressive physician. Some three years ago we entered the North China Educational Union, and om course has b,~en altered to cwYer five years of nine months each. Tlnu; far we have done our wori, in horrowed qunrters. The Methodist Girls' High School and women's Hospital graciously extended us shelter 'l'he tottering to its fall of the late Ching Dynasty, the Revolution, the establishment of a new order of government, the rebellion of the past year, haw each had a share in dehiying our building plans and have influenced the receipts of our fnnds necessary to the carrying ont of plans. However we hope within this year to hav e a lrnilding of our own and to materially add tu our equipment and effieieucy. A--!:1

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338 MEDICAL WORK The two young women who entered our doors in 1908 to-day receive their diplomas. The y have done thorough, effici ent work, and we are not ashamed of onr product. With joy and with confidence we send them ont into the world to serve their fellow men, giving them the message of the Master '' Inasmueh as ye did it unto one of these my brethren, even the least, ye did it unto me.'' The Nurses Association of China was founded at Kuling in August 1909, but nothing rnnch was done until Hll2 when a number of m e mbers had to take refuge in Shanghai. A constitution has be e n drawn up which states the obj eds to he:Seetion l. 'I'o promote fo11owship 11 rnong its m e mbers; t.o advance the inten'sts of the nurses' ea lling; for mntna l lwlp and comfort in times 01' illness, discouragement. or misfortuue. Section 11 To raise the standard of hospital training in China hy the adoption of a uniform cours e of study and examination for the Chinese. Regulations Governing Candidates for the Association Diploma for Nurses in China have been drawn up, also Regulations for nurses' training Schools and a scheme for examination of nurses in midwifery. Examiners are e lected and the Association is ready to work togeth e r for r egistration. 'rl1ere are now 68 members of the .Association. Post-Mortem Examination. :F'ollo,ying the untimely death of a promising young student in the .Ning po Presbyterian Academy which occurred on Tuesday oi last week, there occurred an event notable in the. missionary history of the city and the province. The death took plac e in tlw C.l\LS. hospital, after a short ilh1 e ss 'rhe father of the boy, l\Ir. Zee V c e -wai, being summon ed by telegraph, arrived the following morning, and without any suggestion from without, rec1uested that a post-mortem examination be held. The re<1nest was promptly compli e d with, and a room filled with medical stude nts, r e latives and

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PUBLIC TIEAL'l'H SEIWTCE. 33!) friends watched Dr. Score Browne, divided in their foclings between <(uriosity, fascination and horror. This is undoubt edly the first post-mortem examination that has ever occurred in the c:ity of Ningpo, or tlie province of Chekinng. Inci dentally the diagnosis of the physicians ( peritonitis following typhoid) MlS proved to be cotTect, to the visual satisfac:tion of all concerned, many of whom had been painfully affected by the suddenness of the death. l\fodical students in interior Chinese hospit,1.ls have Pxtremely limited means of studying anatomy, and Dr. Charles \V. Eliot, in his report to the Carnegie Institution, has recently called attention to the case of govt 'rnment students in 'l'irntRin. Chinese or Engiish. An interesting debate on tlie sn h,jP,,t. "Shonld Chinese or Englisl1 be the mrdium of rnPdical instrmtion in China'?" took place in the Peking Branch of the As;mciation in Oetobcr, l!J12. Nine points in favom of Engli:=;h were bronght forward by Dr. Gray and replied to by Dr. Stnckey. Di. V rnable elaims that HS media of rnNli(al instrnction English and Chinl?Se art~ not nrntnally exclnRiV(' ancl tl1,1t there is room for both. He snms up as follO\rs :1 l\fodicn.l rclncation in the! ChinPse language rn1rnt b( provided fur that large body of student:=; who are to do RO mnclt of the eontact work witl1 the nrns:,;es, and we shonld not become so daz:ded by tile superior advantage:=; of the English a:=; to lose sigltt of. this largl~ elass and its claims upon ns. ~-There is also room for medical teaching in Eng-li:=;h, h11t the nnmber of Chinese students who are really eapahlc of: taking snch a course is Yery limited and will be for a good mauy years to come. Public Health Service for China. China has been favonred with a visit from .John R. Taylor, l\LD., i\fodison, \Vi1llRin, who lia:=; made a spccialty of public health. He has lahomwl to introduce a nation wide health setvice i11 China, und with this in view ltas prepared a clPtailed plan for :=;tarting snl'h a Rervi<'c. De. IT. P. ,Judson, President of the RoekpfellPt' Ji'onndntiou, is a l:=;o ont on the same erT,rnd. Dr .. J ndson is

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~llWICAL WOHK. the chief of a cornmissiou sent out bv the Rockefeller Founda tion and npon the report snbmittetl will depend the decision of .the trustees of this fund to aid in the work of stamping ont the plagues by which the land is scourged. This work has hitherto been carried on by W,,stern medical missionaries, whose efforts hnve been seriously handicapped by lack of funds. As the essential mission ~f the Roekefeller endowment is the uplift of humanity, where soever such a need is felt, it is believed that the money of tlw fond could be applied to no more broadly lnunanitarian ('llterprise than tlw reclaiming of China. Medical Education. Wu Lien 'J'eh, l\I.A., l\I.D., (Cantab.), l\fedical Officrr of the Foreign Office and late Chairman of the International Plagtw Co1mnission, has recently suhrnittrd an t>laborate memorandum to the Gover11ment re the present status of l\fodical Education in China and the urgent need of thorough re form. Ile gives the following list of medical se hools at present in existence. GO\'ER:om'.l
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nn. wu's ~m~roJUNDnr. 1. .Although Chinese ideas of disease ,,ml medical praet.icl' were useful in the olden days and are still useful in certain dise,1ses, a complete reform is necessary to enable our people to successfully cope with present-clay conditions 2. 'l'o attain this our medical eolleges and hospitals must be reorganized so as to produee the maximum of good results with the minimum of expense. 3. Our rnedieal stuoents must be given not a medical education but the standard medical education, so that they ean come into line with graduates of aH eivilized countries. 4. As a proper knowledge of Anatomy and P1-1thology is absolutely essential for rneclieal students, rnedic11 l schools and hospitals recognized by the Government should he allow ed to perform dissections Hnd post-mortem examinations. 5. A Central l\Iedical Council for medical edncatiou :,;honld be established in Peking by the Board of Education consisting of au official of the Board and also 'one representa tive appointed by each of the recognized medical schools in China, as well as one or more medical men who have rendered signal service to medical science in China. 'l'ltis Council shonld have, among other duties, the power of fixing the medical currienlum, granting licences to pradii::e medicine and supervision of examinations throughout China. 6. As it will be some time before t.he Government is able to equip an up-to-elate medical eollege, it mHy he advisable in the meantime to take over, either partiully or eompletely, any non-Government medical institutions whitlt show a desire to co-operate with the Government. 7. The standard of a nation's progress is often judged hy its management of affairs relating to the public health; that being so, it is of the first importance that China shonld uot fall behind other countries in the matter of medical practice. Medical Research in China. 'l'lwt China offers H splendid field for medical research no one disputes who is at al I familiar with the facts. Also, that eomparatively little has hit_herto been done to reap this field is e<1trnlly evident. 'l'he Chma Medical l\Iissionary Association has for a number ol' years maintained a Committee on Rese:irch, which has made

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l\lE.IJIC.\L ""OHK. illlporta11t COlltrihutio11s to rnedicnl s,ienee w China, but rne1ulwrs of this Co111mitke would thernseives be the fiJ"st to mlmowledge ltml" small a n~lation the1,e have borne to the eutire field for r esearc h. An explanation of tl,is state of affairs is not iwrd to find, and the objeet of the present pnper is to outline the difficulties, nnd to suggest a way to meet them. The mernbcrship of the China l\Jedical l\Iissionary ;\;,;soeiatiou embraces roughly some three hundred medical praditio11ers, scattered over the entire eountry. Tl.ree lrnndred physiciaus and surgeons for four hundre d rnillion people, -even grauting that most of these four hundred million look with disfavor on foreign m edical methods,-rneans an amount of individual work that is absolutely appalling. \Vith the acute need for immediate alleYiatorv nHasures ever lwfore him, tl:e meclil'al missionary finds' Iitt!e time for original work, usually of problematical future benefit. 1\ot that this work is not beirnr done. The Chiu a. 1\1 edical ~Journal sl'idorn ii-.;snes a voltune which does not eontain one or more contributions of the sort. Fm; i11stancl', the past )"\'Hr hs witn esse d, to mention only one of a 1111 ml)('r of interesting eontributions, the a.11nonnce111eut of the discovery of blastornycosis among the Cl1inese. But such eontributions are essentially in a sem:e aecidental, and s0idorn make even a pre tense of goiug into their subject at a.11 exhaw;tiwlv. The situation, then, is this,-tlie work is here to h e done, the men who m:e lot:ated in a 11.osition to do it are too rnueh oce11pied hy more i.ugent demands. The pl.in wl,i c h appears to the writer as the 1nost feasible solntion is to leave tl1e actual prosecution of any given problem to one or two men who may be in a position to devote the neeessnry time to it, the other rnemlicrs of the Association to help by contributing what 1naterial may he neccss,1ry. There are two principal ohjedions to this plan, both of whid1 can lie met satisfadorily. 'l'lH' first and rno;;;t illlportant is that the men to do the work are, as things stand at 1>resent, almost impossible to find. To a certain cxteut this is true, hut with the opening up of modern medical schools, with m e n on their staffs giving their entire time to teaehiug and re8eareh, this diffienlty is

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~mDICAL RESEARCH IN CHINA, 843 already disappearing; and should completely do so, if the 1111ion medical sehools, now being advanr'.ed so enthusiastical ly, realize and provide for this need. The second objection is that the amount of work that ean be accomplished with material sent from a distance is too limited Limited it is, to be sure, but the problems that can be approached in this way are among the most urgent, and their successful prosecution would afford ample employ ment until such time as China may possess a better mechanism for research ,vork. 'rwo illustrations of what might be done hv this method will suffice 1. The study of the geographical distribution of the different type:-; of malaria, carried on for a number of years to control possible variations Frl'quent rec1uests are mnde for information as to the occurrence of this or that type of malaria in a certain region,-to which the only possible answer in most cases is '' I do not know." 2. A study of the relative distribution of filariasis and elephantiasis, which shouid go a long way toward clearing up the still unproved relationship between these diseases. The present Committee on Research is giving the scheme, outlined above, a preliminary trial, in an effort to map out 1he regional m1d seasonal distribution of tropical ulcer Of three hundred odd requests for assistance sent out, about one hundred affirmative answers were received, and the work, still in its incipiency, already promises ~ome value. If the Association can gi,e ns mnch support to other problems taken up in this way, it will contribute in no small measure to advancing medical research in Chim1.-ll. E. Eggers, l\l.D.

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CHAPTER XX THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MISSION FIELD A Study in Methods by Rev. Chas. E, Patton, Kocbow, S. China A 1ield in South China has in srveral respects affo1ded an experiment station for the trying ont of methods in the search for '' a better way. Almost wholly unaffected IJy neighbouring infl nences from without or by precedents within and under the direction of a siugle guiding mind, it offered a prime field for the trial of less used methods, or for the adaptation to Chinese conditions of methods borrowed from other parts. Given a somewhat large field, six districts or hsie11s, a population of at least a miilion and a hnlf, six walled citie8, .! 60 market towns and villages uncounte d, spread ove r the IBrritory drained by a single river system; how shall we proceed to develope the field '? \Ve must limit ourselves to the '' Evangelistic side; Educational and l\:Iedical,-that is another story. A careful studv o[ the field led to the formation of a three-fold form of. p~ocedurc :-I. A central model Chnrc h and clrnreh service at the prefeetnral city. In connection with the Church w e have two receptioil rooms, one each for men and women, a public n,acli ng room, a kn ding library, a book sales room and roo1118 for ch1i,;ses for Government school students. A rnen 'i,; association for the gentry meet.3 even' Sitturday to discnss current topics of public benefit. : Medical work for women and children iinds accommodation in an adjunct to the Chureh itself. Grounds about the Church provide a tiny pitrk or resting place The gates to the grounds, the Church auditorium and the generally nsed rooms are open from dawn till dark. A daily noonday "family prayer service has an atkndance as high as thirty, rarely less than ten. Visitors to tlw reading room at the time and other hangers about are

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FORM OF l'TlOCJmunr.. invited and usually corne. The general aim is to rnak( this Chmch the model for the activities of the field, the ctntre for all training classes and conferences. In it not alone members of the loeal congregation, but every Christian of the field is led to feel an interest. II. 'l'he opening of clwpels at strategic centres through out the field. These, limited in number, are, in the nature of the case, largely if not wholly at l\Iission expense Three eireuits which are r,ipidly developinginto ehains of chapt'ls, follow the rivers and main lines oE travel and include the stl'ategie points of the field. The mai11teuance of these chap els is tl'ausferred as speedily as possible to the Chinese churdt. III. F,Jllowing the natural dtvelopment of the native church by the organization into local groups of all our Christians for Sunday worship and Bibl e study under local leadership, with supervision by a trsined preacher and the foreign missionary. Our slogan was "Erery memher at 1vondii11 somewhere every Snnday. '' Througl1 the pioneer work of colporteurs we had isolated members scattered about the field. l\Tost of them "ere not within a reasonable distance of a chapel for Sunday worslti p We therefore propo:,;ecl to take the chapel to them. A local group, borrowing the idea from the Bethany Chnreli of Philadelphia, was formed witl1 a loca l '' leader of ten.'' Any number, however, could form a group, elect its own leader, who later Whs made a deacon, and organize for regnlar Sabbath worship. Courses with certain helps were supplied the untr,iined leader to keep hilll a bit above his fellows ; the re.;;t had their Bibles aud hymn books. "Find men fil'st, then places," was our next r,ampaig-n cry. All seemed imbued with the notion that fonr walls and a roof were essential to the preaching of the Gospel. 'l'he usual way ,vas for the mission to open a chapel, be there few or no Christians in the place. From this the Christians and workers got the deeply rooted impression that the fast thing necessary was to rent or buy a place for a chapel, after which they could preach and meet for worship. 'l'his we songht to overturn completely. We urged that it was believers ,re sought, not sites ; thnt they could 111eet with God and each other in their own homes, a borrowed room or, if able, a AH

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3-!6 J>Js\'ELOP:IIENT OF A ~fISSl0:-1 FIELD. rented shop. Groups soon sprang up on all sides, gathered into thmnsehes nearby inquirers, and in most eai-:es sooner or later secured for themselves a permanent place for meet ing, that is to say, became a full tleclged '' Chapel.'' Such a chapel was from the ground up self-governing. Its nwmbers elected their own deacon and later, when warranted, an elder who controlled all loeal worship and lrnsiuess affairs, advised only by the missionary in ch1:1rge. Self-support also was learned. 'l'he lesson was not so mueh how muc:h more can you give, hnt how cau yon use what you give to greater advantage It was not long before such a group would want a more pl'etentious building for a chapel or church home. In general nothing 11hateYer was given in the way of financial assistance until they had first proven themselves, and in the giviug of ;-1id an equivalent of som< sort was always required. "The work is yours, propose your plan, and we will endeavor to meet you half way," they were told. ~-,or rendering such aid we have employed two methods. I. The Chapel Loan Fund. In the year ] 802 in an adjacent field where the Loan Fund was introduced there were nine chapels all rented by the mission. The Christians of tlw Field contributed but $96.00 for the Yi~ar. To have asked them to take over the rent .for the 9 chapels would have paralyzcd the Christians, they were "too poor. what we did was this. A friend in the u'nited States was asked for the use of $250.00 Gold lo form a loan fund for the purdwsc of buildings for drnpels. We then said to the Chris tians; '' You should Juwe a permanent drnrch home, and stop this outgo of rental. If yon will raise one half the sum needed to purelrnse the bHilding, we will lend you tlw other half without interest to be repaid in annual instalments of approximately the rental. The money refunded will again lie loaned to others. Yon will be doing to others as you yourselves have beeu done by." The bait was good. To seem'(' a ehapel for thernsel ves was attractive; to get a loan without interest was irresistible. We reckoned that on an aYerage one chapel a year would be purehasecl To our sur prise four chapels were bought within a year. They swamp ed our capital. We doubled it and went on lending. To

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LOAN .\NJ> EXPANSION FU.KDS, 3-17 Ow pn'l:i( 'lll date tlw principal has been used three times over and is still at work. But best of all was its incitement to self-help. Within five years each of those nine chapel groups was paying all its current expenses save the preacher's salary. The refund of the loan showed them what they conld do and the habit grew. The Loan Fnnd, supplemented by the Expansion F'nud, has aided directly or iudirectly iu the pnrehase of fifteen chapels in this and th0 adjaeent field. II. The Expansion Fund. Before a Church in the United Stc1tes we laid a definite business proposition Provided tlte funds, a Jixed sum per annum, we proposed on an average to open t\ro new chapels and graduate two new preaehers eaeh ,Y('ar. Vile reckoned tlw t in five years time a group of < 'hristians should grow up about a clrn11el sufficiei1tly strong to carry all tile cxpemes, save the preacher's salary. Given a Jew years more they should take over that also. Experience has proven our averages generally correct. Within five ) ears eighteen new chapels have been opened, two men have liecn graduated and fourteen are still in training. Of the chapels fourteen are receiving no mission aid for eurrei1t expenses. The other four may be considered as strategie centres, evangelistic halls. While the Loan Fund is used only for the pnrcllase of lmildiugs, we use the Expansion I<'und more generally in tl1e way of equivalents,-a quid 1i1"0 (fllO in some form or other. For insbmee, a chapel is furnished in consideration of the Christians nssuming some form of annual expenditure. Jn fornishing we would buy p_cws, say, something not portable, a 1>errnanent contribution toward the making of a plaee for worship. 'l'he Expansion Fund ma;v in a way eneroach upon the work of the Loan Fund. The estimated five years rental rnay be lumped and used for the purchar,;e outright of Ute lrnilding, on condition, say, that the Christians immediat ely assnme, and henceforth carry the care of the building and it:,; cmTent expenses. By w a y of summary :-these efforts in the direction of' 8elf-:,;upport and self-govenrn :ent have reimlted in a growth iu the past five years from four chapels to twenty-two; frorn 200 to 700 baptized members; from $35.00 to $1, 158.99 annual contributions toward the work of the field. A foree of

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.IH:YEL
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'flm ELDEH AND DEACON, opportunity. The head colporteur superintends the force of Bible women, arranging for their entertai11ment1 transfel'S or other matters. So far as tried the plan promises well. Volunteer Work by members is pref;sed on every side. The sale of Scriptures under the direction of the head colporteur, the posting of street posters, the use of "Introdnc tion Sheets" bringing strangers into coutact with the preachPJ', taking turns at local street preaciting,-these are a few of the means employed. The Elder and Deacon. 'l'he elders and deacons are required to undergo a light course of training. 'l'he four year term plan allows one to take more risk, so to speak, in the choice of the man than would he the case in n life term. Upon his election the deacon or elder is expected to promise to study the "Westminster Shorter Catechism and the Book of Go,ern rnent and Disci pliue, also agree to sprnd at lt>8St three da.)'S during the year at the ~1ission Station in Biblical study. The nrgument ,vas that if a prospective officer were unwilling to prepare himself for the duties of his office he was unfit to l,old that office. In every way possible "the eldership is exalted." 'J'lH Church is upheld as the p e rnrnnent factor, the l\fissiou tl!e temporH;y factor. The burden of initiative is e vl'r thrown upon the officers and members. There was a tirne when eY
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:350 DEVET.OP~IENT OF A :\[[SSION FIELD. for the year goes to "foreign missious,"-the past year's :l,18.07 being sent to India. This is an entering wedge at least, the implanting of the pri1wiple Organized Financial Co-operation. A few years ago five reprl' sentative elders w,r