Mohammedan saints and sanctuaries in Palestine

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Mohammedan saints and sanctuaries in Palestine
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Luzac's oriental religions series, volume 5
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Journal of the Palestine Oriental society
Canaan, Taufik
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Subjects / Keywords:
Muslim saints
Saints -- Worship
Muslim shrines -- Palestine
Journal of the Palestine oriental society
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Asia -- Palestine
31.92157 x 35.20329


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Luzac's Oriental Religions Series.

VOL. I.: Indian Mythology, according to the

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VOL. III.: Semitic Magic : its Origins and Develop-
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Oriental Religions Series










Physician to the German Deaconesses Hospital, Jerusalem, and to the International Moravian
Leper Home, Jerusalem; President (1927) of the Palestine Oriental Society; Author of Aberglaube
und Volksmedizin im Lande der Bibel

LUZAC & CO. / LONDON / 1927




The primitive features of Palestine are disappearing so quickly
that before long most of them will be forgotten. Thus it has become the
duty of every student of Palestine and the Near East, of Archaeology
and of the Bible, to lose no time in collecting as fully and accurately
as possible all available material concerning the folklore, customs
and superstitions current in the Holy Land. Such material is, as we
have begun to learn, of the greatest importance for the study of
ancient oriental civilization and for the study of primitive religion.
I, as a son of the country, have felt it my special duty to help
in this scientific work; but, since I do not claim to be a trained
archaeological student, I am not attempting to do more than place
on record the bare material which I have collected, leaving the task
of comparison with other data to the professional archaeological and
biblical student.

This change in local conditions is due to the great influences
which the West is exerting upon the East, owing to the introduction
of European methods of education, the migration of Europeans to
Palestine, of Palestinians to Europe and especially to America, and,
above all, to the influence of the Mandatory Power. The simple,
crude, but uncontaminated patriarchal Palestinian atmosphere is
fading away and European civilization, more sophisticated but more
unnatural, is taking its place.

Our subject of study leads us into the most holy and mysterious
shrines of the life of the inhabitants. It is not always easy to examine
the structure of a sanctuary and the objects found in it; but it is
still less easy to gain the confidence of the fellah to such a degree
that he will speak freely and with detail about his religious practices
and rites and about the nature and character of the saints, the
knowledge of which is of the greatest scientific interest. Thus,
even for me, it was not always possible to get at the root of many



The present work is based on a study of 235 shrines which I
have examined personally, 348 shrines about which exact material
was available, attendance at Mohammedan festivals, dikers, molads
and other ceremonies, a large assortment of stories told about the
saints, a large collection of verses sung by the people in honour of
the awlia, and a very extensive collection of amulets. My voluminous
collection of Palestinian proverbs and idioms has helped me in the
explanation of some customs and practices connected with saints
and shrines. Every superstition which might help in the explanation
or comparison of the text has been cited and analysed. Yet the
subject is so vast and complicated that I cannot claim to have gathered
more than a handful of grain from the large heap of corn. I hope
that soon more of this unexplored material will receive attention.

I have made as much use as possible of the Arabic literature
touching on the subject since only a small part of this has hitherto
been systematically employed for comparative purposes. The resem-
blances which can be found in such Arabic literary sources show
that much of the existing folklore of Palestine is not peculiar to
this country but common to the Arabic world. Of European literature
I have made use only of such works as deal directly with Palestine.

A study of Saints and Sanctuaries brings the reader into direct
contact with the daily life and customs of the inhabitants of Palestine.
It explains much that would be otherwise obscure in popular belief
and superstition: it affords a glimpse into the mysterious regions of
local ceremonies and throws light on much that is dark in the working
of the popular mind. What is still more interesting, it makes possible
a comparison with customs, practices and rites of primitive times.
It is remarkable how many ideas have remained virtually unchanged
for thousands of years; and the study of many current beliefs may
disclose the clue to much that has hitherto remained unexplained
in the religious usages of the ancient east.

The various ideas described in the following pages are common
to both Mohammedans and Christians among the Palestinian peasantry;
where the two groups differ the differences are only superficial.

I take this opportunity to thank Dr. W. F. Albright, the Director
of the American School of Oriental Research, for his valuable advice
and continued encouragement; and Dr. H. Danby for his help in the
completion of the book.

Jerusalem, May 15th, 1927



PREFACE................................................................. V

A. SITES AND TYPES OF SANCTUARIES..................................... 1

1. Sites.............................................................. 1

a) Their relation to human habitations........................... 2

b) High places............................ ................... 3

c) Relation of shrines to cemeteries ......................... 7

d) Relation of shrines to ruins........................... 9

2. Structure of the sanctuaries...................................... 10

a) The building................................................... 11

b) The tomb....................................................... 22

c) Trees.......................................................... 30

d) Water courses................................................ 38

e) Caves.......................................................... 42

3. Types of sanctuaries................................... . . 46

, I. Sanctuaries with a shrine (maqam) and a tomb................. 47

II. Maqams without a tomb.....................................50

III. A tomb without a building................................... 53

IV. A cave with or without a tomb............................. 56

V. A simple stone enclosure..................................... 60

VI. A watercourse (spring or cistern)............................ 63

VII. A solitary tree............................................. 69

VIII. Heaps of stones............................................ . 73

IX. A single large stone or a rock.......................... . 77

B. RITES AND PRACTICES ................................................ 85

1. Religious acts................................................... 86

I. Utterance of simple protective words .................... 86

H. Repetition of prayers......................................... 91

III. Reverence.................................................. 92

IV. Religious services in a shrine as in a mosque .......... 98

V. The barakeh................................................... 99

2. Placing private property under the protection of a well...........102

3. Tying of rags..................................... ..... 103

4. Healing......................................................... 106

5. Oaths...........................................................125

6. Vows..............................................................130

I. Things which serve for the upkeep of the maqam.............142

a) Offerings used to maintain and beautify the shrine .... 142

b) Material for the repair of the maqam...................i51

c) Personal work............................................153



II. Food vows....................................................154

a) Animal sacrifices..........................................154

b) Qurban (offering to God), or walimeh lil-lah (banquet for God) 174

c) Meatless food..............................................175

III. Offerings given to needy persons in the name of the Saint . 177

IV. Religious vows...............................................179

V. Bodily chastisement and vows to be fulfilled on the body of the

vower or person for whom the vow is taken..................184

VI. Vows not connected with any holy person or shrine.............185

VII. Vows for the dead and the djinn..............................186

a) Offerings to demons ..................................... 186

b) Offerings to the dead......................................188

7. Celebration of feasts...............................................193

8. Processions 217

I. Circumcision processions......................................218

II. Rain processions........................................... 219

C. NATURE AND CHARACTER OF THE SAINTS....................................234

1. Characteristics of the awlia........................................235

I. Bodily characteristics.........................................235

a) Sex and age of the Saints..................................235

b) Mode of life...............................................238

c) Imprints of hands, feet, etc............................ 241

d) Appearance in the form of animals ...................... 243

II. Religious and moral characteristics............................246

a) Irritability and forbearance...............................246

b) Supernatural phenomena.....................................248

c) The two antagonistic classes of Saints.....................251

2. Miracles............................................................255

3. Relation of the Saints to men.......................................263

a) Saints as neighbours.............................................264

b) Saints as leaders............................................... 265

c) Saints as judges.................................................270

d) Saints as supernatural beings....................................270

4. Relation of the Saints to God and popular religion.................271

a) Relation to God...............................................271

b) Position of the Saints in popular religion.......................278

5. Origin of the Saints................................................280

I. Historical Saints..............................................292

a) Biblical characters........................................292

b) Qoranic personages.........................................295

c) Saints from Mohammadan history.............................297

II. Saint9 whose descendants are living.......................... 302

III. Darawis......................................................310






A traveller in Palestine is struck by the baldness of the hill country.

Here and there some gardens, orchards or vineyards are to be
met with, generally grouped in the vicinity of a village. During the
spring and the first part of the summer some patches of land are
sown with various cereals. Scattered here and there on the barren
mountains or in the plains a solitary large green tree or a small
group of trees beautify the surrounding region, giving it a fresh and
an animated aspect. They are a welcome shelter for the wayfarer;
protecting him from the burning rays of the summer sun. These
trees are sacred to Mohammedans since they indicate the presence
of some nab% well or sdh. This sacredness was and is still the only
reason why they escape the destruction which has been the fate of
the forests of Palestine. It is a pity that we have not countless
sacred trees commemorating holy persons, for Palestine would then
be more wooded and consequently more healthy, fertile and beautiful.
If such a treeand most of them can look back on centuries of
lifecould tell us all its experiences, we should know much more
about the history and folklore of this country. I shall try to analyse
the nature of Mohammedan sanctuaries in Palestine of which trees
are only one feature, and I hope thus to be able to explain some
religious problems.

By sanctuaries I do not mean only those places where a well-known
Prophet or well was buried, but every placeshrine, tomb, tree,

shrub, cave, spring, well, rock or stonewhich is invested with some



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

religious reverence, even if such reverence be based on superstition,
and thus non-religious in the sense of the Qoranic teaching and
creed. Only such a widening of the field of research will enable
us to approach many very important questions of comparative religion
and primitive belief.

a) Their Relation to Human Habitations

Sacred shrines are innumerable in Palestine. Nearly everywhere
in the .villages, on the mountains, in valleys, in the fieldsdo we
meet with them. There is hardly a village, however small it may be,
which does not honour at least one local saint. But generally every
settlement boasts of many. Thus, for example, 'Awartah possesses
fourteen, eleven being in the village* itself and three outside at some
distance from it; cAn&ta seven1 (one is not accepted by all inhabitants1 2);
Jericho six; the Mount of Olives six;3 Kolonia five. Such local saints
are honoured not only by the inhabitants of the village to which
they belong, but in many cases their renown is widespread and
pilgrimages of individuals or companies are made in their honour.
Some of these shrines are situated in or close to the village. In such
a case one of them serves as a mosque where the inhabitants perform
their prayers.4 But the greater number of them lie outside, and
some even at a considerable distance from the area occupied by the
town or village. Thus we meet with a large number of holy places
in the fields far from any habitation. As every village possesses lands
which stretch for miles beyond the settlement itself, every shrine

1 The names of the different saints will be given at the end of this study.

2 The sullah (pi. of saleh, pious man) inhabiting the ruins, at the entrance of
the village from the west side, are not accepted by all as authentic. My guide,
Mohammed of this village, related that some people had heard at different
occasions *iddeh (religious music) at this place. A fellah who passed water at
this spot was at once afflicted with eye-trouble. These sulldh inhabit the ruins
of a church. The son of es-seji *Abd es-Salam, es-selj Slim an, is also a less
important welt

3 A seventh holy place on the Mount of Olive was Ilarrubet el-Asara, a tree
which grew on the western slope, in a piece of ground which belongs at present
to a Latin Mission. The tree has been cut down.

4 Such djawamv especially those of villages situated in the direct neighbour-
hood of the large cities are not much used. Many of the peasants come on
Friday to the city to perform their mid-day prayer (salat ed-djum'ah)t and to
transact their business.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


situated in such land belongs to that village, and is also honoured
primarly by its inhabitants. There are exceptions to this rule.
ES-seh es-Sidri in the lands of cAnata is honoured mostly by the
semi-Bedouin living to the east of the village.

The following is an analysis of the sites of shrines taken from'a
few villages around Jerusalem:

Name of the village Number of sanctuaries Those inside the village Those outside the house area

Anata 7 3 4
'Esawiyeh 3 1 2
Kolonia 5 1 4
'Awartah 14 11 3

Some villages have their awlia (pi. of well) only in the house area
itself or in the immediate vicinity of it. This is the case in Bet
Hanina, Sftrbahir and §a*fat, each with four such saints.

b) High Places

The shrines are mostly situated on an elevated placethe top of
a mountain, a hill or a small elevation in the plainthus commanding
all the neighbouring country. Even such shrines as are built on the
sloping side of a mountain, or just above the bed of a valley are so
placed that they more or less dominate the surrounding area and
are visible from afar. Comparatively few welis are situated in valleys;
but if one should be, it is generally found to be in the neighbourhood
of the junction of two wadis or in a place where the wadi has
widened its bed, so that they are seen at a distance from different
directions. Many a sacred place, although situated on an elevated
spot, is not easily seen owing to the character of the well, in that
it has no building and no large tree. This is true of all such
sanctuaries as are found near caves, enclosures, springs, cisterns, rocks
or heaps of stones. Some shrines on the tops of mountains are:

en-nabi Samwil Mizpah of Samuel,

es-seh el-Qatrawani between Bir Zet and Atarah

es-seh Ahmad el-Karaki et-Taiyar Qastal

Abu Hurerah Wadi es-Sari'ah

el-'Uzer near 'Awartah

es-seh el-TJmari ed-Djbe'eh near Bet 'Anan

el-Mas'ad Mount of Olives.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

The shrine of e§-§eh el-'Umari ed-Djbe'eh is built on the top of
a high mountain. The view from this spot to the west is magnificent.
The plain, Ramleh, Lydda, Jaffa and the sea are easily seen,
especially when the weather is clear. Around the maqam is a ruin1
and many natural caves. No tomb is to be seen, and the room
shows nothing but a mihrab. The two large carob trees withered
away owing to the severe winter of 19211922. Everybody who
takes refuge in this welt is absolutely protected.

By elevated places I do not mean only the very summit of a
mountain, but any spot which is high and to some extent dominates
the surrounding area, such as:

E§-seh Abd es-Salam Anata

Salman el-Farsi
En-nabi Liqia
Sifth ed-Dawacri
en-nabi Mftsa
en-nabi Yusif
es-§eh Yasin
e§-seh Ahmad
eS-Selj I'mar

Mount of Olives
Bet Liqia
near Jericho
Bet Idjza
Der Yasin
Hirbet Is'ideh
Bet Duqqu.

This peculiarity is very characteristic, not only of Palestinian
Mohammedan shrines, but also of sanctuaries elsewhere in the
Mohammedan world. Patons statement on this pointalthough not
absolutely correctis more exact than that of McCown. The first
writer says:2 wThe majority of the alleged tombs of saints in modern
Palestine are situated on the summits of high mountains. McCowns1 2 3
statements in this respect are hard to understand. I shall, later on,
discuss his first idea, namely: A very considerable number of shrines
are on hilltops because the cities or villages to which they belong
sought such sites, not because the hill is sacred. In reviewing
systematically the villages of the Jerusalem district which I have
visited for the purpose of this study, and noting exactly the position
of the shrines, I found thatfin 26 villages 70 /o of the shrines occupied
the top of a hill or mountain, 24/o were on the sloping side of the

1 The ruin is called Iprbet ed-Djbe'eh.

2 Annual of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem I, p. 62.

3 Annual of the American 8chool of Oriental Research in Jerusalem II and III, p. 63.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


mountain below its summit, and only 5% were in a valley or a plain.
Of these shrines 45% belong to the built maqan, 18% are tombs,
and 37% are sacred springs, trees, enclosures and caves. In other
words, only 52% (45% built shrines and 7% holy trees) would be
more or less easily seen, while the character of the other 48% lessens
the possibility of their being seen from a distance.

Nor do I agree with McGowns statement about Jerusalem. He
writes: There are vast numbers of shrines, several to every good
sized town, which are not easily seen, because they are not on hill
tops. Such is Jerusalem He does not appear to have considered
the following very important facts, wich make most of the shrines of
Jerusalem not easily seen:

1. The built shrines of most of the wells, inside the city, are low
in structure, and on their roofs houses have been erected. Examples
are: BairamSawiS, es-seh Bihan, es-seh Hasan el-Qerami.

2. The crowded houses in the city proper hide from sight shrines
which have no building above them.

3. Most of the important sacred places in the haram area are enclosed
in the Omar and Aqsa mosques, and naturally cannot easily be seen.

On the other hand the greater part of the shrines situated outside
the city-wall are easily seen; e.g. es-seh Ahmad et-Tori, Sacd u Sid,
es-seh Djarrah, es-9eh 'OkaSeh etc.

This choice of situation is not a new custom, for we read that
the people of the ancient Orient used to choose such places for the
erection of their temples and the worship of their gods. In Ezek. 62
we read: And say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord
God; Thus saith the Lord God to .the mountains and to the hills,
to the watercourses and to the valleys: Behold I, even I, will bring a
sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places. It is interesting
to see how these two verses1 refer to mountains, watercourses, valleys
and green treesin other words high places combined with water
and trees, a feature still characterizing the present shrines. L

Mountains and hills seem always to have played a great role in
human religion.1 2 It is interesting to note that all the great divine

1 Other verses are Lev. 26 so; Num. 33 62; 1 Kings 12 31, 1332; 2 Kings 17 29,
21 3, 23 5-19; Jer. 3 2; etc.

2 See Curtiss.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

works have, traditionally, been performed on mountains: Ararat and
the ark of Noah, Moriah and Abrahams sacrifice, Sinai and the
Law, Ebal and Gerizim with the blessing and the cursing. It is the
same also with Jesus: on a mountain he was tempted, was transfigured,
preached, prayed, was crucified, and from a mountain he ascended to
heaven. The prophets and kings also preferred these lofty places for
many of their important actions. Elijah received the word of the
Lord on Mount Horeb;1 the schools of the prophets were on hills
and mountains;1 2 on Mount Carmel Elijah won the victory over the
priests of Baal who worshisped their idols on this mountain;3 Moses
died on Mount Nebo, from whence he saw the Land of Promise;
Aaron died on the top of Mount Hor; on this mountain Eliezer was
ordained as his fathers successor. I need not multiply these
instances, which illustrate the fact that mountains were, in olden
times, regarded as in some degree sacred.4 This idea was adopted
from their predecessors by the Israelites and by them transmitted
to following generations.

A traveller through Palestine is struck by the many mountain
tops which are covered with a prominent weli\ still greater is the
number of summits which bear shrines undistinguishable from a
distance. Does this not indicate that the present inhabitants still
believe in the peculiar sanctity of mountains? McCown minimizes the
importance of this supposition; Curtiss5 and Paton stress it. Which
view is correct?

Many primitive ideas have unquestionably persisted through thousands
of years and can still be traced to the present day in one form or
another among the inhabitants of the ifnmovable east. The sacred
character of mountains seems to have been a widespread conception
in the ancient Orient. The modern Palestinian places most of his
shrines on mountains and hills, irrespective of the fact whether or
not these places serve for human habitation. Although most awlia

1 1 Kings 19 &-9.

2 1 Sam. 10 6.

3 H. Zeller, Biblisches Worterbuch, pp. 146, 147.

* Yahweh appeared on high places, 1 Kings 3 4-5. It was forbidden for the
Israelites to partake in the worship on high places like the heathen, Deut. 12 2;
Jer. 2 20; Ezek. 20 28-29; etc.

5 Curtiss, p. 134.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


are situated in the immediate vicinity of villages, it is striking that
so many uninhabited mountains have shrines. This fact proves that the
old idea of the sacredness of mountains has probably been transmitted
to the inhabitants of modern Palestine. They do not accept it
explicitly as such, but the old practice continues nevertheless.

c) Relation of Shrines to Cemeteries

Very important is the fact that the shrines or graves of many
wholy men are situated in the midst of cemeteries or adjacent to
them. The following list is a rough comparison between holy places
(shrines, graves, etc.) found in connection with cemeteries and those
having nothing to do with cemeteries: I

Name of the village Number of sanctuaries In cemetery Not in cemetery
et-Thr 6 3 3
Jericho 6 2 4
sa fat 4 3 1
Surbahir 4 1 3
CA nata 7 1 6

I should add the following facts. In Surbahir the five tombs
of ed-Dawari are counted as one shrine. The three tombs of
ed-Djarahid which represent in reality three holy places I have
also considered as one. The same is true of the two graves of
ed-Dawa'ri of sa*fat, which are to be seen in the cemetery.

The above list shows that 63% of the shrines are situated in a
cemetery; but the sanctuaries of some villages are in no way connected
with burial places, so that the general percentage of such a combination
amounts only to 30%. In some cases a cemetery surrounds the shrine,
while in other cases only a few tombs are found near by. The question
arises whether the burial place was formed around the shrine, or
whether the tomb of some distinguished man was built in an already
existing cemetery. In most cases the cemetery is the more recent,
the holy place leading to the choice of that place for public burial.
This is always the case where the shrine is an old one. But in
connection with awlia, of recent origin we nearly always find that
those men who were looked upon during their lifetime as blessed
men of God, were buried in the common cemetery, and became
welts after their death. Their tombs began to enjoy private and


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society:

finally general reverence. The following shrines are probably older
than the cemeteries in which they are found:

es-seh Nfiran1 Between Sallaleh and Han Yiinis


eS-Seh Badr Jerusalem

en-nabi Mfisa near Jericho

Rdjal el-'Amtid (Pig. 2, Plate III) Nablus.

The contrary is the case with:

es-seh Abu Halawi Jerusalem

es-£eh ez-Zu'beh 'Awartah.

Sanctuaries or sacred tombs situated in a large public cemetery
are met with in nearly every village and city. Some prominent
examples are:

es-seh 'Abd el-Fattah ed-Dawacri sacfat


eS-Seh Abft Sef
eS-Seh Zed
es-seh Abft Yamin
eS-Seh Ghanim
eMeh Sad
es-seh (i)Mbarak

Bet Anan

Bet Likia (Liqia)
Bet Iksa

The top of the highest point of the mountain on which Awartah
is built is crowned with the maqam of el-'Azerat. This contains
two rooms, the eastern one with two domes, the western with one.
The maqdm is surrounded by the cemetery. No cistern or tree
belongs to it. Not far from the shrine there is a pool hewn in
the rock. In the eastern room there is a prayer-niche, opposite
to which an entrance to a cave is seen. Many match boxes, oil
bottles and oil lamps are scattered here and there. The women
of the village assemble every feast-day in this place to perform
their prayers. The western room is large, lies higher and is i

i It is interesting to note that in the neighbourhood of this saint, as well as
around es-seh Ahmad es-Sarrisi of Abu Ghos, and es-seh Abdallah ofSa'fat only
young children are buried; In the case of e£-Seh Nuran I noticed, while the
Turks were digging trenches around the shrine, that the bodies of dead children
were always placed in large broken jars (cf. the Canaanite practice of burying
children in jars).

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 9

much less used. The dead are ritually washed here before they

are buried.

Shrines in whose neighbourhood only one or few tombs are
found are:

es-seh Ahmad et-Tori Jerusalem

eS-seh Badr Jerusalem

Sittna el-Hadrah Nablus.

There are two reasons why some prefer to bury their dead in the
vicinity of the grave of some welt1

1. The nearer the person is buried to a well or sehs tomb or
maqam, the greater is the blessing which he may receive in the world
to come. This is why so many Bedouin carry their important dead
from a great distance to be buried near a saints tomb. Thus the
Bedouin of er-Rasaydiyeh inter some of their dead around siuh
ed-Djarahid of the Mount of Olives, and the Tdwan carry their dead
to Nebi MfisS,.

2. The protection exercised by the saint, because of the general
respect he enjoys, is another cause for burying the dead close to the
wells tomb. This used to be practised especially by important
political families who were continually on bad terms with other
families. When a leader died they buried him near a sacred spot to
protect his body from being exhumed by his enemies and thus dis-
honoured. The man of God is sure to protect every thing put
under his care; nobody dares to molest the sanctity of a man so
buried. Such reasons led the family of fAbd el-Hadi of Nablus to
bury three members of their familyMohammad el-Husen, Yhsif
Sliman and fAbd el-Karimnear the maqam of el-Hadrah.

d) Relation of Shrines to Ruins

Another fact not without interst is that a great number of sacred
sites lie in or near a ruin. It is not to be expected that one will
always find remains of a large ruin; there may be only a few old
rock-hewn tombs, remains of a few houses, several old cisterns, or
some ancient pillars. Such a ruin in itself must have been a striking i

i A custom which is also prevalent among some Bedouin tribes, according to
Jaussen, Coutumes des Arabes, p. 99.


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object to the simple mind of the Palestinian, and the ruin certainly
existed long before the present shrine. A ruin, an artificial cave,
a solitary tree, or some old cisterns in a lonely deserted spot, would
stimulate the imagination of the fellah. Some night vision, or the
hallucination of seeing lights and hearing prayers or religious music,
enforce the idea of the sacredness of the spot. About 32% of all
the sanctuaries which I visited were in the vicinity of some ruin.

Some welts situated in or near a ruin are:

el-Qatrawani es-seh -el-'Umari N. of Bir Zet the ruins of a church.
ed-Djbe'eh near Bet 'Anan the ruins of several buildings.
Du-l-Kafl near Qatanneh Hirbet el-Kfereh.
Ahmad et-Taiyar Qastal ruins of a fortress.
*Abd el-'Aziz between Qastal
and Bet Stirik a ruin with a water reservoir, hewn in the rock.
Sittna es-samiyeh Kolonia a tomb hewn in the rock, and the canal of the spring is ancient.
es-Seh Husen Kolonia tombs hewn in the rock.
Abu Lemun W. N. W. of Bet Iksa a small ruin with two cisterns.
el-Mufaddel 'Awartah a rock-hewn tomb.


Let us approach a common type of well and examine it more
thoroughly. What do we find here? Of course the same objects are
not found in every case. We shall try to investigate every object
separately, leaving the classification till later. For our purpose we
will take note of the following: A building, a tomb, a tree (or a
group of trees), a water reservoir (cistern, well, spring, basin, etc.)
and a cave. It will be rather difficult to give an absolute description
of each one since they vary so much in the different parts of Palestine
that we rarely meet with two completely alike.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


a) The Building

The building itselfthe shrine, maqam, qubbeh, or, as it was
called in Biblical times, house of high places1is in most cases,
and in all the simpler cases, a quadrangular building. We will
consider at present only this form. The doorand there is only
one is low. There is generally one small window, but sometimes
there may be more (taqah, taqat or sarrdqah, sarraqat), though
occasionally there is none at all. The roof is a simple vaulted dome1 2
with a long perpendicular stone in the centre, which is raised above
the vault itself. This stone is in some cases cut in the form,of a
half-moon. Instead of such a stone an iron bar with three balls
the lowest the largestand a half-moon at the top may sometimes
be found.3 This dome-form (qubbeh) is a very characteristic feature
in Mohammedan shrines. It is not found only in the simple well,
but also in the large and important shrines of the prophets as well
as in common mosques. The qubbeh is, as Me Gown says,4 a
characteristic feature of the Palestinian landscape. Very often the
word qubbeh is used as a synonym of shrine, although originally
it stands for a vaulted building.5 The inside is always plastered and
whitewashed, but as the buildings are very often very old, everything
may consequently be defective. A great many of the maqdms are in
a pitiful state of disrepair, mainly due to neglect, winter storms and
old age. The war was another cause of their ruin; as in the case
of es-seh Ahmad el-Karaki et-Taiyar (Qastal), en-nabi Samwil (Mizpah
Samuel), es-seh Hasan (Bet Iksa), el-Qatrawani (N. of Bir Zet),
Abil-l-'On (Biddti), es-seh Abd el-Aziz (near Bet Surik), etc. During
the war some had to be levelled to the ground, in order to deprive
the enemy of a mark for his guns (es-seh Nhran, between Sallaleh
and Han Yftnis). Doors and other wooden parts were nearly always
taken away by the soldiers and used as fire wood (es-seh Anbar,
Abd es-Salam, el-fUmari ed-Djbeceh etc.). In some cases the villagers
have replaced the lost doors by others and repaired the shrines in

1 1 Kings 12 31; 1332.

2 The qubbeh of the Bedouin is an imitation of the text, Jaussen, 102.

3 Such a decoration is a sign of the building being of recent construction.

4 Annual II and III, 50.

6 See Muhit el-muhit, and Hava, s. v.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

a more or less primitive way, as in the case of el-Qatrawani, eS-Seh
Hasan and en-nabi Samwil.

An inspection of the interior of a shrine proper will show that
one or more niches (also called taqah) are situated in the wall, a
feature common to all. Actually they look like elongated cupboards.
Occasionally there may be only a single niche, though generally more
are to be met with. In the simple, small one roomed shrine of
es-Seh Badr, which lies on the top of a hill in the north-west part
of Jerusalem, I counted eight. In el-fUzer (Awartah) there are
some dozens of them. They are built at different heights and are
irregularly distributed in the four walls, without any regard for
symmetry. With few exceptions they are dirty, even the wall around
and especially the part below being badly smeared with oil. This
unsightly effect is due to the fact that it is here that oil lamps, oil
bottles, matches and other small objects are deposited.

The inside generally shows signs of having once been decorated
with hinnd or ntteh or both. The decoration consists of simple lines
running more or less parallel to each other, around the inside making
a sort of frieze. Often the frieze is more complicated. Some typical
designs are represented in Plate I.

But in addition to the frieze we find two other very important
decorations, viz. representations of the hand and imitations of palm
branches (sometimes twigs or trees), both of which are explained by
superstitious beliefs. In Mohammedan superstition the hands represent
the hand of Fatimeh (the daughter of the Prophet), in Christian the
hand of the Holy Virgin, and in Jewish the hand of God.1 This
superstitious decoration is said to bring blessing. We encounter it
very distinctly and often on the two outer sides of the door (sddghdt)
on the top stone (sdSiyeh), and on the inner walls of the shrine*
especially around the mihrab. It is generally an imprint of a human
hand dipped in blood, hinnd, or nileh. A dozen such impressions
may be seen in such shrines.

Not only in shrines but also on the doors of houses may such
impressions be seen. They are intended to protect the inhabitants
against the bad effects of the evil eye. Small imitations of the hand,
made of glass, mother-of-pearl, silver, gold or some other metal, are

1 Canaan, Aberglaube, pp. 64 ff., Doutte, Magic et Religion, pp. 325 ff.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


carried by small children for the same reason.1 Blood impressions
of the hand are rarely found. I have seen them on newly-built houses
when a sheep was sacrificed before the house was inhabited, as well
as at the feast of Bairam ('id ed-Dhiyeh): Once only have I observed
blood impressions of the hand on the door of a shrine. This mark
was made by a man who offered a sheep which was vowed to the welt

The imitation of the palm tree (Plate I, Fig. 8) is mostly used as
an inside decoration. It is made up of a perpendicular line with
shorter side lines, which unite, making an acute angle, opening
upwards. The total number of the side branches is never constant;
but in most cases there is an equal number on either side. I examined
carefully to see whether the number on one side coincided with the
sacred numbers 3, 5, 7 or some multiple of them,1 2 but in most cases
they did not. In some, especially in el-Badriyeh (Sarafat) and el-
Qatrawani (N. of Bir Zet) they all coincided with the numbers three
and five in the first and five and seven in the Qatrawani. This feature
is always explained as standing for palm branches or palm trees
(nalil). We know that palm branches are carried in most funeral
processions of well-to-dQ people or of^important men, as a symbol of
life. Mohammedan superstition holds that palm-trees were created
from the same earth from which God made Adam.3 This is why
this tree is said to have many resemblances to man.4 The Qoran
mentions it very often, as it is one of the chosen trees.5

Nevertheless I would raise the question: Is it not possible that
these figures were formerly rude imitations of the hand and that
gradually the distinct number five was lost and thus also the original

Other decorations which one may find, are seen on plate I, and
Fig. 5 of Plate IL The representation of the serpent points to long
life.6 Haiyeh (Figs. 1, 7; Plate I) serpent, and nhaya life, have

1 Canaan, L c.; Doutte, l. c. pp. 317 ff.; L. Einsler, Moscdk.

2 Very few examples offered the number four.

3 JJaridatu-l- Adjayb, p. 102.

4 Alerglaube, p. 87.

* Kahle, PJ VIII, 141, explains the palm branches as a prophylactic measure
against the evil eye. I have never heard such an explanation. Neither palm
branches nor their representations are ever used as an amulet against the evil eye.

Kahle, PJ VIII, 140.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

a similar sounding root.1 I could not explain the squares with the
dots (Plate I, Pig. 6). It is improbable that the dots (PI. I, Fig. 4
and 5) represent visiting cards of the pilgrims, as Kahle thinks.
In some shrines I have seen rudimentary representations of a mosque,
a minaret, a ship, flowers, etc. The only purpose of these figures is
to beautify the maqam. Sometimes Qoranic verses or the names of
God, the Prophet, and some of the sahtdbeh are written on the walls.
The shrine of eS-seh Yasin is the best example, where beside the
words alldh and Muhammad, which are surrounded by wreaths of
leaves, we find the Mohammedan creed There *is no god but God,
and Mohammed is the apostle of God, two flags (the Turkish and
that of the Prophet), a half moon and many five-pointed stars. In
the mihrab censer and chain are painted.

These decorations are made with hinna, nileh or siraqun. Some
peasants think nileh should never be used in holy places, ihinna being
the only suitable material. When hinna (Lawsonia inermis)2 is used
as a red dye, it is kneaded into a paste and then daubed on the
wall. Very often samneh (butter) is mixed with it,1 2 3 but not necessarily
always, as Curtiss thinks.4 5 It#is with this paste that the impression
of the hand is so often made. While adhering to the wall the paste
has a dirty greenish-brown appearance, but when it falls off it leaves
a brownish-red colour. The mihrab5 and the immediate surroundings
are decorated first of all. Most of the other decorations are made
with nileh (methylene blue) and siraqun (minium).

In many of these simple shrines, but not in all, there is a mihrab,
which has the usual form and points southwards. There is at least
one in each of the larger sanctuaries. In some there are several.
Thus qabr er-Ral near Nebi Musa has three.6 In some awlia the
mihrab is only indicated on the southern wall either with colour, or
with a ridge-like frame of projecting plaster. In the Christian church
of el-Hadr (between Bet Djala and the Pools of Solomon), which is

1 Canaan, Aberglaube, p. 85.

2 Hava, 188.

3 Kahle, l. c.

* Curtiss, 209.

5 That of es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami of Sa'fat and the shrine of el-Imam
'All on the carriage-road near Bab el-Wad, showed dozens of these imprints.

6 In the sa^rah (The Dome of the Rock) there are several prayer niches
which will be described later.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


honoured and visited also by the Mohammedans, the prayer direction
is marked by a large picture of St. George. I have seen Mohammedans
go in and perform their prayers turning their faces towards the
picture and so to the south. All mihrdbs are marked in the southern
wall of the sanctuaries. The following three are the only exceptions
I know of. A mihrab in the building below el-Aqsa, a mihrajLjn
aabi Dahud and one in the shrine of el-Mufaddil ('Awartah).1 In the
first it is said that the Prophet prayed during his night-visit to
Jerusalem, and when he had finished the angel Gabriel ordered him
in future to perform his prayers with the face turned to Mecca.
Thereupon the Prophet turned his face in this direction and per-
formed his second prayer.1 2 3

The floor of the poorer maqdms is mostly bare, but sometimes
mats are present. The larger and more important shrines have mats
and often costly carpets.

While the last description holds true for all simple maqdms, we
have still to consider those which are larger, more important, and
more elaborate. I shall try to describe them according to the various
complications of their structure. But before proceeding to this part
of our subject something should be said about the qubbeh or cupola.
This is one of the most important features of the awlid and belongs
to almost every typical shrine. In examining a qubbeh3 we find two
different types:

1. The simple one, where the qubbeh is built directly over the four
walls of the shrine. It looks like a hemisphere superimposed upon
the walls.

2. The square space formed by the four walls is converted into
an octagon near the roof by filling in the corners with pendentives.
The octagon is raised a little, and the hemispherical qubbeh rests on
it. A perpendicular section of such a building (cut diagonally) is
shown in Fig. 4, Plate II.

The maqdms which possess two instead of one vaulted dome, are as
simple in character as those just described. In reality such a building

1 The last two are mentioned in PJ VII, 86.

2 It is curious that Abraham and Lot are thought to have performed their
prayers with the face turned to Mecca (southwards), although they are pre-
Islamic characters.

3 For a short description of it see PJ VII, 92.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

represents two rooms which, by dispensing with the separating wall, are
united to form one elongated whole. A high strongly built arch, which
helps to support the roof, takes the place of the missing wall.

In the next class are sanctuaries which have a rawaq (open arched
hall) built in front or at the side. This may be composed of one
arch, but more often of two. The people assemble here before and
after their visits to the shrine. Sometimes meals are taken and
festivals are held in this place. In Bet Hanina the inhabitants have
recently built to the south-east of djami' es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami
a three vaulted hall, opening to the north, and with a mihrdb. ES-seh
Salman el-Farsi (Mount of Olives) has such an open rawaq in front
of the sanctuary itself. In el-cUzer (el-Qariyeh) and es-Seh Hamad
(Kolonia) the rawaq is at one side of the sanctuary.

Still more complicated are those shrines where one or more additional
rooms are built beside or around the sanctuaries opening into the
vaults. These serve as kitchen, dwelling-place for the servant (haddam,
qaiym) and store rooms. Sometimes, only of course when the sanctuary
is situated in or quite near a village, one of these rooms may be
used as a school room (kuttdb or maktab), and occasionally another
one is occupied by the seh or hatib, who may act as the teacher.
Some cases in point are:

es-seh Hamad
es-seh Icmar

Bet Duqquh
Abft GhoS

In a few cases one room is used for the ritual washing of the
dead before burial, as in el-'Azer&t (Awartah) and djami el-'Uzer
(Abu GhoS).

At times the madafeh (guest-chamber) is connected with the shrine,
as in en-nabi Su'ah1 (in the village Sti'ah)1 2 where it is a room built
over the shrine. In es-Seh Abu Ismail (Bet Liqia) and es-selj Hsen
(Bet fAnan) the front room serves as a madafeh. In both these cases
we find in the centre of the room the hearth (el-wdjaq) on which
coffee is prepared for those present. The guest-house of es-seh Yasin
(Der Yasin) is situated opposite the maqam and separated from it

1 Although the name lookes as if it were feminine it stands for Yu8ac.

2 South of Bab el-Wad. '

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


by an open place.1 It is only in the cold months of the year that
these guest-houses are used; in the summer months the people prefer
to sit outside under a tree or in a rawaq.1 2 A rough sketch of eS-Seh
Hamad (Kolonia) well illustrates the class described above. See
Fig*. 1, Plate II.

Another class is formed by holy places where the real sanctuary
is surrounded by many rooms. The rooms serve for pilgrims who
make a visit once a year and generally spend several days in the
place. In such cases the building is mostly composed of two, at
times of three, stories. The lower story is used for store rooms,
kitchen and stables, and the upper for the use of visitors. A servant
lives all the year around in such a sanctuary to guard it. These
larger shrines are not generally dedicated to awlicL but to prophets
(ianbid, pi. of naM). En-nabi Musa is the best known example of
this class. But only a few prophets have such large shrines. En-nabi
Saleh (Ramleh), el-Anbia (Nablus), en-nabi Yftsif (Bet Idjza) and many
others have fairly simple buildings, while el-Uzer, el-Mansuri and
el-Mufaddil (all in 'Awartah) who are also counted as prophets, have
no building at all.

Some djawami and awlia are certainly ancient churches or old
houses. Thus I think that djdmi' 'Omar ibn el-Hattab (Surbahir)
and djamic el-cUzer (el-Qaryeh) were once churches.3 4 The shrines of
es-seh Abdallah (Bet Sftrik), es-Seh Saleh (Der Yasin), es-seh Srur
(Awartah) and eS-sel} en-Nftbani (Nablus) are simple rooms, which
were once used as dwellings. They have no mihrab or vault and have
no signs of any tomb. They are at present in very bad state of

Many a built maqam is an open sanctuary, where the walls of the
roof rest on pillars. The best example of such a shrine is that of
Hasan er-RaV who was supposed to have been the shepherd of the
prophet Moses. Inside of a rectangular enclosure, built of stones

1 The school-room of eS-seh Iteyim (Bet Iksa) is used according to Kahle (PJ
VI, 71) as a tnadafeh. Every kuttab may be used at times as a guest house, but
this occasional use does not give such a place the special characteristics which
are found in a maddfeh and which were mentioned above.

2 For maddfeh see Haddad, JPOS II, pp. 279 ff.

3 The best book on this subject is Mader, Altchristliche Basiliken und LokaU
tradition in Siidpaldstina, 1918.

4 Kahle, PJ VH, 91.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

and mortar, we see an elongated and vaulted roof which rests on
six pillars, three to the north and three to the south. Between these
pillars is the large tomb. El-Mas*ad (Mount of Olives) is an octagonal
sanctuary with the sides closed up. Mas&djid sittna *Aiseh has a vault
resting on four corner pillars, where the south side has been completely
closed, and the eastern and western only partly built. The western
and the southern walls of the shrine of Ahmad es-Sarrisi i are closed,
while the two other sides are open.

I do not propose to give an exhaustive architectural description
of all types of shrines. My only aim has been to give simple examples
of the different classes. Descriptions of beautiful mosques like es-
Sahrah, el-Aqs&, etc., need not be given here, since they may be
found in convenient form elsewhere.1 2 Many of the sanctuaries which
are situated in a village serve at the same time as the djamic of
that place, where the people assemble for prayer. Many a djami: was
built in the immediate neighbourhood of a well, as in the case of
es-Seh Djarrah, Sa'd u S'id (both in Jerusalem), Salmon el-Farsi
(Mount of Olives) etc. Some sacred sites which are situated out in
the fields, and which contain no tomb, serve for the passer-by as a
place in which to perform his prayers, e. g. el-Imam cAli, on the
carriage-road from Jerusalem to Jaffa.

We often find in front of the sanctuary an elevated place, well
covered with large, smooth stone flags, called msallaydt They are
generally in close contact with the sanctuary and serve for prayer.
It is not necessary that a ritually clean cover be spread on them
since they are always kept clean. Such prayer platforms are met
with in eS-Seh Saleli ('Anata), Irdjal Sufah (W. of Der Ghassaneh),
eS-seh Damrah and es-Seh en-Nfibani (both in Mazarf en-Nfibani.3

Before passing on, it may be well to note that in some shrines
there are inscriptions. They are generally found just above the
door of the sanctuary or above that of the court, though occasionally

1 On the top of a mountain in Abu Ghos.

2 Short descriptions are found in Baedeker, Meistermann and other guide-
books; scientific descriptions are: Gressmann, Der Felsendom in Jerusalemt PJ
IV, 54 ff.; R. Hartmann, Der Felsendom und seine Qeschichte, 1909; De Vogue,
La Mosque d'Omar a Jerusalem, 1905.

8 I am indebted for information regarding the last three places to Omar Efiendi

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


they may be found above the window (es-seh Djarrah). or above
one of the pillars of the vault (eS-seh Hasan er-Bal). Some such
inscriptions are:

1. Above the central door of the shrine el-Hadrah1 (Nablus):

aJJI £JL*aJ\ L-<>%**) dJJol ^b\ \Sjb

'f ^ ^b*JI ^UJL\ 0lkUJ\

This prayer house was built during the (reign) days of the sultan,
the king Seif ed-Din Qalawan, the pious. God make him powerful;
and his father es-sultan the pious king 'Aid ed-Din. His victories
be glorious.

2. Inside maqam el-Hadr (Nablus):1 2


0 Ddsiiqi 0 Badawi The maqam of elrHadr Ahmad elrBadawi3 * *
cAbd-el-Qddir edrDjildni.

3. An inscription on velvet laid on the cenotaph of el-Anbia

L^AJO >^1 aJJ\ .pLcO\ U^Uaj\

k'^boJI film (A*$ ^rf****'}

This is the tomb of the prophets of God, the Glorious: the sons of
our master Jacoby and they are BayalUn, Jasadjar and Asar. On
behalf of our Prophet, these, and all other prophets may there be the
most efficacious prayers, and the most complete peace.

4. In the rawaq adjacent to the shrine of el-Anbia:

6 bj; \jb by^ U&

Whenever Zacharias went into the chamber to her (his wife Mary)
he found provisions with her.7

1 On a marble stone.

2 The writing is in five sections, side by side.

3 El-Badawi is repeated twice. The second time should be er-Rifa'i.

* Obviously a scribal error for Zebulon.

ft Stands for Issachar.

ft A verse of the Qoran, Surah III, 37.

7 Sales translation. The commentators say that none went into Marys
apartment but Zacharias himself, and that he locked seven doors upon her, yet
he found she had always winter fruits in the summer, and summer fruits in
the winter. I cannot find the connection between the above verse of the
Qoran and the shrine of el-Anbia, which has nothing to do with Zacharias
and Mary.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

5. On a marble stone above the entrance to the shrine of es-sultan
Ibrahim el-Adhami (Bet Hanina):

^LuXili 1
JJLJl A+j>j ^.U^.

In the name of the most merciful God. The hadj Sweid the son
f Hamayd, God be merciful to him, has ordered the building of this
place of worship ... in the year 637. [A. H.]

6. Above the door ot maqam el-Yaqin, Beni Nem (on a marble

... *J}\ \Sa L£J L jJ rsa.rJl

. . jJLo £yO Ijjb . ^JLoJl ^S>

In the name of the most merciful God. Mohammed Abdallah ...
Alt es-Saleh ... has ordered the building of this prayer house, from
his own money ...2

7. Between the two northern vaults of the shrine of Hasan er-Rai
(near the Nebi Musa) we read:

i-JLJi sjjb tLiJ\

^ JbiL^l \ trZ*. Lib

l^\ cr* LL\ JJu ^bo JJJ1 JckiA. slo

\ d^X^uj (^.,>1^x11 ^

Mohammed Pdsd, the doer of good, has erected this blessed qubbeh
on Hasan er-Ra%, God sanctify his secret, as he (the Pdsd) was
returning from welcoming the Mohammedan pilgrims. He proceeded
in building but found no water. But because of his high zeal, God
protect him, the water was brought to the place3 from the village of
Jericho. Thus he deserved the heavenly reward. The 1 RaM' 1110

8. On the tomb of eg-geh Abh-l-Halaweh (Jerusalem):

g5Jl <*JJI ^5 ^ IjJk .£U\ y,

-------- jr.o .is^UJl

t Dots represent words which are indecipherable.

2 A~^e ^v. ilcr*P]tion on the tomb of Patimeh the daughter of IJasan the

grandson of the Prophet is: ^

7^^ ^ yb Ml g ^ CU^iLol

'3* ^ bXLi AM3 ^1 dL*J>U dbj^l

See Mudjir ed-Din I, 67. 8

8 Lit. to the village.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanotuaries in Palestine


He is the everlasting living one. This is the tomb of the friend of
Oodf] es-seh Hasan Abu el-Halaweh. For his soul (rea,d). al-fatihaJi.
1305,. [A. H.]

9. A golden embroidered writing on a red silk cloth placed on
the tomb of en-nabi Lilt (Beni Nem), runs:

. i^baJ I 1 j** 1 Js.A

This is the tomb of the prophet Lut, peace and blessings be on him.

10. On another cloth in the same shrine.

^ \ aJI AJJ b \ bj ^aaXuj Aj^ j)\ f \ aJJ 1 ^aa3b

J^J AJJl be Alii ^U1 aJU\

AJUb y\ ^ jyj* ajui

In the name of the most merciful God. In him we find help. My
sitccess (good luck) is only in God. There is no god but God. Our
lord1 2 Mohammed is the apostle3 of God. In the name of God; what
God wishes, My lord Lut is an apostle of God. There is neither
might nor strength but in God.

11. The writing on a banner, presented to en-nabi Lut by soldiers
coming from Aleppo and proceeding to the Suez Canal front during
the last war (19151916), was as follows:

a) 1 wX^a.1 b

Oh excellency,4 my Lord Ahmad er-Rifai
(written in the upper right corner of the banner);

b) ^ybyi laftj \ b

Oh excellency, the divine pole,, my lord Abd elrQ&dir ed-Djilani
(in the left upper corner);

c) 5^vXaJ1 ^JaiUl kyoa. b

Oh excellency, the supreme pole, my lord Ahmad el-Adawi
(left, lower corner);

d) ^^44d\w)J\ b

Oh excellency, the true pole, my lord Ibrahim ed-Dasuqi
(right lower corner);

1 Hava, p. 887.

2 Lit. Master.

3 More than a prophet.

4 hadrat is a title of honour. With Hava I render excellency.
6 el-'Adawi is used here instead of el-Badawi.

Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

e) JJUI -JJI ^11 AJI

There is no god hut God and Mohammed is the apostle of God

(in the centre);

f) JlJlp aJJ\

Our Lord the Friend of God, peace he upon him
(between a and.e);

g) The Turkish crescent, between h and e.

h) The Tomb

Inside the shrine and generally in the centre of the room we find
the tomb of the holy person whose name it bears. Before giving
any description of the tomb itself one point should be made clear
the connection of the tomb with the building. The tomb is often
not in the shrine, but outside of it: on the mastabah, in the rawaq
or in the garden adjacent to the maqdm. But it is not at all necessary
that there should be a tomb directly or indirectly connected with
the place to make it a shrine, and there are many tombs which
have no qubbeh. Both these features will be discussed at length in
another part of this work. We may classify tombs according to their
position as follows:

1. Those connected with a maqdm, may be situated

a) in the shrine itself; as el-Badriyeh (Sarafat), BiSr el-Hafi
(Nablus) etc.;

b) in the rawaq; es-sayid Ahmad 'et-Taiyar (Sar&fat);

c) in the garden adjacent to the sanctuary; en-nabi Annir (Der
Ammar), es-seh Ytisif (Harbata).

2. Those which have no shrine built, but are situated

a) in a cave; eg-Seh es-Sidri (Anata), es-sitt er-Rab'ah (Mount of

b) outside in the fields or in a cemetery; es-seh Muhammad el-
Baqq&ni (Nablus), eg-Seh Ramadan, eS-Seh 'Bed (both in Qatanneh),
el-Uzer (Awartah) ^etc.;

c) inside the village, among the houses and not attached to any
maqdm or cemetery; eS-seh Suwan and es-seh Ismail (both in

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


It often happens that in addition to the main tomb or tombs,
which are situated inside the shrine, there are one or more outside
which are intimately connected with the life history of the main welt
These may be situated at various distances and still retain their
association. Some illustrations are:

In the neighbourhood of es-Seh cAbd es-Salam and outside the
maqam is to be seen the tomb of his son Salman. El-Badriyeh has
outside her shrine and in the adjacent hall the tomb of her husband
es-sayid Ahmad et-Taiyar. E3-seh Ahmad ebBustami and his brother
es-seh Murad (Nablus) have their negro servant buried outside of
the maqam. El-Qatrawanis shepherd lies buried near the sanctuary
of his master.

The number of tombs in one sanctuary varies. In the majority
of cases there is only one, but some have two, others even more.
One of the tombs, generally the largest, is of more importance than
the others. It contains the important well, and therefore the
sanctuary takes his name. The other graves are those of his near
relatives: his wife, his brother, his male descendants and sometimes
his servant. The shrines of e£-seh Anbar and es-seh Badr comprise
two tombs each, that of the well and that of his wife. In the case
of es-geh Badr both tombs are in the same room, while in that of
es-seh Anbar the tomb of the well's wife is in a small room adjacent.
In el-Badrlyeh one tomb in the shrine itself is said to be hers, the
other to the north that of her children, while the tomb outside her
shrine is believed to be that of her husband. More interesting are
those cases where we meet with more than two tombs. In es-seh
Hamad (Kolonia) there are five, the tomb of the well, two for his
two wives, one for his son and the fifth that of his servant (really
black slave rabd). The tomb of the servant is shown partly in and
partly outside the shrine. But the two halves do not correspond to
each other. We often meet with tombs which are arranged side by
side and which belong to one of the following classes:

1. The graves of members of the same family, like the Dawari in
Surbahir and the Yamin family in Bet Anan. All are regarded as
mllah, righteous men (pi. of sdleh). In Sa'fat- there are also two tombs
of the family of ed-Dawafri. In Irdjal el-Amud (Nablus) we find
many tombs outside the maqam which are supposed to be the graves
of the servants of the awlid buried here.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

2. The tombs of mudjahdin and suhada. Both words mean
martyrs. The first denotes those who have fallen in a holy war.
In Hebron we are shown the tombs of es-Suhada. After decapitation,
it is said, the heads rolled down shouting na&hadu, naShadu, nashadu
(We witness, we witness, we witness). In Ramleh the tombs of
el-Mudjahidin are arranged in several rows, not far from en-nabi
Saleh. Some large tombs are said to contain the remains of more
than one saint, as in al-Anbia (Nablus). The darth is supposed to
be built over the remains of the prophets Raiyalftn, YaSdjar and
ASar the sons of Jacob. An inscription on silk hanging over the
tomb reads: This is the tomb of the prophets of God, the Glorious,
the sons of our master Jacob, and they are Raiyalun, Yasadjar and
Asar. On behalf of our Prophet, these, and all other prophets may
there be the most efficacious prayers and the most complete peace.1
In Abft Ghos we find that the tomb of es-8eh Ismail el-Tnbawi,
which lies by the north wall of the shrine, has a structure connecting
it with the wall. This structure is said to be the tomb of his son
es-seh Nasir.

The following list illustrates the number of the tombs at some
maqdmSy and their connection with the leading welt himself:

Name of the well


Graves of Graves of Wife or
the well brothers wives

Sons Servant

eS-Hamad2 Kolonia 1 2 1 1
eS-Badr2 J erusalem 1 1
es-lAnbar 'Esawiyeh 1 1
es-Isma il2 el-Qaryeh 1 1
es-Icmar Bet Duqquh 1 1 33
Zawieted-Darwisiyeh Nablus4 1 1 1
el-Qatrawani near Bir Zet 1 1
el-Anbia2 Nablus 3
el-Badriyeh5 Sarafat 1 1 1
es-'Abd es-Salam 'An at a 1 1

1 The tradition that Zebulon, Issachar and Asher are buried in Nablus may
go back to the Samaritans.

2 Already described.

3 ES-seh I'mar is the son of e8*seh Saleh. His son Dahud had one son,
Marrar, whose sons name was Qasim. I*mar and the last three are buried in
this sanctuary.

4 The two brothers Ahmad and Mrad el-Bustami are of equal importance.

5 The more important grave of the two is that of el-Badriyeh.

CANAAN: Mohammedan 8aints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


The tombs are built of stone. In most cases the whole is simply
plastered ever and whitewashed. Even if they are situated out in the
open air (cemetery, fields, etc.), and have no protection at all from
the storms, they are no better treated. Other tombs are constructed
of good hewn stones, which is usually the mark of a tomb of recent
origin.1 The tombs of el-rUzer, el-Mufaddil and of el-Mansfiri are
very well kept. In the case of the first (Fig. 2, Plate II) I could
recognize three layers of well wrought plaster (qsara). The general
structure of these tombs and of the cenotaphs of many important
welis consists of an upper gable section superimposed upon a lower
oblong base. Fig. 3 of Plate II shows a transverse section of such
a cenotaph.

The orientation of the tomb is in general from E. to W., i. e. the
orthodox orientation of all Mohammedan tombs in this part of the
Mohammedan world. The dead are laid on their right sides with
their heads to the west and their feet to the east, thus turning their
faces to the qibleh (direction of Mecca).1 2 There are a few exceptions
to this rule. E8-8eh Grhanim of Jericho, situated in the western
cemetery, is the best case of such an exception since his tomb is
built from N. to S. This saint is of the holy family ed-Dawacri. We
have already seen that some of them are buried in Sfirbahir and
others in Sa'fat. In the case of es-seh Zed (fAnata) it is somewhat
difficult to decide how the tomb is supposed to lie. The wall runs
from N. to S. and in the midst of it there is a Mhid, but only one,
and no signs of any enclosure running from east to west, defining
the direction of the tomb.^ It is generally said that graves showing
this direction belong to the pre-Islamic prophets, but this explanation,
although true of some, does not hold in the two cases alluded to.
The graves ot en-nabi Samwil, el-'Uzer, el-Mufaddil3 and el-Anbia4
run approximately north to south, that of Lot5 (Beni N'em) has a
N. to S. direction.

1 With regard to the general construction of modem Mohammedan tombs I
may refer to Boehmers article, Auf den muslimischen Friedhofen Jerusalems,
ZDPV, 190910.

2 PJ VII, 86 j Jaussen, Coutumes, p. 99.

3 Both in Awartah.

* In Nablus.

s It is curious that while the direction of the tomb is N. S., this prophet is
reported to have turned his face, while praying, to the south.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

In shape the cenotaphs are elongated with top rounded, flat or
with a triangular section rising to a single edge. The tomb of el-
Badriyeh (Fig. 1, Plate III) has a line from end to end of the top,
running parallel to the axis, and thus dividing the cenotaph into
two parts. It looks as though two tombs were indicated, but popular
tradition allows only for one. At both ends we find perpendicular
stones, nasb1 or sahid, marking the head (west) and the feet (east).
Very often only the head nasb, sometimes carved in the form of a
turban, is found (eg-seh Abfi Halaweh, Jerusalem); in others neither
head nor feet are marked at all (es-seh Saddad and e£-seh Saleh).
Female saints (el-Badriyeh, Rab'ah etc.) and gigantic tombs (el-cUzer
and el-Mufaddil) have no sawahid. In many cases, where we do not
find any such stones, a careful investigation shows that the cenotaphs
once had them, but have lost them (e8-£eh 'Neni in Surbahir). Where
more than one saint is supposed to be buried in one and the same
grave, we may find more, than one sdhid, as in el-Anbia (Nablus),
where there are three Sawahid, one standing for each of the three
sons of Jacob, who are supposed to be buried here. According to
Jaussen these two perpendicular stones are symbolic, representing
the two angels who visit the dead.2 I could not verify this

The tomb may be as high as 11.50 meters, but some are very
low. The tombs of eg-Seh Badr, of his wife, and that of es-Seh Rih&n
are not raised at all above the surrounding floor. Those built outside
a maqam are generally elevated, while the lower ones are always inside
of buildings. The sizes of tombs differ enormously. The greater number
are of normal size, though some have exceptionally large dimensions.
The following are the largest that I have seen:

Name of saint Location Length Breadth Height
El-cUzer 'Awartah 564 362 385 cms.
el-Mansuri Awartah 440 235 cms.
el-Mufaddil 'Awartah 468 264 cms.
es-sulfan Halil Qalawani Nablus 458 cms.

1 Muhit el-muhit and Hava do not give this special meaning, but a stone
set up.

2 I have been unable to find such an explanation in the Arabic books.

3 Coutumes, 337.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Name of saint Location Length Breadth Height
el-Anbia Nablus 410 cms.
Hasan er-Ra/i near. Jericho 590 225 140 cms.
en-nabi Musa near Jericho cms.
es-8eh Djarrah Jerusalem 195 137 185 cms.

Many cenotaphs have in one of their walls a small niche (itaqah), in
which oil lamps (sradj, pi. surdj), matchboxes Cilbit habrit, tsahhateh) *,
etc. are placed. These niches may be found in the northern side of
the tomb, as at es-seh Suwan,1 2 eS-seh Imbarak;3 in the southern side,
as at ed-Dawa'ri,2 ed-Djarahid,4 es-£eh Zed,5 e&-8eh Isma'il,2 or in the
western side, as in the case of eS-seh Hamdallah6 and es-seh cAnbar.7 *
Some tombs possess more than one, as in the case of the sifth ed-
Djarahid on the Mount of Olives, where there are three tombs in
one line.s The one in the centre has two niches, a western and a
southern. The last niche is supplied with a wooden door. In one
taqah I found a lamp and tins of oil and in others water, matches,
and burned incense.9 ES-Seh ez-Zughbeh (near the tomb of el-Mansuri
in fAwartah) has such taqat (pi. of taqah), a southern, a western and
an eastern one.

While in tombs situated in a shrine, with such a taqah the incense
is generally burnt in one of the wall niches,10 in all tombs found in
the fields or in a cemetery and having no building, light and incense
are placed in these cenotaph niches.

Some have on top a circular, shallow or deep cup-like cavity, in
which water, but more often flowers are placed. It is believed by
some that the soul of the dead visits the tomb once a week, on
Friday and expects to find some water to quench its thirst. These

1 Really kahhateh, the uk is pronounced in some dialects ts.

2 In Surbahir.

3 Bet Iksa.

4 Mount of Olives.

3 *Anata. The taqah is made in this case by removing a stone from the wall
running from north to south.

6 Biddu.

i Esawiyeh.

3 Kahle mentions only two tombs, but there are three; PJ VII, 90.

3 The middle and the southern tombs are connected at their head-ends with
a small wall. Whosoever lies between them will be cured from his disease. See
also Kahle, PJ VII, 91.

13 In es-seh Hamad the oil lamps were placed on the tomb. *


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

cup-like holes are to be found more frequently in the tombs of common
people than in those of sullah (pi. of sdleh, pious man).

From what I could gather from different people these cups are
used for one of the following purposes:1

1. Water and flowers are placed in them. The purpose of the
water is to keep the flowers living for a long time. This is the
explanation given by the better class of people.

2. The water in the cup is for the birds, to drink 'ann rtih el-maiyet,
for the (benefit) of the soul of the dead. The idea behind this
explanation is that the birds will thank the soul of the dead for
this benevolent act, and will in case of necessity testify to this good
action. Such an explanation is given by people of the middle class.1 2

3. The water in the cup3 serves to quench the thirst of the soul
of the dead. This idea I have heard from peasants and some simple
Mohammedans of Jerusalem.

Flowers, water, etc. are generally brought on Thursday afternoon,
the day when the cemeteries are usually visited.

Another custom, which points to the belief mentioned under
No. 3, is the fact that very often the relations of the dead read
the fatihdh for his soul in case his widow becomes engaged to
another man. At the same time an egg and a small jar full of
water are buried at the head of the tomb. The water is supposed
to quench his thirst and wet his mouth, while the egg will burst
asunder, in place of the dead man, when the behaviour of his wife
becomes known to him.4

Up to now only complete tombs have been mentioned, but parts
of tombs are also found. A short description of one of them will
suffice. In Surbahir5 just behind the guest-house there is a rectangular
depression in the rock about 4x2 metres in extent, with a depth
of 5060 cm. Two steps lead down. In the midst of the western

1 It is curious that Kahle gives only one explanation of these cups, PJ VII, 90.

2 For the same reason, as Kahle thinks, about 450 kg of corn and a zir of
water are placed on the feast-day of el-imam es-safii on the roof of his maqdm

3 At times there are two such cups. EvSn on common tombs one may find them.

4 This custom is dying out.

* I have heard both Surbahir and Surbahil.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


wall there protrudes a small, very simple building resembling one half
of a common Mohammedan tomb. Enquiring about the significance
of this I was told that es-seh Ismail was buried in a small cave in
in the rock, and that this building is intended to cover his feet,
which protruded since the cave was not long enough for the whole
body. In the east side of this half tomb there is a tdqah which
serves light and incense.

Very often tombs are decorated. Hinnd, siraqun and nileh are
used. Palm branches, hands, lines and dots are frequently met
with. Siraqun produces a beautiful red colour. It is curious that all
representations of palm branches made on the graves of ed-Dawari
(Surbahir) had five or seven branches. Sometimes verses from the
Qoran or the names of God are written with these colours. In the
case of the three tombs of syuh ecl-Djarahid (Mount of Olives) I
noticed a red line running across every tomb, commencing with the
lower and middle part of the northern side and terminating at the
lower and middle part of the southern side. In many cases an
inscription may be found connected with the tomb. The inscribed
stone is on the sides or on the top of the cenotaph.

Lastly it should be noted, that a great number of the tombs
situated inside a maqdm are covered with one or more starat1 (pi. of
stdrah, cover). Generally it is a greenish cloth, often with a border
or embroidery in other colours. Sometimes the covers are decorated
with verses from the Qoran. On the rdsiyeh (headstone) a turban
and sometimes a masbahah (rosary) are placed. This last may, as
in the case of Beiram Sawis (Jerusalem), be placed around the whole
tomb. In many cases the stdrah itself is not put directly on the
tomb, but on a wooden cage, which is made in the form of the tomb
and encloses the grave. Such are especially used where the tombs are
very low, as in al-Badriyeh and the already mentioned Beiram sawis.
In many cases an inscription laid on the stdrah, and embroidered on
a piece of velveteen, informs us of the name or names of those interred
in the grave, as on the tombs of Irdjal el-cAmud, el-Anbia, es-Seh
Ahmad el-Bistami and es-sultan Badr el-Ghafir (all in Nablus).
Sometimes the tomb is encircled with an iron frame (es-Seh Salman
el-Farsi). 1

1 Also sitrdt, pi. of sitreh. This expression is not used much for these covers.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

All tombs so far described have been tombs built of masonry.
But there are others made of an elongated heap of stones, surrounded
by a stone enclosure.1 Such graves very much resemble the present
simple tombs of the peasants. We meet with tfiem especially among
the Bedouins (es-Seh Zughbeh,1 2 Jericho). In some cases there is no
surrounding enclosure, and this points to the most primitive type of
tomb cult. The only example of this kind which I have seen is that
of es-8eh Hues3 of Biddft. No tdqah is connected with it.4 In others
we do not find a heap of stones, but only a perpendicular stone at the
head and another at the foot to mark the position of the grave (qdJbr),
as in es-seh Sabbah at Jericho. This supposed tomb is surrounded
by a huwetah (enclosure).5

c) Trees

Trees constitute a very important element of most shrines. This is
not a new custom, for many of the high places of the Old Testament
were associated with green trees. I have no doubt that with few
exceptions every Mohammedan sanctuary is, or was once, characterised
by one or mo^ trees. Welts of recent origin, however, are generally
treeless, like eS-Seh Abft Halawi. A large number of these trees were
cut down during the war, while many have died of old age or been
uprooted by storms (el-Butmeh in Bet Safafa). These are doubtless
the main causes why so many shrines are at present treeless. I have
very often heard the following statement: The welt has no tree at
present, but I remember very well that during my childhood there
stood a large tree there. In many cases, where the old tree was cut
down, the inhabitants of the village, to whom that particular saint
belongs, have planted a new one of the same species, as was done,
for example, in es-Seh 'Anbar. The huge fig tree which once grew
there was cut down and burned by the soldiers, whose camp was in
the neighbourhood. The people of 'Esawiyeh have planted another

1 Doutte, Magie et Religion, p. 432.

2 Not Zu'beh, as given by Kahle, PJ, 1911, p. 88.

2 In 1922 the inhabitants of the village had heaped stones together to build
the tomb.

* Kahle describes another example of this category, namely es-Seh Mohammed
Darir el-Qadri (PJ, 1911, p. 87).

* In the vicinity there is a zaqqfim tree (a kind of myrobalm).

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


in its place. At times it so happens that at some distance from the
well a tree grows up, and a statement by some one from the adjacent
village, that it was revealed to him in a dream that this tree belongs
to the same well, is sufficient to protect the tree completely. A mes
tree (celtis australis L.) growing quite near es-Seh Abdallah (Sa'faj),
and a fig tree growing above the cave of eS-seh Abd es-Salam (Anata)
are regarded at present as belonging to the saints.

According to my data from all the shrines where I was able to
obtain definite information as to the presence or absence of trees,
they were found in 60% of the cases. From an analysis of the
different species of trees growing near* these places we find that
sanctity is not attributed to one more than to others. This fact
indicates that it is not the tree itself which makes the place holy
but that the tree derives its sanctity from the welt to whom it is
dedicated. In some cases it would appear that there is proof to the
contrary, but see below. The following analysis may not be without
interest. Out of 128 cases where trees were found near sanctuaries,
in 30 cases the trees were oaks (ballut1), in 25 figs (tin1 2), in 21 carobs
(Ijarrub3), in 16 olives4 (zetiin5 6 7), in 14 Mulberries (tut% in 12 lote
trees (sidr1) and in 10 terebinths (butum8). Other trees occasionally
found are:

1 Quercus coccifera L. In this connection I wish to express my thanks to
Mr. DinsmOre for his kindness in giving the exact botanical names.

2 Ficus carica L.

2 Ceratonia siliqua L.

4 Olea europea L.

5 A few words about the role played by the olive tree in the Palestinian
folklore may be of interest. The olive tree is called in the different commentaries
on the Qoran, eS-iadjarah el-mubarakeh, the blessed tree. It comes from Paradise,
and is the most noble among all the plants (Fahr er-Razi VI, 264; VIII, 458).
A common proverb compares the olive tree with the bedouin (who can live
anywhere in the desert and requires very little for his living) and the fig tree
with the fellah (who has more necessities) and the vine with a sirriyeh (who
requires a great deal of attention). Christians belive that olive trees kneel down
in the night of the feast of Holy Cross.

6 Morus nigra L.

7 Zizyphus Spina Christi L.

8 Pistacia palestina Boiss.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society


Fig. 1. A frieze representing two serpents.

Fig. 2. The number 810170 inscribed over the entrance to the
sanctuary of en-nab! Lut.

Fig. 3. A frieze (es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami, Sa'fat).

Fig. 4. Dots of hinna, or nileh.

Fig. 5. Dots of the five fingers.

Fig. 6. Decorations seen in the shrine of es-seh Hamed in ed-Djib.
I could not elicit their meaning.

Fig. 7. Representations of two serpents.

Fig. 8. Representations of different sorts of palm twigs, some have 5,
others 7 leaves, while most of them have more.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

sndbar Pinus pinea L.
sard Cupressus sempervirens L.
qres Pinus haleppensis Mill.
naljl Phoenix dactylifera L.
mallul Quercus aegilops L.
sabr Opuntia ficus indica L. Mill,
dalyeh Vitis vinifera
rummdn Punica granatum L.
mes Celtis australis L.
djumrriez Ficus sycomorus L.
ghdr Laurus nobilis

stone pine,

Aleppo pine,
palm tree,

Greek oak,



hackberry, nettle tree,

Trees which naturally predominate on the plainssuch as
mulberries, palms and sycomoresare naturally more common in
connection with shrines found in the plains.

In some cases a solitary tree serves to beautify the shrine, in
others a small or a large grove is assigned to the holy pefson. It is
my opinion that in the neighbourhood of many of these holy trees
there used to be woods, from which one or more trees now survive,
testifying to the former forest glory of Palestine. Es-seh el-Qatrawani,
Irdjal Abft Tuh,1 eS-seh Ahmad,2 es-seh Abu Lemun,3 etc. illustrate
this view.

It is not necessary that a group of trees assigned to a welt should
be all of the same species. The following shows that different trees
may be connected with the same welt:

Abti Lemftn Bet Iksa

el-Mansfiri 'Awartah

el-'Uzer 'Awartah

Sadj&r&t el-Arbcin Qubebeh
el-'Uzer 'Ezariyeh

Salman el-Farsi

terebinth and oak trees;
mulberry and vine trees;
terebinths, a palm and a caGxub;
figs, oak and terebinths;
pomegranate, cypress and a lemon;
Mount of Olives Aleppo pine, cypress, olive and

Abft Ttih Bet Likia olive, oak, terebinth, carob and

several other sorts.

The trees are generally in close proximity with the sanctuaries.
In very exceptional cases the building encloses the tree, or rather *

1 Bet Liki&.

* Hirbet Qariet S'ideh.
9 Bet Iksa.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


part of the trunk. But it is not infrequent for the tree to be found
at some distance from the well. In cases where the holy man has
several trees dedicated to him, one may grow near the maqam, while
others are at .considerable distance from it. The best example of
this is al-Badriyeh, who has in her sanctuary an oak, two olive trees
and a lemon tree, another large oak tree to the east of the maq&m,
a third oak in the valley, one on the way to el-Malha and a fifth
which stood once east of er-Ram. This last was cut down during
the war. Es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami (Bet Hanina) has a mulberry
and at some distance two oaks and a meseh. The last died recently
and was cut down.1

Holy trees, not connected with any qvbbeh or tomb will be
described later. All holy trees, whether they be near to or far from
the shrine are revered and respected; even those that are not
connected at all with any shrine enjoy the same reverence. If the
holy tree is a fruit-tree such as mulberry, fig, vine, cactus, etc. it
is regarded as a sabil,1 2 i. e. everybody who passes that way is
permitted to eat as much as he chooses, but nothing must be
carried away. One who breaks this rule is said to be severely
punished by the saint of that particular tree. Nearly all who avail
themselves of this privilege will recite the f&tihah before plucking
the fruit. In other cases the qayim or haddam (the responsible
servant of the shrine) reserves for himself only the right to gather
the fruit of such trees, as well as those of the waqf gardens

belonging to the shrine, as in the case of sittna el-Hadra in

Nablus. In the case of el-Mansfiri ('Awartah) the large vine is
rented to some inhabitant of the village, who has the sole right to

cut the grapes. The income from the fruits is used to repair the


How severely the saint will punish anyone who steals from his
property is shown in the following story about el-Mansuri.
A gendarme happened to pass through 'Awartah. He rested under
the mulberry tree beside the sanctuary. Seeing the beautiful

1 Other examples are eS-seb JJamad (Kolonia) with a mulberry in the sanctuary
and an oak at a distance; eS-selj. Abdallah (el-Qubebeh) also has a mulberry and,
on the hill opposite on the south, a carob (el-harrubeh ed-djdideh).

2 Sabil is used also for a water reservoir, as will be explained elsewhere.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

grapes in the maqam, he cut a few bunches, despite the repeated
warnings of the people of the village. Before long the gendarme
began to vomit blood incessantly. Nothing helped or relieved him
until he bought a sheep and offered it to el-Mansftri, thus appeasing
his wrath and atoning for his fault.

Another well-observed rule is that no one dares to cut any branch,
however small it may be, from any of these trees. Furthermore, the
saint will not allow anyone to gather and take away the broken or
withered branches. They may only be used for cooking such meals
as are offered in fulfilment of a vow, or meals prepared in festivals
of that particular welt. Es-Seh Brek (pronounced by some Brets)
south of Yalo had many trees which were cut down by some of the
inhabitants of that village and converted into charcoal. According
to local belief he revenged this infamous act by slaying every one
of the trespassers. The people always believe that locusts cannot
injure the holy trees. Most of those I asked about this subject
assured me that while all other trees of the village in the year 1915
were completely eaten up by this frightful curse, the holy trees
remained untouched. This can be taken as an excellent illustration
of the childlike belief of the peasants, for only such trees which
were in general not attacked elsewhere by the locusts, were spared
in the case of the welis.

One additional point should be mentioned in connection with
trees. The sacredness of the trees and the respect shown to every
welt is the reason why peasants of the neighbouring fields deposit
their grain and wood, their ploughs and other agricultural implements,
and the like, under these trees for one night or longer, feeling sure
that the welt will protect them. More will be said later about this

Not to be confused with holy trees which are associated with
saints, are those which are inhabited by demons. It is very difficult
to give any definite rule by means of which a stranger can differen-
tiate between the one and the other. The following points appear
to be characteristic:

1. I have never heard that a tree supposed to be inhabited by
demons was hung with pieces of cloth. Every person whom I asked
about this answered in the above sense; and so I can not verify the

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


statement of Mills, quoted by Goldziher1 in his Mohammedanische

2. While any tree can be sanctified by a welt the djinn seem
only to inhabit certain kinds of trees, especially the harrub. Several
stories illustrating this belief may be found in my Aberglaube.2 This
is why an Arabic proverb says, Sleeping below a carob tree is not
recommended,1 2 3 * since it is thought that these trees are not only
preferred by the demons as a home, but that they assemble here
from time to time. Therefore a simple felldh will not bind his donkey
to a carob tree without asking the djinn first for permission. Super-
stition tells us that this tree was the cause of the ruin of king
Solomons kingdom. The misfortunes attached to it may arise from
the idea that the harrub4 belongs to the misfortune-bringing planet
Saturn.6 Black fig-trees are also thought to be preferred by the

When a tree is inhabited by a demon it cannot belong at the
same time to a welt This is different with springs, where a good
and a bad spirit may dwell in one and the same water course.7

The story of the harrub tree and the ruin of king Solomons
kingdom runs as follows: One day in the temple courts king Solo-
mon noticed a young plant unknown to him. He asked this plant
for it name. Harrfib was the answer. Of what use art thou?
continued the king. To destroy thy works, replied the plant.
The king then asked God that his death whenever it should occur,
might be hidden from the demons till all mankind should be aware

1 II, 350.

2 p. 8 ff.

3 en-ndm taht el-harrub gher mamdfih.

* El-Madjriti, ghaiatu-l-haJdm.

6 The word fyarr&b (carob) comes from the same root as harraba, Mto ruin,
and so it is a very bad omen to dream about this tree; cf. 'Abd el-Ghani en-
Nabulsi, td tir el-andm fita bir el-mandm and ZD MO.

The following story may illustrate this point. M. I. from Artas went with
his wife S., daughter of M. Z., to the vineyards. He approached her under a
fig tree and forgot to say: biami-llah er-rahman er-rahim to drive away the
djinn who live in such a tree. Soon afterwards his wife was attacked with
epilepsy which, as we know, is thought to be caused by a djinn. In this case
he was told by a se(it to whom he went for advice, that the inhabiting demon
was a teyr taiydry ua flying bird, which could not be caught.

7 JPOS, I, pp. 153170, and Aberglaube.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

of it. Having prayed thus, Solomon dug up the carob and planted
it in his garden where, to prevent as far as possible any harm
coming from it, he watched it closely until it had grown into a
strong sapling. He then cut it down and made it into a walking

Now, many years before, Balqis, Queen of Sheba, had come to
prove the king with hard questions, one of which was how to pass
a silk thread through a bead, with a screw-like perforation. He
asked all animals, birds, reptiles, insects and worms for help.
Only a small white worm undertook the task, which it performed
by taking the end of the thread in its mouth, then crawled in at
one end, and out of the other. Solomon granted its request that
it might lodge in any plant it chose, and feed thereon. Unknown
to him it had found a home under the bark of the fyarrtib tree,
which had become his staff, and had penetrated to the very centre
of the trunk. The time arrived for the king to die, and he
happened to be sitting as usual, leaning on his stick, when the
angel of death came and took away his soul; unknown to the
demons who continued their work according to the kings instruc-
tions for full forty years. At last, however, the worm hollowed
the whole staff, which suddenly broke and the body of the king
rolled to the ground; and thus the evil spirits knew that their
tyrant was dead.1

d) Water Courses

Another feature of most of the holy places is the presence of
water. This is either rain-water stored in cisterns (Ur, pi. Mar) or
hrabat (pi. of hrabeh, a cistern-like hole, which is not plastered), or
living water of wells and baiyarat (pi. of baiyarah, which are
especially found in the plain), and lastly running water from springs
and brooks. Of course not all shrines have water near them, but it
is to be found in the greater number. Such a spring or cistern is
more or less sacred to the holy man near whose shrine it is, and
from him it may derive supernatural power, which if known is made

1 The story is found in Dairatu-l-ma arif VII; a part of it is mentioned in
al-uns ed-djalil etc. I, 121; Hanauer, Folklore of the Holy Land pp. 49.50. The
text is taken mostly from the last source.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and'Sanctuaries in Palestine


use of by the felldhm. This subject will be dealt with later in greater

In many cases the cistern or the well is in a ruined condition
and thus does not hold water.1 At shrines situated on or near the
tops of high mountains, cisterns are more usual; in the western plains
wells, cisterns, baiyarat and hrabat are generally found; while in the
hill country, where the holy places are situated on the sloping side
of the mountain, springs are more common.

In a few cases a sabil is attached to the sanctuary. Sabil means
in this case a reservoir, built by the public road and filled at re-
gular periods with water, so that every thirsty passerby benefits by
it. A cup is always left in these places. Among welts with sabils
may be mentioned: al-imam All and eS-seh Djarrah. The latter is
surrounded by a zawiyeh (a sort of a convent). Outside the maqdm
a new mosque was built, on the inner walls of which hang tbul (pi.
of tabl, drum), snMj (pi. of sindj, brass castanets), spears (harbeh,
pi. harbdt* 2), long sharp spits or siak (pi. of sih) and hid$ (pi. of 4J5)
spits of another sort.3

The word misqay is used in some places for sabil. Some shrines,
like sayidna Sa'd el-Ansar and es-seh Hamdallah, have one or more
big earthernware jars (zir, pi. ziar), which are kept full of water.
The pious pilgrim and the passerby find water for their ritual puri-
fication and refreshment.

The wdi Hamdallah4 is situated in the immediate neighbour-
hood of the western cemetery of Biddu. It is composed of a quad-
rangular enclosure, built of stone and mortar. The door is in the
northern side. Around the tomb an oak-tree and a rose-bush
grow, and another rose-shrub is to be seen outside the enclosure.
A similar jar to that mentioned above was placed in the outer
south-west corner, but was broken when I visited the shrine in 1922.
A mihrab, indicated on the southern wall, marks the direction for
prayers. Some rags were fastened on the tree. To the north of
this shrine there is a large water basin, hewn in the rock.

* As is the case in Abu Lemun, el-Qatrawani, es-Sidri, etc.

2 The correct plural is hir&b.

3 The use of these weapons and musical instruments will be described else-

* McCown, 1. c., mentiones only the name, not having seen the actual place.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society


Fig. 1. A rough sketch of es-seh Hamad in Kolonia.






Outer Court. a = Cistern
Maqam b = A mulberry tree
School Room c = Mihrab
Rawaq d = The tomb of the servant,. partly inside
the shrine and partly in the court
Room for the teacher e = The tombs of the seh, his two wives and
that of his son.

Fig. 2. A rough sketch of the sanctuary of el-'Uzer (Awartah).

A c*s Elevated place
B =* The huge tomb

0 B=a A room with a Samaritan inscription on the western
wall. Below the inscription there are three niches
a, b, c = Three rooms, in b there is an inscription (Samaritan),
in c food is cooked by the visitors
1, 2 = Two butum trees

3 = Several carob trees

4 = A palm tree

5 = A quadrangular opening leading to a cave.

Fig. 3. A transverse section of the tomb of el-TJzer. The other
tombs of Awartah have the same form.

Fig. 4. A perpendicular section of a complicated qubbeh. Section
running through two opposite corners.

Fig. 5. Decorations around the mihrab of the sanctuary of es-seh
Yasin (Der Yasin).

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Tut, I


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Sometimes the running water and the tree are the only indications
of the sacredness of the place, and at other times we find only
water courses, which although not connected with any shrine, grave
or holy tree are considered to be sacred and are assigned to some
holy person. In one case, el-Matba'ah, there is a swamp connected
with a welt This marsh has a widespread reputation for relieving
rheumatic pains and is at the same time supposed to cure sterility.

65% of all sanctuaries recorded in this connection possessed a
source of water (flowing or standing) in the neighbourhood.

e) Caves

The last feature to be noted is the presence of a cave in or about
the shrine. We must consider three quite different kinds of caves;

1. Sacred caves connected with a sanctuary, either tomb or maqam.

2. Sacred caves, which have no connection with any shrine.

3. Simple caves, having no apparent connection with the sacredness
of a shrine, though situated near one.

It is interesting to note how many holy places are directly or
indirectly connected with one or other kind of cave.

Sacred caves sometimes lie inside the maqam itself and appear
rather like a shallow cistern with a wide opening.1 In such cases
we seldom find a tomb in the shrine, and the people believe that
the tomb is inside the cave itself.2 Of course no one has ever dared
to descend into the cave to look for the grave. The mouth of such a
cave is generally closed.

The following story illustrates this belief. The qaiym of es-Seli
Mohammad, whose shrine lies in wadi ed-Damm, to the south of
ed-Djorah, once ventured to decend into the cave (el-gh&r) of the
shrine. There he saw the iveli with a bloody sword in his hand.
This sword was that of the Mohammedan * leader who fell here
while leading the troops who finally conquered Askalon. As soon
as the qaiym climbed out he fell sick, and died in a few days.

More often the caves are outside the building, either near by or
some distance away. Occasionally people relate that the holy man

1 As is the case, for example, in the sanctuary of en-nebi Lut (Bani N*em)

* S. Kahle, PJ\ 1911. p.92.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 43

has been seen leaving his shrine and walking to the cave, whence,
after staying some time, he returns to his maqdm. Caves connected
with holy persons are always respected. Some have never been
entered; others are approached only during the daytime, as their
wahrah (condition of inspiring awe) is very strong. In many cases
oil lamps are lighted and incense is burnt in the cave itself. No
animals are allowed to enter such a cave, for it is believed that the
spirit of the holy man will sooner or later inflict severe punishment
upon such an animal. Many peasants say that they have seen in
such a cave a greenish light, which is extinguished as soon as a
human being approaches the place.

In most respects the above description also applies to sacred
caves not connected with any shrine. Fuller details regarding this
type of holy places will be given later. Among such caves we may
mention: One on the left side of the carriage-road leading from
Jerusalem to Kolonia, just opposite the last house of Lifta, which is
situated on the right side of the road.1 A cave in the garden of
the Leper Hospital in Jerusalem.1 2

In addition to these two groups of caves there are many instan-
ces where caves are not far distant from sanctuaries but have no
direct connection with them. Often they lie in a ruin. Shepherds
may keep their flocks there during the night. Instances are the
caves found around the shrines of es-Seh \Abd es-Salam, es-Seh es-
Sidri and es-seh 'Anbar. The caves of the first are in the ruins of
hirbet fAlmit, those of the second in hirbet Der es-Sidd, and those
of the third in hirbet Ibqil* ed-Dan. The caves below the shrine of
es-sitt el-Badriyeh (Sarafat) are used for storing straw (tibn).

These caves are of two types either natural or hewn in the
rock. Most of the latter are ancient rock tombs, the entrances to
which have been enlarged. It is sometimes observed that old, damaged
and partly buried vaults are counted as caves. This I have especi-
ally noticed in 'Awartah.

The three caves belonging to this class are to my mind the
crudest type of sanctuaries. They were ruined, dark, dirty and
unattended. Es-8eh Srur is situated inside the village and is made

1 The terrain where this cave is found is known by the name el-IJomeh.

2 The story of this cave is given on another page.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

of a low, dirty, dark and half ruined room which was at the time
of my visit full of lime. El-'Adjami is a very low, narrow and
dirty opening in the habitation of a peasant. The maqdm was
filled with firewood. A second cAdjami has as shrine a roomlike
cave, situated below a building and vaulted over.

Although these sanctuaries are of so crude a type, they are
honoured and respected by the peasants. Oil-lamps are lighted
in them, oaths and vows are made in their name.

Among sanctuaries having a sacred cave in their vicinity are:
El-cUzer near 'Awartah, es-Sahrah in the mosque of Omar (Jerusa-
lem), eS-Seh Ahmad el-Hwes in Biddu, and e^-Seh es-Sidri near

The first two will be described more fully later. The tomb of
es-Sek Ahmad el-Hwes1 lies in the common cemetery, while the
cave, which is more highly honoured, lies at the very edge of the
village. It is an ancient tomb hewn in the rock which, becomes
partly filled with water during the winter time. All vows and
lights are offered to this saint in this place. He has been also
seen to walk out of the cave.

The es-Sidri has been already described.

Sacred caves which are not connected at all with a tomb or a
masonry maqdm will be discussed below. Among caves which, although
found in the neighbourhood of holy places, have no connection with
the sacredness of the maqdm are:1 2

es-Seh Yusif between el-Bireh and Surdah,

es-Seh Ammar in Der Duwan,

es-seh Abft Ytisif north of Kafr Nimeh,3
es-selj eAbd es-Salam in *Anata.

The shrine of eS-seh 'Abd es-Salam lies east of An&ta in the
vicinity of the ruin. It has one room enclosing the tomb, which
is covered with a green cloth. The head stone is dressed with a
greenish laffeh (the head dress of the peasant). I found in the
shrine a straw mat, many oil-lamps, oil-bottles which were mostly

1 McCown, op. cit. p. 50, seems to know nothing about the tomb of this
welt He describes only the cave.

* These caves need not be always close to the welt

3 Reported to the writer by Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


empty, straw brooms, an earthern oil-jar and a copy of the Qoran.
Outside of this room there are several caves, small and large, which
do not share the sacredness of the well To the northeast we see
the tomb of his son, e8-Seh Sliman. A fig-tree grows in the rock
adjacent to the shrine. It is related by some that the father
planted it; according to others, God made it grow in the rock to
prove the authenticity of the well

We have hitherto dealt only with those caves whose nature as
such is apparent. Very often people tell us that beneath or beside
a well there is a hidden cave, inside of which the tomb of the holy
person is situated. This feature is met with in es-Seh Ahmad tbI-
Karaki et-Taiyar (in Qastal), sittna el-Hadra (in Nablus), eS-8eh el-
Qatrawani (between Bir Zet and Atarah) en-nabi Samwil (Mizpah
of Samuel), es-Seh-cAbdallah (in Qubebeh), etc.

Sittna el-Hadra illustrates this class. Three doors, the middle
one being the main one, lead to an elongated room which is spread
with carpets. The walls, especially the southern one, are decorated
with rough paintings, Qoranic verses, and hung with musical in-
struments and weapons of the dervishes. The mihrab is beautifully
decorated. A door in the western wall leads to a small and dark
room, which is known by the name huzn Ja'qfib (Jacob's sorrow),
since it is believed that Jacob wept here for the supposed death
of his beloved son Joseph. The 8eh relates that this room is built
on a cave which was once opened. Fifty two steps used to lead
down to it. This cave is thought to be the actual place where
Jacob spent his days of mourning.1 The sanctuary is surrounded
by beautiful gardens.

It is a mistake to confuse the caves described above with those
inhabited by djinn, who appear in different shapes, mostly during
the night, and always try to injure the passerby. Such caves are
Mgharit Abti Farh and Mgharit Mardj el-Badd (both in Abft Dis).
In the first one the djinn appear sometimes in the form of animals
and sometimes in the shape of human beings. At the second men-
tioned cave the demons assume the appearance of a cock.

Places and caves regarded as holy by Christians and Jews may,
at the same time, be considered by the Mohammedans to be the i.

i. There is no tomb in this cave.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

abiding place of djinn. Although this is rare, the following episode
illustrates the point. Sliman Mustafa, a peasant of Malha, was
returning one evening from Jerusalem. As he was overtaken by
heavy rain, he sought shelter in a cave which lies near Bir el-Balat,
and not far from the convent of the Holy Cross. The monks of this
convent are said to have buried their dead here in former years.
No sooner had he sat down on a stone than a he-goat came close
to him. The peasant, joyful at this unexpected gift, struck a match
but could see nothing. As soon as the light of the match went out,
he saw the goat again. Frightened by the repeated appearance and
disappearance of this animal, he rushed out of the cave with the
words in the name of the Gracious, Merciful God. This freed him
from the demon, which was following him in the shape of the he-goat.


We have now considered all the characteristic elements of these
sanctuarieswith the exception of stone circles, stone heaps and
rocks, which may also be found. We now proceed to deal with the
various combined features which may make up a welt Attention
must first be drawn to a constant factor affecting the importance of
the different features of a shrine. The two most important parts of
a sanctuary are without doubt the maqam and the tomb; trees and
water-courses rank second, other features being generally of minor
significance. I hope, however, in the following pages to make it clear
that even to these unimportant features is sometimes granted a high
degree of sanctity. No place can be considered holy, i. e. inhabited
by a holy person, unless two conditions are fulfilled: (1.) The
performance there of religious acts, such as oaths, vows, lighting lamps,
burning incense, etc.; (2.) the occurrence there of unnatural phenomena,
as, for example, hearing religious music, seeing a light lit by itself,
or a severe punishment befalling a trespasser. These points will be
considered in a subsequent chapter. Let us now study the different
features which may constitute a shrine in the wide sense of the word.
They may be divided into nine classes:

I. Sanctuaries consisting of a maqam and a tomb, with all or
most of the other features;

II. A maqam but no tomb;

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


III. A tomb without a maqam\

IV. A cave with or without a tomb;

V. A simple circular enclosure of stone, without a tomb;

VI. A spring or a well;

VII. A solitary tree or a group of trees;

VIII. A heap of stones;

IX. A simple large stone or a rock.

I to VI may, or may not be combined with one or more of the
following features: a tree, water, a ruin or a cave.

I. Sanctuaries with a shrine (maqam) and a tomb.

These are the most complete and highly developed forms. Usually
we find them whenever we have to do with an important, well-
established and highly honoured saint. In such cases the tomb of
the holy person was the primary part of the shrine, and in the
course of time an individual or village built the sanctuary. The more
important the holy man, the greater the complexity of the building.
Prophets (anbid) enjoy the largest maqams. But even many of the
simple syuh have shrines falling within this group, as, for example,
es-£eh et-Tori, e£-seh cAnbar, etc. Some of them are elaborate
structures, as eS-seh I'mar (Bet Duqqfi), es-seh Hamad (Kolonia)
andlrdjal el-fAmfid (Nablus). Good examples of large and complicated
buildings are those of en-nabi Mfisa and All ibn '(-Ejlem.1

The shrine of es-Seh I'mar2 the son of e£-seh Saleh is situated
on the mountain on which Bet Duqqti is built. The sanctuary
consists of three rooms, a cistern and an open place to the north
of the rooms. The open place is surrounded by a massive wall
and has a palm-tree on its east side. The two western rooms
communicate with each other. In the southern one there are the
tombs3 of the well and his wife, while in the northern one his son
eS*s6h Dahftd is buried. On each side of the door which leads
from this room to the open place we see a tomb, the eastern one
of which covers the remains of es-seh Qasim, the son of "All the
son of Marar, while the western one belongs to this Marar the

* North of Jaffa.

2 Corruption of Omar.

3 The tombs were decorated with hinnti and maghri.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society


Fig. 1. Plan of el-Badriyeh.

A = Outer Court
B = Inner Court
C = Back Court
D =* Small Garden
E = Cemetery
F = Sanctuary

G = Ruaq, serving as a djami*

a = door to outer court
b = door to inner court
c = entrance to the maqam
d = cistern

e = tomb of el-Badriyeh
f = tombs of her children
g = tomb of her husband
h = prayer niche
i = two olive trees
k = an oak tree
1 = entrance to a cave.

Fig. 2. Plan of Irdjal el-'Amud.

a = entrance to court
b = cistern

c = private tombs (those of the servants and relatives of the Saints)
d = qubbeh

e = a djami* with a mihrab

f = under thevwindow is the opening to a cave, where 40 martyrs
are said to be buried. It is called ghar seydna All ibn Abi Talib
g = the tombs of the Siuh.

On the sasiyeh of the main entrance (a) a fragment of a pillar is built.

Fig. 3. A part of the wall of the enclosure of el-Maushri in Awartah.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Tuti ///

Tlct e4t*n&


El -J?/iixiyei4


'Xiri&i C^/y^-v' vr^
TET h/ti n-
TrO Tfl l 1 1 ) 1
LJ > t-r7rrT
IPTl 111 i)i

^ *J EEc.
etie lejf+y
<*J i/- J7lsyn4un,l



El a. n 0)

Ju;*l 4



Journal of this Palestine Oriental Society

son of Dahud. The eastern room used to serve as a maktdb
(school room), but its ruined state at present makes it useless.
In the two western rooms there were oil-lamps, oil-bottles, two
long wooden sticks for banners, a pot with sweet-basil1 and a
heap of carob fruits.1 2 3 4 The last is the well's portion of the
carob tree, which belongs to him and grows at some distance
from the maqam.

Since every point in connection with maqams of this group has
already been described, we may pass on to the next class.

II. Maqams without a tomb

They are sanctuaries built in a village and bearing the name of


a djami'* (a mosque), like djami* el-Arbln ("Esawiyeh), djami" 'Omar
ibn el-Hattab4 (Surbahir5), djami" el-'Uzer4 (el-Qaryeh), etc.

Djami* el-"Uzer lies to the east of the French Benedictine church
and convent. The shrine consists of an open place, to the south
of which there is a rawftq with two arches and a prayer room,
which has two beautifully decorated mihrabs. To the west of the
open court is a small room, in which the dead are ritually washed
before they are buried. A spring and a palm-tree are found in
the open courtyard. Around the two mihrabs of the prayer room
and around that of the rawdq there are impressions of hands, and
representations of palm branches, some of which have nine, others
seven leaves.

The people are well aware that the holy man whose name the
mosque bears was not buried here. They explain the connection of
his name with the place by the fact that during his lifetime he was
very pious and therefore so honoured that in every place where he
is supposed to have offered prayerand he never missed one of the
five daily prayersa mihrab was erected and later a djami' was
built. This explanation, told me by the muhtar (the village chief) of

1 Rihan, ocymon basilicum.

2 garrtib, carob.

3 This, of course, is not an absolute rule, for there are mosques containing
tombs, like djami* el-'Amari (Der Aban).

4 Probably a church which was changed into a mosque.

5 Pronounced at times also Surbahil.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Surbahir, and by people of Soba, is commonly given in connection with
the Caliph 'Omar ibn el-Hattab and es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami.1
Many mosques bearing the name of the Caliph are called 'Umaru
This may account for some, but, of course, it cannot explain all the
djawami (pi. of djami) of this category. In many cases it is believed
that the holy man lived, taught, or appeared after his death in this
spot and that therefore a mosque was built in his memory. A third
explanation was given me by the muhtar of 'Anata. He said that
every time a new mosque is built it is dedicated to some saint, who
is not necessarily chosen from among the most important. But the
present writer is of the belief that the basis of such a dedication is
a legend connecting the man of God in question with the locality.

The following stories will serve as illustrations.

In the room known by the name of huzn Ya'qub and situated in
sittna el-Hadra (Nablus), Jacob is supposed to have mourned for the
death of his beloved son Joseph.

El-'Uzer came to el-Qaryeh to adore Almighty God. He fastened
his ass to a pillar beside the spring and prayed. His devotion was
performed with such intensity that it lasted one hundred years, and
he thought it was only a few minutes. As he turned to the place
where he had fastened his animal he found that only the skeleton
of the ass was left.1 2

Es-seh el-Qatrawani lived in the village of Qatrah north of Gaza.
According to one version of the story he left his villagesince he
could not fulfill his religious duties thereand came to the lonely

1 In safat, Bet IJanina and Soba. In the first two there is a mosque, while
in the third we find only a square place with a mihrab, a large fig tree (not an
oak-tree as McCown says) and a small enclosure (huwetiyeh) in the north-west
corner. In the tdqah situated in the west wall are found various pits of broken
pottery, in which incense was burned. Most of the people gave me the name
es-sultan Ibrahim, not es-Beh Ibrahim (Me Oown).

2 Cf. Qoran, Surah II, 258ff. The text (Sales translation) runs: And God
caused him (cUzer or Ezra) to die for a hundred years, and afterwards raised him
to life. And God said, How long hast thou tarried here? He answered, A day
or part of day. God said, Nay, thou hast tarried here an hundred years. Now
look on thy food and thy drink, they are not yet corrupted, and look on thine
ass: and this we have done that we might make thee a aign unto men. And
look on the bones of thine ass, how we raise them and afterwards clothe them
with flesh.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

spot of Dahrit Hammfideh,1 a high hill between Bir Zet and Atarah.
Here he lived in prayer and self-mortification. According to another
version when his dead body was being carried for burial, he flew up
off their shoulders and descended on the hill, where his shrine stands
at present.1 2

In the room leading to the so called Stables of Solomon, the crib
of Christ (srir saiydna cIsa) is shown. It is related that St. Mary
used to put her child here.

Below the Holy Rock of the Mosque of Omar visitors are
shown places where David, Solomon, Abraham, Elijah and Mohammed
are thought to have prayed. Each of these spots is holy.

Near some shrines of the first group there has been built recently
a mosque, which bears the name of the holy person honoured near
by. But such a djamic serves only for prayer, while all honours
continue to be given to the old shrine. Examples of this are es-Seh
Djarrah and Sacd u S'id3 (both in Jerusalem).

Hitherto we have only dealt with shrines of this class, where it
is absolutely certain (according to general belief and to external
appearance) that no tomb exists. But there is a subdivision of this
class forming a connecting link between this and the previous group,
and comprising those sanctuaries where no tomb exists and where
there is not the slightest external sign pointing even to the possibility
of a tomb, though local tradition asserts that the saint was buried
there, either beneath the building or in a cave which was afterwards
closed. Such sanctuaries are el-Qatrawani, es-seh Ahmad el-Karaki
(Qastal), es-Seh Husen (Bet Stirik), es-Seh Abu Ismail (Bet Likia),
es-Seh Abdallah (Qubebeh), etc.

Es-Seh Abu Isma ll, which lies in the midst of the village, consists
of two rooms. The front one serves as a guest-house (mad&feh),
while the second is the shrine of the saint. No tomb is anywhere
to be seen. But it is said that the well is buried in a cave which
lies beneath the shrine. In the middle of the guest-house is the
fire-place (udjdq) where coffee is prepared. In the outer coiyrtyard

1 The shrine is surrounded by the remains of a church.

2 I heard these two versions from people of Atarah, the second seemed to
be the prevailing one.

2 The shrine of the latter ieh is in ruins.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


is a sidreh (lote tree) which furnishes a protecting shadow, so that
the guests assemble under it in the summer months.

Another subdivision is the group to which Qubbet el-Arb in1 (the
dome of the Forty) belongs. Every Mohammedan knows that the
Forty were not buried in this sanctuary; nevertheless an elongated,
rectangular frame of stones in the midst of the floor running east
and west, stands for a tomb.

III. A tomb without a building

There is scarcely a village which does not possess at least one such
welt In some places as in Sflrbahir and Jerichothis type is by
far the most common. Such holy places may be composed of one or
of a whole set of tombs. Where several tombs are found side by side
the persons buried generally belong to the same holy family. Such
cases are Syfih ed-Djaabri1 2 (Hebron), hadj I'bed (St. John), Irdjal
Sflfeh (Der Ghassaneh3), e6-Seh Abfl Yamin (Bet 'Anan), e8-suhada
(the martyrs of Hebron) and el-Mudjahdin (the fighters in the holy
warof Ramleh). In many cases the descendants of these saints
are still living.

The shrine of es-seh Abfi Yamin is surrounded by an enclosing
wall. The tombs of es-seh and of his son are in the maqam, while
the graves of his descendants are in the open court around the
building, enclosed by the wall. A pomegranate, a palm and a fig
tree belong to the saint. It is said that he is often seen flying
while his band of musicians is playing. According to local belief
he and all his descendants were chosen men of God.

With the exception of a few such placeslike those of eS-^uhada
and el-Mudjahdinmost representatives of this class belong to recent
times. They generally come within one of the following categories:

1. A living Seh of a holy family dies. His tomb receives more or
less the same honours as those of his ancestors. Examples are es-
Seh Bhet, es-seh Hilfi and eS-Seh Saleli of the family of ed-Dawa'ri

1 Situated on the Mount of Olives, in the midst of the cemetery. It is a square
building with a small dome. A small fig garden is connected with it.

2 Their ancestor was the renowned scholar (*alim) ed-Dja'bari.

3 Information derived from Omar Effendi El-Barghufci.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Sooiety

These syuh ed-Dawacri are interred in the common western
cemetery of the village. Their tombs are enclosed by a rectangular
wall which is in many places defective. The most important of
them are es-Seh el-'Neni and Abu Mita. Although their tombs are
smaller than the three mentioned above, they enjoy greater respect
and honour. All except the tomb of el-cNeni have stones at head
and foot and a niche in which oil is lighted. The newer tombs are
decorated with hinna and straqtin. Broken oil-jars and oil-bottles
are scattered around the tombs.

2. If there dies a famous holy man or a derwis who had founded or
was a prominent member of a tariqah, or used to heal the sick during
his life, his tomb tends to become sacred and himself a welt The
best example of this is es-seh Abft Halawi.

He is buried in the cemetery which runs along the east wall
of Jerusalem. The tomb is situated on rising ground to the north
of St. Stephens gate. The qandil, described by Kahle1 and shewn
in the photograph which he took of the place, was stolen during
the war. Flowers are very often deposited on the tomb. This seh
was very much honoured during his life. Sick people and those in
trouble used to obtain healing and help from him. While his dead
body was being carried to the place of burial, it flew away and
descended on the spot where the soul of the welt chose to have
his remains interred. His tomb is honoured and the sick very
often tear a piece from their garments and bind it around the
head stone.

3. A night vision of some villager shows him that this or that
place, in or near his own neighbourhood, is sacred as the burial
place of a ivelt The people of the village will then probably build
there a tomb, as was done in the case of es-3eh Suwan.

A peasant of Sflrbahir, who lived in a small cave, lost one
member of his family after the other through death. No one could
explain his misfortune. One night a reverend seh appeared to him
in a night vision and reproaching him severely said: Why do you
not respect my habitation? If you will not atone for your past
forgetfulness I will cause the remainder of your family to die.

1 PJ VI. p. 67.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctnaries in Palestine


The frightened man asked: Who are you, my Lord? The reply
was: I am Seh Suwan and am buried here. Early in the morning
a tomb was built, the cave cleaned and the family moved elsewhere.

In many cases a low circular enclosure, huivetiyeh, surrounds the
tomb. Even in high structures it is never vaulted. Generally it is
constructed of simple, unhewn stones, as in the following cases:

ES-Seh Sabbah
es-seh Zughbeh
es-seh Hamdallah
es-seh Imbarak
es-seh 'Teri
es-Seh el-Habil1

in Jericho,
in Jericho,
in Biddh,
in Bet Iksa,
in Der Ghassaneh,1
in Der Ghassaneh.

Sometimes this enclosure is built more solidly, hewn stones and
mortar being used. The walls may be high and surround the entire
group of objects: tomb, trees, mihrab and open court This open space
surrounding the tomb is often paved with stone slabs, especially in
the case of important welts like el-Uzer (Fig. 2, Plate II), el-Mufaddil
and al-Manshri (all in Awartah). In the case of al-Man$firi the wall
surrounding the tomb is constructed on three sides of beautiful small
vaults (Fig. 3, Plate III).

In the case of simple enclosures an opening like a door is some-
times left on one side. This door is often made of two large side
stones set upright with another on top, and is rather low. Although
visitors are supposed to enter through this door, this is seldom done.

Many Bedouin welts are of this type.

E3-seh Sabbah and ez-Zughbeh* 2both in Jerichoare good
illustrations of the foregoing type. The former has a very low
door, while in the second a breach in the low wall serves the
purpose. A visitor must creep if he wishes to enter through the
door of the enclosure of Sabbah in orthodox fashion,3 so every
one prefers to jump over the wall.

In most cases of a tomb with an enclosure it is said that at
different times the people proposed to erect a maqam, but the saint

* Information from Omar Effendi el-Barghu£i.

2 Kahle, PJ, 1911, pp. 88. Not Zu'beh but Zughbeh.

3 Creeping through the door, and thus humiliating oneself is regarded with
more favour by the iej, than jumping over the wall.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

himself refused to have one and pulled down in the night what was
built during the day, throwing the stones far away.

The tomb of e8-seh DarwiS of Bet Shrik is surrounded by a
high enclosing wall. Every time the peasants of the village tried
to build him a suitable tomb and to put a roof on the four walls,
the saint showed his dissatisfaction by pulling down their work,
until they were obliged to give up their idea. The same is said
of el-Manshri, el-Mufaddil and others.

In some cases we are shown a tomb, but exact investigation will
fail to disclose any thing, even a heap of stones, which might mark
the existence of a tomb. Under the terebinth tree of es-seh Mustafa
($oba) irregularly scattered stones were said to represent the tomb
of the welt But I could not distinguish any characteristic of a tomb.
The scattered stones were shaped like ordinary field stones.1

IV. A cave with or without a tomb

There are two types of sacred caves: those with and those without
a tomb. The first type is rare and its best representative is es-seh
es-Sidri.1 2 A careful description of this sanctuary may suffice to explain
this point more exactly. The well is situated in the ruin Der es-Sidd,
south of eS-Seh fAbd es-Salam, on the top of a low hill. In the ruin
there are many caves3 hewn in the rock, with stairs leading down
to them. Many cisterns, mostly defective, are scattered here and
there. Bir ez-Zqaq provides water for shepherds. The saints tomb
is situated in a rather large, natural cave with a low roof. The
entrance is built of good hewn stones and surrounded by a square
outer court, which lies lower than the western part There is no door
to close the cave. At the N. N. E. extremity we find the tomb erected
on an elevated square platform with two pillar fragments on the
front corners. On both of them, as well as around the tomb, we find
oil-lamps, candle-stumps, matches, broken jars, bottles, etc. Besides
this tomb there is no other buildiDg. At present no tree is connected
with this sanctuary, but formerly a large terebinth adorned the
empty space.

1 McCown, op. citj p. 56.

2 According to some his first name is Muhammed, according to others

3 These are used at present for cattle.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Other examples of this type are: Es-seh Ahmad el-Gharib (N. of
el-Mdjedil near Nazareth); eS-seh Salman el-Farsi (Mount of Olives):
who used to have his tomb in a cave, and es-sayidi er-Rab'ah.

By the cave of es-seh Salman el-Farsi a beautiful qubbeh1 was built.

Formerly a narrow canal (dahliz) used to lead to the cave. In
front of the pretty shrine several trees were planted: a cypress, a
pine, two pomegranates and an olive tree. A cistern is also
connected with the place*.

Es-sayidi er-R&bah1 2 3 (not Rahba, as stated by Meistermann,3
nor R&hibet as stated in Baedeker4 5) who has her sanctuary near
el-Mas'ad (the place of ascension) and below ZAwiet el-Asfadiyeh, is
honoured by the Mohammedans, Christians and Jews. The Christians
and Jews do not reverence here er-Rab ah,6 but Pelagia6 and the
prophetes Hulda,7 respectively. Twelve steps lead from the upper
room to the cave in which the tomb is shown, all hewn in the solid
rock. A small room near the grave is said to be the place where
she used to perform her daily devotions. Er-Rabcah, it is said, used
to kneel a thousand times daily saying: ttI ask for no recompense,
but to satisfy the Almighty God. In the upper room there is a
cistern whose water is said to have a specially pleasant taste.

There are some caves, in front of which tombs are found and
both these two features are intimately connected with each other.
It is said that the well has been seen occasionally walking from his
tomb to the cave. As illustrations we may cite es-Seh Ahmad el-
Huwes, which has already been described, and es-£eh Asffir8 to
the south of Der Ghassaneh.9 In the first case, all honours are paid
to the cave, where it is supposed that the soul of the saint lives.

1 liable, PJ, vol. VI, 1910, p. 79. The ruined qubbeh has been restored.

2 The full name is er-Rab'ah el-'Adawiyeh el-Basriyeh of the descendants of
A1 Aqil.

3 Guide de la Terre Sainte, p. 278.

4 Palastina und Syrien, p. 94.

5 She is said to have died in the year 135 A. H.

She was formerly called Margarita, and died 457 A. C. Here it is supposed
that she atoned for her sins (Meistermann).

7 The inhabitants of the Mount of Olives pronounce it Huldah.

8 I owe this information to the kindness of Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

9 In reality this shrine does not belong to this but to the rirst class. It is
said that the saint used to sit in the cave during his lifetime.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

The second categorya cave without a tomb, and supposed to be
inhabited by a sainthas many representatives in Palestine. The
caves are either natural or rock-hewn tombs. They are situated on
the edge of a village, or outside in the fields. We seldom find them
among human habitations. Among caves which are considered to
be the habitation of saints are:1


es-seh 'All Qaitun
es-seh G-hreyib
Mgharet es-Seh
Irdjal el-Arbin
el-Arb*in Mghazi
es-8eh lcsa
Irdjal Abu Tub
es-Seh Yfisif
eS-seh 'Abdallah

Mount Carmel,1 2

el-Hadr, near Bet Djala,
Kufr 'Aqab,


Bet Likia,

Bet Likia,

Bet Likia,

Bet Hanina,

Mizpah of Samuel.

Six3 steps lead down to Mgharit Irdjal4 5 el-Arb*in of Biddii.
The cave is small, somewhat round, with a low roof. During the
winter months part of it is full of water. In front of this cave
two oaks, an olive and a terebinth grow one beside the other. In
their shade the hatib (religious head of the village) teaches the
children. No tomb is anywhere attached to this Porty.

The Irdjal Abti Tfth, whose number is unknown, inhabit a small
cave, situated in a rather large grove.6 The entrance to the
mghdrah is so small that no one can enter. Broken jars, oil-
bottles, oil-lamps and burned incense are scattered around the
opening. These saints are very much respected, no one daring to
cut off a twig from their groves.

The different names used for caves, irrespective of whether they
belong to this group or not, are mgharahy ghdr, sqdf, and hikf.
These different expressions do not mean the same thing. The ex-
pression glfidr is used only for cave-like cisterns, which are situated

1 Jaussen, Coutumes des Arabes, p. 302, mentions also a cave called Mgharet
Imm Djde\

2 Curtiss, Kahle and Miillinen.

3 Not eight: Annual of American School of Archaeology IIIII, p. 58.

4 Very often Irdjal is abbreviated and we hear only Djar Arbcin.

5 It is one of the largest groves connected with welts*

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


in the maqam. They are always treated as the most holy places
and nobody dares to enter. A hadit says: ma minn nabiyn ilia
walahu ghdr: Every prophet has a cave assigned to him. In many
cases (e. g. en-nabi Samwil) the visible tomb found in the shrine is
said not to be the true one but to surmount the actual tomb, which
is in the ghdr and cannot be seen nor visited. Ilikf1 stands mostly
for a small cave covered by a large stone slab, like es-seh el-TTmari
east of Hizma. The other expressions generally denote ordinary
caves. As has been already observed small, low, vaulted rooms are
sometimes called caves mghdrah). I met this peculiarity in 'Awartah.
In Sbba the ArV in Mghazi are represented by a small shallow hole
in the old masonary. This was also called mghdrah. Here lights
and incense are burnt.1 2

Of course all honours are paid to such a cave just as to any
shrine. It is lit up, offerings and even sheep may be vowed, a pious
woman will never enter any of them while impure, and no animals
are allowed to defile the holy place by their entrance.3 Not in-
frequently the cave is connected with a tree, a grove or a well as in
the case of:

es-Seh Ahmad Ghreyib in el-Mdjedil near Nazareth,4

eg-seh Mftsa in Harbata5

Irdjal Abu Tflh in Bet Likia,

Irdjal el-Arb'in in Biddfi.

The following story illustrates how a simple cave may eventually
come to receive the honours of a shrine.

The Mohammedan leper Djum'ah,6 from Abu Dis, while in the
leper asylum Jesus-Hilf, Jerusalem, used to live during the

1 Hikf is not known in Muhit el- Muhit. It may be derived from kahf, where
the first and second letters have been interchanged, and h pronounced instead
of h.

2 See description and plate in McCowns article, p. 56. He does not describe
the place as a mghdrah. When counting the wells of this village, McCown was
not shown the tomb situated in the village cemetery and which is dedicated to
es-seh Shadeh and es-sehah Mas'udeh. This place is not highly honoured.

3 This rule is not kept so strictly as it used to be.

* I owe this information to a student of the English College, Jerusalem, who
comes from Nazareth.

3 Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

Heard from this leper himself.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

summer months in a tent out in the large garden of the institution,
to guard it from thieves. While, one Thursday evening, he was
saying his prayers, he distinctly heard prayers and religious music
of dervishes. Djum'ah at once left his tent and walked slowly
towards the place whence the madih, (religious song) came, a cave,
in which a greenish light was burning. Djum'ah dared notenter.
Remaining outside the cave he waited until these mysterious
visitors had finished their prayers. Afterwards he noticed the
same every Thursday evening (lelatu-Mjurri ah). Since that time
he kept the cave and its surroundings clean, since sulldh1 (pious
men) lived or gathered every Thursday evening in this cave to
perform their prayers. Djum'ah was too poor to offer a light
every week, as he should have done according to common belief.i 2

The foregoing story illustrates also the fact that many places are
held sacred only by a few private persons. Their renown has not
yet spread.

We must not overlook the most important sacred cave of the
Mohammedans of Palestine below the Holy Rock in the Mosque of
Omar. The different parts of this cave, which are highly honoured
by every Moslem, will be described in the section dealing with sacred
stones. Even Christians believe in some holy caves, e. g. the Milk
Grotto3 of Bethlehem in which, tradition alleges, some drops of the
milk of St. Mary happened to fall while she was suckling her Child.
The curative powers of this place will be described later.

V. A simple stone enclosure

Such an enclosure may be very small, having a diametre of not
more than 3040 cm., though sometimes much more. The circular
enclosure (huwttiyeh or huwttah4 5sometimes also called hodh or

i When no special saint can be nominated, vague expressions like sulldht
awlid, darawis, ad jam, etc. are used.

J The sacredness of this cave has been forgotten siuce Djum*ah left the in-
stitution long ago.

3 This grotto will be described later.

* The common expression, hauioatak ballah, I(beg) God to be a wall around
you (e. g. may God protect you), comes from the same root hauwata. See
Muhit el-Muhit, vol. I, p. 477.

5 Hod means really a watering-trough.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


sireh1) was in every instance known to me made of simple, unhewn
stones, set irregularly side by side, and with no attempt at symmetry.
Often a gap is left in the circle to act as a doorway. In the case
of e£-8ehah Imbarakeh (Kalandia) the female saint is said to gather
clean pieces of broken pottery and arrange them as a fyuwMah,
leaving a small gap for the entrance. Since the war it is observed
that she does not replace the old pieces with new ones as she used
always to do. Somewhere in the inner wall of these circles there is
usually a tdqah, in which oil-lamps and matches are placed, and
where incense is burnd.

In Biddh we find the western cemetery on a small elevation.
At its north-eastern corner is a small crudely built enclosure in
which eS-Seh'Ali et-Tall&l1 2 is honoured. Near this holy spot grow
an olive and a fig tree, and a cistern was lately discovered there.
All these belong to the saint Two sides of the elevation are
made of old masonry. This place is a good example of a sacred
enclosure combined with trees, a cistern and ruins.

In the case of eS-Seh Fredj (Bet Hanin&) an old petroleum tin
partly covers the sacred enclosure, and thus protects the light from
being blown out. The fact that awlid belonging to this class are
not kept clean and are not much cared for, points to the conclusion
that they are not so highly honoured as others. We hear of cases
where villages have tried to erect a maqam for one or other Seh of
this group, but where the holy men prevented the completion of the
work in the same way as we have seen in the case of eS-seh Huwes.
Some of the sanctuaries belonging to this group have been trans-
fered to the category mentioned under II by the erection of a
building in place of the stone enclosure. Masadjid sittna 'AiSeh in
the neighbourhood of nabl Mfisa illustrates this point. A simple,
square handsome building with the northern side completely opened,
and the east and west sides partly open, stands on the site of the
old enclosure. No tomb, cistern nor tree is connected with this place.

1 Sireh means really an enclosure for cattle. The Arabic dictionaries give
neither to this word nor to hod the meaning used in the text, i. e. a sacred

2 Not et/falali as in McCown, p. 59. The depressed spot is the enclosure
and not the grave of the welt Es-Seh IJasan Abu-1-CA1 amen of Biddu is not
mentioned in the list given by McCown.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

A few metres to the north of el-Mansuri (Awartah) one is shown
a very badly made enclosure said to mark the tomb of Hftsa\ the
son of el-Mansuri. A large wind-proof kerosene lantern is placed
in the centre. Of this and the other important worthies of Awartah
it is said that they do not wish any building to be erected over their

It is interesting to note that even Christians have similar en-
closures, which they respect and honour. On the left side of the
stony road leading from Bet Djala to el-Hadr, passing el-Marah
and going through es-Sarafeh, just before the latter is reached, there
is a small enclosure into which a passer-by may throw bread, figs
or grapes. It used always to be kept clean. The peasants of Bet
Djala tell how that when St. George (el-Hadr) came from the north
to the village el-Hadr (where a church is built for him) he walked
with gigantic strides, one of which happened to fall in this spot.1

A few enclosures sacred to Mohammedans which have not yet
been mentioned in the text are:

es-seh Ghreyib1 2
en-nabi Danial
es-seh Said3 4
es-seh Mrad
es-seh Abu-l-Kferl
es-seh Abd el-Muhsin

in Yalo,
near el-Hadr,
in Idna,
in Yalo,

in Hirbet el-Kfereh,5
in Djibiah.

En-nabi Danial (also pronounced Danilin) has his huwetah in
a vineyard, situated between Artas and el-Hadr, in Marah ed-
Djami*. The prophet, passing this way, performed a prayer at this
spot. Some oak trees, to which rags and hair are fastened, grow
near the enclosure. He is supposed to appear occasionally walking
in the vineyard and wearing a green crown. With him is his horse
which he ties to one of the trees. Formerly he always refused to

1 This is the only enclosure which I know of honoured by Christians.

2 Near the enclosure there is a gharah (laurel) tree, on which no rags are

3 The stones of the enclosure are painted with hinna. A man with fever
is said to be cured if he lies for a while in the enclosure.

4 In the enclosure there is a heap of stones (tomb?). A carob and an oak
tree are near by.

5 This ruin is surrounded by the remains of a deep trench and a walk

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


have a building, but lately he changed his mind and, appearing
to Husen Musa (from Art&s), asked him to build him a shrine.

VI. A watercourse (spring or cistern)

We know that nearly all the springs of Palestine are thought to
be haunted by spirits. These spirits are supposed to belong to the
class of demons.1 But at the same time there are watercourses
definitely assigned to some holy man. Their number is much less
than that of those inhabited by demons. Kahle5 1 2 thinks that two
conditions must be fulfilled to make a spring holy1) that the
source should be more or less mysterious, a dark canal, or a large
cavity; and 2) that the spring play an important role in the water-
supply of the adjacent village. Although many springs fulfil both
conditions the greater number fulfil one only, whereas many springs
inhabited by demons satisfy the same two conditions.

For our purpose it is necessary to study especially the differences
between sacred springs and those haunted by djinn. The following
is a comparative table of the differences:

Springs inhabited by

Holy Men Djinn (demons)

1. May be situated in the neigh- 1. Never,
bourhood of a well.

2. Prayer and religious music may 2. Never,
be heard especially on Thurs-
day evening.

3. A light with a greenish flame 3. Never,
may be observed appearing and

4. The water may be used for 4. In exceptional cases,
different ailments.

5. The inhabiting saint appears
as a reverend ssh (with white,
red, or green head dress) or a
pious sehah.

5. The djinn take the shape of an
animal, a negro, a monster or
a bride.

1 Canaan, Haunted Springs and Water Demons, JPOS, vol. I, p. 153 etc. and

2 PJ} vol. VI, p. 98 f.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Holy Men

6. People falling accidentally into
a cistern or well inhabited by
a holy man are generally pro-
tected from any injury, especially
if they call for the help of the

7. The saint likes to hear the name 7. The demon trembles before

of God and prayers. these powerful words, and is

usually driven away by them.
He may in revenge injure the
person who has uttered them.

8. A wondrous sign may appear. 8. Never.

Although these statements are true of all watercourses which are
directly or indirectly connected with a shrine, they also apply to
those which, while having no connection at all with sanctuaries or
tombs of the saints, are nevertheless believed to be inhabited by the
spirit of a holy person. I shall deal only with the latter category.
Often such sources of water have a tree growing near by, and since
both may be holy it is sometimes difficult to know which is the more
important: the watercourse or the tree.

El-Matba* ah1 is a marshy pool said to cure all sorts of rheumatic
ailments. No unclean women (nidjsih) may approach the holy spot.
Once a barren women made a pilgrimage to this place, hoping to
find help. It so happened that at the moment of her arrival she
was overtaken by her period (itwassah raska). Being pious she waited
far from el-Matba'ah until she became pure (tihrat), then took some
mud and rubbed her body with it. Scarcely a year had passed
before she conceived and bore a child.

*En es-Sarif just above 'Sn es-samiyeh (Kolonia) is a newly dis-
covered spring and a newly found welt. A few weeks after the dis-
covery of the spring, a with a green turban appeared in a night
vision to Muhammed 'All and ordered him to tell the inhabitants
of the village that they should not defile his shrine, the newly

Djinn (demons)

6. On the contrary the djinn may
even injure the victim.

1 It is situated between ei-seh Ibrek (from whom it draws its power) and
Tell es-sammam. I owe this information to cOmar Effendi el-Barghuti.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 65

discovered spring. What is your name, my seh?" asked Muhammed.
Eg-Sarif was the answer.

Some waters derive their power from the fact that they mix once
a year with the water of the holy well Zamzam in Mecca.1 At such
a period the water is curative. Wells of this type with a special
reputation are: 'En Itnm ed-Daradj in Siloam,1 2

Hammam es-sifa3 in Jerusalem,4 5
the cistern in the shrine of en-Nhbani in Nablus.

This overflow of the water of Zamzam takes place generally on
the tenth of Moharram, which is also known by the name fAsurti,
and is thought to be the anniversary of the death of Husen, the son
of Fatimeh, Mohammed's daughter. The connection of the over-
flowing of the spring and the memory of Husen is not without interest.
According to some the water of this holy well at Mecca mixes on
this day with all springs in Mohammedan countries, thus giving
every Moslem the opportunity of drinking from Zamzam*

The sanctity, as well as the curative action of other waters, is
said to be derived from various holy men: Job, Jesus, el-Hadr,
Sitti Mariam, etc. Springs connected with Job will be described later
on. Since it is believed that Jesus sent the blind man, whom he
healed by earth moistened with spittle,6 to fen Imm el-Lozeh6 to
wash his eyes there,7 some Christian womens believe that this water

1 JPOSi vol. I, pp. 153-170.

2 According to TJm ed-DjalU II, 407, ^alid bin Ma'dan thinks that this
spring gets its water from ed-Djanneh (paradise).

2 Also called IJammam Asura, from *aiarah, the tenth day of the month

4 I have to call attention to the widespread belief that most of the Turkish
baths are thought to be inhabited by djinn. The following story may illustrate
this idea. The wife of an effendi lost all her jewels in the bath. All enquiries
failed to find them. At last a wizard woman (sdhreh) assured her that the in-
habiting djinn had taken her jewels. She gave her a written talisman and
ordered that for three days every day one third of the talisman should be bur-
ned in the bath. This was done and, behold, on the third day the wife of the
effendi found her lost jewels in the place where she had left them. In Aber*
glaube I give another similar story.

5 John 9 iff.

4 Just below Bir Ayub.

7 The Gospel of St. John relates that Christ sent him to Siloam. This spring,
Imm el-Lozeh, is not far from Siloam.

8 Heard from several Armenian women of Jerusalem* JPOS, I, 163179.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

has still the power to cure inflamed eyes. The Mohammedans of
Nablus believe that el-Hadr takes a bath every Thursday evening
in the basin found in Hammam ed-Daradjeh. This is the reason
that it is thought to be inhabited or visited by this holy man. The
sick go there at this time to take a bath, burn incense and light
candles. In Hammam Sitti Mariam1 (near St. Stephens Gate,
Jerusalem) barren women bathe in the hope of becoming fruitful.
It is believed that St. Mary once took a bath in this place; so
candles, oil and flowers are vowed.1 2

A connecting link between waters haunted by demons and those
inhabited by saints is formed by cases where the people believe that
a good and a bad spirit haunt the same spring. This is a special
characteristic of periodical springs. Thus 'en Fauwar3 is thought to
be inhabited by a hurr, free man (master) and an 'dbd, servant
(slave born). The first is a white person, the other a negro, as the
words themselves indicate. The following are the springs4 which
may be grouped in this class:5

'En ed-Djoz (Ramallah) inhabited by a white and a black sheep,

cEn Artas (Artas) inhabited by a white and a black sheep,

Bir '6nah (Bet Djal&) by St. Mary and sometimes an 'abd,

'En el-Hadjar (Der Ghassaneh) inhabited by es-sitt Mumineh
and sometimes by a marid.

I have never heard of a spring that was inhabited by a being
which might at times be a wd% and at other times change into a
djinn as Curtiss was told about Zerqa Ma'in. In all probability this
spring belongs to the foregoing group and is supposed to be in-
habited by two spirits a good and a bad one. Both are separate
beings, and one never changes into the other.

It is often reported that these two classes of powerful antagonistic
spirits are continually fighting each other. In the case of cen Fauwar

1 According to Uns ed-Djalil, Balqis the daughter of king Sarahil of Ya*rib
(Qahtan) took a bath in this place to remove the hair growing on her legs and
thighs. This goat hair was an inheritance from her mother, who was a
djinniyeh (JPOS).

2 This custom is dying out.

3 See Aberglaube.

. They have been described in JPOS I, 153.

*|jn Fauwar is thought by some to be inhabited by a white and a black

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 67

we are told when the hurr gains the victory he allows the water to
How for the benefit of thirsty mankind. But it is not long before
the 'abd recovers and resumes the battle. As soon as he overpowers
the hurr he shuts off this blessing of God and thus avenges himself
on the human race. This antithesis of
good against evil,
white against black,
light against darkness,
angels against devils,
upper against lower world,

God against Satan

is a very old idea in Semitic religions, and we could not have it
better reproduced than in the present simple imagination of a
Palestinian felldh.1

The following is a list of holy springs with the names of the saints
inhabiting them, modified from my article uHaunted Springs and
Water Demons/ JPOS I, p. 153170:

Hammam ed-Daradjeh Nablus el-Hader,2
Hammam sitti Mariam Jerusalem St. Mary,
Hammam es-&ifa3 Jerusalem Job,4
Bir en-Nftbani5 Nablus mixes with Zamzam,
'en Imm ed-Daradj Siloam mixes with Zamzam,6
Bir es-Sahar Dir Tarif elweli Su'eb,7
Bir Ayftb Siloam Job,
Bir Sindjil Sindjil Joseph,
*ltln Qina Qina el-welt Abd el-'Enen,

* JPOS I, 153-170.

2 Many a woman, together with her newly born child, takes a bath in the
djurn of el-Hader on the seventh day of her confinement.

3 Also called 1J. Asura. The water is said to mix once a year with that of

4 There is a basin in which it is supposed that Job took his bath and was

5 The cistern is found in an elongated room whose walls are hung with dervish
musical instruments and weapons, a banner and Qoranic verses. No tomb is to
be seen. It is supposed that many aqtdb gather here to perform their prayers.

* This spring used to be inhabited by a camel. A hen with her chickens took
the place of this djinn after his death.

7 Aberglaube.

8 JPOS, 1. c.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

En el-Hadjar Der Ghassaneh es-sitt Muminah,
'En ed-Djaktik 1 feast of Mizpahli [ a well,
En el-Amir }[ of Samuel j | [sullah and awlid,
En Masitin Ramallah an angel,
Bir ed-Djabbarah Yalo es.-seh Ahmad ed-Djabbarah,
Bir in Hizmah sullah,
Bir Imm Djde' Bet Djibrin salhat,
En el-Qubbeh Kobar es-sitt Zenab,
En es-sarqiyeh Kobar es-sitt Fatthmeh,
'En es-Samiyeh Kolonia es-sitt es-Samiyeh,
cEn es-sarif Kolonia es-Seh es-sarif,
El-Matba'ah Tell es-Sammam e8*3eh Ibrek,
En ed-Djoz Kolonia eS-seh Husen,1
*En Rafidiah Rafidiah eS-Seh Nafi',2
Bir el-Waraqah Jerusalem leads to paradise,1 2 3
*En er-Rahib Nablus monk,4
'En Karim En Karim the Virgin Mary,
Bir 'Ona Bst Djala the Virgin Mary,
'En Kibrian W. of Bst Djala St. Gabrianus,
En Imm el-Lozeh below Bir Ayflb cures eye troubles.5

Mohammedans as well as Christians believe that these saints try
to save those who happen to fall into the well The following story
will illustrate this. A child of 'Esawiyeh happened to fall into a
ruined cistern. Soon afterwards his parents got him out. The boy
said that two men came to his help, while he was falling, and carried
him softly to the bottom. One of them was a reverend old man;
the other wore clothes similar to those of the villagers of the
surrounding district, and two old fashioned pistols in his belt.6 The

1 To this saint a tree is also dedicated.

2 An oil-lamp used to be lighted here.

2 The story of this cistern is told in Urn ed-DjalU II, 368.

4 This spring stops its flow once a week od Sundays, as the monk is said to
fulfil his duties on this day.

5 Curtiss and Kahle give few examples of holy springs.

6 Other stories are given JPOS, 1. c.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


old people of the village remembered that a dervish of this description
had fallen into the cistern many years before.1

The belief in sacred springs, inhabited springs and curative waters
can be traced back to the Old and New Testaments. Naaraan was
cured of his leprosy by washing himself seven times in the Jordan.1 2
The blind man sent by Jesus to Siloam came back after he had
washed his eyes, with his sight restored.3 The pool Bethesda cured
every disease, for an angel went down at a certain season into the
pool and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling
of the water stepped in was cured of whatever disease he had.4
Names like *En Shemesh, Spring of the Sun,5 etc. point to the
fact that these springs were dedicated to gods.6

VII. A solitary tree

I do not propose to include under this head any tree which, though
situated in absolute solitude, far from any shrine or grave, belongs
nevertheless to a well, who has a sanctuary somewhere in the vicinity.
Thus, for example, es-seh Hamad, situated in the midst of the village
Kolonia, has a tree on the opposite mountain to the S. E. of the
village, on the old road leading to Jerusalem. Another case is
el-Badriyeh.7 I have already mentioned the different trees belonging
to this holy woman.

1 I will not describe here 'itin (pi. of en) el-hasr (springs ot retention of
urine), since they are generally not connected with any shrine or name of a well.
They are not revered religiously. I think that what Curtiss says about the stones
which cure backache, is truer of these springs, i. e., that their therapeutic use is
based on the belief in a magic power, the supernatural powers of good spirits.
For these springs cf. Aberglaube and JPOS, 1. c.Minute questioning of the people
of Soba during my last visit resulted in their saying that *en el-hasr of this
village was called also *en Musa, and that they have seen sometimes two beautiful
young ladies, sitting beside the water and combing their hair. They disappeared
as soon as they knew that they were seen. Some peasants referred the name
Moses to that of the Prophet Moses. If this is true then the spring belongs
to the category already mentioned, where good and bad spirits haunt one and
the same spring.

2 2 Kings 5 iff.

3 John 9 s-7.

* John 5 i-B.

5 Jos. IB 7.

L. B. Paton, Annual of Amer. School, vol. I, pp. 51 ff.

i Kahle mentions some of these trees, PJ VI, 98.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Only those trees will be described which, although considered as
being the habitation of some .saint, have nevertheless absolutely no
connection with any maqarn. Jaussen1 seems to include in this group
trees which are connected with a holy spring and a holy rudjm\ such
cases I have tried to avoid since it is very difficult to say which of
these features was primarily sacred. There are several cases belonging
to this group, and it is at times difficult to explain the reason which
gave such trees their sanctity. This question, which often arises,
will be dealt with below in another connection. Among sacred trees
of this type, which receive honours like other welts, are:1 2

Name of saint
Es-8eh Barn
Es-Seh Abdallah
Es-seh Abdallah


Der Grhassaneh

ES-3eh Abfi Ris
Sadjrat Abfi Nar
Sadjrat es-Saradeh

Harrftbet el-A8arah6
Zettinit en-Nabi7
Es*seh Hasan
En-nabi Abfi Lemfin10

Bet Anan
between Yamfin
and Djinin
Haram es-serif

between Bet Iksa
and Biddfi

Kind of tree

Oak,3 4


Olive and, at a distance,

Greek oak (Quercus

[Aegilops L),





Oak and terebinth trees.

1 Coutumes des Arabes, p. 331.

* Curtiss seems to have seen or heard of only a few examples. He describes
briefly one tree in Northern Syria.

3 Heard from Omar Effendi el-Barghuii.

4 Kahle, PJ VI, 98, 99.

6 There is a small cave beside it, in which lights and incense are offered.
I think that the tree is the more important feature.

ft Another Harrubet el-fAsarah used to grow on the western slope of the
Mount of Olives.

7 See Canaan, Aberglavbe, and Kahle, PJ VI, 97.

8 In its place it is said a palm once grew. When the Prophet visited Jerusalem
in his miraculous journey, he sat under this palm; the palm soon withered and
the olive tree grew in its place.

9 Around the oak tree there is a ruin. The lamps are placed in a small cave.
To the S. S. E. of this sacred tree there is a spring now bearing the name of
the welt Formerly it was known by the name *en ed-Djoz.

io Also mentioned by Kahle, PJ VI, 98; 99. A ruin with a newly discovered
cistern surrounds the trees.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Other trees will be mentioned below. A few observations must
still be made regarding some peculiarities of these trees. Sadjarat
Abd Nar has a menstrual period (bithid) every time she is irritated
by a trespasser. A viscous fluid is excreted.1

Under Sadjaret es-Saadeh the Seh Hasan el-*Arftri was ordained
to a qutub (a pole in religion, i. e. a leader) by several saints.
This is of course sufficient cause for making a tree sacred.1 2 It
derives virtue from the man with whom it came in contact, and is
able to help the needy with this power.3

ES-Seh Mustafa and es-sultan Ibrahim of Soba belong to this
category. The first has a terebinth, an almond and a quddeb tree.
The stones scattered irregularly under these trees and supposed to
represent the tomb, have no connection with a grave. Es-sultan
Ibrahims shrine is made of a square open enclosure with a taqah,
a prayer niche, a small huwetah and a fig tree. I think that this
sort of sanctuary is the connecting link between the class of shrines
under discussion and the large enclosures.

In reviewing critically the names of the welts belonging to this
group, we observe that some have; as their own holy name, the simple
name of the tree. We never find any name of a person assigned to
such trees. Thus, for example,4 Sittna el-Grharah 5 (Laurel Lady) is
situated to the E. of Bet Nflba. There are two holy terebinths,,
each of which bear the name el-waliyeh el-Butmeh (Holy Terebinth
Lady). One is north of Bet Ntiba and the other in Qubebeh. It
is said that the Laurel Lady appeared during the attack of the
British (1917) standing on the top of the tree, with a greenish
garment, a light head-shawl and a sword in her hand, which dripped
with blood. Every time the English troops advanced she threw
them back.

1 This is the only case I have been able to collect of a tree having a menstrual
flow. For this condition with demons see JPOS. 1153, etc. I owe this information
to the kindness of (Omar Eflendi el-Barghuti.

2 Related by 'Omar Eflendi el-Barghuti.

3 Curtiss mentions another such case.

4 The following holy trees were not included in the foregoing list.

5 Fumigating a sick person with the leaves of this tree will eflect a cure.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

In Bet Safafa a djdmi was erected on the site of the holy Butmeh,1
whose sacred tree had been uprooted by a violent storm. The ruins
of this djdmi are still known as djami1 el-Butmeh. This sacred tree
was supposed to be inhabited by svlldh* 2

Fastened to most of these trees are rags of all possible colours.
Even stones, as will be mentioned later, are placed at times on the

Should a tree and an enclosure be found, as in the case of e3-ssh
Fredj in Bet Hanina, I think the tree is the more important. But
when a tree and a spring represent the sacred place, it is most difficult
to know which of them has priority.3

We generally find a tdqah connected with these sacred trees. It
may be represented by a crack in an adjoining rock, a low enclosure
covered with tin or with a stone slab, a hollow in the tree itself, or
it may be a built structure. In this tdqah oil-lamps are lighted and
incense burned. An excellent example of a built niche beside a sacred
tree is that of Harrubet el-cAsarah near el-'Esawiyeh. Just beside
the tree a low, roomlike niche has recently been built. I should not
reckon this one cubic metre building a qvhbeh, as does Kahle.4 In
eS-seh Abdallah (Sa'fat), a petroleum tin serves as a tdqah

Even some Christians of Palestine believe more or less in the
sacredness of certain trees, but they do not burn lights or incense
to them. Among trees of this type are:

* Near the Mamilla pool there used to be a terebinth tree. The common
belief was that when it was cut down or withered away the rule of the Turks
would depart from Palestine. It so happened that during the last year of the
war it dried up, and soon afterwards Jerusalem was taken by the British troops.
This tree used to be known also by the name el-Butmeh.

2 A Bethlehemite was allowed to take the wood of this tree for use in an oil
press (badd). He had to build in its place a djdmi with a rawdq and a cistern.
But since he did the work so badly that it collapsed a few years later, the saint
living in the tree punished him very severely, and one by one all his family died.
Under el-Butmeh the people of the village used to assemble for gossip and
entertainment of their guests, as in a madafah (related by the imam of Bet

3 In the case of es-Seh Qusen we have a tree and a spring dedicated to him.
I think that the tree is the more important feature, although the saint is seen at
times sittiug hear the spring. The spring used to be called cen ed-Djoz.

4 PJ. 1. c.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Butmet el^Adra1
A mes tree

Palm tree
Olive trees4 *
Olive tree

Djifnfi, Terebinth,

near St. Elias, Celtis,1 2

between Bethlehem
and Jerusalem
Mar Saba,3

in the Shepherds field (Bet Sahur).6

We also find parallels to such trees in the Bible, especially in
the case of the Burning Bush.6 This was not connected with any
shrine, being itself holy, since the Lord spoke from it. The same
may be said to be the case with the mulberry trees of David. Their
sanctity showed itself through the sound of a going in the tops of
the trees. 7 This was a sign from God. Abraham builds his first
altar, and receives the first revelation which God makes to him,
under the terebinth of Moreh (Gen. 12 6-7). The next altar he built,
is under the terebinth of Mamre. In Beer sheba he plants a tamarisk
and calls on the name of Jehovah (Gen. 21 33). Under an oak tree
the angel appeared to Gideon (Judg. 6 11; 24S. Curtiss).

VIII. Heaps of stones

When one stands at such a spot it is a cause for wonder to look
round in every direction and find nothing to suggest the idea of
sanctity except mere heaps of stones which, of course, differ in size
and form in different places. It is to be noted that (i)rdjumeh (pi.
of rudjm) may also be inhabited by djinn. Thus, for example, one
of the stony tumuli in el-Baqcah (the Plain of Rephaim) is thought
to be inhabited by a hen with her chicken.

1 A man who cut it down was punished with death.

2 Cf. Canaan, Aberglaube, p. 63.

3 Aberglaube, p. 87.

4 The oil of these trees is sold for a high price. From the olive-stones rosaries

are made.

& It is said that the angel appeared to the shepherds at the spot where this
tree is growing. Some peasants who tried once to burn the tree noticed, to their
great astonishment, that fire had no action on it. This proved to all the
sacredness of this olive (related to me by L. Baldensberger).

<* Ex. 3 2 ff.

i 2 Sam. 5 24.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Such heaps of stones or tumuli are of the following types: 1. quite
isolated with no other feature, except that at times a few stones are
set up to form a small taqah for the oil lamps; 2. the rudjm, or its
summit only, is surrounded completely by an enclosure of stones;

3. very rarely the rudjm may be placed in a care. As examples of
these forms we may cite:

1. es-seh I'bed in Sataf,

es-Seh Sa'd in wadi Hadr east of Abu Dis,

es-seh Ahmad Hirbet el-Qsfir, opp. to ed-Djorah;

2. eS-seh 'Abd el-Muhsin Djibiah,1

es-seh El-Birdaq1 2 Bet Rim&;

3. es-seh Murdjan3 Djorah (near cEn Karim).

Naturally one asks what the rudjm represents, and what is its
purpose. We often hear expressions which indicate that there is a
tomb under the rudjm. We also know that the ancient Palestinians4 5
used to pile large heaps of stones on the tombs of their important
dead, and up to the present day most fellah tombs are either marked
by a small enclosure of stones or an elongated low stone heap. Jaussen6
reports that the Bedouins still mark the places where some one has
been killed, be it in war or treacherously, by a heap of stones. In
the case of some of the rdjitmeh which I am now describing, this
explanation may be true, but certainly not in every case*

A special class of stone heaps must still be mentionedel-masahid^
(pi. of mashad), These are recent heaps of stones placed irregularly
and at different places. The word maShad may express one of the
following meanings;

1. The place from which something is seen.7

2. Since at such places the pilgrim always utters first of all, alhadu
anna Vi ilahan ilia allah, thus testifying to the unity of God, the places
may be named mashad after this testimony (Shadeh).8

1 The leh appears as a negro, with a sword in his hand.

2 Inhabited by Adjam. Only the top of the large hill is surrounded by an

3 A negro saint.

4 Jos. 7 26; 829.

5 Coutumes des Arabes, p. 836.

6 Not often used in the singular.

7 From the root idhada to behold.

3 From the root Sahida, Uhddeh, to give testimony.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


S. Stones which are believed to be witnesses before God that the
person who erected them visited that sanctuary and said a prayer.
It is belived that in the day of judgment men may ask animals,
plants or stones to testify for them. Thus these stones piled up by
the pilgrim while uttering a prayer and saying the fdtihah, may bear
witness1 both to his piety and to his visit to the holy place. They
will at the same time remind the holy man, in whose honour the
zidrah (visit) was made, to help and to intercede for the pilgrim.1 2
Eveln in the Old Testament we have a heap of stones set as a witness,
as in the story of Laban and Jacob.3

Travelling from Jerusalem to Jericho there is a road branching
to the right, a few kilometres after passing el-Hod. This road leads
to Nabi Mfisa. The hills where the shrine is seen for the first time,
are covered whith these stone heaps. Every Mohammedan who passes
bywhether during the festival or at any other time throws one
or more stones on such a heap or makes a new one. As he does so
he utters the above mentioned sihddeh and recites the fdtihah. Few
heaps are large, most of them consiisting of a few stones only. The
lowest stone is the largest and the top one the smallest. These small
heaps may be made up of 2, 3, 4 or five stones.*

Generally, on every road leading to the sanctuary from whatever
direction, nawdsib4 (pi of nasb, another name for these stone-heaps)
are erected. Thus I observed such heaps on the four roads leading
to Nab! Mfisa, on three roads to el-Hadr (Bet DjUla) and on two

1 Cf. Luke 19 40; Heb. Bn.

2 Such a belief is not recent. In et-tuhfatu-l-mardiyah fil-ahbar el-qudsiyah
(by Abd ehMadjid cAli) we read on page 62 that a man, while on Arafat, took
seven stones and said: uOh stones, witness that I believe and say, there is no
god but God, and Mohammed is his prophet. That night he dreamt that in
the judgment day he was tried and found to be a sinner and sent to hell. As
he approached the first gate of hell one of the stones blocked the entrance. All
the angels of the lower world were unable to remove this obstacle. The same
thing happened at every one of the seven gates of hell. He was in consequence
brought back to the heavenly judge who allowed him to enter heaven since the
stones had borne witness in his favour.

3 Gen. 8146 if.

4 Not nasib as McCown has. Nasib means lot, luck; while nasb (pi. nawdsib)
stones set up as a sign, comes from the same root from which nusb or nusub
(pi. ansab) idols is derived. Cf. Muhit d-Muhit.

76 Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

leading to es-seh el-fUmari ed-Djbe'i, and also on the two roads to
Hasan er-Ral.1

This custom of making small piles of stones applies only to
comparatively few sanctuaries. Christians are also acquainted with
these qandtir (pi. qantarah, a third name) and they pile stones when
reaching es-sarafeh, on their way from Bet Djalfi, to el-Hadr, since
from this point they can see on one side Mar Elias and on the other
side the convent of St. George.

These sawahid do not closely resemble the stones that mark the
boundaries of fields, as McCown1 2 thinks. Landmarks are generally
made of large stones placed separately at a distance from each other,
running more or less in a straight line, usually between fields. When
they are made of stones they differ from qandtir in using far larger
and fewer stones.

Qandtir may also stand for quite different purposes. Among these
minor purposes we may mention:

1. Heaps which are raised in a place where a holy man is supposed
to have rested, as in the neighbourhood of the sqif eS-seh Asfftr.3 4

2. Sometimes a traveller after climbing a high mountain raises a
heap of stones or throws a stone on an existing heap, saying at
the same time a prayer as a mark of thanks to God that he has
overcome a difficulty. Heaps of this sort are generally known by
the name el-MafazehA At the top of the ascent of Farhah near Salfit
such mafazat may be seen. Similar cases are described in Joshua,
where the Israelites erected stones at Gilgal as a memorial after
crossing the Jordan and thus overcoming the difficulties of long
wandering.5 Samuel also, after subduing the Philistines, took a stone
and set it between Mizpah and Shen and called it Ebenezer, saying,
Hitherto hath the Lord helped us.6

1 Other sanctuaries where such stone heaps are set up are: en-nabi Lut,
cn-nabi Yaqin, *Ali bin Lem, el-Uzer, etc.

2 Annual of the Amer. School II and III, p. 66.

3 Heard from Omar Effendi el-JBarghuii.

4 Mafdzeh means in reality desert. Here it denotes success in overcoming a
dangerous difficulty. Muhit el-Muhit.

5 Joshua, ch. 4.

6 1 Sam. 712.

CANA AN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


3. Where prominent chiefs of a village or a district are killed,
heaps of stones1 are raised by passers-by and prayers are said for
their souls. Such qandtir are smaller and much less numerous than
those near a sanctuary. In Maqtal el-Masaih1 2 on the way to Bet
Rima we find such heaps. The qandtir of this class are the connecting
link between prominent persons and holy men, a point on which I
shall dwell later.

In concluding the treatment of this group I must observe that while
the rdjumeh are regarded as holy places and the dwellings of holy
men, the sawdhid, qandtir and mafazat do not enjoy this dignity.

On the southern road leading from Qastal to Soba we find a
large heap of stones, built in a circular form. It is about 1.50 metres
high and 2 metres in diameter. In the centre of the upper part a
perpendicular stone projects. No tdqah, tree nor cistern is connected
with it. The people whom I asked for explanation said that a well
had appeared (aShar nafsuh) at this spot which belonged to him.
In piety the peasants erected this heap.

IX. A single large stone or a rock.

We have only few representatives of this category. With the
exception of the Holy Rock, as-Sahrah, of the Mosque of Omar,
which is highly honoured not alone by the Mohammedans of Palestine
but by the whole Moslem world, the other holy stones and rocks of
Palestine receive far less respect and religious reverence than the
other kinds of shrines and maqdmdt. The sanctity assigned to them
is in every way slight. A description of the Holy Rock is of prime
importance and will be given at the end of this chapter.

Some holy places of this category are the following:

*Araq el-Adjami3 in Bet Idjza is a natural rock, in no way
prominent, nor is it connected with any maqjdm, tree, cave, or
cistern. In the middle of it is a small, artificial depression, in which,
I was told, offerings are put.

1 These resemble in some respects the heaps of stones mentioned in Jos. 7 26;
829 and 2 Sam. 1817.

2 When I saw this place in 1921 there were but few heaps.

3 I found no tdqah connected with this place.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

In the neighbourhood of Der Ghassaneh there are some rocks
called Nuqqar el-*Adjam.1 They are situated between two hills, and
are assigned to el-'Adjam. In passing, the fdlah will recite the
fatihah to these awlid, just as he would at any other shrine. No
vows, offerings, or oaths are made to or by them.

In the village &eh Sa'd (in the Hauran) there is a stone called
Sahret Ayub, on which it is said that the prophet Job used te lean
during the days of his affliction. The stone is an ancient stela with
hieroglyphics of the time of Rameses II.1 2

On the height of the mountain el-Martum,3 near the ruins of
Beni Dar,4 and to the south of the village Barn N'em, a maq&m is
built for the supposed prophet Yaqin.5 In the room we notice a
rock encircled with an iron frame. This rock shows the impressions
of two feet and of two hands. It is related that Abraham was
ordered by God to come to this place, where he could observe the
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. It is curious that although
Abraham is known to be a pre-Jslamic prophet the impressions show
that he performed his prayer with the face turned to Mecca.

Outside this maq&m there is another rock showing also the im-
pressions of two feet. They are said to be those of Lot. This rock
is surrounded by a huwetiyeh.

Hadjar el-Arflri6 to the south of Salfit is a large piece of rock,
beside which e£-seh el-Arftri is said to have rested. Qal'at er-Rifa'i
to the west of Der Ghassaneh is supposed to be the place where
er-Rifai used to rest. In the cemetery of Bab er-Rahmeh situated
along the western wall of Jerusalem to the south of St. Stephens

1 The nuqqar are composed of several large stones raised from the ground.
The mffiyeh darawiS are afraid to pass in their neighbourhood, especially during
the night. The night between Thursday and Friday is the most dangerous
('Omar Effendi el-Barghuti). These features are true of many other holy places.
A complete description of them will be given in another chapter.

2 ZDPV XIV, 147. I have not seen this place.

3 The view from this high mountain, especially to the east, is excellent. The
Dead Sea and the mountains of Moab are distinctly seen.

4 The ruins are at present also called hirbet nabi Yaqin.

5 Mudjir ed-Din says the shrine was called masdjad el-Yaqin, because Abra-
ham said, when Sodom and the other cities were destroyed: Haja hua-1- haqqu-
1-yaqin, This is the sure truth, (el-uns ed-djalU p. 85).

6 'Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Gate, there is a broken pillar,1 beside the tomb of es-seh Saddad.
It is believed that by rubbing ones back on this pillar one will be
cured of any backache.1 2

El-Hadjar el-Mansi, the forgotten stone, is supposed to be the
grave of a Christian who joined the Mohammedan faith just before
his death. Some inhabitants of the Mohammedan quarter on Mount
Zion3 observed on various occasions a light shining from this spot.
This proved to them the sanctity of the place.4 A light used to
be burned every Thursday evening to this forgotten man.5

In el-Aqsa Mosque there are two pillars, between which it is be-
lieved that no bastard child can pass.6 This is one of the many so
called ordeals of God.7

Inside el-Mas'ad, the Chapel of the Ascension (on the Mount of
Olives) we are shown on a stone the impression of the right foot of
Jesus. This place belongs to the Mohammedans but it is also held
sacred by the Christians, who celebrate mass here on certain days.
The sacred stone is surrounded by a beautiful octagonal building
with a vaulted roof.8

Christians honour also other stones and rocks. I need not mention
Golgotha, and the pillar where Christ was bound and scourged, but
will limit myself to a description of the sacred stones of St. George,
the Milk Grotto, and the rock on which Elijah is supposed to
have rested.

The holy stone of St. George (el-Ha the Pools of Solomon) still plays an important role. The story as
it is recorded in the authors Aberglauhe is as follows. While a
Greek priest was officiating at the Holy Communion in the Church

1 Kahle, 1. c.

* It is to be presumed that this pillar draws its curative power from the
Seh near whose grave is is found.

11 3 The quarter is known as Qaret en-Nabi Dahud.

11 4 It is in the Armenian cemetery.

11 5 Heard from the Armenian Victoria.

* It is also believed that only those who will enter Paradise can pass between
the pillars.

7 For parallels see Goldziher II, pp. 408, 409; and Curtiss, 1. c.

8 In the Aqsa mosque we are shown qadam seyidnd Isa, the foot impression
of Christ, and in the room leading to the so-called Solomons Stables, srir
seyidnd Isa, the cradle of Christ,


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

of Mar Djirius, a few drops of the sacred wine were spilled. They
penetrated through his foot and burst the stone on which they fell.
The wound of the priest never, healed and he died as a punishment
for his carelessness in handling the Blood of the Saviour. The stone
received a supernatural curative power from the sacred wine, which
benefited every sick person who happened to kneel on it. Its repu-
tation soon spread all over Palestine, and great numbers of sick
flocked thither. Even the Czar of Russia heard of the wonderful
virtues of this stone and sent a man-of-war to Jaffa to bring it
away. In solemn procession the stone is said to have been brought
to Jaffa. But St. George did not allow it to be transported further.
Every time the boat carrying this precious treasure removed some
distance from the shore el-Hadr brought it back with his spear. All
recognized the folly of disobeying the wishes of the saint and so the
stone was brought back to its place.1

The white stones of the Milk Grotto are used by Christians and
Moslems of Bethlehem and the surrounding district as amulets to
increase the flow of mothers milk. It is supposed that a few drops
of the Virgins milk dropped on the floor.

Opposite to Mar Elias on the western side of the carriage road
there is a depression in the rock. It is related that St. Elijah slept
in this place while escaping from his persecutors.1 2

But the most important rock is es-Sahrah which measures 17.7X13.5
metres and is situated in the midst of the Mosque of Omar. The
rough surface of the rock stands in great contrast to the beauty and
harmony of the interior of the most beautiful mosque of the Orient.
The rock is in itself sacred, and is protected from visitors by a
railing. Its sanctity is due to its connection with so many prophets,

1 See Hanauer, Folklore of the Holy Land, p. 52.

2 From between Mar Elias and Tantur a piece of rock was carried to Bet
Djala. It is said that while Mary was coming from Bethlehem to Jerusalem
carrying her child, she passed Jews threshing beans on the rock east of Tantur.
Christ cried for some, and she asked the people to give her a handful. They
refused and said that they were not beans but only stones. And forthwith they
turned into small stones. The workers at once followed her and accused her of
being a witch. She hastened to escape and when she was on the point of falling
into their hands she asked a rock to hide her. At once the stone opened and
sheltered her. In vain did her pursuers search for her. This stone carries the
name of srir ts-Saiydeh*

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 81

especially Mohammed. When the Prophet ascended to heaven the
rock would have followed him, were it not that the angel Gabriel
held it down. On two occasions the rock spoke, once to Mohammed
and again to 'Omar. I shall not describe all the beliefs connected
with this stone since they can be found elsewhere. On, around and
below it we find the following sacred places:

I. On the rock itself:1

1. The impressions of the fingers of the angel Gabriel, who kept
the rock from following the prophet while he ascended to
heaven (western part).

2. The footsteps of Idris (east).

3. The footsteps of Mohammed, twelve in number. The prophet
is said to have walked over that part of the rock. The stone
yielded and so the impressions remained.

II. Below the rock:

4. Before entering the cave below the Sacred Rock one is shown
the tongue of the rock.7 It is said that in the night visit
(ilelatu-l-Mi'rddj) of the prophet he saluted the rock: as-salamu
'aleiki yd sahrati-l-ldh (peace be with you, 0 Rock of God),
and it answered at once: labbeik uaaleik as-saldm yd rasul
allah (at your service, and peace be with you, O Apostle of

5. Fifteen steps lead to the cave below the sahrah. To the right
of it we have the niche of king Solomon.

6. Still further to the right the place where Mohammed prayed;
since he was tall and the roof low, he would have struck
his head, but

7. The rock gave way in that place, and we are shown tadjit
es-sahrah (the impression of his head).

8. The praying place of al-Hadr, at an elevated point.

9. Masnad Djvibrdil is the place where the angel waited until
the prophet finished his prayer.

10. Mihrab Ibrahim el-Halil, and to the left of the staircase*

11. Mihrab Dahfid.

12. The rock is perforated in the middle and it is said that the
prophet ascended directly through it to heaven.

1 Kahle, PJ VI, 93, mentions only 20 places (under 19 heads).



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

13. Just below the centre of the cave is believed to be the Bir
el-Arwah, which is covered with a marble plate. The souls come
together twice a week in the cistern and perform their prayers.

III. Directly around the sacred Bock:

14. The impression of the foot of the prophet, which is shown
on a separate stone, placed on small pillars to the S. W. corner.

15. The hairs from the beard of the prophet are kept in a silver
case just above No. 14.1

16. The banners of the prophet and of Omar are kept in a box,
which is near No. 15.

17. Two niches connected with Hamzeh.

18. A mihrab in the northern side of the sahrah, where some
of the prophets used to pray (mihrab el-Anbia).1 2

IV. At a distance from es-Sahrah:

20. Bab ed-Djanneh (the northern door).3

21. El-Balatah es-Sodah4 (which was removed by Djamal Pasa)
is also known by the name of Balatit ed-Djanneh. It is said
that Mohammed drove nineteen golden nails into this stone.
From time to time God was to send an angel to remove a
nail, and when all have been removed the last day will be at
hand. One day the devil succeeded in removing some of them.
While he was taking them out he was driven away by the angel
Gabriel who found that only three and a half nails remained.

22. Near the southern door we see mihrab Abi Hanifatu-n-Nucman.5

23. In one side of the eastern door we find a mihrab bearing the
name of Hiluet All5 (the secluded place of prayer of All).

In el-mursid liz-zair wad-dalil we find an enumeration of these
places. A special prayer for every place is given, and the number

1 They are shown on the 27th of Ramadan, which is thought to be lelatu-l-Qadr.

2 It is said that the Prophet Mohammed prayed here with other prophets
in lelatu-l- Mi' rddj.

3 The four doors of the mosque are the western (Bab el-Gharb, or Bab en-
Nisa), the northern (Bab ed-Djanneh), the eastern (Bab Dahud, or Bab es-Sinsleh)
and the southern (Bab el-Qibleh). Uns ed-Djalil gives to the eastern door the
name Bab Israfil.

4 Under it is said to be the tomb of Solomon.

5 It is not regarded as so important as the others.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


of kneelings to be performed is indicated. Mudjir ed-Din 1 mentions
only Nos, 1, 4, 11, 14, 21, and the cave ( bin el-Arabi3 pretends to have seen the rock floating in the air,
without any support. A modern belief which has its parallel in al-uns
ed-djalil4 is that from under this rock four Streams flow,5 to the south
Hammam es-sifa, to the east Siloam (cen sitti Mariam), to the north
en Hadjdji and en el-Qasleh, and to the west Hammam es-Sultan.6

Before closing this chapter I may further mention Abu ed-Dhur
a rock situated on the left side of the carriage road from Jerusalem
to Jericho, after passing en el-Hod.7 This rock has a widespread
reputation for the cure of backache. After a patient has rubbed his
back against the rock, he places a stone on it. When last I saw
this father of backs he was loaded with a large heap of stones.
He is not assigned at present to any well, and I cannot explain its
widespread therapeutic use, except by assuming that it must have
been once connected in some way with a holy man or object of
worship.8 I do not think that Curtiss is right in saying that such
stones act by their own magic power. Neither the colour nor the
substance of which our last example is composed differ in any way
from the rocks in the neighbourhood as to attract special attention.9

We note also in this connection that this idea of honouring stones
is not a characteristic of the present inhabitants of Palestine, but
was well known in the ancient Orient. In Gen. 18 isff. we read:

1 El-uns ed-djalil fi tarih el-quds wal-halil, p. 371 ff.

2 In an appeal by the Supreme Moslem Council of Palestine, which contains
a short guide to the Temple Area, only Nos. 5,8,10,11 are mentioned.

3 Referred to by Mudjir ed-Din, p. 371.

* Mudjir, p. 205.

* JPOS I, 153170.

* Mudjir ed-Din says that all water that is drunk comes from under the
Sahrah. Everybody who drinks water at night time should say: 0 water of the
Holy City you are saluted (p. 206).

2 Called also the Spring of the Apostles It is probably the Spring of the
Sun, mentioned in Jos. 157.

3 It is curious that in the continuation of Wadi el-Hod and not far from
this rock we have Icraq es-sams and Mgheiyr es-sams which correspond to the
Biblical name of fen ha-semes.

3 This rock is not mentioned in the guide books. No religious honours are
paid to it.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he
had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil
upon it. And he called the name of the place Beth-el.1 In Is. 57 6
we read about the smooth stones of the stream/ to which the Israelites
had poured a drink offering and offered a meat offering.2

Before leaving this section of our subject we may call attention
to those rare sacred places that are not characterized by any of the
aforementioned features, i. e. those that exhibit no tomb, maqamy
tree, cave, enclosure nor rock. It is hardly possible to believe that
such dirty and unasuming places have ever attracted the attention
of the peasants. We find generally no clue to explain why they have
been assigned to a well. Among places of this nature I may mention:
Es-seh Salman (Bet Surik), a small cupboard-like hollow in the
wall of a garden. The pomegranate trees near by do not belong to
the well. In this opening I saw oil-lamps.

El-'Adjami ('Awartah), an open place having on two sides the
remains of two old and strongly built walls. No tomb, cistern nor
tree belongs to the well. In the western wall there is a taqah,
where oil is burned and incense offered.

El-'Adjami (a second saint of the same name in Awartah), a ruined
building with no remains or signs of a mihrab or tomb. The inhabitants
of the village say that the place used to be the house of a peasant.

It seems that a ruin is connected with most examples of this class.
Thus the place bought by the Russians in Anata shows a ruin of
a building with some pillars, probably the remains of a church. The
fellahln of this village believe that it is haunted by sullah, but no
body knows who they are.

Not all of these places are well cared for. They are often dirty
and unattended. Thistles and other weeds flourish. Old tins, stones
and rubbish fill them. This was especially true of the two sacred
places of 'Awartah, also of Banat eS-£eh Salah3 and of el-cUmari
(both in Jericho). Of the last two4 the former shows an outline of *

* See also Curtiss, 1. c.

2 S. Bevan, in Hastings Dictionary of the Bible III, 1881.

3 Some call them Banat es-seh Sabbah.

4 They were three and were honoured in two places in Jericho. When their
habitations were ruined they left Jericho and went to llasban. They used to
appear in the form of Bedouin women.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 85

a small square building1 which was very poorly constructed. Near
the second1 2 there is a ruined cistern.


In our study of the different forms and categories of Moham-
medan shrines in Palestine we have laid the foundation for our
further investigations. Without a thorough knowledge of the former
the study of the latter will be difficult and incomplete. I intend in
the present chapter to take up the question: What is done in the
holy places?

Acts connected with a shrine may be performed in the maqam
itself, outside of it, or at a distance from the sanctuary. They
comprise simple acts as well as complicated ones. The following
classification includes the most important acts performed in a holy
place, arranged according to their degree of complexity:

1. Religious acts

I. Utterance of simple protective words

II. Repetition of prayers

III. Reverence

IV. Religious service as in a mosque

V. The barakeh

2. Placing private property under the protection of the welt

3. Tying of rags

4. Healing

5. Making oaths


6. Paying vows

7. Celebration of feasts, mawasim

8. Processions.

Some less important acts will be mentioned under the above

1 I found tin oil-lamps in the so-called shrine.

2 A djami* is said to have once been situated here, bearing the name ofOmar.

86 Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

I. Utterance of simple protective words

No pious peasant ever approaches or enters a maqdm without
first asking the permission of the welt The general expression is
dastur1 (yd sidna1 2 3 Abd es-Saldmz), with your permission (0 our
lord A .. ). It is a common Arabicespecially Mohammedan
custom never to enter a harem without asking permission to enter,
or more correctly notifying the liarim4 (women) that a man is coming.5
Dastir qdbl ma tudhul, get permission before you enter, used to
be a rule enforced on every male servant.6 It is customary to use
the word dastur alone or combined with hadur, as well as with
different appellatives of God.7 Even when somebody intends to
contradict or criticize the statements of another he begins with
dastur8 (el-mas alih mis hek), with your permission (that is not the

Much more significant and therefore more frequent is this custom
when a person approaches the abode of some supernatural being,
as a demon, a spirit, or a saint. Nobody used to approach an

1 This is a Persian word coming from dast CU-mO rule, order, and uicr £
owner (cf. Muhit el-Muhit I, 650). The direct meaning of permission does
not occur in literary Arabic, but in the common language it is so understood.

2 Sidi means my master, my lord. In Palestinian Arabic it also means
my grandfather (djiddi).

3 Abd es-Salam el-Asmar came from Morocco to Palestine, and lived in the
village of Hirbet Almit, now a ruin. Owing to a conflict between the government
and the inhabitants of this village, the former destroyed the houses of the rebels.
Abd es-Salam went to Anata, bought the site and lived there. His descendants
are the peasants of this village. The Seh had six children, one of whom, Qasim
died without leaving children. The other five were Alawi, Ibrahim, All,
Abdallah and Abd el-Latif. Alawi begot Ham dan, father of Mohammed, father
of Ahmad who is still living. To this Ahmad I owe this story and the chronology.
seh Abd es-Salam belonged to the order of the Rifai.

4 Harim means also wife, harimt Mmy wife (as well as my wives). Many
use 'elti, which really stands for my family, ip the same way.

Even when a man entered his own house, he used to notify his entrance
without fail, as there might be women guests.

6 This custom prevails more in cities than in the villages. The inhabitants
of Hebron, Nablus and Gaza used to be very strict.

7 Yd sattdr, 0 Concealer; yd haft?, 0 Keeper; yd amin, 0 Faithful, etc.

8 The above-mentioned hadtir comes from haddara and means be ready, be
on your guard. When rocks are blasted this word is also used.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


inhabited cave, spring, or tree, or to draw water from such a spring
without asking permission.1 The irritated djinn may otherwise injure
the person. For the same reason one should never put out burning
coals with water without a direct and loud request for^ permission:1 2
dastur hadur yd sukkan en-nar,3 with your permission, take care,
0 inhabitants of the fire. In other parts the expression is: yd aM
el-ard ihna fil-ard, M0, inhabitants of the earth, we are under
your protection.

Cemeteries are the abiding places of the souls of the dead and
they were formerly never entered without asking permission.4 * So
also holy places are only approached or entered after dast&r.5 This
act not only expresses respect for the welt, but also reverence. In
the case of djinn respect and fear are the reasons for asking per-
mission. Through such a behaviour one both gains the favour and
the help of the men of God, and avoids the danger which may befall
him from the evil spirits.

Not only are such precautions taken in approaching a maqdm, but
also whenever the name of an important saint is mentioned; one is
afraid to trouble a well.* The following example will illustrate this
custom. When I asked a peasant of 'Anata about es-Seh Abd es-
Salam, he told me a story to convince me of the importance and
power of this seh. He began: marrah rikib walad 'old qabr es-sbh
'Abd es-Salamdastur yd sidnd 'Abd es-Salam ..., Once a boy rode
on the tomb of es-seh 'Abd..., with your permission 0 our lord CA...7

1 Aberglaube, p. 8 If.

2 A custom wide-spread in Palestine and proving that demons are supposed
to abide in fire. For still other proofs see Aberglaube* p. 11.

3 Another sentence is dastur hadvLr itfarraqu la tihtirqii with your per-
mission, take care, disperse, else you will he burned.

* This custom is now dying out.

3 The Kurds say at such occasions: quddds subbuh rabbund wa rabb el-mala-
ikah war-rdhj Holy and praise to our lord the lord of the angels and the spirit
(heard from Mr. St. H. Stephan).

Saints are always at work praying or helping others; therefore they should
never be troubled. Asking permission to call upon them assures their consent.

7 No sooner was the boy on the tomb, than it began to rise and rise, while
the ceiling of the maqdm grew higher and higher. The frightened boy promised
the ffli a present if he brought him down, and at once the tomb began to descend
until it was down again. Trembling, the boy got down and hastened to fulfill
his promise (related by Mohammed of *Anata).

Full Text




1U3ac'slReItgionsSeries. VOL.v.




MOHAMMEDANSAINTSANDSANCTUARIESINPALESTINEBYTAUFIKCANAAN M. D. (BEYRUTANDOONSTANTINOPLE)/Physicianto the GermanDeaconesses' Hospital, Jeralalem,andtotheInternationalMoravianLeper HOpa8, JerusalemjPresidont(1927)ofthePalestineOrientalSociety;Authorof"AberslaubeundVolksmedizinImLandederBibeI". 174:0 L U ZAC&CO./L0NDON/1927




PREFACETheprimitive features of Palestine are disappearing soquicklythatbeforelongmostofthemwillbeforgotten.Thusithasbecomethe dutyofevery student of Palestine andtheNearEast, of Archaeology andoftheBible,tolosenotimeincollectingasfullyand accurately aspossibleallavailable material concerning the folklore; customs andsuperstitions current intheHolyLand.Such material is,aswe havebegunto learn, ofthe greatest importance forthestudyof ancient oriental civilizationandforthestudyofprimitivereligion.I,asasonofthecountry,havefeltitmyspecialdutytohelp inthisscientificwork;but,sinceIdonotclaimtobeatrained archaeologicalstudent, I amnot attempting todomore than place on record the bare material whichIhavecollected,leavingthe task ofcomparisonwith otherdatatotheprofessional archaeological and biblical student. Thischangeinlocalconditionsisduetothe great influences whichthe West is exerting uponthe East, owingtothe introduction of European methodsof education, the migratisn of Europeans Palestine,of Palestinians to Europe andespeciallytoAmerica, above. all, totheinfluenceofthe Mandatory Power.Thesimple, crude,butuncontaminated patriarchal Palestinian atmosphere is fadingawayand European civilization,more sophisticated butmore unnatural, is taking itsplace. Oursubjectofstudyleadsusintothemostholyandmysterious shrinesofthelifeofthe inhabitants.Itisnotalwayseasytoexamine the structure ofa sanctuary andthe objects foundinit;butitis stilllesseasytogaintheconfidenceofthe jel1JlIJ tosuchadegree that hewillspeakfreelyandwith detail abouthisreligious practices andritesand about the natureandcharacter ofthesaints,the knowledgeofwhichisofthe greatest scientific interest. Thus, evenforme,itwasnotalwayspossibletoget at the root ofmany beliefs.


VIPrefaceThepresentworkis based ona study of235 shrines which I have examined personally, 348 shrinesaboutwhichexactmaterialwas available,attendanceatMohammedan festivals,dikers,moladsandotherceremonies, alargeassortmentof stories toldaboutthesaints, alargecollection ofversessung bythepeoplein honour ofthe awlia, andavery extensive collection of amulets.Myvoluminous collection ofPalestinianproverbsandidiomshashelped meintheexplanation ofsome customsandpracticesconnected with saintsandshrines.Everysuperstition which might helpinthe explanation or comparison ofthetexthasbeencitedandanalysed.Yetthesubject issovastandcomplicatedthatIcannotclaim tohave gathered morethana handful ofgrainfromthelargeheapofcorn.Ihopethatsoon more ofthisunexploredmaterialwill receive attention.Ihavemadeas much useas possible oftheArabicliterature touching onthesubject since onlya smallpartof this has hitherto been systematically employed for comparative purposes.Theresem blances whichcanbefoundin suchArabicliterarysources showthatmuch oftheexisting folklore.ofPalestineisnotpeculiartothiscountrybutcommontotheArabicworld.OfEuropeanliteratureIhavemadeuseonlyof such worksasdealdirectly with Palestine.Astudyof"SaintsandSanctuaries"bringsthereaderinto directcontactwiththedaily lifeandcustoms oftheinhabitantsof Palestine.Itexplains muchthatwouldbe otherwise obscure in popular beliefandsuperstition: it affords a glimpse intothemysterious regions of local ceremoniesandthrowslighton muchthatisdarkintheworking ofthepopularmind.Whatis still more interesting, itmakes possible a comparison with customs,practicesandritesof primitive times.Itisremarkablehow manyideashaveremained virtually unchanged for thousands ofyears;andthestudy of manycurrentbeliefs may disclosetheclue tomuchthathashithertoremained unexplained inthereligious usages oftheancienteast.Thevarious ideas described inthefollowing pagesarecommon tobothMohammedansandChristiansamongthePalestinianpeasantry; wherethetwo groups differthedifferencesareonly superficial.Itakethisopportunity tothankDr.W.F.Albright,the Director oftheAmericanSchool ofOrientalResearch, forhis valuable adviceandcontinuedencouragement;andDr.H.Danbyforhishelpinthecompletion ofthebook. JERUSALEM, May15th ,1927T.CANAAN


.'...CONTENTSPREFACE A. SITESANDrl'YPESOF SANCTUARIES.1. Sites ................. a)Theirrelation to human habitations b)Bighplaces........... c) Relation of shrines to cemeteries d) Relation of shrines toruins2.Structureofthe sanctuaries a)The building b)The tomb..c)Trees .d)Watercourses e)Caves .3.Types of sanctuariesI.Sanctuaries witha shrine(maqam)andatomb11. Maqams without a tomb .Ill. A tombwithouta building...IV. A cave with orwithoutatomb.V.Asimple stone enclosure...VI.Awatercourse(springor cistern) ..VII.Asolitary tree ... ...VIII.Heapsof stones ......IX.Asingle large stone or a rockB.RrrESAND PRACTICES .. ... .1.Religious acts ....I.Utteranceof simple protective wordsli.Repetition ofprayers......Ill.Reverence . .........IV.Religious services ina shrine asina mosqueV.The barakeh ........2.Placingprivatepropertyundertheprotection ofau'eli 3.Tyingofrags... 4. Healing.... 5. Oaths....6.Vows.... .I. Things which servefortheupkeep ofthe maq8m a) Offerings usedto maintain and beautify the shrine b) Material forthe ,repairofthe maqam c) Personalwork........... ;;: V11237 91011 22 30 3842464750 63 6660 63 697377858686 9192 98 99102 103106125]30 142 142 i51153


VIIIContents 154 154 174 175 177 179 184 185 186 186188193 217 218..219 284285 235285238241 243 246 246 248 251255 263264265.......270270 271 271278280292292 295 297 300 31011.Foodvows......... a)Animalsacrifices... .... b) Qurban (offering toGod),orwalimeh lillah (banquet forGod) c) Meatless food...........Ill.Offerings given toneedy persons inthenameofthe Saint .IV.Religious vows. ...... V. Bodily chastisement andvowstobefulfilledonthebodyofthevoweror person forwhomthevowis taken ...VI.Vowsnotconnectedwithanyholy person or shrine VII.Vowsforthedeadandthe djinn .a) Offerings to demons b) Offerings tothedead........7.Celebration of feasts ..... .8. Processions.. ... ...I.Circumcision processions11.Rainprocessions .. C.NATUREANDCHARACTEROFTHESAINTS1. Characteristics ofthe awli8,. ...I. Bodily characteristics . .... a)SexandageoftheSaints . b)Modeoflife... c)Imprintsof hands, feet,etc. d)Appearanceintheformofanimals... 11. Religious and moral characteristics a)Irritabilityand forbearance.. b)Supernaturalphenomena...c)Thetwo antagonistic classes of Saints .....2.Miracles.......3. Relation oftheSaintstomen.. a) Saints asneighbours.b)Saintsasleaders.....c)Saintsasjudges...... d)Saintsassupernaturalbeings.. 4.Relationofthe Saints toGodandpopularreligion a) Relation toGod.........b)PositionoftheSaints inpopularreligion 5. Origin ofthe Saints ...I.HistoricalSaints .. a) Biblical characters....b) Qoranic personages c) Saints from Mohammadan history 11.Saintswhose descendants areliving.Ill. Darawil ...............


MOHAMMEDANSAINTSAND SANCTUARIES INPALESTINET. CANAAN(JERUSALEM)A.SITESAND TYPES OFSANOTUARIES1.SITESAtravellerin Palestine isstruckbythebaldness ofthehill country.HereandthereBornegardens, orchards or vineyardsaretobe metwith, generally grouped inthevicinityofavillage.Duringthespringandthefirstpartofthe summer some patches oflandaresownwithvarious cereals.Scatteredhereandthereonthebarrenmountains orinthe plains a solitarylargegreentreeora small group of trees beautifythesurrounding region,givingitafreshandan animated aspect. Theyare a welcomo shelter forthewayfarer; protecting himfromtheburning rays ofthesummer sun. These treesaresacred to Mohammedans since they indicatethepresence ofsome nabi, welior seb. This sacredness wasandis stilltheonly reason whythey escape the destruction whichhasbeenthefateoftheforestsof Palestine.Itisapitythatwehavenotcountless sacred trees commemorating holy persons, for Palestine would then bemorewoodedandconsequently more healthy, fertile andbeautifulIfsuchatree-andmostof them canlookbackon centuries of life-couldtellusallits experiences,-weshould knowmuchmore aboutthehistoryandfolkloreof this country. I shalltryto analyse thenatureof Mohammedan sanctuaries in Palestine ofwhich trees areonlyone feature,andIhope thus tobe able to explain some religious problems.Bysanctuaries Idonotmeanonly those places where.awell-known Prophet orweliwas buried,buteveryplace-shrine.,tomb, tree, shrub,cave,spring, well, rockor atone-s-whichisinvested.withsome1


JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyreligiousreverence,evenifsuch reverence bebasedon superstition,andthus non-religiousinthesenseofthe Qoranic teaching and ereed. Onlysuchawideningofthefieldof researcch willenable usto approach manyvery important questionsof comparative religionandprimitive belief.a)TheirRelationto RumanHabitationsSacred shrines are innumerableInPalestine. Nearly everywhere-inthe.villages,onthemountains,invalleys,inthefields-dowe meetwiththem. There is hardly a village. howeversmallitmaybe, whichdoesnot honouratleast onelocalsaint.Butgenerallyevery settlement boastsofmany. Thus, for example, 'Awartah possesses fourteen,elevenbeinginthevillage itself and three outsideatsome distance fromit; CAnata seven!(oneisnot acceptedbyall inhabitants2);Jerichosix; theMount of. Olivessix;3Koloniafive.Suchlocalsaintsarehonoured. notonlybytheinhabitants ofthevillagetowhich theybelong,butinmanycases their renowniswidespreadand pilgrimages of individuals orcompaniesaremadein their honour. Someof these shrinesaresituated inorclosetothevillage.Insuch acaseoneofthemservesasamosquewhere the inhabitants perform their prayers. 4 Butthegreaternumber ofthemlieoutside,and someevenata considerable distance fromthe area occupiedbythe townorvillage.'I'huswemeetwitha large numberofholyplaces in the fieldsfarfromany habitation. As everyvillagepossesseslands which stretch formilesbeyondthe settlement itself,everyshrine1Thenamesofthe different saintswillbegivenattheendof this study.2The {Julla[i. (pI.of piousman) inhabiting theruins,atthe entrance of thevillagefromthewestside,arenot accepted byallas authentic. My guide, Mohammed ofthisvillage, relatedthatsomepeoplehad heard atdifferent occasionsciddeh(religious music)atthisplace.A who passed waterat this spotwasatonceafflicted with eye-trouble. These fullilll inhabit theruins ofa church. Thesonof ea-seg cAbdes-Salem, ea-sey Slim an ,isalsoaless important welt 3A seventh holyplaceontheMountofOlivewas :ijarrubet el.cAsara, atree whichgrewonthe western slope,inapieceof ground whichbelongsat present toaLatinMission.Thetreehasbeencutdown. Such -especiallythoseofvillages situated inthe direct neighbour hoodofthe large cities-arenotmuchused.Manyofthe peasants comeon Friday tothecityto performtheirmid-day prayer ed-djum'an),andto transact their business.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine3situated in suchlandbelongs tothatvillage,andisalso honoured primarly byits.inhabitants.Thereareexceptions tothisrule. Es-seh es-Sidri inthelandsof (Anata is honoured mostly bythesemiBedouin livingtotheeastofthevillage.Thefollowingisan analysis ofthesites of shrinestakenfrom -a few villagesaroundJerusalem:Nameofthe villag-eCAnatftCEsawiyehKolonia 'AwartahNumberof sanctuaries735 14Thoseinsidethe Those outside village the house" area3 41 21 411 3 Some villages havetheir awlia (pl,ofweli)onlyinthehouseareaitself orintheimmediate vicinity ofit.Thisisthecase in Bet Hanina, Surbahir and SaCfat, eachwith foursuchsaints.b) High PlacesTheshrinesaremostlysituatedonanelevatedplace-thetopofamountain,ahillora small elevation intheplain-thuscommanding alltheneighbouring country.Evensuchshrinesasarebuiltonthesloping sideof a mountain, orjustabovethebedofa valleyareso placedthattheymore orless dominatethesurroundingareaandarevisible from afar. Comparatively fewwelisaresituatedin valleys;butifone should be,itis generally foundtobeintheneighbourhood ofthejunction oftwo wadis orinaplacewherethe wadi haswidened its bed, sothattheyareseenatadistance from different directions.Manyasacredplace, althoughsituatedonanelevated spot, isnot easily seen owingtothecharacterofthe wel%, inthatithasno buildingandDOlargetree.Thisistrueofall such sanctuaries asarefoundnearcaves, enclosures, springs, cisterns, rocks or"heapsof stones. Some shrines onthetopsof mountainsare:en-nabiSamwilMizpahof Samuel, ea-seg el-Qatrawani betweenBir Zet and cAtarahe-segAl}mad el-Karaki et-Taiyar Qastal Abft Hurerah WadieA-Sarrah el-Tlzernear

4JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyTheshrineof el-Tlmari ed-Djbe'eh is built onthetopof a high mountain.Theviewfrom this spot tothewestis magnificent.Theplain, Ramleh, Lydda,Jaffaandtheseaare easily seen, especially whentheweatheris clear.Aroundthe maqam isaruin!andmanynaturalcaves.Notombistobeseen,andtheroom shows nothingbuta mihrab. Thetwolargecarob trees withered away owingtothesevere winter of1921-1922.Everybody who takes refuge in thisweliis absolutely protected.ByelevatedplacesIdonotmean onlytheverysummitofa mountain,butany spot whichishighand.tosome extent dominatesthesurroundingarea,suchas: Es-seg. cAbd es-Salam CAnata Salman el-Farsi Mount ofOlivesEn-nabi Liqia BetLiqiasitl9 ed-Dawa'riSurbahiren-nabi Musa nearJerichoen-nabi YusifBetIdjzaes-segYasinDerYasines-segA\1mad:ijirbet Is'ideh es-seq I'mar Bet Duqqu,Thispeculiarity isverycharacteristic,notonlyofPalestinianMohammedanshrines,butalsoof sanctuaries elsewhere intheMohammedan world.Paton'sstatementon thispoint-althoughnotabsolutelycorrect-ismoreexactthanthatofMcCown.Thefirstwritersays:2"Themajority ofthealleged tombs of saints in modernPalestinearesituatedonthesummits ofhighmountains". McCown's3statementsinthisrespectarehardto understand.Ishall,lateron, discusshisfirst idea, namely:"Avery considerablenumberof shrinesareon hilltops becausethecities orvillagestowhich they belong sought such sites, not becausethehillis sacred."Inreviewing systematicallythevillages oftheJerusalemdistrictwhichIhave visited forthepurpose of this study, and noting exactly the position oftheshrines, Ifound than-in 26villages70%oftheshrines occupied thetopof a hill or mountain,240/0wereontheslopingsideofthe1The ruin iscalled :ijirbet 'ed-Djbe'eh.2 Annual of the American Schoolof Oriental Research in JerusalemI,p.62.3 Annual of the .American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem 11andIll,p.63.


CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuaries in Palestine5mountain belowitssummit,and only 50/0wereinavalley ora plain. Ofthese shrines45%belong tothebuiltmaqdm,180/0aretombs, and37%aresacredsprings, trees, enclosuresandcaves.Inotherwords,only52%(45built shrinesand70/0holy trees) wouldbe moreorlesseasilyseen,whilethecharacteroftheother48lessens the possibility oftheirbeing seen from it distance.NordoI agree with McCown'sstatementaboutJerusalem.Hewrites:"Therearevast numbers of shrines, several to every good sizedtown,whicharenoteasilyseen, because theyarenotonhill tops. Such is Jerusalem."Hedoesnot appear tohave considered thefollowingvery important facts,wich make mostoftheshrines ofJerusalemnoteasilyseen:1.Thebuilt shrines of most ofthewelis,insidethecity,arelow in structure,andontheirroofshouseshavebeen erected. Examplesare:Bairam 'Sawis, es-segRi1}.an,es-seg. Hasan el-Qerami. 2.Thecrowded 'housesinthecityproperhide fromsightshrines which haveno building above them.3.Mostoftheimportantsacredplaces intheharasareaareenclosed intheOmarandAqsamosques,and. naturallycannotea,sily beseen. Ontheotherhandthegreaterpartofthe. shrinessituatedoutsidethecity-wallareeasily seen;e.g. es-se!! Ahmad et-Tori, Sa'duS'id, es-seg Djarra:Q, etc. Thischoiceof situation isnotanewcustom,forwereadthatthepeopleoftheancientOrientusedtochoosesuch places fortheerection oftheirtemplesandtheworshipoftheirgods.InEzek,6 2 we read:"Andsay,Yemountains of Israel,hearthewordoftheLordGod;'I'hus saiththeLordGodto..themountainsandtothehills, tothewatercoursesandtothevalleys: Behold I,even I,willbringa sworduponyou,andIwill destroy your high places." Itisinterestingtoseehow these two versestrefer to mountains, watercourses, valleys and green trees -in other words "high places" combined withwaterand trees, a feature still characterizing thepresentshrines. Mountainsandhillsseem al:ways to .have played a great in human religion.tItis interesting to notethatallthe'great '1Other verses are Lev, 26so;Num. 3362; 1Kings12S1,1332;2 29.,213,235-19;Jer. 32; etc.2See Curtiss.


6 J.QumalofthePalestine Oriental Societyworkshave;traditionally, been. performed on mountains:Araratandtheark of Noah, MoriabandAbrabam)s sacrifice, Sinaiandthe Law,Ebal.and Gerizim withtheblessingandthecursing.Itisthesame alsowithJesus:ona mountain hewas tempted, was transfigured, preached, prayed"wascrucified,andfroma mountain he ascended to heaven.Theprophetsandkingsalsopreferredthese loftyplacesfor manyoftheirimportantactions. Elijah received thewordoftheLordon MountHoreb;1the "schools oftheprophets" wereonhillsandmountains;2onMountCarmelElijahwonthevictoryoverthe priests ofBaalwho worshispedtheiridolsonthis mountain;3Moses diedonMountNebo,fromwhencehe saw theLandof Promise;AarondiedonthetopofMount.Hor;onthis mountain Eliezer was ordained ashis father's successor.Ineednot multiply these instances, which illustratethefactthatmountains were,inolden times,regardedasinsome degree sacred.! This idea 'was adopted fromtheirpredece,ssorsbytheIsraelitesand by them transmitted tofollowing generations. A traveller through Palestineisstruck bythemany mountain tops whicharecoveredwitha prominent 11Jeli; stillgreateristhe number of summits whichbearshrines undistinguishable froma distance. Does this not indicatethatthepresent inhabitants still believein.the peculiar sanctity of mountains? McCownminimizesthe importance of this supposition; Curtiss5andPatonstress it.Whichviewis correct? Many primitive ideas have unquestionably persisted through thousands of yearsandcan still betracedtothe presentdayinoneformor another amongtheinhabitantsofthe"ifnmovableeast."Thesacredcharacterof mountains seems.tohave been a widespread conception inthe ancient Orient. The modern Palestinian places most ofhis shrines on mountainsandhills, irrespective ofthefact whether or not these places serveforhuman habitation. Although most awlia lIKings198.-9. 2 1Sam.106.3H. ZellerJ Biblisches Worterbucll, pp.146,1,47. 4 Yahweh appeared onhighplaces,1Kings 34-6. Itwas forbidden forthe Israelites topartakeintheworshiponhighplacesliketheheathen, Dent.122;Jer.220;Ezek. 2028-29; etc. 5 Curtiss, p.134.


CANAAN: ;Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine7aresituatedintheimmediatevicinity of' villages,itisstrikingthatsomanyuninhabitedmountainshaveshrines.Thisfactprove'sthattheold idea.ofthesacrednessofmountainshasprobablybeentransmittedtotheinhabitantsofmodernPalestine.'I'heydonotacceptitexplicitly as such,buttheoldpracticecontinues c) RelationofShrines to Cemeteries Veryimportantisthefactthattheshrinesorgravesofmany"holy men"aresituatedinthemidstof cemeteriesoradjacentto them.Thefollowinglistisaroughcomparisonbetween holyplaces'(shrines, graves, etc.) found in connection withcemeteriesandthoseliaving nothing todo withcemeteries:NameofthevillageNumberof sanctuaries 6Jericho6 Sa(fat 4Surbahir4 Data 7Incemetery 3 2311Notin cemetery3413 6Ishould add thefollowing facts.InSurbahirthefivetombsofed-Dawa'riarecountedasoneshrine.Thethreetombsofed-Djarahidwhich represent inrealitythreeholyplacesIhavealso considered asone.Thesameistrueofthet\VOgraves ofed-Dawa'riof SaCfat, whicharetobe seen inthecemetery.Theabovelistshowsthat63%oftheshrines are situatedina cemetery;butthesanctuarie ... sofsome villagesareinnowayconnectedwithburialplaces, sothatthegeneralpercentageofsuchacombinationamounts onlyto30% Insomecasesacemeterysurroundstheshrine, whileinothercases onlyafewtombsarefoundnearby.Thequestionariseswhethertheburialplacewasformed,aroundtheshrine,orwhetherthetombof somedistinguishedmanwasbuiltinanalreadyexisting cemetery.Inmostcasesthecemeteryis ,themorerecent,theholyplaceleadingtothechoice ofthatplaceforpublicburial.'I'hisis alwaysthe' case wheretheshrineisanoldone.Butin connection with awlia ofrecentoriginwenearlyalways findthatthose menwho were looked uponduringtheirlifetimev as"blessedmenofGod,'" wereburiedinthecommon cemetery,andbecame tvelis aftertheirdeath.Theirtombsbeganto enjoyprivateand


Jerusalem SaCfatBetcAnan Jericho BetLikia(I.Jiqiit)BetIksa' CAwartah.Journal of thePalestineOriental Society: finallygeneralreverence.Thefollowing 'shrinesareprobablyolderthanthecemeteriesinwhichtheyarefound: e-eeNftran tBetween Sallaleh and {lan Yunia es-eb BadrJerusalemen-nabi Mftsa nearJericho Rdjal el(Fig.2,PlateIll)N ablus.Thecontraryisthecase with: AbuHalawl es-seg ez-Zu'behSanctuariesorsacredtombssituatedin a largepublic cemeteryaremetwithIDnearlyeveryvillageandcity. Some prominent examplesare: es-seb 'Abd el-FattaJ) ed-Dawa'ri, es-seg Abu seres-sehZed\Jes-seg Abft Yamin es-sebGhanimes-seb Sa'd es-see (i)Mbarak' Thetopofthehighestpointofthemountain onwhichCAwartah isbuiltis crownedwiththe m,aqam of el-cAzerat. Thiscontains two rooms,theeasternone with twodomes,thewestern with one.The maqam issurroundedbythecemetery. Nocisternortreebelongs toit.Notfarfromtheshrinethereisapoolhewninthe rock. In'theeasternroomthereisa prayer-niche, opposite to which'anentrancetoacaveisseen.Manymatchboxes,oil

JerusalemJerusalemNablus.CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and SanctuariesinPalestine9muchlessused.Thedeadareritually washedherebefore thel areburied. ShrinesInwhose neighbourhood onlyoneorfew tombsarefound are: es-seg Al)madet-rorles-seg Badr Sittna el-Hadrah v Therearetwo reasons whysome prefer to burytheirdead inthevicinityofthe grave ofsome weli.1 1.Thenearerthe person isburiedtoa weli or tombor maqam, thegreateristheblessing whichhemayreceiveintheworld tocome. This iswhysomany Bedouincarrytheirimportantdead fromagreatdistance to'beburiedneara saint's tomb.ThustheBedouin of er-Rasaydiyehintersomeoftheirdead around siug ed-Djarahid oftheMount ofOlives,andthe 'Idwancarrytheirdeadto Nebi Musa. 2.Theprotection exercised bythesaint, because ofthegeneral respect heenjoys,is another causefor buryingthedead closetothe 1veli's tomb. This usedtobepractisedespecially byimportantpolitical familieswhowere continually onbadterms withotherfamilies.Whenaleaderdied theyburiedhimneara sacred spot toprotecthisbodyfrom being exhumed byhisenemiesandthus dis honoured.The"manof God" is sure toprotectevery thingputunder hiscare;nobodydaresto molestthesanctity ofamanso buried. Such reasons ledthefamilyofcAbd el-Hadi ofNablusto burythreemembers oftheirfamily-s-Mohammadel-Husen ,Yusif Sliman and'Abdel-Karim-nearthe maqam of el-Hadrah.d)Relationoj'ShrinestoRuins'Anotherfact not withoutinterstisthatagreatnumber ofsacredsiteslieinornear a ruin.Itisnottobe"expectedthatonewill alwaysfind remains ofalarge'ruin;theremaybeonlya few oldrock-hewn tombs, remains ofafew houses, several0old cisterns, or some ancient pillars. Such a ruin in itself musthave a striking1Acustomwhichisalso prevalent amongsomeBedouin tribes, according toJauasen,CouiumedesArabes,p. 99.,


10JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyobject tothesimple mind .pf the' Palestinian,and the ruincertainly existed long beforethepresentshrine. Aruin,an artificial cave, a solitary tree, orsomeold cisterns inalonelydeserted. spot,would stimulatetheimagination ofthe Some night vision,orthe hallucination of seeinglightsandhearmgprayersor religious music, enforcetheideaofthesacredness ofthespot.About 32 %ofallthesanctuarieswhichIvisited wereinthevicinity ofsomeruin. Some welfs situatedinorneararuinare: el-Qatrawani N.ofBir Zetes-seg -el-cUmari ed-DjbeCeh near BetcAnan Du-l-KaflnearQatannehAhmad et-Taiyar Qastal'AbdelcAziz betweenQastaland BetSunkSittnaes-SamiJ'eh Kolonia theruins ofachurch.theruins of several buildings.HirbetelKfereh. \001 ruins ofa fortress. a ruin withawaterreservoir, hewnintherock. a tomb hewnintherock,andthecanal ofthespring is ancient. tombs hewnintherock..w.N.W.of Bet Iksaasmallruinwithtwo cisterns. Abli Lemfm el-MufaQQel 'Awartah arock-hewn tomb.2.STRUOTUREOFTHESANCTUARIESLetusapproachacommon type of andexamineitmore thoroughly.Whatdowefindhere?Ofcoursethesame objectsarenotfoundineverycase.Weshalltrytoinvestigate every object separately, leavingtheclassification till later.'Forour purpose we willtakenoteofthefollowing:Abuilding"a tomb,atree.(oragroup oftrees),awaterreservoir (cistern, well,spring,basin,etc.) andacave.Itwillberatherdifficult togivean absolute descriptionofeach onesince they varysomuchinthedifferentpartsofPalestinethatwerarelymeet withtwo completely alike. '


CANAAN: Mohammedan Sa.intsand Sanctuaries in Palestine11a)TheBuildingThe buildingitself-theshrine, maqam, qubbeh,or,asitwas calledin Biblical times, "houseof high places"1_isin most cases, andinallthesimpler cases, aquadrangularbuilding.Wewill consideratpresentonly this form.Thedoor-andthereisonly one-is.low.Thereis generally one small window,butsometimestheremaybemore (taqah,taqat or sarraqah, arraqat), thoughoccasionallythereis noneatall.Theroof isa simple vaulted dome withalongperpendicularstone inthecentre, whichisraisedabove the vault itself.Thisstone isinsome casescutintheform(ofa 'half-moon.Insteadof such a stone anironbarwiththreeballs-the lowest thelargest-anda half-moonatthetopmay sometimes befound.! This dome-form(qubbeh)isaverycharacteristicfeature in Mohammedan shrines.Itisnotfoundonlyinthesimple weli, butalsointhelargeandimportantshrines oftheprophets as well asincommon mosques."Thequbbehis,"as McOownsays.! "a characteristic feature ofthePalestinianlandscape."Veryoftenthewordqubbehisusedasasynonymof "shrine," although originallyitstands fora vaulted building."Theinside is alwaysplasteredandwhitewashed,butasthebuildingsareveryoftenveryold, everything may consequently be defective.Agreatmany ofthemaqdmarein a pitifulstateof disrepair, mainly due to neglect, winter stormsandoldage.Thewarwasanothercause oftheirruin; asinthecase of es-segA1}mad el-Karaki et-Taiyar (Qastal), en-nab! Samwil (Mizpah Samuel), Hasan (Bet Iksn) (N.ofBir Zet), Abu-I-cOn (Biddu), es-seg 'Abdel-cAziz(near Bet Surik), etc.Duringthewarsomehadtobe levelled totheground, inorderto deprivetheenemyofamarkfor hIS guns (es-seg Nllran, between Sallaleh and Yfmis). Doorsandotherwoodenpartswerenearlyalwaystakenawaybythesoldiersandused' as fire wood 'Anbar,'Abdes-Salam, el-Tlmari ed-Djbe'eh etc.),Insome casesthevillagers havereplacedthelost doorsby others andrepairedtheshrines inlIKings1231;13 2ThequbbehoftheBedouin isan imitation ofthe text, J aussen,102.3Sucha decoration isasignofthe building being of recent construction. 4 Annual11andIll,50. fi See Multi!el-multi!, and Hava,s. v.


12JournalofthePalestineOriental Societya more orless primitive way,asinthecaseof el-Qatrawani, Hasananden-nabi Samwil. Aninspection oftheinteriorof a shrineproperwillshow that oneormoreniches (also called taqah) aresituated inthewall,afeaturecommon toall.Actuallytheylooklike elongated cupboards. Occasionallytheremaybeonlya single niche, though generally morearetobemetwith.Inthesimple, small one roomed shrine of es-seg Badr,whichliesonthetop of a hill inthenorth-westpartofJerusalem,I counted eight.Inel-TlzerCAwartah)therearesomedozensof them.Theyarebuiltatdifferent heightsandareirregularlydistributedinthefour walls, without anyregardfor symmetry.Withfew exceptionstheyaredirty, eventhewallaroundandespeciallythepartbelow beingbadlysmearedwithoil. This unsightly effectisduetothefactthatitisherethatoil lamps, oil bottles,matchesandothersmall objectsaredeposited.Theinside generally shows signsof having oncebeendecorated with 1;tinna or orboth.Thedecoration consists of simple linesrunningmore orlessparalleltoeachother,aroundtheinside making sortof frieze.Oftenthefriezeis more complicated. Some typical designsarerepresentedinPlateI.Butinadditiontothefrieze wefind twoother,veryimportantdecorations, viz.representationsofthehandandimitations ofpalmbranches(sometimes twigsor trees),bothofwhichareexplained by superstitious beliefs.InMohammedansuperstitionthehandsrepresentthehandofFatimeh(thedaughteroftheProphet),in ChristianthehandoftheHolyVirgin,andinJewishthehandof God.!Thissuperstitious decoration issaidtobringblessing. We encounteritvery distinctlyandoften onthetwooutersidesofthedoor onthetop stone andontheinnerwallsoftheshrine, especiallyaroundthe Itis generally an.imprintofa human han'ddippedin blood, hinna, ornileh.Adozen such impressionsmaybeseenin such shrines.Notonlyin shrinesbutalso onthedoors ofhousesmay such impressions beseen.Theyareintendedtoprotecttheinhabitantsagainstthebadeffects oftheevileye. .Small imitations ofthehand,madeofglass, mother-of-pearl, silver, gold orsome other metal,aretCanaan, Aberglaube, pp.64fr., Doutte,Magieet Religion, pp.325ff.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctaariesinPalestine13carriedby smallchildrenforthesamereason.1Bloodimpressions ofthehand' arerarelyfound.I have seenthemon newly-built houses whena sheep was sacrificed beforethe house wasinhabited,aswell asatthefeast ofBairam Cid ed-Dhiyeh):OnceonlyhaveI observed blood impressions of.thehandonthedoorofa shrine.Thismarkwasmadeby.amanwho offered a sheep which wasvowedtothe weli. Theimitationofthepalmtree (Plate I,Fig.8)is mostlyusedas an inside decoration.Itismadeupofaperpendicularline withshorterside lines, whichunite,makinganacuteangle,opening upwards.Thetotalnumberof 'the sidebranchesisneverconstant;butin most casesthereis an equalnumberoneitherside. Iexaminedcarefully toseewhetherthenumberononesidecoincided withthesacrednumbers3,5,7orsome multiple of them,2butinmostcasestheydidnot.Insome, especially inel-Badriyeh (Sara,fat) andel Qatrawani (N.ofBir Zet) theyallcoincided withthenumbersthreeandfiveinthefirstandfiveandseven inthe Qatrawani. Thisfeatureis always explained asstandingforpalmbranchesorpalmtrees (na1.Jl). Weknowthatpalmbranchesarecarriedinmostfuneral processions of well-to-do people orof,importantmen,asa symbol of life.Mohammedansuperstitionholdsthatpalm-treeswerecreatedfromthesameearth from whichGodmadeAdam.3Thisiswhy thistreeis said tohave manyresemblancesto man.sTheQoranmentionsitvery often, asitisoneofthechosentrees."NeverthelessIwouldraisethequestion:Isit.notpossiblethatthesefigures were formerlyrudeimitationsofthehandandthatgraduallythedistinctnumberfivewaslostandthusalsotheoriginalmeaning?Otherdecorationswhich onemayfind,areseen onplateI,andFig.5ofPlateILTherepresentationoftheserpentpointstolonglife.6"lJaiyeh"(Figs. 1,7;PlateI)serpent,and life, have1Canaan,l.c.;Doutte,I.c.pp.317fr.;L. Einsler,Mosaik.2Very few examples offeredthenumberfour.3 Uaridatu-l-rAdjayb, p. 102:4Alerglaube, p.87. i Kahle,PJVIII,141, explains the palm branches asa prophylactic measureagainsttheevileye.Ihave neverheardsuch an explanation. Neitherpalm branches nor_their representations areeverused asan amuletagainsttheevil eye.6 KaWe,PJVIII,140.


14JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyasimilarsoundingroot.!'Icouldnotexplainthe squares withthe dots (Plate I,Fig.6).uis improbable' thatthedots(PI.I,Fig.4and5)represent "visitingcards"ofthepilgrims,as Kable thinks.InsomeshrinesIhaveseen rudimentary representations of amosque, a minaret, aship, flowers, etc.Theonlypurposeofthesefiguresis tobeautifythe maqa1n. SometimesQoranicversesorthenamesof God,the Prophet, andsomeofthe arewrittenonthewalls. Theshrineof ea-seyYasin isthebestexample,wherebesidethe wordsallahandMuhammad,whichare surrounded bywreathsof leaves,wefindthe Mohammedan creed "There 'isnogodbutGod, andMohammedistheapostleof God"; twoflags(theTurkishandthatofthe Prophet), a half moonandmanyfive-pointedstars.Inthe mi1:trab censerandchainare painted. Thesedecorationsaremadewith J:tinna,nilel} or siraqun. Some peasants think shouldneverbeusedinholyplaces, being theonly suitable material. When 1;tinna (Lawsoniainermis)2isused asareddye,itis kneaded intoa paste and 'then daubedonthe wall.Veryoftensamneh(butter) is mixedwithit,3butnotnecessarily always,as Curtiss thinks.!It,iswiththis pastethattheimpression ofthehandissooftenmade. While adhering tothewallthepaste hasa dirty greenish-brown appearance,butwhenitfallsoffitleaves abrownish-redcolour.The mihrab6 andtheimmediate surroundings are decorated firstofall.Mostoftheotherdecorationsaremade withnileh(methyleneblue)and siraqun (minium),Inmanyofthesesimpleshrines,butnotinall, there isa mi/:trab, whichhastheusualformandpointssouthwards.Thereisatleast oneineachofthe larger sanctuaries.Insomethereareseveral. Thusqabrer-Ra'i near Nebi Musahasthree.sInsome a't!Jlia the milfrab isonly indicated onthe southern walleitherwithcolour,or witharidge-likeframeof projecting plaster.Inthe Christian church of el-Hadr (between BetDjala andthePoolsof Solomon), whichis1Canaan,Aberqlaube,p.85.2Hava, 138.3Kahle,1.c Curtiss, 209. 5 Thatof ea-sultanIbrahimel-Adhami of andtheshrineofel-Irnam fAH onthe carriage-road nearBabel-Wad,showeddozensofthese imprints.6Inthe eabrah (TheDomeoftheRock) there areseveral prayer niches whichwillbe described later.


CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inPalestine15honouredandvisitedalsobytheMohammedans,the prayer direction ismarkedbya large picture ofSt.George.Ihaveseen Mohammedans goinandperform their prayers turning their faces towards the pictureand80tothesouth.All mi1J,rabs are marked inthe southern wallofthe sanctuaries. Thefollowing three aretheonlyexceptions Iknowof.A mihrab inthe building belowel-Aqsa,a mibr4.b in Dahlid oneinthe shrine ofel-Mufaddil CAwartah).lInthe firstitissaidthattheProphetprayed duringhis night-visit to Jerusalem, andwhenhehadfinishedtheangel Gabriel ordered him infuturetoperformhis prayers withtheface turned toMecca. ThereupontheProphetturned hisfaceinthis direction andper formed.hissecond prayer.t Thefloorofthepoorer maqams ismostlybare, but sometimes matsare present. The larger andmore important shrineshave mats andoftencostly carpets.While.the last description holds true forallsimplemaqams,we havestill.toconsiderthosewhicharelarger, more important,andmore elaborate. Ishalltryto describe them according tothevarious complicationsof their structure.Butbefore proceeding tothispartofour subject somethingshouldbesaid about thequbbehor"cupola." Thisisoneofthemost important featuresofthe awlia andbelongs toalmosteverytypicalshrine.Inexaminingaqubbeh3wefindtwo differenttypes:1.Thesimpleone,wherethequbbehis built directly overthefour wallsoftheshrine.Itlookslikea hemisphere superimposed upon thewalls.2.The square spaceformedbythefourwallsis converted into anoctagon near theroofbyfillinginthe corners withpendentives. Theoctagonis raised a little,andthehemisphericalqubbehrests on it.A perpendicular sectionofsucha building (cutdiagonally)is showninFig.4,Plate11. The maqams whichpossesstwo instead ofonevaulteddome,areas simplein character as thosejustdescribed.Inrealitysucha building1ThelasttwoarementionedinPJVII, 86.2Itis curiousthatAbraham andLotarethoughttohave performedtheirprayers withtheface turned toMecca(southwards), although they are pre Islamic characters.3Fora short description ofitseePJVII, 92.


16JournalofthePalestineOriental Societyrepresents tworoomswhich,by dispensing withtheseparatingwall,areunited toformone elongated whole.Ahigh stronglybuiltarch,which helps tosupporttheroof,takestheplace ofthemissingwall.Inthenextclassaresanctuaries which havea rawaq (openarchedhall)builtin front orattheside.Thismaybe composed ofonearch,butmore often oftwo.Thepeople assemble here beforeandaftertheirvisitstotheshrine. Sometimes meals takenandfestivalsareheld inthisplace.In BetI;faniDa the inhabitants haverecentlybuilttothesouth-east of djami' ea-sultanIbrahimel-Adhamiathreevaultedhall,opening tothenorth,andwitha miJyrab.Ea-set Salmanel-Farsi(Mount ofOlives)hassuch anopen rawaq in front ofthe Sall?tuary itself.Inel-Tlzer (el-Qariyeh)and es-seg Hamad(Kolonia)the rawiiq isatone side ofthesanctuary.Stillmore complicatedarethose shrines where oneor more additional roomsarebuiltbeside oraroundthesanctuaries opening intothevaults. These"serveas kitchen, dwelling-place fortheservant (baddam, qaiym)andstorerooms. Sometimes, onlyof course whenthesanctuary issituatedinor quitenearavillage,oneof these roomsmaybe used asaschool room(kuttab or'maktab),andoccasionally another oneis occupied bythe sel] or batib, whomayactastheteacher. "Some cases inpointare: es-seg. I;Iamad Kolonia es-seb I'mar Bet Duqquh el-l:UzerAbft el-AnbiaNablusInafew cases oneroomisusedfortheritualwashingofthedeadbefore burial, asin ell:Azerat CAwartah)and djamiC el-Tlzer (Abft Ghos). Attimesthe mactafeh (guest-chamber) is connected withtheshrine, asin en-nabi Sftcah 1(inthevillage Sftl:ah) '2whereitisaroom built overtheshrine.In es-sen.AbftIsmacil(BetLiqia) and es-seb Hsen (BetCAnan) thefrontroom serves asa In"boththesecases wefindinthecentreoftheroomthehearth(el-wdjaq)onwhich coffeeispreparedfor those present.Theguest-house of es-sebYasin (Der Yasin) issituatedoppositethe maqam andseparated fromit1Although thenamelookesasifitwerefeminineitstandsfor Y'Ula'.2 South of Bab el-Wad.


CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine17byanopen place.1Itisonlyinthecoldmonthsoftheyearthatthese guest-housesareused; inthesummermonthsthepeopleprefertosit outsideunderatreeorina rawaq.2 Aroughsketchof Hamad(Kolonia). wellillustratestheclassdescribedabove.See Fit 1,Plate11.Anotherclass is formed by holyplaceswheretherealsanctuaryissurroundedby many rooms.Therooms serve for pil:rims who makea visit onceayearandgenerallyspendseveral daysintheplace.Insuch casesthebuildingis mostly composed oftwo,attimesof-three,stories.Thelowerstoryisusedforstorerooms, kitchenandstables,andtheupperfortheuseof visitors. A servantlivesalltheyeararoundinsuchasanctuarytoguardit.Theselargershrinesarenotgenerallydedicatedto awlia but to prophets (anbia, pI.of nam). En-nabi Musa isthebestknownexampleof this class.Butonlyafewprophetshave suchlargeshrines.En-nabi Salel) (Ramleh), el-Anbia -(Nablus), en-nabi Yl1sif(BetIdjza) andmany others have fairly simple buildings, while el-Tlzer, el-Maneuri andel-Mufaddil(allin'Awartah)whoarealsocountedasprophets,haveno buildingatall. SomedjawamiCand awlid arecertainlyancientchurchesorold houses.'I'husIthinkthat dja.111,ic 'Omaribn (Surbahir)and djamiC el-Tlzer (el-Qaryeh)wereonce churches.!Theshrines of 'Abdallab (Bet Surik), Sale!)(Deres-se!}Srftr('Awartah) and es-se!}en-Nubani (Nablus)aresimple rooms, which wereonce used as dwellings.Theyhave no mibrab or vaultandhave nosignsofanytomb.Theyareatpresentinverybadstateof disrepair.Manyabuilt maqam isanopensanctuary,wherethewallsoftheroofreston pillars.Thebestexample of such ashrineisthatofHasan er-Raci,4 whowas supposed to havebeentheshepherdoftheprophetMoses.Insideofarectangularenclosure,builtof stones1The school-room of es-sey Iteyim (Bet Iksa)isused according to Kahle(PJVI,71)asa maq,afeh. Every kuttab maybeusedattimesasa guest house,butthisoccasionalusedoesnotgive suchaplacethespecial characteristics which arefoundina ma4a,feh andwhichwere mentioned above.2For ma4afek see Haddad,JPOS11,pp.279ff.3The best bookon this subject is Mader, Altchristlicke Basiliken und Lokal traditionin Siidpaliistina, 1918. ( Kahle,PJVII,91.2


18JournalofthePalestineOriental Societyandmortar,weseean elongatedandvaultedroofwhichrestson six pillars,threetothenorthandthreetothesouth. Between these pillars isthelargetomb. (Mount ofOlives)isan octagonalsanctuarywiththesides closed up. Masadjid sittna hasa vaultrestingonfourcornerpillars, wherethesouth sidehas been completely closed,andtheeasternandwestern onlypartlybuilt.Thewesternandthe :outhern wallsoftheshrineofAhmades-Sarrisi1areclosed, whilethetwoothersidesareopen. Idonotpropose togivean exhaustivearchitecturaldescription ofalltypes of shrines. Myonlyaimhas been to give simple examples ofthedifferent classes. Descriptions of beautiful mosqueslikees Sagrah, etc.,neednotbegiven here, since theymaybe foundinconvenient form elsewhere.tManyofthesanctuaries whicharesituatedina village serveatthesame timeasthedjamiCof thatplace, wherethepeople assemble for prayer. Many adjamiCwasbuiltintheimmediate neighbourhood ofa weZi, asinthecaseof Djarrah,Sa'duS'id(both inJerusalem),Salman el-Farsi (Mount ofOlives)etc. Somesacredsites whicharesituated outinthefields,andwhich contain notomb,serveforthepasser-by asa place in which to perform his prayers,e.g.el-Irnam cAH, onthecarriage-roadfromJerusalemtoJaffa,Weoften findin front ofthesanctuary an elevated place, well covered with large, smooth stone flags, called Theyaregenerally inclosecontactwiththesanctuaryandservefor prayer.Itis.notnecessarythatarituallyclean coverbespreadonthemsince theyarealwayskeptclean.Such"prayerplatforms"aremet with in es-seg ealel) CAnata), IrdjalSufah(W.ofDerGhasaaneh), es-seb l)amrahand en-Nubani(both in Mazaric eu-Nubani." Before passing on,it may bewellto notethatinsome shrinesthereareinscriptions.Theyaregenerally foundjustabovethedoor ofthesanctuaryor abovethatofthecourt, though occasionally1Onthetopofa mountain in Abft Ghos. 2Shortdescriptions arefoundinBaedeker, Meistermann andotherguide books;scientific descriptions are:Gressmann,DerFelsendomin Jerusakm, PJIV,54ff.;R. Hartmann,DerFelsendomundseineGeschichte,1909;DeVogue,La Mosque d'Omo etJerusaletn, 1905.3Iamindebted for information regarding thelastthreeplacestoOmarEffendi Barghuti.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine19they maybefound.abovethewindow (ea-segDjarra\l): orabove oneofthe pillars ot thevault (ea-seg. Hasan er-Ra't).Somesuch inscriptionsare:1.Abovethe central doorofthe shrine el-Hadraht(N ablus): v,W;\J..r Thisprayerhousewasbuiltduringthe(reign)daysofthe sultan, thekingSelfed-DinQalawan,thepious.God make himpowerjul; andhisfather es-sultan thepiousking cAla ed-Din.His victoriesbeglorious.2.Inside (Nablus):2 4.4. o Das'Uqi 0BadawiThe maqam of el-!!a4rel-Badawi 3cAbd-el-Qadir ed-Djilani. 3.An inscription onvelvet laid onthe cenotaph of el-Anbia (Nablus) : >)1,'0""1'1.fJ1All I ...F;r">'J..J.d\?,ThiS isthetombofthe prophets ojGod,theGlorious.'thesonsofourmasterJacob,andtheyare Rayalun, Jaiadjar and Asar. On behalfofour Prophet,these,andall other prophetsmaytherebethe mostefficaciousprayers, and themostcompletepeace.4.Inthe rawaq adjacent tothe shrine of el-Anbia:6 LSj)lay\r4;)L..1S' Whenever Zacharias wentintothe chamber toher(hiswife Mary) hefoundprovisionswithher.71On a marblestone.2The writing isinfivesect.ions,sidebyside.3EI-Badawi is repeated twice.Thesecondtimeshouldbe er-Ritaci, Obviously ascribal error for Zebulon. Stands for Issachsr.6AverseoftheQoran, SurahIll,37. 7 Sale's translation. The commentators saythatnonewentinto Mary's apartmentbutZacharias himself,andthathelockedsevendoorsuponher,yet hefoundshehadalways winter fruits inthe summer, and summer fruits in the winter. -Icannot findthe connection between theaboveverseofthe Qoran andthe shrine of el-Anbia, whichhas nothing todo with Zacharias and Mary.


20JournalofthePalestineOriental Soc-iety 5.Ona marble stone abovetheentrance tothe shrine of as-sultanIbrahimel-Adhami (BetI:Ianina):er. IJ-A,:W:..!4 .rolt""""4A.1J\ InthenameofthemostmercifulGod.The l:tadj Sweidthesonof lfamayd, Godbemercifultohim,has ordered thebuildingofthisplaceofworship. .. intheyear637.[A.H.]6.Abovethedoorotmaqamel-Yaqin, Beni N'em (ona marble stone) : tk.1.J\W:J4rc'6JJ\ .. 6JLa\J-A, dLcJ\ InthenameofthemostmercifulGod.MohammedAbdallah.. cAli hasorderedthe buildingofthisprayerhouse,from his OUJn money27.Between thetwonorthernvaults oftheshrine ofHasan er-Ra'!(neartheNebi Musa)weread: .J-A,il,)_1 ..: .. _i_L\ A ..,. u ., er[ .. 0d \ lJ.\ J..Li4JJ \ :itA \ y\,;:J\Mol:tammedPasa, thedoerofgood,haserectedthisblessedqubbehon lfasan er-Ra/i, Godsanctifyhis secret, ashe(the Pasa) was returningfromwelcomingtheMohammedanpilgrims. Heproceeded in buildingbutfoundnowater.Butbecauseof his highzeal,God protect him,thewaterwasbroughttotheplace3fromthevillageofJericho.Thushedeservedthe heavenlyreward.The 1 Rabf 1110.8.Onthetombof Abn-l-Halaweh (Jerusalem): .b.,} IJ-A,.JoYI.U-.Q 1Dots represent wordswhichare indecipherable.2Thequfic inscription onthetombof the daughter of ij:asan the grandson oftheProphetis: _.-1\-:1\ luvis"0"'" r .... \.r."r(.;Ay\)J\WliO'?' SeeMudjired-Din I,67.3Lit. "tothevillage."


d)CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine 21 Heisthe everlasting livingone.ThisisthetombofthefriendofGod,' eS-stl:JlfasanAbu el-ljalaweh. Forhissoul(read). "al-jatiba.h." 1305.[A.H.]9.Agolden embroidered writing onaredsilk cloth placed on thetombof en-nabi Lftt (BeniN'em),runs: \ 0.b.,J\J.a Thisisthetomboftheprophet Lut, peaceandblessingsbeonhim.10.On another cloth inthesame shrine. b-.J\AlJ46J.j\.b,JAlJ\..lAb-.lJ\tk.u\4o.lJ\.AlJ4A.l.J\ InthenameofthemostmercifulGod.Inhimwefind help. Mysuccess(good l'UCk) isonlyinGod. There isnogodbutGod.Our l01"d 2Muhammed is theapostle3ofGod.InthenameofGod;whatGodwishes,Mylord Lut isanapostleofGod.Thereisneither .might nor strength butinGod.11.Thewriting ona banner, presented to en-nabi Lut bysoldiers comingfrom Aleppo and proceeding tothe S';ez Canalfrontduringthelastwar(1915-1916),wasasfollows:a) 4. Ohexcellency,4 rny Lord AQmader-Rifdei (written intheupperrightcornerofthebanner);b) liJ\4. Ohexcellency,thedivinepole,mylord'Abdel-Qadir ed-Djilani .(intheleftuppercorner);c) 4.Oh excellency,thesupremepole,mylordAhmad el-cAdawi (left,lower corner); . \ b .. .. Oh excellency,thetruepole,mylord Ibrahim edDasuqi (rightlower corner);tHava,p.887.2Lit. Master.3More than a prophet. 4 hadratisa title of honour. WithHavaI render "excellency." & IAdawiisusedhere instead ofel-Badawi.


22 Journal ofthePalestine OrientalSocietye) )J\There isnogodbutGod and MohammedistheapostleofGod(inthecentre);f) AlJ\ OurLordtheFriendofGod,peacebeupon him (betweenaand.e);g)The'I'urkish crescent, betweenbande.b)TheTombInsidetheshrineandgenerally inthecentreoftheroomwefindthetomboftheholypersonwhose nameitbears. Before givinganydescription ofthe tombitselfonepointshould be madecleartheconnection ofthetombwiththebuilding.Thetombisoftennotintheshrine,butoutside ofit:onthe inthe rawaq orinthegardenadjacenttothe maqtim. Butitisnotatall necessarythatthereshould beatombdirectly or indirectly connected withtheplacetomakeita shrine,andtherearemany tombs which have noqubbeh.Boththesefeatureswillbe" discussedatlengthinanotherpartofthiswork.Wemay classify tombs according totheirposition as follows:1.Thoseconnectedwith amaqam,maybesituateda)intheshrineitself; asel-Badriyeh (Sarafat),Bisrel-aaJi (NabIus)etc.; b)inthe rawaq; es-sayidAhmad let-Taiyar (SaraJat); c)inthegardenadjacenttothesanctuary;en-nabi'Anntr(Der'Ammar), es-seg Y usif (I jar bat a). 2.Thosewhich have noshrinebuilt,but are situateda)inacave; es-seb es-Sidri (Anata), es-sitter-Rab'ah(MountofOlives); b) outside inthefieldsorina cemetery; es-seg MuhammadelBaqqani(Nablus), Ramadan, (Bed (both in Qatanneb), el-Tlzer (CAwartah):etc.; c) insidethevillage, amongthehousesandnotattachedtoanymaqamorcemetery; es-se9 Suwan and es-seg Isma'i] (both inSurbahir).


CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuaries in Palestine23Itoftenhappensthatin addition tothemaintombortombs, whichare situated inside the shrine, thereareoneormoreoutside whichare intimately connected withthelife history ofthemain weli. \Thesemaybe situatedatvarious distances and still retain their association.Some illustrations are:Inthe'neighbourhood of es-seg 'Abdes-Salamandoutside the maqam istobeseenthetombofhissonSalman,. EI-Badriyeh has outsidehershrineandinthe adjacent hallthetombofher husband es-sayid Abmad et-Taiyar. Es-seb Ahmad elBustamt andhis brother es-seb Murad(Nablus) have their negro servant buried outsideof the maqam. EI-Qatrawani's shepherd lies buriednearthe sanctuary ofhis master. The number oftombsinone sanctuary varies.Inthe majority ofcases there isonlyone,butsomehavetwo, others evenmore. Oneofthetombs, generally the largest, isofmore importance thantheothers.Itcontainsthe important weli, andthereforethesanctuary takes hisname.The other gravesarethoseofhisnearrelatives: hiswife,his brother, hismale descendants andsometimes his servant. Theshrinesof es-seg fAn barand es-seb Badrcomprisetwo-tombseach,thatofthe weli andthatofhiswife.Inthecase of es-seb Badrboth tombsareinthesameroom,whileinthatof es-seg 'Anbarthetombofthe welZ's wifeisinasmallroom adjacent.Inel-Badrijehonetombinthe shrine itself is said tobehers,the other tothe norththatofherchildren,whilethetomb outside her shrineisbelievedtobethatofherhusband. More interesting are thosecaseswherewemeetwithmore than twotombs.In es-seb Hamad (Koionia)' therearefive,thetombofthe weli, twoforhis twowives,oneforhissonandthefifththatofhis servant (really black slaverabd).Thetombofthe servant isshown partly inandpartly outsidetheshrine.Butthe twohalvesdonot correspond to eachother.Weoftenmeetwithtombswhicharearranged sideby side and whichbelongtooneofthefollowingclasses: 1.Thegravesof members ofthesamefamily,likethe Dawa'r! in Surbahir andthe Yamin familyin BettAnan. Allare regarded as .righteous men(ptof $ale1J,). In Satfat there arealsotwotombs ofthefamilyof ed-Dawa'ri.InIrdjal el-fAmud (Nablus) wefindmanytombs outside the maqain whicharesupposedtobethegraves ofthe servants ofthe awlia buried here.


24Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Society "2. Thetombsof mudjahdin and suhada. Bothwords mean"martyrs."Thefirst denotes thosewhohave fallenin a holywar.InHebronweareshownthetombs of es-Suhada. Afterdecapitation,itis said,theheadsrolleddown shouting nMhadu, naShadu, naShadu ("'We witness, we witness, we witness"). InRamlehthetombsofel-Mudjahidinarearrangedin several rows,notfarfrom en-nabi ealel).. Some'largetombsaresaidto containtheremains of morethanone saint, asinal-Anbia(Nablus),The 4ari1J, is supposed to bebuiltovertheremainsoftheprophetsRaiyalnn,Yasdjarand Asar thesonsofJacob.Aninscription on silk hanging overthetombreads:"Thisisthetomboftheprophetsof God,theGlorious,thesonsofourmasterJ acob,andtheyare Raiyalfin, Yasadjarand Asar. OnbehalfofourProphet,these,andallotherprophetsmaytherebethemostefficaciousprayersandthemostcomplete peace."1In Abft wefindthatthetombof eS-Beb Isma'Ilel-Tnbawi, which lies bythenorthwall oftheshrine,hasastructureconnectingitwiththewall.Thisstructureissaidtobethetomb ofhisson as-seb Thefollowinglistillustratesthenumberofthetombsat somemaqiims, andtheirconnection withtheleadingwelihimself: '-T fth lA LtiGravesofGravesofWifeor808at .l. ... ame0ewe ocaIonthe welt brothers wivesnservnes-Hamad 2Kolonia 1 211es-Badr 2 Jerusalem1 1 es-cAnbar CEsawiyeh 1 1 es-Ismaci12 el-Qaryeh1 1 es-Icmar Bet Duqquh1 133 Zawiet ed-Darwisiyeh NAblus4 11 1 el-Qatrawani nearBir Zet 11el-Anbia 2 Nablus3el-Badriyeh 5Sarafat 1 11 es-cAbd ee-Salam cAnata 1 11The traditionthatZebulon,IssacharandAsherare buried inNablusmay go back totheSamaritans.2Already described.3 Es-seb L'maristhesonof ea-seg eale\t. Hisson Dahud hadoneSOD, Ma:r;rar, whose son's namewas Qasim. L'rnarandthe last three are buried inthissanctuary . 4 ThetwobrothersAhmadand Mrad el-Bustami areofequal importance. 5 The moreimportantgrave ofthetwoisthatof el-Badriyeh,


CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inPalestine25 tombsarebuiltof stone.Inmostcasesthewholeis simplyplasteredeverandwhitewashed.Eveniftheyaresituatedoutintheopen'air(cemetery, fields,etc.),andhave noprotectionatallfromthestorms,theyarenobettertreated.Othertombsareconstructedof good hewn stones, which is usuallythemarkofatombofrecentorigin.'Thetombs of el-Tlzer, el-Mufaddilandof el-Mansur!areverywell kept.Inthecaseofthefirst (Fig.2,Plate11)I could recognizethreelayers ofwellwroughtplaster(qsara).Thegeneralstructureofthesetombsandofthecenotaphsofmanyimportant 'tvell,s consists ofanuppergablesection superimposedupona lower oblong base. Fig.3ofPlate11showsatransversesection ofsucha cenotaph. TheorientationofthetombisingeneralfromE.toW.,i.e.theorthodoxorientationofallMohammedantombs in thispartoftheMohammedanworld.Thedeadarelaidontheirrightsideswiththeirheadstothewestandtheirfeet to .theeast,thusturningtheirfacestotheqibleh(direction of Mecca).Thereare a few exceptions to this rule. Es-seg GhanimofJericho,situatedinthewesterncemetery, isthebestcase ofsuchan exception since histombisbuiltfromN.toS.Thissaintisoftheholy family ed-Dawa'ri,WehavealreadyseenthatsomeofthemareburiedinSurbahirandothersin Satfat. Inthecaseof es-segZedCAnata) itis somewhat difficult todecidehowthetombis supposed tolie.ThewallrunsfromN.toS.andinthemidstofitthereisa butonlyone, and no signs ofanyenclosurerunningfromeasttowest, definingthedirection ofthe tomb, Itisgenerallysaidthatgraves showing this direction belong tothepre-Islamicprophets,butthisexplanation, althoughtrueof'some,doesnotholdinthetwo cases alluded to.Thegraves ot en-nabi eam\\'il, el-cl]zer, el-Mufaddil andel-Anbif;4runapproximatelynorthto south,thatofLot 5 (BeniN'em)hasa N.toS.direction.1Withregardtothe general construction of modern Mohammedan tombsI may refer to Boehmer's article, Autdenmuslimisclu'Il Friedhofen Jerusalems.ZDPV,1909-10. 2 PJ 86;Jaussen,Coutwme,p.99.3BothinCAwartah. 4 InNablus. :; Itis curiousthatwhilethe direction ofthe tomb isN.S.,thisprophetis reported tohaveturnedhisface,while praying, tothe south.


26JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyems.Breadth Height362385ems.235ems.264ems.564440468458 EI-(Uzer 'Awartahel-Mansnr!CAwartahel-Mufaddil'Awartahea-sultan Qalawani NablusInshapethecenotaphsareelongated withtop rounded', flat or withatriangularsection rising toa single edge.Thetomb ofelBadriyeh(Fig.1,PlateIll)hasa line fromendtoendofthetop,runningparalleltotheaxis,andthus dividingthecenotaph into twoparts.Itlooksasthoughtwo tombs were indicated,butpopulartraditionallowsonlyfor one. Atbothendswefind perpendicular stones, 1or sa hid,markingthehead(west)andthefeet(east).Veryoften onlythehead sometimes carved intheformofaturban,is found (es-segAbll Halaweh,Jerusalem);in others neitherheadnorfeetaremarkedatall (es-segSaddad and es-sebSalel;t). Femalesaints (el-Badriyeh,Rab'ahetc.)andgigantic tombs (el-Tlzerandel-Mufaddil)haveno sawahid. Inmany cases, where wedonot findany such stones, a careful investigation showsthatthecenotaphs oncehadthem,buthave lost them (es-seg cNeni in Surbahir). Wheremorethanonesaintis supposed tobeburiedinoneandthesame grave, wemayfind more,thanone sahid, asin el-Anbia (Nablus), wheretherearethree sawahid, one standing foreachofthethreesonsofJacob,whoaresupposed tobeburiedhere. According toJaussen these twoperpendicularstonesaresym bolie, representingthetwo angels whovisitthe' dead. 2 Icouldnotverify this statement.3Thetomb maybeas high as1-1.50meters,butsome are very low.Thetombs of es-se!} Badr,ofhiswife,andthatof Rtl)an arenotraisedatallabovethesurrounding floor. Those built outsidea maqam aregenerally elevated, whilethelower onesarealways inside of buildings.Thesizesof tombs differ enormously.Thegreaternumberareof normal size, though some have exceptionally large dimensions.ThefollowingarethelargestthatIhaveseen:Name of saint Location Length1 andHavadonotgivethisspecialmeaning,but"a stone set up". 2 Ihavebeenunabletofindsuchan explanation inthe Arabic books.3Coutumes,387.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaints and Sanctuaries inPalestine27NameofsaintLocationLengthBreadthHeightel-Anbia Nablus.410ems. er-Ra'i near.Jericho590225140ems. en-nabi Musa nearJerichoems. Djarral) Jerusalem195137185ems. Many cenotaphs haveinoneoftheirwallsa small niche (taqah), in whichoil lamps(sradj,pI.surdj),matchboxes (ilbitkabrit,tsaJi/:lateh) 1,ete.areplaced. These niches maybefoundinthenorthernsideof thetomb,asat Imbarak;sinthesouthern side, asat ed-Dawacri,2 ed-Djarahid.! es-seg Zed,sIsmacil,2 orinthewesternside,asinthecaseof es-seg Hamdallah6and es-seg 'Anbar.? Sometombs' possess morethanone,asinthecase ofthe siub ed Djarahid ontheMount ofOlives, wherethereare"threetombs in oneline.sTheoneinthecentrehastwo niches, a westernanda southern.Thelastniche is suppliedwithawoodendoor.Inone taqah Ifounda lampandtins ofoilandin others water, matches,andburnedincense.s Es-seb ez-Zughbeh (nearthetomb of el-Mansuri incAwal'tah)hassuch tdqat (pl,of taqah), a southern, a westernandan eastern one. While in tombs situated ina shrine, withsucha taqah theincense is generallyburntinoneofthe'wallniches.tvinalltombsfoundin thefieldsorina cemeteryandhaving no building,lightandincenseareplaced in thesecenotaphniches. Somehaveontopa circular, shallow ordeep cup-like cavity,in which water,butmore often flowersareplaced.Itis believed by somethatthesoulofthedead visitsthetomb onceaweek,onFridayandexpects tofindsomewaterto quenchitsthirst.ThesetReally the"k"ispronouncedin some dialects "ta". 2In Surbahir. 3 BetIksa.4 MountofOlives. 5 e Anata. The taqah ismadeinthiscasebyremovingastonefromthewallrunningfromnorthto south.6BiddU.7 tEsawiyeh. 8Kahlementionsonlytwotombs,buttherearethree;PJ 90.9The middleandthesoutherntombsareconnectedattheirhead-endswithasmallwall,Whosoeverliesbetweenthemwillbecuredfromhis disease. See also K ahle,PJVII,91.10Tn ea-sen:aamad theoillampswereplaced on the tomb.


JournalofthePalestineOriental Societycup-like holesaretobefound more frequently inthetombs ofcommon peoplethanin those of$ulla1J (pl,of $dleb, piousman).Fromwhat I couldgatherfrom different people these cupsareusedforoneofthefollowing purposes:11.Waterandflowersareplaced in them.Thepurpose ofthewateristokeeptheHowerslivingforalongtime. This istheexplanation givenbythebetterclass of people.2.Thewaterinthecupisforthebirds, to drink(ann ru1), eZ-maiyet,"forthe(benefit)ofthesoulofthedead."Theideabehind this explanation ,is thatthebirds willthankthesoulofthedeadfor this benevolent act,andwillincaseof necessity testify tothisgood action. Suchan.explanation isgivenby people ofthemiddle class.?3.Thewaterinthecup3servesto quenchthethirstofthesoul ofthedead. This idea Ihaveheardfrom peasants andBornesimple Mohammedans ofJerusalem.Flowers, water, etc.aregenerallybroughton Thursday afternoon,thedaywhenthecemeteriesareusually visited.Anothercustom,which points tothebelief mentioned under No.3,isthefactthatveryoftentherelations ofthedead readthe jatibah forhissoulin case hiswidowbecomes engaged toanotherman.Atthesame time aneggandasmalljarfullofwaterareburiedattheheadofthetomb.Thewater is supposed to quench histhirstandwethismouth,whilethe egg willburstasunder, in place ofthedeadman,whenthe behaviour ofhiswife becomes knowntohim." Uptonowonly complete tombs have been mentioned,butpartsof tombsarealsofound.Ashortdescription ofoneof them will suffice.InSnrbahir 5 justbehindtheguest-housethereisa rectangular depression intherockabout4x2metresin extent, withadepth of50-60cm.Two stepsleaddown.Inthemidst ofthewestern 1 Itis curiousthatKahlegivesonlyone explanation ofthesecups,PJVII,90.2Forthesamereason,asKahle thinks, about 450 kgofcornanda zir of water are placed onthefeast-dayofel-imam es-Saft'! ontheroofofhis maqam (Cairo).3Attimes there aretwosuchcups. Ev!n oncommon tombs onemayfindthem. 4 Thiscustomis dying out. Ihave heard both "Surbahir" and "Surbahil".


CANAAN:MohanunedanSaints and SanctuariesinPalestine29wallthereprotrudesa small, very simplebuildingresemblingonehalfofacommonMohammedantomb.Enquiringaboutthesignificance of thisIwastoldthat es-seh Isma'ilwasburiedina small cavein intherock,and this \,I buildingisintendedto cover hisfeet, whichprotrudedsincethecave wasnotlongenoughforthewhole body.Intheeastside ofthishalftombthereisa taqah which serveslightandincense.Veryoftentombsaredecorated. Ijinna,siruqun and nileh areused.Palmbranches,hands,linesanddotsarefrequentlymetwith. Siraqun producesabeautifulredcolour.Itis curiousthatallrepresentationsofpalmbranchesmadeonthegraves ofed-Dawa'ri(Surbahir)hadfiveorsevenbranches.Sometimes verses fromtheQoranorthe'namesofGodarewrittenwiththesecolours.Inthecaseofthethreetombsof syug. ed-Djarahid(Mountof Olives)Inoticed aredlinerunningacrossevery tomb, commencing withthelowerandmiddlepartofthenorthernsideand terminatingatthelowerandmiddlepartofthesouthernside.Inmanycasesaninscriptionmaybe foundconnectedwiththetomb.Theinscribedstone isonthesides oronthetopofthecenotaph.Lastlyitshould benoted,thatagreatnumberofthetombssituatedinside a 1naqa.m arecoveredwith oneormore smrat 1(pl,of starah, cover).Generallyitisagreenishcloth, often with aborderorembroideryinothercolours.Sometimesthecoversaredecoratedwith verses from theQoran.Onthe ras2yeh (headstone) aturbanandsometimes a masbalJah (rosary)areplaced.Thislastmay,asinthecase ofBeiram (Jerusalem),beplacedaroundthewhole tomb.Inmanycasesthe starah itselfisnotputdirectlyonthetomb,butona wooden cage, which ismadeintheform ofthetombandenclosesthegrave.Suchareespeciallyused where thetombsarevery low,asinal-BadriyehandthealreadymentionedBeiram Inmanycases aninscriptionlaidonthesuiroh;andembroideredon a piece of velveteen, informs usofthenameornamesofthoseinterredinthe grave, asonthetombsofIrdjalel-cAmud,el-Anbia, es-seg Ahmadel-Bistamiandea-sultanBadrel-Ghafir(allinNablus).Sometimesthetombisencircledwithanironframe (es-seg Salmanel.Farsi).1Alsositrat,pl,ofsitreh.This expression isnotused much for these covers.


30JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyAlltombs sofardescribedhavebeentombs" built of masonry.Butthereareothersmadeofan elongatedheapof stones, surrounded by a stone enclosure.'Suchgraves very much resemblethepresentsimple tombs ofthepeasants.Wemeet with especially amongtheBedouins (es-seg Zughbeh.tJericho).Insomecasesthereisno surrounding enclosure,andthispoints tothemost primitive type of tomb cult.Theonly example of thiskindwhichIhaveseenisthatof es-seg Hues3of Biddu, No fdqah is connected with it.-4 Inotherswedonotfindaheapof stones,butonlya perpendicular stoneattheheadandanotheratthefoottomarktheposition ofthegrave (qabr) ,asin eabbftl) atJericho.This supposed tomb is surrounded bya 1J,uwetah (enclcsure).!c) Trees Treesconstitute averyimportantelement of most shrines. This isnotanew custom, for many ofthe"highplaces" oftheOldTestamentwere associated with"greentrees". Ihavenodoubtthatwithfew exceptions every Mohammedansanctuaryis,orwasonce, characterisedbyoneor motf3 trees. Welts ofrecentorigin, however,aregenerally treeless, like es-segAbftIJalawi. Alargenumberof these trees werecutdownduringthewar,while many havediedofoldageorbeenuprootedby storms (el-Butmeh in BeteafaJa). Thesearedoubtlessthemaincauses whysomanyshrinesareatpresenttreeless..I have very oftenheardthefollowingstatement:"The weli hasnotreeatpresent,butIrememberverywellthatduring my childhoodtherestood alargetreethere."Inmanycases,wheretheoldtreewascutdown,theinhabitantsofthevillage,towhomthatparticularsaint belongs, haveplantedanewoneofthesamespecies,aswasdone, for example, in es-seg cAnbar.Thehugefigtreewhichoncegrewthere was cutdownandburnedbythesoldiers, whosecampwasintheneighbourhood.Thepeople of cEsawiyeh haveplantedanothertDoutte,MagieetReligion,p.432.2NotZu'beh,asgivenbyKahle, PJ, 1911,p.88.3In1922the inhabitants ofthevillagehadheapedstones together tobuild thetomb. t Kahledescribes another exampleofthiscategory,namely ea-sen Darir'el.Qadri(PJ, 1911,p.87). sInthe vicinity there is azaqgQm tree(akindofmyrobalm).


CANAAN:Mohalnmedan SaintsandBanctuariesin Palestine31initsplace.Attimesitso happensthatatsome distance fromthe, weli atreegrowsup,anda statement bysomeonefromthe adjacent village,thatitwas revealed tohimin a dreamthatthis tree belongs tothesameweli,issufficientto protect thetreecompletely.A mes tree(celtis australis L.)growingquite near es-seg 'Abdallah (SaCfat), andafig tree growingabove the caveof es-seg. cAbdes-Salam CAnata,) are .regardedatpresent as belonging tothesaints. According tomydatafromallthe shrines whereIwasableto obtaindefinite information 'RS 'tothe presence or absence of trees, theywerefoundin60%ofthecases.Froman analysis of the differentspeciesof trees growing\ near, these places wefindthatsanctity isnot attributed toonemorethantoothers.'I'hisfact indicatesthatitisnotthetreeitself whichmakes the placeholybutthatthetreederivesits sanctity fromthe weli towhomitis dedicated.Insomecasesitwould appearthatthereis proof tothecontrary,butseebelow.Thefollowinganalysismaynotbewithoutinterest. Outof128caseswhere trees werefoundnearsanctuaries, in30casesthe trees wereoaks (ballut 1),in25figs (tin 2),in21carobs (7:Jarrub 3),in16olives4 (zetun 5),in14Mulberries (tut 6),in12lote trees(sidr7)andin10 terebinths (butu1n 8).Othertrees occasionally found are:1 Quercus cocciferaL.Inthis connection Iwishto express my thanks to Mr. Dinsmore forhis kindness in giving the exact botanical names.2 FicU8 caricaL.3CeratoniasiliquaL. 4 OleaeuropeaL. 5 Afewwords about the role played bytheolive tree inthe Palestinian folkloremaybeof interest. Theolive tree iscalledinthe different commentaries ontheQoran. el'adjarah el-mubtirakeh,theblessedtree.Itcomesfrom Paradise, andisthemostnobleamongallthe plants (Fabrer-Razi VI, 264; VIII,458).Acommon proverb comparestheolive tree with the bedouin (whocanlive anywhere inthedesert and requires very little forhisliving)andthefigtree withthe fellafJ (who has more necessities) andthevine with a sirMyeh (who requires agreatdealof attention). Christians belivethatolive trees kneeldown inthe night ofthefeastofHolyCross. .6Moru nigraL.7ZizyphusSpinaChristiL.8Pistaciapalestina


32JournalofthePalestineOriental SocietyEXPLANATION OF THEFIGURESINPLATEIFig.1.Afrieze representing two serpents.Fig.2.Thenumber810170 inscribed overtheentrance tothesanctuaryof en-nabiLut,Fig.3.Afrieze (ea-sultanIbrahimel-Adhami, Sa(fat). Fig.4.Dotsof hinna, ornileh.Fig.5.Dotsofthefivefingers.Fig.6.Decorations seenintheshrine of es-seg Hamedin ed-Djib. Icouldnotelicittheirmeaning. Fig.7.Representations oftwo serpents.Fig.8. Representations of different sorts of palm twigs,somehave5, others 7leaves,while most ofthemhavemore.


34JoumalofthePalestineOrientalSocietysnobarPinus pineaL. stone pine,sari; CupressussernpervirensL.cypress, qres Pinus haleppensisMill. Aleppo pine, na7.Jl PhoenixdactyliferaL.palm tree, mallul QuercusaegilopsL.Greekoak,sabrOpuntiaficusindicaL,Mill, prickly-pear,dalyehVifisviniferavine, rumman PunicagranatumL. pomegranate, mes CeltisaustralisL. hackberry, nettle tree, djummez FicussycomorusL.sycomore, gMr Laurusnobilislaurel.Treeswhichnaturallypredominate ontheplains-such asmulberries,palmsandsycomores-arenaturally morecommonin connection with shrines foundintheplains. Insome cases a solitarytreeserves to beautifytheshrine, inothersa small oralargegroveis assigned totheholy pe'son.Itismyopinionthatintheneighbourhood ofmanyof these holy treesthereusedtobewoods,fromwhichoneor moretreesnowsurvive, testifying totheformer "forest glory" of Palestine. Es-seh el-Qatrawant,Irdjal AbllTftb,lA1}.mad,2Abfi Lemun,3 etc. illustratethisview.Itisnotnecessarythata group of trees assigned toa well, should beallofthesamespecies.Thefollowingshowsthatdifferenttreesmaybe connected withthesame weli:AbtiLemtinBetIksa terebinthandoaktrees;el-Mansnr! 'Awartahmulberryandvinetrees;el-Tlzer'Awartahterebinths, a palmanda sadjarat el-Arb'rnQubebehfigs,oakandterebinths; el(Uzer CEzariyeh pomegranate, cypressandalemon;Salmanel-Fars!MountofOlivesAleppopine, cypress, oliveandpomegranate; AbtlTtig.BetLikia olive, oak,terebinth,carobandseveralothersorts.Thetreesaregenerally inclose proximity withthe sanctuaries.Invery exceptional casesthebuilding enclosesthetree, orrathert BetLikia.ttIirbet Qariet Sf ideh. sBetIks8..


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine35partofthe trunk.Butitisnot infrequent forthetreetobefoundatsome distance fromtheweli.Incaseswheretheholymanhas severaltrees dedicated tohim,onemaygrownearthe maqam, while othersareat_considerable distance fromit.Thebest example of thisis al-Badriyeh, whohasinhersanctuary anoak,twoolivetreesandalemon tree, another large oaktreetotheeastofthe maqam, athirdoakinthevalley,oneonthewayto el-Mal!)a andafifth whichstoodonce east of er-Ram. Thislastwascutdown duringthewar.Ea-sultanIbrahimel-Adhami (Bet hasa mulberry andatsome distance twooaksanda meseh. Thelastdied recently andwascutdown.'Holy trees, not connected withany qubbeh ortombwillbe described later.Allholy trees, whether they beneartoorfarfrom the shrinearereveredandrespected; even thosethatarenot connectedatallwithany shrine enjoythesame reverence.Ifthe holy tree is a mulberry, fig,vine, cactus, etc.itisregardedasasabil,2i.e.everybodywho passesthatwayis permitted toeatasmuchashechooses,butnothing must be carried away.Onewho breaks this rule is said tobeseverely punished bythe saint ofthatparticulartree.Nearlyallwhoavail themselvesofthis privilege will recitethe fati/:tah before plucking thefruit.Inother casestheqayimor (the responsible servant ofthe shrine) reserves for himself onlytherighttogatherthe fruit ofsuch trees, aswellasthoseofthewag!gardens belongingtothe shrine, asinthecaseof sittna'el-JjaQ-ra in Nablus.Inthecaseof el-Mansuri (CAwartah)thelargevineisrentedtosomeinhabitantofthevillage,whohasthesolerightto cutthegrapes.Theincomefromthe fruits isusedtorepairthe 'inaqam. Howseverelythesaint will anyone who steals fromhis property isshowninthefollowing storyaboutelA gendarme happened to pass throughCAwartah.Herestedunderthemulberrytreebesidethesanctuary. Seeingthebeautiful1Other examplesare ei-aeb J;[amad (Kolonia) witha mulberry inthe sanctuary andanoakata distancej ea-seg. CAbdallah(el-Qubebeh) alsohasa mulberry and,ODthehill oppositeODthesouth,acarob (el-!J.arrubeh ed-djdideh), 2SabU isusedalsofora water reservoir, aswillbe explained elsewhere.3


36Journalof the PalestineOriental Societygrapesinthe maqam, hecutafewbunches,despitethe repeated warningsofthepeopleofthevillage.Beforelongthegendarme begantovomitbloodincessantly.Nothinghelpedorrelievedhim untilhe bought asheepandoffereditto thusappeasing his wrath andatoningforhisfault. Another well-observedruleisthatnoonedarestocutanybranch, howeversmallitmaybe,fromanyofthesetrees. Furthermore, the saint willnotallowanyoneto gather andtakeawaythebrokenor witheredbranches.Theymayonlyheusedforcookingsuchmeals asareofferedinfulfilmentofavow,ormeals prepared infestivals ofthatparticular well. Brek (pronouncedbysome Brets) southof Yalo hadmany trees whichwerecutdownbysomeofthe inhabitants ofthatvillageandconvertedintocharcoal. According tolocalbeliefherevengedthisinfamousactbyslayingeveryoneofthe trespassers. Thepeoplealwaysbelievethatlocustscannot injure thehulytrees.MostofthoseIasked about thissubject assured methatwhileall other treesofthevillageintheyear1916werecompletely eaten upbythisfrightful curse, theholytrees remained untouched.Thiscanbe taken asanexcellent illustration ofthe childlike beliefofthe peasants, foronlysuchtreeswhich werein general not attacked elsewherebythelocusts,werespared inthecaseofthe welis. One additional pointshouldbementionedinconnectionwith trees.The sacredness ofthetreesandtherespectshowntoeveryweliisthe reason why peasants oftheneighbouringfieldsdeposit their grain andwood,their ploughsandother agricultural implements, andthelike, under these trees foronenightorlonger,feelingsurethatthe will protect them.Morewillbesaidlateraboutthis subject.Nottobeconfusedwithholytreeswhichareassociatedwith saints,arethosewhichare inhabited bydemons.Itisverydifficult togiveanydefiniterulebymeansofwhicha stranger candifferen tiate betweentheoneandtheother.Thefollowingpoints appear tobe characteristic: 1.Ihavenever heardthata tree supposedtobe inhabited by demonswashungwithpiecesofcloth.EverypersonwhomIasked about thisansweredintheabovesense;andsoIcannotverifythe


CANAAN: Mohammeda.n Sa.intsandSanctuariesinPalestine37statement ofMills, quoted by Goldziher1inhisMohatn'lnedanischeStudien.2. Whileanytreecanbe sanctified by a weli, thedjinnseem onlytoinhabitcertainkinds of trees, especiallythe Several stories illustrating this belief maybefoundinmyA.berglaube.2ThisiswhyanArabicproverb says, "Sleeping belowa carobtreeisnotrecommended,"3sinceitisthoughtthatthesetreesarenotonly preferred bythedemons asahome,butthattheyassembleherefromtimetotime, Therefore a simple fella1J, willnotbind his donkey toacarobtreewithout askingthedjinnfirst for permission.Superstition tells usthatthistreewasthe. cause oftheruinof king Solomon's kingdom.Themisfortunesattachedtoitmayarisefrom theideathatthe !Jarrftb4 belongs tothemisfortune-bringingplanetSaturn.sBlackfig-treesarealsothoughttobepreferredbythedemons.6Whenatreeis inhabited bya.demon itcannotbelongatthesame time toa weli. This is different with springs, where agoodandabadspirit maydwellinoneandthesamewatercourse. 1 Thestory ofthe treeandtheruinofkingSolomon's kingdom runs asfollows:Onedayinthetemple courts king Solo mon noticed ayoungplantunknown tohim.Heaskedthisplantforitname. ".IJ:arrftb" wastheanswer. "Of what useartthou?"continuedtheking."To destroy thyworks,"repliedtheplant.ThekingthenaskedGodthathisdeathwhenever it should occur, might be hidden fromthedemons till all mankind should be aware111,,3 en-n8mtapteZ-fJarrUbghermamd'u[l,.4 EJ-Madjriti, gltaiatu-l-(i,akim.& Theword lJarrab (carob)comesfromthesame root as fJarraba,"to. ruin,"andsoitisaverybadomento dream about thistree;cf.'Abdel-Ghani en Nabulsi, el-anamfitabirel-manilm andZDMG. 6 Thefollowing story may illustrate this point.M.I.from Artas wentwithhiswifeS.,daughterof M. Z.,tothe vineyards. He approachedherunder a figtreeand forgot tosay:"bismi-llab er-ra{l.maner-ra{," to driveawaythedjinnwhoJiveinsuchatree.Soon afterwards hiswifewasattackedwith epilepsywhich,asweknow,is' thought tobecaused byadjinn.Inthiscasehewastoldbya sea, towhomhewentforadvice,thatthe inhabiting demonwasa {eyr {aiyiir,"a flyingbird,"whichcouldnotbe caught.7,TPOB,I,pp.158-170,and Aberglaube.


38Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Societyofit. Having prayed thus,Solomondugupthecarobandplanteditinhis garden where,. to prevent asfaraspossibleany harm comingfromit,he watched itclosely until ithadgrownintoastrongsapling.Hethencutitdownandmadeitintoawalking stick. Now,many years before, Balqis, QueenofSheba,hadcometo provethekingwithhardquestions, oneofwhichwashowtopass asilkthreadthrough a bead, withascrew-like perforation.Heasked all animals, birds, reptiles, insectsandwormsforhelp. Onlyasmallwhiteworm undertook thetask,whichit performedbytakingtheendofthethreadinitsmouth,then crawled inatoneend,andoutofthe'other.Solomon granted its requestthatitmight lodgeinanyplantitchose,andfeed thereon. Unknown tohimithadfoundahome underthebarkofthe [}arrfib tree, whichhadbecomehisstaff,andhadpenetratedtothevery centre ofthetrunk.Thetime arrived forthekingtodie,andhe happened tobe sitting asusual, leaning onhis stick, whenthe angel ofdeathcameandtookawayhissoul;unknowntothe demons who continuedtheirwork according totheking's instruc tionsforfullforty years.Atlast, however,thewormhollowedthewholestaff,which suddenly broke andthebodyoftheking rolled totheground; and thustheevil spirits knewthattheirtyrantwasdead.1d)WaterCoursesAnotherfeature ofmostoftheholy places isthe presence of water. This is either rain-water stored in cisterns (bir, pI. biar) or hrabat (pI.ofhrdbeh,a cistern-like hole,whichisnot plastered), or livingwaterofwellsand baiyarat (pl,ofbaiyarah,whichareespecially foundintheplain),andlastly running water fromspringsandbrooks.Of course notall shrines have waternearthem,butit istobefoundinthegreaternumber. Such a spring or cistern is moreorless sacred totheholymannearwhoseshrineitis,and fromhimitmay derive supernatural power,whichifknownismade1The story isfoundinDairatu-l-mac arif VII; a partofitis mentioned inal-uns ed-djalil etc.I,121; Hanauer,Folklore ot'theHolyLandpp. 50.Thetextistakenmostly fromthe last source.


CAN AAN; MohammedanSaintsandBanctuarieainPalestine39 useofbythe fellahin. ThissubjectwillbedealtwithlateringreaterdetailInmany casesthecisternorthewellisinaruinedcondition and thus doesnothold water.1 At shrinessituatedonornearthetopsof high mountains, cisternsaremoreusual; inthewestern plains wells, cisterns, baiyarat and hrabat aregenerally found; whileinthehill country, wheretheholy placesaresituatedonthesloping side ofthemountain, springsaremorecommon.Inafew cases a sabil isattachedtothesanctuary.Sabilmeansinthiscase a reservoir,builtbythepublicroadandfilledatregularperiods with water, sothateverythirstypasserbybenefits by it.Acupis always left intheseplaces.Among wells withsabilsmaybe mentioned: al-imam(Alland es-se!} Djarral}.. Thelatteris surrounded byazawiyeh(asortofa convent).Outsidethe maqama new mosque was built, ontheinner wallsof whichhang tbul (pl, of tabl, drum), $nftdj (pl,of brasscastanets),spears pI. b,arbat 2),long sharp spits or siab (pl.of silt) and lims (pl,of s pits ofanothersort.3Thewordmisqayis used insome places forsabil.Some shrines, like sayidnaSa'd and Hamdallah,have oneor more bigearthernwarejars (zir, pI. ziar) ,whicharekeptfullof water.Thepious pilgrimandthepasserbyfindwaterfortheirritualpurificationandrefreshment.The weli Hamdallah 4 issituatedintheimmediate neighbour hoodofthewesterncemeteryofBiddu,Itis composed ofa quadrangularenclosure,builtof stoneandmortar.Thedoorisinthenorthern side.Aroundthetombanoak-treeanda rose-bush grow,andanotherrose-shrub istobe seen outsidetheenclosure. A similarjartothatmentioned above wasplacedintheoutersouth-west corner,butwasbrokenwhenI visitedtheshrinein1922. A indicatedonthesouthernwall,marksthedirectionforprayers.Someragswere fastened onthetree. Tothenorthofthisshrinethereisalargewaterbasin, hewnintherock.1Asisthecasein AbaLemun,el-Qatrawanl, es-Sidri,etc.2The correct plural is [litab. 3Theuseoftheseweaponsandmusicalinstrumentswillbe describedelsewhere. l\lcCown,1.c., mentiones onlythename,nothaving seentheactual place.


40JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyEXPLANATIONOFTHEFIGURESINPLATEIIFig.1.Aroughsketchof es-seh Hamadin Koldnia. A =Outer Court.B= Maqam .C=SchoolRoom D= Rawaq E=Roomfortheteachera=Cisternb=Amulberry tree c= Mi1}.rab d Thetomboftheservantv,partlyinside the shrine and partly inthe court e=Thetombsofthe seh, histwowivesandthatofhisson.Fig.2.Aroughsketchofthesanctuaryofel-'Uzer CAwartah). A=Elevated placeB==The huge tombC=Aroom with a Samaritan inscription onthe western wall.Belowthe inscription there are three niches a,b,c=Three rooms, inb there isaninscription (Samaritan), incfoodiscookedbythe visitors 1,2=Twobutumtrees a =Several carob trees 4=Apalm tree 5=A quadrangular opening leading toacave.Fig.3.Atransversesection ofthetombofel-rUzer.Theothertombs of'Awartahhavethesameform.Fig.4.Aperpendicularsection ofa complicatedqubbeh..Sectionrunningthroughtwo opposite corners.Fig.5.'Decorationsaroundthemihrabofthesanctuaryof es-sebYasin (Der Yasin).


CANAAN: Mohammedan and Sanctuaries in Palestine41 flatl! 1f hj./-'/()t,l,,..;; a r /("tel,).


42 JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietySometimestherunningwaterandthetreearetheonly indications ofthesacredness oftheplace,andatothertimes wefindonlywatercourses, which althoughnotconnected withany shrine, grave orholytreeareconsidered tobesacredandareassigned tosome holy person.Inonecase, el-Matba'ah,thereisaswamp connected with a weli. Thismarshhasa widespread reputation for relievingrheumaticpainsandisatthesame time supposed to cure sterility.650/0ofall sanctuariesrecordedin this connection possessed a source ofwater(flowingor standing) intheneighbourhood.e)CavesThelastfeature tobenotedisthepresence ofacaveinorabouttheshrine.Wemustconsiderthreequite different kinds ofcaves:I.Sacredcaves connected witha sanctuary,eithertomb ormaqdm.2.Sacredcaves,whichhaveno connection withany shrine.3.Simple caves, having noapparentconnection withthesacredness ofa shrine, thoughsituatednearone.Itisinterestingto note how many holy placesaredirectly or indirectly connected withoneorotherkind ofcave.Sacredcaves sometimes lie insidethe maqam itselfandappearratherlikea shallowcisternwithawide opening.tInsuch cases we seldom finda tomb intheshrine,andthepeople believethatthetombis insidethecaveitself.2Of course noonehaseverdaredto descendintothecavetolookforthegrave.Themouth ofsucha caveis generally closed.Thefollowing story .illustrates this belief.Theqaiymof es-seg Mohammad, whose shrine liesin wadi ed-Damm, tothesouth of ed-Djorah, once ventured todecendintothecave(el-ghar)ofthe shrine.Therehesawthe 'lveli witha.bloody sword inhis hand.Thissword was thal oftheMohammedan -leaderwhofell here while leadingthetroops whofinally conquered Askalon. Assoon asthe.qaiymclimbedouthefellsick,anddiedinafewdays.Moreoftenthecavesareoutsidethebuilding, eithernearbyor some distance away. Occasionally peoplerelatethattheholyman1Asisthecase,for example, inthe sanctuary ofen-nebiLu](Bani NCem )2 S. Kahle,PJ,1911.p.92.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine43hasbeenseenleavinghisshrineandwalkingto.thecave,whence, after staying some time,he returns tohis maqam. Caves connected withholypersonsarealways respected. Somehaveneverbeen entered;othersare approached only during thedaytime,as theirioahrali(conditionof inspiring awe)isverystrong.Inmanycases oillampsarelightedandincenseis burnt inthecaveitself.No animalsareallowedto enter suchacave,foritisbelievedthatthe spiritoftheholymanwillsooneror later inflictsevere punishment uponsuchananimal.Many peasants saythattheyhaveseenin suchacaveagreenishlight,whichis extinguished assoonasa humanbeingapproachestheplace.Inmost respects theabove description alsoappliesto sacred cavesnotconnectedwithanyshrine.Fullerdetails regarding this typeofholyplaceswillbegiven later. Amongsuchcaveswemay mention:Oneontheleftsideofthe carriage-road leadingfromJerusalem to Kolonia, justoppositethelasthouseof Lifta, whichissituated onthe right sideoftheroad.1Acaveinthe garden of the Leper Hospital in Jerusalem.2Inadditiontothesetwogroupsofcaves there aremany instan ceswherecavesarenotfar distant from sanctuaries buthaveno directconnectionwiththem.Oftentheylieinaruin. Shepherds maykeep their flocksthereduringthenight. Instances arethe cavesfoundaroundtheshrinesof 'Abdes-Salam, es-seg es Sidriand es-seg 'Anbar, Thecavesofthefirstareintheruinsof birbetcAlmit,thoseofthesecondin girbet Deres-Sidd,andthose ofthe third in birbet Ibqu'ed-Dan,Thecavesbelowtheshrineof es-sittel-Badriyeh (Sarafat) areusedfor storing straw(tibn).Thesecavesareoftwotypeseither natural orhewninthe rock.Mostofthelatterare ancient rocktombs,the entrances to whichhavebeenenlarged.Itissometimesobservedthatold,damaged and partly buriedvaultsarecountedascaves.ThisIhaveespeci allynoticedinCAwartah. The three cavesbelongingtothisclassaretomymindthe crudest typeof sanctuaries. Theywere ruined, dark, dirty and unattended. Es-seg Srur is situated insidethevillageandismade1The terrain where this caveisfoundisknownbythename el-:aomeh. 2The story ofthiscaveisgivenon another page.


44JournalofthePalestine OrientalSocietyofalow, dirty,.darkandhalfruined roomwhichwasatthetime ofmyvisitfulloflime. EI-fAdjami isaverylow,narrowanddirtyopening inthehabitationofapeasant.The maqam was filled with firewood.Asecond CAdjami hasas shrine a roomlike cave,situatedbelowa buildingandvaulted over. Although thesesanctuariesareofso crude atype,theyarehonouredandrespectedbythepeasants. Oil-lampsarelighted in them, oathsandvowsaremadeintheirname.Amongsanctuaries having asacredcaveintheirvicinityare: EIcUzer near"Awartah, inthemosque ofOmar(Jerusalem), es-seg Al)mad el-Hwes inBiddu,and es-eg es-Sidrinear CAnata. Thefirst twowillbe described more fullylater.Thetomb of Al}.mad el-Hwes t liesinthecommon cemetery, whilethecave,whichis more highly honoured, liesattheveryedgeofthevillage.Itisanancienttomb hewnintherock which, becomespartlyfilledwithwaterduringthewinter time.Allvowsandlightsareofferedto thissaintin this place.Hehasbeen also seento walk outofthecave.Thees-Sidri has been already described.Sacredcaveswhicharenotconnectedat all withatombora masonry maqam willbe discussed below. Among caveswhich, although foundintheneighbourhood ofholy places, haveno connection withthesacrednessofthe maqam are:2 Yusifbetween el-BirehandSurdah, es-seg'Ammar inDerDuwan, AbO.Y1isif northofKafrNi'meh," es-seg (Abdes-Salam in fAnata. Theshrine of es-seg rAbdes-Salam "lies eastofC Anata inthe vicinity oftheruin.Ithasoneroom enclosingthetomb,which is covered with a green cloth.Theheadstone is dressed witha greenishlaifeh(theheaddress ofthepeasant).Ifoundintheshrineastrawmat,manyoil-lamps, oil-bottles whichwere mostly1McCown,Opecii.p.50,seemsto know nothingabout thetombofthisweli.Hedescribes onlythecave. 2 Thesecavesneednotbealwaysclosetothe u'eli. 3Reported tothewriterby Omar Effendi el-Barghfiji.


CANAAN: MohanlllledanSaintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine 45empty, straw brooms,anearthernoil-jar andacopyoftheQoran. Outsideofthisroom thereareseveral caves, small and large, which donot sharethesacredness ofthe weli. Tothenortheastwesee thetombofhisson, Sliman.A fig-tree growsintherock adjacent totheshrine.Itis related bysomethatthefather plantedit;according to others,Godmadeitgrowintherock to provethe authenticity oftheweli.Wehave hitherto dealt onlywiththosecaveswhosenatureas suchis apparent. Very oftenpeople tell usthatbeneath orbeside a wel?' there isa hidden cave, inside ofwhichthetomboftheholy person is situated. This feature ismetwithin es-seg Al)mad -el Karaki (in Qastal), sittna el-Hadra(inNabIus), es-seg el Qatrawani (betweenBir Zet and CAtarah) en-nabi Samwil (Mizpah ofSamuel), (in Qubebeh), etc. Sittnael-IjaeJra illustrates this class. Threedoors,themiddle onebeingthemainone, lead toan elongated roomwhichisspreadwith carpets. Thewalls, especiallythesouthern one,aredecoratedwith'rough paintings, Qoranic verses,andhung with musical in strumentsandweaponsofthedervishes.The mibrab is beautifully decorated. Adoorinthewestern wall leads toasmallanddarkroom,whichisknownbythenamehuzn -Ia'qub("Jacob'ssorrow"), sinceitisbelievedthatJacobwept here forthe supposeddeathofhisbelovedsonJoseph.The relatesthatthis roomis built onacavewhichwasonceopened.Fiftytwo steps usedto lead downtoit. This caveis thought tobetheactualplace whereJacob spent hisdaysof mourning.1Thesanctuary is surroundedbybeautiful gardens.Itis a mistake toconfusethecaves described abovewiththose inhabited bydjinn,whoappearin different shapes, mostly duringthenight, andalwaystryto injure the passerby. Such cavesare MgharitAbll Far];and Mgharit Mardj el-Badd (both in Abft Dis).Inthe first onethedjinnappearsometimes intheformof animals and sometimes inthe shape of human beings.Atthesecondmen tioned cavethedemonsassumetheappearance ofacock. Places andcaves regarded asholyby ChristiansandJews'may,atthesametime,be consideredbythe Mohammedans tobethe1.Thereisnotombin thiscave.


46JournalofthePalestineOriental Societyabidingplaceofdjinn.Althoughthisisrare,thefollowing episodeillustratesthepoint.Sliman apeasantof MaJ!:ta, wasreturningone evening fromJerusalem.Ashewasovertakenbyheavyrain,hesoughtshelterina cave which liesnearBirel-Balat,andnotfarfromtheconventoftheHolyCross.Themonks ofthisconventaresaidtohaveburiedtheirdead.herein former years.Nosoonerhadhesatdownona stonethana he-goat came close tohim.Thepeasant,joyfulatthisunexpectedgift,struckamatchbutcould see nothing. .A.t\s soon asthelightofthematchwentout, hesawthegoatagain.Frightenedbytherepeatedappearanceanddisappearanceofthisanimal, herushedoutofthecavewiththewords "inthenameoftheGracious, Merciful God."Thisfreedhimfromthedemon, which was following himintheshapeofthehe-goat.3.TYPESOFSANCTUARIESWehavenowconsideredallthecharacteristicelements of thesesanctuaries-withtheexceptionofstonecircles,stoneheapsandrocks, whichmayalso be found.Wenowproceedtodealwiththevariouscombinedfeatureswhichmaymakeupa weli. Attentionmustfirst bedrawntoaconstantfactoraffectingtheimportanceofthedifferentfeaturesofa shrine.Thetwomostimportantpartsof asanctuaryarewithoutdoubtthe maqam andthetomb;treesandwater-coursesranksecond,otherfeaturesbeinggenerallyofminorsignificance. I hope, however, inthefollowingpagestomakeitclearthateven totheseunimportantfeaturesis sometimesgranteda highdegreeofsanctity,Noplacecanbeconsideredholy,i.e.inhabitedbya holyperson,unless two conditionsarefulfilled:(1.)Theperformancethereof religiousacts,suchas oaths, vows, lighting lamps,burningincense,etc.;(2.)theoccurrencethereofunnaturalphenomena, as,for example,hearingreligious music, seeing alightlitbyitself,ora severepunishmentbefalling atrespasser.Thesepoints willbeconsideredinasubsequentchapter.Letusnowstudythedifferentfeatureswhichmayconstituteashrineinthewide sense oftheword.Theymaybe dividedintonineclasses:I.Sanctuariesconsisting ofa maqam andatomb, withallormostoftheotherfeatures;11.A maqam butnotomb;


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine47Ill.Atombwithouta 1naqam; IV.Acavewithorwithoutatomb; V.Asimple circular enclosureofstone,withoutatomb; VI.A spring orawell;VII.A solitarytreeoragroupof trees;VIII.Aheapofstones;IX.Asimple large stoneorarock. ItoVImay,ormaynotbecombinedwithoneormoreofthe followingfeatures:atree,water, a ruinoracave. I. Sanctuaries witha shrine(maqiim}andatomb. Thesearethemostcompleteandhighlydevelopedforms.Usually wefindthemwheneverwe.havetodowithan important, well established andhighly honoured saint.Insuchcases the tombof theholy person wasthe primarypartofthe shrine,andinthe courseoftimean individual orvillagebuiltthe sanctuary. The more important theholyman,the greater thecomplexityofthebuilding. Prophets (anbia) enjoythe largest maqams. Butevenmanyofthe simple have shrines fallingwithinthis group, as,forexample, et-Tori, es-seg 'Anbar,etc.Someofthemare elaborate structures, as eA-seg Tmar (Bet Duqqu), Hamad(Kolonia) andIrdjalel-cAmftd (Nablus),Goodexamplesof large and complicated buildingsarethoseofen-nabi Musa andAliibn C(E)lem.t The shrineof es-seg I'mar2thesonof SaleQ is situated onthe mountain onwhich Bet Duqqu isbuilt.The sanctuary consistsof three rooms,a cistern andanopen place tothe north oftherooms.Theopen place is surroundedbyamassivewall andhasa palm-tree onits east side. The twowesternrooms communicatewitheach other.Inthe southern one therearethe tombs3ofthe welt andhiswife,whilein the northern one.hisson es-seg Dahud isburied.Oneachsideofthedoorwhichleads fromthisroomtotheopen place wesee a tomb,the eastern one ofwhichcoversthe remains of es-seg Qasim,thesonofcAlithe sonof Marar, whilethe western onebelongstothis Marar the1NorthofJafta.2Corruption of'Omar,3Thetombswere decorated with and maghri.


48JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyEXPLANATIONOFTHEFIGURESINPLA.TEIIIFig.1.Planofel-Badriyeh.A=Outer CourtB==InnerCourt C==Back CourtD=SmallGardenE=CemeteryF=Sanctuary G= Ruaq, serving asadjami'Fig.2.PlanofLrdjalelCAmfLd. a=doorto outer courtb==door"toinner courtc=entrance tothemaqamd=cistern e=tombof el-Badriyehf=' tombsofherchildreng==tombofherhusbandh= nichei== two olivetrees k==anoaktree1==entrance toacave.j a =entrance tocourtb==cisternc==private tombs(thoseoftheservantsand relatives oftheSaints)d==qubbeh e== a djamiC with a f==under the windowisthe opening toacave,where4Qmartyrs aresaidtobe buried.Itiscalled ghar seydna 'AliibnAbi Talib g==thetombsofthe siuy. Onthe sQsiyeh ofthemain entrance(a)fragment ofa-pillaris built .Fig.3.Apartofthewallof. the enclosure of in 'Awartah.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesin Palestine49 1/).-I. '?Itt 1 e. EL / t'--.J-hi")UJr&Pill.(.t/(eM)h'!.n"I. d-a/vIA/!(?d//, .J",'I! .' ,II!,!,4


50Journalof the PalestineOriental Societysonof Dahfld. The eastern roomusedtoserveasamakiob(schoolroom),butits ruinedstateatpresent makesituseless.Inthe'twowestern rooms there wereoil-lamps, oil-bottles, two longwooden sticks for banners, apotwithsweet-basiltanda heap of carob fruits. 2 Thelastistheweli'sportion ofthecarobtree, which belongs tohimandgrowsatsome distance fromthe maqam. Since every point in connection withmaqiimof.thisgrouphas : already been described, wemaypassontothe next class.11. Maqams without atomb Theyaresanctuaries built inavillageand bearing thenameof a djami'3 (amosque),likedjami'el-Arbin (Esawiyeh), djami' 'Omar ibn el-lJattab4 (Surbahir 5), djami' el-Tlaer 4 (el-Qaryeh),etc. Dj ami' el-(Uzer liestotheeastoftheFrenchBenedictine churchandconvent.Theshrine consists ofanopenplace,tothesouth ofwhich there isa rawo;q withtwo archesanda prayer room, whichhastwo beautifully decorated mi1;trabs. Tothewestofthe open court isasmallroom,inwhichthe dead are ritually washed before theyareburied. A springand-apalm-treearefoundintheopen courtyard. Aroundthetwo mi1J,rabs ofthe prayer roomandaroundthatofthe rawaq thereareimpressionsof hands,andrepresentations of palm branches, someofwhichhavenine, others sevenleaves.Thepeoplearewell awarethattheholymanwhosenamethe mosque bears wasnot buried here. They explain the connection of hisnamewiththeplacebythe factthatduringhislifetimehewas verypiousandtherefore so honouredthatineveryplacewherehe is supposed tohaveofferedprayer-andhenevermissedoneofthe fivedailyprayers-a mibrab was erectedandlateradjami(was built. This explanation, told mebythe mubtar (thevillagechief)of1 ocymon basilicum.2 QarrUb, carob.3This,ofcourse,isnotan absolute rule,for there aremosques containing tombs,like djamiC el-cAmari (DerAban). Probablya church whichwas changed into amosque. 5 Pronounced attimesalso Surbahil.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine51 Surbahir,andbypeopleof Soba, iscommonlygivenin connection with theCaliph 'Omar ibn el-lIattab andea-sultanIbrahim el-Adhami.! Manymosques bearing thenameoftheCaliphare called'Umari,Thismayaccountforsome,but,ofcourse,itcannot explain allthedjawamiC(pl.of djami) ofthiscategory.Inmanycasesitisbelievedthattheholymanlived, taught, or appeared after his death inthis spotandthattherefore amosquewas built inhismemory.Athirdexplanation wasgivenmebythe mubtar of CAnata. Hesaidthateverytimeanewmosqueis built itis dedicated tosome saint, who isnot necessarily chosenfromamongthemost important.Butthe present writer isofthebeliefthatthebasisofsucha dedication is a legendconnectingthemanofGodinquestionwiththelocality. The following storieswillserveas illustrations.IntheroomknownbythenameofhuznYa'qub and situated in sittna el-lJa<}ra (NabIus),Jacobissupposedtohavemournedforthe death ofhisbelovedson Joseph. EI.cUzercametoel-Qaryehto adore Almighty God.Hefastened hisasstoa pillar besidethe spring andprayed.Hisdevotionwas performedwithsuch intensitythatit lasted one hundred years,andhe thought itwasonlyafewminutes.Ashe turned totheplace" wherehehadfastenedhisanimalhefoundthatonlytheskeleton of the asswasleft.2 Es-sebel-Qatrawani livedinthevillageofQatrahnorth ofGaza. According tooneversionofthestoryhelefthisvillage-sincehe couldnotfulfillhisreligiousdutiesthere-andcametothelonelytIn Sa'fat,Bet l;lanina and eoba. Inthefirsttwo there isamosque,while inthe third wefindonlya square placewitha a largefigtree(notan oak-tree asMcCownsays)andasmall enclosure (ltu/UJetiyeh) inthenorth-west corner.Inthe situated inthewestwallare found variouspitsof broken pottery, inwhichincensewas burned. Most ofthepeoplegave me thenamees-sultdnIbrahim, not es-seg Ibrahim (Mc Cown).2Cf.Qoran, Swrah 11,258ft'.Thetext(Sale's translation)runs: "And God causeQ. him CUzer orEzra)todiefora hundred years,and afterwards raisedhimtolife.AndGodsaid,Howlong hast thoutarriedhere? He answered, Aday orpartofday.Godsaid,Nay,thouhasttarriedhereanhundred years.Now look.onthyfoodandthy drink, theyarenotyetcorrupted,andlookon thine ass:andthiswehavedonethatwe might makethee 11 sign unto men. And lookonthebonesof thine8S8,howwe raise themand afterwards clothe themwithflesh." 4*


52JournalofthePalestineorientalSocietyspot of pahrit Hammudeh,'a high hill betweenBir Zet andCAtarah.Berehelivedin prayerandself-mortification. According to another versionwhenhis dead bodywas being carried for burial, heflewup offtheirshouldersanddescended onthehill,wherehis shrine standsatpresent.tIntheroom leading totheso called Stables ofSolomon,"the crib of Christ" (stir saiydna 'Isa) isshown.Itis relatedthatSt. Mary usedtoputherchild here. BelowtheHoly Rock ofthe"Mosque ofOmar"visitors are shown places where David, Solomon, Abraham, ElijahandMohammedarethoughttohave prayed.Eachofthesespotsisholy.Nearsome shrines ofthefirst grouptherehas been built recently amosque,which bearsthenameoftheholy person honourednearby.Butsuch a djamf servesonlyfor prayer, whileallhonours continue tobegiventotheold shrine. Examples ofthisare Djarra}.1 andSa'du S'id3(both in Jerusalem).Hithertowehaveonlydealtwith shrines ofthisclass,whereit is absolutely certain (according to general belief andto external appearance)thatnotombexists.Butthereisasubdivisionofthis class forming a connecting link between thisandthepreviousgroup,andcomprising those sanctuaries wherenotombexistsandwherethereisnottheslightest external sign pointing eventothe possibility ofatomb, though localtraditionassertsthatthesaint was buried there,eitherbeneaththebuilding orinacavewhichwas afterwards closed. Such sanctuariesare el-Qatrawani, Ahmad el-Karaki (Qastal), Husen (Bet Stirik), es-seg Abli. lsma'il(BetLikia), (Abdallah (Qubebeh), etc. Abl1 Isma'il, whichliesinthe midst ofthevillage,consists oftworooms.Thefront oneservesasa guest-house (ma4ajeh), whilethe second istheshrine ofthe saint. No tomb isanywhere tobe seen. Butitis saidthatthe well is buried inacavewhich liesbeneaththeshrine.Inthemiddle oftheguest-houseisthefire-place (udjaq) wherecoffeeis prepared.Intheouter courtyard1Theshrine is surroundedbythe remains ofachurch.2Iheard thesetwoversionsfrompeopleof &Atarah, thesecondseemedtobethe prevailingone. 3 Theshrineofthelatter Bel! isin ruins.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine 63 isasidreh(lote tree) which furnishes a protecting shadow,sothattheguests assembleunderitinthesummer months.Anothersubdivision isthegroup towhichQubbetel-Arb'in j ("the domeoftheForty")belongs.EveryMohammedan knowsthat"theForty"werenotburiedin this sanctuary; neverthelessanelongated, rectangular frameof stonesinthemidst ofthefloorrunningeastandwest, stands foratomb.Ill.Atomb without it building There is scarcely a village which doesnotpossessatleastonesuch weli. Insome places -asinSurbahirandJericho-thistype isby farthemostcommon. Such holy places maybe composed ofoneorofawholesetoftombs.Whereseveral tombs arefoundsidebysidethepersons buried generally belong tothesame "holyfamily."Suchcasesare syuh ed-Dja'abri s (Hebron), hadjI'bed(St.John),Irdjal Stlfeh(Der Ghassaneh3), es-seg Abtl Yamin (BetfAnan), es-Suhada (the martyrs ofHebron)andel-Mudjahdin (the fighters intheholywar-of Ramleh),Inmany casesthedescendants of these saintsarestill living.Theshrine of es-seg Abft Yaminis surrounded byan enclosing wall.Thetombs of es-seg andofhisson.areinthe maqam, while the graves ofhis descendantsareintheopencourtaroundthe.building, enclosed bythewall.A pomegranate, a palmand a figtreebelong tothesaint.Itis saidthatheisoftenseenflying whilehisbandof musicians is playing. According to local belief heandallhis descendants were chosen menof God.Withthe exception ofafew such places-likethoseof es-Suhada andel-Mudjahdin-c-most representatives of this class belong torecenttimes.They generally come within oneofthefollowing categories:1.Aliving seg ofaholyfamilydies.Histomb receives more or lessthesamehonoursas those ofhis ancestors.Examplesare es segBget,es-sebailft and es-segSalel}. ofthefamilyof ed-Dawa'ri (Sftrbahir). 1Situated onthe Mount ofOlives,inthemidstofthecemetery.Itisa square buildingwithasmalldome.Asmallfig garden is connected withit.2Their ancestor wastherenowned scholar (aUm) ed-Dje'bari,3lnformation derived fromOmarEffendi EI-Barghutt


64: JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyThese syug. ed-Dawa'riareinterred inthecommonwestern cemetery ofthevillage. Their tombsareenclosedbya rectangular wallwhichisinmany places defective.Themost important of themare es-seg. elcNeni andAbu Mita. Although their tombsaresmallerthanthe three mentioned above,theyenjoy greater respectandhonour.Allexceptthetombof el-cNeni havestonesatheadandfootandanicheinwhichoilis lighted. Thenewertombsaredecorated with binna and Broken oil-jarsandoil-bottles are scattered around thetombs.2.Ifthere diesafamousholymanora derwiS whohadfoundedor wasa prominent member ofatariqah,orusedtohealthesick during hislife,histomb tends tobecome sacredandhimselfaweu:Thebestexample ofthisis es-seg AbftJ;lalawi. Heis buriedinthecemetery whichrunsalongthe east wall of Jerusalem.Thetombis situated on rising ground tothe north ofSt. Stephen's gate.The qandzl, described ?y Kahletandshewn inthephotograph whichhetookoftheplace,wasstolen"during thewar. Flowers areveryoften deposited onthetomb.This seg wasverymuch honoured during hislife.Sickpeopleandthosein trouble usedto obtain healingandhelpfromhim. While his dead body wasbeing carried of burial, itflewawayand descended onthespot wherethesoulofthe welt chosetohave his remains interred.Histombis honoured andthesickvery oftentearapiecefromtheirgarments andbindit aroundthehead stone. 3. A night visionofsome villager showshimthatthis orthatplace,inornearhisown neighbourhood, is sacred astheburial place ofa 1,velt Thepeopleofthevillagewill then probably buildthere,atomb,aswasdoneinthecaseof es-seg Suwan,A peasant of Snrbahir, wholivedinasmallcave,lostone member ofhisfamily aftertheother through death. Noonecould explain hismisfortune.One night a reverend appeared tohim ina night visionandreproaching himseverelysaid:"Whydoyounotrespect my habitation?IfyouwillnotatoneforyourpastforgetfulnessIwill cause the remainder ofyourfamilytodie."1PJVI.p.67.


CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints andSanctuAries inPalestine55Thefrightenedmanasked:"Whoareyou,myLord?"Thereplywas:"Iam seg Suwanandamburiedhere."Earlyinthemorningatombwas built,thecavecleanedandthefamilymovedelsewhere.Inmany cases alowcircularenclosure, 1;lu'tvetiyeh, surroundsthetomb.Eveninhighstructuresitis never vaulted.Generallyitisconstructedofsimple,unhewn stones, asinthefollowingcases: SabbaJ}. inJericho, eS-geg. ZughbehinJericho, es-seg HamdallahinBiddu, es-seg Imbarakin BetIksa,es-seg inDerGhassaneh.! es-seb el-Habil!inDerGhassaneh.Sometimesthisenclosure isbuiltmore solidly, hewnstonesandmortarbeingused.Thewallsmaybehighandsurroundtheentiregroup of objects:tomb,trees, mibraband open court. Thisopenspacesurroundingthetombis oftenpavedwithstoneslabs,especially inthecase ofimportantwelislike elcUzer (Fig.2,PlateII), el-MufaQQil andal-Mansurt(allin'Awartah).Inthecase of thewallsurroundingthetombisconstructedonthreesides ofbeautifulsmallvaults (Fig.3,PlateIll).Inthecase of simpleenclosuresanopeninglike adooris some timesleftononeside.Thisdoorisoftenmadeoftwolargeside stonessetuprightwithanotherontop,andisratherlow.Althoughvisitorsaresupposed toenterthroughthisdoor,thisisseldomdone.ManyBedouin welis areofthistype. Es-seg Sabbahandez-Zughbeh2-bothinJericho-aregood illustrations oftheforegoing type.Theformerhasa very low door,whileinthesecondabreachinthelowwall servesthepurpose. A visitormust ifhewishestoenterthroughthedooroftheenclosure of Sabbal) inorthodoxfashion,"soeveryonepreferstojumpoverthewall.Inmostcases ofatombwithanenclosureitissaidthatatdifferent timesthepeopleproposedtoerecta maqam, butthesainttInformationfromOmarEffendiel-Barghfiji, 2 Kahle,PJ,1911,pp.88.Not Zu'behbutZughbeh.3Creepingthroughthedoor,andthushumiliating oneself is regardedwithmorefavour bythe le!!, thanjumpingoverthewall.


56 JoumalofthePalestine Oriental Society himself refused tohaveoneandpulleddowninthe night whatwas built during the day, throwing the stonesfaraway. The tombof es-seg. Darwis of BetSurik is surrounded bya highenclosingwall. Every timethe peasants ofthe village tried tobuildhima suitable tombandto 'put aroofonthefourwalls, .thesaint showedhis dissatisfaction bypullingdown their work, until theywereobligedtogiveup their idea.Thesameissaid of el-Mufaddil andothers.Insomecasesweareshownatomb,butexact investigation will failtodiscloseany thing, evenaheapofstones,whichmight mark the existence ofatomb.Underthe terebinth tree of es-seb

CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine57Other examplesofthistypeare: Es-seg AQmad el-Gharib (N.of el-Mdjedil near Nazareth); as-seb Salman el-Farsi (MountofOlives): whousedtohavehistombinacave,andes-sayidi er-Rab' ah, Bythecaveof es-seg Salman el-Farsi a beautifulqubbeh1wasbuilt. Formerly a narrow canal(dahliz)usedto lead tothecave.Infrontofthe pretty shrine several trees were planted: acypress,a pine,two pomegranates andanolivetree.A cistern isalso connectedwiththeplace: Es-sayidi er-Rab'ah2(not Rahba, as stated by Meistermann.s nor Rahibet as stated in Baedeker 4) whohashersanctuarynearel-Mas'ad (theplaceofascension)andbelow Zawiet el-As'adiyeh, is honouredbythe Mohammedans, Christians and Jews. The Ohristians and Jews donot reverence here er-Rab'ah.!butPelagia andthe prophetes Hulda,?respectively.Twelve steps leadfromthe upper roomtothecaveinwhich the tombisshown,allhewninthesolid rock.Asmallroom near thegraveis said tobethe place where sheusedto perform herdailydevotions. Er-Rab'ah, itissaid,used tokneela thousand timesdaily saying:"Iaskfornorecompense, buttosatisfythe Almighty God."Inthe upper roomthereisa cistern whose water issaidtohavea specially pleasanttaste. There aresomecaves,infrontofwhichtombsarefoundand boththesetwo features are intimately connected witheachother.Itissaidthatthe weli hasbeenseen occasionally walkingfromhis tothecave.As illustrations wemaycite es-seg Ahmadel Huwes,whichhas already been described, and CAsfftr8to thesouthofDerGhassaneh.9Inthe firstcase,allhonoursarepaid tothecave,whereitissupposedthatthe soulofthe saint lives.tKahle,PJ,voI.VI,1910,po.79.The ruinedqubbehhasbeen restored.2Thefullnameis er-Rab'ah el-'Adawiyeh el-Basriyeh ofthe descendants of Al CAqil.0 3 Guidedela Ter,oe Sainte,p.278. t Paldsiina una Syrien,p.94. 5 Sheissaidtohavediedintheyear135A.H.8Shewas formerly called Margarita, anddied457A.C.Hereitis supposed that she atoned forhersins (Meistermann).7The inhabitants ofthe Mount ofOlives pronounce it :ijuldah. 8Iowethis information tothekindnessof'OmarEffendi el-Barghfrti,9Inrealitythis shrine doesnotbelongtothisbuttothe tirst class.Itis saidthatthesaintusedtositinthecave during hislifetime.


58JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyThesecondcategory-acave without atomb,andsupposed tobe inhabited byasaint-hasmany representatives in Palestine. The cavesareeithernaturalor rock-hewn tombs. Theyaresituatedontheedge ofavillage,or outside inthefields.Weseldomfind them among human habitations. Among caveswhichareconsidered to bethehabitationof saintsare:tel-HadrMount Carmel, 2es-seg cAliQaitunHebron,. es-seg Ghreyib el-Hadr,near BetDjaJa, Mgharet es-Seg. Kufr'Aqab, Irdjal el-Arb'in Biddu, el-Arb'in MghaziBet Likia, es-segsaBetLikia,IrdjaJAbftBetLikia, es-seg. Yusif Beta:anina, es-sen 'AbdallahMizpah of Samuel. Six3stepsleaddowntoMgharitIrdjal el-Arb'In of Biddu,Thecaveissmall, somewhat round,withalowroof.Duringthewinter monthspartofitisfullof water.Infront ofthiscave twooaks,anoliveandaterebinthgrowone besidetheother.Intheirshadethe batib (religiousheadofthevillage) teaches the children. No tomb is anywhereattachedto this "Forty."TheIrdjal Abu whose number isunknown, inhabit a small cave, situated inaratherlargegrove. i Theentrance to -the mgharahis so smallthatnoonecan enter. Brokenjars,oil bottles, oil-lampsandburnedincensearescatteredaroundthe opening. These saintsareverymuch respected, noonedaringtocutoffatwigfrom their groves.Thedifferent names used forcaves, irrespective of whether they belong to this group ornot,aremgharah, ghar,sqaf, andhikf.These different expressions donotmeanthesamething.Theex pression gho/r isusedonlyfor cave-like cisterns, whicharesituatedtJaussen, Coutumesdes Arabes, P:302, mentions alsoacavecalledMgharetImmDjdec 2Ourtiss,Kahleand Miillinen.3Noteight: Annual cf American SchoolofArchaeology11-111,p.58. VeryoftenIrdjalisabbreviatedandwehearonly Djar Arbcin.5Itisoneofthelargestgroves connectedwith wens.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesin Palestine59inthe maqam. Theyarealwaystreatedasthemostholy places andnobody dares to enter. A says: ma minnnabiynillawalahu ghar: "Every prophet hasacave assigned tohim."Inmany cases(e.g.en-nabiSamwil)thevisibletombfoundintheshrine is saidnottobethe true onebutto surmounttheactual tomb,which isinthe ghar and cannot beseennorvisited.Hikf)stands mostly forasmallcavecoveredbya large stoneslab,like es-seh el-Tlmari east of ij:izma. The other expressions generally denote ordinary caves.Ashasbeen already observed small,low, vaulted roomsaresometimescalledcaves(mgharah).Imet this peculiarity in'Awartah,In S6ba theArb'in Mghazi arerepresented byasmallshallowhole intheold masonary. Thiswasalso calledmgharah.Herelights andincenseare burnt. 2 Ofcourseallhonoursare paid tosuchacavejustastoany shrine.Itislitup,offeringsandevensheepmaybevowed,apious womanwillnever enter anyofthemwhile impure, andno animalsareallowedtodefiletheholy place bytheirentrance.3Notin frequently thecaveis connected witha tree, agrove or awellasin thecaseof: es-seg. AhmadGhreyib in el-MdjedilnearNazareth, 4es-seh M tlsa in ij.arbata 5IrdjalAbu in BetLikia,Irdjal el-Arb'in in Biddu. Thefollowing story illustrates howasimplecavemayeventually cometoreceivethehonoursofashrine. The' Mohammedan leper Djum'ah," from Abli Dis,whileinthe leper asylum"Jesus-Hili", Jerusalem, usedtolive duringthet J!ikf isnotknownin elItmaybe derived fromkahf,where thefirstandsecond letters havebeen interchanged, and pronounced instead ofh.2See description and plate in McCown's article, p.56.Hedoesnot describe theplaceasa mgharah. When counting the welis ofthisvillage, 1\lcCown was notshownthetomb situated inthe village cemetery andwhichis dedicated to es-sey and es-segah Mas cudeh. Thisplaceisnot highly honoured.3Thisruleisnotkeptso strictly asitusedtobe. 4 Iowethis information toastudentoftheEnglish College, Jerusalem, who comesfrom Nazareth. 'OmarEffendi el-Barghfiji.6 Heard fromthis leper himself.


60JonmalofthePalestine Oriental Societysummermonthsina tent outinthe large garden ofthe institution, to guard itfromthieves.While,one Thursday evening,hewas sayinghis prayers, he distinctly heard prayers andreligiousmusic ofdervishes.Djum'ahatoncelefthistentandwalkedslowly towards the placewhencethe madi1;t (religioussong)came,acave, inwhicha greenish light wasburning.Djum'ah dared notenter. Remaining outsidethecavehewaiteduntilthesemysterious visitorshadfinished their prayers. Afterwards henoticedthe sameevery Thursday evening(lelatu-d-djumCah).Sincethattime he kept thecaveandits surroundings clean,since 1(pious men)livedor gathered every Thursday eveninginthiscaveto perform their prayers. Djum'ahwastoopoortoofferalight everyweek,asheshouldhavedone according tocommonbelief.2Theforegoingstory illustrates alsothefactthatmanyplacesare held sacred onlybyafew private persons. Their renownhasnot yet spread.Wemustnotoverlook the most important sacred caveofthe Mohammedans of Palestine belowtheHolyRockinthe"Mosqueof Omar."Thedifferent parts ofthiscave,whicharehighlyhonouredbyeveryMoslem,willbe described in the sectiondealingwith sacred stones.Even Christians believeinsomeholycaves,e.g.the"Milk Grotto"3of Bethlehem inwhich, tradition alleges,somedropsof the milkofSt. Mary happened tofallwhileshewassucklingherChild. The curative powersofthisplacewillbe described later.v.Asimplestoneenclosure Suchan enclosure maybeverysmall,havinga diametre ofnot morethan30-40cm., though sometimesmuchmore.The circular enclosure <1}uwetiyeh or bU1vetah4_ sometimesalsocalled bol! 5ortWhenno specialsaintcanbe nominated, vague expressions like awlia, darawis, a'djam, etc.areused. 2 The sacredness of this cavehasbeen forgotten siuce Djum'ah lefttheinstitutionlong ago.3This grotto willbe described later. The common expression, ballah,"I(beg) Godtobeawallaroundyou"(e.g.mayGodprotectyou),comesfromthesameroot hauwa!a. See el-Multi!, vol.I,p.477. 5l!oq, means really a watering-trough.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine61 1)wasineveryinstanceknowntomemadeofsimple,unhewn stones,set irregularly sidebyside,andwithno attemptatsymmetry. Oftenagapisleftinthecircletoactasadoorway.Inthecase of es-segah Imbarakeh (Kalandia) thefemale saint issaidto gather cleanpiecesofbroken pottery and arrange themas a1}uweljah, leavingasmallgapforthe entrance. Since thewaritisobserved that shedoesnot replace theoldpieceswithnewonesassheused alwaystodo.Somewhereinthe inner wallofthesecircles there is usuallya f;d,qah, inwhichoil-lampsand matchesareplaced, and whereincenseisburnd.InBiddnwefindthe western cemeteryonasmallelevation.Atits north-eastern corner isasmallcrudely built enclosurein which lr Ali et-Ffallal2 ishonoured.Nearthisholyspotgrow anoliveandafigtree,anda cistern was lately discoveredthere. Allthesebelongtothesaint.Twosidesoftheelevationare madeofoldmasonry.Thisplaceis a goodexampleofa sacred enclosurecombinedwithtrees, a cistern andruins.Inthecaseof' es-segFredj(Bet I;lanina,) anold petroleum tin partly coversthe sacred enclosure,andthus protects the light from beingblownout.Thefactthat awlia belongingtothisclassare notkeptcleanandarenotmuch cared for,pointstotheconclusion that they arenotsohighlyhonouredasothers.Wehear ofcases wherevillageshave tried to erect a maqam foroneor other of thisgroup,butwheretheholymen prevented thecompletionofthe workinthesamewayaswehaveseeninthecaseof es-seb Huwes. Someofthe sanctuaries belongingtothisgrouphavebeen trans feredtothe category mentioned under 11bythe erection ofa building inplaceofthestoneenclosure. Masadjid sittnafAiseh in theneighbourhoodofnabi Mftsa illustrates thispoint.Asimple, squarehandsomebuildingwiththe northern sidecompletelyopened, andtheeastandwestsides partly open, stands onthesiteof the oldenclosure.Notomb, cistern nortreeisconnectedwiththisplace.1 meansreallyanenclosureforcattle.The Arabic dictionaries give neithertothiswordnorto themeaningusedinthetext,i:e.asacred enclosure.2Not et-Talali asinMcCown,p.59."The depressed spot" istheenclosure andnotthegraveofthe weltEs-egl;asan Abu-lcAlamen ofBiddfiisnot mentionedinthe list givenbyMcCown.


62JournalofthePalestineOriental SocietyAfew metres tothenorth of (Awartah)oneisshown avery badly madeenclosuresaidto mark thetombofHnsa',the sonof el-Mansuri, A large wind-proof kerosene lantern is placed in the centre. Of thisandthe other important worthiesof 'Awartah itissaid"thattheydonotwishany building tobe erected over their tombs.Itis interesting tonotethateven Christians have similar en closures,whichthey respect andhonour.Ontheleftsideofthe stony road leading from BetDjaJa to el-Hadr, passing el-Maral}. andgoing through es-Sarafeh, just beforethelatteris reached, there isasmallenclosureintowhicha passer-by maythrow bread, figs orgrapes.Itusedalwaystobe kept clean.The peasants of BetDjala tellhowthatwhenSt. (el-Hadr) camefromthe north tothevillage el-Hadr (wherea church is built forhim)hewalked with gigantic strides, oneofwhich happened to fall inthisspot.1Afewenclosures sacred to Mohammedans whichhavenotyet been mentioned inthetextare: es-sag Ghreyib2in YaJo, en-nabi Danial near el-Hadr, es-seg Sa'id3in Idna, es-seg Mrad in Ya,lo,es-seg Abu-l-Kfert in el-Kfereh,5 es-seg 'Abdel-Muhsinin Djibiah, En-nabi Daniel (also pronounced Danian) hashis 7:tuwetah in avineyard, situated between Artas andel-Hadr,in Maral}. ed Djami'. The prophet, passing this way, performed a prayer atthis spot.Someoak trees, towhich rags andhairarefastened,growneartheenclosure.Heissupposedto appear occasionally walking in the vineyard and wearing agreencrown.Withhimishishorse whichhetiestooneofthe trees. Formerly healwaysrefusedtotThis istheonly enclosure which Iknowof honoured by Christians.2Near the enclosurethereisa gharah (laurel) tree, onwhichno rags are fastened.3The stones oftheenclosure are paintedwith [linna..A man with fever issaidtobe curedifhelieaforawhileinthe enclosure .j Intheenclosurethereisa heap of stones (tomb?).Acarobandanoak tree arenearby. ..5 Thisruinis surrounded bytheremains ofadeeptrenchandawall.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine63havea building,butlately he changed his mind and, appearing toHusen Musa (from Artas), asked himto build hima shrine.VI.Awatercourse (spring or cistern) Weknowthatnearly allthesprings of Palestinearethoughtto be haunted by spirits. These spiritsaresupposed to belong totheclassofdemons.1Butatthesame timetherearewatercourses definitely assigned tosome.holyman.Theirnumberismuchlessthanthatof those inhabited bydemons.Kahle 2 thinksthattwo conditions mustbefulfilledto make a spring holy-1)thatthesourceshouldbemoreorless mysterious, adarkcanal, oralargecavity;and thatthespring play animportant role in the water supplyofthe adjacent village.Althoughmany springs fulfilbothconditions thegreaternumber fulfiloneonly, whereas many springs inhabited bydemons satisfythesame two conditions.Forour purposeitis necessary to study especiallythedifferences between sacred springsandthosehauntedbydjinn.Thefollowing isa comparative table ofthedifferences: Springs inhabited byHolyMen Djinn (demons)1.Maybe situated intheneigh-1.Never. bourhood ofa welt. 2.Prayerand religious musicmaybeheardespecially onThursdayevening.3.Alight witha greenish flame maybe observed appearinganddisappearing.4.The water maybe used for different ailments.5.The inhabiting saintappearsasa reverend se1], (withwhite, red,or green head dress)orapious 2.Never.3.Never. 4.Inexceptional cases.5.Thedjinntaketheshape ofan animal, a negro, a monster orabride.1Canaan, Haunted Springs and Water Demons,JPOS,vol.I,p.153etc.andAberglaube.2PJ,vol.VI,p.93f.


64JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyHolyMen6.People falling accidentally into a cistern orwell inhabited by aholymanaregenerallypro tected fromanyinjury,especially iftheycallforthehelpofthe 7.The saint likesto hear thename ofGodand prayers.8.Awondroussignmayappear.Djinn (demons)6.Onthe contrary the dJinn may eveninjurethevictim.7.Thedemon trembles before thesepowerfulwords,andis usuallydrivenawaybythem.Hemayinrevenge injure the personwhohas them.8.Never. Although thesestatements aretrueof all watercourses whichare directly or indirectly connected withashrine,theyalsoapplyto those which,whilehavingnoconnectionatallwith sanctuaries or tombsofthesaints,are nevertheless believedtobe inhabited bythe spirit ofaholyperson.Ishalldealonlywiththelattercategory. Oftensuchsourcesof water have a tree growing near by,andsince bothmaybeholyitissometimesdifficulttoknowwhichisthemore important: the watercourse orthe tree. El-Matba' ah1isamarshypoolsaidtocureallsortsof rheumatic ailments.Nouncleanwomen(nidjsih)may approach theholyspot. Oncea barren womenmadea pilgrimage tothisplace,hopingto findhelp.Itso happenedthatatthemomentofher arrival she was overtakenbyher period (itwassa1j rasoo). Beingpiousshewaited farfrom el-Matba'ah untilshebecamepure (tihrat), then tooksome mudandrubbed herbodywithit. Scarcely ayearhadpassed beforesheconceivedandboreachild. cEn es-Sarif just above (en (Kolonia)isanewlydis covered spring andanewlyfoundweltAfewweeks after thedis coveryofthespring,a seb withagreenturbanappeared inanight visiontoMuhammed'Aliand ordered himtotellthe inhabitants ofthevillagethattheyshouldnot defile hisshrine,thenewlytItissituated between es-seb Ibrek(fromwhom it drawsitspower) and Tell es-Sammam. Iowethisinformation to'OmarEffendi el-Barghfiji.


CANAAN:.Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine65 discoveredspring."Whatisyourname,my asked Muhammed, "Es-Sarif" wastheanswer. Some waters derive their powerfromthefactthatthey mixonce ayearwiththe water oftheholywell Zamzam in Mecca.rAtsuch a periodthewater is curative. Wells of thistypewitha special reputation are: 'En Irnmed-Daradjin Siloam.t Hammam es-Sifa 3in ,J erusalem, 4 the cistern intheshrine of en-Nuban! in Nablus, Thisoverflowofthewater of Zamzam takes place generally on thetenthof Mobarram, whichisalsoknownbythename cAsura, andis thought tobethe anniversary ofthedeathof Husen,theson of Fatimeh, Mohammed's daughter.Theconnection oftheover flowingofthe springandthememoryofHusenisnotwithout interest. According tosomethewaterof this holywellatMecca mixeson thisday with all springs in Mohammedan countries, thus giving everyMoslemtheopportunity of drinking fromZamzam.Thesanctity, aswellasthecurative action of other waters, is said tobe derived from .various holymen:Job,Jesus,el-Hadr, Sitti Mariam, etc. Springs connected withJobwillbe describedlaterOD.Sinceitis believedthatJesussenttheblind man,whomhe healed byearthmoistened withspittle.!to (en Imm el-Lozeh6to washhiseyes there,7some Christian women8believethatthis waterIJPOS,vol.I,pp.153-170.2According toUns ed-Djalil 11,407, ij:alid binMacdanthinksthatthisspringgetsitswater from ed-Djanneh (paradise),3Alsocalled :J;[ammam cAsura, from calarah, thetenthdayofthemonthMoharram. I havetocall attentiontothe widespread beliefthatmostofthe Turkish baths arethoughttobeinhabitedby djinn. The following story may illustrate thisidea.Thewifeofan effendt lost allherjewels inthebath.All enquiries failedtofindthem.At lastawizard woman assuredherthatthein habitingdjinnhadtakenher jewels. Shegaveher a writtentalismanandorderedthatfor three days every dayonethirdofthetalisman should beburnedinthebath.This wasdoneand,behold,onthethirddaythewifeofthe effendt foundherlost jewelsintheplace whereshehadleftthem..In Abet" glaubeI give another similar story. John9iff,6JustbelowBir AyUb. 7TheGospelofSt.JohnrelatesthatChristsenthimtoSiloam,Thisspring,!mmel-Loseh,isnotfarfromSiloam.eHeard from several Armenian womenofJerusalem. JPOB, I, 163-1706


66Journalofthe Palestine OrientalSociety pas stillthe'powerto cure inflamed eyes.TheMohammedans ofNablusbelievethat el-IJaQr takes abatheveryThursdayevening inthebasinfoundin Hammam ed-Daradjeh, This isthereasonthatit is'thought tobe inhabited or visited bythisholy man. The sick gothereatthis time totakea bath,burnincenseandlightcandles.InHammamSittiMariam1(near St. Stephen's Gate,Jerusalem)barrenwomen bathe' inthehopeof becoming fruitful.Itis believedthatSt.Mary once took a bathin this place; so candles, oilandflowersarevowed.2A connecting link between watershauntedbydemonsandthoseinhabitedby saints isformedbycaseswherethepeople believethatagoodandabadspirithauntthesame spring. This isa specialcharacteristicof periodical springs.ThusC enFauwar 3is thought to beinhabitedbya 1J,urr, "free man" (master)andan'obd,"servant" (slave born).Thefirst isawhite person,theother a negro,asthewords themselves indicate. "I'hefollowingarethe springs 4 whichmaybe grouped in this class:5 'En ed-Djoz (Bamallah) inhabited by a. whiteanda black sheep, cEn(Artas) inhabitedby a whiteand 8. black sheep,Bir cOnah(BetDj8Ja) bySt. ,Mary andsometimes anCabd, 'En el-Hadjar(DerGhassaneh)inhabitedby es-sitt Mu'minehandsometimes bya maria. Ihave neverheardofaspringthatwas inhabited by a being whichmightattimes be a weli,andatother times change into adjinnas Curtiss was told about Zerqa Macin.Inall probability this spring belongs totheforegoing groupandis supposed tobeinhabitedbytwo spirits a goodandabadone.Bothareseparate beings,andonenererchanges intotheother.Itisoftenreportedthatthese twoclasses,of powerful antagonistic spiritsarecontinually fightingeachother.Inthecase of (en FauwartAccording toUnsed-Djalil,Balqisthe daughter ofking Sara\1il ofYacrib (Qa\ttAn) tookabathinthisplacetoremovethe hair growing onherlegsand thigh.. Thisgoat. hair wasan inheritance fromher mother, whowasa djinnilleh (.JPOS).2Thiscustomisdyingout.3SeeAberglaube. 4. Theyhavebeen described inJPOS 1,-10S.&tEnFauwar is thought bysometobe inhabited byawhiteandablack


CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine67wearetoldwhenthe burr gainsthe victory heallowsthewaterto flowforthe benefit of thirsty mankind.Butitisnotlong before the'obdrecoversand resumesthebattle. Assoonashe overpowers thehurrhe shuts offthis blessing ofGodand thus avenges himself onthe human race.This.antithesis of good against evil, white against black, light against darkness, angels against devils, upperagainstlowerworld, God againstSatanis a veryold idea in Semitic religions,andwecouldnothaveitbetterreproducedthaninthepresentsimple imagination ofaPalestinian fel741). tThefollowingisalist ofholy springs withthenames ofthesaints inhabiting them, modifiedfrommy article"HauntedSpringsandWaterDemons,"JPOSI,p.153-170:Hammam ed-Daradjeh Nablus el-ljaQer,2 Hammamsitti MariamJerusalemSt.Mary,Hammam es-Sifa 3JerusalemJob, 4 Biren-Nnbant 5 Nablusmixeswith Zamzam, Cen Immed-Daradj Siloammixes withZamzam,6Blres-Sahar DerTarifel-weliSuceb,7 Bir Ayflb SiloamJob, Br Sindjil SindjilJoseph, cEnQina Qinael-weliAbO.el-4tEnen,8 1JPOSI,153-170. 2 Manyawoman, together withhernewlybornchild,takesabathinthedjurnof el-lJaf)er ontheseventhdayofherconfinement.3 Also called ij:.'Asura. The water issaidto mix onceayearwiththatofZamzam. 4 ThereisabasininwhichitissupposedthatJobtookhisbathandwas cured. 5 The cistern isfoundinanelongatedroomwhosewallsare hung withdervish musical instruments andweapons,a banner andQoranicverses.No tomb isto beseen.Itissupposedthatmany aqlab gather hereto performtheirprayers.6This spring usedtobe inhabited byacamel. A henwithher chiekenstook theplaceofthis djinn after hisdeath., Aberglaube. 8JPOS,1.c. o


JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society68 cEnel-J:ladjarcEn ed-Djaknk cEn el-Amir (En Bired-DjabbarahBirinBirImmDjde' cEn el-Qubbeh cEn es-Sarqiyeh cEn es-Samiyeh cEn es-Barif EI-MatbaCah cEn ed-Djoz cEn RafidiahBirel-Waraqah c:En er-Rahib cEnKarim Bir cOnacEn Kibrian cEn Immel-LozehDerGhassaneh es-sitt Mu'minah, }{ eastofMiZpah}{a weli, of Samuel and awlia, Ramallahan angel, Yaloes:-seg Ahmad ed-Djabbarah, I;[izmah$ulla':t,Bet Djibrin Kobar es-siii Zenab, Kobares-sitt Fattftmeh, Kolonif,es-sitt es-Samiyeh, Koloniaes-Barif, Tell es-Sammam Ibrek, Kolonia es-se!! I.Iusen,1 Rafidiah es-segNafi\2 Jerusalein leads to paradise,3Nablusmonk.! cEnKarim theVirgin Mary, BetDjala theVirgin Mary, W.of BetDjala St.Gabrianus;belowBir Ayftb cures eye troubles.! Mohammedans aswellas Christians believethatthese saintstrytosavethosewho happen tofallintothewelLThefollowing story willillustratethis.Achild of CEsawiyeh happened tofall into a ruined cistern. Soon afterwards hisparentsgothimout.Theboy saidthattwomen came tohishelp,whilehewasfalling,andcarried himsoftlytothebottom. Oneofthemwasa reverend old man;theotherwore clothes similar to those ofthevillagers ofthe surrounding district,andtwoold fashioned pistols inhis belt.6ThetTo this saint a tree isalso dedicated.2 An oil-lamp usedtobe lighted here.3The storyofthis cistern is told inUn edDjalU 11,368. This spring stopsits flow onceaweekODSundays, asthemonkissaidto fulfilhis duties on this day. 5 Curtiss and Kahle givefew examples ofholy springs.6Other stories aregivenJPOS,1.c.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaitits and 'Sanctuaries in Palestine69 oldpeopleofthevillage rememberedthat a dervish ofthisdescription had"fallenintothecistern many years before.1The belief insacredsprings,inhabitedspringsandcurativewaters can be tracedbacktotheOldandNewTestamenta.Naamanwas cured ofhis leprosybywashing himself seven times intheJordan.2The blindmansent byJesusto Siloam camebackafterhehadwashedhiseyes, with his sight restored.eThepoolBethesdacuredeverydisease,"foranangel went downatacertainseason intothepoolandtroubledthewater: whosoever then firstafterthetroubling ofthe water stepped inwascuredof whatever disease hehad,"!Names like cEn Shemesh, "Spring oftheSUD," S etc.pointtothefactthatthese springs werededicated -to gods.6VII.A solitarytreeIdonot to includeunderthisheadanytreewhich, though situated in absolute solitude,farfromany shrine orgrave,belongs nevertheless toa weli, whohasasanctuarysomewhere inthevicinity. i'hus, for example, es-seg Hamad,situatedinthemidstofthevillage Kolonia, hasatreeontheopposite mountain totheS.E.ofthevillage, ontheoldroadleading toJerusalem.Anothercase is el-Badriyeh.? Ihavealreadymentionedthedifferent trees belonging to this holywoman.1Iwillnot describe here ci12n (pI.of Cen ) (springs of retention of urine),sincetheyare generally not connected with any shrine ornameofa wm. Theyarenot revered religiously. I thinkthatwhatOurtisasays about,thestones whichcurebackache,istruerofthese springs,i.e.,thattheir therapeutic ,useis basedonthe belief inamagicpower,the supernatural powers ofgood spirits.Forthese springs cf.AberqlaubeandJPOS,1.c.-Minutequestioning ofthe people of during my last visit resulted intheirsayingthat cen el-hasr of. this villagewascalledalso cenMus8., andthattheyhaveseensometimestwo beautiful young ladies, sitting besidethewaterandcombingtheir hair. They disappeared assoonastheyknewthattheywereseen.Some peasants referred the name MosestothatoftheProphet Mdses. Ifthisistruethen'thespring'belongs tothe category already mentioned, where goodandbad spiritshauntone.and thesame spring. 2 2Kings51if.3John96-7. John51-6.5Jos.157.6L.B.Paton, Annual of Amer. School,vol.I,pp.51ff.7Kahle mentions someofthese trees,PJVI,


70Journalofthe Palestine OrientalSocietyOnlythose trees willbe described which, although considered as beingthe habitation of some -samt, have nevertheless absolutely no connection withany maqam. Jaussen1seemstoincludeinthisgroup trees whichare connected withaholy spring andaholyrudjm;such casesI have tried toavoidsinceitisverydifficulttosaywhichof these features was primarily sacred. Thereareseveralcases belongingtothisgroup,anditisattimesdifficulttoexplainthereasonwhich gavesuch trees their sanctity. This question, whichoftenarises, willbe dealt withbelowin another connection. Among sacred trees of thistype,whichreceivehonourslike other welis, are: 2 Nameof saint Es-seg Barn Es-segitA bdallah itA bdallah Es-segAbu Sadjrat AbftNar Sadjrat es-Sacadel)ljarrftbetel-cAsarah 6 Zettlnit en-Nabi7 Es-seb HasanEn-nabi Abu Lemun10LocationDerGhaseaneh Qatanneh SaCfat 4 BettlAnan es-SaCrawiyeh between Yamtln andDjinin elCEsawiyeh Haram Kolonia between BetIksa and Biddu KindoftreeOak,3 Oak, Oliveand,ata distance, celtis,'I'erbebinth.!Greek oak(Quercus[AegilopsL),Zardeh, Carob,Olive.sOak,9 Oakand terebinth trees.1Goutumes des Arabes,p.831. Curtiss seemstohaveseenorheardofonlyafewexamples.Hedescribes briefly one tree in Northern Syria.3Heardfrom'OmarEffendi el.Barghuti Kable,PJVI,98,99. & There isasmallcavebesideit,inwhich lights andincenseareoffered. I thinkthatthetreeisthemore important feature. S Another ij:arrubet el-cAsarahusedtogrowonthe western slopeofthe Mount ofOlives. '1 SeeCanaan,Aberglaube,andKahle,PJVI,97.8Inits'placeitissaida palm oncegrew. When theProphetvisited Jerusaleminhis miraculous journey, hesat under thispalm;thepalmsoonwitheredand theolivetreegrewinitsplace.9Around theoaktree there isaruin.Thelampsareplacedinasmallcave. TotheS.S.E.ofthissacredtree there isa spring nowbearingthenameof the welt Formerly itwasknownbythename ten ed-Djoz. 10Also mentioned by Kahle,PJVI,98;99.Aruinwithanewlydiscovered cistern surrounds thetrees.


CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and8aaotuarieainPalestine71"Othertrees willbe mentioned below. A fewobservQ,tions must stillbemaderegardingsome peculiarities ofthesetrees.Sadjarat Abl1Nar has a menstrualperiod (bithi4) everytimesheisIrritatedbya trespasser. Aviscous fluid isexcreted.'UnderSadjaretes-Sa'adehthe seg Hasan el-CArflri wasordainedtoa qutub (a "pole" in religion,'i.e. a leader)by'severalsaints. This isof course sufficient cause for making atreesacred.tItderives virtue fromthe' withwhomitcame contact,andis abletohelptheneedy with this power.t andea-sultanIbrahimof eoba belong tothiscategory.Thefirsthasaterebinth,analmondanda q'U4q.,eb tree.Thestonesscatteredirregularlyunderthesetreesandsupposed to representthetomb, hareno connectionwith a grave.Ea-sultanIbrahim's shrine ismadeof a square open enclosure with a taqah, aprayerniche,a small 1J,uwetah andafig tree.I thatthissortof sanctuary istheconnecting link betweentheclass of shrinesunderdiscussionandthelargeenclosures.Inreviewing criticallytheDamesofthewelis.belonging tothisgroup,we observethatsomehave;astheirownholy,name,thesimple nameofthetree.Wenever findany name ofaperson assigned .to such trees. Thus, for example.s Sittna5 (LaurelLady)is situated totheE.of Bet Therearetwoholy terebinths, eachofwhichbearthename el-walzyeh el-Butmeh (HolyTerebinthLady). Oneisnorthof BetNuba and the otherinQubebeh,Itis saidthattheLaurelLadyappearedduringtheattackoftheBritish(1917)standingonthetopofthetree,withagreenish garment, a light head-shawlanda sword inherhand,whichdrippedwithblood.EverytimetheEnglishtroops advanced she threw: them back. .1ThisistheonlycaseIhavebeenableto.collectof a tree having a menstrual flow.Forthisconditionwithdemonssee.JPOS.I153,etc.Iowethis information tothekindnessof'OmsrEffendi el.Barghuti. 2Relatedby'Omar Effendi el-Barghuti. 3Curtissmentions another suchcase. 4 Thefollowing'holytreeswerenot included in. theforegoinglist. & Fumigating asickpersonwiththeleavesofthistreewilleffect'acure,


'1.2 Journal ofthePalestine Oriental SocietyIn Beteafa,fa, a djamf was erected onthesiteoftheholy Butmeh,twhose sacredtreehadbeen uprooted by &,violent storm.Theruins of this djami: .are still known as djamic el-Butmeh, This sacredtreewas supposed tobe inhabitedby $w,ld,}j,.2 Fastenedtomostof these treesareragsofallpossiblecolours.Evenstones,aswillbe mentioned later,areplacedattimesonthetwigs. Should a treeandan enclosure befound,asinthecaseof e-segFredj in Bet Hanina, Ithinkthetreeisthemore important.But when a treeanda spring representthesacred place,itismostdifficult toknowwhichof them has priority.sWegenerally find'a taqah connected with these sacred trees.Itmaybe represented bya crack inan adjoining rock,a low enclosure coveredwithtinorwith a stone'slab,ahollowinthe treeitselforitmaybeabuiltstructure.Inthis taqah oil-lampsarelighted and incense burned. An excellent example ofa built nichebesidea sacred isthatof lJarrftbet near el-'Esawiyeh. Justbeside thetreealow, roomlike nichehas recently been built. Ishouldnot reckon this one cubicmetrebuilding aqubbeh,asdoes Kahle.sIn es-seg. cAbdallah (Sa'fat), a petroleum tin'servesas ataqah. ,Evensome Christians of Palestine believe.moreorlessinthesacredneas ofcertaintrees,buttheydo not burnlights or incense tothem. Among trees ofthis typeare:1Nearthe Mamilla. pool there usedtobea terebinth tree.Thecommon belief was that when'itwascutdownor withered awaytheruleofthe Turks would departfrom Palestine.Itso happenedthatduring the last yearofthe war itdried up,andsoon afterwards Jerusalem was taken bythe British troops. This tree usedtobe known alsobythename el-Butmeh,2ABethlehemite wasallowedto take thewoodof this treeforuseinanoil press(badd).Hehadto build initsplacea witha rawaq anda cistern.Butsincehedidthework sobadlythatitcollapsedafewyearslater,thesaint living inthetreepunished himveryseverely,andonebyoneallhisfamilydied.Underel-Butmeh thepeopleofthevillageusedtoassemble for gossipand entertainment oftheirguests, asina ma4afah (related bytheimamof Bet aIn,thecaseof I;Iusen wehavea tree anda spring dedicated tohim. Ithinkthatthetreeisthemoreimportantfeature, although the saint isseenat times sitting 'nearthespring. Thespringusedtobecalled ren ed-Djoz. rr.I.c.


CANAAN: MohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries inPalestine 73 Terebinth,Oeltis.? Butmet elcAdra 1 Djifna A mes treenearSt.Elias,. betweenBethlehemandJerusalem MarSaba,3 Gethsemane, intheShepherd's field (BetSa\!ur).5 Palmtreeolivetrees4OlivetreeWealsofind parallels to suchtreesintheBible, especially inthecaseoftheBurningBush."Thiswasnotconnected withanyshrine, being itself holy, sincetheLordspoke fromit.Thesamemaybe said tobethecase withthemulberrytreesof David.Theirsanctity showed itselfthrough"thesound ofa going inthetops ofthetrees."7Thiswas a signfrom God.Abrahambuilds his first altar,andreceivesthefirst revelation whichGodmakes tohim, under theterebinthofMoreh(Gen. 126-7).Thenextaltarhe built, is undertheterebinthof Mamre.InBeershebaheplantsatamarisk and callsonthename ofJehovah(Gen.2138).Underanoaktreetheangelappearedto Gideon(Judg.611; 24S. Ourtiss).VIII.Heapsof stonesWhenonestandsatsuch aspotitisa cause for wonder tolook round inevery directionandfind nothing to suggesttheideaof sanctityexceptmereheapsof stones which,of course, differinsizeandformin different places.Itistobe notedthat(i)rdjumeh(pl, ofrudjm)mayalsobeinhabitedbydjinn.Thus, for example, one ofthestony tumuli in el-Baq'ah (thePlainof Rephaim) isthoughttobe inhabited by a henwith. her chicken.1Amanwhocutitdownwas punished with death.2Cf.Canaan, Abergla'Ube, p,63.3 Aberglaube, p.87. Theoilofthesetreesissoldfora high price.Fromtheolive-stones rosaries aremade. 5 Itissaidthattheangel appeared tothe shepherds atthe spot where this treeis growing. Some peasants who tried oncetoburnthetree noticed, to their great astonishment,thatfirehadno action onit.This provedtoallthe sacrednessofthisolive (related tomebyL. Baldensberger). G Ex. 32 if.72Same 524.


74JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietySuchheaps of stones or tumuliareofthefollowing types: 1. quite isolated with nootherfeature, exceptthatattimesafew stonesaresetuptoforma small taqah fortheoil lamps;2.therudjm,orits summit only,is surrounded completelybyanenclosure of stones;3.veryrarelytherudjmmaybe placed inacave.Asexam.plesof these formswemay cite:1. es-seg I'bedin eataJ,es-seg Sa'd in wadi Hadreast of Abu Dis, es-seg Ahmad ljirbet el-Qsnr,opp.toed-Djorah; 2. es-seg 'Abdel-Muhsin Djibiah.! es-sen" EI-Birdaq2 BetRima; 3. Murdjan3Djorah(near cEn Karim),Naturallyoneaskswhattherudjmrepresents,andwhat isits purpose.Weoftenhearexpressions which indicate'thatthereisa tombundertherudjm.Wealsoknowthatthe ancient Palestinians 4 used topilelargeheaps of stones onthetombs of.theirimportant dead,anduptothepresentday most fellalj tombsareeither marked bya small enclosure of stones oran elongated low stone heap. "Jaussen6reportsthattheBedouins stillmarktheplaces where someonehas been killed,beitinwaror treacherously, bya heap ofstones.Inthecase ofsomeoftherdjumehwhichIamnow describing, this explanation maybe true,butcertainly notineverycase, A special classofstone heaps must still be mentioned el-maSahid 6(pI.of mashad). Thesearerecentheaps ofstones placedirregularlyandatdifferent places.Theword 1naShad may express oneofthe following meanings; I.Theplace fromwhich something isseen.72.Sinceatsuch placesthepilgrim alwaysuttersfirst ofall, a'haduannala ilahan illa allah,thustestifying totheunity ofGod,the places maybe namedmashadafterthis testimony (hadeh).8 1The Jea appears asanegro,withaswordinhishand.2Inhabited byCAdjam.Onlythetopofthe large hillis surroundedbyan enclosure.3Anegro saint. 4 Jos. 726; 829. 5 Couiwmesdes Arabes,p.336. G Not often usedinthe singular.7Fromthe root liihada "to behold."8Fromthe root sahida, shiideh, "togive testimony."


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuaries in Palestine753.StoneswhicharebelievedtobewitnessesbeforeGodthatthe personwho erected themvisitedthatsanctuary andsaida prayer.Itisbelivedthatintbedayof judgment menmayaskanimals, plantsorstonestotestifyforthem.Thusthesestonespiledupby thepilgrimwhile uttering a prayer andsayingthe fatibah, may bear witness1bothtohispietyandtohisvisittotheholyplace.They willatthesametimeremindtheholyman,inwhosehonourthe ziarah (visit)wasmade,tohelpandto intercede forthepilgrim.> Even intheOld Testament wehaveaheapofstonessetasawitness, asinthestoryof Laban andJacob.3Travellingfrom Jerusalem to Jericho there isaroad branching totheright,afewkilometres after passingel-Hod,This road leads toNabi Thehillswheretheshrineisseenforthefirsttime, arecoveredwhiththesestoneheaps.EveryMohammedanwhopasses by-whetherduringthefestivaloratany other time-throwsone ormorestonesonsuch a heapormakesanewone.Ashedoesso he utters the above mentioned siluldeh andrecitesthe !dtiljah. Few heapsarelarge,most of themconsiistingofafewstonesonly.The loweststoneisthe largest andthetoponethesmallest.Thesesmall heapsmaybemadeupof 2, 3,4orfivestones. Generally,onevery road leading tothe sanctuary fromwhatever direction, 4 (plof fta$b, another nameforthesestone-heaps) areerected.ThusIobservedsuchheapsonthefour roads leading toNabt Musa, onthreeroadsto el-Hadr (BetDjala) andontwo1Cf. Luke 19 40; Heb. 311.2Sucha belief isnot recent.In fil-aBbar el-qudsiyak(bycAbdel,.Madjid CAH) wereadonpage62thataman,whileonCArafat,took sevenstonesandsaid: "Oh stones, witnessthatIbelieveandsay, there isno godbutGod,and Mohammed ishis prophet."Thatnighthe dreamtthatin thejudgmentdayhewas tried and found tobea sinner andsenttohell.As he approached thefirst gate ofhelloneofthestones blocked the entrance.Alltheangelsofthelowerworldwere unable toremove this obstacle. The same thing happened ateveryoneofthesevengatesofhell.Hewasin consequence brought backtotheheavenlyjudgewhoallowedhimtoenterheaven sincethe stoneshad borne witness in his favour.3Gen.31 45 if. t Not na,'ib as McCown has. NaI}'ib means"lot,luck";whilenasb(pI. "stonessetupasa sign," comesfromthesamerootfromwhichnusbor 'nusub (pt "idols"is derived. Cf. ..


76JournalofthePalestin e Oriental Societyleading to es-seg el-Tlmaried-Djbe'i,andalsoonthetwo roads to :aasaner-Ral.1 Thiscustom of making small'pilesof stones applies onlyto comparatively few sanctuaries. Christiansarealso acquainted with these qanatir (pl,qantarah,athird"name)andthey-pilestones whenreaching es-Sarafeh, ontheirwayfroin BetDjala to el-Hadr, since from this pointtheycanseeonone side MarElias andontheothersidetheconvent ofSt.George. These" sawahid donotclosely resemblethestonesthatmarktheboundaries offields,asMcCown2thinks.Landmarks 'are generallymadeof large stonesplacedseparatelyata distance fromeachother, running more orlessinastraightline, usually between fields. When theyaremadeof stones theydifferfrom qanatir inusingfarlargerandfewer stones. Qanatir mayalsostandforquitedifferentpurposes. Amongthese minor purposes wemaymention:1.Heapswhichareraisedina place where aholymanis supposed tohaverested,asintheneighbourhood ofthe sqifes-sel}. cAsfur.32. Sometimes atravellerafterclimbing a high mountain raises aheapof stones or throws a stone onan existing heap, sayingatthesametimeaprayerasamarkofthankstoGodthathehas overcome adifficulty.Heapsof thissortaregenerally knownbythename eZ-Majdzeh.4 Atthetopoftheascentof Farbah nearSaIfit such majaeat maybeseen.Similarcasesaredescribed inJoshua,wheretheIsraeliteserectedstonesatGilgal asa memorialaftercrossingtheJordanandthusovercomingthedifficulties oflong wandering.sSamuelalso,aftersubduingthePhilistines, "took astoneandsetit between MizpahandShenandcalleditEbenezer, saying;HithertohaththeLordhelped us."6.1Othersanctuaries where such stone heapsaresetupare:en-nab! Lilt, en-nab! Yaqin, CAll bin'Lem,el-Tlzer, etc. 2Annual ofthe Amer. School 11andIll,p.66.3Heardfrom'Omar Effendi el-Barghfiji. 4Mafazelt means in reality desert.Hereit denotes successin overcoming a dangerous difficulty. 5Joshua,ch.4. 6 1Same712.


CANAAN:MohalnmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine773.Where prominent chiefsof.avillageora district arekilled, heapsofstones1areraised by passers-byandprayersaresaidfor their souls.Such qanatir are smaller andmuchless numerousthanthosenear a sanctuary.InMaqtal el-Masaig 2onthewayto BetRima wefindsuchheaps.The qanatir ofthisclassaretheconnecting linkbetween prominent personsandholymen,a point onwhichI shalldwell later.Inconcludingthe treatment ofthisgroupImustobservethatwhile therdjumehare regarded asholyplacesandthedwellingsofholy men,the sawahid,qanaf,ir and mafazat donotenjoy this dignity. Onthesouthern road leading from Qastal to Soba wefinda large heapofstones, built ina circular form.Itis about1.50metres highand2 metres in diameter.Inthe centre ofthe upperparta perpendicular stone projects. No taqah, treenor cistern is connected with it. Thepeoplewhom I asked for explanation saidthat a welihadappeared (alhoar nafsuh)atthisspotwhich belonged tohim.Inpietythe peasants erected this heap.IX.Asingle large stoneorarock.\Wehaveonlyfew representatives ofthis category.Withthe exceptionoftheHolyRock, ofthe "Mosque ofOmar," whichishighlyhonourednotalonebythe Mohammedans of Palestine butbythewholeMoslemworld,the other holy stonesandrocksof Palestine receivefarless respectandreligious reverencethanthe other kindsofshrinesand maqamat. The sanctity assigned to them isineverywayslight.A description oftheHolyRockisof prime importance andwillbegivenattheendofthis chapter. Someholyplacesofthis categoryarethefollowing: lrAraq el-'Adjami3in BetIdjza isanaturalrock, innoway prominent, norisitconnected withanymaqasn,tree, cave,or cistern.Inthemiddleofitis a small, artificial depression,inwhich, Iwastold,offeringsareput.1These resemble insome respects the heaps of stones mentioned inJos.7 26 ; 829and2Same1817.2WhenIsawthisplacein 1921 there werebutfewheaps.3Ifoundno connected withthisplace.


78Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSocietyInthe neighbourhood ofDerGhassaneh there aresomerocks called Nuqqar el. fAdjam.1 Theyaresituated betweentwohills,and are assigned toelfAdjam. Inpassing,the fella1) will recite the jati1)ah tothese awlia, justashewouldatany other shrine.Novows,offerings,or oathsaremade toorbythem.Inthevillage Seg Sacd(in the Hauran) there is a stone called eabretAyub, onwhichitissaidthatthe prophetJobusedtelean during the daysofhisaffliction. The stoneisan ancient stela with hieroglyphics ofthetimeof Rameses 11.2Onthe height ofthe mountain el-Martum,3 neartheruinsof Beni Dar,4 andto the south ofthevillage Bani N'em,a maqam is built for the supposed prophet Yaqin.!Intheroomwenoticea rock encircled withan.ironframe.This.rockshowstheimpressions oftwofeetandoftwohands.Itis related thatAbraham was ordered byGodtocometothisplace,wherehecouldobservethe destruction ofSodomand Gomorrah.ItiscuriousthatalthoughAbrahamisknowntobe a pre-Jslamic prophet the impressions showthathe performed his prayer withtheface turned toMecca. Outside this maqam there is another rock.showingalsotheim pressions oftwofeet.TheyaresaidtobethoseofLot.Thisrock is surrounded bya Hadjarel 'Arftri 6tothesouthofSalfit.isa large pieceofrock, besidewhich as-seg. el-' Ar1iri issaidtohave rested.'Qarater-Rifaci tothewestofDerGhassaneh is supposed tobe the placewhere er-Rifai usedto rest.Inthecemetery of Bab er-Rahmeh situated alongthewesternwallofJerusalemtothesouthofSt. Step hen's1The nuqqar arecomposedofseveral large stones raised fromtheground. The lJuffi1lehdarawil are afraid topassin their neighbourhood, especially during the night. The night between Thursday and Friday isthemostdangerous ('Omar Effendi el-Barghuti), These features aretrueofmany other holyplaces. Acomplete description ofthemwillbegivenin another chapter.2ZDPVXIV,147.Ihavenotseenthisplace.3Theviewfromthis high mountain, especiallytotheeast,isexcellent.The Dead Seaandthe mountains ofMoabare distinctly seen. The ruins areat present alsocalled birbet nabi Yaqin. :-. Mudjir ed-Din saysthe shrine wascalled masdjad el-Yaqin,because Abra hamsaid,whenSodomandthe other citieswere destroyed: "Hacj8 hua-ll}.aqqu l-yaqin", Thisisthesuretruth, (el-Mmed-djalil p. 85). 6'OmarEffendi el-Barghu,i,


CANAAN: MohammedanSaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine 79Gate, thereisa broken pillar,tbesidethetombof es-seg.Saddad. Itisbelievedthatby rubbing one'sbackon this pillar onewillbe curedofany backache.2El-Hadjarel-Mansi, "the forgotten stone,"is supposed tobethegrave ofa Christian who joinedtheMohammedan faithjustbefore hisdeath.Some inhabitants oftheMohammedanquarteron "Mount Zion"3observedonvarious occasions a light shining fromthisspot. Thisprovedtothemthesanctity oftheplace. 4 A light usedto be burned every Thursday evening to this "forgotten man."In el-Aqsa Mosque therearetwo pillars, betweenwhichitisbe lievedthatnobastardchildcanpass.6This isoneofthemanyso called "ordeals ofGod".7Inside el-Mas'ad; the Chapel oftheAscension (ontheMount of Olives)weareshownon a stone .theimpression oftherightfootofJesus,This place belongstotheMohammedansbutitisalsoheld sacred bythe Christians, who celebrate mass here on certain days.Thesacred stoneis surrounded by a beautiful octagonal building witha vaulted roof.8Christians honouralso other stonesandrocks.Ineednot mention Golgotha,andthepillar whereChristwasboundandscourged,butwilllimitmyself toa description ofthe'sacred stones ofSt. George, the"MilkGrotto,"andtherockonwhichElijahis supposed to haTe rested. TheholystoneofSt. George (el.. :ijalr between Bet DjaJa andthePoolsofSolomon)stillplaysan important role. Thestory as itis recorded inthe author'sAberglaubeisas follows. While a Greek priest wasofficiating at theHoly CommunionintheChurch1Kahle,1.c. 2 Itistobe presumedthatthis pillar drawsits curative power fromthe le!! nearwhosegraveisisfound.I,3The quarter isknown&S l;Iaret en-Nabi Dahlid.If' Itisinthe Armenian cemetery.11 5 Heardfromthe Armenian Vi(\toria Itis also believed that only those whowillenterParadise canpass between the pillars. '7 Forparallels seeGoldziherH,pp.408,409;and Curtiss, 1.c.8Inthe AqS8 mosqueweareshown qadam BtgidnaeIsa, thefoot impression ofChrist,andintheroom'leadingtotheso-called "Solomon's Stables,"srir seyidnaIsa, thecradleof Christ.


80Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSocietyof Mar Djirius,afewdropsofthe sacred winewerespilled. They penetrated through hisfootand burst thestoneonwhichtheyfell. Thewoundofthe priest never healedandhediedasa punishment forhis carelessness in handling the BloodoftheSaviour.Thestone receiveda supernatural curative powerfromthe sacred wine,which benefitedeverysick person who happened tokneelonit.Itsrepu tation soon spread allover Palestine, and great numbers ofsick flocked thither. Even the CzarofRussia heard ofthewonderful virtuesofthisstoneand sent aman-of-wartoJaffato bring it away.Insolemnprocessionthestoneissaidtohavebeen brought to Jaffa.ButSt.Georgedidnotallowittobe transported further. Every timethe boat carrying thisprecious treasure removedsome distance fromtheshore el-Hadr brought it back withhis spear. All recognizedthefollyofdisobeying the wishesofthe saint andsothe stonewas brought back toitsplace.1ThewhitestonesoftheMilk Grotto are usedbyChristians and Moslemsof Bethlehem andthe surrounding district asamulets to increase theflowof mother's milk.Itissupposedthat a fewdrops ofthe Virgin's milk dropped onthefloor,Opposite to Mar Elias on the westernsideotthe carriage road there is a depressionin the rock.Itis relatedthatSt. Elijah slept inthis place whileescapingfromhis persecutors.2Butthemost important rockis whichmeasures17.7x13.5metres andis situated in the midstofthe"MosqueofOmar,"The rough surfaceof the rock stands in great contrast tothe beauty and harmony of the interior ofthemost beautiful mosqueof the Orient.Therockisin itself sacred,andis protected fromvisitorsbya railing.Itssanctity isduetoitsconnectionwithsomanyprophets,1See Hanauer,Folklore of" theHolyLand,p.52.2 From between MarElias and Tantur apieceof rock was carried to BetDjaJa. ItissaidthatwhileMarywascomingfrom Bethlehem to Jerusalem carrying herchild,she passedJewsthreshing beansontherockeastof Tantur. Christ criedforsome,andsheaskedthepeopletogiveherahandful.They refused andsaidthattheywerenotbeansbutonlystones.And forthwith they turned intosmallstones.The workersatoncefollowedherandaccusedherof being awitch.She hastened toescapeandwhenshewasonthe point offalling intotheirhandssheaskedarocktohideher.Atoncethestoneopened and sheltered her.Invaindidher pursuers searchforher.Thisstone carries the nameof srires-Saiyaeh.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine81especially Mohammed.WhentheProphetascendedto heaventherock would have followed him,wereitnotthattheangelGabrielhelditdown.Ontwo occasionsthe rock spoke, once toMohammed and again to'Omar, Ishallnotdescribeallthebeliefsconnectedwith this stone sincetheycanbe found elsewhere. On,aroundandbelowitwefindthefollowingsacredplaces:I. On therockitself:11.Theimpressions ofthefingers oftheangelGabriel,whokepttherockfromfollowingtheprophetwhileheascendedtoheaven (western part).2.Thefootsteps ofLdris (east).3.Thefootsteps of Mohammed, twelve innumber.Theprophetis said to have walked overthatpartoftherock.Thestoneyieldedandsotheimpressions remained.11.Belowtherock: 4. BeforeenteringthecavebelowtheSacredRockoneisshownthe"tongue oftherock."Itissaidthatinthenightvisit (lelatu-l-Mitradj) oftheprophethesalutedtherock:as-saldswu taleikiyaabrati-l-ldh ("peacebe with you,0Rockof God"),anditansweredatonce:labbeikwaaleik. ya rasulallah("atyour service,andpeacebewithyou,0Apostleof God").5.Fifteenstepslead to thecavebelowthe abrah. Totherightofitwehavetheniche of king Solomon.6.StillfurthertotherighttheplacewhereMohammedprayed;sincehewastallandtherooflow,hewould havestruckhis head,but7.Therock gavewayinthatplace,andweareshowntaCdjit (the impression ofhis head). 8.Theprayingplaceofal-Hadr,atanelevated point.9.'Masnad Djubrail istheplacewherethe angel' waiteduntiltheprophetfinished hisprayer.10. Mil)rab Ibrahimel-Halil,andtotheleft ofthestaircase,11. DAhfid. 12.Therock js perforatedinthemiddleanditissaidthattheprophetascendeddirectlythroughitto heaven.tKahle,PJVI, 93, mentionsonly20places (under 19heads).6


82Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Society13.Justbelowthecentreofthecave is believed tobetheBirel-Arwah, which is covered witha marble plate.Thesoulscometogethertwice aweekinthecisternandperformtheirprayers.Ill.DirectlyaroundthesacredRock:14.Theimpression ofthefootoftheprophet, whichisshown onaseparatestone, placed on small pillars totheS.W. corner. 15.Thehairsfromthebeardoftheprophetarekeptinasilver casejustabove No.14.116.ThebannersoftheprophetandofOmararekeptinabox, which isnearNo.15. 17.Two niches connected with Hamzeh, 18.A mibrab inthenorthernside ofthe where some oftheprophetsused topray(mihrab el-Anbiaj.?IV.Ata distance from 20.Babed-Djanneh(thenortherndoor)." 21.El-Balstahes-Sodah4(whichwas removed byDjamal Pasa) isalsoknownbythename ofBalatited-Djanneh. It is saidthatMohammeddrove nineteen golden nailsintothis stone.'Fromtime to timeGodwasto'sendan angel toremovea nail, and"whenallhavebeenremovedthelastdaywillbe.athand.Onedaythedevil succeeded in removing 'someof them.Whilehewastakingthemouthewas driven away Qy theangelGabrielwho foundthatonlythreeandahalfnails remained. 22.NearthesoutherndoorweseemihrabAbiHanifatu-n-N u'man. 5 23.Inone side oftheeasterndoorwefinda bearingthenameof lJiluet 'Ali5(thesecluded place ofprayerof'Ali),Inel-muriid liz-zairwad-dalil wefindanenumerationoftheseplaces. A specialprayerforeveryplaceisgiven,andthenumber 1 Theyareshownonthe27thof Rama<}.an, whichisthoughttobe lelat'l,-t-Qadr. 2ItissaidthattheProphetMohammedprayedherewith ?ther prophets inlelatu-lMi' radj. 3Thefour doorsofthe mosque arethe western (Babel-Gharb,or Bab en Nisa), thenorthern(Bab ed-Djanneh),theeastern (Bdb Dahftd, or Bab es-Sinsleh)andthesouthern (Bdb el-Qibleh). Uns ed-Djalil givesto"the eastern doorthe nameBab Israfil.4 Underitissaidtobethe tomb ofSolomon. sItisnotregardedassoimportantasthe others.


CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine83of kneelings tobe performed is indicated.Mudjired-Din1mentions onlyNos.1,4,11,14,21,andthecave(al-ghar).2Al-imam Abft BakrbinelCArabi 3pretendsto have seentherockfloating intheair,withoutany support. A modern belief whichhasitsparallelinal-unsed-djalil4isthatfromunderthisrockfourstreamsflow,5tothesouthHammam es-Sifa, totheeastSiloam Censitu Mariam),tothenorth en Hadjdjiand en el-Qasleh,andtothewestHammames-Sultan."Before closingthischapterImayfurthermentionAbued-Dhurarocksituatedontheleft sideofthecarriageroadfromJerusalemto Jericho,afterpassing el-I:IoQ.7 Thisrockhasawidespreadreputation forthecure of backache.Afterapatienthasrubbedhisbackagainsttherock,he plac:s a stone onit.WhenlastIsaw this "father of backs" hewasloadedwith alargeheapof stones.Heisnot assignedatpresenttoany weli, andIcannotexplainitswidespreadtherapeuticuse,exceptby assumingthatitmusthave been once connected insomewaywithaholymanorobjectof worship.8IdonotthinkthatCurtiss isrightin sayingthatsuch stonesact by theirownmagic power.Neitherthecolournorthesubstance ofwhichourlastexample is composed differ inanyway fromtherocks intheneighbourhood astoattractspecial attention.9 Wenote alsoin this connectionthatthisideaof honouring stones isnotacharacteristicofthepresentinhabitantsofPalestine,butwaswellknownintheancientOrient.InGen.1818fI. weread:1El-unsed-djalil ft el-quds wal-balil, p.371fr.2Inan appeal bytheSupreme.Moslem Council of Palestine, which contains a short guidetothe Temple Area, onlyNos.5,8,10,11arementioned.3Referred tobyMudjired-Din,p.371. 4)Iudjir,p. 205.. 5 JPOSI,153-170.6Mudjired-Din saysthatallwaterthatisdrunkcomesfromunderthe Everybodywhodrinkswateratnighttime should say:"0wateroftheHoly Cityyouare saluted" (p.206).'1Calledalsothe"Springofthe.Apostles"Itisprobablythe"Springofthe Sun," mentioned inJos.157.8Itiscuriousthatinthecontinuation of Wadi el-Hodandnotfarfrom this rock wehave es-8ams and Mgheiyr esSams which correspond totheBiblical nameof fenha-semes. 9This rock isnotmentionedintheguide books. No religious honours are paidtoit.6


84JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society"Jacobroseup early inthemorning,andtookthestonethathe hadputforhispillow,andsetitupforapillar,and poured oil uponit.Andhecalledthenameof the placeBeth-el",tInIs.576we read about "the smoothstonesofthe stream," towhichthe Israeliteshad"poured adrinkoffering"and"offeredameatoffering."2Beforeleavingthis section ofour subject wemaycall attention tothoseraresacred placesthatarenot characterized byanyof the aforementioned features,i.e.thosethatexhibit no tomb, maqam, tree,cave,enclosurenorrock.Itis hardly possibletobelievethatsuch dirty andunasumingplaceshaveeverattractedthe attention ofthe peasants. Wefindgenerallynocluetoexplainwhytheyhave been assigned toa welt Among ofthis nature Imaymention: EiS-seg Salman (Bet Snrik),asmall cupboard-like hollowinthe wallofa garden. The pomegranate trees near bydonotbelongto the weli. InthisopeningIsawoil-lamps. El-cAJjami CAwartah),anopenplacehavingontwosidesthe remainsoftwooldandstrongly built walls.Notomb,cisternnor tree belongstothe weli. Inthewesternwall there isa taqah, whereoilis burned andincenseoffered. EI-CAdjami(asecond saint ofthesamenamein 'Awartah), aruined buildingwithno remains orsignsofa rn,i1J,rdb ortomb.The inhabitants ofthevillagesaythattheplaceusedtobethehouseofa peasant.Itseemsthata ruin is connected withmostexamplesofthisclass. Thustheplace bought bytheRussiansin 'Anata showsaruinof a building withsomepillars, probably theremainsofa church. The fellalyj,n ofthisvillagebelievethatitis haunted by butno bodyknowswhotheyare.Notallof these placesarewell cared for.Theyareoften dirty and unattended. Thistles and other weedsflourish.Oldtins, stones and rubbish fillthem.Thiswasespecially true ofthetwosacred placesof 'Awartah, alsoofBanat andofel-Tlmari (bothin Jericho). Ofthe last two4theformershowsanoutlineof t Seealso Curtiss, 1.c.2S.Bevan,in ROasting's Dictionary oftheBibleIll,188t3Somecall them Banatea-eey4 Theywere three andwere honoured intwoplacesin Jericho.Whentheirhabitations were ruined they leftJerichoand went to ij:asban. Theyusedtoappearintheformof Bedouin women.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine85asmall square building t whichwasverypoorly constructed.Nearthesecond2there isa ruihed cistern.B. RITES ANDPRACTISESInour study ofthe different formsandcategories of Moham medan shrines in Palestine wehavelaidthefoundation forour further investigations.Withouta thorough knowledgeoftheformer the study ofthelatterwillbe difficultandincomplete.Iintendin the presentchaptertotakeupthequestion:Whatisdoneintheholy places? Acts connected witha shrine maybe performed inthe maqam itself, outsideofit,orata distance fromthesanctuary. They comprise simple acts aswellas complicated ones.Thefollowing classification includesthemostimportantactsperformed inaholy place,arrangedaccording totheirdegree of complexity:1.Religious actsI.Utterance ofsimple protectivewords11.Repetition of prayersIll.ReverenceIV.Religious serviceasinamosqueV.Thebarakeh2. Placing private propertyundertheprotection ofthe welt,3.Tying rags 4. Healing 5. Making oaths 6. Paying vows7.Celebration offeasts,mawasim8.Processions. Someless important acts willbe mentioned undertheabove headings.1Ifoundtinoil-lampsintheso-called shrine.2A djami' issaidtohaveoncebeen situated here, bearing thenameof'Omar,


86JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society1.RELIGIOUS ACTS I.Utteranceofsimple protective words Nopious peasant ever approaches or enters a maqam without first askingthepermission ofthe welt Thegeneral expression isdasturt (ya sidna 2 C Abdes-Salam3),"with yourpermission(0our lord cA)."ItisacommonArabic-especiallyMohammedancustomneverto enter a harem without asking permissionto enter, ormore correctly notifyingthe bari1n 4(women)thatamaniscoming. 6 Dastirqabl ma iudhul,"getpermission beforeyou enter," usedto bea I rule enforced oneverymale servant.6Itis customary touse theworddasiualoneorcombinedwith ba4ur, aswellaswith different appeUativesofGod.?Evenwhensomebody intends to contradict or criticizethestatements of another hebeginswithdastur8 (el-mas'alihmiShek), "withyour permission(thatisnotthe question)." Much more significantandtherefore more frequent is this custom whena person approaches the abode ofsome supernatural being, a demon, a spirit,0'1"a saint..Nobodyusedto approach an1ThisisaPersianword coming fromdast "rule, order," anduun: ), "owner" (cf. I,650).The direct meaning of' "permission" doesnotoccur inliteraryArabic,butinthecommon language itisso understood.2 Sidi means "mymaster,my lord." In Palestinian Arabic italso means "mygrandfather" (djiddi). 3CAbdes-Salsm el-Asmar camefromMoroccoto Palestine, andlivedinthevillage of Ijirbet CAlmit,now a ruin. Owingtoaconflict betweenthegovernment andtheinhabitantsof this village,the former destroyed the houses oftherebels.'Abdes-Salamwentto cAnata, boughtthesiteandlived there.Hisdescendants arethepeasants of this village.The hadsix children, oneofwhom, Qasim died 'without leaving children. The other fivewerecAlawi, Ibrahim,cAli, (Abdallah and c.ibd el-Latif; cAlawibegot lIanldan, father of Mol}ammed, father of Al).mad whoisstill living. Tothis Al}mad Iowe this story andthe chronology. Sel! 'Abdes-Salam belonged totheorder ofthe Rifaci . 1!arim means also "wife," "mywife"(aswellas"mywives"). Many use which really stands for"my family," ill thesameway. & Evenwhen a manentered hisown house, heusedto notify his entrancewithoutfail,astheremightbewomen guests.6This custom prevails more in citiesthaninthevillages.TheinhabitantsofHebron,NablusandGazausedtobevery strict .,Ya sattar,"0Concealer;" yaftafi/, "0Keeper;" yaamin, "0Faithful," etc.8The above-mentioned comesfrom andmeans"be ready, be onyourguard."Whenrocks are blasted this wordisalsoused.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine87'inhabited cave, spring, or tree, orto draw water fromsucha spring withoutaskingpermission.1Theirritateddjinn may otherwise injure theperson.Forthesame reason oneshouldneverputout burning coalswith water without adirectandloud request permission: 2 dasiur bai!urya 8ukkanen-nar,3 "with your permission,takecare,oinhabitants ofthefire."Inotherpartstheexpression is: yaahl el-ard fil-c ard,"0,inhabitants oftheearth,weareunder your protection." Cemeteriesarethe abiding places ofthesoulsofthe dead and theywereformerlynever entered without asking permission.! So alsoholyplacesareonly approached or enteredafterdasiarThisactnotonly expresses respect forthe weli, butalso reverence.Inthecaseof djinn respectandfeararethereasons for asking per mission. Through sucha behaviour one both gainsthefavourand thehelpofthemenofGod,andavoidsthedanger whichmaybefall himfromtheevil spirits..Notonlyaresuch precautions taken in approaching amaqam,. but alsowheneverthenameofan important saint is mentioned; oneis afraid to trouble aweli.6Thefollowing example will illustrate this custom. When I asked a peasant of cAnat' about e-seh 'Abdes Salam,he told meastorytoconvincemeoftheimportanceandpowerofthis seh. He began: marrah rikibwalad (ala qobr eS-seJ]cAbdes-Salam-dasturya sidna ',"Onceaboy rode onthetombof (Abd...,withyour permission0our lordcA..."71 ..4berglaube,p.8if.2A custom wide-spread inPalestineandprovingthatdemonsaresupposedto abide infire.ForstillotherproofsseeAberglaube.p.11.3Anothersentence is dastu'rfl,aq,uritfarraqu la ti,[ltirqil, "withyourpermission,takecare, disperse, elseyouwillheburned." Thiscustom isnowdyingout. 5 TheKurdssayat such occasions: quddusrabbuna 'loarabb el-mala' ikah "Holy andpraisetoourlordthelordoftheangelsandthe spirit" (heard fromMr.St.H. Stephan).6Saintsarealwaysatworkprayingorhelpingothers;thereforetheyshouldnever be troubled.Askingpermission tocalluponthemassurestheirconsent.7No sooner wastheboyonthetomb,thanitbeganto riseandrise, while the ceiling ofthe maqam grewhigherandhigher.Thefrightenedboy.promisedthe le!J, apresentifhebroughthimdown,andatoncethetombbeganto descend untilitwasdown again.Trembling,theboygotdown andhastenedtofulfill his promise (related by Mo.l}ammed of cAnata).

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88JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyAswehaveseeninthisexamplethename ofthesaintis added totheworddas tu r.Sometimes instead ofthenameitselftheex pression"0friend ofGod"isplacedafterdastur:dastur ya weliy allah. Veryrarely da3tur alone isused.Inthecaseof nemMfIsa Iheardfroma woman ofJerusalemthefollowing expression: dastur yabn cImran 1illi naruh min bdjaruh,"dastftr, 0sonof "Imran, whosefirecomesfromhis stones."! On entering nebi Sale!), dastur ya nebi$ali1J, 3 yaraci en-naqah, "dastur, 0Prophet Sal eh,oshepherdoftheshe-camel,"4isused.WithcAliibn cAlem, dastur ya 'Ali ibn cAlem5ya ladjim el-bahar "dastftr, 0CA.ibncA.athouwhobridlesttheseawithahair"6is heard.Thiscustom isnotonlyfound among theMohammedans,buttheChristiansalsouseit.St.GeorgeenjoysagreatreputationinPalestineanditis especially in connection withhimthatdasturor es-salamCaleh is used bytheChristians. Onrareoccasions onewhoenterstheenclosure ofa shrine (the ruQ,q orarcadein front ofthereal maqam) andsays dastur may receive from persons sittingtheretheanswerdasturakmacak,"you haveyourown permission,"i.e.,youcannotentertheshrine. Suchananswerisgivenwhenwomenareinthesanctuary, andthepresence ofamanisnotallowed. This same expression meansjusttheopposite, "youmay enter," whenitissaidtoamanasking per mission toenterahouse.Besidetheaskingpermission.wemeetcontinually with cases wheretheweli is invoked, inevery phase of daily life.NopeasanttAccording tothe Koran.2The stones around Nebi Musa areblackand contain some bitumen, sotheyburnwhenputonafire.3Nebi has several maqams. Theabove expresaion isusedbythepeople ofthevillageofNebi ealel}. The sanctuary is situated onthetopof a mountain,andencircles histomb. Under the kitchen there isan olive-press(badd)where thesoul of theprophet'sservant dwells Seethe Koran, Sureh VII,forthe story oftheshe-camel sent byGodto thetribeof 5 .His sanctuary is situated onthe sea-shorenorthofJaffa,Heissaidtobethedescendant of'Omaribn Inthe neighbourhood ofthe maqam weseethe ruins of Common tradition relatesthatits inhabitants sinned profusely, sothattheholyman punished thembythrowing a sherd froma brokenjar (qarq12mibriq) onthe village, thus destroying it (heard fromO.S. BargUti).6 Itisbelievedthatassoonasthishairbreaks theseawillfloodthe country.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine89willbeginanywork without askingthehelp oftheAlmighty orthatofasaint.Theusual phrasesare:bism allah, "inthename of God;"bism el-cAdra,"in thename oftheVirgin;" ya nabiy allah,"0 prophet of God;" yaUaiJrel-.AJyJar, "0green IJa
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90Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyOftenthesimple invocation ya sultan Ibrahim (iij'z ibni),"0 sultan lb. (cure myson);" ya Abit l-anbia,'0father ofthe Prophets(i,e.Abraham)"areused. Every fellaZt believesfirmlythatthe saint will respondatoncetoacallforhelp.Inthe Lebanon I have heardthefollowing expression usedbya muleteer.! whose animalhadfallendown underitsload: ya mar Elyas ilaknussuh.u'ala "0St. Elias, youwillgetthe half ofit-ifonlyitisnot injured."3I shall cite somecaseswhere their helpis implored to illustrate' this belief: Acamel belonging toa poor camel-driver (djaf!lmal) slipsoverarockandthereis danger of fracture 'ofalegandthe lossofthepreciouscamel.sAnassloadedwithaheavyfloursack falls under itsload.!A traveller loseshispathduringthenight.andallhiseffortstofindtherightdirection arefutile.Thefollowing story illustrates thispoint.Dr.Djadfrom was invitedtoattendtheweddingofafriendinYa'bad, While there hehadanattackoffever.Asa coachman whowasleavingfor Haifa refused. to take himalong,hebeggedthe $ababeh Mesar6topunishthecoachman, whosewheelwasbrokenontheway.This physicianalsoimploredthesame saint to bring back his brother, whowas deported bytheTurks,andthebrotherwas brought back inamiraculousway.Notonlyinsimpleinconveniencesbutingreatdifficultiestheassistance ofthe saints is asked for.Inexaminingvowsweshall1Muleteers (also coachmen, porters and boatmen) are notoriously profane, therefore the Arabic proverb mitlel-mkdri,mabiyud,ku'raU{i,hiliail-fl,iml, "likethe muleteer, hedoesnotcallonGod, except whenin difficulty (undera.load).2Pronounce the k in and 3 was explained tomeas"injured;"I tried tofindout whether it isnot ilJu8Sk, "become less,"butitwas always pronounced, with aclear 4 Acamelusedtobeandisstillsometimes (but muchmore rarely than before) theonlysupportofthefamily.Suchananimaloftenformedtheonly capital ofa peasant. sAmanwho drives donkeys carrying wheat toamill(orflourfromit)is callediarriis.Inclassical Arabic this meaning isnotknown(see Havagivesitthemeaning"Hirerof donkeys," andsaysthatitis"onlyused inEgypt."InJerusalemithasthe above-mentioned meaning.InthedistrictofBeni Zed the means"toload heavily":djamal miiris,"avery heavily loadedcamel;" fulan airas bagkluh, "N.loadedhismulevery heavily." GMesarah bin Masruq el-cAbsi.His shrine, situated onthetopofamountain. andneara ruin, lies between Djiffin and Baqah. (0.S.B.)

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine91seethattheyarereally nothingbutinvocations combined withpro mises.Iwillrelatehereanotherstory1toillustratemore fullythepointin question.TheBedouins ofthe Tayaha tribeattacked BetDjaJA one night.Thefrightened inhabitants, whowere much less in numberthantheBedouins, besought Inqula(istandjadu)to helpthem. Suddenly the Bedouins began torunin disorder, shouting: aCuiJubil-lah minbalad sdjarha iursuk bdjar,'1By for refugetoGodfromavillagewhose. trees throw stones."Thepeasantsofthevillage assembled inthechurchof thissainttothankhim forhaving delivered them so wonderfully from their fierce ennemies, Theyobserved,totheirgreatsurprise,thatthequneh.was dripping sweat,2whichwasanothersignofhis power.s11.Repetition ofprayersInentering a rnaqam apious fellalp willrecitethe fatibah or firstsftrehoftheQoran.Therecitation of thisprayeris believed tobefollowedbytheblessing ofthesaintandGod.Notonlywhen asimplepeasantenterstheshrine,butevery time he passes beside a1naqam-especiallyduringnighttime-herecites this prayer.Whena pilgrim isonthewaytovisita prophet's shrine,andwhenhe reaches ahigh place fromwhichthesanctuary isvisible, he stands stillandsays ashadu, anna la ilahan illa-llah, "1witnessthatthereisnoGod beside God."'I'hesame isdoneveryoften whenatraveller-withoutintending to visit ashrine-beholdsthe maqam fromafar.Inboth casesthepasser-by liftsuphishandsandpasses them downhisface(et-tabarruk4).Inthefirst case severalstonesmaybe thrown inaheap,whichis called mashad.o Inthecaseofaprophetthevisitor says a$-$ala.tu wassalamu calekaya nabiy allah,"prayer and peace beuponyou,0prophetof God."Sucha prayer is never used foracommonweli.A pilgrimtHeardfromdifferentpeopleof this village.2Otherinstances wherethepicture,ofa saint showsa miraculous signwill be discussed elsewhere.3Sincethistime MarInawa is regarded astheprotectorofthevillage. 4 El-Kawakibi thinks(in l'abai,cul-Istibdad:) thatthis performance isa vestige ofthe Christian custom of "crossing." Ihave never heard the expressions karkar and rakOJJeh (or ragflbeh ?)mentionedbyDoutteinMagieetReligion,P:420 fr."in connection with heaps ofstones.

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92Journal ofthePalestine Oriental SocietysaysIn visitingAhmader-Rfa'i:1 ya Alimad. yaRfaCiibminamin kull 80/i,"0 Ahmad,0R.,protectusfromevery creeping (following)thing(reptiles)."2Prayerssaid ina shrinearegenerally made forthebenefit ofthesaint;itis supposedthatGodwill reckon them tothecreditofthe weli. This iswhywehearinsome places:iqra l-fatibah can rul} ...(iqra l-fatibah .),"Recitethe forthesoulofthe sel] ..(recitethefforthe .)."Many visitorsperpetuatetheirnamesby writing someverseofthe Qoran onthewallofthemaqdm,oronthecenotaph.Asa typical sentence wemay quote:auddtuli hagal-maqan'tsihadati anna lailtlhan illa-lltih,"Ientrustto thismaqam myconfession (witness),thatthereisnoGodbutAllah."Afterfinishinghisvisitthepilgrim often makestherequestitqabbal zyartiya ...,"accept myvisit,0..."3Ill.ReverenceThereverence shownin connection withholy places is generalandmanifests itself in different ways.Itisatpresentnot nearly sostrictlyobserved asitusedtobe.Apiouspeasantwillnotentertheshrine ofanyimportant weli withouttakingoffhisshoes.4Theseheeitherleaves outside or carries withhim.>Insome cases et-Tori, 'Abdes-Salam, etc.) Ihavenotbeen allowed toenterexcept barefoot, whilein most of them "Abdallah in Qubebeh, Salmanel-FarstontheMount of Olives,Hasaner Raci nearNebi Mtisa, Hamadin Kolonia, etc.)no objections at allweremade.1 Al}mad er-Rfa'i was renowned for curing patients bitten by serpents. His followersarestill serpent-charmers.2 Al}mad er-Rfaci wasa His shrine in Palestine isinBeni Zed, aboutone'hourtothe east ofDerGhassdueb.Itisbelievedthatunder the maqam thereisa ghar (cave)inwhichlieshistomb.3Christians write u4kurya rabb'abdak. ..,"remember,0Lord,your servant.." Astheshoesaremade unclean by walking onthe street. whichisfullof impurities (including human andanimal excretions), they havetobe taken off. r. Inthe'caseofthe Omar Mosque, Nebi Musa and other shrines, all those whodonotdesiretotakeofftheir shoes puton slippers or sandals! inwhichtheymayvisitthe shrines.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine93Many willnotentera shrine except ina ritually clean condition.Forthis reason manypeasantswouldnotenterwithme intothe maqam, butwaited outside.Evenwhen Ienquiredaboutonethingor another, they answered without stepping in.! 'I'hese customs ofthemodernPalestinianremind usof olden times, whentheLordcalled unto Mosesoutofthemidst oftheBurningBush:"Putoffthyshoesfromoffthyfeat, fortheplacewhereon thoustandestis holy ground."2TheancientHebrewworshippers werealsonot allowed toapproachthesanctuarywithout first purify ing themselves, foronlytheceremonially clean wereaccepted.sNo unclean woman" ever approaches orentersa shrine, touches aholytree,drawswaterout of asacredwellorcomesneara consecrated spring.Thereis nothing whichwillirritateamanot Godasmuchas such animprudentact.! .Inthemidstofthevineyards of Betunia isthesource of llir bet :Nftta, whichisguardedbythesoulof Salel). Fromtime to timethewatergetsscantyandmay even stop flowing. This is alwaysthoughttoresultwhenan unclean woman approachestheopening. Oncethewaterstopped flowing,andastheinhabitantsof Betunia searchedinvain fortheimpure woman,a sheep wasofferedto e...se1jSalel) ,thesourcewaswell cleared out,andthewaterflowed again, evenmore abundantlythanbefore."Norarespringsinhabitedbydemonsto be approached byanymenstruatingwomen,ora woman witha bloodyissue.Thespring of Djifna,inhabitedbya ubride," isan1Oncea person ascendedtheroofofthe shrine of es-selJ,AbuIsmatil(BetLikia.) withouttakingoffhisshoes. This impiousactirritatedthemanofGod so muchthathe punished theevildoerwithparalysis, which didnotdisappear untilthe weli was reconciled bytheoffering oftwosheep.2 Exod.31S. 3Gen.852;Ex.1910;1Same165. ItusedtobebelievedbytheArabsthatwhenEve' pluckedthefruitof the tree,itbled.Asapunishmentforherdisobedience thefemale racemustbleed everymonth(D8iratu l-Macarif,vol.I,p.48).. 5 Uns ed-Djalil,vol.I,p.37,tellsusthatwhentheinhabitantsof Beersheba drovethepatriarchAbrahamaway,theironlywelldriedup.Thustheywere obliged togoandbegthemanofGodtohelp them. Hegave them someofhis sheepandsaid:"Assoonas these animals approachthewell,thewaterwillrise tothebrimandwill remain so.Butassoonasan unclean woman comesneartothewateritwilldryupfor ever."6See Canaan,JPOS11.159andAberglaube,p.37.

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CANAAK: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine95Thisisnottheplacetodiscussthe exacteffects-goodandevilwhichare supposed tobe caused Py a menstruous woman.tThosewho enter an important shrine remain silent, devoutand humble. When someone talksthevoiceis kept low;nosmoking, laughingorany other irreverent action isallowed. Before proceeding Imustemphasizethe factthatreverence as above described ispaid regularly onlytothe prophetsandthe importantawlia.Itis practised muchlessinthecaseofthe other shrines.Whenvisitingthe djarniC el-Arb'In CEsawiyeh Ifounda tax-gatherer of Jerusalem sleeping, eatingandtransacting hisbusiness intheholyplace.Wewereofferedcoffeewhichwasbrewedinthis place,andallsmokedtheircigarettes completely unmolested. Theholymenareexceedinglyirritatedwhen anybody commits adultery whileinorintheneighbourhood ofthe shrine.Itis believedthatthewhole mountain onwhichtheshrine of Nebi Musa isbuilt,shakesseverelywhensuchan'impiousactis performed,Noanimalsareeverallowedto enter a shrine. Some peasants object mostvigorouslyto fastening ahorseintheimmediate neigh bourhoodofamaqtim:Thislastcustom,however,is vanishing slowly.Manystoriesaretold to illustrate how awlia have punished intruding animals with death. Thefollowingisan example:2Some inhabitants of CEsawiyeh, whilegoingto their dailyworkinthe fields,oneday,founda dead jackal withanoillampinhismouth.Helay directly infrontofthe shrine of es-sel] cAnbar. This showed clearlythatthe beast had entered the shrineandcarriedawaythe oil-lamp,forwhichitwas punishedatonce. Sometimesthesaintsareforbearing andgive animals sufficient time tostop profaning the sanctuary.Butatlast, especially when human beingsbeginto doubt their power,they take revenge. cEn Qina is inhabited bythe weli 1Someeffectshavebeen mentioned inAberglaube,p.36ff.Othersare:Ifamenstruatingwomanwalksthrougha green field,the grass will wither. Some foods shouldnotbe prepared byawomanin thisstate,since they may spoil; milk,for example, willsour.Anyonewhosleeps with a menstruous woman willbecomea leper.2Other storiesare: Abu(Bet 'Anan) kills every gazellewhich eats leavesofhisolive trees.Everyanimal which climbsonthe building of ea-sel! fallsdown dead. Whenever a herd of goats orsheep approaches el-Qubbeh {to theeastofDerDjrir)the drivethemaway.SeealsoJaussen,p.308.

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96JoumalofthePalestineOrientalSociety Abul-CEnen. Thepeasantsused tolightinhishonour,everyThursdaynight, anoil lamp,theoilofwhichwas regularlydrunkby jackals.Thisirritatedtheowner of groundjustaroundthespring (Mohammed'Abdallah),so much,that ,he lighted anoil lamp for him withthewords:"Ifyoucannotprotectyour property, we shall never light your lamp again."Thenextmorningthejackalwas found dead, withtheoil lamp inhis mouth. This of course provedthepower oftheweliconclusively. Awoman used to placp a toz (pronounced really tos), bowlofbutter,undertheprotection oftheweli Abu Ndjem,Thenextday she observedthatapartofitwasstolen.Imploringthesaintto paralyzethehandofthethief, sheputdownanother toz, andthenextdayshefoundajackal (wawi) witha paralyzed foreleg still dipped inthebowl. AbuNdjem issituatedonthetopofahill onehoursouth of Artas. Hewasthe na.ddjab oftheprophet. Nadfljab means "one who goes beforetheprophet(orthe ofa tariqah) in procession tothenextvillageandannounces hiscoming with this. followers." Es-sel] 'Abed(near SataJ) issaidtokillanygoator sheep whichentershiscave.Thereareexceptions, where animalsareintentionally allowed toenterthedooroftheshrine,butno further. These cases willbe mentioned later.Theshrineandits surroundingsaresupposed alwaystobekeptclean.Butthis israrelyactuallythecase.We should, however, specifywhatthepeasantsunderstandby cleanliness.Nadjasehmeans "whatever is ritually unclean," as humanand(less) animal excretions.Pdeadbodies, unclean foodanddrink.!Et-tadjmir,thecleaning ofthepenis onthewallsafterurination, is strictly forbidden.Inthis sensetheholy placesarekeptmore orless clean,butnotinthesanitarymeaning of cleanliness, for quantities ofrubbisharefound inandaround some such placesBanat es-seb Salal). andel-'UmantHeardfromMiss Baldensberger.2Urine, faecalmatter,pus,menstrual blood, expectoration, etc.ATurkish officer evacuated once under the tree of AbftRis (BetCAnan). Thepunishmentfollowed immediately,theofficer being beaten veryseverelybyabranchoftheholy terebinth.Astrangerwhospentthenightin Abu I-cOn(Biddfi)brokewindduringhissleep.Theirritatedwelithrew himatonce outsidetheholyplace.3Porkandall alcoholic drinks.

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98JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society se1j N uran, 1andcutdown a tree of eS-se1j AbnHureri,2F.A.,an influential personof Jerusalem, askedsome peasants of Sarafat tocutoffadying branch oftheholyoak tree of el-Badriyeh which grewinhisgrounds.Allrefusedtodosuchaninfamousactand advisedhim strongly nottotouchthe tree.Hehired a Christian from Jerusalem whosaweddownthe branch.Butbeholdthevery next dayF.A.fellsickwithan acute attack of articular rheumatism.Thepeasants knewthatthiswasthe expected punishment ofel Badriyeh."IV.ReligiousservicesinashrineasinamosqueInsome shrines daily prayers areperformed,i.e.,theyserveas amosque.Allsuch shrines havea andtheyare located in thevillagesornotfarfromthem. The inhabitants ofvillages nearJerusalemdonothavemanysuchdjawamiCowing tu thefactthatthe peasants cometothecityonFriday 4 toperformthenoon prayers ($alat ed-djumCah)intheMosqueofOmar.Invillagesata distance fromJerusalemsuchdjawamiCarecommon.Thesemosquesarevisited especially in lelated-dju'Jnc ahandon Friday.Insome lelat 5alsoenjoysthishonour.Thesamemaybesaidofthe feastdays.Thevisitsin the mawasi1n willbe described below.InthisconnectionIwishtoobservethatsome Christian churchesarerespected andvisitedbytheMohammedans. Churches dedicated toSt.George-especiallyinthevillage el-Hader nearBethlehemfrequently enjoythisprivilege. Sitti Maryamcomesnext.The Chapel oftheAscension,theChurch ofthe Nativity, theMilk Grottoand MarElyas 6comeafter. The last twoenjoyonlythe respectofthe neighbouring Mohammedan villages.7According to MudjirtBetween Sallaleh andTell es-Sericah. 2Onthe road Beersheba-Gaza. Thesamecausesaregiveninconnectionwith ea-seg (er-Ram), en-nabi Nun, etc. 3 This story wastoldmebyF.A.himself. 4 Many comeon this daytoattendthe cattle market(BUqed-djumcalt) which isheldonceaweekon this day. Kahle,PJVII,pp.99ff.8Kahle mentions someof these places,PJVII,100.7Itistobe noted that some djawami'l -like el-'Uzerat-serve onlyforthe religious actsofwomen. .

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 99 ed-Din it isnotadvisable to perform anyprayerintheOhurchof St.Mary,asitis built in wadi Djhannam(thevalleyofhell).1V.ThebarakehThepeasant doesnotvisita shrine onlytofulfilavow,to make anoathortobecuredfroma disease,buthegoes very oftento these places .togeta "blessing."Barakeh2means even morethanasimple blessing; it denotes, asKahlesays,"a benevolent power whichradiatesfromtheholy place toeveryonewhocomesincontactwithit.Inordertogetsucha blessing,thevisitor touchesthetomb,its coverings,therosary, etc.,andthenpasses his hands over hisfaceanddownhis body, thusdistributingtheblessing transmittedthroughhis hands tothewholebody.!Others willkissoneoftheseobjects, oreventakeapartofthestarahandwrap apartoftheirbody withit.Fromtheoilofthelamps, whichmaybe used torubthehandsandtheface, one receives a morelastingbarakeh.'Waterfromsacredcisterns may bedrunkasa blessing,andatthesame timethedevoutpeasantbelievesthatithasan especially goodeffectonthebody.Manya had} bringsbackwithhimoneor more bottles filled withwaterfrom Zamzam,anddistributes small quantities ofittohis friends. Ihavealso. been honoured with such water. Many visitors willtakesome souvenir oftheshrine asabarakeh.Onewillcarryitonhis body orhangitinhishouse, believingthatitwillbring. fortune.Themostimportantobject belonging to this category is "thepear,"!said tobemadeofearthofthemosqueel-Kabeh, dipped intheblood ofthesacrifices,andhasthetheshape ofa pear."Nearlyallpilgrimsbringseveralanddistribute them to their friends,whohangthemintheirhouses."tSeeIT.411.2Idonotthinkthatbarakehmeans the contrary oftheevil eye,asDouttestates in A.Vagie, p.440. .3PJVII,pp.104fr.4'I'hesame custom exists insomeEasternChurchesafterthe offertory (Stephan).s Canaan,Aberglaube,p.86.6Mr.Stephancallsmyattentiontothefactthatsuchearthbarakeb aresold fromthe shrines of Karbela,NadjafandKadimen, 7 Thesame belief exists among Christians, whotakewith them.Jordanwater, leavesoftheolive trees of Gethsemane orkeepthepictures whichhavebeen sanctifiedbytheirbeingplaced onthe Holy Sepulchre orintbechurchoftheNativity. 7-

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100JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyAsall above-mentioned exampleshaveshown,itisnotonlytheunseen soulsoftheholymenwhich possess this power,butevery .thingwhichbelongstothemaqam-theabidingplace ofthesoul-hasitandisabletoradiateittohumanbeings.! Doubtless apartofthebody ofthesainthimself.t oran object connected directlywithhis life-history possessesmoreof this miraculous virtue.ThusthehairsfromthebeardoftheProphet3whicharekeptintheOmarmosque,arevisited everyyearonthe27thofRamadan.sA piece ofthe"truecross" 5 ofChristiscarriedby many Ohristians forthesamereason.Besidesthese wayrs of deriving a blessing froma weli, manypeasantstrytogetthisprofit by visiting differentimportantshrines.Thusmanyofthepilgrims toNebi Musa, afterthe mosam isover,payvisits to I.laramel-.J;I.alil, Nebi Nebi ealeQ., etc.Manya pilgrim makes hiswaybackoverPalestineandEgyptmerely to obtainei-tobarrukfromthedifferent awl-iytl. Arepentantsinnerbelievesthatthroughsuchvisitsandprayershewill receive a blessing which willtakeoffallhisburdens.sThesoulofthesaint,which ispleasedwithsuchactions, is alwaysreadytohelp."Ineveryimportantshrine,thevisitor is guided bytheso-called el-1naqam, whoareattachedtothedifferent holy places,andadvise himwhatprayeristobesaidineachspot.Buttherearenowalsosmallguide-books fortheholyplacesofJerusalemandHebron.Thebestknown isal-mursid liz-zair wad-dalil fi manasik wazyarat amakin el-Quds wal-!!alil,S alargeronethanthatmentioned1Thissympatheticpoweris known in sorcery (es-sifl,r) as"contactmagic,"andwe shall oftenmeetwith' itinourdiscussions. SeealsoDoutte,Magie, PI>. 439ff.,andCanaan,Aberglaube,p.24.2Doutte,1.c.3 IJaJid ibnel-'Validissaidto havecarriedahairof the. Prophetasa barakeh. 4 Onthisdayitis believed that seawaterbecomes sweet, cAbd el-Madjid All in l-Marq,iyah, p.61. 5 Also called"wdet erJ.. 6Goldziher,Moham.S.tudien11,309. '1 Thesameideaprevailed in theOldandNew Testament.Everyonewhotouchedsomethingholy received 'a blessing: 2Kings28, u; 2Kings1321;Math:920.21,1486;Mark. 5 25-29; Luke 619,8 48 ..8By

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine101by Kahle(manasik el-Quds eS-Sarifl). These guide-books2stateexactly what sflreh andwhatprayeristobe said in everyholy place. The siyfiJ] returning withtheiradherentsfrommasoiieimofNebi Musa, Nebi Rubin, Nebi ealel}., etc.,totheirvillagestrytovisitas manyofthelocal shrines which they may pass ontheirwayas they can.Ifany well liesata distance fromtheroadtheprocession stops,thesaiyarahplaysandthe recitesthe fati1}ah. Thebarakehisnotonly derived fromdeadsaints,butlivingholy se1js mayalsoradiateit. Abftaalaw' hadduringhislife timewide renown in this respect. People kissthehand, touchthegarments,eatsomeofthe food,ordosome similar action to getthis blessing.Thefollowing story illustratestheidea: 3 A.thehusband ofImmF.wasabsentin Oonstantinople.Hiswife,having receivednonewsfromhim, went withherdaughter, whowas eight years old,to Abft Halawy, Before entering his room, theyheardhimcalling, "Welcome thoudaughterofel-qutub, the descendant ofel-Ghos.'They were astonishedthathehadrecognizedthembeforethey entered. SeatingImmF.athis side, hetooksomebread'andsugarfromhis waist-coatpocket"andofferedthemto her,andsheatethem asabarakeh. AbO..ij:alawS proceededatonce totellfollowing story:"\Vhilewewere journeying onthesea, we lost ourwayandreachedanunknownanduninhabited island. Duringthenightthestorm droveourboatashore.In vain didwe labour togettheship afloat.Whileallwere mourning aboutourdesperate condition yourancestor qutb el-Ghosappeared.Hefloated theship,showedusthedirection ofourjourney,assuredusofa safe arrival,anddisappeared as miraculously ashe appeared. ThisallhappenedlastWednesday." Several dayslaterA. arrived.Hetold themhow qutb hadsavedtheirlife.He,believing now inthepowerofthe seJj6, visited himforet-tabarruk.1By YusifI}ia ed-Din ed-Danaf 2Dalil el-ljlaramel-Sarif whichformsapartofthe appeal ofthe Supreme Mohammedan Court of Palestine forallthe Mohammedan worldtohelpin repairing the Mosque (Jerusalem), contains averyshortand incomplete guidetotheholyplacesoftheOmarMosque.3The story wastoldmebyImmF.herself, andwas repeated byher daugherImm.R. The Arabic wordis f ibb. & The servants \ of this holy areofthefamilyof es-Su'un.

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102JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyIshallnotdescribe inthischapterthe healing powersofthe saints, whichisattributedbysome1totheirbarakeh,butwhich,asIshall show,isdueto other powers.2.PLACING PRIVATE PROPERTYUNDERTHE OFAWELlMany ofthesaintsaresituated outinthefieldsfarfromvillages. Sincethepeasant's workismostlyinthefields, cultivating hisland, reaping his harvest, quarrying stones, gathering thorns to burn lime, etc.,heisundertheprotection of these holymen.Hemay himself needtheirhelp especially whenhehastoleavesomeofhis property in thefields.Insuch a casehe puts allthathe cannotcarryhomeundertheirguard, being absolutely surethatnobodywilldareto touch them.Thesaintsareveryparticularin this respect, severely punishingIanyone who steals anyoftheirproperty or what is putundertheircare. Different storiesarerelated to demonstrate this,The muJ]tar of Sucfat toldmethefollowing incident which happened tohim during his childhood. Some inhabitants ofthevillagehadspreadtheirolivesontheroof ofthe shrine of es-sultan IbrahimelvAdhamf, inorderto make them ripen quickly inthe heat ofthesun.Heclimbed up duringthenight andfilledhis pocketsandbosom (ibb) witholives.Thesaint didnotinterfere thefirstand thesecond time,butwhentheboy climbed upthethirdtime, anoldandreverend man, clad in white, withawhitebeardanda spear inhishand,appeared tohimand said: "By God, Ishallcutyourlife short and cripple you,ifyoudaresteal another time."Thefrightened boy answered:wallahtubt yaseb, God,Irepent, 0 sel]." Anotherstory illustrates the point ina different way.Oncesomethieves broke intothe $ireh (enclo sure of cattle) oftheneighbours of es-se1:J, Zakariandstolethe cattle. Scarcelyhadthey goneafew meters fromtheplace, whenthewelistruck them with blindness.Notseeingtheirway,.andrecognizingthesevere punishment inflicted uponthemby this manofGod, theyrestoredthecowstotheirplace.Atonce their sight returnedandthey escapedfurtherpunishment by running away.JKahle andDoutte,

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine103Theobjectswhicharedeposited are various.In eS-selj eAbdallah (SuCfat), (Der Yasin) and es. RamadanIsawlargeheaps of thorns.!Inthecaveof cIsa(Bet Liqia)andinthe maqa1n of es-sel] Ahmad et-Taiyar (Qastal)straw(tibn)was stored, whenI visited them. Ifoundthreeloban (sour pitchersplacedin frontofthecaveofRdjal Abfi.Tue.(Bet Liqia). -..\. peasantofedDjibdeposited hislimein Djami' el-Arb'In.In e-seJ] Hamid,ofthesamevillage,two donkey 10adM ofpotterywere placedundertheprotection ofthesaint."In es-se7JA\lmad(ijirbet QaryetS'Ideh) I saw cultivating implements.At 'Abdallahes-Sidri (lJirbet es-Sidd)theBedouin despositpartoftheir stuff.Butnotonlythatwhichis deposited intheactualholyareaisguardedby these holymenofGod;eventhepropertyoftheneighbours ofa sanctuary is protected, asis clearly seenfromthelastrelatedstory.Theabove descriptionandexamples show clearly howstrictlythe awlia keeptheold rules oftheArabswhicharestillpractisedbytheinhabitantsof Palestine.23.TYINGOFRAGSTying rags toholy objects isaveryold custom whichis still to befoundallovertheOrient. Ragsarefastened ontrees,ontheironbarsofwindowsof sanctuaries, on thedoor-handles, onthe mil)djan, aswellasonthe rasiyeh .ofthetomb.The 1ni/:tdjan 3is the stick (witha curved handle) ofthe weli. The tying of rags on the stickandthetombaremuchmorerarelymetwiththantheothers. These visitingcardsaresometimes so numerousthatevery inchoftheironbarsofthewindows,andeverytwigofasacredtreewhichcaneasilybereachedarefilledwiththem. Theyaregenerally fastened by visitors withoneofthefollowing intentions:1.Asasignof having visitedthemaqtunandfulfilledthereligious duties.2.Thepiece ofragacts asa reminder tothe well notto forget the visitorandhiswishes.1Gathered bythewomen and stored aswinterfuel.2Seealso Goldziher,Moh. Studien11, 30l.3See I,353.

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104JoumalofthePalestine Oriental Society3.Veryoftenasick persontearsasmallpiecefromhisclothesandtiesitwiththewords"Ihave thrown my burden (Le."my sickness") onthee,0manofGod."1Itisfirmlybelievedthatthe saint will banishthedisease.tIn Bettrnia the relatives ofa person sufferingfromfever.puttwo baskets ofstonesona certain tree, believingthatthedisease willsoon disappear.3Thefundamental principleatthebaseof these three ideasis what we call "contact magic."Thatistosayevery thing which hasbeenin contact withsomebodyor has belongedtohimwill never completely loseits relation tothisperson.Thus these pieces of cloth ,always.keep their connection withtheperson fromwhom they came. Theyrepresent him,and anything doneto them will happen totheirowner.They representthevisitor, reminding the holymanofthevisit performed, imploring helpand begging forcure.Throughtheirdirectcontact foralong period withtheholy place theygetsomeofthepowerofthe weli, whichis transmitted tothe person fromwhomtheycomeandtotheonewho and carries them.This superstitious belief iswell established in Palestinian folkloreandwe shall haveoccasion again to speak about it.Inthesanctuaryof el-Mansuri CAwartah) Isawfivepiecesof cloth of.thesizeof large handkerchiefs hanging downfromvinesandmulberry trees there, Twoofthemwere green, onered,one bluishandthefifthyellowish.Iwastoldthattheywere sitar (pl, of sitreh)or "coverings" ofthetomb.Itwas argued that, asitis impossible foramantovowarealcoverforthehugetomb (440x235cm.) these smallpieceswere promised.Theprophet is satisfiedandaccepts them as though theywere real large coverings.4 sameideais expressed by placing smallor large stonesonthegraveofa saint oronaholytree.Thiscustomismuchless commonthanbinding rags.IhaveseenstonesonthetombofHasan er-Raci, Ghanim, Abft Hurerah, masadjid sittna c.A.iseh,eS-se1j 'Abdallah,etc.Insuchcasesthestonesaregenerally asign1 A.1j\ 2Cf. Abergla'Ube, p.25.3Cf.thecustomofplacingstones onthe rock Abfte, afterrubbingtheback,

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JerusalemJerusalem mosqueanhourfrom BettrniaSarafat hangingare:N.of RamallahYanun N.of lJirbet el-Loz CEsawiyeh N.ofDerGhassanehW.of DerBallut S.ofYabrudQubebeh E,as ibnSamhanontheironbarsoftheCANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine IOn()f having visitedthesanctuary.Inthecaseofen-nob;YaqinnearBeniNe em thedoor-handle, wellastherailingsurroundingtheholyrock, showingthefootprints ofAbraham,arefulloftheserags.Bracelets,beadsandsmallnecklaceswere alsotobe foundamongthe rags.!Manytakesomeoftheseragsandcarrythem, believingthattheythusreceive abarakehfromtheweli.2Thisis especiallypracticedby sick persons.Ineverysuchcaseanotherragmustbesubstitutedfortheone which is removed.Doubtlessthis custom resemblesthatrecordedActs1912:"Sothatfrom his body werebroughtuntothesickhandkerchiefsorapronsandthediseasedepartedfromthemandthe'evilspiritwentoutof them."TheBedouinandhalfBedouinoften fastentheir (uqal ontheholy tree.Theybelievethatthisismostefficacious, sinceitisa completearticleofdressandrepresentstheownerbetter.Inveryrarecasesa is bound onaholy object.Theideaisthatitthuscontractsmore power,whichisaddedtothepower ofthemagic orQoranicformula.ThiscustomIknowonlyin connection withen-nabiDanian.Sometreeson whichragsmaybeseen Y ftsif en-nobi Nun (oak) eS-sel]el-Bugtiari (oakand'carob) lJarrubet el-cAsarah eS-sel} Barri(oak) Abuer-Rayat (oak) 'Abdallah(oak)el-Butmeh en-naln CAnnirAmongshrines whereragsaretiedwindowsare: Abti. MadianBeram DjawisTaqet Silwanen-nobiM usaAbti.Zetftn el-BadriyehtThesameI observed in Abfr IJurerah. 2Curtiss, chapterVII.

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106Journalofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyEvenonthegravethese reminders maybe placed:en-nabi Nul). Kerak Sliman Der AbanAbmad el-CAmarinearDer AbanAbf1 HurerahTell Abfl Hurerah es-sel)Ntiran near Salla,leh Onthedoors of 'Abder-Rahman(Rammun), e'11,-nabiLftt anden-nabiYaqin(both inBeniN'em),andonthe mihdjaneh of Ahmadel-Gharib(N.of Mdjedil en-Nasrah)ragsmaybefound. .I have never foundthepracticeofattachingmeattotreesasJaussentandDoughty(referredtoby Curtiss) have observed. This custom seems tobecharacteristicoftheBedouin.4.HEALINGItis wonderfulwhata profound belief inthepower ofthesaints still exists intheOrient.Wehave seenhowthepeasantcomesin everyphaseofhislifetothesedemigods.Hecomes for help,buthe comes alsotothankthem.Whena child is severely illthemother implores asaint:"Ibegyou,0prophetDavid,to cure myson."Orina more humble way, "I am your servant, 0Friendof God, save myonly child!"> .WehavealreadynotedthatthepresentinhabitantsofPalestinetrytoobtainthespecial favourandhelp ofthesaints by promisingthemofferingsiftheyanswertheprayerandcurethesick.Ruttheyarenotsatisfied withthesemeans.Thuswe observethatitis still a deep-rootedbeliefamong them, asitwas amongtheirancestors,thateverything whichbelongs toorcomesindirectcontactwithasaintorbisshrinereceives someofhispower,whichmaybetransmittedto others.3Thusthetrees, grass, stones, water,earthofthetomb,thetombcoverings, oilandeven sweepings, possess supernaturalpower by virtue ofthewelitowhom they belong.ThisbeliefleadstheOrientaltouse such objects, hoping thus togetsomeofthesaint'spower toguardhimfrom misfortune, easehis1J aussen, p. 334 ..2 "Only child" is expressed by wafl,id. Whenonehasason(ora daughter),aftera long period, hecallshim(orher) (or 3Thepeopleof BetDjaJa believethatthey willsell their goodsbetteriftheyputsomeearthof srir et-Saiydeh onthem.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine107pains andhastenhis recovery.Inexamining these curative "medicines" weareastonished bytheirgreatnumberandvariety.Wemaydividethismaterialintothefollowing classes:1.Objectstakenfromthesanctuaryandused in a protective or curative way2.Actsperformedinasanctuarytocurea disease.Ad1.Thematerialusedmaybeof vegetable,mineral,orof liquid origin.Thegrass whichgrowsaroundtheshrine isgathered.anddried if necessaryandused to fumigate a person whohasfever.tThecommonwordfor "fumigate" isdaaq.Leaves oftreesareused inthesameway. Occasionally a decoction ofplantsismadeasa draught. Small pieces ofwoodarecutfromholytreesandcarried-as amulets. Themeetrees(Celtis Australia L)which grow intheMosque ofOmararea2arethemostimportantsource ofsuchamuletwood. Theyarecarriedasa protectionagainsttheevileffectofthebadeye.Oneseesmanychildren-andsometimes animals wearingthisamulet.Themost active Cftd (twig) mes isthatwhich iscutonthe27thofRamadan3aftersun-setandbefore day-break, 4 sincethe Qoran says:"Itis peaceuntiltherising ofthemorn"> (last verse ofSnreh97).This night6is chosen, sinceallbelievethattheheavensthenopen,theangels descend,andGod. grants everywishandhearsall prayers.7TheMohammedans believethatthedivine decrees fortheensuingyearareanually fixedandsettled on this night,"Themeetreeswereplantedaccording topopularlegendbythedjinnasapresenttoking Solomon fortheprotection 1 Still better is straw taken froman ant-hill, situatedneara shrine.2See Aberglaube, pp.62,63.3The27thof Ramadan is lelat'U 1-Qadrmentioned inthe97thSfirah, According tomost Mohammedans itisoneofthelasttennightsofthismonth.InPalestine the 27th isfixedasthenight. Thisisdue (according toai-Tuhfah. l-Marq,iyak(il-AfJ,bareZ-QudBiyahan-Nabaufiyak wal-'Aqa'id et bycAbd el-MadjidCAli)totheword lelat'U l-QadrcomingthreetimesinthisSfrrah,Asthis word contains nine letters thenumberof letters ofthiswordin this Sfrrah indicates whichnightofRamadan, Most peoplecutthe twigsjustaftermidnight. Sale's translation.6Onthisnighttheangel Gabrielgavehisfirst revelation totheProphet.7 All sinsare forgivenifrequested.8According toetTult(ahel-Mar4illall" thebattle ofBadrtook place onthemorning ofthenextday.

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108JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyofhis temple.!Thesmall twigshave nearly alwaystheshape ofa fork with two spikee.s Christians, whoalsobelieveintheaction of this tree,buttoalessextentthantheMohammedans,cutsmall twigsfromthe mes treenearthewellofthethreeKings."Itis believedthatthepresenttreeistheoffshootofthatunder whichMaryrestedwhenshewas pursuedbytheJews.4Ifpossible a twig withtheformofthecross iscarried.DatesarebroughtfromMeccaasabarakehandasa special means of making childrenspeaksooner.Butthey havealso another benefit; ifyoung childrenareallowed tosucksuchadate,they will become good speakers witha sweetvoice.sTheChristians believethatadatefromthedate-palm of MarSaba 6isthebestcure7for sterility.v Cut-up palm-leavesareused in qisret el-Hamis, tobe described below. Leaves oftheProphet'solivetreegatheredonthefeast oftheflags(djum(etel_c alemat 9),which corresponds totheGoodFridayoftheGreekChurch,help tocurefeverandstomach trouble. Thistreelies betweenthe andtheOmarMosque,justtothewest ofthewater-basin(el-Kas).EveryyeartheProphetandhis inhabitthistreeattheabove mentioned time.Thissupernaturalfactmanifestsitselfbya quivering vibration ofthetwigs.Olivetreesenjoy" special honour in Palestine.toOhristians11takesmall1Cf.Aberglaube,p.62.2Ibid. 3 ThewelliscalledBirQadisma. 4 Cf.Aberqlaube,p.63. TheProphetis supposed tohavesaid"keep youraunts,the date-palms, in honour," cf.Aberglaubep.87. 8 Itisreally curiousthata saint whoduringallhisliferanawayfromwomenandevenlongafterhisdeathguardshis convent fromfemale intruders should helpwomen against sterility.7Heardfrom several personsandapriestoftheconvent. Uaridatu 1CAdj8'ib saysthatdate palms were created fromthesameearthfrom which Adam wasmade(Aberglaube,p.87). 0 PI.of celem thedeminutive from t alam. 10 Aberglaube, 1.c. 11AbaSukri Mustaklim.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine109olivetwigs carried duringtheFoot-washing processionandmixitwithqisret el-lJamis.1 Next weturntoapureOhristianpracticewhich resemblesthecustoms already described in many respects.The Qisret el-!!a1nis hasbeen described already inmyAberglaube,andthis account may be repeated here with some additions. Qisret el-Ilamis, which means literally "the peelings of Thursday," is composed ofthecapsules of 1nablab iPrunusmahaleb,2.anaromaticgrain) with cut-up leavesof palms,olive trees,andsomecutBowers.Themahlabcapsulesaredipped inthewaterin.whichthePatriarchoftheGreekOrthodox Church washesthefeetoftheBishops intheceremony of Maundy Thursday.Thewateris perfumed with rose-water, etc.Thissackis driedandputthatveryeveningonthepulpit fromwhichthegospelsareread.Theolive leavesaretakenfromtheolivebrancheswhichareusedintheceremony oftheFoot-washing.TheBowers comefromthe 1J,add en-nus3orfrom(id e$-$alib, "theFeastoftheCross,"On these twodaysthecrossis laid onalargeplate covered withBowers.Prayersaresaid uponitandtheflowersarethendistributed tothecongregation.Thepalm-leavesarefrom palm Sunday. Very often onefindssaltandalum mixed with QiSretel-Ham/is. This composition is used to fumigate a sick child,asitis -the bestmeansto obviatethebadresults oftheevil eye.Whennosaltandalumaremixedin,theyareaddedbeforethefumigation talees place.s Meramiyeh (SalviaTriloba)hasitsnamefromMariam(St. Mary).ItissaidthatwhileMarywas walking onceinahotsummer day she perspired profusely, soshe plucked aplanttowipeherface.Hencethisplantcarrieshername,andisusedto cure many diseases.Inexamining those objects which belong tothemineral kingdom wefindthat (plaster), stonesandsweepings of many shrinesareused medicinally.Thestonesarecarried,or water inwhich1Itisa wide-spread customtoplacebelowthe threshold a green oliveor other twig with a silver coin, asitis believedthatsuchanactsymbolizes perpetuity and prosperity.Forthesamereasona large greentwig(anoli ye one isalways preferred) is placed whereatiledroofis being erected.2Belot.3The Sunday whichliesinthemiddleoftheEasterfast-days. 4 Heardfrom1\1iss Baldens berger.

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110JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietythey have beenplacedis drunk.Theblackstones ofNebi Mf1sa areconsidered asa very active birz (protective amulet).Theyshowtheirspecial power in being burned.Theycontain a bituminoussubstanceandaretherefore black. Veryoften theyarecutin square ortriangularforms,a protective talisman is inscribedandarethuscarried as a (talisman). Christians aswellas Mohammedans usethesoft, whitish stones ofthemilk-grotto in Bethlehem to increase mother's milk.Thestonesarerubbedinwaterandgiven tothenursing women.Itis supposedthattheHolyFamilytook refuge to this cave, where a drop of Mary's milk dropped onthefloor,Inmany cases acertainnumberof stones froma special holy place have tobeworninordertobeefficacious.Ihavealways foundthenumberseveninuse. Seven stonestakenfrom Ghreiyb, siyul} el MasaJmeh,AbftYamin, etc., cure fever.Thesweepings of Snet (Hebron)curesterility;'andthose ofen-nob; eale\!, Qaittin(Hebron), es-sel}Ramagan,2 etc., heal fever. Some oftheearth (trabeh) of ez-Zughbeh (Mall}.ah) preparedwithoilinapastecuresores ofthehead.Earthgathered fromqabrer-Ra'I3dissolved inwaterandgiventocattlewill guard them from disease.Thewaterof many holy places is used forcurativepurposes. Oure is effectedeitherbyabathorbyinternaluse.Inmostcasesthewater is usedeitherto heal feverorto prevent sterility. People suffering fromfevertakeabathin cEn(Enes-Samiyeh,4 cEnen-nebi Aiyuborthewellof es-sel} Ibrahim, ortheydrinkfromthecistern of 6Inthecaseof Siloam itisnotasimplebathwhich cures' fever.ThebathmustbetakenonFridayduringthemidday prayer,afterwhich water is poured overthepatient1ThesameistrueofNebi (inthevillage bearing hisname)whichis situated onthetopofamountain. The servant (<< abd,also "negro") oftheProphetisthoughttobe living inthebadd(oilpress) ofthemaqam.2In Qatanneh. Heis supposed tobea relative oftheProphet,andasthe inhabitants ofthevillage consider themselves his descendants, theycallthemselves alraf, or members oftheProphet'sfamily.3Nearthesanctuary of Nabi l\Iusa.4 In Kolonia.5Bet Djibrin, Hebron.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine111seven consecutive times.Whenasterilewoman seeks acureofherbarrenness, shetakeswithhertothisspringseven 1nasaJ]i$ (pI.of 1),seven keys of doors which open tothesouth,andseven cupsof water,eachfrom differentcisternsuponwhose openingsthe rays ofthesunnevershine.tSheplacesthekeysandthe masal]i$ inthewater, washesherselfwithitandpours the"waterofthesevencisternsoverherselfafterwards. areoldgoldcoins whichbearonone side twohumanfigures (saJ]$ =person).El-Matba'ah,a swamp intheplainofEsdraelonbetween eS-se[t IbrekandTell es-Sammam is renowned forthecureofrheumatism,nervous painsandsterility,Itis believedthat Ibrekgives this placeitshealing powers.Afterabarrenwomanhastakenabathinel-Matba'ahshe washesherselfin cEn Ishaqandgoesthento eS-seb Ibrekto'offera present. En-nabi Aiyub,eastof helps alsotocuresterility.ManyinhabitantsofJerusalembelievethatsittinginthedjurn(basin) ofsittiMariam3banishesbarrenness.Itis supposedthattheVirginMaryoncetookabathinthis basin Barrenwomen believethattheymay receivechildrenthroughtheblessing ofthesedemigods,theawlia.TheHebrewsoftheOld 'I'estament used tocherishthesamebelief. 5 Washinginflamed eyes withthewaterof cEn Immel-Loz (below Silwan) is supposed tocurethem.Christianwomenthink,asalreadymentioned,thatChristsenttheblindmanto wash hiseyes withitswater.6Severalsprings wherethePalestiniansbelievethatJobbathedandwasthuscuredofhis disease,arestill 'used forallsortsofskin affections. Someoftheseplacesare:Hamman es-Sifa 7JerusalemBir Aiyub 8nearSiloam en-nabi AiyubRas ibnSimhanen-nabi Aiyub ICf.Aberglaube,p.69.2Canaan,JPOSvol.I,p. 165. 3NearSt.Stephen's gate. 4 1Same17-11;2Kg.412-17;GeD.2931,302,22,1810. 5 Curtiss,chapterX. e JPOSvol.I,pp.153fr. '7 Nearthe Mosque ofOmar.8Below Silwan.

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112JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society en-nab! Aiyub Der Aiyub (nearBabelWad)AiyubDerAiyub (near Bab el-Wad)CEn Aiyub E.of J;larbata 1To this list Imayaddthatthepeople of Gaza andthevillagesnorthandsouth ofit believethatJobwas cured fromhis severe skin eruption by taking abathintheseaontheWednesday which precedestheGreekEaster.Therefore this dayisknownbythename ofarbdat Aiyub, oribriyet Aiyub. All animals afflicted with askin diseasearebroughtTuesday evening(i,e.thebeginning ofWednesday2)totheseaandbathed.Thebestplace whereacurecanbe obtained innearsittnael-Hadra(nearthesiteof Ascalon).Inthevicinity ofthespring AbuZed and abuFakkah (Bet Zakariya) some herbs growwhich curethe bad; effectsof el-JjDfeh-=:3 fear.Thecurative action isduetothenabi3zakariya.!Thewaterof el-barr (springs of retention of urine)arerenowned alloverPalestineasthebestcureforsuppressionofurine. Among all springs belonging to this group Ihavefoundonlyone whichis supposed tobe inhabited byaweli,namelyBires-Sahar inDer 'rarif, inhabited byel-weli Suceb. Thequestion how these springs gottheircurativeaction'remainsunsettled.!Notonlyarethings whicharephysically connected witha shrine used medicinally,butevenofferings depositedtherearealsoemployed to cure disease. Thus wefindthatwicks(ofoillamps), incense, ragsfastened onatreeorawindow, tomb-coverings, etc.,possess a curative action.Rheumaticor neuralgic6patientsrubtheirfore-1Someof these were mentioned inJPOS,vol.I,p.168.2Themodeof reckoning time in Palestine exists to-dayjustasitwasindays of Christ. Thedayof twenty-four hours begins with sunsetandendswith sunset. This is alluded toin almosttheopening wordsoftheBible(Gen.16;seealso vv.8,13,19,23and31).Inkeeping with this, thepriestsinthe Tabernacle weretoorderit(thatis,theirdailyservice)from evening till morning. There are very many references intheBible pointing to this modeof reckoning. Cf.JamesNeil, Palestine Life,pp.1fr.3SeealsoGoldziher,Moham. Siudien,pp. 345, 346.Inthe vicinity ofel Mbarakeh (Qalandiah) grows aplantcalled Cisbet en-nasrah,whichis carriedagainsttheevileye. 4 HeardfromMiss Baldensberger. 5 These springs havebeen describedJPOS,vol.I,pp.146-153.6Theword isusedfalselyfor rheumatic and neuralgicpains,aswell asfor nervous and mental diseases.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine113headsandjoints with oilfrom shrines. Sometimesitis mixedwithdried herbs, asinthecaseof e-sel]Snet and (bothin Hebron), oritis mixed with someearthoftheshrine (ez-Zughbeh in MaJl)ah). 'I'hispasteisusedfor skin troubles.Wheneveroilistakenfromanyshrineotheroilis given initsplace;ifthisis neglected,theholyoilmayproducearesultoppositetothatintended.ThewicksofNebi Musa (sometimesNebi Dahfid orthe I.Iaram inHebron)swallowed by sterile womenarebelieved tocuretheircondition.Otherscarrythesewicksasa 1:tidjab (amulet)againstthe'same trouble. Apatientwith feveris supposed togetwellif heis fumigated with incensetakenfromsittna el-!!a4ra (nearedDjorah)or withthestrawofthemats (qass of Shab edDin(nearJaffa).If. smallchildrenwear a rag,takenfromaholytreeoraholy shrine,theyareprotectedagainstthebadeffects of evil spirits.Fumigationwithsucharagis believed tocurealldiseasescausedbythedjinn.Wheneveraragistaken,anothermustbe fastened initsplace.RagsfromSadjaretes-Sa'adeh(betweenYamunandDjenin)arerenowned fortheiraction.Womentrytocuta piece offofthetomb-covering ofNebi Musa andmakeitintoacupforasickly child orfora child whosemotherhaslostmost ofhermalechildren. Athreadwhichhasbeenpassedaroundthetomb of Moses(andwhichhasthusthelengthofitscircum ference)wornaroundthewaist ofa woman suffering from continuous miscarriages, prevents such anevilinthefuture.Therosariesof many saints help tohastenadifficultlabour.Nosooner doesa woman hang sucharosaryaroundherneckanddowntheabdomenoverherwombthannormalcontractionsbeginandalltroublesandpainsaresoonover.Thesewonderfulrosariesarecalled masabi1], (pI. of masba1;ta.h)yusu'r.1 Amongsuch rosariesarethatofel-Bakri.sinthepossessionofHasanofDerGhaasaneh;thatof Abft Yamin (BetcAnan) inpossession of eS-se1:JYftsif andthatof el-Arami.Thesamewonderful helpcanalso beobtainedbythetomb-coverings of eS-sel] ISomemeanbythis namea specialsortof rosary. 2 o.S. el-Barghfiji.8

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114JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyMohammed el-Halili.tThebreadof sidnaeS-sel}Abft Madian.> whichispreparedfromcornofthewaqfofthisholymanduringthemonth ofRamadanisabarakeh,aswellasaremedy.Inthelattercaseitishungabovetheheadofthesickorputunderhis pillow.Duringthebread-makingtheQoranis recited. Generallythefollowingpartsarereadwhilethe dough is kneaded:ThewholeQoranonceAl-FatihahseventimesSnrah112tentimesSurah113threetimesSurah114threetimes Asitwouldtakeaverylongtimeforone person toreadthe wholeQoranalone,weseeasmany persons astheQoranhasparts (hizb) assisting in recitingtheHolyBook.Someof thisbreadis sometimespreparedinthemonth Satban. Butonlythatwhichis made duringRamadanpossessestheabove-mentionedvirtue."Holybread(the quddaseh) is used also by Christians.Itshouldbe eaten onlywhileoneis ritually clean.Theslippers (bdbudj, pI.bawabidj)of el.Madjdtib4(Der Ghassaneh cure facial paralysis (rnilta):t) by being usedtobeatthe affected side. ofel..Bakri (Djamma/in) ifwornby sterile women, cures their' condition.For tasit er-radjfeh1may refer tomy articleJPOSIll,122.Ad2.Weshall nowdealwith actions connected withaholy placeandperformed bythesick person to obtain relief. Such actionsareconnected strictly withthemostholypartoftheshrine, generallythetomb.Thefollowing examples will illustrate. Aman withfevertriestogetridofhis disease by walking seventimes aroundthetomb of sel]lJres. Aftereachturnhepicksupastoneandplacesitonthetomb. Whilethesick person is walking around1Mohammad bin Saraf ed-Din es-SafiCi el-Halili ,whowas born in Hebron, studied inCairoanddiedinJerusalem(1147A.H.). 2Abu Madian is Abu Madian ofMorocco.Hebuilt in Jerusalemthezawietel-Magharbeh, where hechosetobe buried.ButhediedinMorocco andonlyhishandis buried inthe zawiehel-Anwar, by C Abd el-Wahhab es-Sacrani I,153).3Cf.Aberglaube,p.88. 4 There isatpresentonlyone.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine115thegravehis relatives say prayers.Othersthinkthattakingstones andplacing them onthetomb1withthewords"carrythefeverin myplace,0 seIJSnet" sufficetoremovethefever.2InJerichoafeverpatientiscarriedbyhis relativesandlaidon thetombof eS-se7j, Ghanim.Therelativesretire,leavingthesick personalone, for they believethatthesoulof thismanofGodconverses withthesickoneandatlasthealshim.sInNablustheverysickarecarriedtotheshrine of el-Anbia, They.areplacednearthetombandleft alone.Ifthey perspireitis believedthatthediseasegets better.Inthecaseof es-se1} Sa'td (Idnah) those attacked withfeverlieintheenclosure.Backacheis cured by rubbing thebackon Abtl andplacing a stone ontherock. Thesamepower'isattributedtothebrokencolumn placedattheheadofa small-tomb beside Saddad inthecemetery ofBaber-Rahmeh.!InHebronmothers inducetheirchildren torunover thetombof eS-e1}Snet togetovertheirailmenta.!Animpotent man must wash himself ina weli oronthethresh oldof el-(Ateri (DerGhassaneh), A 1Jidjab written bythe sef!,: of el-lJa
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116Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Societychildwalks three times around thebasin,duringthemiddayprayer. on Friday. During thisprocesshis mother throwssweetscontinually onthe ground, andthechildis taken homewithout turning or lookingback. Talismans1arealsomadeina sanctuary andwornbypeopleas a protection against disease,orareusedtofumigate a sickchild. ThesealoftheMosqueof Hebron withthenamesofthe Patriarchs andthoseof their wifswhowere buried there isusedagainstfever (cf. Aberglauhe, p.130).The following isatranslation ofsuch a talisman: Hiswife chosenby God The Prophet ofGod Abraham Peace bewithhim HiswifeRifqah chosenby GodAThe Prophet ofGod Isaac Peace bewithhim..............................................BHiswife Laiqah chosenby God TheProphetofGodJacobPeace bewithhim Hiswife Zligah chosenby God..................._-The Prophet of God Joseph Peace bewithhim...........................-.--D Thefoot print of the Prophet TheHolyCavetThebestcure ofahorse suffering fromcolicistoridethe animal at a gallopandaftertiringit,tomakeitjumpoverone, better three tombeseventimes (Muss' AbuNada).

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inPalestine117 Thispaperiscutatthedottedlines A,B,CandD.Thechild is fumigated everydaywithone piece.Inreadingtheamuletreadfrom right toleft. Similar sealsarealso issued bysomeofthe se1]s oftheMosque of Omar.Suchapaper1containscircularseals with different writingsandtherepresentations ofhands,swordsandbalances. Characteristic inscriptions ofthese (pl,of seal)are:1.Intherepresentationofthesword:3 lU..J\\:>)J\2tft)J ). (There is)noyoungmanexcept cAli andno swordexcept !?u l-Fiqar.!2.Ina withabalance: J\.Hiei.?0--0J\0\>\)\oAJl:96 .,r--....r ..' He(Mohammed), peace be uponhim,saidthatwhoever desires to behold apatch(little piece)ofParadiseshould seeJerusalem.Es-saiydAhmad esSarif. Theway. Sl)adeh. 3.Inanother with abalance: This isa balance.Thisisaway. 4. Ina circular seal(thatof Moses): 4JJ\ MosestheInterlocutorofGod.1I havesuch talismans on white,red,and green paper.2Ihavealwaysfoundit written in these sealswith\ instead of ...s. 3Onthe of Murdjaneh (cf. Aberglaube, p.48)wefindalsothe sword with thefollowing inscription: ,--. 1< AlJ\li.iJ\))J\Lo_)J\"')J ) croAlJ\0\'LLJ0lS'4.l}U I-Fiqar isthebynameoftheswordofcAlibinAbi Ta.lib. Itissaid tohavebeenmadefromthepieceof iron whichwasfound buried in al-Ka'bah (Dairatu l-Macarif, vol.VIII,p.410). 5 A 6Probably namesofthe iiyo,'tJ inwhose possession thissealwas.Thefirst istheolderone.

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118JournalofthePalestineOriental Society5.Abraham'sseal (circular): o+:"}\&F' TheApostle ofthe King,theBeloved,theAllknowing, Abraham,theFriendoftheMerciful One,onhimbe prayers and peace. 6.Ona round sealweread ayatu l-kursi(Surah 11,250).7.Intherepresentation ofthehand: t?,4JJI0'"4.AlJ\4JJ\)J\6J\)lii.JII>L.f;.6JJ\4.4.4.J,)J\ Beargood tidings tothetruebelievers,0'Mohammed, assistance fromGod,anda speedy victory.'ThereisnoGod,butGod,andMohammed istheapostle ofGod.Thereisno youthbut rAli, andnosword'but pu l-Fiqar.oSympathetic,0Benevolent,0Merciful,0God.TheExternal,theInternal,theFirst,theLast.Onelargeseal enclosestwelvecircles, another seven.Thesecircles contain efficaciousverses.Whensuch papersareissuedwenoticethateachone contains several oftheabove-mentioned figures. Often whenachildissickandthemother believesthatonlya willhelpto cure him,andshecannotgetone writtenatthatmoment,she puts asmallbagofsaltinaholeoftheeastern wallandsays calakZ8er-RjaCi, "forthesake ofer-R." Very early inthemorning shegoestoa ofthe Rifa(i orderandaskshim to writehera 1}idjab forthesickchild.Herpiousintention-shownbytheactdescribed-ensuresthefavourofthismanofGod,even before she receives a talisman fromoneofhis representatives.tInanalyzing the diseases whicharecured by remediestakenfrom a weli wefindthattwoaremost represented, namely,feverand sterility.Thefollowing diseases come next: mental troubles, sup pression of urine,andskindiseases.Thereasons whyfeverandsterility predominatearethefollowing.Byfeverthe Oriental understandsevery ailment whichis accompanied byfever,andwhereno1Taken from Sfirah 61.2A custom in Der Ghassaneh, heard fromO.S. Barghutl.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandBanctuaries inPalestine119othersymptoms-likebleeding (fromthelungs,or gastrointestinal tract), diarrhea, coughing,etc.-predominate.Thus malaria, typhoid, typhus,recurrentfever,etc.,arecalled simply sl}uneh or 1:tumma (fever).Weknowalsothatmalariaisavery widespread disease, metwithallover Palestine.Inthis way "fever" maybe consideredthegreatestPalestinianplague. Sterility, orinotherwords,marriagewithout children, especially maleones,isa severe punishment, causingastrongly felt disgrace.Aman's honour is best' expressed by calling himnotbyhis namebutbythatofhis oldestson,precededby"fatherof." Abii cAli,l"thefatherofcAli,"isthehonorific name ofX,whoisnever called"X,"but Abft cAli.Inorderto disguisethetrue condition ofa childless man,heis called"father"ofhis own father's name;2for exampleHasanhasno children, whilehis father'snameisMohammed,heis called Abft Mohammed,or Abfl IbrahimifIbrahimisthename ofhis father. This isthereason whyeverybarrenwomanseeksforhelp. everywhere to escapeherdespised condition. Very interesting isthefactthatsome awlia havea special power over certain diseases;i,e., theyarespecialists foronesortof ailments. Following isa list givingthediseasesandthesaints which curethem:Formental troubles,3Rdjal Sufah Ghassaneh), en-Nftbani, es-see Djabr (Rafat) and sittoael-tragra aresought. El-trager enjoysthegreatestreputationofall.Everyplace whereitis supposedthattheprophetJobtook abathis renowned forcuring skin-troubles (seeabove). Siyftg el-cArtiri(DerGhassaneh) havethepowerof curing a special eruption oftheheadcalled sawwatah (also They cauterizeitwithfire,whilean ointment madeofsome herbs whichgrowneartheshrine isgiven tothepatient.! Er-Rfati hadwhileonearththepowerof healingthebite of venomous serpents.HebeggedtheAlmighty togiveqarn el-J:taltit tItisa widespread customof Mohammedans and Christians in Palestine to givetheirfirstsonthenameofhis grandfather(father'sfather). .2A says !lair'"l-asmaim8[l,ammadaau cabbad, "the best namesare thoseof Mohammed or'Abd("servant")." Thelatterisalwaysfollowedbya nameorattributeofGod. I Ihave transcribed both Uaq,r and Ua4er, asbothpronounciations are heard. 6 Forsevere menstrual bleedingtheinhabitants ofthe Samaria district goto Banat YaCqubforhelp.

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120JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society(called some placesqarn el-7:talbJ,t) anantivenomouspower.Since his death themilkinwhichtheqarnhasbeen rubbed isbelieved tocureeverypoisonedperson. The Siyu1j of er-Rfaci pretend tobe proof against every serpent bite. Very widespread is the beliefthatcertain curesare sureratspecial times.Thus bathing in Hammam el-cEn andsprings dedicated toJobinthenight of CAsurah 1(thetenthof Moharram2)ismore effectivethanbathingatany other period.Theseaismost curative in the dayofibriyet Aiyub. Thebest cud mes isthatwhichwas cutinLelatul-Qadr(the27thof Ramadan). Acts performed about noontime ($alat aremoreefficaciousthanothers,etc. I shall closethissectionwithastudyofthe shrines of el-Hader(St,George),themostrenowned saint physician fornervousandmental troubles. ThismanofGod,whoishonoured byallcreeds in Palestine, possessesmany sanctuaries. Toeveryoneofthem come suppliants,butsomearemore popular than others.Ihave beenableto gather the following list of shrines connected with this saint:PlaceQuarterDescriptionJerusalem Armenianquarterbelongsto the Greek Ohurch Jerusalem besidethe Francisbelongsto the Greek Church canConventJerusaleminsidetheJaffabelongstotheCopts3GateJerusalem outsidethe Jaffa belongstotheQurtfamily,andisGatehonouredbyMohammedans and Christians41Itissaidthatel-Husen died this daywhile verythirsty.Therefore many willdrinkwaterwitheyesshutandfroman opaque vessel,in order nottosee the water.2Nottheninth, asHavastates inhisArabic-EnglishDictionary.3Thesethreechurches arenotusedby Mohammedans. 4 GeorgeQurttoldmethestoryof this place asfollows:Hisfather andgrandfatherwereonce ploughing the land wherethesanctuary lies.Onedaytheyrestedatmidday, stretching themselvesunderanolivetree,whichwas known afterwards as Zetunit el-Hadr, Both fellasleep.St.George appeared tothegrandfatherand orderedhim:"Getupand buildmysanctuary, youwill findthedooratsucha spot."Insteadofgettingup,the grandfather wrapped himselfbetterinhiscloak, thinkingthatitwasonlya dream.Butthe saint

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CANAAN:Mohalnmedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine121Jerusalem PlaceQuarterJerusalem MosqueofOmar1Jerusalem MosqueofOmararea,NW.corner Jerusalem Same,NE.corner Between Nablus Nablus Nablus BetDjala andthePools of Suetra.aaret el.cAqabehnearthelarge djamiC Description Maqam el-Hadrbelowthe Holy Rock2Qubbet el-lJagr nearBabes-Sbat (notso popularatpresent)Babel-Hadr(theeastdoor,whichisnotinuseatpresent) honouredbyChristiansandMohammedans amosque roomwitha mibrab 3darkroom 4 Nablus Hammam ed-Daradjeh BetCAnan a basin inwhichhe takes abatheveryFriday5Christian church a l;tuwetah andafewfig trees.Theplace is completely neglectedrepeated hisrequestandat last said:"Youbothshallremaindumb, until my sanctuary isbuilt."Frightened,themangotup, aroused hisson,and-beholdboth were dumb.Nextdaytheworkwasbegunandthey,indeed,foundatthe describedspotthe opening ofacave.Totheirastonishmentandthatofall spectatorsthecalfwhichtheyhadlostayearagowhileploughingthis place was foundinthecave, well-grown andfed. Straw, barleyand water werebroughtto himina miraculous waybySt.George. They found alsothefollowinginscription J.s:'OL:ALay,.rl\v-,O/ .. "The miracles of el-Va9r aremany,notfew.Hereistheplace ofthegreatsaintamongthemartyrs,Georgecladwith victories, themartyrinthewars."Therenown ofthisplace spread.Eventhe Sultangrantedita Farman.Patientsbegan toflock hither,thelastoneinthe year 1928.No sooner wastheworkofrestoringthe maqiim atanend,thenthepower of speech ofthegrandfatherandfatherofGeorge was restored. An abbreviated version ofthestoryis given by Kahle,PJVI,88.1The fournextplaces are mentioned byMudjired-Din,2Kahle notesthat es-sodahis dedicated toel-Hadr(PJVI,pp..88,91).3Thesaintused to assemble here withotherawlia. 4 Mentally diseased persons usedtobe fastenedherewithironchains. Ihave seenoneof these chains stillin place. Theilltakeabathin this basinon Friday, believingthatthis will cure them.

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122JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyPlaceQuarterDescriptionDjifnah Carmel acave BetRima Lydd insidethevillagenear BetDjala ontheway to er-RasKarakChristian1honouredbyalldenominations2honoured bytheMohammedans a church,honouredbyMohammedans and Christiansa "lJuwetiyeh called J]atwet(J]abtet) el lJaq.r honouredby Christians andMoham medans. Therearesome awlia bearingthename {fagr (likethatW. of Rammftn) which probably havenothingtodowithSt.George. There aremany other shrines dedicated tothis waliyallah, whicharenot included inthislist.Themost important oftheseplaces arethaton Carmel andtheshrinenear Bet Dj aJa. The latter is situated onanelevatedplacebetweenthevillageandthePools ofSolomon."The beautiful church,whichis surrounded byaconvent, liesinavillage, bearing the nameof el-Hader, The inhabitants of the settlementareallMohammedans.Thewhole area aroundthe sanctuary usedtobelongtotheconvent,whichis directly dependent onthe GreekPatriarchatein Jerusalem. A largepartofthe sanctuary was rebuilt afewyearsbeforethewar.Thischangeis of great importance, asgoodroomswere constructed fortheinsane,4andthusa largepartoftheold practice incuringtheafflicted waschanged.Weshalldescribethewayinwhichthe patients used tobe treated beforethischangetookplace. Asthe reputation ofthewonderfulcuresofthis saint spreadall overthecountry,sickofallcreedswere brought toitfromall directions. Nosoonerdid they arrivethenthe priest chainedthem inthe narthex infrontofthechurch.Theheavyironchainwas fastenedtoanironringaroundtheneckofthe unfortunate creature, the other endofthechainbeingdrawn through oneofthetwo windows, oneachsideofthemain portal, andfastenedinsidethe1There isachainforthe madjanin. 2Cf.Kahle,PJBVI,89;GrafMiilinenZDPVXXX,88.3Calledbysome Mar Elias. Thepresent government has forbidden the acceptance of insaneinthisplace.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine123church.Incase three patients weresentatthesametimethethirdone was placed inasmallroom builtjustwestofthedome.Thechaininthiscasewent through asmallwindowof the domethus connectingthepatientwiththe church. Duringthecold winter monthsthe patients were kept inside the church. Thefollowingstory, taken fromthewritten notesofmy father, beautifully illustrates the strong belief inthemiracles ofSt.George, andshowshowsuchideasarepropagated by the priests themselves. The Greek Orthodox priest Ibrahtm el-cAwwa twentas usual on Saturday afternoon, accompanied byIshaq Tfuna 2to the convent ofSt.Georgetoreadthe night andthe Sunday morning masses. Theyfound there afuriousand mentally abnormal Bedouin of the Tayaha tribe, chained in the church.Hiscondition wassobadthathetoreallhisclothes. Whatever theraiys(director) ofthe conventputonhimwassoontorntopieces.As the priest with his assistant Isl)aq gotup during the night to performtheirduty, they beheld the shadowofahuman being moving cautiously onthe roofofthechurch. Frightened, theyawokethemonk.A thorough investigation showedthatthe naked sel} was crouching inonecorner, shiveringwithcoldandextremely exhausted.Atoncethe superior oftheconventgavehimclothes,and, taking himintoaroommade afireand began torubhimuntilhefelt better. Theraiysasked the howhegotoutof the church,while the doorswere still locked.Heanswered:a gentle lookingman,witha spear inhis hand, riding onahorse, appeared tomeand ordered me:"Getup andgotoyour tribe."Hetouched the chain withhisspearandit fellofmy Iclimbedupthechainfromwhichthechurch lamphung.SwingingmyselftoandfroI reached awindowinthe domeofthe church fromwhichIgotout.The was absolutely normal fromthatmoment.Hepledged himself,tooffer yearly seven goatstohishealer, el-Hadr, whichpromiseheissaidtohavekept.3The patients receivedno medical treatmentatall,buthadtobe curedbythemiraculous intervention ofSt. George. Theraiysof the church founditveryoftennecessaryto hasten thecurebytFrom Bet DjaJa. 2From BetDiaJa. Hewas ordainedlaterasa priest.3Toldmyfather bytheahove-mentionedpriestJ s1)aq'l'uma.

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124JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietydrivingoutthedevil.Thiswasdonebythorough beatings and prayers. Nowonderthatthesepoor creatures werefuriouswhen the priest fell into their clutches. Whenever a patient's condition gotsomewhatnormalthe priest secretlyunfastenedthechainfrom thechurch,andtoldthe patientthatthesaintdeclaredhimcured. Onlyasimple straw mattress wasgiventhem.Thetwowho wereboundinfrontofthe church hadnotthe least protection fromthefrightfulsummer heat orthecoldofthewinter.Their foodconsistedofbread-sometimesveryhard-andwater:Both weregiventoaverylimitedextent.Theodorof their evacuations usedtomaketheplace unsupportable.Atpresent the sanatorium is built a short distance southofthe church.Itiscomposedoftwelverooms,ineachofwhich there is achain,firmlyfastenedtothewall.Thehygienicconditionsofthis placeareinevery respectbetterthanintheoldsystem.Thisnew hospital was connected whenIsawit last byawiretothechurch. Thusthehealingpowerofthe saint is transmitted tothesick. 4.n analysisoftheabove-described treatment isof great interest. Thesickareplacedinthe direct neighbourhoodofthesaint,tobe near hisblessingandhisfieldof action; thechains transmit the curing power.Assoonasthe hospital wasremovedtoadistance a connecting wirewasrunbetweenitand the churchto carry the saint's miraculouspower. Prayers and beatings arethebestwayof drivingawayadevil.This practice isstillcommonamongthe Wheneverasickpersonshowsanynervoussymptomslike hysterical fits,apoplexy,epilepsyandevenconvulsions resulting from fevera iscalledfor treatment. Hewritesatalisman,recites prayers, spitsonthe patient andmassagesthebody.!Thismassage isalwaysdoneinsuchawaythatthehandof the movesfrom the upperpartsofthebodydownwards.Thereasonforthisdirection ofmovementisthatthedevilshouldbemassagedoutfromtheimportant organstotheless important onesandeventuallybethrown1An insane girl,who received nohelpfromallthe consulted physicians, wenttoaChaldean priest. He, after fasting three daysandthree nights, made thesickchildkneeldownandpraywith him,andbeholdacloudofsmokecameoutofhermouth, whileshelost consciousness. The priestputherinabathand began to massage her.The moment sheawokeshewascured.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesin Palestine 125outofthebodythroughthelower extremities.1Themassage developesinmost cases to violent beatings, whichmaybecarriedoutwiththehand, witha stick, shoe 2 orevenwithaholy object,likethewoodenshoeofthe Madjdub. Itis easier to driveoutdevilswhenthebodily condition ofthepossessed person isattheloweat.sItisacommon beliefthatthedjinnprefer well-built,corpulent patients.Thisexplains why'thepatientsarefedso badly.Neglectof cleanliness leads tothesame result. 4 5.OATHSItisa widespread custom to call onGodorasaintto witnessandattestone's affirmation,ortoassertone's innocence.Thisassurance isgivenbymeans ofanoathinthenameof a holyman, generally inhis shrine, orinthenameofGodandina shrine of some weli. Simple oaths in whichthename ofGodalone isused,andwhichmaybeutteredonany occasion,areinnumerableandwillnotbe discussed. Simpleoathsareso commonthatthey-areapartofthedaily lifeofa peasant.5Ifheis telling a story orant A demoninanimportantorgancauses much moreharmthaninan unimportant one. Massaging ademon upwards maycausean irreparable weakness inthe heart, eyes, tongue, brain,etc.2Seethecase described inAberglaube,pp.117f.aThisisanolder belief; seeatTu1),fatul-Marq,igah, p.4. 6 Seeon this subject also Stephan, "Lunacy in Palestinian Folklore,"JPOSV pp.1-16,onwhichthefollowing remarks maybemade:-Itwouldhavebeen morehelpfulifthe original meanings andusesofallthe synonyms onpp.2and a hadbeengiven.-Idonotthinkthat"lunacy is considered as something divine" (p.2). Onthe contraryitisatpresentregarded, asitusedtobein Biblical times, astheworkofSatan. Although madjdQh isusedat present fora beginning lunacy, itsreal meaning isquite different from madjnun.Therealcausesof lunacy followingthe writing ofa (andsuch sorcery iscalled aswad),drinking of spirits (p.6,footnotes 3, 4),orcoitus noous (p.7)arenothingbutthe djinn and shouldnotbeputin another category. 5 Iwill mentionBorneofthe mostimportantsimpleaqsam(pI.of qasam) whicharemuchusedinthedailylifeofthe peasant. They belong tooneofthe followingtwo categories: a)Thenameoran adjective ofGod,thatof au:eli ora sanctuary are connected withtheoath, b)The yamin mentions somenaturalphenomena. Thefollowing examples will illustrate both kinds:

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126Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Society.adventureandfindsitnecessary toemphasizeapoint, because some onemay doubt his statement, hesays u-baqqel-l!a4rinnz udjit,"By the truth(ofthe existence) ofSt.George Iwentandcame(back)."Or,"BythetruthandhonoroftheProphetAda) 6JJ \ 6J.J\,6J.J'oAli'-\Lo, ,.. '\ '-\ .. r-u.s,.4.1. 00 ByGodand Mohammed, God's apostleByGod,andthere -is noonemore powerfulthanGod Bythelifeof thisbranch(stick) andtheworshippedGodandtheProphetDavidBytheliving crossBythetruthofthe Mohammedan direction ofprayerBythetruthof this church and those (i,e. saints) abiding initBythedoor of thisEast(i.e.bythe direction ofthe sunrise) which istheprayerdirection ofthe Christians (the directionofburying Christian dead). BytheKaCbeh Bythehonourablechurchofthe Nativity Bythe Qoran BythebeardoftheProphet y)W:J\A"4W \'-'WlJ\i..'LA..J Uy-:--..'t5:oel1 Adb) Bythetruthofthissun's disk(lit.smalleye) 4:r?) which is going downinthewestin obedience toherLordBythelife (here : existence) of this moustache Bytheexistence ofthewaterwhich purifies thelivingandthedeadBytheexistence of the flowingwaterandthehighheavens Bytheexistence ofthistree which drinks with its root, and which praises itsLordBytheexistence of this greencarpetwhichgrewdumbanddeaf(i,e. quietly) fromthe .earth BythetruthoftheOnewhoknowshowmany leavesthereareon thistree,andhow many hairson this animal. (The person whileutteringthisoathpointstoa tree andtoan animal) Someof theseformul:sweretakenfromthewrittennotes ofmyfather.

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CA.NAAN:MohammedanSaints and SanctuariesinPalestine127 MosesI..."tThese oathsaremadeinany placeandneednotbe restricted toa sanctuary.Itis customary tousethenameofa local oran important outsideweli.Alloaths made ina mosam ofa saint,orintheneighbourhood ofasanctuaryareperformed inthenameoftherespective weli or prophet. Moreimportantareoathsmadeintheshrine itself.Thecauses forsuchanactareeithermajoror minor ones.Whenamanis accused of having stolen something,butnodirectproofs can be brought, heis asked bytheaccuser togotoa 'lveli andswearhis innocence.Theaccused, followedbytheaccuser,enterstheshrine.Theformer liftsuphis handsandsays:"ByGod,theGreat(Almighty)2OnewhohasnogreaterPowerabove Him, Ihavenotstolen, norevenseen this she-mule,nordoIknowwhohastakenher."3Theaccusermustcontenthimself withtheoathandisregardedas having lostthecase.Theaccusermaynottroublehimselfandtheaccused-togoin such a case toa sanctuary.Theaccused maybe allowed toturnhisfaceinthedirection oftheappointed andswears tohis innocence with uplifted hands.Theprincipleel-yamin Cala,"theoathis(tobe fulfilled) according totheintention (resolution) oftheonewho requirestheoath(fromtheother)",hastwo meanings.Firstthattheaccuserhastherighttoappointthesanctuary,thetimeandsometimesthepartofthesanctuaryon whichtheaccusedmustplace hishandwhile swearing (the tomb,the mibrab, theQoran,etc.).Inthesecond placetheoathgivenbytheaccused is explained inthesense intendedbytheaccuser.Wordingwhichmay expressthetruthonly externally,butbe essentially untrue,isafalse oath.Forexample Ais accused byBof having stolen hismarefromtheclosed stable whereitwas'fastened. Awas actuallythethief, having stolenthemare in company withC,B'sservant. 0 openedthestable, untiedthemareandleditoutsidethepremises ofBwhere Awas awaiting.him,Athengalloped off with it,andafterselling themaregaveChis share. B suspects Aandasks himto swear.1 Udjahen-naMMusa ...2Thisis sometimes repeated three times. I .\ _--ocl:..&AM_l:..e.\Lo>1111\AJJ\ r, \AJ.:;..\

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128 JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyThelattersays:"ByGod,theAlmighty,Inever entered thepremises, unlockedthe stable, untied themareortookitaway."Hisoathis literally true,andBisobligedto accept it,butsincehe tried to cheat through thewordingoftheoath,Godandthe saint will punishhimmostseverely. When theaccusedis ritually cleanhe enters theshrine,orifnothe stands outsidethedoorofthe sanct uary,facing the interior, andperformshisoath.Inthecaseofa holycaveone stands onthedoor.ManyBedouinof Transjordania stepoverthetombofthe weli(yuj"Auq) andthenswear.Theythinkthatthesaint,who,is already irritated bythecontemptuousactof stepping overhistomb,willactthe faster inpunishingtheaccused ifhehasgivenafalseoath.Iftheaccusedisguilty,butdoesnotdaretoacknowledgehis faultopenly,andisatthesametime afraid ofperjury,hemayget outofhisdifficultyinthefollowingway, told meby Sofiya of TurmusCaiya. Theaccusedwearshis garment turned insideout, fasteninginitsevenneedlesand carrying three silver bracelets in hispocket.Allthisisdonesecretly.Withthis protection he believesthatno harm willbefallhim,evenifheswearsafalse. oath.Heintends bysuchanacttoacknowledge secretly tothe manofGodthathehas committed thefault,butpromiseshimtoreturnthe stolen things secretly orbysome intermediary. When an accuser loseshiscasebyafalseoathoftheaccused, he tries toprovokethe anger ofthe saint, believingthathecan thus hasten the punishment ofhisguiltyopponent. There aredif ferent modesof provocation.Hemayholdwithbothhandsthe twoendsof a matofthe sanctuary andswayingitupanddown,thus shaking itsdustontheaccused,say:,,0myLord, 0 Sef ed Din,getmemyright fromthislyingscoundrel."Sometimesthe matsofthe shrineareturned over'withthewords:"Iturn the mats of overonyou,scoundrel."1Thematsremain upsidedown until a passer-by ortheqaiymturns themback. Generally, however,theyarenot touched, untilthepersonwhoin thisway besought the saint for justice turns themoveragainhimself. Thisisdonewhenthe relatives ofthepersonwhomadeafalse oath begforit. Turning thematsupsidedownissupposedtotQalabt Calekel-QauwO,fgo,iaUm.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine129transfer the anger ofthesaint totheguilty person. These two acts, whichareknownasqalb maybe performed notonlywhen apersonhas perjured himself,butalso whenever a person is unjustly oppressed.Allbelievethattheseactswill stimulatethesaintto reactatonceinfavorofthe oppressed person.!Insomepartstheoppressed person goestothe sanctuary,andlyingonthefloorcovers himself witha mat, orhe placesthesweepingsoftheshrine onthetomb.Boththese actsarebelieved toirritatethe saint, whowillatonceprotecttheonewhohasbeenmaltreated.tWhenan innocent person is accusedandis thus forced toswear hefeelshimself injured bythe suspicion directedathim,andtries inoneofthefollowingwaysto makethesaint avengehim.Hethrowsasmall handful (half oraquarterofafull hand) of q$arah 3onhis opponentand says; yiqlib Calek, "(the resultof)theoath (whichyouhaveforcedmetomake) shallreturnuponyou."Theaccuser answers 4 "itwillreturnontheliar." S Otherstakestones orearthand throw them onthegrave oronthe maqam, thus arousingthespirit oftheholymantokeephis maqam holy and clear offalse accusations.6Exceedinglyrareisthecustomofgoingtoa sanctuaryandbinding ontheheadstone (m$ibeh) a piece of cloth belonging totheoppressed person withthewords yaMadjqublifulanilli?alamni, "AttackSoandSo,whohas oppressed me,0M." This customis practiced, asfarasIknow,onlybywomenofDerGhassaneh.7 ,Alastresorttoshow one's innocenceanddemand revengefrom Godistoturnamasha](Qoran) upside down,sayingtotheaccuser:haiyqalbetmashuf Calek, "Behold a Qoran isturnedonyou." While thesimple oaths (yman for small crimes whichwe have treated maybemadeatany wel%, moresolemmones (yman tDerGhassaneh.2BoththesecustomsI heard frompeopleof Abu Ghos. 3 isthe plaster coating ofthewallsoftherooms. Arab.yiqlib ala l-kddib.5 The accuser andaccused,whocamethesame way,returnseparately by differentroads.6Ifthe accused isa descendant ofa saint andis innocent, he tries toirritatethe saint byputting filth onthetomborby shoutingthatthe saint isasleep, powerlessor indifferent (cf.1 Kings 1827).7HeardfromO. el-Barghfiji,9

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130JournalofthePalestineOriental Society mughalla?) formajorcrimeslike murder,' rape 2 andhadjseh3have tobe performed inthe shrine ofan important saint. of Lifta assured methata welt (ornizq), "a nervous, irritable shouldbechosen,sincehewill punish a liaratonce.sInsuch important itisnottheaccuser,butthe judge who ordersthatsuchan oath be made incaseno absolute proofscanbe brought ofthe defendant's guilt.Thejudge-ifheis unable togohimselfsends representatives to report the result.Theoath oftheaccused mustbe seconded bya notableandsanctioned by three others.! Wehaveseenthatall oaths; taken ina sanctuary, aremadeinthenameofGodandnotinthatofa prophet. Thenameofthelatter,maybe mentioned insomecases afterthatofGod,butno important oath isevermadeinthenameofa saint alone. Fridays andMondaysaregenerally chosenforan important oath.Thelatterdayis selected because itissaidthattheProphetwasbornona Monday. The material givenintheforegoingsectionshowsthe great honour andfearofthe saints.Fewindeed dare tomake"afalse oath ina shrine,forthevengeanceofthesaints-ismostsevere.Thisrevenge mayshow itself inhim,hisfamily,his property, or his animals. Story after story is told to illustrate thispoint.Insomecases-aswith el-well,Shah ed-Dinof eaffa-the manofGodmarksthehouses ofthosewhomakeafalseoath.Earlyinthemorningtheymay findthe.corpseofsome animal infrontofthedoor.Ifnosucha isfound, everybody knows thatthe oath wasa true one.6.VOWSThe practice of incurring voluntary obligations toadeityon fulfilmentof certain conditions, suchas deliverance fromdisease, death,or danger, successin enterprises, bestowal ofanheir,and the like,isof extremely ancient date andcommoninallsystemsof religion.Therearemany references inthe Bible dealingwithvows,1Ar.damm.2Ar. 'arif,. 3Ar. ltadjseh isthe entrance ofa respectable house.bya stranger, either for robbery orfor adultery. 4 All those I asked corroborated this statement. 5 SeealsoO.el-Barghuji's paper,JPOS 11, 51.

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CANAAN:MohalnmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine131whichfactshowsushow widespread this practice was. The prophet Mohammedgavesomerules concerning itintheQoran,aswell as intheHadit,Vowsastheyare performedatpresent have kept mostof their ancient features.1This customis still foundamong the peasants aswellasamongthetown-dwellers,amongMoham medansand Ohristians, rich andpoor.Allbelieveinitsnecessity, itsefficacyanditssureblessing. Every difficultyor misfortune in thedailylifeofthe Oriental brings him nearer tohisGodandto the saints. Andholdingthatthese holymenarenearer God than himself,and nearer him than Godis,hebelievesthattheyareable tohelphim.Hetries togettheir protection, favourandhelp; andbelievesthathewillbemoresuccessfulifthe saints are rewarded byhim. Therefore hepromisesoneormore saints anoffering,to begiveninhisor their namesandin their honour. Opportunities formakingvowsareinnumerable: in sickness, in thecaseofthe journey ofafriend,whenbadnews about an absent. member ofthefamilyisreceived,whenawomanis barren, during abadagricultural year,inthefaceof impending danger, repeated lossof children, difficult labour, infectiousdiseaseof cattle, etc. AmongallthesecausesIsicknessisthemost important andmostvowsarepaid inconnectionwithit.Many saints are called upon forhelp.Thefather, mother, wife, brothers, sisters, children, other relations orevenfriendsof the sickmake the vows.Usuallyeach ofthemcallsonadifferent saint, thus ensuring thehelpofallthe most important saints.Incasethe condition ofthesickmenallows, hehimselfwillpromiseanoffering.Thevalueoftheofferingvaries moreorless according tothe importance ofthesickpersoninthe family.Thefather, husband ortheonlysonaregenerally themost privileged inthis respect. The wife, daughters, oroldwomenof thefamilycomelast.I witnessed thefollowing occurrence which illustrates theaboveexcellently,as described inAberglaube,p.70. Abft Aminel-Betunt,the eldest member ofhis J;tamuleh2 fellsick withpneumonia.Hehadsuchasevere relapsethatthecourseof thediseasewas greatly prolonged.Whenonedayhis condition gottKahle,PJBVIII,pp.148ff.;Canaan,Aberglaube,pp. 70ff.; Jaussen, Doutte, Curtiss, passim. 2 l;lamo,leh is the "family" inthewidesense, almost "clan," whilethe narrower meaning is expressed by celeh.

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132Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental Societyvery' criticalandI explained themattertohis brothersandrelatives,oneofhisbrothersvowedthathewouldgive thirty francstworth of candles tothesanctuary ofAbraham(Hebron), totheMosque ofOmar(Jerusalem), andtoMoses.AtthesametimehebeggedtheAlmighty Godto heal hisbrotherandtoinflictthedisease instead uponhisownyoungson,whowaseightmonths01d.2He was evenready tolosehischild,ifthe Almighty wouldsavehis brother.3Asecond brother voweda for theweli ZetQ.n (Betunia),andasecondsheepasa satl}ah (picnic)forhisfriendsandrelatives.Thewife promised Nebi Samw'l asheep,whilethe sickman himself promised toofferasheepanda "basket" ofrice 4 to Abraham.Theother relatives made smallervows.According to PalestinianArabicbelief GodistheAlmighty One,who stands higherthanall saints.IfHechoosesHeisabletodoeverything, possibleandimpossible. This istheQoranic teaching. Butthe saintsarepreferred. They are easier ofaccessand stand nearer tomen-asthey allwereonce human beings."Atthesametimethey know human needs, ailmentsandweaknessesverywell.Thereforethebelief inthemandthefearofthemhas spread sowidelyamongthePalestiniansthatgradually theyhave taken the place ofGod. People lookatthem as minor deities, nordoI doubtthatinmany places superstition has elevated themtoarankequaltothatof God. This isthe reason why nearly allvowsaremadeto saintsandnottoGod.Thenumber of saints towhomvowsare brought is innumerable. Generally thelocalwelisarepreferred, butvery often othersarethought of, either because they are prophets and thus favourites oftheAlmighty, or because theyhave gradually gained throughtheirmiraclesthecomplete confidenceofthe peasants. Even inoneandthesame village, where thereareseveralawliya,oneof them enjoysthegreatest popularity, sinceheisbelievedtotTwenty francs orone pound arecalled nerak or lerah. Thedifferencebetween a French, an English, anEgyptianora Turkish pound is expressed byaddingthenameofthe nation, fransawiyeh,ingz?'ziyeh.2 The baby fellsickafewdayslater.-Themother said bab es-sama kan "thegate of heaven was open,"i.e.,whenthe father expressed hiswishGod hearditatonce.Thisidiomisalwaysusedwhenadesireisquicklyfulfilled.3Such a desire isnotcalleda nitjr, butada'ueh.(8curse), 4 Quffet ruzz =100kg(33

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine133bemorepowerfulthantheothers. This iswhy, inspecting several shrinesofthesame locality, we observethatsomearecleaner,betterkeptand richerthanothers. Besidesthegreatprophets, likeMoses, Abraham, David, Christ, Rubin (Reuben), Samuel, etc.,who aremorehighly thought ofthanthe rest,therearesome welis like the Badriyeh, Salmanel-Ears!, el-Qatrawani, tetc.,whoenjoyawide reputation. Some saints donotliketoseeawoman enteringtheirsanctuaries eventofulfilavow made intheirname. This is especiallytrueof MarSaba. SomewomenoftheGreekChurch therefore never make offeringstohim,sincehewillnotallowanyof them toenterhis sanctuary. Thefollowing story will illustrate this belief.t A Russian lady,whohadofferedhima golden lamp,wishedtobringitherself. Sheworemale clothes, enteredthechurch oftheconvent unrecog nizedand placedthelampin front ofhis picture. Some unseen power threwthelampawayandspilledtheoil. timethelampwas replaced, itwas thrownstill further away.Theastonishedraiys(head oftheconvent),who observed all what was happening, searched forthereason,andassoonashefoundoutthattheofferer wasa distinguished woman,he beggedhertoleavetheconvent, assuring herthat MarSaba doesnotacceptanyofferings from' women,buteven prohibits femalesfrom entering theconvent."Vowsare'notonlymadeto sanctuaries wherea maqam and a tombarefound,butevery other shrine combination whichwehavestudied enjoysthisprivilege.Naturallywhat isvowedto theseshrines-stones,caves,trees,. springs,etc.-isasa rule much inferior to what isofferedtotheanbiya.Offeringsto supposed holystones, trees, waters,etc.,areanotherconnecting link with primitive religions.1 is situated onthetopofamountain,amidsta smallgroupofoak trees, whichgrow betweentheremains ofaruin,withseveral cisterns. Theshrineis composed ofoneroomwithtwodomes.The shrine is composed ofoneroomwithtwodomes.Thetombis supposed tobeinacavebelowthebuilding.Aheapof lid (seebelow)was placed intheN.E.corneroftheroom. Tothewestofthesanctuary one,findsthe tomb ofhis servant.2Related' tomebyImm EliaB of Jerusalem.3Therefore the women oftheGreek Orthodox congregation work onhis feast day, sayingthatsincehedoesnotlikethemtheywillnothonourhim, cumruh la t'aiyad.

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134Journa.lofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyVowsmayevenbemadeto living persons. Generally these priviliged men belong tooneofthefollowing classes:1.Thedescendants of a holy man. A thorough examination ofthepresent awliya showsthat.someof themarerecentandthattheirdescendantsarestill living.Oasesin pointare hadj e0beid,t cAbdallah2 and irdjalSufab.3 Tothelivingsonsofthe awliya simple thingsarepromised (tunbak,4djadjih,5 etc.),2. ofa tariqah orwhoareconsidered as especially pious, as el-se-I]Abft I;Ialaw'. 3.Servantsofa shrine ora priest.Vowsof this classareespeciallymadeby Ohristians.Thefollowingcase illustrates this type. Amanof Djifna whosesonwas sick vowed:"0St. George,ifmy child gets wellI shall offercurtains7(lit. cloths) foryour avestmentforthepriest,"! A 4.To mentallyabnormalmen.In'En tArik thereusedtolive an insane9manwhowas silent most ofthetimeandwalked only backwards.Notonlytheinhabitantsof this villagebutalso those ofthesurrounding places considered hima welt They thoughtthatbyhis behaviour one could foretellthefuture ofthevillage,Ifhe shoutedduringthenight,rainfell,andifheranaimlessly toand1In cEn Karim. The maqam, whichisatthesametimea djami' witha medaneh, isinsidethevillage.Adj acent tothe shrine thereis'a fruit garden. Anybody whota.kesacuttingfrom these treesandplantsit,findsthatitwillnotgrow.2Westof Ghet (near Der Ghassaneh).His maqam was originally a cave which was changed into asmallroom with cloisters in front. Thetombof hiswife (es-Slabiyeh) isbesidehis.Hisfamilyall belong to DarMustafa Saniur (0.S. Barghliti). 3The maqam is situated onthetopofahilltothewestof Der Ghassaneh,andcontains three tombs forthemale (el.Madjqub, Ibrahimand CAll) andtwo female (daughters of elMadjqub) descendants. Outside the maqam there are fourothertombs, onefor ei-lefJah andtheother forhermaidHanfir.I owe this information toO.S. Barghutl. Tobaccousedinthe argileh, fi Ahen.6Acloth.7The"curtain"isathin(if possible asilky)clothwhichis hung overthepictures.8Itistheofficialsuitcarried bythepriestinthe church. 9 Eightyearsagohewas living; Idonotknow whether heisstillalive.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 135 frotheyknewthat 1"gendarmerie" were approaching the villagetocollectthetaxes.Womenusedtovowhimahenin caseoneof their familywassick.Afew hairs ofthis saint's head werealwaystaken when thehenwas presented, andwiththese hairs the patient wasfumigated.> Sometimesvowsaremadetoobjectsorplaceswhicharenot connected withaknownsaint.Assoonasaspontaneous, miraculous signissupposedtohavebeenobservedbysomeone,theplaceis regarded as inhabited bysome supernatural power, probably pious menofunknownorigin towhomvowsmay then bemade. The following exampleisagood illustration ofthis.Totheleftof the carriage road3leadingfromJerusalemto Kolonia andopposite the last houseof I.Jifta (situated some distance fromthemainvillage anddirectlybelowthe carriage road) there isaCaveinwhichsome peasants of Lifta4 usedtolive during thesummermonths. During itsstayinthiscavethefamilylostone member after theother. Oncethe father ofthefamily noticed amysterious light inthecave, whichmade clear tohimthat,this place was inhabited bysome superhuman powerwhohadpunishedhimforhavingdefiledits habitation. Atoncehemovedfromthespotandvowedtooffera sheepandto light anoillamponceaweek.5There is another setofvowswhichhaveno'connectionwiththe types describedhitherto, inwhichofferingsaremade'toobjects whicharenot associated withanyholyman,holyplaceor sacred object.The best illustration isthefollowingcustom: Sterile women whogoto.the mosam ofel-Husen, near Ascalon, take a bath inthe seaandpromise:"IfIbecome pregnant, 0sea,Ishallkillasheep inyourhonour."6Inthe mosam' of the next year awomanwho had receivedtheblessingof motherhood killsthesheepon the shore,in1People wereverymuch frightened when gendarmerie cametoavillage, sincethesoldiers gathered thetaxes heartlessly, imposing many unnecessary expenses uponthevillagers. 2 Cf. Aberglaube, p.72,n.5.3Theplaceiscalled el-:e:omeh.4. Thesamefamilywhichlivesnowinthehouse opposite thecave. 5 Thesamemaybesaid about es-selJ, Husen (near ed-Dahriyeh) where one night a light was observed under thesidrtree.Atoncethe tree was regarded asgrowinginthesiteofa wet?, andasmall maqam was built. 6 InyaaarU{.

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136Joumalofthe Palestine Oriental Societysuchawaythatthebloodflowsintothesea,andthrowing the saqat 1ofthesheepintotheseashe exclaims.s "Take your vow,0 sea."3Although suchcustomsarereally very rare, theycarryusbacktopastageswhentheseawas honoured andworshippedasa divinity. A connecting linkbetweenthetwolastantagonistic groups,i.e., between objectsandplaces whichhavenoreligioustingeatall, andthosewhicharedirectly connected with saints, areplaceswhere, according tolocalbelief,dervishmusicor prayers havebeen heard, a greenish light seen,or burning incensesmelled.Thediscoverer ofsucha place makesthefirstvow.Agood illustration ofthis belief isgivenbythe story of Djum'ah (abovepp.59f).Inclosing this, section wemaydraw attention tothetwofollowing points:1.Inmanycasesvowsare made toGod without mentioningany saint.!"Ifmy child gets well,0God,I shall slayasheepforyou."Insuchacasethesheepmaybeslaininany place andthe meat begiventothepoor.VowstoGodarebecominglessandless frequent.2.Most oftheMohammedans Iasked, assured methatitisan irreligiousacttomakeavowinthenameofa saint. Every thing comesfromthe Almightyandmust beoffered therefore inhisname. lllilJiynijerla-wali min dunfjikrallah $aratfjbiJ;ttufti$eh, "Whoever makesavowtoa weli without mentioning God,hissheepbecomes acarcass."Adead beast is,ofcourse,not accepted either byGod orby a saint,andshouldnotbe eaten bymen."Theonly correct formulasareofthefollowing type:in tab ibni ya allah ilak ya ,"Ifmychildgets well, 0God,youwillhave,0 This principle isfollowedmore rigidly bythe Bedouinthanbythepeasants, asiswell illustrated intheformula recited whena (JbiJ;tah is killedbyaBedouin.Hesays:minnokuilak ya t meansthehead, intestines, extremities, lungs and other internal organs.Itwillbe described morefullylateron.2 1!oq niqrakyaba!tr. 3Cf. A berglaube,pp.75,76.. 4 In ifp&iya aUa.h la-aqbaltlakIJaruf. s Qoran.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine137 allah, adjru 1la-saiydna Musaallahakbar, "ItisfromTheeandtoThee,0God;rewardandrecompense forourlordMoses; Godisgreat."2Thisisa religious rule,butpopularreligion isin manyways hostile tothereligion ofthe Qoran andtheBible.Theformulasusedin making avowaredifferent. Usuallytheword ni4r,"vow,'t is used: nigrun Calaiy yanabzMusa in tabibni la-aqaddimlak ljaruf, "Avow(is) upon me,0prophetMosea;ifmy son gets wellI shall offeryoua sheep."Theword niijr maybe omitted:"0myladyBadriyeh, Ioweyouajarofoil,ifmysonreturnshealthy from America."Athirdform is:in tababuy la aq,wUaksamcahtuluh ya !!a4rel-A1]tJ,ar, "IfmybrotheriscuredIwill light you,0 .ijaQ-rel-Abgar, a candle ofhislength."!Allthese vowsareknown officially as ngftr muqaiyadeh,4"boundvows,"i.e.,vowsboundbya condition, whichmustbe executed.Therearevows belonging toanotherclass, namely, nugur mutlaqah,."free (general) vows,"inwhichno conditionbindsthefulfilment ofthevow:ilak'alaiy ya rasul allahan a$umsahren, "I"impose upon myself forthysake,0Apostleof God,theobligation of fasting two months."InsomepartsofPalestinespecial expressionsareused whenvowingan animal;theywillbe described below.Abeautiful formula is expressed inthefollowingverse,whichisrecitedbyamother visiting St. George'schurchwithhertwochildren,andasking himtokeep them alive: Ya lla4rcalek el-yom tereniwal:tad u wal:tadimkal:t7:tal el_c eni niqrunC alaiyain Cla-a@Ja7:tgabaiJ;t uaqaddim lal-lla4rdeni.S o Iaqr EverGreen, twobirdscometo you; Theone with feathers(i,e., well-grown),theotherwithdarkenedeyes(i,e., still veryyoung).1These two words wellexpressaveryimportantfactin namely,thatthey are made for the benefit ofthesaintto whomtheyareoffered.2Heardfrom a Bedouin ofthe"Idwan tribe.3Attimes averyindefinite promise ismade:ilak talaiy ya mar Milia/pIin miJiibniillimin nafri,"I vowtoyou,0St.M., ifmyson walks,whatIwillgiveyou." 4 Ibn Bidayat'U I-Mudjtahid uaNihayat'U voI.I,pp.341,etc. 5Bet Dj ala.

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138JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyI take asavowuponmyself,ifthesetworemainalive,Ishalloffersacrificesandpaymyduesto tlacJr.1 Another verseofthis sort usedalsoby Christians is: YacAdra Mariamharir es-Sam zunnarik nidrunCalaiya in adju l-ghuyab oVirgin Mary,thesilkof Damascus(Iwillgiveas)your belt;Ivowthatifthose absent comeback,Ishallneedyou(i,e.,Ishall fulfilmypromise).Attimesthe person whoisin great difficultygoestoa sanctuary, prays withdevotion,begsforhelp,makesavowandwritesiton the wallof the shrine.Inthiswayhebindshimselfdoubly,while theweliis reminded continuallybythewriting.Inthe maqam of cOkaseh Ifound the followingwriting,whichisan excellent illustration ofthiscustom:"Iintrust tothisplacemytestimony,thatthere isnoGodbut Allah andMohammedisGod'sapostle.omylord cOkaseh, if Al}mad thesonof ljadidjeh thesonof Zakaria goesoutofthe jail wit"God'shelpandyourhelp,Iwill bring toyou,0mylord-o,three oqiyeh(ea,750gm.)ofoil,andIshallcometovisityou.PraytoyourGod(to hear myprayer),omylord-o..."Inofferingthepromisedvowoneofthefollowingexpressionsmay beused: adjak ni4rak ya ...,"Your vow hascometoyou,0...;" @ihtakya ...,"take yoursacrifice,0...;"haiy samCtakya ..0' "Here isyourcandle,0..."Vowsmaybemadeatanytime.Insomepartsthe night is chosen(BeniZed).3Thusawoman,whosechildisdangerouslyill, andwhois therefore ingreatanxiety,choosesthenight,ifpossible1Anotherverse which ismoreaprayerthana vow is: go,allahga saiyd wil-wa/ad ufteiydtiniilIn-a waladnazaiy manaialteZ-1Jaq,ramingad el-kutfar.oGod,0Lord,Theboyistheonlyson;Deliver usourson, Asyou delivered fromthehandsoftheinfidels.2 Bet Dj ala. 3This belief is sometimes also found inotherpartsof Palestine.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan BaintsandSanctuariesin Palestine139shortlyaftermidnight..Shegoesoutofthehousetospeak directly withherGod.Uncoveringher chest;' andliftingupherarmsshe makesavow.Sometimesshe goes entirely naked2andimploresthe Almightyorsome saint forhelp,promisinghimanoffering.Itis believedthatatsuchatime-whenallhumanbeingsareatrest theangelsfillthe atmosphereandhear humanwishes better than intheday.time.4They carry themtoheavenatonceand bring themtothedesiredsaint. 6 Whoever makesavowmustkeepit:kullu niqrin fart!, "everyvowisan obligation." BothBible6and Qoran 7givespecialrules forthe fulfilment. Thesoonerapromiseis carried outthe better. Th-e saintssometimesremindamanwhohasnotkepthispromise. A peasant promised Ibrahim8anoffering,Asalong period passed withoutan attempt onthepartofthemanto carry outhis obligation,the saint appeared tohimina dream andwarned:"Payyourvowatonce;ifyouareunabletodoallthatyouhavepromised, bringpartofit." Generally the awlia arenotsogracious,butare greatly irritated bysuchconductandwillpunishthe culprit severely. Awomanvowedtogive eS-stlj, Husen9anofferinganddidnot keepherword.Theangry 'tveli threwa bannay 10onherandshe hadamiscarriage.Somethinkthatsaintstrytoremindaman whohasnotfulfilledhispromiseinagentle,butsometimesalsoin a severeway.Thuswhenthe clqth,s ofapersonare caught intAsignof humiliation.2The strongest signof humiliation.3Even natureandsome spirits arethoughttosleep during thenight; there fore 8 personshouldnever drink from standing water without first saying: itnabbahiya'nloillma wirdik illa1-' "Wake up,0water, onlythe thirsty onehas approached youto drink." 4 Itissaidthatthenoiseof human beings disturbs theangels, therefore the night-prayer istheone best heard. 5 Somedaysarealways preferred to others for prayers, vows,etc. Among themare lelatu l-Qadr, lelatcAraf8:t, 1. etc. (el-lelJ, cAbd el-Madjid CAll,AtTultfatu I Mar4illahfil-:AlJbar elMaqdisiyah, p.50). 8 Num.812-16, 305; Deut, 26 22;Ps,22 26, 50 14, 6618,116 14 and18.7Sfirah V,1;IX,76.8This weli isthebrotherof eljelJ,Su'eb. Bothhave their shrinesnear Bet Djibrin.Ibrahimis situated inaruinbearing hisname. Quiteneartohimis Virbet Santa IJanna.g In cEn thespringnear his shrine bears hisname.10Alargeunhewnstone(lit.anunhewnstonewhichcanbeusedin building).

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140JournalofthePalestineOriental Societythistlesorifhegetssick,hemaybeaskedbyhis friends,1"Haveyouboundyourself bya promise, which youhavenotyetfulfilled?"2Itis oftenposssible-incase amanis unable tofulfilhispromiseexactly-tochange somepartofitorto substituteanotherforit.Iffor example, somebody vowsa sheep,itisof course preferable to sacrificeitatthesaint'sshrine,butifheis unable togo himself hemaysendmoneytotheqaiymortoa friend, whowillbuytheanimalandofferitinhis name,Thesheep mayevenbe slain inthevillage inthenameoftheprophet.Orin case a woman promises to walk barefoot toasanctuaryandtriestodoitbutis unable to continuethejourneyforsome physical reason, shemaybereleasedofherpromise bydoingsomethingelse,orby offering asumofmoneyinthenameofthesaint, givingittothepooror depositingitattheshrine.TheprophetMohammed isreportedtohavesaid:3"Whoeverpromises towalk toaplaceandcannotdoit,isnotpermittedtofulfilhisVOW."4Wheneverapersoncannotfulfilhisvows,hegoestoa andasks for advice; heis generallytoldhowto change hisvowandwhattoofferasa substitute.Itisa wide-spread belief. among people ofPalestinethat,whileevery nidr maybereplacedbyanother,a vowof fasting acertainnumberof days orweeks (besidesRamadan)cannotbe changed.Thisvowcannotbe "bought"5inanyway.Accordingtotheregulations, of.theOldTestamenteveryvow could bechangedtopaymentofmoneyexcepta sacrificial animal."Itvery oftenhappensthatduringthefulfilment ofa promise onebindshimself to continualofferings,Afather.promised theprophetMoses oncethatifhisonlySOD,whowasbadlysick, shouldgetwell1An accident is believed tobea particularlystrongreminder.2Everyonewhois reminded in one oftheabove mentioned wayswillatoncesay: Uizim nidrakya ...,"Yourvow,0..will surely reach you."3TheMohammedantheologians have discussedthesubject of vows very minutely intheirbooks.Ishall mention onlythe following question whichmayhappenoften inthedailylife.Isapersonallowedtobindhimself to abstain from allowedthings Yes,istheanswer, exceptthatthe matrimonial duties should never be neglected. 4 Mannadaraan limahallin walan an yaquma{ala yadjuzu an yukmila nidruhu masyan. 5 Oftentheexpression"bought," iitata, isused; istara niqruh ibtnttgirl, "heboughthisvowwith100 piastres," i.e.,heofferedthissum instead ofhisvow.SSee Zeller,BiblischesWorterbuch.I,453.

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UANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine141hewould give him a sheep.Whilethefather-aftertherecoveryofthechild-wasofferingthesheepattheshrineoftheprophet,he exclaimed;'"Hereis your vow,0InterlocutorofGod,andifyou keepmysonwellIvowyoua sheep every year."NotonlyMohammedansbutalsoChristiansmaybindthemselves insuchaway.Mostofthevowsarenotexpensive,butsomearereallycostly. Amanof Abfi Diswhofell sickduringhisstayinAmericaandbecamebadlyill,vowed:2"IfIreturntomyfamilyinperfecthealth,oGod, I shall build aminaretforthemosque ofmy village."Hegotwellandassoonashereturnedtohiscountryhebuilttheminaretin question.3Anothermoreexpensive promise wasthatof a seb ofthefamilyel-Imam(Jerusalem).4Duringhislastsickness he promised:"IfIgetwell,0ProphetofGod(Mohammed), Iwill build a djamiC with a minaret.Butin case IdieIbegyou,0my relatives, to clothe fortyorphansinmyname."Thethings whichmaybevowedareso numerousthatitappearsimpracticabletogivetheminone list.Theymaybe dividedaccordingtothesortofvows into 1.materialofferinga,sand2. work promised.Butabetterclassification isthefollowing, whicharrangesthemaccordingtotheirpurposes: 1.Thingswhich servedirectlyfortheupkeep ofthe maqarn a) Offerings which serve to preserveandto beautifythesanctuaryb)Materialforrepairsc)Personalwork2.Vowsoffoodmadeinthenameof a saintandoffered (mostly) inhis shrine.Theshrinederives nodirectbenefit fromtheoffering,butthepoorreceive apartinmostcases a)Animalsacrifices b) Qurban, walimeh,lil-lahc) Meatless food t Haiy niqrak1/0,KalimAllahu ilak alaiy kull sanen in ibni 2 In bis-salamen la-'yiUi1/11,,Allan la-aimimedanehladjaml,of: baladi,3The story wastoldmebyhiscousin. .. SeeAberqlaube,p.74. 5 Itshouldbe notedthatalthough mostofthe things foundina shrine are donations having their origin invows, there arestill other things whichwere the property ofthe leG himself.The rosary andthe spear belongtothis category.

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142JournalofthePalestineOriental Society3.Offeringsgiventoneedy persons inthenameofthewelia)Poor, sick, rarely for hospitals b) Orphans andwidows c) Prisoners Religious vows5.Bodily chastisements andvowstobe fulfilled onthebodyof thevowerortheperson vowed for6.Vowshavingno connectionatallwithanyholypersonor shrine, andnot made forthepoor7.Offeringsforthe dead I. Things whichservefortheupkeepofthe maqam 'l'hings vowedandofferedto a saint whichserve directly forthe upkeep, decoration orrepairoftheshrine, makebyfarthe greatest number ofallvows.Most oftheofferingswhichbelongtothis groupare80simpleandcheapthateventhepoorest peasant isable tooffersomething. This isthereason for their popularity.a)Offeringswhichareusedto maintain andto beautify theshrineThetwomost important elements ofthiscategory-oilandincense-enjoynow,asamongtheancient Orientals, a special favour. Oliveoilisvowedandofferedmorethananything else. Peasants andtownsmen, ChristiansandMohammedans, rich andpoorvowoil, anditmaybeofferedtoanysortof sanctuary. Theolive tree en-nur,l "thetreeoflight,"asitis called inthe Qoran isregardedasholy.Itshowsits supernatural powerbyits animation.Thebestexample ofthisisthe en-nabi2withtheMoham medans,andthefollowing belief among Ohristians.Theolive trees kneel downinthenight ofthefeastoftheHolyCross, because it is thoughtthattheheavensopenonthis very night.s A peasant of Bethlehem told methefollowingstory.One night helosthismule.Helooked throughthedarknight invainforhisanimal,butashe was searching inanolivegrove,he observedthatthegroundwas1Somedatarelatingto.this subject have already beennoted. 2 Cf. .4berglaube ,p.87.3Mohammedans believethatheavenopensonceeveryyearin lelatu l-Qadr.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandBanctuaries inPalestine 143 covered with branches of trees.Hedidnottrusthisowneyes,andashecouldnotfindanyexplanation, hetoreoffa piece ofhis garment and fastenedittoa branch, markingtheplaceatthesame timein order tofinditearlythenextdayandto investigate this mysteryinbroadday-light.Returninghomeherelatedtheoccur rence tohis relatives. Nobody could account for this fact.An.oldman, sitting inthecorner, shookhisheadpIouslyandremindedallthatthis night wasthenightofthefeast oftheHolyCross,1in whichallthetreeskneel reverently down beforetheirmaster.Thepeasant wentnextdaytothesceneofhis nightly adventureand-sawallthetrees standingerectwhilethepiece of cloth, whichhehadfastened ona branch, floated highupintheaironthe.topofthetree.tThe Qoran 3andtheBiblemention oilandtheolivetreevery often. According to Surah XCV,1,Godswears4by thistreeandtherefore itis called el-mubarakeh,"theblessed tree."ItwasgiventoAdamandEveaftertheirexpulsion fromParadise,anditwasthefirstplantwhichappearedaftertheflood.!TheArabssaythatAdamhadaverybadskin trouble.HebeggedtheAlmighty forhelp,andGod senttheangelGabrielwithanolive sprig.The angelorderedAdam:"takethis sprig,plantitandpreparefromits fruit anoilwhichwill curealldiseases except poisoning/'"Thepeasants ofPalestineswear sometimesbytheolive tree saying: wihyat en-nur,"BythelifeoftheTreeofLight."7Oilis still usedto light private houses,aswellas churches, mosquesandsanctuaries.Itstill enjoysthesame popularity in popular medicine, religious ceremonyandmagic procedure, asitused tointheancient Orient.stAccordingtolocal superstition some plants (12dmes) have a betterpro phylactic and curative actionifcutonaspecialday.The27thof enjoysthisrenown.2OntheAscensiondayoftheVirginthetreesarealso supposed tokneeldown.3 Surah XVI,11; XXIV, 35; LXXX, 29;XCV,1;VI,99and141. 4Surah XCV,1; XXIV, 35. 5Fayr er RazlVI, 174;Gen.811.6 Dairatu l-Macarif,IX,338.7Another formis u-fI,aqq man oo,rez-zet{iz-zetan, "BythatOne(God)who puttheoilintheolives."8OilisusedintheBibleveryoftento express power,joy,light,lifeand wisdom.

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144Jourualofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyThisoil-whichisalways zet zetun 1(oliveoil)andneversfJridj(sesameoil)-isusedforthesmalloillamps,whichwillbe described below. According tothe ability ofthe person, vowing, a djarrah,'i. half adjarrah,aratl,ora qazazeh (alsocalleda.qannineh,a bottle of800-1000ccm.)arepromised. Very oftenthe quantity isnot specifiedandmany jellal}in offeronlya partly filledbottle.Invillagesfarfrom ci!ies anibriq(jug)ofoilisgiven instead ofaqannineh.Thevesselsinwhichtheoil3is taken areleftinthesanctuary.Thisisthereasonwhywefinddozensofsuch bottles orjugs scattered about a typical shrine.Goodexamplesof this' practice arequbbetel-Arb'in, es-seb cAnbar, el-cAzerat, es-Sidri,etc..Inel-Badriyeh (Sarafat) there aretwo largejarsquitefullofoil. 4 Empty bottles, brokenjarsand jugsarenotremovedfromtheshrine,andthuswemeetwithalotof potsherds scattered intheplace.Inlarge '1naqams theonewhovowsgivestheoiltothe haddam of the shrine andtellshim plainlythatitbelongstothesaint,andthatitshouldbeusedexclusivelyin the shrine.Qimt en-ni4r minraqbati ul}attetuhfiraqbatak, "Ihaveremovedthevowfrommyneck(i,e.Iremoveall obligations frommyself)and place itonyourneck (andimposeitonyou)." Everybody believesthatifsuchanoffering isnotusedinthe shrine ofthesaint,theweliwillpunishthe servant ofthe shrineandnottheonewhopaysthevow.Expres sionsliketheaboveare especially commonamong Christians who havevowedanofferingtoa prophet orweliwhose shrine isin Mohammedan hands: Neb! Musa, Nebi Dahlid, Ibrahim el-ijalil,s etc.1Alsocalled zet Petroleumis zet kiis,andnot zetmurr, as Kahle states inPJBVIII,139.2A djarrah contains from5-7 according tothe different districts of Palestine.3Thefollowingstorywillillustratethebeliefthatoliveoil strengthens the body morethanmeltedbutter(samneh).Awifehadasonofherownanda step son.Bothwere shepherds.Everyday beforetheydrovetheanimals intothefieldsshe gaveherownson-whowasalwayspreferred-breadand samnek, whiletheotherreceivednothingbutbreaddipped inoil.Afterfinishing their mealsbothusedto wipetheirhands byrubbingthem ontheirsticks.Thestick ofthesonwassoon hollowedoutby weevils, whilethatofhis step-brother became graduallyharderand stronger. (Taken fromthe written notesofmyfather, Rev.B. Canaan.) 4 Notalltheoil found ina shrine comesfromofferings.Inlarge maqams someofitcomesfromtheioaq]'ofthe l.veli orfromthe department of religious endowments (dairatel-auqo,t'). sHeardfrom a womanof Taiybeh andfromImmElyas,

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OANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine145Twocustoms must still be mentioned in this connection.Veryoftena person takes avowtoofferaquantityofoil everyyearto a weli,"1willgiveyou,0 selj Salmanel-Ears!a ratl ofoliveoil everyyearifyoucuremyson." Although this custom maybe followedwithanyoffering,itis more commonwithoil.Manypeasantstakesomeoilwiththemasapresentevery timetheygo tovisittheshrine, evenif theyarenotbound byavow.Insuch caseshalf a bottleonlyis presented.Itis believedthatthisactpleasesthesaint, who favoursthegiver.WhenIvisited CEsawiyeh I asked the 1Mohammed eAU to send somebody to guide meto selj cAnbar.Theyoungladbroughtabottlehalffilledwithoilandplaced itinthe maqam. Onmyquestionwhetherheoroneofhis relativeshadmade avowtoofferoil,he answered: "No,butevery time wecometotheneighbourhood oftheweli, webringsomeoil withus."MostofthosewhoofferoiltakewiththemamatchboxCilbitkabritor andleaveitthere. Thus. opportunity isgivento every visitor to lighttheoil lamps.Agreatnumberoffullandempty boxesarefoundinthe taqat ofsome shrines.Itis expectedthateveryonefulfilshis promise exactly, sincethesainttakeseveryvowatitsexactwording.Thusalargerofferingthanwas mentioned inavowmaynotbeacceptedby.the weli. Avery poor widow,whoseonly child wasbadlyill promised, inherexcited stateandwithout knowing what shewasuttering: yalla4red-Djeridintabibni la-aqaddimlak zetfiqiSret bedah,"0St.George, ifmysongetswell,I shall offeryouoilinanegg-shell."Assoon asherchild recovered, shehastenedwith a pitcherofoiltofulfilhervow.Shefilledtheoil lamp which hung in front ofSt.Georges picture,butan unseen powertiltedthelampandtheoilwas spilled.Thesame thing happened everytimethelamp wasfilled.Thepriestwho observed this unexplicable happening askedthewoman,"Whatwasyourpromise?"Andwhenshetoldhim, he answered very earnestly:"Thesaintacceptsonlywhatisduehim,andnot a grain 2 more."31 Belt heredoesnotmean wel'E but ':old man." 2 In "'Arabic theyusetheword "grain of wheat" alsoin this sense.3Relatedby AbuElyas, Jerusalem. 10

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146Journalofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyTheoil presented is used onlyto light theoillamps. Indicationsregardingtheuseofoiltakenfromthelamps of sanctuaries willbe given later. Since oliveoilisnotsoabundantin Transjordania, meltedbutter(samneh)1takes its place invowsandfor lighting lamps in shrines. Candles (samiC, pl.of samCah) and kerosene oil (kaz or zet kaz) arealsovowed.Inthecaseofcandlesnotonlythenumberbutveryoftenthequalityandthelengtharespeoified.t"0Nebi Musa ifIfindmyboyingood health, Iwill lightyouacandle"ofwaxofhis length."3 Samic nahlarefinerthantallow candlesandaremorefittingasofferings.Thelength of candles is specified onlyincaseswhere childrenaresick.Whenno specification is madethefollowing expression isused, ya... la-adioilok samf ah,"0.."I shall light youacandle." Sometimestheweightofthe candles isspecified.Inel-Badriyeh heaps ofsuch candles maybe seen.! mostlyofferedby Christians of BetDjala andBethlehem.6Ihaverarelyfound candles inlessimportantsanctuaries.Inthecaseofthechurch ofSt.MarynearGethsemanethevow mayspecifythe number of' candlesandthewaythevowmustbe fulfilled:"0myladyMary,ifmyson Elyas walks,Ishall light your staircase onbothsides."?Forevery step two candlesarelighted. Afew minuteslaterthepriestputsthe light out, gathersthecandlesandkeeps them inthesanctuary for furtheruse.sAvow ofthissortmust be paid onthefirstdayof Mary's feast.A still more comprehensive vowisthefollowing:"Ifmyson Ibrahim walks I shall light a candle inevery shrine whichhe enters."Themostcommon lamps usedin shrinesaresmall, crudelypreparedpottery lamps,which resemble ancient Canaanite lamps in many respects. Thesesurdj(pl,of sradj) maybespecifiedinvows.tAsthe Bedouin donothavemuchoil,wefindthatanimalsacrificesare very abundant. Often ananimalsacrifice takestheplaceofoil.2 Ya NamMo,sa in laqet ibni la aq,wilak sarn'ahminnalllu 3Promised bya father whoreceives during hisabsencenewsoftheillness ofhischild. The expression means properly "beeswax." 5 SomeofthemIsaw hanging fromthe ceiling and otherslayonthesocalled tombs ofherchildren.6Christianstrustgreatly tothehelpof this female weli. 7 ytisitti Maryam in miSi ibni Elyas la aq,wt daradjik ala ed-djihten. 8HeardfromImm Elyas (Jerusalem).

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CANAAN: MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine147Theyareplaced inoneofthecupboardsofthetomb, ina niche inthewall,onthetomb or aroundit (eS-seb Hamad,Qubbetel-Arb'tn), ona ledge inthewall (s. (Anbar), awoodenbracketfastened on thewall1 (Sultan Ibrahimel-'Adhami,el-Badriyeh), inacave (Allmad el-Hwes),underatree (s.C Abdallah), in a stony enclosure (s. Fredj2)orinanopen place(el-CDmari 3). Sometimes wefind tins crudelyshaped,by bendingtheirsides upwards, into a lamp-like vessel,whichservesto holdtheoil. 4 A lamp of this inferior type isnotpresented,.butmadeatthespot. forthelackofa pottery lamp. 5 Thewick6ismadeintwo ways:1.a piece of cottonthread,orevenathinstrip,of cloth iswell dipped intotheoil, oneendprotruding abovethesurface oftheliquid; 2.athinstickofwoodabouttwiceaslongasamatchiswellwrappedin cotton.Theupper end ofthecotton is allowed to project overthewood.Afterdippingthewholeinoilitis placed perpendicularly inthelampandlighted. Some people vowaglass lamp withorwithout an outside silver casing.Aqandilmin fi44ah, "silver lamp," maybe suspendedbya silver chain in front ofthesaint's picture," abovethetomb8orin front ofthe Richpeople vowbrassor silver candlesticks, orevenan expensivelustrefor candles or glass lamps.?1Theseholdersmaybea little mora complicated, sothatthey looklikea small,elongated, narrow box without thetopand front side.Thetopmayat timesbe present.2 Bet l;ranina. 3Jericho.4Insomeplaces empty sardine or other tinswereusedas lamps. & In en-nabiDanian Ifoundanoldpanusedasanoillamp.I want to correct atthisplacethe statement madeonpage62 about the situation of this sanctuary.ItliestotheSWof el-Hader, andnot between thisvillageand A.Ji8.s. Itis situated onahigh mountain, commanding a magnificent view.The shrine is surrounded byaruinandthesimplenicheis built inthe midst oftheoak trees.6Ftileh. 1 Mohammedans neverhave human oranimal pictures intheirmosquesor shrines. .8Inchurches they areveryoftenmetwith.In Mohammedan shrines they arerarelyfound except inimportantsanctuaries.9Ihavenotfoundpotterylampsin churches.Forillustrations of pottery lampsseeMcOown, Annual ofthe American School,vol.11-111,p.28.10

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148.Journal ofthePalestine Oriental SocietyIncense (baJjhur) is very' oftenvowed:"0 selt Sab ba].! ifmyboy comesoutofjail,Ishallburnincenseforyou."Much' moreoften the phrasead'aq) baJjl]/u,rj'i maqamek,"Ishallburnincenseinyour .shrine,"isused.Thisincensemaybe burned intheshrineatonce oritmaybegiventothe ltaddam orpriest.Inunimportant shrines the baJffJur is burned inanolddish,apieceoftinoronapotsherd. These objects remain afterwards intheshrine.Suchisthecasein alltheshrinesof Jericho, es-se!} Husen, Qubbet el-Arb'tn, ed Dawacri, etc. Sometimes the quantity ofincenseisspecifiedinthe Incense maybeofferedinallsortsofshrines.sBurning incenseisaveryoldcustom,foundinallreligions and connected' withmanyceremonies.3Itisnotonlydoneinshrines, butalsoinplaces inhabited bydemons.Inthefirstcaseitis thought onepleases-theholymenbythisact,whileinthesecond instance itdrivesaway the evilspirits.Itissupposedthatwhat pleasesholymenandGodis disliked, bydevils,demonsandevil spirits.Forthisreasonitisemployedby sorcerers toexpelevil spirits from supposeddemoniacs. Other votiveobjectsbelongingtothis category are:mats pl. l}u$ur), carpets brooms 4 (mukunseh-makanes),jars(djarrah-djrar, pails tins(tanakeh tanak5),ropes 6,waterskins7 smallonesarecalled stin-.:-scuneh), wood (1;tatab), etc.Withtheexceptionof the carpets allobjectsarevowedtoallsortsofshrines,especially thesimpleones. Carpets (pI.of woollentDdaqainthesenseof"burn"isnotfoundinBelot, Wahrmund, Kassab and Hammam orin ,2If "a menstruating women"goesdownto cEnes-Seg:J;[usen (in Kolonia, also called 'En ed-Djoz) shehasto purify theplaceatonceby burning incense.If'shefailstodoit,the servant ofthe weli (an cabrI') will appear andinflictsome diseaseuponher.3IntheOld Testamentburningincensewasoneoftheofficial religious rites, Ex.307,8,Lev.1612,etc. 4 There aretwokindsof brooms, the usual onewitha broad sweepingsurface andthe round,shortone,-whichendsinasmall brush. sForstoring or drawing water; sometimes.specifiedas'tanaket kaz, asthey were originally used for petroleum.6Fordrawing water.7Forthetransportand storage of water.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesin.Paleerine149carpetswovenbywomen-arepresented tothemore important sanctuaries. Decorative objectsaresometimesalsovowedandfastened tothewallofthe maqam ortothetomb. Qoran verses,kaff qami1J" or jewelsaremet with. Besides versesoftheholybook'sometimesthegenealogicaltreeoftheProphet,andrepresentations oftheKa'behandthe sanctuary of Medinaharefound.Akaff qamib, is made of ears of grain withlongstemswoveninsuchawayastohave ears on three sides-thetwolateralandthelower-whiletheupper is earless.This "hand" ofcornis generally offeredasasignof thanks foragood harvest.In BetDja,la everyownerofa vineyardtused tobringon cid et-tadjalli(TransfigurationFeast2 )asmall basket of grapes(sallit3 C inab),the-priestusedtodistributesomeofthefruits among those present.sThelast twocustoms 3 were mentioned because they point tovestiges" of thanksgiving offerings.7Jewels, orratherornaments likethe znaq (necklace), halaq (ear rings), (broach), Gatim (ring),asawir(bracelets), satweh (head dressof Bethlehem, BetDjala, and BetSahlir women)and$affeh (thehead-dressofthewomenof Ramallah andthesurrounding villages)arealsovowed. Theyareeither hungon.the starah ofthe tomb (el-Badriyeh), around oron thequnelt(picture) ofa Christian saint,oraresoldandtheproceedsspentforthe-benefitofthe Assoonas a Christian womanof Bet Dj ala 8makessuch avowshehangsthe promised jewelonthepicture ofthesaint.In case the person forwhomthe nigr was made dies,theobjectsaretaken back,butifhe recovers they remaintheproperty ofthe1OftheGreek Orthodox Church.2August6th,Jul.Oalender (19th Greg.).3 A small basket iscalled qit1alleh.4 Taken fromthenotesofmy father. S Manyofthe peasants ofthevillages around Nazareth :eut aside, assoon astheyfinish harvesting; some barley and wheat for es-lefJShah ed-Din, This willbesoldand with themoney a picnic isgiveninthenameandthehonour ofthe weli. 6The peasants of BetDjala sendsomeoil,afterpressing their olives,tothe churchof MarInqula asasignof thanks ., Seealso Curtiss,chapterXVII.I Of theGreek Orthodox Church.

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150Journal ofthePalestineOriental Societyshrine.1Mostof these ornaments, especially the znaq, the andthe $affeh arecostlypiecesandareofferedbywomenwho thinkthatby depriving themselves ofsuch valuable things,theywillmake sureofthesaint's favourandsympathy.A description ofthe satweh is important toshowthevalueofsucha head-dress.Itis cylindrical, solidandcovered ontheoutsidewithred,sometimesgreencloth.Thetopofithasa rigid projection coveredwiththesamecloth.Thefront is lined with several rowsofgoldandsilvercoins,while the back hasonlysilverones.The satweh is fastened onthehead byabandrunning belowthechin.Fromboth earsof the znaq hangsdown.tVowswhicharepaidonlytothetombare: starah (or ghata), a covering,and CaqaJ orlaffeh(head-dress).Thestarah3isa large pieceof cloth coveringthe.whole cenotaph.Inless important shrines itismadeofasingle coloured cloth,whileintheimportant onesa thick,woollen cloth ofgood quality 4) is presented. Theredandthegreen colours predominate; white and yellowareless favoured. Sometimes the cloth is bordered oreven embroidered with Qoranic verses.Veryoftena combination of these coloursis foundinthesamestarah.This ismadebysewing strips ofcloth of different coloursonthemaincover.Notinfrequently onetomb iscoveredwith several starat, theupper onebeingthe last vowed (nebi Mftsa, Badriyeh, etc.).5Occasionally aberaq(banner) isvowed, generally beautifully embroidered.Thenameofthesaint, thoseofthefour aqtab (see. below)and a verseofthe Qoran are generally embroidered onit.6Thecolour oftheturban (Caqal) andthatofthelaffeh7(the dervish head-dress) must correspond tothe order towhichthe 1Fromthewrittennotes ofmy father.2 Aberglauhe, p.74,n,6.3Among weus who possess a starah areSalmfln el-Farai, Anbar,Abdes Salam, Badr, sittnael-IJaQ.ra, el-Bedriyeh, el-Halili, etc. 4 In Sarafat Iheardthe expression hirmzeh forthe cloth ofthe starah.5 The starah doesnotalwayslie directly onthecenotaph, sometimesitissupportedbyawoodenframe which enclosesthe tomb (Beyram Sawls, el-Badriyeh),8Suchpresents maybeseenintheshrines ofLfi], Musa, Dahfld,etc.7The headdress ofsome villagesaroundJerusalemisalsoa laffeh, which differs slightlyfromtheone described inthe text.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine151belonged.1The starah andthe head-dress arevowedonlytosaints whosetombsareinsideabuildingandnevertotombs located in theopen.InthecaseofsomeBedouinsaints,however,a head-dress isfoundonanexposedtomb. Seyidna el-Husen,S.E.of ed-Djorah (nearAscalon),hasnotomb,butinsidethe mfUJam a fragment ofa pillar showsthe place wherethe head ofel-Husenwasburied.The topofthe pillar bears agreenlaffehandbelowit there isaredcloth. 2 Some peasants (especially Christians) vowoneorseveral trees to asaint.Thefruitofthe trees belongtotheholyman.Ifthe treesarecutdownthewoodgoestotheshrine,buttheholy loses all further rights totheplaceof land, sincethe trees andnotthe groundwerevowed.Thelatterreturns totheformerownerorto hisdescendants.Ofcourseapieceoflandwithits trees orevena housemayalso'be donated toashrine.Such property remainswagf,"religious property."3Vowingto decorate a shrine isthe connecting linkbetweenvotive offeringsandvowsto perform work.Thecommonest material is 1)inna butwefindalsonilehand siraqun, whichhave already been described.Commonexpressions are: anadabil(aleldyasittiSamiyeh inarzaqtini $abila-a,4bablikbarufwa-al:tanniki, "Ibegfor help,0mylady S ...,ifyougrantmeaboyIwillslayyoua sheepanddyeyouwith l:tinna." Inthe caseofthetwo other coloursthewordazauwiq(embellish) isf-bsed. Suchvowsaremade exclusively bywomen. 4 b)Vowing material fortherepairofthe maqam Vowspromising material forthe repair ofthe maqam orits complete reconstruction arealsoverycommon.Ifsuch did notexist,a great numberof sanctuaries wouldbeinaconditionof ruin,andthesiteofsomewouldhavebeenlostcompletely.The1, ea. 'Anbar, ea. 'Abdes-Salam, etc..2Thelarge m.aqam isonthetopofahillabout20-30minutes fromthesea. There arenotombsorcavesinits neighbourhood. Twomulberrytreesanda vineyard arehisproperty.3Thisisthereason whysome churches have extensive properties. 4 Even the stonesofaholy -asinthe case of ea-lefJ Sa'id in Igna maybe painted with !tinna.

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152Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental Societyfollowingarethemostimportantmaterials whichmaybevowed: 1)djDJrah (pl, 1)adjar, hewn stones), or djab (unhewn,irregularstones), CUlJ.qad (stones for vaulting), sid (lime), n1)ateh (fine broken stones left overfrom stone-cutting operations), water formakingthe 1nadjbuliyeh, 1 (iron)and el-boo (the woodenorsometimesirondoor). Generally several persons while assembled inthe agreethateachonewillbringsomething. 'I'he ofthevillage, discussingthecondition oftheshrine, makesthefirstpromise.Oneaftertheotherfollows saying anaCalaiyz ..,"1willoffer..."Such astatementisalreadyavowanditmustbefulfilled exactly. Even. whentheweliisnotinaruinedcondition, manyvowlime which is deposited intheimmediate neighbourhood ofthe'shrineor even inside it. Such. vowsaremade,inthefirst place, by persons whoareburninglime.Inthiswaytheyhope togettheassistance oftheweli fora successful completion ofthejob.2A visitor to Mohammedan welis will often findinthemheaps oflime3generally covered with a coating ofearth 'Anbar, es-sultan Ibrahim, Hamad, Al}mad el-Karaki,etc.),Anotheroccasion whenvowsofthissortaremadeis,whena richpeasant builds ahouseandpromises some buildingmaterialfor the samereason :in ibnait beti bis-salamehla-armilak ya .. falat "IfIfinishmyhouse ingood health, Iwillbringyou,o...threeloads oflime."Suchvowsarealso made by Palestinians who becomebadlyill ina foreign country, aswehave seeninthecase ofthemanof Abft Dis, Sometimes a weli withno shrine, orwhosesanctuaryis defective,appearsinavisiontosome onein thf3 village and ordershimtoerector to repair the'maqam. Thismanwillthen tel,l his visiontohi.sfellow villagersandsoonthenecessarymaterialis gathered.1A mixture oflime (one-third) andearth(two-thirds) for mortar.2InCAwartahmanyofthosewhoburnlimewillofferto el-'Azerat one farde'"ofside Onefardeh=30-50 kg" InthisvillageI heard theword 'cubbar forasmall latton. 3Thelimemaybe deposited outside the shrine, inacavenear-by,in the shrine itself, oronitsroof. '4 Theloadsmaybespecified: .[lim.l djamal, [I.baglll, or i.e."acamel's load, mule's1.,donkey's1."

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CANAAN:Mohaminedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestina.153c)Personal work Nosooneristhematerial readythanthepeople of thevillage andwomen,grown-upsandchildren-offertheirhelpforthework. This onegivestwo days' work,theother vowstohewsome ofthestone,athirdpromises tocarry'thewater, etc.,andin a short timetheworkisdone. Eventherichandtheold count ita special honourandblessing tohelperectsucha building, Combined helpbyallthe inhabitants' ofthevillageisofferedwhentheceiling is (el-Caqd).Allmoveverybusilyinfinishingtheshrine.Butonlyin exceptional casesdoesa sanctuary need complete erection; generally itneedsonlytobe repaired:Theroofis defective,the q$arah hasfallen,thedoorhasbeenburnt,thetombhaslost its white-wash,etc.Insuch circumstances one generallytakesavow tomakesome repair.In halla$tilli el-latton min yaBidiyase-I] 'Abd es-Salam la-armilak l:timlen u.. la-atrus qobrak."Ifyou saveourlime-kilnfrom.deetruction-Omylord,0 sel] .cA...,Iwill bring youtwoloadsoflimeandwill. whitewashthetombandthe shrine." This vowwas taken by Mohammed of cAnata, whohadbuilt a lime-kiln withsome relatives.Hehadalreadybeen heating itforfour f$11leht (pI. offa$l, season, herehalfaday),when suddenlypartofthekiln began tocollapse.Theowner, afraid oflosingall his work madetheabove vow, whereuponthe holy man appeared in the midst oftheflameandbegantoextinguishthe'fire. They repaired the lime-kiln,litthefireanewandthe.workwassaved. Some shrines thus repaired are:A. stone casing was builtfortheentrance of eS-eJj, es-Sidri: (Anbar received an iron door; for eH.Suwan atombwas built;the djamiC in Abft Dis .received a minaret;thetombs of ed-Dawa'ri were whitewashed; adjacent toea-Sultan.Ibrahtm's mosque (BetJ;lanina,) a hall was erected, etc. Besides these"expensivevowswemeetwith others "much simpler andlessexpensive.Awomanmaybindherself to sweep a sanctuary several days,weeksorevenmore.In the' lastcasethe shrine istFaslhasthefollowingmeanings: es-soneh, "a season oftheyear"; maiyeh,"twelvehours of water."Thisis usedwhenthewaterof aspringis dividedamongmanygardens; fafll ofadaystands'for the twelve day andtwelvenighthOUTS.Thusadayhastwo

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154JoumalofthePalestineOrientalSocietysweptonceweekly.Another personmaypromisetolightthe lampsforsometime.Thisisdoneevery Thursday evening.Still another willbindhimselftofillthesabilwithwater..Someoffer towork three days(ormore)inthewag!(sanctuary property) of thesaint.Manywomenof Bet.Djala vowtohelpinharvestingthe olivesof Mar Elyas, otherstoploughthevineyardsofelij:agr. 11. Food vows Theyaregenerallyofferedinashrine.Theshrinehasnodirect benefitfromthisoffering,butthepoorreceivepartinmostcases. Thisclassmaybedividedinto: a) Animal sacrifices (gbi1}ah, pl. ijabayb') b)Qurban(offeringtoGod),orwalimeh lil-ldh(banquetforGod) c)Meatlessfood Allthese three categorieswereverywellknownintheancient Orient,andindescribingeachclassweshallrefertothecorres ponding Hebrew practice.a)Animal sacrifices By ijbi1}ah asacrificeofsomeanimalisalwaysunderstood. isthefeminineof iJabil:t andmeans"whateverisslainas anoffering,"andreallystands-aswas already notedby Jaussen2 forafemaleanimal.Atpresent thewordhaslostitsspecific character andisusedforanyanimal.Fromthesameroot (iJaba"IJa) wehave madbal:t3 "altar," originallytheplacewherethesacrificial animal waskilled.Itiscuriousthattheword smat4 isusedin 'somepartsof Palestine exclusivelyfora (Beni Zed,o Beni Malik 6),whilein otherparts-asforexamplein Jerusalem andthe surroundingvillages-thissamewordisusedfora andnot1 I,708.2 Page 338.3Means alsotheneck. 4 means according to (1,994)atableoralarge roundtrayon which foodis presented. Idonotdoubtthatthe present meaning of "food offering" originated fromtheideaof offering atablewithfood(a walimeh) forthe 'welt 5WithDerGhassaneh asthemainvillageand former capital.GWith AbftGhos asthe centre.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine165 forananimal sacrifice. Whenevertheword smat 1isusedin this section(of animal sacrifices)it means a dbl,lJah, andtheformulas used originate inDerGhassaneh or Abft Ghos. Idonot intend togivein this study allthedifferent sorts of knownin Palestine.Jaussen hasgiveninhis CoutumesdesArabes,alistof29sorts practised in Moab.s maybe divided intothreegroups,anditisa mistake to mixoneof these withtheother: 1.Sacrifices connected directly withsome religiousidea2.Those connected withthedjinn3.Those connected withfamily circumstances, suchas invitations, familyfeasts,etc. Onlysuch animal offeringsas belong tothefirst group' willbe described here.Someof those belonging tothesecond category will be mentioned onlyfor completeness. Occasions which belong tothethirdcategoryare:theinstallation ofa muJjtar,3 thearrivalof an honouredguest.sfamilyeventssuchas circumcision, betrothal, marriage,thededication ofahouse.Importantagreementsareoften not completed, until sealed witha sacrifice.5Butthemost fruitful occasionfor making sacrifices isthedischarging ofavow." These sacrifices belong tothefirstgroup.Thecustomofvowingan animal isnotatall All religions ofthe ancient Orient practiced it.Kindsof animals whichmaybe usedfor this purposeareayoung camel (djamal djazur) ,ayoung she-camel (naqah djazur) a yearling ox 7),acow,asheep a younggoat (sa1]l9), ora goat (djidi). Indifferentpartsof Palestine different animalsarepreferred: thustheBedouin oftenvowacamel,whilethe fellal}in prefer a tAccording to Belot, Kassab and Hammam, means also"thetable cloth onwhichthemealis offered."2Pp.337-368.31Same1115. Gen.181-9. 5 Gen.31 6(. 6Jacob(Gen.2820-22),Jephthah(Jud,1130-(0).7From !tol, "one year,"butvery often older animals arevowed.8TheeweiscallednaCdjeh,theram kabs; bothmaybeoffered.9Thefemaleiscalled'onzeh,themale tes; bothmaybeoffered.Attimesit isspecified whether oneorthe other istobe sacrificed.

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156Jonrnalofthe Palestine OrientalSocietysheep.' No unclean animal (pig)willeverbevowed.A vowed animal mustpossess special characteristics whichwillbe described later. Very oftenithappensthatonlyapartofan animal is offered. This isonlythecasewhenthesacrificevowisacamel, oxora &w. Half, athirdora fourth ofacowmaybevowed.Insuchacasehalf,athirdora fourth ofthe price ofthecowis giventothesanctuary. Thismoneyisgivenassoon .&8 thecowis sold. Abft Talib, amanof BetI;Ianina, toldme,thatnotorily should one-half oftheprice oftheanimal begiven,butaslongas itisnotsold halfthe work, half themilkandhalf ofallcalves whichthecowgets afterthevowismade(and before itissold) belongtothe weli. Fromthemoment, Abtl explained,thatthevowisspokenhalfthecowandthus one-half itsworkand products belongtotheownerandthe other half tothemanofGod.Atpresent only half the. price oftheanimal isgivenandall other rights of thesaintarewithdrawn. Abft Talib continued:ed-djamif byaklul}aqq el-awlia,i.e.,not everythingthatbelongstoaweli,andthatshouldbegiventOIhim,is actually given. Very conscientious persons expressly vow, therefore, only half the price ofananimal:in adjani1:JabarSifah2yanabiy allahyaMuba1nmadla-astrita1nan kisweh3lal-fuqara,"ifIreceivethenewsofvhisrecovery I shall buy,0ProphetofGod,0Mohammed,for half oftheprice oftheox, clothes forthepoor."4A Christian of Taiybeh informedmethatitis customary inthe vicinityofhis 'village, whenthe calv-es. ofacowdie,one'aftertheother, tovowapartofthe next one born to el-Hadr,"Acceptmy vow,0Green ij:aq.r; aquarterof what she (the cow) brings, is yours."Byfarthemostcommon animal vowedisa sheep.! Alwayswhentheanimal isnotspecified,i.e.,whenonlythewords 4biQah or1Sheeparecalled bayai} (white),whilegoatsareknownalso by thenameofsamar(black).The meat of bayaq, ismuch preferred tothatofgoats.2The k istobe pronounced.3Seebelow. 4 Such avowismadewhenan absent relative isill. 5 Thesheepisthefirst domestic animal mentioned intheBible.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine157 sm4t(in Beni Zed andBeni MuJik) areused,asheep1ismeantto"beoffered. An absolutely healthy and faultless animal hastobeoffered.No lame, blind orsickoneshouldbe promised.sAnanimal whichhas accidentally broken alimborhas been wounded bya gun-shot isnot suitable forthefulfilmentofavow.3TheOldTestamentgivesthesame regulations.!Theword bears thesenseof "slaughtering." Therefore onewhichhas lost someofitsbloodinanyotherwaythanbybeing butchered doesnotfulfiltherealpurpose ofthevow. "Animal sacrificesaredrawn in many casesfromone'sown herd. Stolenanimalsarenot accepted byanyweli.Icannotverifyfor Palestine Doutte's observation inNorthAfrica, namelythata dbfl;tah mustbeamaleanimal.The expressions usedin taking avowfora gbfJpah arevery numerous."Ishall only mentionthemostimportantones: Srniltakya in raq ibni, "Youranimal offering,0 :ij. (willbe sent toyou)ifmyson recovers;"6 nigrunC alaiy yanabiMusa inridjiC djozi bis-salamehla-aqaddimlak dbil:tah, "Itakeuponmyselfavow,oprophet Moses,ifmyhusband returns safely,Ishall offeryouan animal;"7in adjaniabiya[!alilAllah laadba1}lak kullsaneh "ifIgetaboy,0FriendofGod(Abraham)I.shall sacrifice to youasheepyearly."8 Alltheabove expressions containtheassumptionthattheanimal which is. being promised willbeslain,Butitisnotatall necessary1Thesheepwas pre-eminently theanimalforsacrifice, though mostly rams were appointed tobeofferedup,firstbecausetheirmeatisthoughtbetterthanthatofewes,and alsobecauseitwasmoreimportantto spare theewesfor breeding purposes. Themilkoftheeweswas(in Biblical times,andi.sstill)a most important article ofdiet;thusM.osesinhissongspeaksof "Butter of theherdandmilkoftheflock, Withfatoflambsand ram-lambs, sonsof Bashan," Deut. 3214 (JamesNeil), "2Doutte,p.464.3Seealso Jaussen, p.338. Mal.1 14.5 Page464:"elIedoit etre desexmale."6Inthis formula aswellasinthefollowingtheanimalisnotspecified,andgenerallyasheepisoffered.7Whilethelastformula 'is'usedinBeni Zed and BeniMalik, this onemay .beheard everywhere.SContrary tothe last twoformulasthisonespecifiesthe animal.

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158JournalofthePalestine OrientalSocietyto slaughter the animal; somepromisetosendalivinganimalto the sanctuary: ya mar DjiriusilakCalaiyin tab ibni l]arufwaqif, "0St.George,ifmychildrecoversIoweyouasoundsheep(i,e. alivingone)."After suchavow the sheepwillbesenttothe conventofSt.Georgein el-Hader, andthe raiys (director ofthe convent)hasthe right to dowithitashepleases. Animal sacrificesaremademostlyon important 'occasions:disease or absenceofamemberof the family; great impendingdanger; whenamanhasnomale children; whenadisease attackes a flock ofsheep.Theexpressionusedinthe last caseis: inrafaCt el-waba 1minghanami2 ikbirha smatakya Rfa/i, "ifyou take thediseasefrom myflock,thebiggestofthemisyouroffering,0R."Inthecase of (Anbar3aflock attacked byanepidemicisall brought to visitthemaqam,4whosedooris kept open. While thesheeppass the weli, thefirstonewhich tries to enter theshrineisvowedto the Itissaid, ihtarha, "hehaschosenit."Inthiscase,as well.aswhenthesheepis pointed out,thetopoftheeariscutwith the words danuh,5 "Ihavecuthisear."Suchasheep remains withthe others andiswell cared foruntilitissacrificed, biybgo,(ala ismuh,"itremains onhisname" (that ofthe welt to whomitbelongs).Sometimesamanpromisesthefirstbornsheep 6 ofhisflock7toasaint,hopingthatthismanofGodwillblessthe flockandkeepitsafe. Others vowoneofthefirsttwins.Inboth thesecases,aswellaswhena lambis brought forthefulfilmentof thevow,theyounganimalsarewellfedandcared for,untilthey growupandthetimeof their sacrificecomes.Theyarecalled rbibeh,8 anexpressionwhichisalsousedfor any well-fedsheep1This word meansalso "plague, epidemic."2 Ghanam stands foraflock irrespective of whether theyaresheeporgoats.3cAnbar's shrine is situated ontheSE.saddleofthe eastward continuation oftheMountofOlives,notfarfrom CEsawiyeh. Itisa maqam of lea 'Anbar's tombinthemain shrine andthatofhiswifeinthesmall northern room.Itis saidthatcAnbarwastheslaveofanEgyptianmaster. The miraculous storyofthejourneyofCAnbarwillbe mentioned later. Bi.eauwr11h8. isalsoused.6See Curtiss.7According tothelawofMosesitwas forbidden tovowthe firstborn of any beast, whichwas already devoted toGod(Lev,2726).8Kahle,PJBVIII,156.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine159brought upunderspeciallyfavorableconditions..Incasean animal diesofadisease,somepeople replace itby another, while others .. believethatasthe Almighty God permitted suchaloss,thewelihasno right to another one,andtheyfeelreleased.Incasean animalwhichhasbeenvowedgetssick,itmaybesoldandwithits price another (butyoungeranimal)maybebought. Others slayit and distribute themeatamongthepoor.Itisforbiddentochangean animal once dedicated toa weli. ThemanofGodwillsurely-a-thusthe peasantsbelieve-notaccept suchasacrificeandwillpunishthedoer.Itisnotatallnecessaryto breed every animal Jowed for the itmaybe boughtatthe sanctuary orinthe market.Insomeshrines there isalarge marketatthetime.ofthemosam,givingeveryone opportunity tobuyany number of animals hewishes.!Itevenmay happenthatthepersonwhohasboundhimselfbya vowcannotgotothe sanctuary, thusbeingunableto fulfil his promiseinperson.Hethen entrusts thefulfilmentofhis obligation tosomefriend,bygivinghimtheanimalormoneytobuyone. Sometimes,butnotoften,asummaybesenttotheqaiymofthe holyplace,in order tobuyasheepwhichheslaysinthenameof thedonor.Wewillsee later whyitisvery important, even obligatorythateveryoneshouldbe present inpersonorbe representedby'adele gatedfriendorrelativewhilehis dbi1Jah issacrificed.Offeringan animalforsomebodyelsewithoutan authority takes awaythedesired connectionbetweenthe'personandhisholyintercessor.sGenerally theonewhohasmadethevowandheforwhomit wastaken,withsome relativesand'friends,goto the sanctuary to fulfilit.Incasethe niger wasmadefor a womanwhobecomes impureby menstruation atthetimeofthefulfilment,shedoesnot accompanytheprocessionandcannotattendthesacrifice.Young children andbabiesmaynotjoinsuchafeastasarule,especially whenthe weli isfaraway. A dbi1J;ah isusually slaughtered inthe maqam ofthe saint to whomitwaspromised,butthisisnot a bindingrule.A dbi1:tah for1Nebi Mus8.,Rubin,eale:tt, etc.2SeealsoDoutte,p.466.

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160JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyIbrahimel-Halil (in .Hebron) may beofferedin .Ierusalem,andone for en-nabiDahnd(Jerusalem) in Nablus,Insuch a case (ala ismuh, :"itis slain inhis name(i,e.,thatofthesaint)."Thismayhappenwhen nobodycangototheshrine in question.ABedouin ofthetribeel-Tdwan told methatmostofthesacrificesmadefor Mosesarekilled in their camp (Transjordania)andnot at theshrine.Butitis considered morecorrecttoofferthe animal inthesanctuary, fora visit to such aplaceisin itself abarakeh,. "blessing."Whena sheep istaken to a shrineitis sometimes decorated with flowersand ribbons. A smallroundmirror (mray) some times is suspended fromits foreheadandthehornsaredyedwith ,l.linna. Inthe mosam ofNebi Mtisa onefinds many sheepwhoseforeheads,backs and tailsaredyedwith siraqun and ma4hab.1 Anyone who knowshowto slaughter a sheep maydoit. Generally itisdoneby the people whotaketheoffering.Inexceptional casesitisdonebythe tladdam oftheshrine.Inimportantplaces of pilgrimage withwell-known 'mawasimtherearebutchers, who usuallyslaughterthe receiving aquarterorhalfamadjidifortheirwork.Butnobody is obliged tohandoverhis sheep tosucha person.Womennever perform this act.Doutte's2observationthatamuqaddim(offerer) slaysthe gbi/:tah in most shrines hasitsparallel onlyoncein. Palestine,theMaghrebine zawieh of Abti Madian.3Inalargemaqam,likeNebt Mftsa,4 there is a special place for slaughtering. 5 Insmaller ones with a kitchentheanimal is slain in orin front of this room (en-Nabi Salel)., inthevillage of en-Nab! Sale!). There'aresanctuaries, which have norealkitchenbuthaveadjacent to thewallofthe maqarn anopen enclosure or rwaq which serves asakitchenandwherethe gabayJj areslainandthefoodis cooked (er-Rfa'i,RdjalSufeh),Notinfrequently especially in Transjordania.theanimalsareslain ontheroofofthe maqam, sothatsomeofthebloodrunsoverthefront wall.Inallothershrines theIThis word comes from ma (water) and dahab (gold)andmeans"goldleaf tinsel." 2 Page. 462.3Kahle,PJBVIII,155. 4 Itliesoneortwo minutes fromthe shrine andneara cistern. 5 Kahle,I.c.,and Curtiss, chapterXXV.

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CANAAN:MobammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine161animalmaybekilledinanyplacewhichisinthe direct neighbour hoodofthe maqam: under atree,ona large flatrock,in front of theshrineitself.Iftheplaceof slaughtering is designated inthe nider, thensuchaconditionmustbefulfilled:e.g., S'matakyal!auwa$adba1J,ucala Catbatak,"yoursheep-offering,0 ...,Ishall slayonthe threshold ofyourdoor."Theanimalismoreoften killedonthe threshold ofthedoorofthe courtyardthanon that' ofthedooroftheshrine. Dbi1;ttakyaI!atimcala tabidak,"Your gpi1;tah, 0H,Ishallslayonyour coffin."Inthe last case theanimalisslaininsidetheshrine,besidethetombandnotonit. Great careistakenthatneither thefloornorthetombbepolluted withblood.Apail(lakan)issoplacedthatallthebloodflowsintoit.!Like Kahle2Ihavenotseennor heard ofanycasewhere animalsareslaininsuchawaythattheir bloodflowsintothewater ofaholy.springorintoaholycave,asCurtiss3mentions. No pregnantanimal-ifthiscondition happens tobeknown-iseverslain.Butsuchananimalmaybe vowed, andit,aswellas its offspring, belongs afterwards tothesaint.Onewaitsuntil after delivery.Incasesuchananimalis(withoutknowledgeofthe condition)offered,thefoetusisthrownaway.4Theanimalisthrownonthegroundwithitshead turned east wardandthefacesouthward.Itisnotwithout interest tonote that deadpersonsandsacrificedanimalsarelaidsothattheface lookstowardsMecca5(in Palestine southward).Thedifference betweenthemisthattheformerlies-onhis right sidewiththehead tothewest,whilethe latter islaidontheleftsidewiththehead pointing'eastward.Theonewhokillstheanimalsays:bism allahallah akbar,"inthenameofGod,Godis great;"6orbism illi qaddar(aleki e4-iJab1;t-allah okbor,"inthenameoftheOnewhodecreedyoursacrifice-God is great."InBirSabi'I heard the following expression:bismallahallah akbar hallCalekie4-dabilJ, rabbi innaha minkwa ilekfida, "Inthe ofGod-Godisgreat-,you(the1Iowethis information tothekindnessofO.S. Barghuti. 2PJBVIII,155. 3 ChaptersXXIIandXXV. 4 Onlythevery poor (according toawomanof et-Taiybeh) eatthefoetus. s Christians lay their deadonthebackfromwestto east, theheadonthe eastsideand looking totheeast. 6 PJBVIII,157.11

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162JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societysheep)arelawfullyslain.My'Lord, itisfromyouandisaransom foryou."'I'henameofthe weli towhomtheanimalwasvowed maybe added tothatofGod.ThusI heard thepeopleof Jericho say,"Inthe nameofGodandthatof .. SalaJ).:' The ordinary formulaofthe fatibah, whichisusedinall other cases,bism allah er-rahim,"inthenameofthemostmercifulGod,"tis neverusedin slaughtering, asthe adjective "mostmerciful,"is contradictory totheactofkilling.Someeventhinkthatananimal whichwaskilledwiththesewordsshouldnotbeeaten.Although the following' practice doesnotcome directly under the subject ofvows,itpossessesan illustrative valueinthisconnection.Afrigh tenedman(mardjufor mal]4ufj 2)must undergo special treatment to counteract theevil results of"fright."Oneofthemanywaysto attain thisendistoeattheneck(raqabeh)ofasheep,whichis cookedwith saddit (or et-tarbeh.3 In,killingsuchan animalthefollowingformulais pronounced:bism allah ubism rauwa!:t er-rod/fen;"in'thenameofGodandinthenameofthe Onewhoremovesthefright." 4 Whenapersonis attacked with night-blindness, whichisknownbythenameofhidbad,5hewill1Sale's translation. 2 From whichis another namefor el-bofeh (also radjfel&). SeeOanaan, ,!,asit er-radjfeh,JPOSIll,p.130.In Aberglaube, p.35, other lessusualnames are mentioned.3Ayellow powder madeofseveral strong spices. Avery famous prophylactic measure against el-bai/4ah inthefollowing, which Ishall describe ina story. My friend and neighbourIbrahimDjirius wasverymuchirritatedand frightened bybadnewswhichhadbeenreceived. A relative ofhis fearingthatthis oofeh mightresultbadly,cookedablackhen with various spices.Shekeptthevesselwellcovered,sothatthe vapour couldnotescape.Whenshethoughtthatthehenwaswell-cooked,she threw herself onthe ground inaroom adjacent tohisand began tocryand lament inamost heart-rending way.Inalarm hegotup,wenttoherandaskedforthereason ofherdistress. She wept louder, "my son, mydearson,why didst thoudie-myjoy,my fortune hasanend-mySOD,my dear son." My friendbecame stillmore anxiousabouther trouble. When shethoughtthathisalarmwas sufficient to counteractthefirstoneshetoldhimthetruthandforcedhimto,puthisfaceovertheopenedvessel,sothatthe vapour cloudedhisface.He. hadtoeatthewholehenalone(Canaan, Aberglaube, pp.68,69).Awhitehenis usedwhenthefrighttookplace during theday,ablackoneif during the night. 5 In p.2163,andHava811 this wordmeansonly "weakness ofthe sight."

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandBanctuaries inPalestine163onlybe cured ifheeatsthezawayid.1Thelungs2havetobe prepared without salt.Inkilling suchananimal,bism allah uismil-hidbad,"inthename ofGodandthename ofel-hidbad,"mustbe pronounced, elsethecure willhavenoefi'ect.3Notonlyin slaying a ni(Jrdbibah isthenameofGodinvocated,butwhenevertheMohammedans killananimal forfood theyalwayssaybism allah. Ifthisis neglected theythinkitunlawful toeatof suchan animal, Thisisdone becauseitis ordered intheHoly Book,Surah V,verse4:4"'Yeareforbidden toeatthatwhichdiethofitself,andbloodand swine's fleshandthatonwhichthenameofanybesidesGodhasbeeninvoked." S ThiswasorderedbecausetheidolatrousArabswere accustomed in killinganyanimal for foodto consecrate ittotheiridolsby saying:"Inthename of Alla,t ora.l-cUzza."Doutte's6observation intheMaghribthata special knifeisusedinkilling a sacrifice, is unknown in Palestine.The Tarabini Bedouin willnotkillan animal withaknifewhosesheathhasthreenails.Withthewordsbism allahaUah akbartheonewhokillstheanimal saysitqabbal ya ... ni(Jr ...,"Accept,0...,thevowof... Those whohavefulfilledthevowfeel freed fromtheirobligation. Thisiswell expressed inwhatissaidwhiletheanimal is being slain: waj'enasmatakyo,seQ Yusif,"Wehavepaidyour sheep,0 see Y...;"haiy nigrakyanab?'Rumn, "Hereisyourvow,0 'ProphetRI"Insome places wefindthefollowing custom whichshowstherelation oftheperson (inthiscasea child) forwhomthe 4biQah was slainandthesacrifice offered.Ifthechild isveryyoungheiscarriedthree times (rarely fourtimes) around the animal.Thecircling is called two,f.'bitauwfu l-walad bolel-1Jaruf, "thechild is carried around thesheep."Whenthechild is somewhat older he1Seebelow.2Inthe Arabictexttheword 'I'nuc104. isused,Thishasthe literary meaning of "vital organs (Hava 48): spleen,liver,heartand lungs."Inthe dialectitstands forthelungs(andmanyincludealsotheliver).3This custom Ihavefound described inthe written notesofmyfather.4Seealso Surah 11,168;VI,146:XVI,115. 5 The translations are taken fromSale.6Page463.7Sinai Peninsula.11*

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164JoumalofthePalestine Oriental Societyridesonthesheep.Thislattercustomisnotnearlysowide-spread practiced whenthe childcannotaccompanytheprocessionofofferingthe ni4r atthe shrine,audalwaysbeforetheanimalisslain. When thechildis abletogotothe maqam and attend theceremonyhestepsoverthe IJaruf after itisslain,oroverthe flowing blood.!Accordingto others hewalksfirst three timesaround the sheepandthensteps overtheblood. While heencirclesthe animal the jati1;tah isread three times.Even Christians ofsomevillages practice thiscustom (of stepping overtheblood)whenasheepisofferedto ij:a
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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine165haspassedtheageofone year.! Every member ofthefamily then stepsoverthebloodofhis sacrifice, which counts inhisfavoron thedayof judgement.t The poor offerone animal forthewhole family. Some women3attributemiraculous curative action tothebloodofsuch a sacrifice.If a womanwashes herself With theblood ofa i]biQah mixedwith water shewillgetchildren.4Onethirdof the dbih,ah is eaten bytheoffererandbyhisfamily,onethirdis giventothe relatives, andthelastthirdis distributed amongthepoor. I Some-butnotmany-willnotaccept this division. Thus the of'Imwasassured methattheabove statement isnotcorrect andthatnobodyshouldeatofhisown dbiJ:tah. Asmany inhabitants ofonevillageofferasheepeach,onewill sharethemeat ofthesacrificeofferedby anotheranddistribute allhisown sheep. The Palestinians believethata sacrificial sheepwill appear inthedayof-judgementwell-dressed, well decorated andwith penciled eyes (imka1:t1:taleh) andwillcarrytheperson forwhomitwasoffered overthe surat to Paradise. Thereforethecommonsaying ija1J,ayanamatayana,6 "our sacrificial animalsareour riding beasts."Inslaughtering thevictimof erJ-q}J/tyeh theutmostcareis taken not to breakanybones,sothattheanimal mayappearwholeandfaultless on judgement day,foritis thoughtthatthese sheeprenderto their offererthegreatserviceonthelastdayof joining hisgood"deedsinthebalance,andthus outweighing his faultsandsins.t el-fadwaisa "sheep of ransom" offeredon special occasions.Whenplague attackspartofthecountry its inhabitants, aswellasthoseofthe surroundingarea,may'makeuseof'such1Theanimal must be absolutely faultless, i.e.,notblind, half blind,lameor weak. Even the bleatingmustbeloudandclear.Some,butnotmany, prohibit eventhesacrificeofananimalwhichhasbeen branded(inkawat,or makwiyeh) asacurative measure.This method oftreatmentisvery wide-spread inthe Orient.2Heardin Lifta.3ImmMohammad of 'Imwas, 4 Ifthebloodis taken fromasheep sacrificed on fArafat itwillbemore effective.5A allows eating fromone'sown 6Curtiss, chapterXIX.7Heard is Bet a:anlna andverifiedelsewhere.

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166JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyofferings.Thepeopleofthe infectedpartexpectthatGodwill accept these offeringsandfreethemfrom'thescourge.Theothers hopethatthe will prevent the spread ofthediseaseto their country.A fad'tva mayalsobemadeforasingleperson.! M., the onlymalechildof'afamilywell-knowntome,came back froma longjourney..Hisparents slewasheepinfrontofthehouseand thesonhadto step overtheflowing bloodbeforehe entered the house.2Evenwhenaflockofsheepis attacked bya mortal plague,one ofthesheep-generallythebest-isofferedasransomfor the whole flock. Allsheepoftheinfectedflockare marked with the bloodof the killedone.sSometimesthefollowing expression isusedwhile killinga fadwa:fida (or jadwa) Can el-cial wil-mal,"ransom forthe familyandthe property."Themeat ofthis @i1),ah is generallyalldistributed tothepoor.WhatJaussen states about the Negebis true alsoinsome localities in Palestine, namelythat ifIJiyeh and fadwa areusedattimesto denoteoneandthesamething.Incontinuing our examination ofthe nitjrdabay1J, wenotice that' thebloodof the sacrificeflowsontheground.Insomeshrineswhere a special place inside the main enclosure surrounding the maqam is designated for slaughtering, thebloodisled through aspecial channel totheoutside.Thebloodmaybeusedto decorate the shrine.Large maqams likeen-nabi Musa areexempt.The (the lintel ofthedoor)and the $daghat (the jambs ofthedoor)arefirstofall smeared withblood. Generally the impressionofthehandismade.TheChristians of Taiybeh smear theCatabah 4 ofthe IJagr sanctuary with blood, makingthefigureofthecross.Theytakesomebloodinakeka'rah-asmall earthernvessel-andsprinkle the lintel andthe jambs ofthedoor.sThesamecustomprevailed inearly Biblical timeswhen Aaron's sons sprinkled thebloodof the offering "upon thealtarround about.?" Instead ofbloodthe1Such a r]bifl,ah isalso known asCiqqah.2Curtiss,1.c.3Comparethestory told inEx.XII. 4C aiabahmeans in realitythethreshold ofthedoor,butisfalselyusedas iastllen .5 The Arabic expression is Mlatt!J'u. 6Lev.16,3 2.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine167Ohristiansof Taiybeh veryoftenwhitewash1thestoneswitha preparation oflime,ssoon after theanimalisslain.Thewhitecolour isthoughttobringgoodluck.Mostofthedoorframesofnewly builthousesare smeared withthebloodofsheepkilledwhile the vaultingisgoingon.3Thesameis true with dbi1J,itel-jida. Theforeheadofthechild,lessoftenthatofan adult forwhose sakethe nUJr wasmade,arealsosmeared4withthebloodofthe 4bfQah.5 AlsotheOhristiansof 'raiybeh andBir Zet havethesame custom.Thesignofthecrossismadeontheforeheadof the child.InBir Sabi' thecamels6aresmearedwiththebloodofa rJbil!ah, asasign that thevowhasbeenfulfilled.7Theqaiymreceiveshispartoftheanimal.Thisconsists generally oftheskinandthe saqat (calledalso et-traj, 8andinsomeplaceszawayd).Bythisexpressionthe peasant understands the extremities, thehead,theabdominalorgans(withtheexceptionofthe large omentum9)andthe maiJba7:t.10 The madba1J, isthatpartof the neck wheretheknifecutsthe throat. 11Thispieceiscutoffandgiven tothe qaiym. Generallyhealsoreceivesagoodpieceofmeat besides,andjoinsthe party atthemeal.Whathasbeensaidof the qaiym is true ofthe whoareconnectedwiththe shrine.O Ourtiss' statement that one-fourthofthe animal isgiventothe qaiym isonly true occasionallyfor Palestine. Thiscustomisagain anoldoneandis illustrated inthestoryofthe children ofEH.i3Inplaceslike Nabi Musa the butcher (la1J}Jam) receives either thet BiY'14rusu. 2Veryoftenthis is done with a stick ontheendofwhicha tassel ofcloth ribbons isfastened.3Thissheepiskilledinrthenameof saiyidnaIbrahlm el-Halil. 4 SoinNab! Musa andIbrahimel-Halil. Jaussen findsthesame custom in Transjordania (p.316).6Ibl(pI.withno singular).7PJBVIII,159ff.8 Saqa! and reallydonotmeanthesame.Thesecond expression stands forthe extremities only,whilethefirstincludessomeofthe internal organs, as wellasthe extremities.9Some include withthe large omentum the intestines directly connected with it10From dabafta, "tokillan animal witha knife."t1The saqa! differsin different places. Among theBeni Zed the maq,balt is countedtoit,inJerusalemthelungshutnotthe marJ,ba[l,. 12Asfor example inal-Anbid, el-ij:a(lra, etc.131Same212-16.

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168JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyskinora quarter ofamedjidi,1lessoftenhalfa medjidi. The otherpartsofthe animalarecookedandeaten.Suchaholy dbibah shouldnotbe prepared asaearb.2Veryoftenriceisalsocooked andservedwiththemeat. Bread andtheothermaterialsnecessary forthe preparation ofthemealare brought bythe party. All present takepartinthemeal,andoftenmanybystanders join the party, forassoonaspeopleareseengoingwithoneormoresheep toa sanctuary everybodyknowsthata nigr willbe fulfilled.Inlargemawdsimapartoftherawmeat (la1J,malu"jar or labm naiy)isdividedamongthosepresent.Oftenvowedanimalsaregivenas awholetothekitchenofNabi Mus, orsomeothersaint,whereit iscookedwiththeotherfoodandis distributed tothevisitors. Suchanactis thought tobring additional blessing. The preparation ofthefoodtakesplaceinthekitchen,ifthere isone,otherwise nearthemaqaminaplace protected fromthe winds.Oftenthefoodiscookedunderatree.Thecopperpots (tanadjir, pl.oftandjarah)orthecopper troughs(dsu,t,pl.ofdist)withthefoodareplacedonthe mawaqid (pl.ofmoqadeh,hearth, fireplace).Theseare either well-builtstone hearths orimprovised ones.Thelatterare constructed byplacingtwoelongatedstones ofthesameheight parallel toeachother,withaspaceof30-60cm. betweenthem,wherethefireismade.Manyshrinespossess.a numberofcopperpots,whicharealwaysusedinsuchoccasions.In welis where there arenonethepeoplewhocometooffer their nigr bring themalong.Thewoodis taken fromthe property of the weli, oris brought withthevisitors.Incookinga niijr allthe drywoodwhichhasfallenfromtheholy trees maybeused,butno twigsmaybecut,eveniftheyaredead. fallenbrushwoodis neverusedonanyotheroccasion. Alljoinineatingthe sacred meal.Everyonesaysthe fatibah forthesoulofthe weli forwhomtheofferinghasbeenbrought.Itis consideredthatall present areguestsofthe weli, forthe gbibah lOneTurkish medjidi =20 piasters (and 23 piasters 8urk), normally one-fifth ofaTurkishpound.2Zarb isa roasted sheep, wherethewhole(whentheanimalisyoung)orapartofasheepis placed inasmall freshly-prepared, cavelikeoven.Thisoven is heated very strongly, the meat is salted and placed init after whichtheoven "" is hermeticalIy closed.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesin Palestine169ishis,andthefoodiscookedinhishonour. Therefore everybody who attends the sacrifice, or happens topass thiswayatthis occasioniswelcometo partake ofthe sacrificial meal.The weli receivesthemost importantpartofthevictim-thesoul,which lodgesintheblood,taswe shall seelateron.Thesame practice wasknownintheOld 'I'estament.t A sacrificial mealfollowed the sacrifice.Thefleshofthevictimwas eatenatthe sanctuary bythesacrificer,andhisfamily(1Same13-7)orby representatives ofthecommunity(1Same922-25).The underlying idea was"thatof sharing acommonmealwiththedeity."The worshippers weretheguests (Zeph.17)ofGodatHis sanctuary."! Happily they risefromthefeastandjoiningingamestheypassthetimeinenjoyment. Contented with theiracttheyleavetheshrine, surethatthe weli has blessed them forthefulfilmentoftheirobligation. ThesesacrificesfollowedbyfeastsareknownintheBible(1Same204,etc.).Weknowfrom1 }(jngs 33andotherpassages!thatthese sacrificestook place inthehighplaces.Inthesearch for his father's assesSaulcameto Samuel andwastakenbytheProphet to a sacrificial meal. Beforeweleavethe subject of wemaymention some irre gular oranomalouscustoms practiced insome parts of Palestine. Very rarely it happensthatthesheepwhichhas,been slaughtered inor near a sanctuary is carriedbacktothevillage,andcooked inthehouseofthevower.Sometimesthe condition orthe situation ofthe shrine prevent offeringthesheepinornearit.Insucha casetheanimalmaybesoldandtheproceedsareeither givenas suchtothemaqdm,orsomejewelryis bought withthemand this isofferedtothe shrineandhungonthepicture ofthesaint. Dabayi1:t vowedtoSt. Mary on Calvaryarenotofferedassuch. Thesheepissold,jewelryis bought withthemoney,andisoffered tothequneh.Somevowsofthisgroupformtheconnecting linkwiththemeat lessfoodvows.El-msarwalehisadish made ofmilkandrice,11Same14 32-84.2 W. Smith,DictionaryoftheBible,vol.11,p.1079.3Seealso1Cor.1020-21. 4 Hastings andSelbie,DictionaryoftheBible,1914,p.812.Doutte,p.472. :; Amos521-23,etc.

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170JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societymixedwith another ofmeatandrice.Suchan ofl'ering-like all meatlessones-iscookedinthehouseandthen carried tothe shrine,whereitis partly distributed and partly eaten. AmongtheBedouinandsome peasants thecookingdonein connectionwitha molad vow(see afterwards) ismore important than the molad itself.Thisfestivalmaybewithorwithoutmeat. There arestillanumberofsubsidiary practices connectedwith sacrifices to beconsidered.Sincetheytouchthefundamental principlesofmakingvows, maybeablebystudying them toexplaintheconceptionconnectingthesacrificialanimalwiththe personforwhomitisvowed.Ishallfirstgivetwoexamples,which, althoughtheydonotbelongtotheabove-describedanimalsacrifices, nevertheless illustrate vividlytheideaunderlyingthem. When adeadpersonis carried fromtheplacewherehediedto his ownvillage,theBedouinandthepeasantsloadhimonacamel. The peasants havethe superstitionthatthecamelmaydiefromthekabseh1exercisedbythedead.Inorder tosafeguardagainstsuch aheavyloss,theyslay a cockonthecamel'sback,beforethe corpseisloaded.Thebloodofthecock,whichflowsoverthe camel'sbody, is thoughttoremovetheimpendingdanger.Thusthe cockingivinghislifehassavedthatofthemorepreciouscamel. Another illustration demonstrates thesameideafrom another pointofview.When achildis attacked with convulsions, itis believedthataspecially malignantdjinnhas attacked him,andthattheevil spirit will probably not depart withouthavingtakenthe "child's life.Inorder tosavethepreciouslifeofthechildthedemon mustbesatisfiedwithsome other life.Thereforetheheadofa pigeonis introduced asdeeplyaspossibleintotherectumofthe patient, anditisheld there untiltheanimaldies.AlifeisgiventItisnotdifficult to explain howthekabsehactsin this case.Adeadbody isalways surrounded bytheevil spirits which caused his death, andis therefore unclean.These spiritsprefertoleave this environment and inhabit some living object.Indoing so they maycausethesamebadeffectsto their newhost.The same explanation istrueofthekabsehwhich mayactonasickperson,if another .sick person is carried into theroom.Theevil spirits causing theillnessofthesecond (andmostdiseasesarecausedbydemons)mayleavetheirhost andattackthefirstperson,thusincreasing his disorder.Forother examples seeAberqlaube,pp.37,39.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine171 tosave another,andthedjinnis satisfied bytheofferingithasreceived,andleavesthechild. Thesetwo examples showthreepoints clearly: 1.To savethelifeofanimportantbeing,thatofanotherless important one must be sacrificed.2.Thesacrifice is made to pleasethatsupernaturalpower which isthoughttobethecause ofthedanger, or whichhasinitshandsthepower of preventing it.3.Theanimal sacrificedmustcomesomehow intodirectexternalcontactwiththe being forwhomorfor whichithasgivenitslife. AI examination ofthepracticesconnected withvowingandsacrificing animals, aswehavefollowedthem,showsthatthesame ideas underly them,withsome modification.Ad1.ThePalestinian thinksthateverything, especially disease, afflictionandmisfortune comes "fromallah" (minallah).Hehaspermittedtheiroccurrence, exactly asHeallowedSatantotemptJobandafflict himwithallsortsof visitations.!Thereforewhen everthepeasantisattackedwith afflictions, hetriesto escapethembydirectingthewrath ofthesuperior poweragainstsomeotherbeing.Ananimal isofferedinhisplace,to redeemthehumanbeing withitslife. Thusthepeasantstill walksinthepathsofhis ancestors, believingthat"life shall goforlife">andthat"blood maketh atonement,"3andthatthelifeofananimalisacceptedbytheDivinePowerinstead ofthatoftheoffender, who himself deserves death. 4 This istheonly explanation forthewide-spread custom of sacrificial vows;andwhileothervowsarenotsostrictlyexecuted, a promise ofan animal offering is much more seriouslytreated.Thisideaof redemption iswell founded inall Semitic religions.Ad2.TheAlmightyGodis difficult of access.Thisisanotherfundamental idea inPalestinianfolk religion. 5 ThisiswhythePalestinianprefers tocallon saintsand welisfor help.Theywere oncehumanbeingsandthusunderstandhuman difficultiesandtemptations. Aweliisalwaysreadyto assist, more so,ifoneshows1Job1 6-12. 2Dent.1921.3Lev.1711. 4 Compare thesin offerings ofthe Mosaic law.5Exod.19, etc.

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172JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyhishumilityinsomeway.Justasnoonewould approach adeity withoutagiftinhishands,orapromiseofone,soa peasant would notaska weli forhelp,withoutatthesametimevowingasacrifice.' Thisconception already prevailedin Biblical times:"Noneshall appear beforemeempty."2Theobjectofasacrifice,reducedtoits simplestterms,isthreefold:tosecureand retain thefavourofthe saint; toremovehis displeasure; and thirdly toexpressgratitudefor benefitsreceived.Althoughthesethingsmaybesaidaboutanyoffering,nothingpleasestheseholymenasmuchasananimal sacrifice:firstly,becausesomanyofthepoorcanbefedintheir nameandon their tables; secondly,becauseeveryonewho partakes ofthefeastsaysa prayer inthenameoftheweli.Thesetwoacts areplacedbytheAlmightytotheaccountofthe weli. .Ad3.Thestudyoftheconnectionsbetweentheanimaltobe offeredandthepersonforwhomitwasofferedareveryinteresting.Forthepurposeofanalysisthe.following resumeofthecustoms describedabovemaybegiven:-Ayoungchild-forwhomthe nUjr wasmade-iscarried three timesaroundtheanimal.Whenthechildisolderheridesontheaheep.sHemaystepoverthesacrificeorovertheflowingblood. Theforeheadofthepersonissometimessmearedwiththeblood ofthe dbi1:tah. Theflockor herd istouchedwiththebloodoftheanimalkilled for their safety. Alltheseactionsshowclearlythatthesacrificemusthavea direct contact withthepersonforwhomitisoffered.Therefore thepersonforwhomananimalisslaintosafeguardhislifeis marked withthebloodofthevictim.Theshrineofthesaintto whomtheanimalhasbeenpromised,issmearedorsprinkledin manycaseswiththebloodofthe flbi1J,ah.4 Thisisdonetoassure themanofGodthathis nidr hasbeenfulfilled,forthemere dedicationoftheanimal during theactofslayingwiththewordstGen.4sf,2Exod. 34 so.3IntheOld Testament the sacrificer hadtoputone hand, in later periodsbothhands, upontheheadofthe victim (1Same21 4).4 Exactly asinLev.1 6, 1711,etc.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and SanctuariesinPalestine173"Takeyourpromise,0.."doesnotsuffice.Oneaskswhyblood playssuchan important role in these religious rites?Aninvestig ationofthis question disclosesthatbloodplays a very interesting and complicatedpartin Palestinian superstition. SinceIbelievethatthestudyof these practises willbringustoa clearer conception 'of the underlying ideas, Ishall describe someofthem. Bloodisbelievedbythe Palestinian tobetheabode ofthe"sou!." The same idea existedinthe earliest periods of Biblical history:"Forthebloodisthelife.". Therefore wherever human bloodis shedorlost,apartof human lifeandsoulislost.Thismakes bloodahighly respected,butatthesametimeahighly dangerous thing.Thefollowing superstitious customs will throw light on this idea:1.When two children desire to enter into fraternal relation to each other i.e.,become intimate friends, each pricks one ofhisfingers"withaneedleandsucksa little ofthebloodoftheother.Thuseach takes someofthesoulofhisfriendandthey enter into blood relation toeachother.2.Inevery place wherea person iskilled(andonlywhenhis bloodisshed)thesoul appearsatnight-time asarasad 2 andcriesoutthelastwordsspokenbythedead;3cf.Gen.410,"Thevoiceofthey brother's blood crieth tomefromtheearth." 3.Incaseawifeisnotmuchbelovedbyherhusband she tries toinflamehisaffectionbygivinghimafew drops ofherblood, mixedwithsome other liquid,to drink. 4 Sheissurethatthepartofthe"soul drunk withthe blood byher husband knits himmore strongly toher. 4. Supernatural hoveroverevery placeandperson where bloodisfound.Theymayevenbeinjurious. This isthecauseof the fear ofthe menstrual blood cherished bytheinhabitants of Palestine. 6 1Deut.1213.2Alsocalledmfawil.3Aberglaube,p.17. 4 Bloodalwaysusedtobethesignofa covenant, Exod. 127,18. 5 Thisisnotthe"placetodwellon this phase of superstition, which is discussedfullyinAberglaube.

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174JournalofthePalestine Oriental BocietyInofferingan animal weareofferingalife,asoulfor anotherone-thehumanlife.Themeatof the isnotthe importantpartofthesacrifice.Itservesonlytosatisfythehumanvisitors. Thegods(saints practically=lowerdeities)donoteatand drink; theyareonlysatisfiedbythesacrificeoftheSOU!.1AChristian womanof Djifnah in describing a said lil-lJa4rfeitet ed-dam: tt lan-nas efl-@Jibah, "For ij:aqr the pouring oftheblood(i,e.,the soul)andforthepeoplethesacrificialanimal."Bloodplays an important role asthesymboloflife.This shedding ofbloodisthe essentialpartofananimalsacrifice.sNoanimalwhichhasbeen previouslykilledwillbe accepted byany weli asasacrifice.The bloodmustbeshedinhisshrine,oratleast inhisname.Itisthe atoning act.b)Qurbanor walimeh lillahAqurbanalsoinvolvesthe This sort ofvowbelongs partly tothis category and partly toalaterone.Itmaybe described fullyhere,asithastodowith animal offerings.Thevow ismadeinthesecasestoGodonly,andnottoanysaintor weli. ThuBitis clearthata qurban isa real sacrificeinthenameofthe Almighty,incaseofsickness.Assoonasthesickmanrecovers, the animal mustgiveitslifeforthemanwhoissaved.The animal belongs entirely toGod.ButGoddoesnotneedanyfood, there foreitis distributed entirely amongthepoor,thevowerreceiving nothing of tothe practice inthecaseofallanimal offerings described uptonow.Suchananimalmaybeslaininany place anditsmeatis distributed "inaraw(uncooked) condition,"oritmaybecookedandthengiventothepoor. From thiscustomthenamewalimehlillahisderived. Qurban (fromqaruba,qarraba)denoteseverythingoffered to God which brings the offerer nearer totheDeity. 4Walimeh lillah, "a feastforGod,"wellexpressestheideasetforthin another place andshowsthatthesacrificeisin reality nothingbutafeastgiven to the, needyinthenameofGod.t1Same 1432-34; Deut.1216;Lev.7ioff.,727.2N. Soderblom,DasWesendesGotterglaubens,p.81; Curtiss; Kahle.3Alsocalled naiy.4 11,1681.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine175Inmany cases when such avowis made,themotheror the fathertakeanopenknife (mus, andsticksitinthedoororintheouter wallofthesickroom.Whiledoing sothefollowing wordsareuttered: qurbdn lawidjh alldh in tabibnl" "Asacrifice forGod'sface,i.e., God's sake, ifmychildgetswell."Suchaknifemayremain initsplaceuntilthesheep is killed.tMuchliketheabove custom isvowinga candle forGod:"Ifmychildspeaks, Iwill light acandleforyou,0 God."3AccordingtoChristianbelief such acandlemustbe lighted intheopenairandnotina shrine.Imm Elyas ofJerusalemtooksuch avowandlightedthecandle ontheroof.Shepassedthenightguardingit, sothatit shouldnotbe stolen.Asthecandlewasnotallburned,ithadtobe lighted onthesecond night.Accordingto Mohammedancustom,alightofthiskindmaybebroughttothenearest weli andburnedthereinthename of God.s Before leavingthissubject ofanimalsacrifices wemaynotea custom whichhas nothing todo with vows.Incaseasainthasbeenirritatedbysome mortal, hemay punishtheevil-doerandperhapsalltheinhabitantsofthevillage inavery severe way. A sheep is generally offeredto reconcilethesaint. I.havealreadytoldthestoryof ealel), whoinhabits ijirbetNtlta, andwhich illustratesthispoint excellently.c)Meatless foodIn Jerusalem andtheimmediate neighbourhoodthesevowsarecalled smat, whileinBeni Zed andBeni Malik theword smat is used onlyfora aswehaveseen.I havebeenunabletofindforthiswordtheexplanation givenbyJaussen,andwhich hehasdeduced fromtheuseoftheexpression in 'I'ransjordania.! Everywhere vowsofthissortarealsoknownbythenametabhah,an expressionnotvery much used.MostoftheinhabitantsofJerusalemandtheadjacentChristianvillagesunderstandby smat 6onlya special dish, namely1Alsokazlak, sikkineh. 2 A custom prevalent inBeni Zed. 3This typeofvowismadewhenthechildgrowsup without being abletospeak. 4 According toamanofBettir(Beni Hasan).sPage365.6Aberglaube,p.75.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine177prayersoverthemandasks God's blessing forallthemembersofthefamilywhichhasoffered them.Hethenkeeps four loaves for himselfandoneistakenbytheofferer.Thelastis divided amongthemembers ofhisfamilyasabarakeh,Some keep a piece ofthisblessedbreadfor illness, believingthateatingitwillcuredisease.Whenoncesuch a vowistakenithastobe continued everyyearuntilthemanforwhomitwastakendies.Sucha ghirbn1.yeh 1is alwaysmadeoneday beforethefeast ofthesainttowhomitwas vowed.Thepriestblessesthebreadaftertheafternoonprayer el-ca$r). Such avowisamaterialhelp tothepriest.tManyvowbreadforthepoorandneedy inthenameofthesaint.ThispracticeIshall describe more fullyinthefollowing section.Ill.Offerings givento needy persons inthenameof'thesaintInthelastsection we have often mentioned vowsfulfilledforthebenefit ofthepoor.The S1nat(tabljah) andspeciallythe walitnehlillah(qurban) comeunderthis heading.Allvowsoffood promised toGodmust be giventothepoor, even thoughnotso specified inthewording ofthevow.Inallothervowsitis specified; e.g.,"0Nabi ifyou bring mesafelythroughthismatter,Ishall distributeabasketofricetothepoor."Eitherfoodorclothmaybe vowed.Thefoodmaybe offered ina cooked or uncookedstate.The"needy" maybe groupedunderthefollowing headings:1.Poor (fuqara) 2.Orphansandwidows3 (aytaAn u ara1nil) 3. Prisoners (mababls) 4.Sick, especiallythementallydisturbed (madjanin). Thefollowingareillustrations:"IfIgetup,andamabletowalk I shall, 0ProphetofGod, clothethirtyorphans;""0friend ofGod,assoon.asIam released from jail, I shall givetwohundredloaves ofbreadtotheprisoners;" "0 St.George,ifmysonreturnstonormalmentalcondition, I shall slaya sheep forthe madjan1.n ofyour shrine."1Also called quddaseh. 2Thiscustomisonly followed bytheGreekOrthodoxchurch.3Calledbythecollectivename (those who havenobodyto help them).12

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178Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyInmaking a vowofkiswehtonemust,accordingtomostofthose whomIhaveasked,supplyall garments necessarytodressaperson, i,e.,shirt (qami$) shoes ($arami 2),bag-trousers (i)7bas 3), qutnbaz 4(gown 3) anda head-dress 6or battah and (uqal7 ). Manydo notgiveall these,butonlya shirt and aqumbaz, ortheclothfor both. Generally the fulfilmentofsuchavowispostponedtooneoftheMohammedan feasts,Cid (Cidel-kbzr) or Cid(CidRama4an). Theconditionofthe prisoners usedtobepitiful.Veryoftenit happenedthatanaccusedor suspected person remained formonths inthe prison beforehistrialtookplace.Mostsuchvictimsusedto imploreGodandallthe saints forhelp,promisingtoofferasheep or bread forthe other prisoners, iftheyshouldbe released from their misery.Even prisoners whowere already convictedusedtotakevowsthatassoonastheyshouldbe released theywouldoffer thisorthatforthe other inmates ofthejail.Evenifthesevowsaremadeinthenameofa weli theydonot reach hissanctuary.Itisadvisedbymanyin Jerusalem8thatthebestwaytofulfil afoodvowforthe poor, istogiveittothe qkiyeh kitchenwhere foodiscookeddailyand distributed tothepoor. Generally the onewhoTOWSasheepwillremaininthekitchen untilthemeatis cookedand distributed.Breadmayalsobebroughttothekitchen. Orphanagesandhospitalsaresometimesbutnotoftenremembered. Flour, rice,melted butter, beans,lentils,etc.,aregenerally presented. The leper asylum "Jesus Hilf"receivessuchvowsatlongintervals."MyLord, ifIlivetoseemyson (returning) ingoodhealth,Iwill bequeath mylowerhousetothe Dkiyeh." Theyearly rental ofthe housegoestothe general incomeofthe qkzyeh waqfasreligious1From kaBQ" "to clothe."2Alsocalled markub,maAiai. 3Made mostly ofwhiteorbluecloth,withwidepartsabovethe kneel) (somecallit lirtval).4 Alsocalledkibir. Itisputonovertheshirtandthe trousers. The ismadeofcoloured linen, cotton orsilkcloth.Itisopeninfront,reachestojustabovetheanklesandis fastened bya zunnar (belt).6Fez.7Bedouin head-dress.8Heardfrom Abu'Osman (Jerusalem).

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine179 endowment, Iknowofamanwhotransferred all hispropertytoa relative aswagf,making inthe waqfiyeh theconditionthatasun ofmoney should begiventothepoorbytheheirinthenameof thedonor.It happenthatsomebody hasnomoneytovowto thepoor.He.then promises to devotethewagesofthreeormore days' worktothepurchase offoodforthepoor.!IV.Religious vowsBy"religious vows"Imeanthataperson takes. upon himselfthefulfilmentofsome religiousactor obligationotherthanwhathe would naturally perform. Religious vowsarepracticedby Moham medansandChristians.Veryinteresting isthefactthatanadherentofone community assumes obligations of another.Perhapsthemost popular example ofthiscategory isthepromise of recitingthestory oftheProphet'snativity, qrayet molad."IfmydaughterrecoversIshall recite amolad,0Prophetof God."Themolad.isthelegendary story oftheProphet'sbirthandisapoem which describes notonlythebirthoftheProphet,butnameshis ancestors,allthe prophets,andhisown devoted topraiseof Mohammed.Therearedifferentmoladsandoneofthe mostimportantisthatof el-Imam'AbdallahbinMohammadel-Manawi.AccordingtoWafiyatel-A cya .n byIbn ij:allikan, vol.I,thefirstonetoattachagreatimportance tothe molad was ed-Din(PrinceofIrbil).Duringhis time, intheyear,604A.H.el .I;lafiz 'Omar Abftel-lattab wrotethebest molad poem.Thefulfilmentmaybesimple or more elaborate.Inthefirst casethevowergivesasumof money (onetooneandahalf medjidi inthevillages, half a pound totwo pounds inthecities) toa sel] whomustrecite the molad froma minaret, ina mosque orweli,inthenameofthegiver. Among these placestheminaretistheone usually chosen,andoftenitis specified: (alael-medanehel-1jamra,2(ala medaneien-nabi Musa.3 The ofthatminaretmaydo1HeardfromImm Bsarah Tledjeh.2 Inside thecityinthe northeast quarter.3Amoladisnot generally recited insmall sanctuaries, norfromthe minaret of unimportantwelis.Ibrahim en-nabil\Iusa, en-nabi cAli ibn (Elem, en-nabi Rubin, etc.,are preferred places. 12*

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180Journal ofthePalestine OrientalSocietythejob.The 1nuat!4in or other {;eb whoreadsthe molad takes several others withhim,tohelphiminsingingor recitingpartsof themolad:Itisalwaysdoneintheevening,generallythatofthe night of Thursday toFriday,orthatof Sunday toMonday.More important isthe reading ofa molad inthehouse. Many friendsareinvited.A large mealis prepared.Afterallhadtheir supperthey assemblein a large room,wheretheceremonyisheld.Oneor more se1js arechosento recite this prayer, while refrains maybe repeated inchorusbytheaudience.Ittakes about twototwoand ahalfhours, during whichnosmokingor conversation takes place. Onemay enter orleavetheroomatanytime.Aftertheceremony is over sweetsare presented. Thusweseethat the religiousceremony is preceded andfollowedby a festivity. When awomanhasmade avowto recite themolad shefulfilsitbyinvitingherfemalerelatives and friends andaskinga se1]ah ora itarir 1to recite it.Insomevillagesonetotwo ratls of barley with three raweggs (some bring onlyone)areplaced in front ofthe sell who recites the story of "l\Iohammed's Nativity." Theeggsare eaten bythe se1}, tokeep hisvoice clear.s whilethe barley is kept bythepeopleas a blessing andasa curative medicineincaseofsickness.Itissupposedthatthe barley receivesa supernatural power through thisreligious ceremony.Incaseachildfallssick,heisfumigatedwiththis barley.! Anoldwomanof Jerusalem toldmethatadishofflouranda glassof waterareplaced before the who recites this prayer. Assoonashefinishes, the contents ofthedishare distributed among those present.Itis kept asa birz forsmallchildren.They eithercarryitinasmallbundle' around theneckas a prophylactic measure against theevil spirits ortheyare fumigated withitincase ofdisease.Thewater is drunk bythose present, believingthatit cures shortness of breath. Although thiscustomis purely Mohammedan itsometimeshappens (but very rarely)that a Christian womanvowsthatshewillrecite1Blind seas areallowedtoenterchambers oftheharem toteachtheQoran, ortosay prayers.2Icouldnotfindany other explanation fortheeggs.The Bell hasnorightto takethemwithhim.3I heard this custom from ofLifta,

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine181 a molad.Thewifeof el-Qari1promised.:"Ifmy child getswell,I shall recite a molad." Infulfilmentsheheldtheceremony inherhouse. Generally Christians prefer givinga asumofmoneyandaskinghimto recite the molad intheirname. Besidesthe molad, fastingisveryoftenvowed.Itisa religious lawthatevery Mohammedan shall fastinthemonthof Ramadan.? Nothing is eaten, drunk orsmoked during the day-time, whileata certain hourinthe late eveningthe first meal (ftilr), andafew hours after midnight asecondone (sbur) is taken. Nobody may vowtofastinthismonth,since this ishisduty.Butfastingon other daysorweeks than Ramadanareoftenvowed, generally by women.Thenumberofdaysorweekswhicharetobe kept is specifiedinthevow.These fastsarekept inthesamewayasthatofthemonth Ramaqan. Radjaband Sacban arethe preferred months forfasting,andMondayandThursday preferred daysoftheweek. Thissortofvow cannot bebought,as others may(seeabove),i.e., it cannot be changed to another obligation. A person whohas vowedtofastamonthmustkeephis promise exactly,while another whohasboundhimselftooffera sheep, oil,etc.,maygiveasum ofmoneyin their place.No unclean womanisallowedtofast. Christians m a) vowtofastdaysorweeksmorethanrequired by thechurch.Insuchcases they abstain completely from animal food,sometimesincluding,sometimes excluding fish.More unusual isthepromiseofa Christian tokeepthemonthRamadanorapartofit.Sometimes Mohammedan women bind themselves tokeep thefastofSt. Mary's feast Cid orpartofit. Oftena Mohammedan mother wholosesonechildafteranother vowstobaptizethenextone,believingthatputting him under the protection of Christ willguardhim against death, sincetheevil spirit el-Qarini isdrivenaway.TheQarini istheevildemonwhichattackschildren. and pregnant women, causing allthediseases of thefirst,andproducing abortion inthelatter.3Watfehthewifeof I.CAql(from LiftS,) lostallhersons during their infancy. While pregnant shewasadvisedbyanold neighbour tovowtohaveher1 Greek Orthodox Church.2Uncleanwomen,sickandthoseona journey are excused fromthisrule. They mustdotheirdutyinthesameyear.3SeeAberglaube,there transcribed

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182 JournalofthePalestine Oriental.Societyoffspring baptized bya Christian priest. Shediditwiththewords: ya rabbiin razaqtnini4run calayla-atmmduhcind u la-asammih cala ism "0 myLord, ifThou grantest mea boy,Ivowtohavehim baptized bythe Christians andtogivehim a Christian name."Sheboretwosons after thisvowandbothwere baptized. Onewas named Ijanna andthe otherDjirius,A of SuCfat toldmethatabarrenwomanvows:"ByGod,ifIget a boy Ishallcallhim Elias," Bythis expression shemeansthatshe willgivehima Christian name, thus dedicating himto a Christian saint. She must therefore baptize him,since baptism putshim under Christ's protectionandgivinghimthenameof a Christian saint helpstokeephimsafe. Therefore onlynamesof popular Christian saintsarechosen,likeHanna(John), Djirius(George),etc.St. George's nameis preferred sinceit is a connecting linkbetween Christians and Mohammedans.Itissaidthatthe priest conducts theceremonyof baptism asin the caseofa Christian child.Only meron isnotused. Thereareafew Christian womenwhovowtocircumciseachild andtogivehima Mohammedan name, like Derwis, Hasan, etc. Suchvowsaretakenin the samecasesasthepreviouslymentioned ones,i.e.,whena mother losesallhermale children. When such awomanmakesa'vowshemayfixtheplacewherethechildisto be circumcised. Baptism of Mohammedan children ismuchmore commonthancircumcision of Christian ones.Thelatterisonly foundamongsomefewvillagers. Circumcision isa rule for every Mohammedan and therefore it cannotbeTowed.ButaMoslemmaybindhimselftodo thisact at a special shrine:"Ientreatyou,0ProphetMoses,ifyoucure mychild,Iwill circumcise himinyour sanctuary." Suchavowis thought tobegoodfor both parties.Thechildis protected bythe saint,andtheconfidenceshowninthemanofGod increases his reputation. Veryoftena specialandadditional vowismade,namely:"Iwill take uponmeto circumcise soand80manypoorchildren together withmyownboy." This meansthatthevowerhastopayfortheexpensesofthe operation, andalsogiveseachchildsome clothing asa present. Somevowtheserviceofa person ina sanctuary:"Ifyou,0 manofGod,grantmeachildIshalllethim serve youonemonth

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CANAAN:MohalnmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine183('Stime)." Such acustom-althoughfoundalso amongtheMohammedans-ismore wide-spread betweentheChristians. Such avow of direct service fora certain period ina sanctuary isfulfilledby helpingtheqandalajt(sexton)inhis work.t Insuchcases Moham medans sweeptheshrineandlightthelamps.Thissortofvows resemblesthevowofHannah,themotherof Samuel(ISame111 if.).Na4artuhla-marAnton, "1havevowed(offered)himtoSt. Antonius," meansthattheboy must wearthegarbofthatorderforone year.Thepriestputsthegarments onandinoneyear'stimethepriestmusttakethemoff.Theparentsoffera candleateachof these ceremonies.The convent presentsthegirdle-rope,therosary(el masbo1)ah) andthecap (et-taqiyeh), whiletheparentsprovide forthecloth,whichiscutbythepriest(orintheconvent). Thispriestprays overthe dress aswellasoverthechild. Thusthechild wears priestly clothes forone year. Members oftheLatinchurch, aswell asoftheGreekorthodox follow this practice.Thelatterask a priestoftheformer fortheperformance of this act. Sometimesthewholeor a partofthesick person isvowedtoa holy man:"0manofGod,0 ifmychild recovers, you willgethalfofhim." This meansthathalfthe"price" oftheperson isoffered.Theprice ofa person isonly discussed whenheis murdered.Thediyeh,"blood price," must bepaidbythemurdererstothefamilyofthemurdered,anditamounts to33,000piasters. Vowinghalfor a quarterof a person means topayhalfor a quarterof33,000piasters.!i.e.,16.500,respective8250.This sumisgiven totbeqaiymofthesanctuarywiththeunderstandingthatitisfortheweltIncasesuch a vowis made for a girlherprice isnotreckoned onthebasisofthediyehbutofthemahr(marriage-price).Thewedding ceremony ofthegirl cannottakeplace, untilhervow isfulfilled."EvenintheOldTestamentthe.Nazarite couldbe1VowsofthistypearealsoknownintheOld and New Testament, where persons werevowedorchosen8SNazarites fortheirlifeorforashortperiod.Judg.135,1Same111,Luke 1 16, Jer.85 6 ff.,1Mac. 849, Acts1818,etc.2To this weli more persons arevowedthanto other saints (heard from O.S. el-Barghuti). 3SeeO. Barghitti, "Judicial Courts amongthe Bedouin of Palestine,"JPOS11,No.1,1922. Ihave heard of this customonlyinCentral Palestine.Itis unknowntothevillages around Jerusalem.

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184JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyredeemedatavaluation according toageandsex,onaspecial scale.1Finally wemustmentionacustomwhich,althoughnotbelonging directly tothisgroupofvows,seemstomemorecloselyassociated withitthantoothers.ThewifeofF. (Greek Orthodox),whoseson wasbadlysick, fastened a silken handkerchief onthe Nabi Miisa flag.Thiswasdoneonthefirstdayof the feast,whiletheproces sionmovedfromtheMosqueofOmar, While doingsosheex claimed:"Ifmysongetswell,0prophet Moses,Ishallfasten another handkerchief onthedayofthe return ofyourflag."2This exampleshowsusagainthehonourpaidtoMohammedansaintsbynon-Moslems.Suchavowisexceedingly rare.Inexplanation of thiscustomwemaypointtotheMohammedancustom:in tab ibni la-arbuilok ya!!auwOt$drac baft rayeh bedah,"Ifmysonrecovers,oH.,Ishallfastenforyouanell(pie)ofwhite shirt asawhite Hag."Tohoistawhiteflagforsomebodymeanstoproclaimhis ability,hisexcellent character, hischarity,etc.v.Bodily chastisement andvowstobefulfilledonthebodyof thevowerorpersonforwhomthevow,was taken"Ifmy child getswell,0myLady,0St.Mary,Ishallvisityou(i.e.,yourshrine)barefoot." Walking barefoot toa sanctuary is vowedbyMohammedansandChristians. Christians of Jerusalem prefer the sanctuaries ofSt.Maryand Mar Elias,To sitti Maryam Mohammedansalsobindthemselvesbya similarvow.Thisvisit mustbeperformed,ifatallpossible,onthe saint's day. Generally thewomenriseupveryearly-longbeforedaybreak-andwhileall aresleeping,walk barefoot tothe sanctuary, saya prayer andcome backbeforethevisitorsbegin their pilgrimagestotheshrine.'I'he says"ifamanvowstowalktoaplaceandhecannotdoit, hemaynotfulfilhisvowwalking."3tLev. 271-7.Itrangedwithmalesfrom5to50 shekels, withfemalesfrom3to30shekels. 2 FromImmElyas.3 llfan nadaraan yamsi uialam an yaquma bihi falayadjuzu an yuknlilan-nidra1nasyan.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine185Anothervowof humiliation isthesweeping ofasanctuarywiththehead-dress."Itakeavowtosweep Sef ed-Din1with myheadcloth,ifmybrothergets well."2To throw, ortoplacethehead dressonthegroundisalways lookedatasadishonouring action. Very oftenitisvowedthatthehairsofthesick childwillbecutina sanctuary.Thehairis allowed togrowfromthemoment ofthevowuntilthepromise isfulfilled.InthecaseofaChristianthechild istakentothechurch, wherethefulfilment ofthevowmusttakeplace.IncasetheHolySepulchre(Qabr 3)is chosen,theactis performedbehindthetomb of Christ.Thepriest,aftersayingsome prayers, cuts alockofhairfromtheforehead,anotherfromtheoccipital regionandonefrom eachlateralside,thusmarkingthesign ofthecross.Thebarbercutstherestofthehair.Inotherchurchesthechild approachesthealtar 4 andtheceremony takes place. Some friendsandrelativesareinvited toattendthe. ceremony.Returninghome,alljoininafeast.Inthecase of Mohammedansthechildentersthesanctuaryandthehairiscutinthe mihrab ornearthetomb.AtNebi Mftsa itis done outsidetherealshrine.Inthedistrictof Djenin Iwastoldthatavowtocutthehairmaybe performed in most ofthe' 'U)elis. Thispracticeof shavingthehead, orcuttingthehairattheexpiration ofavotive period isaveryold custom.IntheBiblewehave reference to it.5 Inallcasestheweightofthehaircutoff,ingold, silver ormoney, is presented tothesanctuary.Themoneyisgiventothepriestor totheqaiym.VI.VOWBnotconnected withanyholy person or shrineSuchvowsmaybe vestiges orremnantsof primitive religious practices."Ifmybrotherreturnssafely, I shall make youazarb,whichwewilleatinthevineyards." This vowismadefor friends.Atothertimes itisa thank-offering toa person.Thuswe meet1In Lifta. 2Heardfroma woman0f LiftS.. 3Lit."theTombof Salvation." ,5 Acts1818,21 24:.

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186JonrnalofthePalestine Oriental Societywithmany nq'lirah ofthis category madeforphysicians,nurses, teachers, etc.Mostofthesevowsareneverfulfilled.Inconnectionwith the subject ofvowsIwishtodraw attention tothefollowingidea. There aresomeexpressionswhichseemto indicate quiteadifferentidea,butwhich originate inthesamecycle ofconceptionsasthevows.The Palestinian believesthatthe death ofachildoranimal,the breaking ofan object orthespillingofa fluidmay atone forthelossofsomebodyorsomethingmore important. lnkasares-easr,"the evilisbroken,"issaidwhenaglassofwater, a tea cupor a coffeecupfallfroma visitor's handand breaks. Inkabb "the evilhasbeen poured out,"isusedonsimilar occasions.Whenahorsedies,ahousecollapses,etc.,peopleexpress their feelingsbysaying: fidakttfidaCiyalak, "itis a ransomforyouand yourfamily."Theidea underlying theseexpressionsisthatsome evil had tobefalltheloser,butthe Almighty Providence has directeditto a less important object andthussaveda greater loss.VII.Vowsforthedeadandthe djinn I cannot closethediscussionofvowswithoutcalling attention to vowsofferedtothedjinnandthedead. Although thiscategoryof offeringsdiffersfromthatofofferings brought tothesaints,itshows manypointsof resemblances andservesto illustrate somepointsofinterest,Itishardtofindsuch characteristic examplesofsacrifices brought todjinnanddeadasofthoseofferedtosaints. Nevertheless acareful investigation showsmanycustomswhichbelonghere.A comparision betweensacrificesofferedto saints andthosebrought tothedeadand djinn exhibits thesameideaindifferentstagesof development. Ishall describe somecustomsand superstitions beliefs, which suggesta)Offeringstodemons l)bibeted-dar (amongthe peasants) whichcorrespondsto dbihetbet 1oftheBedouinis the most characteristic exampleofthis sort.Besides dbibet el-galil2wemeetwith another sortof animal. 1Jaussen, p.339.2AsheepmustbeofferedtoAbrahamwhenever ahouseisnewlybuilt.

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CANAAN:MobamnledanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine187sacrifice, practiced by many peasants in connection withthecomple tionofahouse.Somewillnoteven occupy anewly built dwelling untilasheep is immolated, to pleasethedjinnwhohavealreadytakentheirabode init.Withthebloodthesidesofthedoorarepaintedasanexternalsignoftheoffering.Othersmayeven slay asheepinthefoundation trenches.Whenevera Bedouintribechangesthelocality ofitscampthe andothers immolate a sheep tothedemons ofthatspotwiththewords dastftrya$abib el-mahall; "By your permission,0owneroftheplace."tAccording toanold belief, whichisatpresentdyingout,some buildings --especially bathsandhouseserectedneara spring -willnotbe fortunateandprosperous, unlessthefoundation stonehasbeen erected upon shed blood.InthecaseofaTurkishbathitis even thought,that a humanbeing-andcuriously enough a. Sudanesemustbeoffered beforethefirst stone is laid. Someoldwomen assured methatthehead ofa negro suffices,ifburiedbelowthethreshold.Thefollowingexpressions point to this human sacrifice: mabidur illacala 'obd, "The bathdoesnotwork except onanegro;" qaym(ala 'obd,"itis erected onanegro;" mabni(ala 'obd,"itis built on a negro."2Excavations showthatthese foundation sacrifices werevery wide-spread intheancientOrient.In1Kg.16 34 weread:"InhisdaysdidHieltheBethelite buildJericho:helaidthefoundation thereof inAbiramhis firstborn,andsetupthegatesthereof inhis youngest son Segub." Whenever a houseisthoughttobe inhabited bydemons, because everyfamilywhichoccupiesitlosesoneor more ofitsmembers by death, nobodyelsewillmove intoitbefore sacrificing oneor more sheep,forthehouseisthoughttobemaskicn,"haunted," lit.,"inhabited(byevil spirits)."Thespring of Djifna is supposed tobeinhabitedby ademonwhichappearsintheformofacharming bride. Onceawomanofthevillage approachedthespring during menstruation.Thiscarelessactprovokedtheanger ofthe djinniyeh andthespring was dried up.Apriesthadtogototheplaceandburn incense,thusreconciling thedjinniyeh.31Jaussen,I.c.2 Aberglaube, p.20.3 "Haunted Springs andWaterDemons,",JPOSI,pp.153-170.

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188JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyTothiscategorybelongsalsothecustomknownas tiblay, "sugaring." Superstition holdsthatthedjinnare pleased andquietedbysweets and sugarofferings."The following examplewill illustrate the procedure. A motheronce beat herchildonthethresholdCatabeh).Thiscarelessactresulted inaseverepunishmentofthechildand mother,thefirst getting feverandthesecondhavingaslight attack offacialparalysis.Theseinflictionswerecausedbythedjinnliving inthisplace.Toappeasethemthewomanwasadvisedtostrew sweetsonthe threshold. More complicated isthe following belief.Achildhadfever,and the mother wastoldthatthiswascausedbyafright.Shetookthe sickboyto el-Hadjar el-Mansi,whereshewashedhis hands andfeet, after whichshestrewedsweetsand returned home.Theexplanation ofthisactisas follows: Thefeverexcitedbythefrightiscaused bydemons.Takingthechildtothegraveofaholymanandwashing his extremities there drivesthedevilsoutbythepoweroftheman ofGod.Thesweetsareanofferingtoappeasethedemons,whoareirritated becausetheyhavetoleave their prey. Inanalyzingallthesecustomswefindthattheideaofoffering somethingtothe spirits is represented in everyone. Ihaveonly mentionedafewexamplesofeachsort.Theunderlying ideaisto getthefavourofthe spirits through thesesacrifices,topleasethem andtoatoneformistakeswhichmayhaveprovokedthem.According to popular beliefthe. spirits always react favourablytosuchofferings. Many references intheBiblepointtoofferingstospiritsanddemons.tb)Offeringstothe DeadWithregard tosacrificestothedeadIshallonlymention practices whichbear a specialconnectiontooursubject.Whilethecorpse isbeing ritually washed,the.relatives distribute somemoney (anrub el-1naiyet,"forthesoulofthedead."Thisiscalled squt Inthecemeteryandwhenthe burial isover,moneyisagain distributed, thistimetothe whohavebeen repeating during thewholeprocession, allCihu akbar,asa prayer forthedead.InthetSeeAberqlaube.2Lev. 168,177;2Chr.1115;2Kings 23 8.Inthelatter"spirits"should bereadinstead of"gates"(i.e., seCiritn insteadof se'arim), ashasbeen suggested.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine189graveyard, bread anddriedfigsaregiventothepoor Can el1naiyt).Thosewhocanafforditmayevenhave a newwoodencoffin (to))llt,sabliyeh) made,onwhichthedeceasedis carried tohis burialplace.Thiscoffinisthenlefttoserveforpoor dead, and thisactofhelpingthepoor,even after their death,isbelievedto bringaspecial "reward,"forthesoulofthe departed. Allwhogotothehouseofthemournerstocondolereceivecoffee withorwithoutapieceofcake. After drinkingthecoffee,and sometimesonentering as wellasonleaving,theysay:allah yerbatnu"May Godbemercifultohim."1Inthe third night atahlilehis made.Sweetsare distributed toall invited, whoarechosenfrom the better classaswellasfromthepoor. Afterwards lailahanilla' allahisrecitedbythose present, all repeating this phrase overand overagainuntilthesumofallthe prayers reaches one thousand inthecities,and75000insomevillages.2Thereupon al-lJitmeh (alQoran) is read andthose reading itsayattheend: wahabna li-rid) j"ulan. "Wehave presented itsrecompense(merit), i.e.,thatofreadingtheHolyBook,forthesoulofN.N,'The meetingendswithameal.Everyone recites the jatibah forthe soulofthedead.Themealthisnightisalsocalledunisoh. (el-Malbalt). Onthefirst Thursday therelatives distribute a sort ofacake friedinoiltothosewho happen tocometothecemetery.Itis called j'akket hanakOnthesecond Thursday a ismade insomevillages.Allfriendsgotothe cemetery tovisitthetomb. Therelatives distribute driedfigs,sweets,raisins,etc.,amongthose present,especiallytochildren,alsoCan ru!J el-maiyet.Ason other occasions,everyoneasksthemercyofGodforthesoulofthe departed one.Attheendofthefortydays another supper ismade. On llamisel-Amwat the peasants send fruit tothe ma4ajeh, while inacitytherelativesofthedeadgotothecemeteryand distribute sweets,dyedeggs,andvery rarely cookedfoodamongthepooras a 1Other expression, are: 8alametrUskum,el-bo'qiyeht'iCutnrak,allill,yoalli wlddak.2Heardinel-Qubebeh, 3 Eakkei et-wi/ldeli istheexpressionusedforthefirst visit madeOnthedayafterthe corpse is buried Onewhodoesnotprepare this supper forhisdead father is despisedbyhis fellow-villagers,whosay :ma ilak (iabo'k1nO,ya kalb.

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190Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Society ?adaqah (an el-tnaiyet.Foodmaybesentatanytimebythepeasants totheguest-houseandisknownbythenameses-sadaqali,el-fiqdeh,er-rahmeh, kaffarah.City-dwellers generally givefoodtothepoor on every feast(NewYear,Ramadan, cId el-Kbir). While anysortof food,even fruit. maybesentonany occasion tothe maifafeh. itis customary inthevillages toslayasheeponthe tahlileh, some timeson !Jamis el-Amwat.1Fromtheaboveweseethatthepeasantsprefer tosendthesadoqah.totheguest-house, forallvisitors, travellersandstrangers stop thereforrestandrecreation.Everytimetherelatives ofthedeadbring foodtothe ?naqafeh theysay; ha4a an ruhfulan, "this isforthesoulofN.N." Every onewhoeatsofitmustsayaprayerforthedeceased.Thusmanyprayersascend totheAlmighty, imploringthesalvation oftheonewhohasdied. Some relatives ofadeadperson willgiveasumofmoneytoapoorperson obligatingthelatterto journey to Meccaandperformthe hadj forthesoulofthedead.Whenhehasfinishedtheofficial ceremony there he must say:itqabbal ya a,llah hal-badj Can fulan,"Reckon, 0God,therecompense (merit) ofthis pilgrimage forthesoulof..."No eqitltiyeh canbegiveninthename of thedeceased.sTheBedouin of el-Qibleh (the Peninsula ofSinai)once a yearbringalltheircattletovisittheircemetery, Whilethesheep pass theburialplace, every animal enteringthecemetery or remainingstandingnearitisthoughttohave been' chosenbythedeadandis sacrificed there.Ihavebeen toldthatvery many sheepareslainonsuch an occasion, asall Bedouin, eventhepoor, bringtheirsheeptovisitthe dead inorderthatthelattermay choose anoffering.Therearesomewho engage a toread el-..{fitmeh 3forthe benefit ofthedeadonceor several times a year. Asinthecase of the badj, herealsohe says, assoonashefinishesthereading,wahabtu tawabuhalarub fulan.Thereareothersomewhat similar customs whichmaybepassed over.Iwish, however, to emphasizewhathasbeen mentioned1Inthevillagesthisdayisalsoknownan Qamisel-Bel} (Thursday of Eggs).2Heardfromseveralwomenof Jerusalem, whogavemeseveralexamples,3SomebelievethatRadjab, Sacban and RamacJan arethemost suitable months for reading theHolyBook.

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CA.NAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine191repeatedly,thateveryonewhoreceivesmoneyorfoodinthename ofthe deceased recites a prayerandgenerallythe ju..ti1)ah forhis soul,and adds ineverycasethewordsrohmd.allah caleh orallah yirbarnuh. While allthecustoms described abovearepractisedbytheMohammedans,theOhristians have others whicharebased onthesame conceptions. Idonotwishto describethevarious massesandprayers forthedead, astheyareaccepted religious institutions ofthedifferent churches,butwillrestrictmyselfto folkloristic practices, mentioning onlythosethatdifferfromthecustoms described above. Onthe third, ninthandfortieth day,six monthsandoneyearafter the death1 a$ftniyeh andawidjiharemade bythefamilyofthedeceasedand distributed inthecemetery.Bysuniyehadish ofboiled wheat with sugar, decorated with almonds, candy,etc.,is meant, whileawidjihisalargedisk-like loaf ofbreadofabout40-60cmin diameter, coated with sesame seeds.Thepriestsays some prayers and then thefoodis distributed to those present. Many offer these things onlyonceortwice. 2 Some Christians distribute cakes (eitherkackioeimsim; biqsmat or rab.meh) 3onthefirst cid el-Amwat,Members oftheGreekOrthodox churchmayalso take wineonsuchoccasions.Thepriestblessesthewineandgiveseveryoneacup,Thedeadperson also receives his portion, forthe priest pours a little wine, marking a circle with itonthetomb. AswiththeMohammedans soalsowiththeOhristians, everyone whoreceives something implores the mercy ofGodforthedeceasedAnanalysisofthesecustomsshowsthefollowing main points: 1.Foodand other offeringsaremade inthename ofthedeadandforthe benefit ofthe dead.2.These offeringsareaccompaniedbya multitude of prayersandgoodwishes,whichareintendedforthebenefit ofthedead.1Some Christians givethosewhocometocondoleacupofcoffeewitha hard cake.Insomecasessimpleka'kibsimsim(cakes with sesameseeds)are distributed instead of (theabove mentionedhardcakes).2This custom prevails amongtheGreek Orthodox congregation. s stands for rounds cakesmadeofsmid(semolina)butterandsesameseeds.

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192Journalofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyWhen wequestionthe peasantsaboutthepurposeofthesecustoms; we findthatthey reason asfollows.Whenhelp(food,money,etc.) isgiventothepoor, strangers and children inthenameofthe deceased, and prayers aresaidforhissoul,Godwillreckonall theseactsinhisfavourinthedayofjudgement.Themoreasoul canrelyuponsuchacts,the better offitis.sinceallofthemwill be added tokajfet el-mizan, in which hisgoodactionsareplaced, andthelikelihood ofoutweighinghisevilactionswillincrease.Inother words,weseethattheseactionsaresacrificesmadebythe livingforthebenefitofthedead.This thought isbeautifully expressed inthesentence lolCiel-altya la-hilkat el-amwat,"Wereit notfor(theactionsof)theliving,thedeadwouldhaveperished." Thisisthe fundamental ideainallsacrificestothedead,aswe shallseelateron. .. Aclose examination ofthegoalatwhichtheseofferingsand prayers aim,removesevery doubt of their sacrificial character. Thelatterbecomesstill clearer ifwerememberthewordssaidevery timethe fatibah and bitmeh areread,namely:itqabbal ya allah tawabh{t(a'n fulan,"Accept, 0 God, itsrecompenseforthe soulof..."Thesecustomsare illustrated bythefactthatthe Hebrew wordfor"pray ('11)')" iscognatewiththe Arabic root ?" whichmeans"sacrifice(sheep)."1Prayerandsacrificewere80intermingledthatevery prayer wasanoffering,andeverysacrifice a prayer. Eventhesimplestphrases,allah yirbamuh or rCltbmet allah. caleh, seemtohavebeenoriginally ad'iya, "prayers," offeredforthebenefit ofthedead,andnotonlypoliteexpressions.? There is another motiveforthiscustomtowhichIwishtodraw attention, asithasnotusuallybeenconnectedwithsacrificesfor thedead.The underlying ideaof all thesesacrifices,including thoseofferedtosaints,isthesame. Neither saintsnorotherdead eatthemselves,althoughmealsareofferedin their names.Totheir tables manyareinvitedandwhensatisfiedsaya prayer fortheISee .lll el-M andBelot.2Whenever oneisonthepointof beginning a journey heaskshis friends: id'!?,li, "prayforme."Theyatonce recite phrases like"Godbewithyou," "Godprotectyou,""Godmakeyou prosper," etc.Allthesesimple expressions are considered as prayers (ducti).

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints andSanctuariesinPalestine193soulofthe dead, whoisthentheirrealhost.Thusa person is endowedevenafterhisdeathwiththehighest virtue intheeyesof the Oriental.. namely hospitality.IntheBiblewefind parallels tothecustom of sacrifice forthedead, cf.Dent.26 14, Sir.3018.Themost interestingpassageis 2Macab.12.48fi.:"Andmaking a gathering, hesenttwelve thousanddrachmasofsilver toJerusalemforsacrifice tobeoffered fortheSiDSofthedead,thinking wellandreligiouslyconcerning'theresurrection.Forifhehadnothopedthattheythatwere slain should rise again,itwouldhave seemed superfluousandvaintoprayforthedead."! 7.CELEBRATIONOFFEASTS (matvasim) Theword '}, (pl, mawasim) means "season,mart,fair or time of .of pilgrims."3Inour caseitisthe "season of visiting asanctuary;"thus, for example, emtamosam en-nabi Rubin means"Whenistheseason (the time)of visiting (celebratingthefeast of) theProphetRubin?"Whenever one speaks ofel-mosaminJerusalemandthesurrounding villagesitis understood byallto mean mosam en-nabi M'i'tsa.Many sanctuaries haveregularmauuisim.Thefeast isvery elaborately. celebrated insomeand extends over several days,while in others itisverysimpleandlasts onlyoneday.Atsuch a time peopleflock from every direction to visittheholy placeandtotakepartinthefestivaljoys.Atthese times they alsofulfilltheirvows, perform their religious duties, circumcisetheirchildren, etc. A description oftheNebi MfIsa feast 4 willgivean excellentpictureof a mosam.Allothermauuieimresembleitin most oftheircharacteristics.TheProphetMosesis highly honouredbyall l\'Iohammedans of Palestine. People cometothefeast fromall villages of southernPalestineandSamaria.Many alsocomefromthenorth.1Douaytranslation.2Canaan, Kalender despal.Fell.,ZDPVXXXVI,p.274,note2.3UsedoriginallyforMecca, 11, 4 Descriptionshavebeengivenby:HansSpoer,Das NebiMusa Fest,ZDPVXXXII,pp.207-221;R.Hartmann, NebiMusa,,l.,fNDPV 1910,pp.65-75;P.Kahle,Gebriiuchebeidenmoslemischen inPalestina,PJB,165etc.13

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194Joumalof the Palestine Oriental Society .Theshrine is situatedsevenkilometersS.S.W.ofJericho,justsouth oftheroadleading fromJerusalemto Jericho.Itis composed ofan extensive complexof buildings .with.large gates.Itmaybe dividedintotwoparts:thesanctuary itselfandtheroom. surroundingit.Thelatterareseparatedfromthe first three sidesbyanopen space,thecourtyard.!Thesanctuary ,itself is surroundedonthenorthandeast by porches,andcoversthesupposed tomb 'of 'the prophet. A quantity of'ragsare tied tothe bars ofthe windO'\V8. Abovethedoor an inscription statesthat'Abdallah Pas, rebuilttheplace in1235A.H.The mCUJam .itselfis opened onlyon special occasionsandduringthefestivaldays.Thegreaterpartofthecomplex surroundingtheshrine iscomposed ofroomswhichserveto lodge thevisitors.' TheminaretisfoundintheN.W.cornerof thispartandisnotconnected directly withthesanctuary. Twomosquesareattachedtothiscomplex, one of which (djamf en-niswan,themosqueofthewomen)hasa whiletheother, whichseemstohavebeen changed froma stable2into a prayer-room hasnoniche.Thesecond story opens nearly everywhere ontoaterracewhichoverlooksthecourt-yard.Inthelower story twolargekitchens, aswellas stables, store-rooms,andwood-roomsaretobefound,besidethemanyroomsforthe'pilgrims. Although this building is erected onthetopofahill,thetwoothershrines(Hasaner-Ra'tandMasadjidsittna commandbetterviews, being foundon still higher positions.Eastofthewhole building isa cemetery, where thoseareburied whodie during festival days. Notables whodieinJerichoareveryoften brought here,andthe'Idwan tribesmen ofTransjordaniabury someof their dead also in this cemetery. They count ita special blessing tobe interrednearthis man of God.31Thecourtyard is paved with stone slabs. 2 Thismay still beseen,sincethedoor leading totheoutside hasbeenclosed,andtheplaces fortyingtheanimals arestillvisible.3Beside thethreeshrines mentioned onpage8,where children areburiedintheirneighbourhood,I have twoothersanctuaries with thesame characteristic,makingfiveinall: el-leaA1}mad atNebi el-sea at Hismah. The three alreadymentionedshrinesare el-IeltNuran near Sallalah,el-seh Ahmad es-Sarrisi atAbfl Ghos, and cAbdallah at SuCfat.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Sa.ints'andSanctuariesin Palestine195 Notasingletreeistobeseenanywhere near thebuilding tbat large cisterns1gathertherain-water foruseinthefeastdays. These cisterns apparently belongto an older agethanthepresent building.Ithasbeen supposedthattheywerethecisternsofthe conventofSt.Euthymius.?'I'he ridge on which the sanctuaryiserectediscomposedofabituminousstone,whichburns easilyandgivesanoffensive asphaltiticodor.The, people : thinkthatthisnaturalsign,whichisnot found. inthecaseofany other saint, isadecisive ofthegreatnessof.the prophet. Naruh min bdjaruh,3 "his fireis(comes)fromhis stones," has become proverbial. Ihave neverheardthesayings, givenby Spoer, 4 about this bituminous stone, which looks whiteoutside(liketheangel of light 6) andinsideblack (liketheangel ofdeath6).The feast itself beginson the Fridaypreceding GoodFridayoftheGreekOrthodoxChurch?andendson Maundy'I'hursday.ThisFridayis called djumCet en-nasleh, "the FridayofDescent,"whiletheFridaypreceding itisknownas dJu1nCetel-mniidiit, the"FridayofCalling,"sinceitison this dayofficiallymadeknownthatthembsamoftheProphetbegins onthenextFriday.Thursday eveningandthenightofThursdaytoFridayis named lelatul-tvaqjeh,8"the Nightof Standing," inotherwords,thenight precedingthefeast.Everyonewho intends totakepartinthefeastpreparesforthecomingdays. Different friends01families come togetherandtalk overtheirplans. This time resemblesinsome respectsthepreparationfor Passover onthepartofthe Jews. Thenightof the 1Asmuch depends ontheamountofwaterthesecisternsholdatthetimeofthefeast,thepeople believethat they areoften filledinamiraculous way.'Vearetoldthatwhentherainfallduringthewinteris scantyandthecisternsarenotfilled withwater,it always happensthattheprophet Moses senda aheavydownpour ofrain, which fallsonly over his sacredarea,shortly before thebeginningofthefeast.2ZDPVXXXII,218.3Kahle,PJB 174 4 ZDPVXXXII,212. 5 Mosesismeanthere.6 CUzra'yl. 7NotonGoodFridayasstatedby Spoer.8This expression isusedfortheevening before every feast day.13

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196JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietynextWednesday to Thursdayis.called lelat sincemostofthe pilgrims arrange toleave. Before describingthebeginning ofthefestival processions we must call attention tothefactthatsixFridaysof-this periodareconsidered asmoreorless important, since theyareconnected with special celebrations and privileges.TheNebi M.uss,feast: formsthe nucleus.Thefollowingisthelist .asknownintheenviroDsofJerusalem.SomeFridaysbearother names in other places: dj.en-naeleh,dj.el-beraq,ordj. es-siddtir;2idj. er-raghayb, dj.el,amis, ordj.en-nobtii 1}amis el-amwat, or dj.el-maqhri,ordj. el-"!JayawanatINamesamongtheIpeasants andBedouindj.el-!1huraba et-ial'ah;or Y01ne8-seldjumt:et.el-mnadat Namesof Fridays in JerusalemandenvironsOrderofICompared with theIFridaysGreekEasterI l IFirst14daysbefore GoodFridaySecond8daysbefore Good FridayMaundy ThursdayThirdGoodFriday_Fourth8days after GoodFridayFifth14days after GoodFridaySixth21daysafterGoodFridaydj. tSomewhat modifiedfromCanaan,Folkloreof the Seasons,J POS' rrr,p.23.2Somesay sindari. \ .; 3The Christians of Bethlehem, and Bet call D'ec.24yom andflockon this dayto Bethlehem to attend theofficial procession of thePatriarch,using the opportunity' to buy sweets. This'customis dying out (from thewritten-notes'ofmyfather).

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctl1ariesinPalestine191 The procession begins by bringingtheNebl Musa bannerfromtheplace where itiskeptalltheyearthrough,calleded-Darel-Kbireh, belonging totheHusen! family,andsituatedwestof,theHaramareainthestreetconnecting,Babel-Habswiththe lJan ez-Zet street.The'notablesaswellas many officials assemble here.Thebanneris 'handedover-tothe l\'fufti on aplate. After,reciting a prayerhe unfoldsthebannerand it is, fastened onitsstick.Thebannerismade green velvet, embroidered along theborderwith goldenthreads, And measures200xI40cm,A piece of 'black silk issewnatthecentre 'ofeachsidebearinginscriptions.!tobedescribed below.This black cloth isalso artistically embroidered onitsedges.Theflagis fastened toalong staff, calledzaneh,ending abovein a goldencrescent(hlal). The "'Procession -whichinthetimeoftheTurksusedtobeaccompanied bya militarybandandaguardofhonour-movesslowlytotheMosque ofOmar,entering bythegateBabel-Habs(alsoknownasBab (Ala ed-Din el-Buseirj).Afterthemiddayprayerisovertheprocession leavesthemosqueareabythesamegate,andnotbyBab :autta, asstatedbySpoer.tItistruethatagreatpartofthemultitude whichattendstheceremony inthemosqueleavesbyothergates.TheGrandMufti,thebanner-bearerandtheother'servants oftheprophetgoahead'.Assoonastheyareoutoftheholy area theymounthorsesandmoveslowlythroughthe prolongation oftheViaDolorosa, leavingthecitybySt.Stephen'sgate(BabSittiMaryam).Thespectatorsfillthestreet,thebalconies andwindows,thecemetery,and the gardens onbothsides ofthe way. Duetothegreat.number of umbrellas whicharecarried. bythemembers oftheprocessionandthespectators;this day hasbeencalled rid"the feast oftheumbrellas."The sabab (young men), assemble in parties,'and'eachone plays, dancesandsingson itsway.Inthecrowd many Hagsarecarried, coming from different awliuof thecity'andthe surrounding villages. Every.flag has,itsadherents. Thus weseetheflags'of rAtif3 Qazzaz4 IThewritingisalso worked in goldthread.2ZDPVXXXII, 214.3The qaiyrn of e;-leGDjarral}..4 ThisandtheprecedingcomefromJerusalem.

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198JournalofthePalestineOrientalSociety tAli from Nabieamw:tl, etc.Thebannerof en-nabiDahnd and that'oftheMosqueofOmararealways seen inthisprocession. 'I'hey accompanythatoftheprophet Moses, until the procession reachesHAs el-' Amfld. Slowlythe procession advances andafter two or threehours reaches Rag el... cAmQ.d,where the Mayor of Jeru98lem.&fJd theothermembersoftheMunicipality welcome it. The Municipality invites many glIests forthisoccasion. After re freshments are served : the banneris carefully foldedandthedignitaries continue theirjourneyinautomobilesorcarriages.Partofthecrowd follows slowly, butthegreater part returntoJerusalem.Every day ofthefeastthennmberofthevisitors increases.Theycomegenerallyinthefollowingorder2:Arrival GroupDepartureThursdayCoffee-house keepersandsome Friday aftereightmerchantsdays Friday TheservantsoftheProphetMosesThursdayandsomemerchantsMonday or TuesdayThursdayMondaySaturday The 'Idwan tribe Sunday Thedifferent flagsof JerusalemCAt.jf, etc.)TheHebronites,thebanneroftheWednesday of Jerusalem and thatofNablu8Tuesday' The Bedouin of ed-Dillk Wednesday \\T ednesdayTheinhabitantsofJ .erichoWednesdayAman who comes foronedayis called$abbabi, whileonewhospends' onlyonenightinthesanctuaryisknown bythe namebaiyafi.i'beformer comes inthemorningand returns home intheafternoon, while the latter arrivesgenerallyintheafternoon, spendsthenightandleavesduringthenextday. The Hebronitesleave HebronSaturdayand encamp intheBaq'ah, justsouth-west ofJerusalem.Thenextdaytheyenter/Jerusalem bytheJaffaGateina long procession, singing, dancing andplaying se! uturs.Amultitudeofspectatorsassemble towitnesstheevent.1Theqaiym of el-:ijaq.ra (Nablus).2 This order was given me hy several persons, whogoevery year tothe sanctuary, sincetheyare servants oftheProphet.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine199 Through theoldcity thE')" continuetheirmarchuntil.theyenterel-HarambyBab el-Ma\lkameh. Theypass the night inthemosque area and earlythenextdayleavefortheshrine.Itis customarythatbefore such a processionreaches avillage theysend a radjdjadtothe toannounce theircoming,Atonceas many oftheinhabitant. as areablegoouttomeettheprecession, taking alongtbeirbannerand (iddeh. Oftenthenewcomers-areinvited totakesome food. All saiylJlratleave Jerusalem for Nebi Mftsa with great pompandmonotonousmusic; the procession is headedbythebanner. AsBOonas t,heypa88 Gethsemane theyfurlthe banner andmarch slo.wly andquietly.As800n-astheyare illsight oftheshrin-eof the Prophettlley rearrange their group, unfurl theBanner andbeginthe formal procession ac.ain.Firstthey raisesmall heaps ofstonesas qanatiri, and recitethejAtiJ)ah. Thedervish wao heads theprocessionsends one of his followers toan-Dotuiea theircoming totheother dervishes who arealreadyinN IbiMflsa.Taismo9S8Dger is called nadjdjab. His master bindsamandilaround hisnecktobe untied oftJy bythe who welcomeshimattbe lanctuary.This nadjdjdb ruas direetly to themaqtim, all the time beating hisnaqqarah (a sortof & smalldrum).Assoonas hereachesthe building ail the dervishes, to whatever tariqahtheymay belong,goouttowelcome audtheoldest dervish untiestbemandil fromhis neck, reciting ihejati1)ah atthesametime.This sel] ordersall saiyarat and'ukulto wilcome thenew-corners. Fu&t the mazar of erR.a(i is visitedandthen thecrowd proceeds to the Nebi. As soonastheouter comt is reached,the procession advances very slowly, whiletheirenthusiasminereases, All thewayto er-Ratiand tothe Nebicgun shotsarefiredinorder to increasethe :eathueiasm andtoproelaim theircoming,This custom isno longer,allowed, Processions aeegeaerally .. arranged in the followingway:.Thebanner-bearer goesallead,followed bythemnsieiana, Then follow someyoungmenoftheparty,encirclingtheirleaderanddancing according tothetempogiveabyhim. Every dance is accompaniedbysinging.Theleaderrecites a strophe andthe othersrepeatit.1 \Ve findsuchheapsofstonessetupbywayof witness inpatriarchal days: Gen.31 '.-68; Joshua41-8and9-11.

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200Journalofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyHeswings a sword,a 'stick or a handkerchief intheairanddances with them, thus giving thetempo. Sometimes 'all orpartofthe musiciansareseeninthecircle.While"singinganddancingthepartyclaptheirhands in"a rhythmical way.This clapping ofthe bands maybe met withinallseasonsofgreat mirth: andrejoicingtandboth performers and audience never seemtowearyofthissimple,butuniversal amusement.2.They proceed slowlyuntilthey";reachthemaqtim.Someofthewomen spectators welcomethe pa,rty with zagharit, orshort" songs ending with a 'shrill ton gue-rattlin g.Itisvery interesting tonote that "the "abovedescription ofthis'procession resembles in" manya waythe joyful 'processions described intheBible.Singing, dancingaridclapping-ofthehands,theuse of musical instrumentsandtheparticipation ofallclassesarethe sametodayastheywere thousands ofyearsSigO;cf.Same 65 ff.,2Kings1112,etc.Thedescription"in 256and7resembles verymuchthe sa1Jdjeh dance to be described later:"Thou hast clapped thine hands, andstamped withthe'feet, and rejoicedinheart."3Themostimportant' sorts ofdancesarethe sahdjeh andthedabkeh. .A dabkehmay consist ofthefollowingvarieties: taiyarah, amaliyeh, Cardjah, qarradiyeh, sabfawiyeh and Clapping the hands and stamping thefeetmayaccompanyanyoneof these dances.Inmanycases,eitherinstead of a dance,orfollowingthedancing group, anotherpartyplaysthe se! uturs.Eachoftwo persons whooccupythecentre ofthe group is armed with aswordandasmallshield.Whiletheirfriends claptheirhands and sing around them, these two pretend toattackone another, advancing, retreating, kneelingononeleg, standing up, bending to the right or totheleft,swingingtheswordin different directions allthetime.Fromtimetotimethey striketheirswordontheirownshieldor onthatof their opponent. Sword strokesaredelivered rhythmically sothatthesoundfollowsa regular measure. Someofthesongs usedinthisplayaswellasin dancing willbegivenbelow.1Inwedding processions,welcominga friend homefromaforeign country, atthe release of young menfromtheirmilitary service,etc.,such rejoicing takesplace. :l James'Neil,PalestineLife,p.133.3Clapping ofthe hands isalsousedinscorn, contempt, mourning andgrief.

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CANAAN: MohammedanSaints'and Sanctuaries inPalesdne201Themusicalinstruments which are usedarethefollowing: tool drum kas(kasat) kettle-drummiehar .kind of lute "sabbabeh flute arghitl'luiyeh longflute zum1narah fife ,nidjwiz fifewithtwo tubesdirbakkehkind of drum, nobeh very large drum Therhythmplayedbytheiabland kllsdt has nearly always a meaning: Some examplesare: allah au: allah1J,aiy IIII" 1 I-da-ymdfi,;.ym -I-I qai-yftmqai-y'f'tm I-I-Inthecaseof allah alonethe tabl areallowedto vibrate, while oneis turned slowlyonthe other, andthelastsyllable isgivenbyastrong beat. The banners areof green, whiteorredcloth"with Qoranic verses,thenameofthesaint towhomtheybelong,ornames ofGod inscribed onthem.Theinscription ismadebysewing cloth bands of different coloursontheflagitselfSomeofthewritingson bannersare:1. AlJ\6JJ\\1\\I ThereisnoGodbutAllah;MohammedisGod's apostle.2.Onthebanner ofNebi Musa: a)ononeside:theabove mentioned Mohammedan creed b)onthe other side: 11-.'6JJ\ God spake withMoses discoursing with him13093.Thebannerof BetSftrik:..u\t?,IJJ\cro

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202JournalofthePalestine. Oriental Society Inthename ofthemostmerciful God!AssistancefromGodanda sure victory!Yourhelp, 0mylordAJ;uDadel-Badawjl4.Onthebannerof DjabiT en-Na'na': J."iJ:05\v\ Ihavemasterswhosepower(and) whosebraveryaresupernatural.AlthoughIamnotoneofthem,(1 derive from)theirlovepowerand dignity. 5. Ona secondbannerofthe samesel]:A1J \ )J \ tkJ \. J,..w))1\)ItklJ\6JJ\.. \ ?:rJ\zs;.w ThereisnoGodbutAllah.InthenameofthemostmercifulGod,thereisnoGodbut Alla,handMohammedisGod'sApostle.OurLordAhmad er-Rifa'! istheFriendofGod.GodhasproclaimedhiswonderfulMystery.6.SeenatNebi Rubin festivals: r"'"dJJ\)1\4J\)JtJJJ \ J:,.w)Abfi Bakr to marThereisno;GodbutAllah,andMohammedisGod'sApostle. 4:Ali 7.Bannerof Ahmadel Falel).:ll.b,,?\.J#J \ 4:0tman

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CAKAAN: Mohammeda.n SaintsandSanctuariesillPalestine203 Abii 'l'all)ah Itwasrenewedbythepoor(forGod's help) AI)mad thesuccessorofMohammed'sexcellencyZubeirSaid8. Another bannerofthe same {;ell:6JJ\'6JJJi"4J InthenameofthemostmercifulGod!Andsay,Praise'be unto God,whohathnotbegotten-anychild;who",,norhath any topretectbim (Sutah 17,last-verse)...:9.Seen'in Rl1bin (1924): r )\4JJ\AlJ\cUJ\\J\6...1\\J4JJ\,\:>\,6-.-f'r: Abfl Bakr'OmarIntheDameofthemostmercifulGod! There isDOGodbutAllah:.' If Iresolve(todo something) ItrustonGod.OurLord' peacebeuponhim,'Otman cAli Thestaff (ez-zaneh).; onwhichthebanner' is fastened, often has onitsupperendametalpiecewhichisworkedinoneoftheformsshownintheaccompanyingplate. Astudyofthedifferent forms-whichare generally called hlal (crescent)-indictesthefollowinggrouping:

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204JoumalofthePalestine' Oriental Society1.Therepresentationofaweapon (spear). Nos '. 1,2 and 3. 2.Therepresentation' ofthehand(Nos. 6,7).Number8may also becountedto-this group,while'number15showstheholynumberseven.3.Differentformsrepresentingthedevelopmentof"themoon. Nos.4,5,9,10,16,.17,18,20.No.21hastheinscription 4JJ\J,,-w)6JJ\)1\tkJ\)I in the moon.Nos.ll, 14,which look like sphereora circle, maybe classifiedunderthis. head,althoughtheymay also beexplainedastherepresentationof'theterrestial. globe.Thesesignsarecam m-on popular"superstition,wemeetwiththeminmagicformulas .andpopularmedicine.'Some of the villages having ail '; 'iddeh,whichisgenerallybroughttovisittheNebi, are:Bet Iksa,. Bn-Nabt Biddn, BetCAnanBet Duqquh, Bet'Sllrik, AbO.el.cEsawiyeh, Silwan ed-Diuk,Jericho,etc. IwastoldthattheBedouintribesel-Tdwan ,elKa'abneh,etc.,donotbringan'iddeh.oraflag withthem.TheservantsoftheProphet, l]uddu/ln en-Nabi,i.e., those whohavethedifferent positions in this place,are:TheHuseini,Yuuis, Qlebo andtheBazbazehfamilies.Thesefamiliesarenot,as Ourtiss says, "priestly."2They have absolutelynoreligions tinge.Eachofthefirst twohasakitchen(matbal]) in whichanenormous'quantityoffoodis cookedand'distributedtothevisitors twice daily.Thebannerbearersaremembersofthe Qlebo, whilethe mualjljin comes fromtheBazbazahfamily.Thelasthave alsotherightto lightthe tnaqam. The mufti ofJerusalemmustleadtheprocession.Allofthese"servants" are proudofthehonourbestowed ontheirfamilies in serving KalimAllah. Everyday about one quntar (300kg)ofmeatis cooked bytheHuseinifamilyand aboutthe sameby -the Yunis,Thismeatis cooked inlargevessels belonging tothe maqam. Atthesame time agreatquantityofriceispreparedas ruzz mfalfal.3 (pl,of yabneh)are alsocooked.Yohne: jul (broadbeans),y. tAbergla'Ube,pp. 58, 64, 84-, 94and95.2Curtiss,chapterXVI.3 Nottnufilfil, asKahlesaysinPJBVIII,172.

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Mohammedan Saints andSanctuariesinPalestine205I III onions),y. (gardenmallow1),y. be4indjan (egg-plant), etc.rrethemostimportantdishes.By cooked vegetables with neatand eamneliis understood.Everyday'two public meals,dinnermd supper, "areprepared. When the food isreadythevisitors come1Corchorus olitorius (Hava) .

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206JournalofthePalestineOrientalSociety and taketheirshare. "'Generally they unite in' small groups' anda representative'ofeach receivesthefood.Bread. isalsodistributed.Itis adenselycrowdedjnass th.ta,',aits the., time of distribution. onecarriesa andttie," tobe 'ofthe.first, pushingvelbowingandshouting. "Many whoprefertocook themselves receive their share asnitsij, i.e., meatanduncooked rice. Well-known families cookingtheirownfoodmayreceivethecooking vesselsfromthe whileotaers (rahn). I j :\Thearnimals, mostly' a' specialplip;J., .eutsidethe .uary, onthewayto t1w:,.trriagefo4\tt. Evena who hasvoweda ]bibah forNebi Miss'generalf killsitill this place.Indoing soaspecialformula is'used, minnak u ilek adjr J(ftsa,"Fremfheeat'(0, mayit as.recompenceandreward IQrol}llord Very often ....', is added:yo,K41.}m'..Accet yourvow,0Interlocutorof The meat, ISeither'distributedtuthosepresent,atthetime of slaughtering, itis sent tooneofthetwo kitchens ofthesanctuary, tobe cooked withtheotherfoodandthendistributedtothe zuwar. Theofferer always keeps agood portionoutfor himselfand his, friends.Theenormous expenses ofthese seven days ',.ar. metwithby.theincome.oftheProphet'sioaqf. 'Therooms,courtyardandagreatareasurroundingthebuildingarecrowded visitors.Itisaverypicturesque,. .interestingandinstructive eig1;lt to observethedifferent faces, c08tUtnes, manners, and'othercharacteristicsof this mass.Peasants,half-Bedouinand!Bedonin mix .. with people ofJerusalem, aad A closestadeat-cf-thecountry easilydistinguishesonetype.. troPt the other.With the exception ofthecity women,who keepthe roems mostof .the time orstandontheopenverandaofthesecond story, allfemale takepart theactivities ofthe men, with whom they mix continually,Allaredr.essedintheirbestclothes, which exhibit every colour 'oftherainbow.Thenumberofthepilgrims isattimes l0rmous, anditreachesitsclimax on MondayandTuesday. After thistime many begin toleave.Duringallthis time, exceptingthefirstday(when nobody goes home)andthelastday(when nobody comes any moretothesanctuary)thereisaconstantgoingand

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208JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietybeads,earthenwarepitchers,jarsandpots..booklets,tractsand tobaceo, .match-boxes, candles,andmanyotherthings.Whilemanyhave their merchandiseplacedon,improvisedwoodenshelves,othersspreadtheirgoods onastripofclothontheground(imbassit,pI. imbasstin). Alldayandfarintothenighttheystandtirelessly,eachtrying.tooutshouthisneighbour.inpraisinghis .articles.Outsidethecourtyardherdsof sheeparebroughtforsale.Anyonewhohastooffera dbi1;tah maybuytheanimalhere. Manybringtheirofferings with them.Outsidethebuildingtherearealways coffee-houses,madeof roughtentcloth.LowArabicstoolswelcome.thecustomers. Coffee, lemonadeand argileh maybeordered,anditis .notwithoutinteresttosit here, especially inth.e evening,andobservethe life andtheactivities ofthecrowd, whileaphonographplaysmonotonousmelodies..A shadowtheatre(qaraqoz) .attractstheattentionof.passers-byandenticesthemtoenter.. $anduq el-cadjamis alsomuchvisited, especially bychildren,peasantsandBedouin.Itisan oblongboxdecoratedoutsidewithsmallbells,mirrors,glassballs,picturesandflowers,andrestingonasmallchair.Infrontithassmall holes through whichthespectatorslookatarollofpictureshiddeninthecenter,andturned.sothattheobservermayfollowthestory, whichisrecitedinaquickmonotonousmannerbytheoperator. Onemay alsospendhistimeplayingcards(saddehorwaraq)and ttiwleh (tric-trac,backgammon).Outsideinthefieldspartiescometogetherandspendtheirtime withhorse-racing (sbaq),dja1"id (mock fight, withlongstraightbranches,wherethebestplayeristheonewho throws hisstickfarthest), etc.Thelastgame may also beplayedon horse-back. Peasants and'citizenstrytocompetewiththeBedouin,butrarelyshowtheskill ofthelatter,whoguidetheirgracefulArabmareswith much eale. Inanother game theplayersdivide themselves into two parties.ABedouinofthefirstparty,holdingthereins ofhismareinonehand,andhis rifle intheother,gallopsatfull speedandtries to overthrow his opponentofthesecondparty,ortocutoffhisretreat.Ifhe succeeds hisopponentiscaptured,butifheis caught, oronlytouchedbythemanofthesecondparty,hemustgowithhim.Therestofthecapturedman'spartytryto release himbyrushingandtouchinghim.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine209Norshouldwepassoverthereligiousobservancesofthesedays. Assoonasthe mua4tjin callsto prayer most of thepeopleanswer thecall.Itisallthe same wheretheypray:inthe maqam,djamir, aroom,oroutsideinatent.Fromtimetotimea dikr isheld. A withagoodvoice recitespartofthe Qoran inamelodious chant.All present keep absolutely quiet; no talking, smokingor coffee-drinkingisallowed.Ionce attended sucha dikr atNebi Mftsa andfounditquiteedifyingtoseehowdevotionallyalllistened. Circumcisionisverycommoninthesedaysandatthisholyplace, andonemayobservedailyseveralsuch performances. Thechildis dressedinnewsilkclothes,andis decorated withgoldenchains, buttons,etc.tothe extent allowedbyhis father's purse.Ofcourse abluebead, bidjab, alumor other amulet arenever forgotten, in orderthathemaybe protected against theevileffectsofthe "eye" or "soul)' (nafs).Achildismore subject ontheoccasion ofcircumcisiontotheactionofthese supernatural powers than atother times.' The parents, relatives,friendsandneighbours present accompany thechildinhisprocession,whichbeginsina turn around thebuilding.A band oragroupof dancers arehired.Allsingas loudastheycan.Thewomen relatives mayshow their joybytrillingzagharit.2Theboy,whosuspectsnothingofthepainsto come,enjoysthewhole performance hugely.Assoonasthis party reachesthedoorleadingtothe courtyard theboydismountsandis carried byhis father orhis nearest malerelative.Themusicplays louderandthesingingismore enthusiastic.Atthe windowofthe maqam thedrumsplayfortissimoandtheshouting increases. Amidst anexcitedcrowdthebarber-whoistheprofessionalsurgeonperformsthesmall operation withthe utmost skill.Nolocal anaesthetic isused,norareaseptic or antiseptic measures taken, anddozensofchildrenare circumcised withthesameknife.Forthisreasonmanywoundsbecomeseptic,andcausemuch trouble. Hadj Ahmad el-Hallaqandhissonsenjoythe reputation ofgreatskillinthespecialityofcircumcision.Thecryofthe patient during the operation isdrownedbythemusic.Thebarberreceiveshisfee,1 Aberglaube, p.81.2Ihave never heard the expression "oloolelL" usedbyJ.Neilon pages 81 and143ofhisPalestineLife. Tanlil, zagharit and woltoal arenotidentical, as hewrites. 14

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210Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societywhichdependsuponthe ability and generosity ofthe father of the child and ranges betweenone medjidi andonepound.Itisnot called fee(udjrah)but ikramiyeh (signofhonour).Somepoor persons are circumcised gratis bythebarberasanadjr(recompence). Becauseofsucha charitableacthebelievesthatthe Prophet will blesshim hereandintheworldtocome. After thewhole party returns thewoundis dressed with dried plants powderedandsometimesmixedwithoil taken fromthe lamps ofthe maqam.Many believethatthelatteraloneis best cure.Atpresent the barber sometimesusesadrying antiseptic powder. Mostof the songs repeated during theceremonyof circumcision, aswellasduringdancingand se! uturshavenothingtodowith theProphetMoses,butarecommonsongsusedonanyoccasion. Many songswhicharereallyin praise ofMohammedaresung during these days.HereI shall giveafewsongs connected directly with Moses. ya 1 siru 2bii-tahlilzurnd.n-nabi Miisa 4 (uqbdl el-!!alil 5ya zuwar Mflsazftru bil-ciddeh zurna n-nabi M'lisa(uqbalel-badjdjeh 1.ovisitorsofMoses, March with exultation.Wehavevisited theProphetMosesMayitsoonbe (granted tovisit) Abraham.ovisitorsofMoses Visit (theshrine)withmusical instruments.WehavevisitedtheProphetMoses Mayitsoonbe (granted toperform the) tVariant ofKahle,PJBVIII,p.169. Dalman, Pal.Diuxm,givesonly three verses of this song(p. 168). 2Someuse Stra instead of zurii. 3Kahleomitsthe article. 4 Kahlenotes ltalamak yaMusQ,maktub bi/-man,"l, "your words, 0Mosesare written (andkept)intheveil."Theabovetextismoreused. 5 Still another variant ofthisverseis: Zurnan-nabiMusa Wehave visitedtheProphetMoses 'ugbal el':lalit MayitsoonbegrantedtovisitA braham. uSa'rak1/0,Miisa Andyourhair,0Moses sayil eal-qandilIsflowingoverthelamp.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine211 yazuwarM'ttsazuru bid-daraqehtu sacrakyaMflsa harir fi waraqah yazuwar .....2 zuru bil'alam zurna ..... u (aleh es-eolamovisitors ofMoses, Visit withtheshields.Andyour hair, 0Moses, (islike) silk (wrapped) in paper.ovisitors....., Visit withtheflags.Wehave.....Peacebe upon him. yazuwar ..... tihtusalminyazuwar ..... truddusalmin ovisitors.....Youwent down peacefully (safely),ovisitors....-Mayyoureturnin peace (safely).2.AtthewellofZamzamtheProphetwashed himself (ritually)Witha silverpitcherandlightedcandles.Atthewellof Zamzamthe Apostlewashedhimself (ritually)uWithasilverpitcherandcandlesandincense.Through (thepower of)your prophecy,oProphet,el-The madehisnestnearyour house.Behisbrothers(i,e. companions), 0starsofheaven!Bejoyful, 0way (leading tothesanctuary) oftheProphet.(Beassoftas) freshbutter underthefeetofthevisitors!Goodevening,0Moses,0sonof'Amran, 'ala birZamzam itwa44aen-nabi 3 bibriqfirJ4ah u samtyinrJawi'alQ,bir Zamzam itwacjcja er-rasul bibriqfi44ah u lami c ba1j/Jur yallibnabitak ya nobilidjanbbetak cas C kunil],uwanuhyandjum es-sama kunihaniyehyatariq ennabizibdeh tariyehidjren ee-euusimassik. bil-[leryaMitsQ,ya ibnC .A.tnran 1Notbiderekeas Kahle notesit,butwitheland q (instead ofk).Itmeans "shield"andnot"slowly;"see I,645.2ThetwonextversesarenotmentionedbyKahle.3TheProphet Mohammedismeant.

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212Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyThe marriage festivalisnota(real)joy,Nor(isthatof)thecircumcisionofboys; There isno (real)joyexcept" visitingMoses-Peaceandprayer beuponhim.!Ifitwasnotyou,0Moses,wewould nothavecomeandtaken this trouble,Andwewouldnothavetreadedthe small stonesandthesand withourfeet. Goodevening,0Moses,0sonofCAmran.ya.lli tqum mtn manamak0 thou whodost arise fromthysleep tiJbihel-ghuzlan 1resemblinggazelles.t3.el-curs mahitfarbah walathure$-$'Ubyanma farhah. illa 3 ziyaretMusa4(alehe$-$alah wis-salam lolak,ya Musamadjinawala 6 tCannenawala dahasna wala er-ramil bi-idjrena 7massik8 yaMitsaya ibn CAmranyasakinel-GhOrublad Thou wholivestintheJordanvalley IJoran.9 andin Hauran.!v Some short sayings connected withMosesare: ya ibn (Am1"an t10sonof (Amran movethebalance. halawit en-nabi12 Mitsa jba-ThesweetsoftheProphetMoses1. areatama 11 "ra-"dates "" "1 bl lA .... kh1 easingemun 11 "e"emons" " Some beggers shout continually: ana illi caJiidiel-kalim My lord theInterlocutorowesmekackehu ma(multen Acakeandtwo almond cakestHeardfromawomanof Mall}a. 2Thefirstpartofthis songis sung bythe pilgrims going toMecca.Ihave heard thewholesongusedbyN.M usa. visitors.3 Ma-ilia ismore correctthan wala alone,as mentioned byKahle. 4 Many substitute for Musa, en-nabi,which points to Mohammed.sKahle, PJB VIII,168. 6Ma-walais more correctthan wala alone. 1 Many go barefooted tothesanctuary, thinkingthatsuchanactbringsagreaterblessing.8Not mQ,s-ik, whichmeans "holding," asKahlehas. g I.e.,"theonewhoisfound everywhere."10Kahle,VIII,169. 11 Kahle,1.c.t2Thesesweetsarevery popular.

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2Really"smallflags."CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine213Withgames,songsandceremonies theweekis passed inthemost agreeable way..Wemay consideritasoneofthemostimportantfamily feasts oftheMohammedans oftheJerusalemdistrict, playing thepartherethatNebl Rubin, Nebi ealell (DerGhassanehandalsoin Ramleh) ,cAliibn 'Elem ,HasanandHusentakeintheirrespective districts. Menandwomen,oldandyoung,richandpoorenjoyitandeveryclassfinds amusements to satisfyitstaste.Thestudentof customsandfolklore findsin this feast an excellent opportunity tostudythetribaldifferences, customs, dress, super stitions, etc.Ihave visitedNebi Musa threetimes duringthemosam,spendingthenighttheretwice,andvisitingthebuildingandsurroundings twice outsidethefestival. On Thursday (Maundy Thursday)theofficialreturnwiththebanner oftheProphettakes place. Most ofthevisitors havealreadyleftthesanctuaryandgonehome.!Assoonasthe siddari oftheProphetreaches Ras el CAmftd theprocession begins again.Thedifferent bannersand'idadwhichhadaccompaniedthebannerin itsdeparturefromJerusalemgoouttowelcomeitback.The bayariq andmusical bands ofthe iul] el.Qazzaz,CAtif, Abli. Madjid,Hasan,CEzariyeh,andother villagestogetherwiththebannersofen-NabiDahud,el-Haram,and eS-sabOh ofJerusalem,NablusandHebronaretobeseen.Astheprocession movestowardthecityone observesthesame number of spectators ofall classesandgroups as watcheditleavethecity.Music, dances, sef uiurs,singing, etc., formthemost important feature oftheprocession.Thebanners ofNebi Mftsa andNebiDahudarecarriedbacktotheplaces where theyarekepttherestoftheyear.Buttheendof this daydoesnotmarktheendofNebi Musa. OnFridaytheHaramenclosure is crowded with peoplecelebratingzaifetel-' alemat, 2 "the procession oftheflags."Thebannersofthe1Manyofthe visitors commemorate their visit to a shrine by writing some verseorprayeronthewallofthe sanctuary. Thesimple formulas havebeen described.A complicated one,whichIhavefoundin cOkaseh, is \J.AJ$--All\AlJ\)J\AJ\)J1: J". UA.il1;"*1...-:J \ '\"""\ LAW\i>l :.f?,'tfTQ v-:-c.;rGJ "" 6JJ\

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214Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSociety Sagrah andthose ofMohammedarecarriedafterthemiddayprayerinagreatprocession from to es-Sahrah,The familyareinchargeofthishonourableduty. Midway,nearel-Kas,theyhalt.Theolivetreejustbeside this basin, knownas Zetunit en-Nabi,'is believed to becomeanimatedatthistime,when Mohammedandhis $ababeh visitthemosqueareaandliveinthetree.2Underthistreethebannersareheldanditis believedthatthebranchesbenddown to honour them.Arepresentativeofthefamily el-Qutb ascendsthemanbar(marblepulpit)justabovethestairsleadingfromel-KastotheplatformoftheMosque ofOmarandreceivestheflags,which he wraps ina silken cloth(buqdjeh)andcarriesbacktotheirrestingplaceinthe ea!}rah. Theparticipientsintheprocession oftheflagsarewildlyenthusiastic,butno dancing or se! uiurstakeplace.OnthisandthenextdaymostoftheNebi MfisR pilgrims leaveJerusalem.One'iddeh.aftertheotherleavesthecityandgoes home.Ineverycaseasmallprocession withthe thebannerbearer,themusicians and' some followers is formed.Whilethe saiytlrtlt ofthevillages gohometheystopatorevenmarcharound everyimportantweliwhosesanctuarytheypass.Everytimeasaiyarahapproachesawelithe isrecited,thebandplays,theberaqis lowered in honour ofthe weli andtheprocession stops.Theybelievethathonour shown tothesemenofGodwillbe countedtothemasanadjr.3Theshrines ofthenative villagearealso visited onebyone, whiletheinhabitantsofthevillage gooutto welcomethepilgrims home,andmakethedaya feast.WhiletheNebi Musa feastisthelargestmosam,thereareothersofequalrankandstillothersofless importance.Thefactthat"makesNebi Musa soimportantisthatseveral shrines havetheir mosam orziyarahatthesametimeoraweeklater.Thefollowinglistgivessomeofthemoreimportantmawasim:1Theoldtreehas nearly dried up. Three newoneshavebeen planted arounditsremains.2Cf. Aberglaube, p.87.3Oncetheciddehof passedDer Yaslo, asitwasgoingtoNebi Musa. Asitdidnotpaytheusual honoursto Yasin, i.e.,itdidnotstoptoplaythemusic,nordidthe attendants read the f.a tiha It, the uJeli obliged them ina miraculous waytogobackandto perform thisduty.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine215NabiAiyub(calledneared-DjorahIbriyetAiyub)LocationRamleh Del" Ghassaneh near ed-DjorahDateof festivalDjum C etelCAlemat FridaynexttoDjum'eiel C ... 4.le11uit Tuesday afternoonandWednesday ofNebi Mfisa weekWednesdayofNebi Musa feastBent I;Iarit DjumCetelCAlemat N.ofJaffaDuringthemelon season (the feast is calledM8sam el-Ifara1n) Nabr Rubin, S.ofInthelunarmonth fallingJaffainAugust-SeptemberRasibnSimhanWednesdayoftheNebi Musa feast Between Del" rrarf 14thof Sacban and'VilhelmaNameofweliNabi Nabi en-Nabi Rubinel.:a:usen en-NabiAiyuben-Nabi 'Annir
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216JournalofthePalestineOriental Societyeastern cemetery all situated inthe"" """ """moon nights the place ismost popular. The number ofvisitorsto en-Nabi Rubillexceedsthatofen-Nabi Mftsa. Morecoffee-houses andshopsareerected. The plain around, especiallythattotheN.W.ofthe sanctuary, is fulloftents.Thepilgrimscome principally fromJaffa, Ramleh andthe surrounding villages.Itis.a picturesque sight toseeasmall caravan ofcamels carrying a whole familywiththe necessary household equipment forspendingseveral daysorafewweeksatthisplace.The sanctuary itself isasmall building composedof the shrine proper withthetomb(1,75m.long by1m.broad), asmallroomeastofitandaruuxiqwith three arches opentothe north, witha mibrab. Aminaret is connected withit.Thewholecomplexis "Surrounded byawall,whichencloses afew trees. Nebi Rubin and 'Ali ibn 'Alem arethesummerfeastsofthe inhabitants ofthe plain -somuchsothatitis relatedthattheJaffaMohammedanwomensayto their husbands: ya bitrobinni yabittalliqni, "Eitheryou take meto Rubin oryoudivorceme,"or yabit'robinniya bobrik,"Eitheryou take meto Rubin orIgiveyou yourfreedom(divorceyou)." Manylocalfeastsareconnected with smaller shrines.OnFridaythe last dayoftheNebi Musa feast(dj. el-CAlemat) mostofthe important shrines ofthevillagesarevisitedbythe inhabitants. The afternoon is spent inthefields around the sanctuaries andmany unpaid vowsarefulfilled.Insome districts, like Nablus, mostofthe great saints,especially el-tf:aqra, arevisitedinLelat cAsurah and ?n thenext afternoon, whilethe zyarah of the less important shrines is performed on Saturday. Thislastis true of: es-seg Mohammad es-Sabties-Safariu!el-Baqqani el' Aqraban! el-Bubari 1Both Rubin and R1lbil are pronounced.Onthetomb thereisa writing which reads: cUJ\6JJ \ u-:3 On many shops wemayfindthefollowing sentence heading the announcement: )\,j

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine217Another custom prevailing in Palestine amongtheMohammedans maybe described in this connection. Ihaveno doubtthatitis foundwhereverMoslemslive.Itisof importance fortwo reasons:1.itisa popular feast ofthewomen;2.itshowstherelation ofthelivingtothedead. Even the Mohammedan booksof theology advise onetovisitthedead. According to Raqi el-Ealdl)1thedeadareawareof these visits,especiallyona Thursday, andthedays preceding and succeeding it. EveryThursdayafternoontherelatives ofthedead, especially ofthosewhohavedied duringtheyear, gotothecemetery, around the graveandreadsomepartsofthe Qoran. Butofall Thursdays, :lamis el-Amwat, "the Thursdayofthe Dead" (alsoknownasdj. el-Amwat) ,isthemost important.Itlies fourteen daysbeforeGoodFridayoftheEasternOhurch.OnthisThursdaysome take with them dyedeggs,sweets,cakesandevencookedfoodandmeat.Thepeasants prefer taking dried raisinsandfigs.Thegreaterpartis distributed tothepoor,asanadjr(recompence).Thatis,justashelpisgiventotheneedyinthename ofthedeceased, Godwill reckon suchanactinhisfavour.Insome villages thewomengobefore sunrise tothecemetery, believingthatavisitafterthistimeisnotsogood.Soonaftersunrisetheycome home.Thechildren ofthepeasants goon Thursday afternoon to thehousesof their neighboursandbeg af}ftni beijahflanctmwatkunt, "givemeaneggforthe(sake)ofthesoulof your dead." Those inthehousegiveanegg, dried figs, raisinsora piece of bread.Thechildren theirthanks withthewords: allah "Godbe merciful untothem." This day thereforebearsalsothename :lamis el-Bed(Thursday of Eggs). :lamis el-Amwat isa feast dayofthewomen.Thevisiting ofthedead isinmostcasesvery superficial,andthetime is actually spent ingoodcompanyoutinthefreshair.Nomenmixwiththewomen, except in Hebron, wheretheyoungunmarriedandbetrothedgirlsgotothecemetery of es-Suhada anddance.Unmarriedmenareallowed tolookonfromarespectful distance.8.PROCESSIONSTheword "processions" isnotused here inthesense of pilgrimages toaweli,as already described above,butonly twaf performed in1 et-Tahtawi,p.608.

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218Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental Society oraround a holy placeandonlyon special occasions. Apparentlythereareonlytwo types belongingunderthis heading, circumcision and rainprocessions, I. Circumcision Processions I have above describedthecustom of takingthechildtobe circumcisedaroundthewhole building ofNebi Mftsa. Thesamethingisdonein most villages. Thusthepeople of (Anata takethechildouttothesanctuaryof(Abd es-Salam.Allfriends and relatives, ofbothsexes, accompanythechild, whois dressed inhisbestclothes.Hesitseitheralone,orin front ofhis father ona beautifullydecorated'horse.The sabab joininsinging, dancingandplaying sej uturs,whilethelocalbandof music plays.Thechild is alwaysadornedonthisoccasion with several amulets, whicharesupposed toprotecthimfromtheevileye.Theprocession advances veryslowly.Aftergoingaroundthe maqa1n of 'Abdes-Salam where all recitethe fatibah, thewhole crowd goesbackto Thesmall operation is performed inthecourtyardofthemaqam.Theprocession isnotcalled twaf but zaffet et-thur.7-'10aj ,isthenamegiventothe processionaroundthe 1naqam. Suchprocessionsarefoundinmost villages,buttheydonot necessarily accompany every circumcision.Themostimportant weli is chosen.Itis believedthatthesaintwilllook favourablyatthisactandwill certainly blessthechild.Wehaveseen elsewherethatmany mothersVo\Vtohavetheirchildren circumcised ina specialmaqtum.Insuch casesazaffehalsotakesplace. Sometimesthebridegroommustvisitthe awlia ofhis village.!Suchavisitisalso accompanied withmostoftheceremoniesjustdescribed. A procession mayalsobe made inthecase ofthedeathofa person whoisthedescendent ofafamilyof whoareconnected withaweli.Ifthedeadperson livedinanothervillagethanthatinwhichtheprincipal ofhisfamilylives, this procession will1In BetDjala wehearthefollowing verse, which points tothecustom'oftakingthe bridegroom toa shrine: yamar Djirius 'willnael-yo'mzU1varakdjina inzaiyn el-tursan(i maqtimak.oSt.George,weare today your visitors, andhavecometoshave(and thus to beautify) the bridegrooms inyourshrine.

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CAN AAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine219takeplace.Itisaquietone.Thecompany,headedbythe l;elj, movesslowlytothevillage ofthedefunct.Theyareprecededby a person who announcestheircoming,whocarriesa bazeh (a small drum)on which heplaysalltheway,abstainingcompletely from conversation.Assoonashereachesthehouse ofthedeadperson all those assembledstandupandsay la ilahilla alldh.Some goatoncetomeettheprocession, whose.ciddehplaysthe'sametunealltheway.Sucha procession is never calledzaff'eh.11.Rainprocessions Processions of this category1arepracticedeverywhere inPalestine,byMohammedans, ChristiansandJews,eachinhisownway.Only those oftheMoslemsinterestus here,andthecustoms oftheChristians willonlybementionedto completethestudy, aswellas forthesakeof comparision,Thesuccess ofthewhole year's work ofthepeasant,hisentireagriculturallife,evenhis existencedependupontheamountofrainwhich falls duringthewinter months.The studiesthecloudsandthesignsofthesky;he examinesthedirection from whichthewindcomes,inordertobeableto foretelltherain.Hisobservations haveledhimtofix manyweatherrules.Butwhen heaven holdsbackits blessing, hetriestogetthehelp ofthesaintstointercedeforhim with God, forhe believesthatmen's transgressions have causedthewrathoftheA.lmighty: .: ., ,,. llt hd............)+,A........2" men t anasar $eJ na ana, .J) "Fromthelackofourtruereligion,oursummerhasbecomeourwinter." Oldandyounggatherina procession whichmarchesaroundthevillage,3comestothe 'tveli regardedas mostimportant,andgoesaroundit. Theyenterthe maqam-in some casesstandonlyatthedoor-recitethe andsometimes evenascendtotheroofoftCanaan,ZDPVXXXVI,266-300;Bauer,ZDPVXXXVIII, M-57; Bauer,Volksleben im Lande der Bib el,pp.112-118,with weather rulestakenfrom Bliitter aus Bethlehem; Canaan,JPOSIll, 21-30. 2Cf.ZDPVXXXVI.Thismeansthattheseasonshave changed andhave thuscausedan upheaval inallourworkandlife.3Heard from Abft Dis, Surbahir andNebiSamwil.

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220JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societythesanctuary1tobenearertoGod. They raisetheirhands to heavenandprayfor rain.Immel-Ghe],"theMotherof Rain,"2 whichmaybecarriedall through this procession, is a large, primitively madedoll.eTwo pieces ofwoodarefastened toeachotherintheformofa crossandaredressed in female attire.Itseemstomethatoriginally this expression4referredtotheVirgin Mary,butatpresentitis: used vaguely.!Theprocession ends in front oftheheadofthevillage (seJj el-balad).Thewomencarryoneormore gharabil (pI.ofghurbal,"grain sieve"), 1nanaJjil (pI.of 1nunJjul,6"flour sieve")anda ta(iuneh 7(handmill)alltheway. Thesearethemostimportantutensils for preparing bread.Allarecarriedempty to showhow poor they are, since they donoteven possessthemost vital necessities oflife.Thestatementof Curtiss 8 thatImmel-Ghet9is sometimes calledC ar'tts allah,"thebride ofGod,"hasbeenalreadyshownbyJaussen10tobe groundless.NorhaveIeverheardthis expression, either fromthepeasants orfromtheBedouin. Iamalso unable toverifytheexpression mentioned byJaussen, 'ariie,"halfbride," which heheardintheNegeb. This customof carrying alargedoll inrainprocessions is commoner amongtheBedouin of TransjordaniathanamongtheinhabitantsofPalestineProper.Theformer dressthewooden framework withbetterclothesandmore ornamentsthanthepeasantsofthissideoftheJordan.Christians aswellas Mohammedans usetheexpression, although they haveno clearideaaboutitsmeaning.1Heardfrom Abft Sacid from Abft Dis,2Kahle,PJBVIII,164.3Thiscustom ismorecommonamongtheBedouinthanamongthepeasants. 4 Thehooded crow (corvus cornix) isalsocalledinArabicUmm elGhet (also Zagh), cf.A. Gustavs,PJBVIII,88.Butthisexpression has apparentlynothingtodowithImmel-Ghe], 5 Nopeasantcould tellme exactly whoismeantbyUmm (Imm) el-Ghet. GNot mol!,ul withKahle,PJBVIII,162. 7 Not 1!l,unen withKahle. e Curtiss,1.c.,chapterXI. 9 InMoroccotheycarryawell decorated dollthroughthefieldsandinagreatprocession. Theythinkthatsuch anactwillgive them agoodharvest;see Goldziher,Material zur Kenntnis derAlmohadenbewegung,ZDMG1887, 42. 10Jaussen,p.328.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine221 During all these processions they singoneofthefollowingsongs:t ya rabbi zareak el-glzarbi1el-ghetya rabman isqieareak el-ca(san ya rabbibill cahidak fuqaraukaiyuleh ya rabbi bill es-sarsitb 3 ib,na 'obidak wenya rabbibill 4 1),adj et-tudjdjar titqambar yarabbisft hal-fhidah. dju (na u akalnael-bumme4ahyarabbi itbillil-mandil fuqaraweninMl (Send)therain, 0 Lord, and waterThywestern grain! (Send)therain,0 Merciful One,andwater Thy thirsty grain!oLord, wetthemantle, Thy servantsarepoorandgrain-measuresI(obligedto measuretheirgrain)!oLord,wettherags (withwhichso manyaredressed because of poverty),weareThyservants wherever wogo!oLord, wetthehead-cloak,putanendtothestruttingofthemerchants!oLord,whatis this (Thy) anger, we hungerandeatthewoodsorrel!oLord, wettheveil, yte arepoor,where shall wego!In BetDjAIA I heard: yarabbiles hal-ghebeh akalna (urftqya rabbibill el-sammftt ibna 'obidak biddna nmftt yarabbi tbillel-qas willa bnirhal (a-Ma.rr s ya rabbiel-nuuarwis-selta-nisqiel-baqo: wiZ-bel OLord, whythisThy absence, wehave eaten the roots ofthespurge!,0Lord, wetthe spadix (oftheplants), weThy servants,areonthevergeofdying!1MostoftheseverseshavebeengiveninZDPVXXXVI,290,291,while twolineswerenoted also byKahle,PJB,1.c.Theverses given heremaybe sung separately or together.2A variation of this isfoundin Dalman,Palest. Diwan,p. 56.3Neither (Kahle)nor areknowntothe lexicographer. A variant .ofthesecondlineis: fuqaraweninrU{t, "wearepoor;whereshallwe go?" 4Sambar (also sanbar, not lumbar as noted byFr.Ulmer, SUdpalii8t. Kopf lJedeclcung, ZDPVXLI,118,114)isablack head-dress with long tasselshangingdownfromthe0twosides.Itiswornby peasant womenin festivals. SoalsothesonsofJacob,hadtogotoEgyptforthesame reason.

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222Journalofthe Pa.lestine Oriental SocietyO Lord,. wetthehut.!orweshall(beobligedto)goto Egypt!oLord, (weaskfor)therain andthe stream togive.ourhorses andcowstodrink!2Thefollowingverseisputinthemouthoftheshepherd: itnlnii1nbuya rabbi bubzi/1, cubbi imbu imbu ya samaqab1naJcar-ramai1nbuana ?amtirba1nnianabalali. Water, water,0Lord, :M;y bread has dried inmybosom! Water, water,0heaven, Mybreadhas dried uponthe(garden)walls! Water, water,Iam thirsty Have mercyuponmeandmycattle!InNebiSamwtltheysing,alongwith parts oftheabove,alsothe following: yarabbiles hal-kanneh wakalna(urUq el-kirsenneh ya rabbi u wakalna (uruqya rabbi '1nahit minna kulluh.min n'lo,Sayl],nanaSsaftel-qatr(anna oLord, whythiscalmness(indifference)whilewehaveeaten the rootsofchick-peas!oLord, why,why-andwehave eaten therootsofthistles!oLord,itisnotduetoourfaults;allisthefaultofourelders, Thou hast dried (withheld)the rain fromus! A variant from BetIksa is: yarabbi7M hal-qae dehwakalnaCurf} ed-djaCdeh ya rabbi ya rabben-ndstisqi zarcnael-yabbasya rabbitbill ez-zardeh wibnaw1idna CaYardeh.1 Qafr means "castle" or "palace."Hereitstands forthesummerlodgesof the peasants,builtinthe vineyards andmadeofroughstonesand brush-wood.2Other verses maybefoundin Dalman,Palest. Diwan,p.56-58.Baldenspergergivestwoversesinhis book,The Immovable East,P:256.Thetranscription isso faultythatthefourth lineofthefirstversein unintelligible.

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CANAAN:MohaulmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine 223 oLord,whythis neglect, whilewehave eaten the roots of the lupine!oLord,0 Lord ofmen,waterour drying crops!oLord,wetthe thorny bush,andwehavegoneto drink from CEn) Yerdeh! Other versesare: ya rabbi lehat-tfllelttvakalna oour Lord, wbythisdelayandwehave eaten doughof bran! zfileh(annayabaraqtna Goawayfromus,0heat-thisheat hasburntus. ya rabbi yaCauwad(i)akalna $ararel-tvadzya rabbi yaghaiyur(i)akalna $arar el-biiri toil-betmafihawalatabnehwalama$rftr(i) omyLord,0Accustomer (Thouwhobastaccustomed ustoThy gifts),we have eaten thepebblesof the stream-bed!omyLord,0ZealousOne,wehave eaten the pebbles oftheuncultivated land!Andthehousedoesnot contain evenamessofflourora wrapped-up piaster,FromtheBedouinofthe 'Idwan I heard thetwofollowingverses: butt biclj-djarrah yaallah hanniak yaallahIJuttelAnoiyeh bil-ibriq yaallahyablitl ir-riqPutthecorninthe jug, 0God,(show)Thymercy,0God! Put the water inthe pitcher, 0God(webeg Thee for) the wetting ofthe spittle. The following versesareintendedtoshowthebad results ofthe lackof rain onhealth,especiallythatof childrenandwomen: imbuimbUyaqadir minelCatasmani qadirimbuimbuyara1:tim insifna bzazel-barimitnbuimMyaghaiyftr inifna djuwa ed-dftr imbu itnbuyaQatrawy min el-'ataJ djitak ?ami \Vater,water,0 Alm-ighty,. I am weakwith. thirst! Water,water,0MercifulOne,the breasts of the women hare dried up! Water, water,0ZealousOne,wearedrywithin the houses! 'Vater, water,0Qatrawy,Iamcomingtoyoudrivenby thirst!

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224Journal ofthePalestineOriental SocietyAnother is: ya rabbi yatra1Jimtitrbam kull el-barimwat-tifal el-murqf at ya rabbi nisifen-nabat 1oLord, (send)therain,0MercifulOne,havepityonallwomen!Andsucklingbabes,0 Lord, (for)the plants have dried up. The children often gather alone,and march throughthe streets, going around oneormore awlia, recitingcontinuallyand monotonously afewlinesofasonginwhichGodisaskedtopity their condition. Theoldpeopleofthevillageare accused ofhavingdonewrong, butnotthechildren.They take off their head-dress as a signof humiliation. Generally a great noiseismadeby beating withsticks onempty petrol tins.Songsusedby children attheseoccasions are: 2 ya rabbi ma kulluhmin maJay1}na hal-(i)kbar ya rabbi bin-nar.oLord. donot blame us,all(evil)isfromour elders;Ourelders,ouroldones-0 Lord, burn theminhell-fire. ya rabbi yarabbunatibfat3lazarfuna hunn(i) kbar il-aqnabu4ibnasftqanbuna. omy Lord, 0ourLord,sendThou rain forourcrops,Itistheoldpeoplewhohavesinned:weyoungpeople-whatis oursin?min nmfma' yanabifna Forthe injustice ofourelders,thewaterofourspringshas dried up.min kull eS-siuljdjismi mines-sam matbul}. Forthe injustice ofalltheelders,mybodyis bakedbythesun. yarabbiya llhaiyftr(i) inSifnansafel-burila bil-(i)kbar(i) wala iz-eurioLord, sendtherain,0 Zealous One;wehavebecomeasdryas uncultivated land! Donotblameusforthe(sinsofthe)oldones, neither forthebearers offalsewitness!1Thisverseandtheone mentioned before areusedin &Atarah.2 Cf.Jer.1418.3Nottib'a,as Kahle offers. Abbreviated from illia4nabu.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine225 sorahbannamailla ib-balleh haiya ya rabbel(ibadhaiya sitraklil-adjwad latwlil],i(jnawi1Jnaf'UfJarama bninlam.What! 0Lord,what!0 Lord,1we shallnotgo without a wetting! Give,0Lordofmen,giveThyconcealment2forthegenerous men! Do not blame usfor(the acts of)theunjust, sincewearepoorandcannotbe blamed! ya rabbi baraqnaeS-sobramena el-ghataUJit-toblatwa1]itJnabil-mul]tar"an afraluh mabitftb.3 omy Lord, the heat has burned us;wehave thrown awaythecoverandthegarment. Donotblameusfor (the faultsof)the headman ofthe village; hewillnotrepentfromhis_evil doings.ya rabbuna ya rabbuna ihnae$-$igharmdanbunatalabtul,1Jubeeh4 min ummina ijarabatna "a-tummina oourLord,0our Lord, weyoungpeople-whatisoursin? We asked apieceof bread fromourmother-shestruckusonour mouth.Attimesevenspecificfamiliesareaccused of beingthecause of God'sanger: ya rabbi tbill el-ghttrbal kulluh min (Abd ed-Djabbar 5 omyLord,wetthesieve;all (the mischief) isfrom'Abd... ya rabbi tbill il-hnlibeh kulluh'1nin Abu lfababeh omy Lord, wetthewooden plate; all(themischief)isfrom Abu ... yarabbifhillkull'lth min omy Lord, wetthecloak; all (the mischief)ISfrom S ...tThe expression lorabbatlna maybea contraction from 814 hada yarablmli. 2Thatis,concealment.ofthe poverty of those whohavebeenvery generous uptonow,butwhocannothelpanymore,sincetheyhave nothing oftheirown.3Allthesefiveversescomefrom Atarah .. I heard also fatten,"a pieceof bread." 5 AfamilyinNeb! eamwlI, whereI heard thesong.Thename JJ:asan isusedbysome instead ofcAbd ed-Djabbar.6Another verseis: yarabbi tbill el-kondetkull'Uhmin ahl $am-wel omy Lord, wetthe calycotome villosa; All(the mischief) comesfromthe inhabitants ofNeLiSamwil,, 15

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226JournalofthePalestineOriental SocietyIshall describe nowmorefullyarainprocessionin (En Karim. Anoldwomanmountedon a donkeyheldacock1inherhands. A great processionofmen,womenandchildren followed. Some women carried emptyjarson their head,asasignoflackofwater, othersgroundasmallhand-mill,inwhichnograin w'as put. Still others carried grain andflourmills,todenote, as alreadymentioned, povertyandmisery.Thewholecrowdshouts rather than sings a "rain song.".Duringthewholeprocessiontheoldwomansqueezed thecockfromtimetotime,thusforcingthepooranimaltocrow orsquawk.Inthiswaytheythinkthattheanimalsjoinintheir request andimploretheAlmightyGodforhelp.Thecockischosen becauseheis considered asa muadtjin. Theprocessionwentto the maqam of Hadj rAbed andthentothehouseoftheheadman ofthevillage.Assoonasthey reached thisplaceonecouldhear thembegging: billt'tnaya dares-se1)yu.rabbitaCtinayu (I)mm ubilli bset'fa'inaura/ina Fa'radjallah byutlub min'indak ya allahWetus,0houseofthe 0my Lord, giveustherain!oImmel-Ghet,helpusandwetthemantleofourshepherd. Ourshepherdis Faradjallah: hebegsofThee,0God(therain). The cameout, sprinkled thecrowd,saying:allah yisqiku minrabmit rabbkum,"MayGodgiveyouwaterfromthebountyof your Lord!" The sprinkling withwaterisasymboloftherain (raincharm). After thisthecrowddispersed. The Palestinian believesthatGodsends drought asapunishment tochastisehumanbeingsfor their continuous transgression, butHe willnotinHismercypunishthepoordumbanimals.Inthesame way little children are guiltlessandthusarenottheobjectofthe Divinewrath.Forthisreasonahen,acock,orbotharecarried intheprocession,and little children aresentbythemselves, noted above.In their rain songsthe peasants veryoftenalludetothis: ya rabbi ta-nisqi hadj-dj1}useh 2oLord,giveusasprinkling rain, asprinkling, rain, that wemay watertheseyoungdonkeys!1Kahle hasseena black henanda white cock.Iheardthatsometimes several hensandcocksare carried inthe procession. 2 HeardinNebi

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine227yarabbi nuqtahn'UlJtahta-niJqi hal-quttah! oLord,giveus a drop(ofrain),adrop(ofrain),thatwemaywater thiscat!yarabbiel-mtuawis-sel tanisqi el-baqar wil-bel toLord,giveus rain andarunning stream,thatwemay water the cowsandthehorses! The following, mentionedbyKahle,2is another: biddakya q(J,qi 3el-lelbiddi matar biddi sel biddijattehlal-yatama.Whatdoyouwant,0crowerofthe night?"Iwantrain,Iwant stream, I want apieceof bread fortheorphans." A variant is: dfkna byizlt aq tulel-lel ussmatauss selbiddu rahsneh.minrabbuhOurcockcrowsallthe night through, Hewantsrain and a stream,Hewantsmercyofhis Lord. There aresomeshrineswhicharemoreefficaciousingivingthis blessing than others,especiallythefollowing(amongtheMoslems):es-sittel-Badriyeh, Ghet,eS-se1.J Matar, ea .. se1.J Lemun,4 .. el-Qatrawani, etc.Itisbelievedthatthese holy menorwomenaremostpowerfulandwill hear prayer mostquickly,.beingableto influencetheAlmightyinaspecialway.Butitmustbeemphazisedthateverywelimayhelpifasked.A.manof Abft Dis assured methataprocessionwhichwent aroundthe dja1niC of ealaJ} ed-Din wasansweredthenextdaybyaheavyrain,whichfilledallthe cisterns.ThepeoplewaiteduntiltwomonthsofthewinterweretKnownnearlyeverywhere. 2 PJBlocooit.Thelasttwolinesdonot properly belonghere,hutcome underthe general heading ofrainsongs.Theyhavebeengivenelsewhere.3 Q6,qa is really usedfotthecackleofthehen (qaqated-djadjeh, lithehen cackles"), m,ifI means "the (cock) crows;" qaqiel-lel is,however,known8Sa nameofthecock. 4 Kahle,PJBVIII.

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228Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societygone,afterwhichtheydecidedtomaketheprocession, whereuponabundantrainfell.Insome villagesthepeople gofromonewelitoanother,hoping'thatifonecannotorwillnothelp,theotherwillanswertheprayers.1Amongtherainsongs Inwhich a special weli is called uponfor helparethefollowing: ya sitti yaBadriyeh isqiear' el-barriyeh2omyLady, 0 Badriyeh,waterthegrainintheflelds.s ya rabbi tisqina el-moiarib-barkei eS-se1]Matar4 oLord,giveusrainto drink, forthesake(blessing) ofmy master, Matar. ya rabbi tisqina ib-barkat sidiGhet4 omyLord,giveusraintodrinkforthesake(blessing) ofmymaster e-se1jGhet.ya (I)mm el-Ghet5ghitina billi bset6ra/inara/ina Hasan el-Aqro; tu.l el-lelu-hi: yieraC yizra(fi qarri ta-nmalli oMotherofRain,help usandwetthemantleofourshepherd,OurshepherdisHasanel-Aqra',? whohasbeensowingallthenight Sowing qa,ri8 [through,IHeardfrom Bet Djibrin.2Canaan,ZDPVXXXVI,292.3Barriyehmeans "wilderness, desert." The Palestinians useitofteninthe senseof "fields," ashere. 4 Thewords and gh1t mean "rain," andfromthemthenamesofthe saints are taken.5The imam of CAtarah saidthatthere isalsoan Abftel-Ghet, the"Fatherof Rain," a statement whichIhavebeenunabletoverifyin other places.6 Bet, dim.of biJt, isalong,widewoollen mantle, .tEI-aqraCmeans "bald-headed."8A specially good variety of wheat ,not mentioned inmy article inZDMGLXX(1916),166.9The ismadeof sun-dried clay.Nearlyeveryvillagehousehassuchagranary, madebythewomen.10A variation to this versewas mentioned inZDPVXXXVI, 292. When the prayers are answered and rain fallsdown,they say: "'fhe Mother of. Rain wenttobringthunder;scarcely hadshecomeback-thecornwasas high asacamel, TheMotherofRainwenttobringrain;scarcelyhadshecomeback-thecorn was ashighasthe trees."

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine229 ya (I)mm qatta"nalawatina 1oMotherofRain,helpus;wehave'cutoffthecoinsonour head-dress. Fromthe 'Idwan BedouinI heard: yammel-GhetyataqCah 2qatalnal-bardwis-saqah.3oMother of Rain,0-,coldhaskilledus. Jaussen 4 mentionsasong about Imm elGhet whichISa variant tothecombinationoftwoverses,citedabove. 5ya djami'na nistardjik rusq el-maia yudJ],ulfik oour mosque, weimplorethee,mayafloodofrain enter thee! ya (nabior mar) ... el-maia yudJ],ullfik 1o (ne/!i or mar) ...weimplorethee,mayaHoodofrain enter thee! ya sidi ananOJ:J,ik rusqel-maiayu"bur fiklelit ed-djum"ah la-a4wik omyLord,IextolThee! May a flood of rain enter Thee! (Then)IshallindeedlightThy maqam Fridaynight! ya nabi$amwiltisqina ya rabbes-sama tisqina oProphet Samuel,giveusto drink; 0 Lord ofHeaven,giveustodrink!1The more elegant sort of this decoration iscalled Ilaffek. 2Ihavenotsecured any explanation for Itmaypointtothe pealing ofthe thunder.3Bardand saq" anare synonyms Ooutumes, pp.826,327. 5 The translation ofJausseninthefirst verse should be changed. Ytl Imm el-GAel!ladaiym,"0 Mother ofRain,0 Immortal(appellation ofGod,andnotofImm el-Ghet)." Theverb bUli goes back toImmel-Ghe],6Iheard: yase!J, fAbdallah yanaMeamwil!lanabiLemun!la Mar Elias!la Mar Muss Tothelastexpression myattentionwasdrawn byMr.S.H.Stephan. Anyotherwelimaybeinvoked.-Thesecondlineoftheverse given by Kahle,PJBVIII165,isnot bir-rabbe dfnak, hutmitwasslin(with8andnot '11) birabb(e) dinak, i,e., "We entreattheLordofyourreligion."

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230Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Society yarabbi tbillel-kondel wridna ca $amwel oyLord,wetthe calycotome villos a ,forwehavecometo Samuel toask(his mediation) for water!1In'Atarahandthesurrounding villagestheysing: ya rabbi samawi ib-djahel-Qatrawi ib-djah eS-seTJAbul-cEnenya rabbi niB/atel-fenya rabbitbill karameh l-Abu Suseh yarabbi dqiqahib-djahen-nabiu ib-djahuh tirbam el-(a)wladbil-maiorrimm el-bladya rabbi el-ghetya djauwadnutc,ub minnak djarret wad ib-djah elQatrawi ya rabbi wad Silwad oLord(send)theheavenlyrain(Ibeg Thee), bythehighrank(and influence)of el-Qatrawi. Bythehighrank of. es-seg Abft 0Lordthefountain hasdriedup.oLord, wetthelockofthe scalp, in honour of Abft Suseh! oLord,(send)therainoneminute,bytherankoftheProphetandhisfriend!Byhisrank(Ibeg Thee) tohave mercy uponthe children andcoverthelandwith rain!'oLord,(webegfor)therain,0 Generous One,weask Thee fora flowing stream-bed!Inrespect of el-Qatrawi 0myLord,thevalley ofSilwadlTheChristians call on marInqftla (St. Nicholas)and mar Elias,In BetDjala Iheardthefollowingsong:2 mar InquladjirtaleksuJjbel-matardaJjilleki1;lna el-yom cabidakfiidak haiy imbu ya haiy imbu 1The exact wording ofthe translation is correctly givenbyKahle,PJBVIII,103,butthe intention oftheverseisnottogotothevillageandbringwater"fromit,buttoasktheProphetforhelp.I heard thisversefroma womanofNebi sothe translation of Kahle wouldhardlyfitthecase.2Giveninpartinmy paper,DerKalender,loc.eit.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine231 el-ful fidj-djarrahwistannu allah.marInqulayadjarnayababibzgharna wikbarnala-ilahnau1nturya rabbr alabladnaya rabbuna yarabbuna tumturcalenaya rabbunaminqillitei-mtua (alabladnalIulrInqultioitsaffacla-ildhnamarInquladjina lek nahm zghdr u lek u-nahnu el-yamfi/Jimaytakt'l,tmturcalenayarabbuna. Wehavecometoyou,St. Nicholas!ostream ofrain,Iimploreyou! Wearetodayyour servants; Heaven'skeyisinyourhand Bring water,1Oh bring water,Putthebroad-beansinthejar,2AndwaitforGod'smercy, St.Nicholas,0ourneighbour!ofriendofouryoungandold, Intercede (forus)withourGod, Sendrain,0our Lord, onour land!oourLord,0our Lord,Letitrainonus,0ourLord. Becauseofthe scarcety ofrainonourland (Weimploreyou)0St.Nicholasto intercede (forus)with Wearecomingtoyou,St.Nicholas; [ourGod. Weareyoungandwesubmittoyou;Wearetodayunderyour protection; Sendus(therefore)rain,0ourLord.tThe exclamation hayimbU (attimes pronounced himbU) perhaps means "bring water." ImbU isbabytalkallover Palestine for "water."2A variant is el-fad fidj-djarrah,"Putthestickinthejar."I really cannotsaywhatthesetwo expressions mean.

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232 JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyWeseethat marInqula iscalled sU/...1hel-matarj, "a stream of rain,"andisbelievedtopossessthekeysofheaven(forsending rain). Dalman notesinhis Di1van: 2 l-cAdraYa(qftbzar(na 3 l4:A4rau-mar EliaszarCna Wewenttothe Virgin andtoSt.James, (And ask:)Wateroursufferinggrain!Wewenttothe Virgin andtoSt. Elias, (Andask:)Makegreenourdyinggrain! A variant heard fromaMohammedanleperis: ya sidi l!aitrtisqi zar(naya sidi marEliastisqi zar(nael-yabbas.oLord, 0St.George, water ourgreencrops!oLord)0St. Elias, waterOUI"dryingcrops! From abeautifulsongwhich heard fromamanofHalhulI quotethestanzaswhichbelongtoour subject: yarabbunayurabbunaya baiy ya qaiyftm irbamqUJanayarabbunaya rabbuna il-auwahi5 saCyanayarabbunayarabbuna bis-saiyd el-ghaiyuri anbitear' ana yarabbunayarabbuna birasulika Israyla yarabbunayarabb'l.tna bis-saddiqi Yusufa (ummana bis-saCywadjbir yarnuhaimin kasrana.1 means primarily "stream ofmilk."2Thelastpartofthefirstsongonp.56.3 means "attacked with disease," or "dried upbythe heat ofthesun." 4 ThefollowingverseshowshowSt.Maryisthoughttowelcomeher visitors:tallai eleAqrauqalatyazallrinmarfl,abafiel-sel!minkunt l-badilin. The Virgin lookeddownandsaid,Bewelcome,0visitors, Bewelcome,(0)elders andgowned priests. s Auwah, "he whosighsandcriestoGod."

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CANAAN:MohalnmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine233oour Lord, 0ourLord,0 Living One,0 Self-existing, have mercy uponour weakness!oour Lord, 0our Lord,Forthesake ofThyfriend.!continually sighing,makeourintents good!oour Lord,0our' Lord, Forthe sake ofthezealous lord2make ourcropsgrow!oourLord,0our Lord,Forthesake ofThyprophetIsrael3make our udders flow(withmilk)!oour Lord, 0our Lord,Forthesake ofthetruefriendJoseph include usall ingood endeavour,andmend,0Watcher,our broken hearts! Anotherrainprocession 4 described tomebythe imam of CAtarah hasmany biblical parallels.HesaidthatwhentheAlmighty holds back the rain for a long time5 the imam 6ofthevillage asks alltheinhabitants tofast,and appoints, together withthe chief ofthevillage, a dayinwhichallthepeople,menwomenandchildren, leave their housesandgotosome distant valleyor mountain.Inthis processioneveryoneputs offhisgood clothes and dresses intheworstragshehas. Babiesarenotallowedtosuckle.Allanimals ofthatvillagearealsotakenout,butnofoodor water is giventhem.Outinthefieldsontheirwayof "emigration" from their habitationstheyimploretheAlmightyGodtohavepityon them,theirchildren andtheiranimals. Before theyleavethevillage everyoneforgivesthe faults oftheothers, andin this way they hopetodeservetheforgivenessoftheirGod.Innearlythesame waythe ancient Israelites7triedto gainthefavouroftheir gods.i'hey usedtofastandpray, removingtheirclothesandputting on' coarse sackcloth.Theirprophetsandhighpriests promised them 1Thatis, Abraham.2Thatis,183&0.3Thatis,Jacob. Itwascalledbythe imam, el-istisqd. s EvenilltheBiblewe observethatpublic fastswere proclaimed to express national humiliation on account ofsinand misfortune, andto supplicate divine favourinthefaceof threatening danger.6InthetimeoftheIsraelites the chief usedto proclaim afast:Samuel (1Sam.7 9), Jehoshaphet(2Chr.203),Jeremiahand Baruch(Jer.366-10),etc.7Joel212;Esther 4 3,16;Bar.15;Judith 4 7,n;Jonah3,5,7.

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234JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyalwaysthattheirGodwouldheartheirprayerandhelpthem,justas today. Stories of ancientandmodern times illustrate this practise.InconclusionIwill quoteseveralverses of Jeremiah,chapterXIV,whichshowmany points of resemblance between rain processions of biblical timesandoftoday. Thischapter -seems tometo describe customs connected withrainprocessions:"Judah mournetli,andthegates thereof languish; theyareblackuntothe ground; andthecry ofJerusalemisgoneup.Andtheirnobles have sent their little onestothewaters: theycametothe pits,andfoundno water; theyreturnedwiththeirvessels empty; theywere ashamedandconfounded,andcoveredtheirheads. Becausetheground is chapt, for there wasnoraininthe earth, theplowmen,were ashamed, they coveredtheirheads. Yea,thehindalso calved inthefield,andforsookit,'becausetherewasno grass.0Lord,through our iniquities testify against us,do thou itforthy name's sake,forour backslidingsaremany wehavesinnedagainst thee."C.NATUREANDCHARACTER OFTHESAINTSInthecourse ofourstudy we approach themostimportantpart, namely,.the saints themselves. This subject isavery complicated one,butitisundoubtedly ofthegreatestpossible interest tothestudentof comparative religion.Onthewhole,the conceptions ofthepeopleof Palestine havebeen surprisingly little changed, con sideringtheextraordinaryvicissitudes towhichthis land hasbeen subject. Invasions, conquestsandoccupation bynew races havemodifiedtheirbeliefsbygiving.themdifferent colour,buttheywere unable toextirpatethem entirely.Eventhegreatrevolutions produced bythethreegreatmonotheistic religions, whose cradle layinornearPalestine, werenotableto suppress all primitive beliefs. This condition will surely not continue unaffected bythepresent socialandpolitical transformations.Inthepasttwenty yearsconditions have alreadychangedsomuch,thatitisatpresent decidedly more difficult togathergenuine folklore material than itwasabout1900.Itbecomestheduty of every friend of Palestinian folklore toworkas intensively as possible, ifwhatremainsisDotto belost.Thesubject ofthesaints willbe described under thefollowing heads:

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CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine2351.Gharacteristicsofthe Awlia. 2.Miracles. 3.Relationofthe Saints toMen. 4.RelationoftheSaintstoGodand Popular Religion. 5.OriginoftheSaints. Ishall restrict myselfentirelytomodern Palestine andshallleave thetaskofcomparisontospecialists.1.CHARACTERISTICS OFTHE Awlia Thefollowingtwopointsdemand particular consideration: I.Bodily Characteristics. 11.Religiousandmoral characteristics. I.Bodily Characteristics Allsaintswereoncehumanbeings,andtheyhavekeptmany human characteristics evenafter their transformation into awlia. Itis important tonotefromthebeginningthatalthoughthe statements onereceivesaboutthesame weli varyindifferentplaces,wefind thesedifferencestobeonlysuperficialwhilethefundamentalideas remainthesame.Letus approach thesubjectfromthefollowingpointsofview: a)Sexandage, b)Modeoflife, c) Imprints of their hands,feet,etc., d) Appearance intheformsofanimals.a)SexandAgeoftheSaints .Awliti belongtobothsexes1thoughmalesaintsarebyfarthe morenumerous.sThisfactdoesnotjustifythe statement of Kobeltthatthe Arabs havenofemalesaints,"Noris Perronright when hewrites that thewaytoholinessistoodifficultforwomen)there forewerarelyfind a womaninIslamtakingit.5Onewho critically.IThe Preislamio Arabs hadmaleaswellasfemalegods. Wellhausen,Beste Arab. Heidentums. 2Jaussen, Ooutumes desbabes, pp.802and303,mentions somefemale saints.3Globus,1885,nO3,p. 40 (after Goldziher). Femmes arabe avant et depuis l'Islamism,p.350(Goldziher). &Er Razi thinks-inexplaining Sfireh1210916 46 and217-thatGod never sent afemale prophet.

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236JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyreviews the position ofwomeninthe earliest periodsof Islam, and carefully studiesthe teachings ofitsfounderwillfindnoreal obstacles tothe religious developmentofthefemale.1Whenever male awlia arose,wefind reference tofemale awlia also.Amongthe shrines whichIhavevisited13.2percent are dedicated to femalesaints.sInreviewing the list offemale .saints oneobservesthatthegreaterpartofthemareofsome importance,60percentofthe female saints enjoyingawide reputation, as compared withonly31percent ofthemalelist.Itis curiousthatsomevillageshave nowaliyatpI.(ofwaliyeh,femeof weli), e.g., cA.nata,SaCfat,eoba, en-Nabi eamwY1,BetcAnan; etc. Female saints.enjoythesame reputation asthemaleonesofthesame locality oraneven greater one. EI-Badriyeh isthemost important saint of Sarafat andthe surrounding villages.EIcAzerat isheldbythe inhabitants of 'Awartah in nearly thesame respect as al-Mufaddil or AI-lJ.aQra of Nsblus and AI-lJ.a
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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine237and (fern.of eS-se1:J) areusedinsteadofwaliyeh.Thefemale saintsarebelieved inpopularPalestinianreligion to possessthesamepowersasthemaleawlia.They healthesick, helptheoppressed, guard thepropertyoftheirneighbours,protectthevillagefromits enemies,etc.!Fewfemale saintsareof Biblical origin.In er-Ram oneisshownthetomb of Samuel's mother.InN ablus a shrine isdedicatedto el tIaqra, whois supposed tobethe ofJacob,Herhistory isasfollows:ThesonoftheleaderofatribeaskedJacobtogive himhis daughter aswife.Thepatriarchrefusing his request, as he wasan idolator, theyoungmanbribedthe40followersofJacobwhowereall mu)minft,n (believers), giving each oneasackofgold.2These persuadedtheirmastertoaccepttheoffer.Jacobanswered, "Y oumayacceptsucha bargain,butIwillnot,"!They neverthelesssenttheir wivestoprepare el-tIa<}ra forthemarriage.Herfather, assuringherthattheGodofhis fathers wouldnotallow such an act, asked herto shoutthreetimes,justasherbridegroomenteredherroom:ograndfather(helpme)!oProphets(helpme)!oGod(helpme)! Shefollowedthisadviceandherbridegroom felldeadatthemomentofhis entrance intotheroom.Thusshekepthervirginityandwas called el-tIagra, "theGreen." I The male saints, who predominate, formingabout86.8 per centofall awlia, aregenerallyregardedas Bedouin, SoudaneseMaghrebineor peasants.Thesaintsappearmostly innightvisions. Sometimes theyareseenintheduskofevening.Whilesomelovetovisitandconverse with human beings, othersareseenonly rarely.Mostofthemale awlia havebeen observed tobe reverend se1]s, with a whitebeardandwhite hair. lbtiyar,saiyb and sel} aretheusual expressions usedto denote this appearance.Veryfewhave.beenfoundtobe middle aged, like eS-sel]Al)mad of tIirbet QaryetS'ideh.1Inthecaseof Fatmeh el-Barri (Zakariyah) nomale visitors areallowedto enterthe shrine.QS,1915,175.2Fromthattimeitisbelievedthatbribery began. a Perhaps this story isanechoofthe story toldinGen.34. 4 Thestorywastoldtomebythe ofthe shrine.

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238JonrnalofthePalestine Oriental Hociety Female saints appear mostlyasmaidens,sometimesasmiddle agedwomen,butvery rarely asanoldwoman (QIljfte). Saints may berecognizedontheirappearance byamajesticwalk,a penetrating eye,aserenelookandan erect stature. While mostofthemareofthewhiteracesomearenegroes,while someare described as qamlJ,i or 8udiini, "darky," "Nubian."Among negro saints are: es .. Abmad ljirbet Q.S'idih 'Abdallah Suffates-sel] eAnbarCEsawiyeh Bet Iksa .. Abu Ismall t:Likia .. 'Ubed Sata,f Ihavenotseena sanctuary ofanegress,b)ModeofLife Thedressofthe awlia generally conformswiththetwo following conditions:1.Thenativecostumeof their land oforigin.2.Thelocalityofthe sanctuary.Ifthe saint issupposedtohavebeen during hislifeaBadawi,Mughrabi,peasant,madaneh(citydweller),'obd,(slave,negro)rich orpoor,.hewearsthe corresponding dress.Eachofthesehashis owncostume,whichheis thought tokeepeven after death.Atthe sametimemostofthe saints.ofalocalityaresuppoaedtowearthe clothesofthatlocality,eveniftheir nativehomemay have beenin someforeigncountry.Ingeneral, thefollowing description isgiven:a lafeh, or camameh coversthehead.Onthebodytheywear atab, djibbeh, Cabay anda zunnar. TheBedouinsaintswear an cu,qal. Itis interesting tonotethecoloursof the variousgarments.1 have noticedthattheyalwaysbelongtooneofthe three coloursred, green andwhite. White predominates, whilegreenistheholycolour. Oftenweheartheexpression labisabya,rJ fi abyait,"he iscladin purewhite."Several saints haveawhite headgear and a green

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine239djubbeh,oraredlaffehandwhite Allthose saints whoaresupposed tobedescendantsoftheProphet (surafa) wearagreenhead-dress.Thecolour of thisarticleof dress is always decisive,whilethatofotherpiecesislessimportant.Thedress ofthewaliyatis said tobemadani, badaw1, or fal11tbi.Es-Samiyeh (Kolonia) hasbeen seen wearingtheclothesofa city woman with awhite 'izar (an ample veil). Banatealal) dressthemselves like Bedouin.EI-Badriyehand sittna el-Gharah (BetNftba) eachweara green veilanda white 'izar. Thelatterladyhasagreenish band onherforehead.Bisr 1(Nablus) issaidtoappearwalking barefoot, ashe used todo during his lifetime.Thischaracteristicgavehimhissurname el-lf-afi, "thebarefooted."Weoftenhearthatsomeareseen wearing a crown, tad;, whichis described in everycaseasof green colour.tSuchare Danianel-lJa4 res-se'l]4\lmad Husen es-seb Husennear el-lJaQr inallofhis shrines .lJirbet Q.S'ideh Bet Surik Bet Inthecase of en-nalnMusa many assured methattheyhave seenhim with a greenish halosurroundinghisface.A staff (mi1Jdjaneh),a spear anda sword havebeenobserved tobecarriedbysomeholymen. 'Abdes-Salam, ea-sultanIbrahimel-Adhami (Saffat), Barraq (Bet Djibrin)anden-nab; Aiyub(Ras ibn Siml)an) appearmostly withaspear;es-Mohammad (Wadi en-Naml), farfini and sittna el-Gharah(bothinBet-Nuba)carryattimes asword dripping withblood. Es-se1jSarif andmanyotherscarrya mibdjaneh. Inmostofthecasesthe awlia appearwalking or sitting, occasionally alsotheyareseen riding ona horse.Thisisa special privilege of el-Hadr, St. George. Danian hasalso been seenridingtohism.aqam.Assoonashe reaches it,he tiesthehorse tooneof 1 Heissaidto have beenthe banner-bearer oftheProphet.2SeealsoQS,1916,66.

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240JournalofthePalestineOriental Societytheoaktreesandproceeds walking totheholyspot. Husen!hasa greenhorse.sInexaminingfurtherdetails welearnthatsome still continue performingthehabitualactsoftheirlifetime.'I'hus BanatSalal} have often been seen boiling coffeeandsinging. ES-8ultan Ibrahimel-Adhami (BetIJanina) was observed sitting in front ofhisshrineandsmoking his pipe(ghalyun). E-se1j Ahmad el-I;I:we, (Biddu) often walks fromhistombtothecavebearinghis name, where he used to spend a greatpartofhistimewhilealive. EI-lJaqr is supposed totakeabatheveryThursdaynightinHammamedDaradjeh(in Nablus). Es .. eQ]jalid3 spendsthesummer monthsunderhisoaktree,andlivesinthewinter inhis taqah."4Al)mad ed-Djabbarah (Yalo) spreads hisbedonthesurface ofhiswell.Thebedismadeofafarweh(a sheepskin coat) with longwhitewool.Sadjaret AbftNar has, wheneverirritated,amenstrualflow.5Theword was usedandthefluidwas described asviscous.InthecaseofBir (Onah(BetDja,la) thestones onthebrim ofthewellaredyedredonceeveryyearonSt. Mary's feast. Theyaretheonly cases Ihavehearedwhere female saints still possessthepropertyof menstruation.sThesaintsareattachedtotheirhabitation, where asaruletheyappearandwhere mostofthemiraclestakeplace.Buttheymay changetheirshrine, settling insomeothervillage orevenin another country.Thisis established inthecase ofthe BanateS-se1}Salal} ofJericho.Whentheirhabitationwasruinedduringthewar, beingt BetSurik. 2Eventhe horses are described in verses asbeingof green colour: siadi rakbinlJu44arlanumzen el-mabaBimmatlJa44ar(alac,A.rafO,tfoadaco'nanitllac!4arqlublakiehki!rMy lords areridinggreen horses. They have beautiful features (lit. mouths) withtheearly growthofmoustaches. They calledU8to fArafat toprayand become sanctified.Ourhearts complain oflackof attention.3 Der Ghassdneh. 4 Bythis ismeanta small cave situatednearthe tree.5 SeeJPOSIV,71.6Cf.JPOSI,163.

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8. Kneesandhands ofSt.Mary9.Kneesof Christ headoftheProphetMohammed 11.The, hand of Gabriel 12.The.bodyofSt. Elias6CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inPalestine241 changed bytheTurksintoa stable, they punished them by helping theEnglishto occupy alltheJordanvalley.Atthesame time they movedto Hisban.!c)Imprintsof Hands, Feet, etc. Oneofthegreatcharacteristics of awlia isthattheymayleavetheimprints of theirhands,feet,knees,etc.,inthesolidrock. Such a signisfoundonlyinthecaseofveryimportantprophets.In50 per cent ofthecaseswefind impressions ofthefeet,insome thoseofthe hands and inveryfewthoseofthehead,knees,orthewholebody.Attimestheimpressions oftwo differentpartsofthebodyofthesame saint canbe seen inthesamerock.Thefollowing is a listofallsuch impressions whichI have seen: 1.The12footstepsoftheProphetMohammed,onthe Sagrah (1,3),22.12footsteps ofIdrtsonthe eagrah (1,2), 3.One. footstep oftheProphetMohammed nea,rtheSagrah(III,14), 4.Theright. footof Christ 5.ThefeetofChrist Mount ofOlives, 6.TwofeetandtwohandsofAbraham3 el-Yaqin, .1. Twofeetandtwo hands ofLot4 masdjad el-Yaqinin ,Qu'uJetah,5 Bir cOna(Bet Dj ,Bir cOna(Bet Dja,la) (11,7), (I,1),opposite,theconvent Mar Ilyas,1SeeIV,84.2The numbers in parenthesisrefertotheenumeration given on pages 81and.82,invol.IV..3SeeIV,79. 4 SeeIV,78. 5 Some !uwe!at arenotatall religious,butaremadefor catching birdsandare generallysituatedneara spring. Ihaveseens of.thissortnear' :ijirbet Zif.Anothersortof enclosure (knownas kifreh) ismadeby highway robbers. BetweenHebronand Yatta Isawa circle ofthiskind.6SeeIV,so.16

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242J ournal ofthePalestine Oriental Society13.Srir'lIsa.114.Srires-Saiydi2inthe entrance totheStables ofSolomon, BetDjala.3 Thepeople of BetDjala tellusthefollowing about numbers 8and9: WhiletheVirgin was carryingherchildon a hotsummer day,she passedthevalley beside Bet Dj ala. Sheandherbaby became thirsty,buton reaching awellshe discoveredthatitwas dry.TheVirginbent overthebrimandsaid:intli yabirlaylrab el-walad e$-!}ghir, "become full,0well,sothattheyoungchildmay .drink!"Thewaterbegan immediatly toflowfrom a subterranean source untilithadfilledthepituptothe. brim.St.MaryandChristbentdownandquenchedtheirthirst.Theimpressions oftheknees of both,andthose ofthehandsof Mary remained intherock.Fromthattimeonitwasalso observedthatthebrim became dyedredonthefeast oftheVirgin.4Thewell receivedthenameBir cOnah, "thewellofHelp,"!sinceit responded tothecalloftheVirgin. EI-Masgfltah 6isalargefieldofrocksofallsizes,whicharesaid tobe petrified menandwomen. This place liestotheNWof BetDjaJa, anditsstory runs asfollows:Thepeasants ofavillage celebrated awedding.The farU8 (bride) was brought fromherfather's houseonacamel,asthecustomusedtobeandis still insome villages.Shewasfollowedbyagreatcrowd offriends,who sinned so glaringlythattheAlmighty God punished them by changing the wholeoftheprocession into afieldofrocks.Once their shapes could be clearly recognized,butthrough the disintegration causedby weathering onlyafewcanstill be identified.Thusoneisstillshownthe bride riding onthecamel,andmanyrocksareexplained as representing awoman,amanorachild."This awful punishment,tThereal impression of'thebodyisnotseen. 2 SeeIV,80,note2.3One impression ofafootisshownbetweenDerGhasaanehand cEn ed-Der.ItisthoughttobethatoftheProphet. 4 Canaan,Haunted Springs andWaterDemons,JPOS1,164. :5 Whenever apeasant-especially8woman-iscalled,sheanswers,'Imah; "( what)help(canIgiveyou?)" cs Mudjir, I, 80,saysthatGodhad changed atthetimeof Pharaoh many Egyptians into stones.1Jaussen, G'outumes, p. 337, mentions a similarbutsimpler case.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 243 which somewhat resemblesthestory of Sodom,GomorrahandLot'swife,1servedasa warning toallthesurroundingvillages, who repentedandbegantoserve Allah. Such petrified stonesaretheopposite oftheimprintsofsaint'sbodies.Whilethelatterarethesigns ofthegreatnessandthemiraculous power oftheirowners,theformerrepresentone form ofthepunishmentofthesinnersbyGod.Theformerarehonoured,thelattercause horror.d)AppearanceintheFormofAnimalsA very curiousandinterestingfeatureisthatwelismayappearin animal forms.2Thisideacertainlygoesbackto primitive religion." (Abdallah of Bet Surikeventakestheformoftheawful ghul, whileonotheroccasions hehasappearedasaserpentandas a Ihaveinmycollection fifteen such cases.Theanimals representedare:tGen.XIX.2A [ladif saysthatGodputsthesoulsofthemartyrsintogreenbirdswhich livein paradise. Taqiy-d-Din es-Sabki, lifa-l-asqatn/iziyliratberel-)anam, 143.3InChristian folksongswe observethesame idea: ra!Jalnauinzilnaaqabrel-masifl,laqenamar Yu/lannaqat id yistarilJfaralelna'Uqalnauq''Udttindjiluhuqalnaismacuisma"'naqrayehfl,s12sismaocnaqrayeh btiltiyeh-en-nif(;sIl'l,ocnaltad-djaballagenD,lalatlwmamatbitfalliuwalJdihbtutluq We journeyed andwentdowntothetomb of Christ, (Where) wefoundSt.Johnsittingdownto rest.Hespread forushiscarpet(hiscloak), andsaid,"Sitdown!" He opened forushis gospel andsaid,"Listen!"Weheardreading, weheardvoices, weheardreading which revivesthespirit. We ascendedthemountain, and foundthreedoves, Oneprays,one fasts andonewavesthecenser toandfro. These three doves probablystandforPeter,PaulandJohn,asmaybe inferred froman evening prayer.]6*

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244 Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Society.inseven cases birds, in three cases serpents,Inonecasea rabbit, inonecase a goat, inonecasealion, inonecaseawhitesheepand inonecase different forms.Inanalyzing these animals wefindthattheybelongtotwo categories:1.Animals whoseformsarepreferred bydemons. These arethe goat(djidi),hyena (ilabi') (arbidandghftZ. Thecolour or' these animals is black or dark, which points,' asweknow demonology,toabaddjinn.t <,Arbid,notbaiyeh, isusedinthese casesto denote a serpent. cArbidmeans primarily "troublesome,petulant.tquarrelsome, ill-natured.l'"InclassicalArabic means"abadandpoisonous serpent," aswellas "the maleofevery serpent." 4 Popular usehascombined these formsandcharacteristics, sothat carmd nowmeans"anillnatured, poisonousmale serpent." Common belief alwaysgivesitadarkcolour.A goat stands,aswas showninHauntedSpringsand Water Demons,forabaddemon.The ghul isoneofthe worst demons,whilethehyena is reckoned asthemost insidiousandill-natured of animals.s 2. Animals whose shape is generally takenbygood spirits.Inmy collection wehavethedove (lJ,amameh), thegreen bird
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CANAAN: MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine245thesymbolofgood tidings andpiety.1Thesamemaybesaid aboutthegreenbird,2while spirits intheformofsheeparealways good natured.!AllIknow abouttherabbitisthatIneverheardthatabaddemon takes the shape ofthisanimal.Itis further saidthatthe saints who take the shapes ofthelastdescribed animals havealwaysbeenseenin this formwhilethey werehelping human beings,savingavillagefromenemies, caring forpeopleingreatdanger, etc.Onthe other hand,all saints who aresupposed totakethe shapes oftheanimals mentioned under number1arerepresented as punishing people, injuring and frightening them. Thiscuriousphenomenonof transformation isvery interesting since itcanbe hardly explained except asasurvivalfrom ancient religion. Onlyinthiswaywecanseehowsaints-chosenmenofGod-cantake theshapesoffurious,maliciousanimals.Inthis connection itmaybenoted.thatthereareanimals which guard the sanctuary frombeingdefiled. These protecting geniiarealways described as1J,aiyeh (serpent),andnever as tarbid. Thefollowing story istold i abouten-nabi Milsa. During theWara' heathenIndian(Sikh)troop encamped inthebuilding.Sincetheydefiledtheplace a large serpent appeared anddrovethemout,,In these cases wearenevertoldthatthe prophet orwelitakesthe form ofthe animal,butthathesendsthelatterto punishthetresspassers. Thefollowingisthe list ofthesaints whohave appeared inanimalforms:Name ofthesaintAhmad et-Taiyar Moses ElcAzeratAbu el.cO Es-Suhada4 Location Sara,fat nearJerichoCAwartah Sindjil JerusalemAnimallargebird, green bird,threedoves, dove, white sheep.!1Gen.811; Cant. 116,21',52; Ps,6814;Math.318;Marc.,110;John. 182; Luc. 3 22; etc.2According to MohammedansuperstitiontheAlmightyGodmadeatthecreation a peacock in whichthesouloftheProphetwas placed, eddurar (onthemarginof daqaiq el-'aobar), p. 2.a SeeJPOS1,153-171. 4 Outside Bab es-Zahirah (es-Sahirah)==:aerod's5 RelatedbyImm .Q,l.

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246 JournalofthePalestineOriental SocietyNameofthesainter-Rifa'i el-Badawi ed-Dastiqi ed-Djilani Lot, Abft Sftseh I;Iamdallah 'Anbarel-Brediyeh cAbdallAh J;[asan el-BaqariLocationBani NCemBetcUr el-Foqah Biddft CEsawiyeh ed-Djib Bet Surik lJirbit en-nabi Tan1 Animalpeacock, green bird, a small bird called ghreiyb, lion,rabbit,'arbid, carbid, (arbid, goat, ghul, hyena or'orbid,gazelle.Thefollowing stories illustratetheforegoing descriptions.Theinhabitantsofthevillages surrounding'Awartahreinforcedbysome Bedouintribesattackedtheinhabitantsof this village,whoseeingthatthey werelost, imploredthe CAzerat forhelp,andbehold three green dovesHewfromtheshrineandhovered overthevillage.Theenemy,as they confessed later, saw everything green, andcouldno longer recognizethesituation ofthevillage.Alltheir.effortsto locatethehouses were frustrated, and they hadtogo back with disappointed hopes. Abfi. el-fOf appears asadovetoeveryonewhoaskshisaidwhen indifficulty, especially toonewhoisindangerofbeingdrowned. 11. ReligiousandMoral Characteristicsa)IrritabilityandForbearanceEveryonewhohastakenthetrouble to investigate thecultofthesaints willbestruckbythesimpledivision made bythe peasants of Palestine, based onavery interesting aspect oftheircharacter.Thesaintsare tawiliner-rfiJ) (forbearing) ornizqin, (irritable, temperamentalj.t-s-The first grouptreathuman failure with patience.tBuried inthecourtoftheprophet 2Manyofthesaints of this group donotallowa building tobe erected on their tomb.This superstition exists also among theJews.Goldziher, Moh.Traditimden Grabesort desJonas,ZDPV11,13,etc.

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CANAAN MohaolmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine247Theygive mortalstimeto repent,andwaitpatientlyforthefulfilment ofvows.'I'heymay remindthemgently oftheirobligations.Thisforbearance maygoevensofarthatpeople begin todoubttheirpower.Butassoonassuchadoubtarises theyatonce respond andshowtheirpowerandability clearly.Thestoryof Abft el.cEnen in fenQina illustrates this point.Theirritablesaints, ontheotherhand, donotshowany pity to transgressors. They demandtheirrightsandsometimes usevery severe methods of punishing those who trespass ontheirrightsandmake afalse oath, dishonourtheir maqam or speak irreverentlyaboutthem.Thisgroupof saints is, therefore, more fearedandrespectedthantheformer group.Whenamanis suspected of having com mitted a major crime,thejudgemayaskthedefendant totakean oathattheshrine ofawellknown saint, whois always chosen from this class.When a person ismaltreatedandoppressed byan influential man,fromwhomhecannotgethis rights, hehurriesto such an easilyirritated weli andasks for aid. Generallythesaintistreatedinsuchawayastoirritatehim still further, asalreadydescribedaboveintreatingthesubject of oaths.Thefollowing storiesarecharacteristic. Amanof Lifta cutastickfromoneofthetreesof Husen (Bet Surik) inorderto drive hismulewhilehewas threshing corn. No soonerdidhe striketheanimal with thisstickthana diseaseattackeditandtheanimal was unable tomove.Thefrightenedpeasantreturnedthe stickatonce,madeavowandbeggedthe toforgivehim.Themulewascuredas miraculously asitfellill. A poor manofGazawenttoQattanehto glean olivesfromtreeswhichhadalready been harvested.1Heplacedallthathehadgatheredinthehouseofapeasantofthevillage,who deniedthenextdaythatanythinghadbeenentrustedtohim.Themanof Gaza thenwentto es-seb Ramadan,where heaps of thistles were deposited,andbegged him: "1 beseech you,0 seTJAbftQass3 (behold) Ihaveenteredyour village (asa guest)andtheinhabitants1Suchaworkiscalled bit,aillaf. 2Such thistles areusedforfuel instead ofwood.3Hedidnotknowthenameofthe weli. Seeing theheapsof thistles, he calledhim"Fatherof Thistles," .

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248JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society havestolenmy hardlygatheredolives."Nosoonerhadhefinished his exclamation than afireattackedthehouseofthe thief, whocame running tothe saint acknowledging hissin,promisingto repay what hehadtaken tenfold, and begging himto extinguishthefireand savehishouse. Much severer was the. punishment inflicted by cAbdes.. Salam, Aninhabitantof cAnata-a descendant ofthe aquarrelwitha person of Hizma, who cursedhimandhis s81j .The insulted person wenttotheshrine ofthelatterand,reproachiogthe weli, said "Thus, 0 se1], they curse meandyou,andyouwillnotprotectmeandyourself!"!Thesame night themanofGodappearedtothe man.Hefellsickwith general paralysis 'anddieda fewdayslater. .Asa rule all negro saintsarethought tobe nizqin. The Maghrebine comenext.b)SupernaturalPhenomenaWemeet withfour different appearances whichhavebeen observed in connection withall saints, namely,a green light, burning of incense, religious musicandprayers.Itis curiousthatthesesignsareperceived bythethreemost important senses,sincea light is seen,whileincense,is smelledandmusicandprayersareheard. Withthesenseof touch mortals canvery rarely perceive asaint.Whena person becomesa darwiS, he begins tofeelthesaintwithhis hands.Buteven then this method of identification remains incompleteandthusfarbehindtheother three.Itwasthesameintheancient times,when deities could beseenand heard,butnot touched.tThegreen light isseenintheduskoftheeveningoratnight,andappearsanddisappearsatintervals.The.lightis described alwaysas greenish. Every time a person approaches the sanctuary where such a phenomenon is observed,thelight disappears com pletely,butno tempest canputitout.3Such asignis accepted by t InQS.(1916,131and132)a story with thesameideaisgiven.2MosessawGodbutdidnottouch him.InChristian legends Christ and the saints may touch the person towhomthey appear.3Thisis especiallytrueof el-Mbarakeh (Kalandiah).

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine249alltheArabsofPalestine!asa sure indication that theplace is inhabited bysome good-natured superhuman power.Inmany cases ithasbeentheonly means of recognizing holysites.Wehavehadalready several examples.Theincense smelledatthesanctuariesissaidto haveasweeter odourthantheusual one.Noonewhovisitsa place where hehassmelled incense willfindany indications pointing totheburningof incense, since supernatural phenomena never leave any physical trace.Insomeimportantshrines one smellsburned baJjbftr everyFriday.Often religious music,coming from a shrine, isheard.Itiseitherthesingingorratherthemelodiousrecitationof maday1) (pl,of maai1p) oritis music,producedbythecombination of several musical instruments.Suchan ciddeh sometimes plays so loudlythatallthepeasants intheneighbourhood ofthe maqliltyl, have leavetheirhouses,asinthecase of eS-eJjFredj(Bet Hantna),Loudmusic isan exception.The'iddeh of AbO. Yamin (BetCAnan) plays whilethosaintfliesoverandaroundthevillage.Itis interesting -to notethefollowingin connection withthehearingof prayers.Thewelihas beenheard to sayhisprayersalone,butmoreoftenmany awlia or performtheirdevotionstogether.tItisoftenrelatedthattheProphetMohammedandhis attendsuch meetings.InNablusel-Haderholds a meeting withthe inhis shrine.Inthesanctuaryof en-Nubani3 the aqtab assemble.Thesaintsarerarelyseenwalking in meditationaroundtheirshrine. 4 tItisslowly vanishing. .2 es-Sidri (Anata) goesevery Friday totheMosqueofOmartoper form falated-dj'Umcah. 3Nablus. 4 Thefollowingverses throw'lightonthe subject:elmingadduh husidil.l analIndahni"'ana aNidluhyadarll'ulubiddNhtaniiJ'Uiluhel-qanadUguddam Whoisso mightyas HecallsmeandIanswer. (Heasks)to light hislamps heismylord,andIamhis servant; Whoknowswhathewishes? before(wedo for)the sultans.

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250 JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyBefore passing ontothedescription of other features we may summarizethepreceding.Thefour phenomena describedaremanifested as follows: 1.Duringthenightortheduskoftheeveningonly;2.More regularlyThursdaynight;3.Untila human being approaches, whentheyvanish; 4.Twoormoreofthemmaytakeplace together.Fromtheforegoing discussion we notethatthegreen colourpre..dominates:thecoverings ofthetombandtheclothes ofthe awlia aremainlyofa green colour. The headgear, sometimesthehorse,the doves,thebirdsandthelightaregreenish.InonecasethehaloaroundthefaceofMoseswas greenish.Greenisthecolouroflightandcommonin modernOrientalsuperstition.!Asa supplement to this section wemay describe someofthecon versation .ofthesaints.Itis interesting to analyze speeches whichareheardinnight visions. While in most casesthe awlia expresstheirwishina gentlebutimperative way,attimes theyuse coarse language, unworthy ofthem. Thus en-nabiAiyub appeared onceto cAbder-Rahimof ljarbata andsaid:"Whydoyounot vieit me?Ifyoudonotdoso soon, I shallcutoffyour life."2Es sultan Ibrahlmel-Adhamithreatened a boywhohadstolensomeolives, withthewords:"ByGod,I shall killyouormakeyoulameif youstealanothertime." Es-seJj Ahmad appearing toHamdan Mol)ammadSalel). ordered himto tell amanwhowas ya,yabUnaBlehfOJ},atytidjina-el-y&m inzurak lamCitak 'UnidCaqba!J!J(j,rakf8.!iat I o 0 owner (father) ofatall palm tree!Hisperfumeisdiffusedoverthe o tI., wecome today to visit you, tolightyourcandleandtoburnyourincense.Yourperfumeis diffused overthe standsherefor "saints."1Agreencoatseematobe characteristic of saints, See Mudjir I,42.2 umrak. 3Eastof Bet

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DerGhassaneh, BetIdjza, CAwartah, 'Awartah, Bet Djibrin, el-Mdjedel.CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine251 building awallintheproperty oftheweli: ma ridjicCan turquhla'aqtaC "Ifhedoesnotturnbackfromhis course,Ishallcutoffhis posterity."c)TheTwo Antagonistic Classes of SaintsEveryonewhohasvisited several shrines orwhohas investigatedthe awlia willhave noticedthedistinction made bythe people be tweenCAdjamiand dcrwis or se1J. ThewordCadjamidenotes originally a Persian,butitisusedatpresentforforeignor exotic things or persons in general.Itis, therefore, a mistake tothinkthatthese saintsarePersians; onthe contrary,nota singleweliinmy list ofar djam camefromthatcountry,andallmy enquiries in this respect were answered inthenegative. Most of thembearthesimple appellationelCadjami ortheplural el-aCdjam. Fewareknownbypersonal names, like eS-se1jSalman (Bet Surik), eS-seltAbft Ris(BetCAnan),Al)mad el-CAdjami (.Bet Mal)sir),irdjal el-Arb'in (Biddu), lsma/il(Bet Duqquh), (Hizmah).Other awlia of this group, bearingthename ofel-radjamiorel-aCdjam,are: el-A(djam 'Iraqel-A Cdjam 2fourdifferent CAdjamis el-ACdjam el-A'djam el.cAdjami Theseholymenarerespectedin.some villagesandneglected in others. Thehonourspaidto them inthefirstarelessthanthose totheother saints.Allofthembelong totheirritable class. AllIcould learn about them isthefollowing,relatedtomebya ofDerGhassaneh.Ahmadel-Badawihadacleverwoman, Fa'tmeh the daughter of el-Barri," asoneofhis disciples. Assoonasshe was elevated bythe master totherankof sainthood, she left him,andbegan tobe honoured moreandmorebythepeople,manyof whom becameherdevotedfollowers.Sheandherdiscipleshadmany 18urle1J, "two roots," means"thedescendantsofbothamanandofhisson."2Theyarealsocalled Irdjalel-Mal}sumiyeh. 3Accordingtosomesheisthe daughter of Sarifeh the daughter of el-ij.a9ra..

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252JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyreligious quarrels with el-Badawi fromtheverybeginning.Thereforehergroupwas called by the aq.tOb by the despisednameof"foreigners," aCdjam. Thefollowingverserefersto her:es-saiyd illi maqamuhmadjmaC el-aqtablowma sal ab bintel-Barri ljatruhnuitabyamrl,di uitqallab flalaCtiih uinmassok cJe1n ybqalak calena\i)tab. The master whoseshrineisthe assembling place ofthe aqtab hadhenot captured the daughter of el-Barri, hewouldnothave beensatisfied, Go,0thouwhoIovestme,and turn yourself (asasignofhumi, liation) onthethreshholds, andshoulddifficultiesbefallyou,thenhaveyouthe right tobeangry withus. ThisFatmehtissupposedtohaveher shrine in Zakaria. Nomale visitorsareadmitted intheshrine.Sheissupposed, according to whatwastold Masterman and Macalister, tohavecomefrom Persia."butcompare whatissaidabove. The greatest importance ofthe (adjami saints liesin their hostil itytoall darawis saints, whobelongtothe $ufiyeh. Ihavenever foundthatthey' opposethe prophets. Asthey cannot hurt thedead awlia they persecute their descendants andfollowers.The following storiesareexcellent illustrations.Ifamanof CAnata-and allin habitants ofthisvillageclaimtobe descendants of 'AbdesSalam-shouldspendthe night inHizma,heisboundtoremainall the night inside ahouse,forthemomenthegoesout el 'Adjam! attackshim.Stonesarethrown continually athim.Inpro tecting himselfhewillalsofight his attacker. Nobodybeside himisableto see theenemy;andevenhecanonlyperceivehim vaguely.Incaseheisobligedtoleavethevillage during the night, hemustwearancabayeh(cloak)ofa a:izma man, turned insideout, sothattheCAdjamiwillnotrecognizehim.1QS1915,175.2The story noted inQS1916,126, about theoriginofthe Cadjami isnot knowntome,anditseemstome improbable, for' the'welis arenot the descendants of Badr,

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CANAAN: MohammedanSaints and Sanctuaries in Palestine253Whenamemberofthefamily of el-Mahdi (Bet Djibrin)diesandiscarriedtobeburied,theA Cdjam trytopreventtheburialby shootingsharparrowsathim,aswellasatthosecarryingtheberaqandat.themusicians.Thebestwayto neutralizetheiractionistosprinklepurewaterintheair,elsethebodyofthedeadwillbebadlyinjured.Notonlythedescendants of a holy person,butevery isafraidoftheirenmity.!FromthemanystoriesIheardandtheexplanations giventome,Iconcludethat:1. TheaCdjam arehostile tothe $f1jiyeh, tryingalways toattack saints;2.Thiscanbe accomplished onlybyattacking.theirdescendantsandfollowers;3..Suchexplosions ofwrathtake place especiallyduringthenight;4. Nonebutthe'onesattacked-andtheseonlyvaguely-canseethe aCdjam; 5.Thedangerof suchattackscanbe .prevented by.simplemeasures;6.Inotherwaysthese awlia resembletheothersaints,buttheyaregenerally less honoured. Es-se1}Mbarak.(Bet Iksa)istheonly'negr02 'Adjami. Heis renowned forhishatredtonegroes,who forfearof beingstrangledbyhim.Ihave neverheardof femalesaintsbelonging to-this group, andhave neverheardofcadjamiinhabitingaspring, whileallothersanctuariesmaybehauntedby them.WheneverIwasshownashrineandthepeoplebegantotellme somethingabouttheweli,Ienquiredwhetherhe was an 'adjami."La" used tobetheanswer,whenhedidnotbelong,to .this class, "hitAhmadi (or Mobammadi)". Thisexpression was always used forthe Cadjami saints..,Whysuchanappellation,derived fromthenameoftheprophet, isgiventothem, Icannotsay.Werarelyhearthatan A\lmadi welibecomes jealous. elBakri"wentas usual to,payhis visits tothesaintsof Del" Ghassaneh.1Fromthese two examples we note howeasyitisto misleadthesaints. Demonscanalsobemisled. .2The forty Cadjami ofBiddfiaresaidtocomefrom Morocco.3Heis regarded atpresentasa saint.

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254JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyHisfirst visit wasdirectedtoIrdjal Sftfa. ThisirritatedIbrahim somuchthathe inflictedgeneralstiffnessuponhim.ElBakriwhowasa knewatoncethecause ofhis affliction,begged for forgiveness,andwent directly tohis shrine.1Thisleadstoa veryimportantdistinctionwhichthepresentPalestinianhascertainlyinheritedfromhis forefathers, namely,thatonegroupof demigods isincontinualconflict withtheothers.ThecAdjamiareona lowergradeofsanctityandhaveperhapsinherited somecharacteristicsoftheheathenlocaldivinities of antiquity.Wemaynowgoonestepfurtherandseehowsome shrines. ofsaintsareinhabitedatthesametimebyevilspiritswhich donotdwell intheholyplaceitselfbutintheimmediatevicinity.Wehavealreadyseeninthebeginningofthisworkthatfive springs belongtothisgroup.Othershrinesofthischaracterare:Thecaresituatedbelow es-Sadjarah el-Mubarakah(DerDjrir) isinhabitedby demons,appearingasahen withitschickens.Thecave Qattarah, which liesnear en-nabzNun (Yanun)ishauntedby seven youngbrides.In Ibrahtm'sshrine(el-Hader)a woman combingherhairhasbeen seen.InMgharetez-ZuttneartheshrineofHasanGhreiyb? abridewasobserved.tThesedjinnkeeptheirattributesasillustratedbythefollowing story. ATurkishsoldier wasorderedbyhiscommandertocutsome wood fromthegrove ofMgharatel-Qattarah.Onthepoint ofbe ginning hiswork,adjinnwarnedhimnottointrudeonthedemons'property.'I'hespiritshowedhimthatthewholeadjacentplain was fullofdjinnsoldiers, who werereadytoattackhis regiment.Thefrightenedsoldierhurriedbackandreportedthecase.Thecommander,laughingathis superstition,orderedtheexactexecution ofhis instructions.Thesoldierreturnedandwhilecuttingoffthefirstbranchfell dead.Thespiritsofthelower worldthenunited withtheEnglishtroopsandcrushedtheTurkisharmy.tRelatedbyO.S. el-Barghuti. 2Heisan Cadjami. 3In el-Iell Sarradj'smaqiimawomanhasbeenseen combingherhair.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine'2552.MIRACLESBesidethewell-knownbelief asto miraculouscureof diseasesbythesaints, wemeetwith manyothermarvels.Allareillustratedandsupportedbywidelyreportedfacts, whicharesaid to have happened withinthelasttwo generations.Miraclesareknown bythenamesmu'djizeh, (adjibeh andkartuneh.Thefirstandlastarethebestknown expressions. A mu/djizeh (liketheresurrectionof a corpse) isa sure signofa prophet, while'the karam,at arecharacteristicoftheawlia.Thelatterexpression denotesthecommon belief ofthehonourandregardin whichthesaintsareheld byGodwhogivesthemthisthaumaturgicalpower. A favourite motif of such miracles is thewayasaintpunishes people whostealfromhis property, or frommaterialputunderhis protection. A person, who stole horse-beans (ful) fromel-Hauwaswas punished with a skin disease of whichtheeruptionlooked like beans.Thecucumbers(faqqus)stolen byaboyfromagardenadjacentto Rarnadan(Qattaneh)wereallchangedinto centipedes Musa).AbllZagaria(BetSa(ar) changedthestolenpeasinto small serpents, scorpionsandcentipedes, whichsquirmedandcrawled inthepockets ofthethieves. Somepoorwayfarertookoiltofryeggsfromtheshrineof Snet (Hebron)withoutaskingdastf(.r.Themoment hepoureditintothepanitturnedintoblood.Hereturnedtheoilat'once and, behold,itwasnothingbutsimple oil!Agirlwhoanointedherhairwith oil, stolen fromthesanctuaryof'Abdes-Salam, wasattackedimmediately with stiffness oftheneck.Aboy went with hismotherto visit eS-se"lj Ibrahim (Bet Djibrin).Whilethemotherenteredtheshrine, hebegantogatherolivesfromthetreesofthesaint.Afterfillinghis pockets,theboyalsoenteredthemaqam,whereupon a loudthundering,lightningandthebeating of manydrumstook place, sothatthewhole mountainbeganto shake. Bothmotherandchild were frightened to death,andlefttheshrine,theboy throwingawaythestolen olives.Thewrathofthesaintwasappeased.andthequakingstopped.Themotheratoncevowedagift.Thefollowing storyheardinBidduistoldinmanyvillages, with slight modifications. Some thieves,intendingtostealgoats,enteredthecave (situatednear es-seb Ahmad wheretheyknew

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256JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyforsurethattheanimals were kept.Theysawandfelt nothing but rocks of different sizes.Butassoonasthey leftthecave,the bleating ofthegoats wasagaindistinctly heard. Every timetheyreentered or wentouttheyhadthesameexperience, Discouraged, theyleftthespotwithoutattainingtheiraim.Othermiraclespointto superhuman muscular power. Thusitis saidthatseveralsaintscanliftone eventwolargestone pillars with one hand.Thischaracteristicisfound especially in Nablus: es-sultan 'Abdel-Ghafir,IrdjalelcAmlld and eS-sel]'faha 'Abdel Qader possess it.Whenever ej-seb Damrah! en-Nubani) wenton.a journey, a assigned to serve him3appearedandthesaintrodeonit.4St. Nicholas (BetDja,la) used tofilloiljars,placedhalf-full inhis church, ina miraculous wayso that the priest alwayshadtotakeoutsomeoilin order thatthejarsshouldnotoverflow.!Thecommon beliefthattheRifaCiyeh walkonfireandthatel-Badawi walkson,thesea,isalsoknown amongthePalestinians.sManyofthemaresaid to, possessthefaculty offlying. They may.usesome means oftransport,(like rocks), ormayflywithout support. Some enjoyed thisadvantageduringtheirlifetime,butmost didnotmanifest the power untilafterdeath. i Thebest'examples. ofthefirstcategoryare ofSurbahir,Theircamels died duringtheirstayinMeccaforthe l}addj .Whenthey asked a. rich manto help them toprocureothercamels, he answered mockingly,"Go,rideonthoserocks!"Theywent,didas they were told 'and observedthattherocks bega:ntorise higherandtomoveinaNWdirection.Onedescended in Qrun el-Hadjar,"becausethesaintriding1Heissaidtohavebeenthe milk-brother oftheProphet.2This story may serve to illustrate the beliefthatthe Almighty mayassign evil spirits to serve saints. I Q81917,72givesanothersuchcase.Mudjirattributesthisfacultytosome awlia likeA bu'!'or. 4Seealso lawaqi,!t el-'anwar11,144. 5 Fromthewrittennotes of my father.6Mudjir,93, relatesthataseveretempestarose whenever anuncleanwoman enteredtheshrine of,Nebi Musa. 7See.Taussen, 1.c.295; Curtiss,chapterIV;QS1916,176.8Not Duwa'ere with Kahle,PJBVI, 92.Q Eastof Surbahir.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine257onithaddied.Inthis spot,inthe Sawa\lri territory, hewas buried. The others reached Surbahir. This wonderful journey, whichwasseen inallofthecountries passed over, establishedtheirsanctity for ever. Similar storiesaretold about eS-sel],Al)mad el-Ghmari1(ed-Dahriyeh)andhisson eS-el], cAll.Inthecaseof el-Qatrawani, Abuaalawi, es-sittSlemiyeh2and BS-Sel],lJalid3 wehearoneandthesame story.Afterdeath,while beingcarriedfor burial,thecoffin flew otr theshoulders ofthebearersandmovedintheairuntilitreachedtheplace chosenbythesaint forhis tomb.!TheArabicexpression is tar (an ktajhun u hadda ...,"Itflewofftheirshouldersandcamedown... ".5 Therearemany awlia whoareseen duringthenight hovering.overtheirvillage. Es-lJel}Abft Yamin(BetCAnan) mayserveasan illustration." Beside this miraculous modeof travel, some saints belongto ahJ,el-1jitmeh, '1i.e. theycangofromany place toany other onein an instant. EI-ija(j.er8 isthebestrepresentative ofthisclass.Acommon proverb wellstatesthis power:"Likesaint George wherever wegowemeethim." This facultymaybesoextensivethatthesaintisregardedasall pervasive.Onlyafew saints besidesSt. George belongto this category,butthe others donotenjoyawide reputation. El-badjSl).adeh 9mayserveasan example.TheArabicexpression usedfor such saints, btintwiel-artt ilhum,"theearthis folded (moves rapidly)tTherockwhich carried himfrom Morocco to Palestine stilllies before his shrine.2Nablus. Seealso Jaussen,JPOSV,78.3 Der Ghassaneh. 4 This isanold belief intheMohammedan world. See es-Sacran! 11,146. 5 Itistobe notedthatin many casesthe first miracleperformedbya weli afterhis death isinthewayhisbody behaves while carried for burial.Itmaygetsoheavythatthose carryingthecoffin (sul;tliyeh) haveto stop andputdowntheirload.On other occasionsitbecomesverylightoreven,88is mentioned in the text, mayflyfromtheirshoulders.6Seealso QS1915onflying derwishes. 1 This expression is unknown to Hava,Bellot andWahrmund.8Christiansputonthehead of children with high fever a plateofmetal on whichthepictureofSt.Georgeis engraved.Peasantswhousedto visitthesanctuary ofSt.Georgein el-ij:aJr usedtoputoneofthechains several times aroundtheirneckinorderto safeguard trouble.9DerGhassaneh.17

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258JournalofthePalestineOriental Society Bet SurikCEsawiyeh,DerGhassaneh and,Jerusalem. under them," denotesthattheearthmoveswhilethey remain where they are.!Thestory2 told belowisalso related withslight modification about thefollowing saints: e-eJjTelab(Anbar Dahnd Mohammed of Bet Surik wenttoMeccatoperformthe dutiesofthe badj. Onthegreatfeast Cid elkbir) his mother prepared somecakes backed inoil (m7jammarat). Shewishedthatherabsent soncouldalsoenjoythem. Tela!} her other son,whoobservedhow sorry shewas, asked hertogivehimsometo distribute amongthe poor.Hewentbacktohisflockofsheep,andfindingawolf near by, entrusted tohis carethesheepandwentin an instant toMecca.Hefoundhis brother onthemountain of CArafat, handed himthe cakesinawarmandfresh condition,andcame back asmiraculously ashewent.Thesheepwerewell cared forbythewolf,andas a signof gratitude Telab gavethewolfone.Nobodyknewanything abouttheaffair until his,brothercamebackfromhispilgrimage. The inhabitants wentouttowelcomehim.He, telling thewhole story, said"Iamnotworthyofthesehonours,my brother Telah is arealmanofGod,aweli."Fromthattime Telab wag regarded as a saint.Thefollowingverses describe thisandotherpowersina beauti fulway: tara auwal el-lelIjalluallujaraJft sadjadidhum ffal-modjma(i)nballfttaraf1'aljirel-lelj'pt en-nobi $allft. tjikkel-karb 1In QS1915, 174,175,onesuchis mentioned.InQS1917,122the story of erRibffah (not Jell whichismasc.,but 8ittna) isgiven.Sheissaidtohave flownafterdeath. 2 Insomecasesthepower offlyingis inherited. Thus ei-1ea 'Ali ofed Dawaym],aswellashisfather el-Ghmart, cameinthis miraculous way fromMorocco.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Sa.ints and Sanctuaries in Pa.lestine 259 Behold,atnight-fall, they loosened their hair, Theyspread their carpets onthewavesand became notwet; Behold,attheendofthenight,they prayedatthesanctuary of the Prophet, Theyprayeda prayer whichremovesall troubles.and then disappeared. sobeS1tar-rdjalY01nel-barbma wallu faraSu sadjadidhumtQ,lal-modj1na (i)nballu fi auwal el-lelfallufalluu'aJjirel-lel fi en-nabi Recite a forthemenwhointhedayofwardonotflee! (Behold)they(thewelis)spread their carpets onthewavesand became notwet;Atthebeginningof night theyloosened theirhair,Andatitsendthey prayedatthe sanctuary oftheProphet. sar11, ma' er-riltmac el-barq ya sallim talehu1nsadatqalftbattali qaluhQ4a sirr-el-' abtali uin: mirsaliel-1]ali Theyspedwiththewind,but said "the windistooslow;" Theytooktothemselvesthe lightningandsaid "there isthesecretofthe heroes."owind, salute themandbemymessenger!Forthese lords viewiththe stars inspeed,thattheir followersmayrejoice! saru md er-ribhaezuqawaymer-rataiqul uil-mubtala insihiru Djubrayl idillibhim minuem satuathim allah isacidhim iMtj" sirrilhim.Theyspedwiththewindwhile Gabriel ledthem, ThefeetoftheThrone (ofGod) trembled from theirgreatmight.Thethunder praised (their power)saying:"Godhelpthem!" Andtheafflicted(withdevotion)willbehold-ifhewatches their secrets.tUnknownto Bellot, Hava, Wahrmund, Kassab and Hammam,17*

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260JoumalofthePalestineOriental SocietyAnother important feature isthe ability ofthe awlia toforetell the future. I have already mentioned the storyof Abft :aalawi. The grandson of eJ-se1j,Abti Yamin (Bet fAnan) is e-eb Mohammad Abti Kaskul, who spent allhistimein the fieldslivingonherbs,hada wide-spread reputation for telling the future.Thefollowing stories illustrate miracles oftypesthathavenotyetbeenmentioned. Abti Mita hada quarrel witha peasant ofhisvillage.Hisopponent seeingthat it wasimpossibleforhimto subdue the said"You tire me,0 AbuMita." Theanswerwas:"ForgetnotthatIama manofGod,"andpressing withhis thumb onhispipeagreenish flamecameout, rising tothesky.The astonished peasant, assuredthathehadtodowithaweli,spread thenewsofthemiracle.Ed-Dahi!wentonedaywithacamel driver to Transjordania to buytwo sacks Cidln) ofcorn.Onthewayhelostthemoney,and unable tobuywheat,hefilledthetwosackswith earth. Reaching home thecidlenwerefoundtobefullofcorn,When Djaber was elevated tothe rank of Allah sent somementoprovehis abilities.Henotknowing their mission, welcomedthemasguestsandkilleda in their honour. When thefoodwas ready the visitorssaid:"0 seb, howcanweeatyour foodwithoutlemons?"NowDjaberknewthathewasbeingtried, foritwasnotthe season forthisfruit. Lifting hishandstowards heaven,he exclaimed:"0mylordBadawi,giveme a lemon!"and beholda large ripelemonfellfromtheroof. The menthencon gratulated himonthe stage of sanctity whichhehad attained. While the M. Abft was roaming inthefields,hemeta shepherd andbeing thirsty askedforadrink.The shepherd, hiding the water-skin, deniedthathehadwater.Mohammad, irritatedbythelie, pierced thebellyofthe shepherd withhisfinger,andaclear stream offresh water poured out.Afterdrinking, the water stopped flowing, and the shepherd, uninjured, followedthe andbecame hisdisciple.Such storiesaretoldbythe peasants toprovethe superhuman powerofthe saints.Itisstill considered as natural as everthatasaintwho performs nomiracles,andthusdoesnotprove hisgodly character, cannot expect tobe honoured or respected.1Onamountainbearingthesamename.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanotuaries inPalestine261This miraculous power manifests itself also, though less strik ingly,inliving derwishes, who handle fire without being burned, pierce themselveswith swords without being hurt,andpass a thinandsharp 8Z1J (iron spit) through their cheeks without bleeding orsufferingpain. Theystandanddance on drums without breakingtheskin.Suchmysteriousactsareregarded bythepeople asa sure signofsanctity.Inhis imagination thepeasantsees these evenaftertheirdeath. They remind himof unpaid vows,threatenthethief,ordertheerection of their shrines;' etc.Insuchwaysthe villagersarekeptunder the continuous domination ofthe awlia. Acritical reviewofall these miracles2showsthattheyclosely resemble the stories toldintheArabianNights.Theonly(and,of course, fundamental) difference isthatthefirstareascribedtothepowerofGod,thelattertothe ofthedjinn.Hereagainnamely intheapparentresult oftheirwork-wehavea point wherethepowersoftheupperandlowerworlds coincide.sInclosingthispartwemayquote some verses which describe supernatural qualitiesotherthanthose mentioned:es-saiyeduumin madd'iduh djab el-' asir min blad el-kufuribbadiduh ji au'tval-el-lelbiqra el-wirdiubiiduh.u 'a1Jirel-lel sallamcan-nabi 'ibiduh Themasterwho stretched outhishandfromthewindow, and brought the prisoner, still fettered, from the land oftheun believers,Inthefirstpartofthenight hereadsandrepeats a section ofthe Qorail, andinthe lastpartofthenight hesalutedtheProphet(Mohammed)withahandclasp,1Severalexampleswere mentioned inthe course ofourstudy. Another characteristic oneis cAnbarwho appeared toeveryonewho spent thenightinacavebesidethe shrine and ordered himtotell I.Iasan to repair the shrine.2Saints ofothercountries and other times performed thesame sort of miracles. SeecAbdelWahhab es-Sacrani,el-anuar. 3Many stories about miracles performed bythe Mohammedan leaders are toldin cAbdaUahcAlawl J;[asan elzuko,rfibayan 239if,

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262JournalofthePalestineOriental Sooiety /ibalet el-burdi kuntu ) arsilhatqabbelei-arda 'anni uhina)ybati jahagidolat qad famdudyaminak kaibiha WhileIwasfarfromthee(0Prophet Mohammed)Iusedtosendmyspirit Tokisstheground(aroundyourgrave)inmyplace-foritis JQf representative. Beholdthedominionofthe spirits hascome; 'I'herefore stretch outthy right hand,tbatmylipshouldbeblessed (bykissingit)!' qal-er-RijaCi ana se1}el-'awadjie2domuilliff,hawanamalOmwallahl)aramridifidjhannamyomlarju., djhannam 'Illata aJjalliha tiCmar dom The Rifa,ci said:"Iamalwaysthe oftheweak,Hewhoenjoysourloveisblameless, ByGod,ifIeverseemyfollowerinhell Ishallsmitehellandneverletitflourishmore." qal ed-Djilant ana latarifua/.twaliQuijtrnadjatlaIJillJaliuillibittrieJ,lal-juqarajil/.talehmaCi sefel-)azal el-i'mari Ed-Djilani said:"Ifyouonlyknewmy state, Ihavewaded through the encircling ocean,butthewaternever reached myankles. Every bodywhoopposesthe darawls whiletheyareinthe state (of exaltation) (mustremember).thatIpossesstheswordof eternity whichcuts short life."tSupposed tohavebeen recited bythe RifaCj while visiting the Prophet's tomb.God heard his prayer andallowedtheProphetto stretch hishandout ofthegrave.2Oneofthenamesofthe Rifaci, asweshallseelater.3 in vernacular Arabicmeans"tomakeapicnic."

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine263 qal ed-Dasuqi ana law ti'rijuessau,wetna1;tartsobCel-j'alajis-saqi ) akjetui1J,yij.tmrikkeh ueameamuil-bet 1na'ise! el-)azal lal-muctaritj Ed-Dasuqi said,"IfyouonlyknewwhatIhave performed, Thelionofthe desertIslewandthrewintotheditch.BythetruthofMeccaand Zamzam, theharamof Medina (and theKaCbeh),Ipossesstheswordof eternity withwhichIcut short the lifeofmy opponent." qaluana el-Mu?hirlalcurbansau,wart(ala ladjli saba1;ttt-l-lJitan turbitsayidwalad rAdnan barfudjhannam bridjli uabattilel-mizan El-Mulattemsaid, "1 amhewho appears totheArabs;1walkedonthesea.Formysakethegreatfishescameswimming(tosalute me).Bythetruthofthetombofthelord, the sonof 'Adnan Iwillsmitehellwithmyfootandstopthe balance(ifthey stand inthewayofmy follower)."3.REI.JATIONOFTHESAINTS TOMEN.'Humanbeirigsfeelthegreatnecessity of remaining in constant good relation withthe' saints, fortheyarethehelpers,physicians, andcomfortersofmenaswelltheintermediaries betweenthemand God.Themoreone studies this phase of Palestinian folklore,the moreoneis struck bythe inseparable bondwhichunitesmenwith saints. Asthe greaterpartofthefactsbelongingto this section have already been described in preceding chapters, 1shallbebrief, andtreatthe subject uuder thefollowing headings: a) Saints as Neighbours; b) Saints as Leaders; c) Saints as Judges; d) Saints as Superhuman beings.lOneofthenamesoftheBadawi,see later.

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264JournalofthePalestineOriental Societya)Saintsas NeighboursWehavealreadyseenthatmostoftheshrines lie inside the villages orintheirimmediate neighbourhood. Thismakesa well the neighbour ofmen,bearingalltheresponsibilities incumbent upona neighbour.AnArabicproverb says: "A neighbour is responsible forhis neighbour, evenifhe acts wrongfully."Thesaintskeeptheserules very exactly. Every saint protectstheproperty of his neighbour,guardswhatever isputunderhis protection andhelpsincase'of need: Even animals whohavetakenrefuge inhis sanctuaryaresafe.Apregnantwoman passing Musa(lJarbata) discovered under his carob treeanestfullofpartridge'seggs.Shetookthemaway, anactwhichirritatedthe welt. Soon afterwards shegavebirthto a daughter, whoseonehandwas malformed, lookinglikethehead ofapartridgeandshowingthe.beakclearly.tWeliswillnotacceptany bribe (bartil,ba1]Sis). AnoldmanofHizmahstolesome cereals (qa,tani) onenightfromthefield adjacent to Before goingtoworkhe thought togainthefavouroftheweliandthusescape his wrath, by reciting forhimthe fatibah. Butas soon ashecutthefirstplanta whirlwind aroseandthrewhimoverthewall.Hebroke hislegandlayalongtime inbed.2Sometimesthesaint employswaysof protection whichwill prevent foreveranyfurtherviolation ofthe"neighbour's rights."AninhabitantofKufr'Aqubhadstored hisfigsundertheoak tree of Mgheirit es-Seg. Some thievestriedduringthenight togetpossession ofthefruits,butno soonerhadtheyputthefigsintothesack then awholearmysurrounded them. They couldnot escape, forthe soldiers drew nearerandthecircle became continually closer.Atoncetheythrewthefigsawayandbeggedthe sel} for pardon, wheruponthearmydisappeared. Once someofthefamilyof AbftGhet from Bet Faddjar' climbedtheroof ofthechurchofSt. Nicholas (BetDjala.) to steal olives, whichwerespreadthereto ripen.After their cloaksthey1Jausscn,l.c.,331. 2Rasid thesonof 'Agha of Jerusalem once lost hiswaybetweenen-nabi Musa andtheDeadSea.Atthis timeagreatpartofthisareawasstill covered by dam (sidr) trees. '!'he prophetMosessenttwolarge birds everynighttoguardhim.Onesatathisheadand other athisfeet.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine265triedto descendbutsawthatthesanctuarywassurroundedbya stormy sea.Atonce they replacedwhattheyhadstolenandbehold there wasnoseaanywhere.' Persons, who have committed some fault orevena crime, coming toa shrineandasking the well to hide them fromtheirpursuers, willbe protected. astheyhave become his tanib (suppliant, client), a relation even strongerthanthatof neighbour. Es-se1:J el-Tlmari ed-Djbe'! protected all deserters fromtheTurkisharmywhofledto him.Thesoldiers who came tocatchthem searched invain,forthewelistruckthemwith blindness.Thesame story is toldabout es-se?J Ahmadel of Biddti and many othersaints.Forthesame reason, some notablesburiedtheirdeadinthedirectvicinityofsome shrine. 2 b) Saints asLeadersMany ofthesaints of Palestine were historicalcharactersandenjoyed duringtheirlifetheprivileges bestowed onthevillage elders. Meetings took place intheirhousesto discuss questions of general interest. They gaveordersandsuperintendedtheirexactexecution, especially whenenemiesattackedthevillage.Theyprevented quarrels, settled misunderstanding,andwere in thiswaythelocal judges.Theirreputation didnot. fadewith death.Thisexplains why' many villages have local protectors, whowereinhabitantsof them. Incidentsarerelatedtoprovethemarvellous help givenby them wheneverenemiesattackedthevillage.Ihavealreadymentionedthestory of MarInqula andthatofel-' AzeratCAwartah). Butasbothof themareregardedas foreign saints I mentionthestory of es-seg ofHizmahwhoprotectedthevillageagainsttheattacking Bedouin by making them seeastrongandhighwall surrounding it. Sometimes awhole army issentbythe ?veli tosurroundthevillage80thattheapproaching enemywillfacewellarmedsoldiers wherever hegoes. Often whena dispute arises betweentheinhabitantsofavillage, andthedifferencecannotbe settled bytheliving elders,theholy patron ofthatplace takes an activepartin bringing peace. Once1Fromthe written notesofmyfather.2 E'or other examples seeQ81916,pp.17,64,129,etc.Cf.JPOSIV.9.

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266JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietythewomenof Betaanina hada quarrel.Intheevening whenthe men camebackfromworkthedispute became acuteanda regular fight took place. A reverend wasnobodylessthanes sultan Ibrahtm-c-appearedandseparatedthetwo parties.Heevenpreventedthestones, thrown by eachpartyattheother, from hurt ing anybody.Whenthepeasantsforsaketheirold customs of hospitality orabstainfromtheirreligious dutiesthepatron may appear, requestandadvise them toreturntotherighteous old paths.Amisunderstandingdividedtheinhabitantsof SuCfat intotwo parties. They stopped giving almstothepoorduringRamadanandno longerattendedprayers, for having onlyoneplaceofprayertheydidnot wishtomeeteachotherthere. Es-sultan Ibrahtmofthevillageappearedtothe mulJtar ina dream,andreproaching him said"Iadvise youtoreuniteandto. resume your old customs of shrine, elseI shall punisheveryonemostseverely."The mulJtar called allthepeople together next morning,andtellingthemthevision beggedthatallhatredshould beputaside.Aftersucceeding inhis mission hewenttothemosque.Themoment.heenteredthe ruaq, thedoorofthesanctuary was closedbysome unseen power.Forawhole hour hesatin front oftheclosed door, praying, weepingandbeggingthe sultan forfor giveness.Thedoor opened as mysteriously asitwasclosed.Heentered,prayedandwas reconciled withthemanofGod.Notonlyin such small affairsandvillage disputes dothesaintslendtheirassistance,butalso whenevertheMohammedans, asa whole,areattackedbythe kuffar (infidels).Onsuch occasions awlia have been seen comingbackfromthefightwithswords dripping blood.Theymayeven become woundedandsomeoftheirbloodappearsintheshrine.Thepictureof Mar Inqula (BetDja,la) was seento sweat profuselyafterthesainthaddeliveredthevillage fromtheattackoftheBedouin. Ibrahim (Del' Ghassaneh) helpedtheMohammedaninhabitantsof Tripoli againsttheItalianinvasion.Hewasseen leading awhole army ofawlia,allarmedwithspearsandcarryingtheirflags. En-nabiealil), ofthevillagebearinghisname, dislikesall musrikin. While returning fromsuchabattleer-Rifa'i, whowas wounded, bledintheplace whereafterwardshis maqam waserected(one hour tothewestofDer

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CAN AAN:MohammedanSaints and SanctuariesinPalestine267Ghassaneh).' The story of sittna el-Gharah ( hasbeen mentioned.En-nobi TaraJini (Bet Nftba) wasseen during thewar standingonhishorsewitha'sword dripping blood. Therearesomeverseswhichwill illustrate howthe saintsareaskedforhelp: ahbil-wadi nadahnadhah sarat maCer-rih. bil-toadisimic1ja tAli qal hissak akl)alel-(enbinadiqU1nuijzaCuya ed-din kullukul1t ha4a n-nhar illi tbanjih el-adjwadi.Ah, I criedoutin thevalley-Itwas carried withthewindinthevalley.cAli2heard itandsaid, Yourvoicecallsthe blacked-eyed one(the prophet);Getup,help(allofyou),0(menofthe)leagueofreligion! Thisisthedayinwhichthegenerouswill appear. banatsawader dohab umqattabehu,mqattahehbitj-dahab uil-qalbtu imeli in tdlnieit-(lem bandah heyaCAtennadetyahe'ltadjumitl el-matar uis-seliuil-baciJraicib hidjin uil-bactJrakib1j,eliuamma.fff-Rija/i idarridj/i nazil)el-I)eli. Golden tents decorated .withgoldenpieces appeared, Decorated withgoldandtheheartinclinestoit. ShoulddifficultybefallmeIwillcall "He, 0CAteri!"Icalled "y8. andbeholdtheycame(rushing)likethe rain and the torrent, Some riding dromedaries, other horses,Buter-Rfa'i (atonce)began helping theweak.1Someoftheabove stories weretoldmebyO.S. Barghfij]. 2 cAliibnAhi Talib. 3Instead of f!,en,:timeli and wehearalso bino,r,niifur,cAflJfur and bidjras, djal/ils,ij:auwa,.

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268JournalofthePalestineOriental Society uilltu1n dark u(i)siiijaya raddel-tnalhufa1nin cindrabbel-hebeh nal hana uisCufO, niin'indrabbei-qadri nal handuisrUja ma fie-een zadu sarof rno,'ruja barakat 'Jabbi C aleha allat bikaramathimmabilftJah C alal-lJerjfltthrabi ibcazaymuh uikfufah yasakin ji babel-wadiya saknin ibsufa.nadethe minei-Basrah. sim(t1,niqalu nCiddakmtaiyamoqult ciddunisart(alektm minbah ifadduni. Icalled "he" andthey heard mefromBasrah.!Theyasked, "Shall we count youenslavedbylove?"Isaid(yes) count me,Buton condition youshallgetme(safely)fromtheoceanoffear.ya-(i)bn er-RjO/i yalli gharqani djiddak el-burhani mahma djara lar-rCiyehylzamer-riCyaniosonofer-Rfaei.0one submerged inpurity! Bythelifeofyour grandfather Mohammad,heofthe Proof (of religion),Theshepherds(i,e.thou)are responsibleforwhatevermaybefall theflock. sadatnabsufa.nadet nadhet (adjizSufacaWhael-hebehnznj'ihael-ghebehSujacalehael-qadriminj'zhCibadriSuja mlihah 1tZenfihaS,ft/acaleha uiqiul'usr ballat yaya.Rabiras el-frandj djabiBidiyD..bitI1amadi jazcah uJjeldjyadi Ourlordsarein Sufa I cried thecryofaweakone, Sftfa is invested withdignity1ed-Djlani is buried in Mesopotamia.Theyhaveshieldsandswords."0thouwho answerest the brokenhearted!" Radiating fromthe Lord of Dignity.

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CANAAN:Moha.mmedan Saints and SanctuariesinPalestine269Hewhosaystheeveningprayertherein Sufa is girt with mightHewho praysthereearly (inthe morning) Sufa is fairandcomelyOur thereinaretwo1On Sufa therehave descendedAnddifficultieshavebeen cleared awayoour seh, 0 Rabi,2 \00 Thehead oftheFrank(the in fidels)hehasbroughtomyLord,0 AbO. Hamadi(Ibegtheefor)helpandhorses ofnoble breed Obtains happinessandhelp. ComingfromtheLordof Might.Obtainshappinessandhonour.Thereisnotherequal amongthefair ones. whohave increased in honour renowned. Blessings ofmyLordonherhave descended.Bytheirgood deeds they were cancelled.His(good) deeds outnumber all good things.Withhis (superhuman) resolutionand(mighty)blows.othou who livestattheentranceofthevalley..othou wholivestin Sura. Nor should one forgetthegenerosity ofthesaints, asa quality which belongs toeveryleaderofeveryvillageor Bedouin tribe. Whenever adJJibah isofferedit belongs in reality tothesaint, thus allwho partake' inthemealarehisguests.As during lifesoalsoafterdeath a true saint hasan open houseforall visitors and needy persons.Hestill satisfiesthehungry and welcomesthewayfarer. A manoncehada dispute withhiswife,sothatheranawayfrom homeandlivedinthe shrine of el-Qatrawnn],The weli supplied him withhisdailyfood, commanding himtokeepthewayhewasfed a secret. Aslongashekeptthesecret hewas never inneed.Butthemomenthespokeaboutit,theweliwithdrew hishelp.s1 EI-Madjgub and lellIbrahim. 2Heisthegrandfatherofallthe saints in Sufa. Hisnamewas MaJ;1muder-Rabi andhewasthe father ofel-Madjdfrb.3Itisoftensaidthat madjiidib receivetheirfoodina miraculousway.See1Kg. 171.

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270 Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societyc)Saints asJudgesInthe chapter on oaths wegotaglimpseofthis important feature ofthe saint's office. Therearemanyphasesoflifewherea misunderstanding, acrimeoranactof oppression cannotbesolved, settled orrevenged.Inmostofthesecases recourse ishadtoa saint.Itisfirmlybelievedthat awlia whoknowallthehidden secrets,arealso able to pronounce a true judgement,todisclosethe guiltypartyandtotakejust revenge.Ifapersonissuspectedof a murderandthe Bedouin judges aswellasthe accusers are unable tofindproofsofhisguilt,heis asked to take an oath which mustbe seconded bya notable man1chosenbytheaccusers.'I'hree? haveto sanction the oath ofthetwo.Thefourpersonswhoswear withtheaccusedgotoawellknown saint or prophet. Thejudge either goeswith.them himself orsendssomebodytoact.ashis representative. They take off their shoesand withrev.erence. The accused mancouches (&iqarrji$) intheniche, stretches outhis hand andswears. The djaiyedel-'amaneh comesnext.The three others follow to sanction the oath ofthetwo.Ifoneis absent a riffleheldbyoneofthemuzakintakes hisplace.Theoath,which mustnotbe interrupted, runs asfollows:"BythegreatGod (repeatedthreetimes),the creator of night andday,theonlyOne,the victorious, whodeprives children of their fathers andmakeswomenwidows,whovanquisheskings,who subdues oppressors, Ihavenot acted, norkillednorseen,nor heard, nor.knownnoraccomplished evil,norhelpedtodoit."3Ifsuchapersonisguiltyandheswears falsely the saint willsurely,soonerorlater-inmanycasesnot laterthaninsevendays-punishhimveryseverely.Hishand,whichhe has stretched outwhileswearing,will wither; hemay"whileleaving theshrine,falland break a limb,oradiseasemayassailhim. Thisparthasbeen treated morefully under theheadofoaths.d)Saints as Superhuman beings All acts hitherto described compriseonly things whichcouldbedone-inamoreorless imperfectway-byanychief.Wenowcome toactionswhich cannotbeaccomplishedbyany mortal, andthustCalleddjaiyed el-' amanah. 2Called muzakkin.:J JPOSn,51.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine271 show clearlythesuperhuman powers ofthesaints. Disease isan infliction sent by God,min allah, "from God." .Nohumanbeingcancross thewayoftheDivine.Thesaintisa friend of God, heis chosenbyhim,toworkinhis nameandforhis honour.Throughthis distinction hecan accomplish miracles which reallyareonlya property of God.Thereputation ofthesaintsforcuringdisease is widespreadandeverypeasantbelieves init.Thesameideaholdstrueinascribingtothe awliil thepower of preventing or removingthescourges whichmay befallhumanbeings.Inthefirst placethereislackof rain. Onrain'dependsthewhole agriculturalyearofthePalestinian,and even hiswhole existence. This subject has' alreadybeen treated above,soweneednotdwellonitlonger here.Insome placescertainsaintsareregardedasthegivers ofgood crops,thedonors of successful harvests,theprotectorsof undertakings,andthelike.1Thisideacanbetracedbackto Biblical times.t 4.RELATION OFTHESAINTS TOGODANDPOPULARRELIGIONa)RelationtoGodAllsaintswereonce human beingsandbecamemorelikeGodthroughtheirpiety.Itistheirdegreeof nearness toGodwhich putsthemin different classes.But,to whatever classtheymay belong,thesaintsstandhigherthenmenandnearertothedeity,Thereareno precisely known methods by means ofwhichapersonmaybecomea weli. Whendiscussingtheirorigin we shall come onestepfurthertowardthesolution ofthisproblem.Thehonours whichthesaints receive fromtheirCreatordifferaccordingtotheirrank.Theirpower depends in most cases alsoonthispoint.Buttherearemany awlia belonging tothemiddle oreventooneofthelower classes, whoenjoyintheeyesofthepeasantsasgreatareputationas those ofthehigherclasses.InwhatfollowsI shall givetheclasses ofthesaintsaccording totheirimportance, without goingin detail, for such a classification1Uurtiss, ChapterXVII.2Basea2s, 712-U.

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272JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyisno longer specifically Palestinian,butbelongstothewhole Mohammedan world.NordoI claimthatthelistis absolutely complete orsafefrom criticism.Ithasbeencompiledaftera critical study ofmy list of saintsanda thorough examination ofthestoriesanddefinitions giventomeby different people of Palestine. This study may throw somenew light onvery important pointsof comparative religion. 'I'hePalestiniandistinguishesthefollowingclassesof saints:1.Al-anbia (pl,ofnabi), prophets.' Although the Qoran knows onlyof25prophets.?thePalestinian hasgivenmany others this title.Thusen-nobi Danian,ZetuJ;l, Raiyalun,etc. Even Samuel who is greatly honouredbyall Palestinians isnot mentioned inthe Qoranic list.Therearemany so-called prophets whose shrinesarewellknownin Palestine,butwhose personalitiesarenotatall known.One example isen-nobiHanzalnearTell Bet ImmMirsim.Heis supposed tobethesonoftheprophet Safwan; neither of them isknown."Ihavebeentoldthefollowingdifferencebetween aprophetandasimpleweli. En-nabz baiyun yurzaq ya12kab, "theprophetisliving,mayhave childrenandcoitus;" 'whilea weli is livingandmayhave children. Although this distinction isnotknown everywhere in Palestine, wefindthatithassome parallels inthe Qoran.4Themartyrswhoareraised tothedegree of sanctity after death,aresaid tolive, eat, drink,marryandbeget children. Whilethebelief extends these abilities toall saints,thepresent super stition reservesthe power tothe prophets alone.Iwastold1Some Palestinians makethedistinction between a prophet, whoisatthe same time mursal (sent toa tribe)andasimpleprophet. Generally counted as Adam,Idris,Noah,Hfid, Ibrshim,Ismacil, Isl]aq, Ya'qub,Yusef, 'Aiyub, Suceb, Elyas,Harun, AlysaC Mftss, Lot, [>ftlKafl, Dahftd, Suleiman, Yfmis, Zakarya, Yal]ia, Christand Mohammad. Some believe thatAlexandertheGreat wasa prophet, othersthathewasapious king,while still others saythathismotherwasa djinniyeh(lairat1' l-ma'arif,VIII,411.)3Handalmeans Colocynthplantand =stone. The shrine isabuilt cave,apartofa Byzantine church. A Car],qah (anothernameforsarris=pista.cialentiscus) grows there. Some broken columns andarowof'hewnstonesare still visible aboveground. SuraIll,166.Seealso cAbdallah el-CAttas,zuhurel-fI,aqaiq 231,etc.;Taqiy ed-Din es-Sabki (Iifa 1-'asqiimfi zio.rettJer el-'anam)givesmany sayings ofthe had'it to prove thistheory (pp. 134, 135, 142,143,145,147,154).

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18 OANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine273thaten-nabi Sale1)t appearsattimesduringnocturnaldreamsto womenwhofeelthatthey havehadsexualintercoursewith him.t Althoughtheprophetsbelong tothehighestclass,theydonottakeoffencewhen people visitothersoftheirclass, orevenofa lowerone.Thusa badzt saysthattheprophetMohammed exclaimed once,man zara'a7:JiYunis ka'annahu zarani, "Ifone visits mybrother Yftnis, itisas though hehadvisited me.""A woman ofelBirehassured methatMosessaidonce: illimabitiqscaziu.'rti izur Biban ibn "Letonewhocannotvisit me visit Siban thesonof mymaternalaunt."2.The $a1J,abeh arethecompanions oftheProphet.3.Awlia4(friend, companion ofG 'od) isthecollectivenamefor several subdivisions.Thepeasantscomparethemwiththestars,whilethey likentheprophetstothemoon, because whenthelatterappears,itdimsthelightoftheformer.Itis easier to recognizetheAlmightyGodthanto recognize aweli,forthelatteryatasattarminalkarameh kama tatasattarel-hurmolimin elbeq" "Heconceals himself from (being knownasthedoerof)a miracle, asthewoman concealshermenstruation."!Inpracticethisruleisnottrue, aswe shall seelater.Anotherslight difference betweenthedifferent classes ofsaintsmuststill be noted.Thesanctuaryofaprophetis generally called 1J,a,iJrah,6 thatof a commonsaintmaqam,while those of especially honouredandrecognizedwelisareknownas mash ad.7Thesub division of awlia includes:1Heard fromO.S. Barghtlti.2 SeealsoGen.6 1-.. Anotherdifferenceiswell expressed inthesentence an-nabi laku el-mu'djizah ual-wali lahu l-karamah,"The prophethas(really,shows himself through) amiracle(liketheresurrection ofthedead)andthe weli shows thaumaturgical powers(asthe healing ofthesick)."3Another sayingisla t'Ufaq,q,ilo,ni'alaalJ,iY1tnis, "Donotprefer metomybrother ytlnis." Forother sayings seeMudjir1,53. 4 According to Abu BakrFunkthe welt doesnotknowwhileheis livingthatheischosenbytheAlmighty, while according to Abft 'AU ed-Daqqaq he doesknow, er-Razi V,465. Zuho,r el-haqaiq,235. 6 Theplaceofhis presence, hisabode. .,Thisistrueofthe shrines of J;[asan, Husen,Dja'far etc.The Sacjiliyeh callthe sanctuary ofcAlia mashad.

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274J ournal ofthePalestine Oriental Societya) (pl,of qutb1 ), thefourwho founded. their four orders bearing their names:cAbd el-Qader ed-Djilani,Ahmadel-Badawi,Ibrahim ed Dasuqi, andAhmad er-Rifafi. Thefirst whoisthe descendant ofthe Prophet's family,iscalled qutbel-aqtab (themainpole).Itisgenerallybelieved that theAl mighty.hasgiventhesefourthe control ofthisworld.>The greatest number of and followoneofthe aqtab. Thefollowingverseexpressesthedevotionofafollowerofer Rifaci tothefour aqtab andespeciallytohisownmaster:zaiy 'an?arnuisyadiel-1:taiy arbo' salatin hum labsin ez-zaiy uallah law usauh{;aiyma'ajf'tt bitaufiq HowcanIbeoppressedwhilemy masters arethe protectors ofthe quarter,Fourkings 'wearingcrownsarethey.ByGod,evenifmyfleshshouldbe cut. androasted,Ishallnotleave,bythehelpoftheMerciful,theLiving(God), my seJj. Itis relatedthateveryoneofthese leaders receivedhisin spiration froma prophet, whose instructions (Jjittah =pathway) hefollowed.ThesemenofGodarealsoknownbydifferent appellations whicharederivedfromsomeof their characteristics orfromamiracleperformed. EI-Badawi isalsocalledal Mulattam,4 "the Muffled(ofmouth)."Er-Rifaciisknownby thenames Abu el-fAwadjiz" (theFatheroftheNeedy),el clsawi, Abft Hammadi and Seg elThelastnameis derivedfromhiscuringalamewomanrardjah)bytouchingher withtheseamofhismantle.Versesmentioningthesenamesare:t givesasa synonym gnal. 2According toCAli the Ahnighty Godfavoursonlyone qu#J at a timewithhis solititude. When hedies another qu!b ischosen. el anwar, 11,157.3Theyare often called as being the monarchs of their order. Lane, Customs and Manners ofthe ModernEgypt.11,155,note1. 4 Inthetextthere isaverse with this appellation.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuaries in Palestine275 sadat lena lena sidiya-AbuIfammadi Ourmaster(twice repeated),omy master, 0 Abft Hammadi, tailel-mataleh -e alenadircalena Ourwaiting (foryourhelp) hasbecometoolong. Cast thygazeuponus. tnin sughursinni u'ana fi iuillazamanuu-sebataniurab uil:tyat turbit nabi sarluh ed-dalil biddimin seb el_c Aredjahla!1J,ahj"iha nadjaJrt SincemyyouthhaveIbeen a pilgrim inyourlove, Youth hasflownandwhitehair(oldage)hascomeandgone(i,e.evenmywhitehairhasfallenout).Bythelife (== truth) ofthetombofthatProphet(=Mo hammed)towhomtheguideledandwentaway, I ask el-CAredjah forablastofsuccess(cure). $iwanuh (alasatt bahren-Nil man$Ub $lwanuh el-CIsawy illi masaka e4-(lem (aiyanuh nada l ..mnadi fi e$-$abab, uil-masa tihtazz silslit en-nabiynC ala His "tent ispitched onthebankoftheNile, EI-Clsawy whose patients havenever complained of oppression (want).It is'tlie' herald who cries (hispower)'inthemorningandevening. Eventhechainof prophets tremble inhis honour! Ed-Djilani isalso called el-Baz,as'heissupposedtohavebeen,I.thefirstonetousethiskindof drum in, religious music. Often-thenameis written el-Kilani,andis then connected with kala (fromkayala,. "tomeasure grain"). This nameis explained by the followingstary.Thesaint oncewenttoBaghdadtobuy wheat.The merchanttriedto cheat himin measuringthecorn.Irritatedby 'this mean behaviour ed-Djilan! snatched the measure fromthe hands ofthemerchantandthrew itontheheap of wheat, whereuponitbegan tobefilledby'an unseen power1Thisverseisthoughttohave beensaidbycAbd el-cAl. 18*

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276Journal of the Palestine Oriental Societywhich emptied itintothe sack ofthesaint.Ed-Dasuqtisknown byhisfirst name Ibrahim,Each ljutb hada devoted disciple,whowasenduedwiththe supernatural powersofhis master. Theyarestillknown and' greatly honoured. Somefamiliesin Palestine boastthattheyaredirect descendants ofthesemenofGod.Theyfollow their tenets and still produce masay1:J,and ofthe tariqah. Ashasalreadybeen mentionedeach qutuh hasthepowertoappearintheformofananimal.Thefollowing table givesasummary oftheircharacteristics: peacock ed-Djilani el-KilaniAbflSale!)1 el-Baz Mohammed enNnbani 'Abd Samadlion thebird named Ghreiyb. elBahlfll ed-DasuqiI IbrahimAbraham : Abul-cAlamen1jb) El-AbdJ1l (pt.ofbadal) are saints who changetheirshapes whenever they like, according tocommon Palestinian belief.? c) el-!fatmih or el-!fatweh arethose saints whoareable togoinaninstantfromoneendoftheworldtotheother. Thus they maybeseeninthesamedayinwidely separated cities.tThesenamesweregiventomeby sell 'CAli Saraf (Nablus).2According to mu[iit I,73, abdal isthepi.of badil. Theyarepious men,70in number, ofwhom40arein Damascus andtheaoothers are distrib uted elsewhere. Whenever one dies the Almighty Godchosesanother inhis place.Thisexplanation isbased evidently ona different interpretation ofbadal, "to change."

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine277d) Ma.diylj arethose who have withdrawn fromallworldly affairs andliveapurelyreligious life. e)lfalifeh,pl, 1julafa arethefounders ofa zawiyeh (pI. zawaya) asortof a convent, aswellastheheads of such places.Theheadofallthe zawayd called el-balifehel'a,am. 'I'his name isnottobe confounded withthetitleconferred onthereligiousheadofallMohammedaos.f)'1'he Mudjdhidin (ptof mudjahid), "warriors" (in religious wars), mghdzzn (p.ofmghdzi),also "fighters,"and 8uhada (pI.of sahid), 1"martyrs"arevery numerous.InJerusalemwe havethefollow ing places, whicharesaidtobededicatedtomartyrs:aa)In el-Qemarriyeh2five 'umara (pI.of'amir),3princes, namely:Husamed-Din AbO.l-.aasan el-Qemari, :Viyau)d-Din,J:lusam ed-Din tIa
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278JournalofthePalestine OrientalSocietygg)InthenorthoftheHaramAreaoneisshownseveral tombs belonging tothesame category" hh)Masdjadel ..Mudjahdin,2 situatednear was built bythe sultan 'Isa,surnamedal-Mu'azzam.ii)Thetombs of el-Mudjahdtn inthecourt ofthe ija,ldiyeh library. kk) El-Ghawanm! (nearBabel-Ghawsnml oftheTemple Area,NWcorner)arebysome considered martyrs; by others piousmen.11)Irdjalel-Arb'in inthewestern complex ofthe TempleArea,aresaid tobe martyrs. mm) el-Mansi,"ontheMountof Zion.! g)The Bahalil (pl,of bahlul) area class of hermits who abjure all worldly riches, live alone inthefieldsandbehave abnormallyinmany respects. El-madj04ib (pl,of madj(J'll.b) belong to thisclass.sMore willbe saidlateraboutthisclase."4.A 'djamaretheenemies ofthe Sufiyeh, as described above.Thereisoneweliinmy list whois supposed tohavebeena Christian converted to Islam,Yukannael-Halaby. Allfemale saintsarereckoned inthe awlia group.b)Position oftheSaintsinPopularReligionThefolk-religion of to-day differsgreatlyfrom orthodox Islam,thoughthesame may perhaps be saidaboutpopular religions1Opposite Bab el-Ttim. According tosome there arethetombsofscholarsattached totheMu school.2Mudjir, p.355.3Kahle mentions onlysixofthesetwelveplaces. 4 There are many other places dedicated to martyrs scattered alloverPales tine.Somewere mentioned onp.24. 5 There isa slight distinction between bahali/, and madjQ4ib, whichwillbe disregarded inthiswork.6There arestill other minor classes,suchas: zuhhad (pI.ofzahid)"ascetics." Although they maypossesssomematerial riches, they abstain fromtheuseofthem,and spend their lifeinde votion and prayer, asinthecaseofIbrahimel-Adhami, nussak (pI.of nasik) are those wholeavetheirhomes,withalltheir comforts, andliveaspious hermits incaves. Es-sell Sa'idofLydda,whoisstill living illustrates this class. Ishallnotenterintofurtherdescriptions oftheseclasses,whichdonot'play anygreatroleatpresent.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine279everywhere.Theorthodox Mohammedan religion knowsonlyoneGod.'EveryonewhobelievesinmorethanoneGodis said togive God "associates" (su,raka) andis therefore a muJrik, or polytheist. Eventheprophets, as wereadclearly intheQoran,arenothing butrusl allah (God's apostles),chosenbyHimtofulfilHisdivine work. Many ofthemweresimple, illiterate persons, someevenwith bodilyafflictions.Itneedsno further discussion toprovethatthe holybook,el-Qoran,doesnotallowanycreatedbeingtobe worshipped.2Evenmore, according tothetenets of Islam,theMohammedan shouldbea fatalist, wherelife cannot be prolonged byany prayers, tears, vowsandsacrifices.s Noprophetcanchangetheqad.Nevertheless humannaturetries toovercomealldifficulties.Asnobodyknows"hishour"(saCatuh)duty obliges himtodoallhe cantoescapemisfortune.Humanbeingshavealwaysfeltthegreatdistance between themandGod. They knowthatitis impossible forthesinner to approachtheHolyOne!directly, soheneedsa reconciling mediator. Lolah-l-wastahla,4ahabeZmawsut,. "Wereitnotforthemediator,theperson forwhom mediation is made would perish." This feelingis characteristic ofallpeoples,agesandreligions. The Palestinian has inherited itfromhis ancestors, Heathens,Jewsand Christians.Manyconceptions ofthese ancestorscanbe stilltracedinthefolkloreofthemodern Palestinian. Thus mediators arose whowereslowly raised tothesuperhuman rank.!andgraduallytheirnumber increased,andtheconditions for becomingawelibecame easier. Once having lefttherigidpathsof orthodoxy popular worship drifted into superstition.Atpresent wetThemany exclamations connected withthenameofGodandusedinthe dailylifeofthe Palestinian point clearlytohis belief inthe almightiness ofGod.Dalman,Derpalest. PJBXIII,21fr.;Canaan, Aberglaube und Volks rtldizin, pp.8,106.2ThefirstheadsoftheMOhammedanswereverystrictin keeping their religion pure. Thuswearetoldthat AbO. Bakrsaidto those whowere inclined to worship Mohammed,"Letthosewhowishto worship Moh.knowthat Moh. died,butthosewho worship GodknowthatHeis living andshall never die." 'Omarcutdownthetree under whichtheProphetwas declared leaderbecause manybelievedinitsblessing.3Seealso Curtiss, chaptersVandVI. Lev.11 44,45; IPeter118;Ex.1910-13. 5 Thisistruealsoof other religions.

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280 Joumalofthe Palestine Oriental Societyfindthatpopular religioniscompletelydifferentfromthe inspired one.Thisfolk-religion interests us,forasCondorsays:"Itisin worshipattheseshrinesthatthereligionofthe peasantary consists. Moslemsbyprofession,theyoftenspend their lifeswithout entering amosque,and attach more importance tothefavourand protection of the village saint1than to Allah himself,orto Mohammed, his prophet." Nor willthis surprise thosewhorealizethatthesesame Palestine areheirsandtosome extent descendants oftheheathen inhabitants of prebiblical times,who built thefirsthighplaces.All awlid, wereoncehumanbeings,wholivedaswelive,and experienced in their ownfleshallmiseries,difficulties,diseasesand woesofourlife.Theyalsoknowhumanfalsehoodsandintrigues. Thus theyfeelwithusinourafflictionsand understand us better than Goddoes.2Atthesametime their anger canbemoreeasily soothedandthusonealwayshopes,bytakingthenecessary precaution, to.escapeorto moderate their punishment.Thisexplains partly howtheyhave gradually taken theplaceofGod.Morevowsaremadein their names,moreofferingsarebrought tothemand morehelpisaskedfromthem than isthecasewithGod.Inreviewingtheformulaeusedinoaths,vows,etc.,thispointbecomes clear.Thefirst recourse isalwaystothem,whiletheAlmightyis thought ofonlyonespecial-occasions.5.ORIGIN OFTHESAINTSInstudyingclosely popular superstition with regard tosuper natural powers,wefindthattherearethree classes: Spirits," Saints andtheSoulsoftheDead.!Spirits maybegood(heavenly,upper,godlyorbelieving spirits)! orbad (earthly, hellish,lowerorunbelieving)."Thesoulor spirit of1Intheoriginal maqam stands for saint. 2 Hosea110.3Canaan, Aberglaube, etc.pp.7ff.;ibid. Haunted springs, etc.,JPOSI,153 fr.; Doutte,Magie,etc.,pp.119,120,160,222;Jaussen, Coutumes, etc.,pp. 218ff.: Einsler,Mosaik. Canaan, .Aberglaube, p.11. 5 The respectiveArabicwordsare 'alawiyeh,ralJmantyeh,mu'minan. 6 'ar4iyeh and turabiyeh,djahannamiyen,su{li1len, kat ern.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine281the dead may become agoodorabadspirit,accordingtoitsgood orbad actions onearth.Thesoulsof those who havemetanunnaturalend alwayshauntthatspotwhere the blood oftheslain flowed.Suchaspiritisknownas '1nfdwil (or rasad)1,Gen.410.Thegood souls ofthedeadarein many acaseelevated to sainthood.Wethusseethatallsupernaturalpowersaredivided into goodandbadones.Thefirst group containsthesaints, goodspiritsandsoulsoftherighteousdead.tThe second categoryis formed bythebadspiritsandthesoulsof wicked men.Thesetwo powersarecontinuallyatwarwitheachother,butnevertheless they possess many points of resemblance.Theyappearin different forms,areabletofly, perform miracles, etc.Thedegreeofsupernaturalpower whichtheycan exercise depends upontheirrank.Thesaintsarethemost powerful ofthegood,andthedjinnofthebadgroup.ThealmightyGodreigns overallandtheyallhave to obey his orders.Themodern Palestinian believesjustashis biblical predecessorsthateverything-goodandbad-comes from God.TheArabicexpressions usedwhenevil befalls a person express thisideawell:min allah (fromGod), bi'ign allah, (withGod'spermission), iaqdir alldh (God's irreversible decree)."Bothgoodandevil powersareGod's messengers! whofulfilhis decrees.5Insome casesitiseasytofindtheorigin ofthesaints,whilein othersitis most difficult.Ishalltrytocataloguethesaintsinthefollowing categories:1Such a spiritisalways dreaded. Cemeteriesarealways avoidedduringthenight. Anychildwhoisbeatenina cemetery gets sick.2Itusedtobeawidespreadcustom, which still existsbutto a somewhat. less extent, toplacewiththedeadinhis gravethethingsto which hewas most attacbed, hisgUD,argileh ,coffeepotorevenhis most beloved dish. This, as wenasthe beliefthatthesoulmay.appeartothe living (especially ontheeve of Friday, see Aberglaube) ,showsthatthopeasantsbelievethatthespiritcontinues toliveand remainsattachedtothe objects whichitpreferredduringitslifeonearth(JPOSIV,28).ButI cannot verify forPalestinethestate..mentof Curtiss (inchapter11)thatadeadmancanapproachhiswifeafterhis death.3Job.210;Amosa6. 4 Ex.19;1Same16u-ie,1810,215. :.Very' interestingisthebeliefthatwherethereare many awUO" manydjinntryalsotobe present. Thus some saintstryto drive away these djinn. El..cAdjamiin Bet Djibrinasked tobe buriedattheentranceofthevillage to prevent the djinn fromentering(seealsoQS1915,172), .

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282Journalofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyI.Historicalsaints, a) Biblicalcharacters,b)Qoraniccharaoters,c)CharactersfromMohammedan history.11.Saints whose descendantsarestill living.Ill. Darawis ofsome tariqah andsaints of unknown origin. Before describingthedifferent items inthelist,itwillbe important togivesome details whichmay throw some light uponthe origin oftheawlid.Theexamination ofthenames ofwelisoftenisofvalue,thoughtheexplanations givenby the peasantsareoften based onpopularetymologies.!Hereisa list to demonstrate this point:Nameof saint Location Origin of appellationHealwayswalked barefoot.Saidtohavecarriedabasketfullof water, without its leaking.Hefrightensandconfusesrobberswho approach his shrine.Heflewto Mecca.Heblowsupevery trans gressor sothatheswells.Hefoughttheinfidelswithacamel'slegbone (cf.Samson),Because ofthethickhairon hisback.DerGhasaanehFromhiscraftofmaking baskets frompalm-leaves. IjirbetHusah, SWof Safa CAmr Der Ghassaneh E.ofKifr3adDikDurah Abft 'Arqnb!(the father oftheleg) Abft (Fatherof M3Jl}.ah Hair)Ibrahimel-Hauwas (I.theworker in palm leaves) Bisr -i-asn(theBare-Nablus footed)Ahmad Abft Sal12(the clrak Fatherofthebasket) el-Mansiyehen-nobi 'Asfur(thebird) Nafub (the blower)ISuch etymological explanations arenotnew.SeeGoldziher,ZDMG,vol.XXIV,pp.207ff. 2QS 1915,p.174.3Kifr == kafr, 4QS 1916,15.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine283 Lftlu (Pearls)Jerusalem Irdj'a,l el-cAmftd (the Nablus menofthecolumn)Allel-Bakka1(theHebronWeeper)en-nabi Nub (Weeper) CAtab el-Kilan! (the Measurer) ljalilAllah 3(the friendHebronof God) AbO.rror (fatherofJerusalemthe ox)4 Hemournedgreatly inhislifetime.Hechangedkaskasfm2intopearls.Hemeasured out grain.Hewaschosen, by God, as a friend.Heusedtorideonan ox.5 Origin of appellationHesent a flametodevour his enemies(cf Elijah).They Hew duringtheirlife.Acarobtreegrew beside his grave.TheAlmighty saved 'hervir ginity. They usedtocarrya column in onehand, (originally pillar saints).Heusedtoweepmuch.LocationNablus inmany placesSWofed-Dahriyeh SebastiaNameof saint en-nabiSa (leh(fatheroftheflame) et(theflying) AbiJ.ljarrubeh (the fatherof, the carob tree) el-lja
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284Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSociety"Menhavesincetheirbeginnings worshippedatthesameplaces,1whichwereoftenon mountain tops,wheremenof remote agesfelt themselvesnearertotheDivine,withwhomtheysoughttohold converse,"!Ps.121,1.ThePalestinian hasoftenkeptthe place as a shrine,buthas changedthenameofthebeingworshipped there. 'I'hus,forexample,thecave situated ontheMountofOlires,honoured bytheMohammedans astheshrine of er-Rab'ahs wasreveredby the Christians asthe place wherePelagiaatoned forhersins,while theJewscherishthestill older beliefthatthis place istheshrine oftheprophetess lJ uldah, 4 Notonlyweremany Christian churches changed to mosques,butmany Christian sanctuaries became Moslem awlia. Oneofthe best examples ofthisis Mol)ammad Sacleh inSebastia.!Thefollowing story is toldabouthim.Once a fighttook place betweenthebelievers (Mohammedans) andthe unbelievers.ThemenofGodhelpingtheformer sent firefromheavenwhich devouredtheirenemies. Hence thisname Sacleh (flame).Inthe ruinsadjacenttotheshrine Prof.Altfounda Greek inscription dedicatingthechurch to ElijahtheTishbite inmemoryofthe miracle of sending firedownfrom heaven toconsumemen sent by Ahaziah kingof Israel. 'I'radition haspreserv.edthe Biblical story with slight modification; Sacleh takestheplace of Elijah.Itisvery interesting to investigate different shrines,getthe stories connected with themandnote allthesuperstitious beliefs attached tothem.Suchdatawilloftenbeofgreattopographical andeven historical value.Anotherveryimportantfact whichistobe noted isthatmanyvillagesbearthename oftheirmostimportantsaint.Thequestion arises whether the village is called after theDameofthe saint, or viceversa.Asin most ofsuchcases, either principle mayapply.Inmy collection Ihavethefollowingsuch cases:t Mission de Phenicie (after Goldziher).2A.R.S.Kennedy in Hasting's Dictiona1Y oftheBible.3Mentioned alreadyJPOSIV,57.Not Rab'ah el-CAlawiyeh asmentionedin QS 1917,121,butel-CAdawiyeh. The story mentioned in Q8 isunknowntoall whomIhave questioned. Mudjir, 238, thinks wronglythater-Rsb'ah was buried here. J Alt, Ein vergessenes Heiligtum desPropheten Elias, ZDPVXLVIII,393.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine 285 VillageEl-Hader DerYasin Qaryetel-'Inab Bet Lahim(Galilee) cArftrahDerSaraflj:irbetDer es-SiddMazariCen-Nubant Del'Bet Djibrin BetLiqiaDanian (Lydda) YanflnCAlutYaminBet1Jret-Tal)ta Kafl IJarisHanYflois EI-CEzariyehlj:alil er-Rahman(Hebron) lJirbet Tellel-Arb'in el-Fahidjeh lJirbet Idjdur DerCAiyflbljirbetCAzzuni2en-nabiSale\1ljirbet el-Kafirah(Kferah) DerIstia elYahfldiyehlJirbet Saint EI-lJagerYasin el-Tnbawy ea-sel] Lahham el-rArtiriBarsf es-Sidrt en-Nnbani (es-sultan) Baderen-nobiDjibrinen-nabi Liqia en-nobi Danian en-nobiN fluen-nOOiLflt en-nabiBenyamin en-nabictJ ren-nabi !?u I-Raft en-nobiYfmis el-cUzer ljalilAllah el-Arb'in Al)mad en-nabiIdjdftrt en-nabi'Ayub Irdjal cAzzftn 3en-nOOi Salel)ed-Da}.1iAbO.Kferen-nabien-nalJiYahfida en-nabi Hftsa.t ThebiblicalGedor,Jos. 1568j 1Chr.439,137.2Half anhourfrom Sannariyeh. 3ThefullnameisIrdjal cAzzun binCAtmeh. The mountainonwhichthe wen is built bearsthesameDame.

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286 Journal ofthePalestine Oriental SocietyEven some "quarters ofcities,small uninhabited places, mountains, etc.,bearatpresentthe name_ ofa shrine, situated inornearthem: l.Iareten-noMDahfldij:aretDjarraba:aret SacdusraBabSitti Mariam (Lion's Gate)Djabal (Jerusalem) es-seg Badr(NWJerusalem) 'reIl Barameh 2Hariqetel-Liqani"Nahr Rubin Tell Yunis (S.of Jaffa)en-nobi DahildeS-e1} Dj arraJ} Sacdu 8cid TheVirgin Mary es-seg Al)mad et-Tori (alsopronounced et'fori) es-seg BadrBal'ameh en-nabiLiqia en-nabi Rubin en-nob;Yunis,I shalltrytoanalyaes a fewoftheabovenamestoshowhowin somecasesthe saints receivethenameofthevillages,whilein others villagesarecalledafterthenameof their most importantawlia.Itis unquestionably animportantfieldfor further investigations, fortheresults will clear awaymany obscurities inthetopographyandlocal history.Thetwofollowingcases, although not mentioned intheabove list,well illustrate how saints perpetuate thenamesof ruined villages.NearBisan isthemound ofTell e,,Sarim, oncethe Canaanite cityof Rehob (aname meaning wideplace), destroyed about the eleventh centuryB.C.InByzantine and early Arabic timesitwas represented byavillageofthesamename,mentioned by Eusebius, now ijirbet er-Rbabjusttothe south of'I'elles-Sarim.Hereinthelaterruin is a weliwhohas takenthenameofthe ancient city,andis called es-seh er-Rhab.Thesameistrueofthe Canaanite royalcity Eglon, probably Tell el-Hesi,A CAdjlun tAccording toMudjir11,488,the mountain usedtobecalledDer Mar Morqus (froma flristian convent whichhadthesamename).Thename DerAburor wasgiventotheplaceafterthe king Abu-l-Fatl} thesonof ed-Din,presented thewholevillage(onthemountain) to es-iebAbO.'Eor .:2Between Djenin and 3 Bet Likia.4. Mader, Altchristliche Basiliken,hasgivenusmuch important informationaboutthis subject.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine287inthe immediate vicinityofthemound,ona Byzantine or earlyArabicruincalled lJirbetCAdjlun, commemorates the placeandperpetuates in'hisnamethatofthelong destroyed city.Iowe theselasttwo casestothekindness ofProf. Albright. Yasin1inDerYasin isalsotheoriginal Christian St. Yason.rEn-nabi Htisan in lJirbetl}useh perpetuates thename oftheTalmudic Osheh.Nabiel-Yaqin(IV,78)may perpetuate the cityofCain(Qayin)mentioned inJoshua15 b7.'Esse'J.J,A.buTor (originally the father oftheox)is built onthesite oftheChristian conventofSt.Luke,whoseemblemwasanox.6Soalso probably el-Tlzer of AbO.Ghos istheoriginally Eleazar,thesonof Abinadab, whowassetapartbyhis father "tokeepthearkoftheLord"during itsstayin Kirjathjearim (1Same71if.).Thesanctuary was probably onthe neighbouring hill." Bet(fir istheancientBethBoronandhasnowasitsmost importantsaint anabi bearingthenameofthe village-en-nabi("Or. Nosuch prophet is known.'In Bet Djibrin, the ancient Bet Gabraor .Bet Gubrin.sen-nobiDjibrin (or Djibril, Gabriel) ishonoured.Thereisno prophet (butan angel)ofthisname,andthe saint's nameis clearly derived fromthatofthevillage.9 ,Ed-Djazairt, commemorates the ancient nameof1There isno nabi eale\l in DerYasin 8SAbelsaysin Revue BiblilfUe, 1924,620,butonlya lea The shrineis a very neglected, undecorated room, without8 tomb,matresaes,oillampsorvotiveofferings.Theroom formsapartofabuilding calleded-Der,The spear ofthe setJ is planted onthe roof oftheshrine.2H. Goussen, Uber georgische Drucke U1Jd Handschriften(afterAbelin Rev.Bibl.).3Seefor bibliography Mader,1.c.,166ff. 4 Meistermann, 1928.5 Cf.onthe other handthe tradition transmitted by Mudjir, and already referred to.G Der el-Azhar exhibits ruins ofa Byzantine church probably dedicated to the "stay ofthearkofthe Lord." SeePierrele Diacre (1137).7Itmaybethatthetownwas connected inJewishtimeswiththe Aaronical I;Iur (probably l;Ior) ,bya popular etymology, andthat BetCUr stands for Bet!Jor lW.F. Albright].8Itiisnotmentioned intheBible. Josephus callsit Begabris, the Talmud BetGubrin.The Crusaders built herea fortress whichtheycalledGibelin (Meistermann).9About thenew maqiim see QS 1915,171.

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288Journalofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyGezer, AbftSQ.seh beingthenewname.OnTell elcAsftr the seb el CAsQr perpetuatesthenameofBaalBazorof11Same1323.tIdonotdoubtthat el-Tnbawyhasthesameoriginas thatof ed-Djazairi, Abft Kferperpetuatesthenameoftheold Canaanite citywhose ruin isstillknownas el-Kefirah.Qabr ]Jabrfin3 (near Hebron) perpetuatestheBittiteEphransofGen.23 Itistobe notedthatthese ancient citynamesareoften certainlynotderived from personal names,butthe Palestinian haspersonified themwitheponymoussaints.Inanothersetofcasesthe saint has givenhisnametothevillageinwhichheis honoured:Hebron lJalilAllah Bethany Lazarus (el. CUzer) Mizpehof Benjamin Samuel no village St. George(el-Hader)ahillJonasOldname ofthe locality Nameofthe saintPresentname ofthe localityel-HaUl elNebi el-Rader. .Tell Yftnis.Kojl inKaflHarisis originallyKafr,The change of consonants isdueto dissimilation ofthe asin Sflrbahil for Surbahir, etc.,andis quiteregularin Palestinian Arabic.AfterKafrhadbeen changed intokaflthelatterwas connected withthe Qoranic prophet Dul-Kafl,anda sanctuary ofthis 'prophet arose. I The treesarecalled iadjarat el-cAwasir.Inoaths Irdjal el-'Aw&sirisused.Bothpoint totheplural. Ontheotherhandthe mi/lrab andthecaveare connected withthesing.cAsur.The doesnotexist anymore. Robinson,Biblical Researches in Palestine,11,264,note1,mentionsawelionthetopofthemountain.2See' alsoRev.BibI.1907, 445.3 MudjirI, 40 callshim 'Afrun.4 Mader, Altckristliche Basiliken,146, note 3. 5 Near el-Qatrawany aretheruins ofaByzantine church. Some ChristiansofBir Zet, cherishthetraditionthattherewasaChristian convent bearing the nameof"St.Katharina."The etymology of corresponds morewith Katrina thanwith (avillage'nearGaza). 8 Abel,.Rev,Bibl.1912,167.'I'he identificationwithMizpah is disputed. Alt makesit=Mizpeh,butnotMizpah;Albrightmakesit=both(withG.A.SmithandBuhl).

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine289Beforeleaving thispartI venture todrawthefollowingcom parision.Ihave been toldthaten-nabi Zetflnt (near BetfJnia) standsfor Zebulon.2 Raiyalun intheshrine ofel-' Anbia (Nablus) standsalsoforthesame patriarch. Iwould suggestthat is thesourceofboth and andthatan earlyArabicor evenaQufic inscription withtheworld wouldbe then written misreadandchanged bysometo andby other to 4 Inmanycasesweare toldthatmany saints liveinoneandthe sameshrine.Ihavefoundthenumbers10,40,60and70to pre dominate, fortybeingthemost important andthemostcommon,Inanalysingthe shrines dedicated tothe "forty" wefindthatthis number isalwayscombinedwithsome descriptive appellation, such as weli,nabi mu'min, mghazi, rdjal, sahid, mabsftmiyeh andinone case tadjami. Leavingthelast expression aside forthe present, we observethatthese appellations maybe grouped into two categories:1.'I'hosepointingto sanctity oflife,likeweli,nabi, ,nu)min. 2.Thosepointingto martyrdom, sahid and mghasi. Itisamostdifficult problem toknowwhothefortywere.Inthe Oriental Christian church wehaveseven occasions onwhichforty personsarecelebrated.! Sixtimestheyare martyrs"andonce saints. Onegroupofthesesevenwerekilledin Palestine.7Themostim-tThe popular tradition about the origin ofthis saintrunsas follows:Imm es-Sel! (the daughter of Al}.mad ed-Dadjdjsni) whose shrine liesnear, beheldonedayacolumnoffire reaching from heaven to earth. Thesamenighta reverend leo appeared toherandsaidthathisplacelayatthepointwhere thefiretouchedthe earth. Earlynextmorning she hurried tothesite,which wasknowntobe absolutely treeless andtohergreatastonishment' founda large olivetree growing there. Shecalledtheplace Abft Zetftn. Ican notverify Drake's statement inQS1872,179,that Abu Zetun wasthesonofIrnm es-Seh. 2 Heard fromseveralpeopleof .Betirnia. 3Schumacher,ZDPVIX,353 mentions an Abu Zetun (in Djulan), whose namecamealsofromanolivetree. 4 Somehaveeven misreadthe)asaJand read Dabbilfm. 5 SeeGreek SYKAXART.6 Inonecase forty virgins, in another forty children suffered martyrdom.1Itistobe notedthatoutof108occasionsonwhich Christians suffered persecution and death wefindonlyseventimesthatthe number ofthemartyrswasforty (Synaxary).19

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,290JournalofthePalestineOriental Societyportantgroup,thefortymartyrsof Sebaste (Asia Minor),' perished from coldin a frozenlake,duetothepersecution of Licinius.ProbablytheChristian legends havegiventheimpulsetothe Mohammedan idea. This is doubtlessthecasewith maqam el-Arb'in in Nazareth, whichwaserectedon the siteofthe church ofthemartyrs. 2 Thesamemaybesaidofthemashadel-Arb'iu!onthedjabal Rumedeh (near Hebronj.s andwith probability ofthesanctuary ofthefortyonthe Mount ofOlives, where according toJerome there werethirtybaailicas andmany convents.Itis curiousthattheMohammedans, whose sacred bookmakes very little useof this number, havesomany shrines dedicated tothe "forty," whilethe ChristiansandJews, inwhose literature wemeet withso many references to this number, havefarfewer.!Isupposethatinmany theoriginalideawas "many" or "several" saints, whowere thought tohave been seen praying inoneplace.Sooner orlater a person claimed tohaveseenasmanyasforty,where uponhisstatementwasatonce accepted andthedefinite number replaced thevagueone.Fortyis a muchused number in magic formulae, superstitionandreligious beliefs,butit cannot compete withtheholy numbers three,.fiveandseven.Inexaminingtheshrines dedicated toten,sixty and seventy saints wefindthattheyarelesscommonthanthose mentioned. I haveonlyone example representing each class:IOnthe10thof MarchtheOrthodox. Church hasafeastintheirmemory.2Thischurchwas mentioned byBurckbardt(1283)and Corsenus (1628),see TarifJ1924, p.188.He writesthatwhile Djabbfir was digging inhisproperty,which liestotheSEofthe maqam four pillars ofgranitewerefound.TwowereboughtbytheFranciscans andtwobytheGreekpriestNifont3Mentioned byMudjir11,427.4Mader,Opecii.,148ft.,givestheproofs for this theory.5Itis saidthatwhentheProphethad forty followershe ordered hismuaddintocallfor prayer.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine291 ljarrubet el
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soumalofthe Pa.lestine Oriental Society floorandgiventoGideontasasignthathewouldsmitethe Medianites took place in Bet Dj ala. Theplacewas'knownupto thirty years agoas"Iraqed-Djizzeh,"therockofthe fleece."2 IntoBired-Damm (the cistern ofblood)itissupposedthatAbimelech threw bis brethren whomhehadkilled.t Afew other forgottenplaces have already been mentioned inthetext. I. Historical Saintsa)Biblical Characters Palestine asthe land oftheBible naturally possessesthesites where different personsof both Testaments lived, acted andwere buried. Many prophets enjoy several sanctuaries, one commemorating the place ofhisnativity,a'secondthe spot ofoneof mostimportantactions,thethirdhistomb,andstill another theplacewhere heis supposed tohave appeared after death, etc.Itgoesbeyond thescopeofthisworktogivea list ofall Biblical characters who are honouredatdifferent spotsof Palestine. Their number isvery great. Someofthe prophets have changed their namescompletely,as wehaveseenin the caseof Sfaleh and Abfl Zetun. Theshrineof en-nabi Yaqin on the mountain al-Martum, near BeniN'em,has been already described (IV,78).St.Jerome statesthata sanctuary of Abraham wasfoundedinthevillageofBeni.N'em,thencalledCapharBarucha, The modern inhabitants placethetombofLot here.Hissanctuary is certainly erected ontheruinsofa church.!Otherbiblical persons whohave changed their namesare: Raiya,lfln (Nablus) stands forZebulon. EIcUzer CAwartah) stands for Ezra, originally Eleazar, sonofAaron. El-cUzer (AbO.GhOS)5 stands for Ezra, originally Eleazar thesonof Abinadab. El-Tlzer (el.cEzariyeh) stands for Ezra, originally Lazarus. CAwartah) stands for Phineas sonof Eleazar.tTheinhabitantsof this village believethatGideonlivedatthis spot.2Judges6.3Fromthewrittennotes ofmy father. 4 St.Jeromesaysthatthiswasthespotto which Abraham accompanied the angels, whowentdown to Sodom, which belief is,aswehaveseen,still cherished bytheinhabitantsofBeni NCem (andbyMudjir). 5 Itis curiousthatMudjir(138)thinksitwasJeremiahandnotEzrawhosestoryismentionedabove (IV,51).

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CANAAN: Moha.mmedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine 293 Therearemany other examples.Caseslikethe classical Yal)ia for Yohannf; (John) andIdrisfor Enoch havebeen omitted. The follow inglist illustrates howoneandthesame biblical prophet maybe honouredin several shrines: Abraham north of Hebron in Hebron Beni N(em Jerusalem (belowthe Sagrah) JesusBethlehemNorthof Bethlehem Jerusalem (HolySepulchre) Jerusalem MountofOlives Bet Djala (Bir COna ) JordanMountof Quarantine MountTabor Betel-lJalil, tBir el-lJalil, histombandBallutet el-lJalil,2 theplacefromwhichhebeheld the destruction ofSodom. a mibrab whereheissupposed tohave prayed" nativity and Mgharet es-Saiydi (the milk-grotto) thefieldofthe Grey Peas." Beside thetombof Christ, therearemanyspots connected with hislifehistory.Footimprint, belowthe STir (Isa. imprints of both feetintheAscensionchapel. Imprints oftheknees. Baptism. a grotto whereJesusspent his fast. Transfiguration.1Mentioned by Mudjir ed-Din 11,424,astheplacewhere Abraham hadhis tents.Itistobenotedthatseveralplacesinthe neighbourhood still indicate biblical places: en-Namreh(8summit ofa mountain), er-Rameh (another summit), djabal el-Batrak (the highest mountain in southern Palestine), rEnSarah, lJallet el-Butmeh, etc.2Really Sebta. 3InBerzeh, near Damascus, is supposed tobehisbirthplace. t The Arabic legendtellsusthat"one day amanwassowing dwarf peasinthatfield,whenJesuspassing byasked him:'Whatareyousowing there, my friend l' 'Stones' wastheanswer. 'Very welJ,youwillreap stones.'Andtrulywhenthesowercameto gather them,hefound nothingbutpetrified peas'(Meistermann),Seeanotherversion of thestorygivenin lV,note

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294JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyDavidBethlehemJerusalemJerusalem(belowthe eabrah) Jerusalem(outside of Inthe"TowerofDavid"lInQubbetes-Sinsleh David's cisterns (2Sarn.23 14 etc.)histomb Dahuda mibrab a l1zibrab a mibrab. Thedifferent shrines oftheprophetJob2andthose ofel-Hader!have beenalreadyenumerated.Insomecases several tombs ofoneandthesameprophetareshown.Theinhabitantsofeachvillagearecertainthattheirsanctuaryisthecorrectone.Afew examplesare:Jonah has atombin lJaD Yunis,anotherin .I:Iall)ft14 andathird"in Thereare'stillotherplaces commemoratingJonah: Nem YunisatNahrSukrer?(6kmtothenorthof Minet el-Qal'ah), a TellYunissixandhalfkm south of Jaffa,8and lJ:anen-nahi Yunis between SidonandBeirut.Inthis placetraditiontells usthatthefishcastupJonah uponthedryIand.? Josephhashismain shrinenearN ablus,Thisis honoured by Mohammedans, Christians, SamaritansandJews,whiletheshrine (also withthetomb) in Bet IdjzatLe Strange, Palestinp. underthe p.213.2cEnAiyiibsouthof IJall}ul wasnotyet mentioned.3Heis confused with St. Heorge, EJijah, .Eleazar and Phiueas, Hanauer,Folkloreofthe Lanrl, p.51.Thelasttwonamesmustbe exceptionallyrare,asI never heardthem. 1\1 udjirI,142.Theminaretwasbuiltintheyear623A.H. (1926). TheJewsplaced herethesanctuary ofGad(M.V.Guerin,Descr, Geog1. etArcheol.delaPalestine, Judee Ill,284fr.). 5 Goldziher,Moh. Trad.uber den GrabesoridesJonas,ZDPV11,13,etc.; Abel,LeoadeJonas en Palestine,JPOS11,176;Guerin,csuuI,165;Thisplace istheold Gath-Hepher associated withaprophetJonasin2Kg. 1426. 6 Meshed (place ofmartyrdom)owesits name tothestoryofthe prophet.7Abel,1.C.179.8Schick, QS 1888,p.7fr. 9 Mudjir'8 accountabouttheplace whereJonahwas cast upis uncertain.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine295WofKaft Ijaris. Kafr SfibfiYanunYahftdiyeh DanianS.ofJaffa Rasel.cEn Banat YaCqiibYamin Binyamin YahftdfiDanian (Dan)Rubin Tari (Ashar)enjoysonly localhonourandwasneglectedwhen I visitedtheplace.tAthirdshrineis shown inHebroninHaram el-l]alil.2 Itis curious tonotethatformostofthesons ofJacobthereareshrinessituatedin different villages onthe,westernmountainsofMiddlePalestine.Thereare:Raiyalnn(Zebulon)NablusYasadjer (Isachar) Nablus Asar Nablus Yiisif Nablus YusifBetIdjza Simon Qalqiliya.hel-Hadra v (Jacob'sdaughter)Nablusb)QoranicPersonagesInthis group wecountthepersonageswhoarefirst mentioned intheQoran,andarenotbiblical.Thereareonlyfewrepresentatives,themostimportantofwhomisMohammedhimself, whosemainshrineisnotinPalestine.InPalestinewehaveseveralplacesconnectedwith hislife history, namely,thoseofthemiraculousnight-journey(lelatul-miCradj).ThefollowingaretheplacesIknowof:1.Histwelve footimprintsontheHolyRock,2.Thetongue ofthe eabrah which spoke with him,3.Theplacewhere he prayed, belowtheRock,4. TaCdjet 5.TheholeintheRockthroughwhich heascendedto heaven,6.Theimpression ofhisfootonaseparatepiece of stone,7.TheProphet'shair,8.Underthe Aqea two 9.TheplacewhereBraqwas tied, 10. Zetunit en-Nabi,1While the preceding andthenextplacesare mentioned by Mudjir, heknows nothingaboutthis sanctuary.2See Manasik ualQ.alil, p.34,and Mursid laz-zayr,P:40.Some Mohammedans believethatJosephwas thrown byhis brethren' inapit(bir Sindjil); othersthinkthatthiswellis inhabited by es-1eo Canaan,HauntedSprings,etc. JPOS I,Nr,4.

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296 JournalofthePalestineOriental Society11.Qubbetel-Mi'rad], 12.Aqubbehin whichitissaidthattheprophetprayedwiththeangelsandtheprophets,13.AfootimprintnearDerGhassaneh,14.AnotherlinHaramel-Halil.!. Theprophetisbynomeansconnectedonly with these spots,buthemeetseveryFridaywith some awlia IDtheirshrines, where hehasbeenobservedpraying.?BesidetheprophetMohammedtherearefourprophetspeculiar totheQoran: Hud,3Saleb4Suceb6 and Du l-Kafl,Hudwassenttothetribeof fAd, Salel) to Tamud,Suceh totheMedianitesand j)fi.l Kafl.6succeeded Alisaf Ofthesefour Sale\l and :Pft I-KaflarethemoreimportantforPalestine.Ihavecollectedthenamesoffiveplaceswhere Salel). is honoured. Two(inQariyeten-nabi Saleb7 andin Milfi.l) showtombsoftheprophet,althoughitisknownthathediedin Mecca.sThefeastinRamleh-wherehisthirdshrineisfound-iscalleded-djumCahel-Hamiyehanddj. ed-djamif el-Abiad.?TheshrinebetweenIdnahand'I'alqumehhasno cenotaph.ThetSeetheabove mentioned Arabic guidebooks.2Thissame property isevenmore peculiar to el-Hadr,Ifapersonmeets another several times aday,at different places,hesays: "You arelike cl-lJacJr, wherever onegoes,onefindshim."3Some thinkthathewas :ijebar, others givehis genealogy asHfrdsonof cAbdallah,s,of s.of ij:lud, s.of cAd, s,ofcAul(biblicalUz),s,of Aram, s,of Sam, s.ofNoah. "4 Sonof 'Obed, s.of s.of Masib, s.of ij:agir, 8.of 'Eamud. (This genealogy, aswellasthatofHfrd,is taken fromSale). 5 Many thinkthatheis identical with the father-in-law ofMoses(Ex.218).Mudjir I,68,knowshistombin IJittin (nearSafad).Theplaceisnowcalled :ijirbct Madin, which perpetuates thenameoftheCanaanite royalcityof Madon,butwas identified withMadyan,Midian.LW.F. AIbright.]6Mudjir I,68, thinks with other writersthathewas Biss thesonofJob.Seealso Diiiratu l-ma'iirif IX,232.7A ofDerGhaaaanehjustified thetombof nebi ofhis district by sayingthattradition teaches us that histombliesonanelevationnearwhich seven teamS arise; and this istrueofthevillageofNebi 8Sale,p.6.9JPOS11,165.

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uamiltaClamu,maqabiruhut)'1,biarqin lIaqinan gheiru ma sakana er-rasuluuafil!ibrUna aiq,an fihaghar'Unfihi ruslun kiramun ual-Jlalilu Nooneknows with certainty theplacesof their tombs. except wheretheProphetlived, Aswellasin Hebron where there isacave sheltering the honourable Prophets and Abraham.CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine297fifthshrineisin Acre. l-Kaflthas a shrine inKafl I:Iaris2 which bearshisname(cf.above).Thetomblies outside the maqam. Itissaidthatacaveliesbelowthe maqam. Another shrine ofthis prophet istobefoundin Kafr fAttiyeh. Herewefind again atomb. En-nabi Suceb has a sanctuary in fAdjftr whichisverymuch neglected.3Weobservehereagainhow uncertain these locations are,andwe may agree with Mudjir ad-Dinwho writes:"Thesiteofthetomb ofno prophet, exceptthoseofthe prophet Mohammed, Abraham and hissons,canbe located with certainity."!c)Saints from Mohammedan History Alargenumberofthese saints were commanders or warriors of distinction inthearmieswhich conquered Palestine.Itiscurious tonotethatmanywhomweknowtohavediedandtohavebeen buried insome other country.! nevertheless possessoneor several shrinesin Palestine. Manyofthe stories toldtoexplainthe origin oftheseshrinesarelegendary.Asexampleswemaygivethefollowing: Ed-Dasuqi hasashrine north ofDerGhassaneh, though histomb liesinEgypt,andnoneofhis important deedswere performed in Palestine. The shrine of er-Rifa'i commemorates someof the blood ofthe qutb which dripped here after hisreturnfromafightwith thekujfar.Salman el-Farsi, whohasa beautiful shrine onthe1HeissaidtohavebeencaIJedbythisnamebecausehemade himself responsible tothe prophet EIIsactofollowhisstepsin worshipping the Almighty.Forfurther detailssee aairatu-l-m,acarif VIII,413.2MudjirI,68, thinksthatthisistherealtomb.3Accordingto M udjir. Mudjir 11,424. Anoldmanof Der Ghaasaneh,a descendant of ea-le!! eAbdallah assured methatthetombsofmostofthe awlia cannot belocated with certainty. He quoted:

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298JournalofthePalestine Oriental Society Bab er-Rahmeh.!?Templearea, S.ofJerusalem,t1Hebron.13Mountof Olives, showing his supposed tomb, was actually buried in el-Madayin.!Althoughitisknownthat cOkaseh2 (oneofthe didnotdieinJelusalem,his shrineherehas a tomb.!Itis saidthatheappearedtoa person prayingatthisspotandorderedhim toerecta maqam forhim. 4 'Obadahbin es-Samethashistomb inthecemetery, knownasTurbet Bab er-Rahmeh,Mudjir ad-Din(pp.231,232)saysthat"nobodythenknewwhetherhistomb lay inJerusalemor Ramleh."! Ab1i Hureirahdied in el-Medinah and "as buriedthere,"butashrinewithacenotaphdedicatedtohimisfoundatTell AbfI HureirahbetweenGazaandBeersheba(onthe Wadies-Sallaleh). Mudjirthinksthatthistombbelongs tooneofhischildren.Someother. saints having shrines with tombs, where thesaintsareknownnotto have diedinPalestine,are;Damrahin Mazaric en.Nubant,Ibrahimel-Hauwas inDerGhasaaneh.ted-Djunedin lIirbet ed-Djuned, Abu I-corin Sindjil,9Shrineswhicharehistoricallycorrectandwhichbelongtothiscategoryare: Saddad binAus eS-stlj el-Halili Ahmad AbftTor CAUel-Bakka121Mudjir1,232; Kahle,PJBVI,79.2cOk8sehbin Mu\tsin (not Mi\tsin withKahle) bin :aartan bin Katir, binMurrahbinGhunm binDudanbin Asadbin lJuzeimahel-JAsadi(usdu l-ghabah). 3 Onthetomb wefindthefollowingwriting: e-?rO4JJ\6JJ\)J\6J\)JIrA6JJ\ Thedateisthatofthereconstructionofthetomb. t Canaan, Aberglaube, p.102,note1; Kahle,PJBVI,78. 5 EIHafizAbfi. Bakr statesthathediedin Jerusalem. 61\'1 udjir1,233.7Buried in Egypt.8Buriedin Mesopotamia.9BuriedintheHidjsa,10MudjirI,233. 1 tMudjir11,410. j 2Mudjir11,492.13Forotherinstances seeJaussen et Savignac, Exploration duvallee duJordain,

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CANAAN: Moha.mmedan SaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine299After the Crusaders there wasaMoslem reaction whichledto thefoundationofsome sanctuariesandtothe reconstruction of others.1Fearof future attacks causedtheMohammedan rulers to bend their effortstokeepa large Moslem populationatthe most important points,andtoensurethepresence of numerous well armed Moslemsatthemost dangerous periods oftheyear. This goalwasattainedbyfounding sanctuaries of'various renowned saints and assigning suitable timesfortheirfeasts.Therulers were supported bythereligious leaders, interestedratherinthe development of religiouslifethaninthe political aspects ofthenew foundations.Theauthenticity ofthenewholy places was easily established,andthenation was encouraged to revere thesewelisandtoattendtheir feasts.The pilgrims camewiththeirhorsesandweapons.Forevery important weli largetractsof land weresetasideaswagf,sothatallexpenses connected with thecelebrations werewellcovered without imposingany obligations onthe pilgrims. These places weregener allychosen near themost strategic centres: Jerusalem, Ramleh,GazaandAcre.Notallsuch maqams werenewly created,butmanyun important and forgotten oneswere elevated tonew positions of honour.Therepair ofthe roads andthe restoration ofthe caravansaries made itpossibleforthepeopletobe directed intimeof need easilyto anyspot.This strategic policywas inauguratedbythe sultan eeJDahirBebars andnotby Salal) ed-Dinasusedtobesupposed. Thus werefounded east ofJerusalemen-Nabi Musa,2 tothewest(in Ramleh) en-Nabi ealel), andtothe north (inthevillageof en-Nabi Salel}.)8, second sanctuary forthe latter. Asthemost dangerous period ofthe year to Islam wastheGreekEasterwhen thousands of Christian pilgrims flockedtotheHolyCity,theweek preceding this Christian feastwas appointed forthefestivalsofthese saints, sothatastill larger number of Mohammedans was gathered around Jerusalem.InGaza twomawasimwerefounded, ed-DarumandelMuntar,"NearAcreathirdshrine foren-nabi Sale\l andnearSidon oneforen-nabiYunis were established.KingBebars'strategic plan required the destruction oftheconventof Euthymos, situatedat lIan es-Sahl (also called ijan el-1Iowesomeofthese considerations tothe kindness of Zaki Pasha.2Dalman states,PJB,IV,98,footnote,thatBebars built onlythedome.3Popular etymologies. Darfm=Aramaic Daroma;Muntar =Aram. Man1ira.

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300JournalofthePalestineOrientalBociety AY
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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine3015.Ez-Zawiyey el-Bustamihehtis said toenclosethetombof Abft Yazid?el-Bustami,According toanotherbelief hewas buried in his great zawiyeh inRamleh.Thepresent place which contains two tombs (oneforthe weli andtheotherforhiswife)isverymuch neglected.Intheroomsabovetheshrine livesthe qai1l1neS-sebMusa el-Ghusen.! withhisfamily.6.Zawiyet el-Qadriyeh (knownatpresent as DarAbO. es-S'ud)liesin the swcorner oftheHaramarea.Itisthecentreofthe SafCiyeh sect,whose mujli belongstothefamily Abus-S'ud,,7.Zawiyet en-Nab! Dahlid, onthe Mount ofZion, containsthesupposed tombof King David,andusedtobeaveryimportantjconvent.The present balifeh is eS-sefJ Mahmuded-Dadjani,8.Zawiyet el-ijanqah attheSWcorner oftheHoly Sepulchre wasfoundedbySalahed-Din,Thepresent mutau)alli is Aminel_c 9.Ez-zawiyehel-As'adiyeh,ontheMount ofOlives,usedtoenjoy agreatreputation. It contains thetombofthefounder ofthe cAlami familywhoare asraf (pI.of sa1rif, descendant oftheProphetMohammed) throughHasanthesonof Fatimeh (therefore called also Hasaniyeh).Thefounder, Mohammed el-cAlami,came fromthemountain el-Alam (therefore el-CAlami) in Morocco,andisthedescendant ofes-saiyd'Abdes-Salam Massis.4 Thepresent head ofthezawiyehis el-Alamt,10.Ez-zawiyeh el-Afghaniyeh liesinthe N'V corner ofthe Temple Area. The acting superior is called Beyram.sItusedtobe customary,andisstill,inmostof these places toreada tJiker6 every Thursday evening.Tothis invocation ofGod, whichmaybe combined withreligiousmusicand datrawis dances,1Foundedby es-Iel!'Abdallah el-Bustami,Mudjir11,399. 2Abu Yaziddiedin ij:orasan. According toMudjirthemembers ofthisfamily wereburiedinthecemeteryof Ma'man Allah. 3Thefamilyof el-Ghusun (RamlehandJerusalem)are said tobethedescendants of The genealogicaltreeofthe familymaybe found in Fe4yfatl}er-raltman)ayo't el-Qoran,p. y.5 There areafewother zawaya which arenotimportant. G The explains ecJ-dikt as

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302 Journal ofthePalestineOrientalSocietyawirdlmaybeadded.Thelastexpression denotes a section oftheQoranrecitedatintervals,butitis also usedforhymnspraisingGodandtheProphet.OneoftheimportantwirdsisWird which is employed ina special ceremony duringthelasttendaysofRamadan.The mufti with somemembersoftheHuseiny, Yunis, andotherfamilies goin a procession fromthe m'ttjti's old house, insidethecity,totheshrine ofthe Qerami andafterreadingthe theyproceed totheDome oftheRock.Duringallof this processiontheyrepeatthewird.2Theprimaryainofthe zawaia-to feedandto housethepoorandthepilgrims-isgenerally forgotten.In zawiet en-nabi Dahlid somepoorarestill fed.Thefood comes fromthefamilies ofed Dadjani, whichtaketurnsin providingthefood.Inthe zawiyeh oftheMaghrebines, Mawlawiyeh, Bubariyeh andHindus'theexpensesarecovered bytheincome ofthewaqf.FromtheTekiyeh IjaskehSultan 3thepoorreceive foodtwice daily.411.SaintswhoseDescendantsareLivingInmany villages wearetoldthatthedescendants ofaweliarestill living.Althoughinsome placesthisrelation maybe legendaryanddoubtful, in mostithassome historical foundation.Thedescendantsareproudoftheirforefathers,andinmany casestheeldestofthelivingfamilyenjoysthehonours ofa Itis customary tointertheprincipledescendantsaroundthegrave ofthesaint, orinitsimmediateneighbourhood. 6 An exception to this rule maybenoticedinthecase ofthe (Isma'il,Ramadan,fAbd er-Rahim, etc.) el-Masalmeh (Yalo), whohave never allowed anyoftheirdescendantstobeburiedintheirneighbourhood.Wheneversomebodytriedtodigagravebeside theirs,itwas alwaysfoundthattheirons ofthepicks bent.1Notburdawith Kahle,PJBVI,76, note 1.2The last twodaysofRamadanare known as layDiiel-,na!tiii, while is lelatul-qadr, the27thof Ramadan.3AccordingtoMudjir11,413,shewas '.!-'unsuq thedaughterof fAbdallah el-Musaffariyeh, Shedied800A.H.(Seealso Kahle,PJBVI,84.) Theentire"OldSerai" belonged totheTekiyeh,whichwasbuiltas a zawigeh. SeealsoKahle,PJBVI,72,on !tadj "Obed.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine303Inafew casesneitherthesainthimselfnorhisdescendantsaremuch respected.Thisistrueof es-se1]Abul-rAlamen (ofBiddu) A,.I whosefamilyis knownas'Elet Samarah, .)v:",. Thefollowinglistgives thosesaintsoftbisgroupwhoseshrinesIhave visited:QattanehMeccaTheinhabitantsofthevillage AbftGhos Qarietel-clnab apartofthein-habitants Bet DuqquhHauran4apartofthein-habitantsLocation OriginLivingfamily BetCAnan Yaman A.. cElet Abli YaminSurbahirMecca2 Ibneiya BidducElet Sl)adeh3Biddu BidduDares.Seg Biddu CElat Samarah CAnata:ijirbet cAlmittheinhabitantsof cAnataBet Surik Bet SurikSeebelow Bet Surik Bet SurikSeebelowName! Abli Yamined-Dawa'riAhmadel-Huwes ij:amdallah J;[asan Abul'AlamenCAbd es-Salam Darwis Telah cAliRamadau cAlicObed CAbde1-MahdiCAbd el-Hadi lsma'il el-'InbawyOthersof this category whose shrines I havenotvisited,are:Name Taldjeh Quddameh Sflfa DjabrMuhammaden-NuhtLocation Qabatiah Djildjiliah Der Ghassaneh Rafat Der Aban Livingfamily AbfJ er-Rabb t)'-,: en-Nabulsi (N ablus)el-Madjdubin Rafat andinDanynnen-Nuhi1Ihave omittedthetitles lea, etc.inthislist.2But they didnotoriginate inMecca.3Imet aswellasone member ofeachoneof these families. Heis supposed tohavecomefromavillagecalledImmWalad,

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304JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyName LocationLivingfa.mily lJiUidDer Ghassaneh Barghuti FamilyMatar Der Ghassnneh Dar Kafar'int el-Habil Der Ghassaneh DarGhetDer Ghassaneh DarGbetMadjdub IIbrahim Der Ghassaneb Darer-RitbiCAliDer Ghassaneh DarAbtl I.AUras Sl)adehDer Ghassaneh DarAbu HarfillDib Der Ghassaneh Dar AbO Diab t Del" Ghassaneh Darel];I:ilu. Muhammad' Bet Djibrin Dar el-Mahdi2 U' Thefamilyof ed-Dadjanihasalso produced many awliii inpast'times.Imm es-Seb(Bet"O"nia) isbelievedtobe theirgreatgrand mother.Itis customary forsomeofthedescendants ofthe weli totourthevillages aroundthe maqam oncea year andcollectvowsmade tothewelioftheirfamily.EvenChristian priests ofSt. George usedtogo around tothedifferent villagesto collect the VO'!S made for el-Hader, They tookwith them oneofthe chains ofthe sanctu ary,andmanyusedtoputit aroundtheirnecksto prevent future insanity.3Inthis connectionitmaybeofinteresttonotethegenealogy ofsome well,s. Thatof 'Abdes-Salam has already beengiven(IV,86).Thegenealogyof Darwis of Bet Surik is said tobethefollowing: Darwis, sonofhadjMohammed, sonof b,adj Zaiyd, sonofhtul] Al)mad, sonof 1J,adj Mohammad, Darwis begot'Abder-Rahim,who begot Mol)ammad4 whoisstilllivingand isthe imdm ofthevillage.Theuncleof Darwis isalso regarded asa I mar's (Bet Duqquh) family tree is: Salel). begotI'mar,who begot Dahud, who begotMarrar,who begotCAll,who begot Qasim, who begot C Abdallah, whoseson Isma(il isstilllivingtThesefourfamiliesare descendants of Dar er-Rabi.2QS1915,172.3Fromthewrittennotesofmyfa.ther. This Mohammed gavemethe information.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine305andisthe mul}tar ofthevillage.!Itissaidthat fAbdallah of Qubebehand e-sN] Itaymof Bet Iksaarebrothersof I'mar,Thisbelief seemsnottobebasedonhistoricalfact, sincemanyoftheinhabitantsof BetIksa andQubebehknewnothingaboutthisrelationship.Thesameuncertainityexistsabouten-nobi AbuLemlin, whoissaidto come fromthefamilyof Abft Yamin.AnotherexamplearetheDawa'ri.OneofthemisburiedinJericho Ghanim), 'Abd in SU'fat, athirdin Qrun el-Hadjar(intheterritoryofthe Sawal}ri Bedouin)andtheothersinSurbahir,Themostimportantoftheseare el-;'Eneni,AbuMita,Beet, Hilaand SaleQ. Bneiyaand es-sel} CAydarestill living in Sftrbabir. Itis saidthatthetribeofen-N serat arethedescendantsof ed-Dawa'ri.tVeryinterestingisthetraditionof es-sultan Badr,whoissaidto havehadthreedaughters,allhonouredaswaliyat.El-Badriyeh,sthemostimportantis' buried in Sarafat, el-Hmediyeh in Het Fagbnr andNadjlahin Djorif.!Thetraditions connected with es-sultan Badrandhisdescendantsarevery instructive asillustrationsofthetransformationsof ideas.ThefamilyofBadrhasproducedseveralawlia.Thetitle sultan is given often bythepeople toimportantmen,who wereneverrulers.Badrwasa qutb, nota prince.Hisfamilytreeis supposed togobackasfarasrAliibnAbi TaJib. AccordingtoMudjired-Din a allthesaintsofhis time followedhisteachings.The saints andeventheanimals came tovisithis tomb,erectedina zawiyeh builtby himinWadien-Nusur."Mostofhissonsbecame awlia. Mohammeddied(663A.B.)andwasburiednearhis father. Mohammed's soneAbdel-Hafiz(died 696A.H.)left Wadien-Nusflr andsettledina1This person gavemethe information.2Everytimeoneofthistribedies,the'uldeh.ofthedead 'weli of' Surbahir is heard toplay. S Onthedoor ofthe sanctuaryIread: 4.6JJ\OA There isno tomb inthe shrine. 4 QS,1916,pp.1,etc.saysthatBadrhadonlytwo daughters.Nadjlah isnot mentioned atall. 5 pp.489ff.6Not Nasura with Kahle.20

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306JoumalofthePalestine Oriental Societyvillage called Safarat,1 a name said tohavebeen changed to Sarafat, fromthetitle asurnameofBadr'sfamily.HissonDahnd's(died701A.H.)first miracle wasthechanging ofthewine, made bytheChristianinhabitantsof this village, into vinegar.Thishe did becausethe muSrikin continually sold this alcoholic drink tothetruebelievers, thus helping them to disobeytheholyrules.TheChristian believingthathewasa sorcerer, lefttheplace. Dahlid builta zawiyeh where heandhis children were afterwards buried.Ahmad et-'faiyar2 whose history.will be described belowwasthe cousin of Dahftd andlivedin.hiatime.Inthewritten versionofthisstorywehearthatthecause ofthedestruction ofthe quhbeh by Al)mad wassolely jealousy.Thesonof Dahtid, also called Al)mad, wassurnamedel-Kabritel-Ahmar("RedSulphur," died723A.H.) t andissaidtohave been a greattheologian. Al)mad hadfivesonsandthreedaughters.Twoofhissons-cAli(died 754 A.H.)andMohammad el-Baha-s-weregreatlybeloved,andeventhewild animals respected them. 'Alt's son Tadj ed-Din Abftl-Wafa lived inJerusalem(died803A.H.)andwas buried inthecemetery ofMa'man Allah. Helefttwosons,(Aliand Abft Bakr,whowere alsogreatlyhonoured. Oneoftherelatives of thisBadrfamily, el-Kamali, wasburiedinthesanctuaryknownatpresentas es-Beg Badronthewayto Lifta.3Theprecedingdetailsharebeen excerpted fromUns ed-Djalil. 4 No mention ismadeof a female member withthename el-Badriyeh; in Barafat onlymale descendantsarementioned ashavingbeen buried,Ahmad et-Taiyar beingthefirst.Oneof these,BadrAsyad,(pl,of Saiyd,"Lord,Master")hadthreedaughtersaswehaveseen,butno namesaregiven them.Thecircumstancethattheyaretheonly females mentioned may point totheirrelative importance,andthey maybethethreesaid bythepopulartraditiontobethedaughtersof es-sultan Badr,as said above.Thewholefamilywas1Kahle readingthetextofMudjir"Qariet Safarat" omitted therealname ofthevillage,and noted only Qarieh.2Not et-'fer with Kahle.3 Mudjir 11,489-492.Kahle has mentioned thispartinPJBVI,72-73. 4 InQS1915and1916, Masterman and Macalister givean account of es-sul!an Badrtold thembya Palestinian whosenameand position arenottold. The story resembles oursinmany respects.Importantdifferencesaregivenin thefootnotes.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine307knownas ed-Diriyeh el-Badriyeh (el-CEleh el-Badriyeh) fromwhence thename el-Badriyeh.Itis interesting toseehowafemalesaint has takentheplace of several awlia, a result ofa-verbal mis understanding.Itwillbe interesting to comparethestory ofel Badriyeh asI heard itfromthe of BetSafafa. Thegrandfatherof el-Badriyeh wasakingin tlarasan. HissonBadr!camewithhisfamilyandhiscousinAhmad et-Taiyar to -Ieruaalemr wherehe devoted himself toa religious life, spending mostofthetime meditating inthefields.Liking Kurafat (theformer name of Sarafat), he bought a rocky place with several caves.' Being disturbed inhis solitude bythe Jews, whowere pressing winenearby,heaskedthe Almighty forhelp.Allthewine made inthreeyears then turned into vinegar. They, thinkingthathewasa sorcerer, andirritatedbytheirloss, lefttheplace.Thedaughterofthe sultan, Badriyeb, wasmarriedtohercousinAhmad.!butdied shortly afterwards.Ahmadbeggedthatshemightbe enbalmed,butthefather, refusing, built aqubbehoverhertomb,whichwas destroyed twiceby Ahmad, whohadbeen expelled byhisuncle.Eachtime Al)mad cameHyinglikealargebird.!butthethirdtime es-sultan struck the bird withhis stickanditfelldown dead,afterwhichitwas recognized tobetheunhappyAhmad,andwas buriednearhiswife.6Badriyeh's father couldno longer livein Sarafat. Walkingaimlessly westwards he reachedthespring ofthewelielWa1}si, 7wheretw0 8daughtersofthelatterwere sitting. WhileBadr was washing his dirty clothes.?oneofthetwoyoung ladies, Fatmeh,tOtBadr wasborn, according toQS,inthe l;lidjaz andbecamelatera king in Persia. After seven years' reign hewas orderedbyGodtobecomea dar10il. 2QS:Atthistimetheking eQ.-}?ahir was besieging Jerusalem.Badrcame e'verydaytohelphim.3Thesecavesarestillshown. 4 No mention ofthis ismadeinQS,first story.Inthesecondheis erroneously called insteadof et-Tlliyar.Q8 refers this story to Deres-Seg, butitisnotaccepted bythe inhabitants of Sarafat,Bet eafafa and Waladjeh. 6 ItseemsthatKahlewas never told this story. 1 Notfarfrom Ras lbn cAmmar. 8According toQ8elhadsix daughters. g ThewordmraqqaC ah wasusedbythe story teller.10QScallsher :ij:adidjeh.20*

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308Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societythrewastoneathimandwoundedhim.The sultan remained calm and hanged hisclothesonadead pomegranatettree,which at once cametolife,. sprouted greenleaves,blossomedandyieldedfruit.Soon afterwards helefttheplace.Es-saiydelwho happened to passthiswaysoon afterwards, sawthatthe pomegranatewas -loadedwithfruit, althoughitwasnottheseason.Knowingthatonlyafew hoursbeforeithadbeenadeadtree,he enquired whathappened, andhis daughters toldhimthestory.Atoncehefollowed Badr andovertookhimin Wadi en-Nusftr,whichisnowcalled Wadi --ElWa1}.si beggedBadrtoforgivetheactofhisdaughter, persuaded himto return, andgavehim Fatmeh towife.2Badrlivedinacave,wherehewas afterwards buried,theplacereceiving thenameDar es-Seg, .latercorrupted intoDer 3The whotoldmethestory, assured methatBadrhadaSOD,Ibrahim el-Hadami whowas buried in es-Siyug, E.of Halhul, 4 I1QSsaysthathebecamevery angry, left theplaceandwenttoDer es-Seb where he spread his clothes onacarobtree. 2 Badr's condition wasthathewouldreturnonlyifhemadeher bleed asshedidhim.3Whenever avillagehas asitsname a word derived fromthestem lari(, "noble" (like Sarafat), orthe element Beb (as Derea-Seb and es-Syug), the inhabitants claimtobe descendants oftheHoly Mohanlmedan Family, orofanimportant sell 4 QS (1916, 13ir.) mentions thefollowingepisodewhichisvery interesting. Onedaythe sawthatthere weresoldiersinthevalley,in number like the sand ofthesea,andheknewthatthese werethesoldiersofking l)ahir. He descended fromthe mountain and invited the king:"Iinvite youtobemy guests, youandyoursoldiers, andtopassthenighthere." Thekingwondered atthe and instructed his soldiers toask their host for water for their horses, thinking itwas impossiblethatthe Be!J couldhavewaterandfoodenoughfor all. SultAn Badrsaidtohis servant Marzuq: thisjugandgowiththe soldiersto water thehorses,climbwith them tothe summit ofthe mountain andexclaim there'0 Badr'." Reaching thetopofthe mountain the servant cried out,ashewastold,and behold the appeared and ordered his servant:"Standonthisrockand throw thejugwithall your might."Thejugbroke into sixpieces,andateachplace where a sherd fell therebursta spring of water. The soldiers,afterwateringtheirhorses,returnedtothekingand narratedwhathad occurred. Hewas astonished atthe mighty power ofthe The soldiers then asked the sel!togive them barley forthehorses.He brought a (=5 rotl) of barley and spread itonhis cabah (cloak)andtoldthemtohelp themselves.Everyonetookthenecessaryquantityforhishorse,andtherewas leftoverattheendas much as there hadbeenatfirst. With onekidandoneroil(3kg)ofricehefedallthe soldiers andthe inhabitants ofthevillage. .

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine309The story of el-Badriyeh illustrates onewayinwhicha saint may bedevelopedbytradition.Butinmanycasesthedevelopment may havebeeneven more complicated. Many oftheweliswere originally influential elders of their village,whomayhave possessedatthesametime certain exceptional qualities.Aftertheirdeath they were first honouredbytheir relatives only,butgradually their reputation spread. While the peasants ofPalestinewill recite the fatibah, whenever theypassatomboftheirrelatives, inthecaseof such a dead leader mostoftheinhabitantsofthevillageandevenofthedistrict willperform this duty.Thepersonality, powerandreputation ofsuchapersondonotdisappearatdeath, but,onthecontrary,arebelievedtobecome intensified, sincethesoul,whichisthesource ofall greatness, isfreedfrom bodily trammels.tThesoul continues toliveandcanseeallthathappens around it. Thus many peasantsandBedouincometothetombs oftheir dead to swear fidelitytotheclan, innocence whenfalsely accusedandto tell their difficultiesandaskforhelp. This wassurely,in principle,theorigin of ancestor worshipwhich is still foundallover Palestine. A person doesnotneedtobea political leader toattaintherankofa 'tveli afterhis death.Therearesomereligious teachers whohavegainedtheconfidence oftheinhabitants andhave obtainedtheascendancy. over their simpleminds.Thesonsof persons whowere thus elevated totherankof or weli may attain this distinction muchmoreeasilythantheir fathers. Mostofthe awlia of this groupandsomeoftheothercategoriesareconsidered practically as local deities. Theyarenotonlytheownersofthesmallpieceof ground surroundingtheirtombandshrine,butarethe protectors ofthe properties oftheirdescendantsandthepatrons ofthe'wholevillage. Palestine has inherited from1Some Mohammedans of Aleppo believethatthedeadmay appear in differentformsduringthe night. Once a manwenttohisworkafew hours after mid night. Passing alongthe Mohammedan cemetery hefounda shc-goat, which heatoncetookhome.Hiswife fastened theanimalandwentbacktosleep. Whenshearoseshefound a deadwomaninplaceofthe she-goat. Frightened shecalledherhusband.Theykeptthemattera secret.Intheevening thedead womanchanged again intoa she-goat, andwasatonce taken tothe cemetery whereshewasleft.2SeeJaussen,p.alaff.;Curtiss,chapterXI,brings onlytwo examples.

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310JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyits heathen ancestorstheideathatthewhole country isnot governed asawholebyanyonedeity,butthateach localityhasitsown divinity.Althoughtheremaybe several saints inoneandthesame village,onlyoneofthemistherealpatronofthevillage.Theresem blance ofthis. belief with biblicalstatementsis striking.tIll. Darawis Many shrines belong toa ofsome tariqah. Itisnotan easy thing to become afollowerofa A person must have a predisposition toitoran inner call. Sometimesitisveryeasytogetsuchacall.Ifasaintappearstoamortalandgiveshim something whichhe takes,thecondition isfulfilledandthelattermust followthesaint. A.manpassed oneeveningin front ofthesanctuaryof es-sultan Ibrahlm (Betaanina) andsawthesaint smoking hispipe.'I'he weli offeredittotheman,butthelatter, frightened bytheapparition,ranaway.Hadhesmokedthepipe onlyonce,hewouldhave become a darwis.3 Aboyspentthenight ona heap of barley whichwasputundertheprotection of Abli Hasan(Der Aban). Atmidnight he was awakenedbyabandof religious musicwhichcameoutofthe shrineand'passed beside him.Oneoftheholy persons, approachingthechild,gavehimsome drink, explainingthatassoonashedrankit,hewould become afollowerof el-Badawi,Nextmorninga member of an-Nuhi family,hearingthestory, tookawaythis precious drink.Theboyrelatedhis misfortune to Abft Hasan,who appeared totheoppressor,threatenedhim,tookbackthemiraculous drinkandreturnedittotheboy,whoafterdrinking;itbecame a daruu. Thecall maybeso sudden,andtheperson mayfollowsoquickly,thatheisthoughttohavebecome mentally deranged. This state whichis thought tobethenormal beginning withmany darawis, makestheperson called madj4ub, "drawn".4A madj4ub whose spirit forgets allearthlythingsandfollowsonlytheinternal call,lives,so1Cf.Ruth115;Judges112';2Kg. 1727; 1Kg.117.2 Darwil iscommonly explained as derived fromthe Persian, andasmeaning "seeking doors," i.e. mediant.3Seealso story toldinQS1916,pp.66 fr.4 Goldziher,I.c.11,287 if.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine311tospeak,withhis "caller".Heis thought to communicate withhim, receivinghis orders and instructions.tHeisso absorbed byhis supposed inner lifethathe neglects allelse.2Hetalks disconnectedly,erepeating oneandthesame sentence, roamsaimlessly inthe" streets orinthefieldsandlivesattimesonlyon herbs" or even,asinthecaseof eS-se1J Dahud,! on carcasses."InLawaqih el Anwar we read: "A drawn (inspired) person adheres to the outer condition inwhichhewasfoundwhenthis state befellhim.Ihave seenIhnel-Badja'i repeating continually oneandthesamesentence, whichhe happened tobe reading whenhewas overtaken bytheinspiration."?InthecourseofthisworkIhavegivenseveral examplesofthese madjagib.8 In1924Isawamanwithuncoveredhead, barefootandvery poorlyclad running violentlydownthesteep mountain of (Damascus).Onmyaskingwhathad happened tohim,Iwastoldthathewasa darwiS whobehaved abnormally ineverything. Whenever he acted abnormallyinsucha manner thepeopleof Damascus knewthatsomething extraordinary would take place.9IModern Christian saints showthesame symptoms, l-yasminfinadirat 2Dalman,DerpalastinischeIslam,PJB,XIII,27,28.3This disconnected speechisthoughttocomefromprarsmgGod. They mayshoutattimessoloudlythatpregnantwomen miscarry. (ea-SaCrani, IT,161.) t InMudjir,11,510,wereadthat Mo\lammad usedtoeatserpentsandbeetles, pretendingthattheywere cucumbers and raisins. 5Dahlid usedto roam aimlessly inthestreetsofJerusalem.Wheneverhe passed arestaurant eassz) he picked upsomeofthecooked foodandputitinto his pockets. Nobody ever reproached himorpreventedhimfrom doing so. Reaching homeoralonelyplace,hebegantoemptyhis pockets, wherupon each article offoodcameoutby itself, clean,warmand appetising. Oncehe was observed eating froma carcass. A passer-by cried:"0 areyounotashamed toeatfroma carcass?"Withoutansweringthe thrusthisarmintotheopen abdomen ofthe carcass, tookouta handfulandthrewatthe man. Tothegreatastonishment ofthelatteritproved tobe warmandwell made sweets.6 Es-Sarani gives many such examples in lawaqifl el-'anwar, II,pp. 144, 145, 151etc.SeealsoE.W. Lane, MannersandCustoms oftheModernEg.,11,168fr.711,128.8 El-jell M.hine Anan teachesthatthe repulsive appearance ofa darws or low acts performed byhim often onlyappeartothe public aslowandrepulsive, whileinrealitytheyarethecontrary, 11,161). 9 SeealsothestorytoldinQS1915,p.178.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries inPalestine313Thisverse describes figurativelythewayinwhichthesaints act. They enterthehouselikethievesandtake peopleawaytobecome their followers, acting withsuch suddennessthatnobodyperceivesthem.Itisnotnecessarythatevery darwis must go throughtheabove described phases of ed-djadb. Manyofthem,afterdeciding tofollow a tariqah visita sel) of reputeandlearnhis teachings, assisting in his prayers andceremonies,andin playing the'iddeh,accompanying himonthedifferent ziarat, learning his methods ofcures,etc.,andas soonasthe master judgesthathis disciple is worthy of practising, hegiveshim.anidjazeh:This certificate isalong scroll of paper, certifyingthatN.N.(givinghisgenealogy)whohas taken andhasreceivedthe initiation fromthe (thewhole chain of isgiven,untilthe founder ofthe tariqah is reached) hasfoundthathis adept ...(withtheentire genealogyofthelatter)isa worthyfollowerofthe order.Heis therefore empoweredtoactaccording tothe rules oftheorder, asallthe secrets thereof have beendisclosedtohim. Praises ofGodandthe prophetandverses ofthe Qoran arenever omitted.Themaker ofthecertificate must affixhissealtothedocument.On both margins ofthe scroll one findsthesealsofvarious certifyingtheauthenticity ofthe "diploma." Sometimesa person mayreceivethe permission tobecomea darwis withouthaving undergone sucha period ofstudy.Theactofgivingthe permission is called aCtah el_cahd.2Therearedifferent degrees or stages ofthese fuhud. Thisscroll, placed inan elongatedtubular.ceae,iscarriedbyitsowneronhisside.Sucha willbeginoften,underpretence of praising thepowerofGod,to boast ofhis miraclesandto discant onthepowerswhichhederivesfromthe Almighty.Inthiswayhe tries to extend hisown reputation, whichismagnified still morebythesimple This method of advertising oneself1An 'idjiizeh maybeoftwo kinds: a)Asimpleonewhichallowsitsownerto practice the functions of adarwiS, b)a higher onewhichallowsitsownerto appoint other persons as darawU. Amanwiththis certificate iscalled 2 The giving oftheoath.

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314JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyunderthepretence of exaltingtheglory ofGodisnotpeculiar to Palestine.1Inmanycases weremaininentireignoranceoftheorigin ofa saint.The fellaIJ doesnotbindhimself tofacts,butoften bases his faith upon supposedly observed unexplained signs.Asanappendixto thischapterIwill describe a 4iker as performed bythe The darawis assemble 'in thehouseofthe balifeh orinthe 1)laqam which he guards.Allmust berituallycleanandhaveper formedtheirevening prayers.The balifeh ordersthenaqib(his religiousservant)todistributethemusical instruments.Thedisciples forma semicircle ora circle.The naqib holding a tabel stands before hismaster,andwhileheswingshisarmstoandfro, says:auwal qa,ulisarajliUah el-fatihah (repeatedthreetimes), qidtoatiua)ustQ4iel-bazcAbdel-Qadered-Djilani. "Myfirst wordHonourto God, (recite)the fatibah, Myexample,andmymasteristhefalcon'Abdel-Qadered-Djilani." ,ThenfollowBornepraisestohimandtheother aqtab. Henowplacesthedrumin front ofthemaster, whobeatsit. Every darwis standsupanddoesthesame.Thesmalldrum (elbtiz) leadingtheotherinstrumentswhichfollowitsrhythm.Themusic continues10-15minutesandisfollowedbytherecitationofhymns ofpraise (nasid). Thedrumsarenow warmed overthefireinordertoadjustthembetter.Afterrepeatingthemusicandtherecitationthreetimesthereal 4iker begins.The balifeh appoints onewho possesses agoodvoice toleadtheservice. 'I'his person begins allah,allah"allah,haiy, \1aiy, haiy, qaiyftm, qaiyum, qaiyum, allah haiy(threetimes), or allah qaiyflm (three times).Allrepeatitandslowlyswingtheirbodies fromsidetoside,or backwardsandforwards.Generallytherhythmical swingings become moreenergeticandrapidandtherecitationswilderandlouder. Thisstate (balet el-gheibubeh)may become sowildthatthehead-dress fallsdownandthefoam comesoutofthemouth. Sometimes several personsunitetolaysuchanexcited darwiS onthegroundto quieten him.The calls inhisearstheprayerofthe mu)aWjin which is believed toBoothhim.The rJiker isrepeatedoftenthreetimes.1Thebookof ea-Sa'rani isfullofsuch self-praises.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Sa'intsandSanctuaries in Palestine315Atlast apartoftheQoran isreadandtheleadercalls, "I closethis meetingwiththenameofthe preacher, warning and lighted lamp." 'I'he fatibah is recited. Allkissthehandofthe sel] andleave.Weappend somesongsorversesnotmentioned inthetextbutwhichwell describe thecharactersandmiracles ofthesaints, as wellasthedevotionoftheirfollowers: yasidiyabuSnewar eObed AlUihaftakallah uilayehnaerah. lillah ana el-mrid ilekum farbamu bil-lah. ma atrukel-Cahd la wallah la wallah omymaster, 0 AbtlSnewar 'Obed Allah, ThyLord' hathgiven thee (in religious affairs).I implore theefor God's sake, throw a glance (ofhelp)upon me! Iamyour servant, have pity uponme,I implore theebyGod! I shall neverbreakmyvow(tothe order), never byGod, never byGod! ya sidi ya weli ya sakin el-bilwah fasqimuridak bidak sarbeh 1.tilwah inkunt Jana zallet Can'ohdakum batwah illaiya minel-balwahomymaster, 0 weli, 0 thou who livest ina hermitage, Givethy adherent asweetdraughtby thine own hand!IfIhave strayed a step frommyvowtoyou, Forgive meandsavemefrom misfortune. yaBidi int Ibrahim yajasqini min lacallhum yktbuni findhummin djumlit ya hall tara omy Lord, thouartIbrahim, 0 Givemeto drink fromthe special drink ofthepious,Thattheymay happily write medownasoneoftheirown, Belonging tothebandoftheirservants. 0 who knowsifitwillend successfully? yaBidiya waliy allah yasel]Ghet innanibikum musta(ljir min kull ma bihi ghet man J anzal el-amtarfihal-ghetdirJan?ar sidi Ibrahimyase!:JGhet.

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316JournalofthePalestineOriental Society0'myLord,0 weli ofGod,0 Ghet Iaskyoutosavemefromall trouble,Forthe sakeoftheOnewhosendsdownraininpouring streamso Ghet, turntheattention ofmy lordIbrahhu!towardme. stdi sakinfi uismuh usirruh fi uua el-baddjmashfirb1}aqqsldna el-llaliluis7:taq uil-Ghaiyftr la bdtriltitruddnimadjbztr Lordlivesinhistombandhisnameis Hissecret (power)isrenownedinthelandof the pilgrimage (MeccaandMedina) Bythetruthof our master Abraham,Isaacand the Zealousone(Jacob),Iimplore thee to hearken tomeandto bring me back restored! yD..sidnayabatal yaRa1J,bal uilok karama t !la' amuadj el-bab ar uid-djibal mahsubkutn bil-fahd ma yom 'ankum mallatiqtaCu uiddkum'anhs bitibel-hal omyLord,0hero,0our Ral)\lal Thyacts of benevolencearelikethewavesoftheseaandthemountains,Yourservant hasnot deviated fromhisvowtoyou,Withdrawnotyourlovefromhim (but lethimcontinue)ingood circumstances. SebHabiluana bil-cahdiluh ta/yC usirruh fiel-lellamic'adcitkrabbi uitkun laducayehsarnicbi1Jyat'fib a uahlel-gharjid-djamiC(My) seb (is)HabilandIam obedient tothevow;Hissecret (miracle) shinesevenin the darkness ofthenight I implore Thee0my Lord, tohearmyprayer,Bytheexistenceof andthepeopleof the cave (situated in themosque)!1Ibrahim is meant.2 Medinah ismeant.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine317 ya sidi ya walliy allah yaCAteriraM mridok uini el-qutbfid-diri dabilCala babkum utalib lad-djirih minkullu ma qadd baUd (alaiyamin (je1"i omy Lord, 0God's welt, 0 (Ateri Help thy adherent forthouartthePillarofthe district I enter yourdoor,askingfor a neighbour's rights,'l'hat Imaybesavedfromall harm whichmaybefallme! )ana ili Bidmahur bism Ifalid uiluh karamat lal-warid nasrali (ala man yaridkutn djalkumla radjah sUigo,lid I have a famous master named tIalid. Hisactsofbenevolenceal-efamoustothe suppliant; Casta(helpful)glanceonthe suppliant whocomesseekingyou;' Donotcut oft' hishope,0myI.Jord ija.lid!(alksidi yaMatar uilak titwarade alena malo ma "umri zalletfi 'ohdok kidhtt baia na?rah tnaddjimrulokmin ma$ir Iamthy servantmyLord,0 seb Matar. Thyactsofbenevolencedescenduponmelikerain. I havenever strayed frommyvowtoyou(by)liesoridlegossip. (Cast onme)aglancetosavethyfollowerfromthedangerousway. dir en-nasar'amridak sidise1]Dib(tilemcallam fisilk el-w14yahgib in Caiyuriiniuqalu. sirr se1]akdjib landah uaqul fae'ahu p'ib Turn thy attention tothyfollower,0my sel.! Dlb,Forthouartwise,passingwise;intheart[path]ofbeingaweli,awolf[playofwords]thou art.Ifthey reproach meandsay, "Tell usthe secret of thy Iwillcryoutandsay:Helpme,0

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318JournalofthePalestine OrientalSociety ya 'iee uyae1jilna ra'i ballaftilli djurl)djuwa muhdjati rati in talanie4-4em bandah heyaRfa/iet-tariqah bidjina Col-qadam saCt opride of el-Basrah, and,0 ourshepherd,"Thouhast leftmewith a lasting woundinmysoul.Ifdifficultiesbefallme,Icry, Hither, 0 RfaCj! (Andbehold)the se1] ofthe order comesrunningonhisfeet. yasidi yawall,yaMU$tajd el-Bakriuilak karamat tit?ahar kama ljadjri narrah b'ener-ritJO,t1)allilbiha 'usri ma.1;tsu.bkum qadd 'atakumytlub el-yusriomyLord,0 weli, 0chosenone,el-Bakri! Thymiraclesshinelikethe breaking day! (Cast onme)aglancefromafavourableeye,deliveringmefrom my troubles; Your servant hascometoyou,askingforeasingofhiscircumstances. yasidiya walliy allahyaN4bulhi cA.bdelGhani sidiItbahii farridj hutnumi uzilel-yom lanabs1, cind allahduca.kmaqbftl bil-'unsiomyLord,0 weli ofGod,0 Nabulsi. 'Abdel-Ghaniismylord,Iamhis servant inmybondage. Driveawaymysorrowsandcausemyill-luckto cease to-day,Foryour petition is accepted kindlybyGod. siadi maMnallah mac akum salabtu r-ru}j, uil-muhdjahmac akumda'etunanruJj,ma(4kum 'asamin yammkumsarabe$-$aliJj,in2 1Itistobe understood, us anael-maflsabtalell. 2Thisverseis Catabah, all others arecalled ta,awig.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSa.nctuaries inPalestine319Mylordsaregoing,Godbewiththem. Youhavestolenthesoulandtheheartis (wandering) withyou Youhave calledU8togowithyou; Wehopethatfromyourocean(ofpiety)therewillcomeadraughtfortherighteous. ya sadati in nasetuni 'anae4-i1akir uil-bamdulil-lahi 'ana min fa4lakum uhaqqman ) aneola l-qurana umin fihi jatir inghibtum (an el_c en'}natghibu can el-batir omylords,ifyou happen tohave forgotten me,theevercalling, Thanks betoGodIamtoyour kindness ever grateful.ByHimwho sent downthe Qoran, including Fatir (SurahXXXV),Ifyouareoutofsight,youarenever outofmind. ya (urbi illi nadahtftnz he ) ana djit waqij'calababkumtat)umrftriba'It Zamzam uil-Bet ballu nazarkwm (allaiya uen ma ballet oArabs, whocalled, beholdIhavecome, Standingatyourdoor awaiting your order to enter. Bytheexistenceof Tiba [Medinah], ZamzamandtheKacbeh,(I imJ;>lore you)tokeepyoureyesonme whereverIgo! ya sadatifi hawakum zadataSwQ,qi lil-lah baiyunbaqi ardjfthu yaghfir ijunftbifahualmllli,qiyomauana fil-haSri biqiqi omy lords, inloveofyoumy longings have increased,AndintheloveofGod,theLiving,theOne,theEnduring.Ipray himtoforgivemysins-forHeismycreator-OntheDayof Judgement, whenIamin distress inmy trouble!

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320JournalofthePalestineOriental Society ya sadaJirdjalallahziduni antum rdjale!)-$afaeiduniya hall taraminabbti hall triduni uakun binafsi bifyuni omy Lords, 0menofGod, increase inme(theloveofGod),Youarethechosen men increase inmethelove(ofGod)!ocanitbethatyouwillacceptmeformylove,That1maybe(your) servant, (first)withmysoulandthenwith myeyes. yasadatilatbftt manbikum watiq uqalbuh. billtawafi(asiquallahya/lambibaluhfil-qa$di$adiqbil-bubbiuar7:tam mutaiyam'omta ya omy lords, donotbetraytheonewhotrustsyou,Whilehisheartinlove cleaves toyou.Godknowshisstate(ofmind)thatheis sincere inhisaim Oflove;have mercy,0Creator,onaslave(toyourlove).nadaht heya Yaman qalat anaismi uin kantihua djatna li lal-masadjid rftb uhaqqman)anzalal-Qorana uast el-lobjirq-itsiadi min tlu,c I .called, He, 0Yem.en [Kafbeh].Sheanswered:"Myname is 'Go'!"Ifyou .loremy beauty, 'go'tothemosques.ByHimwhosenttheQoran, includingthetablet,Theseparationfrommylordsismore difficultthanthedepartureofmylife. I cala-r-rdjal iqallqu bif/,-iJ,ubab2uin-nasghaflanin lauw yabil-lelmadjnlflindjawaraqabr en-nobi bil-bubbmaSghftj'in.3 1 JobasIUbill to chant a songaloudandincompany.2 .fJubab =lips. 1280, doesnotgiveit, though itgivesasoneofthe meanings of the verb"tospeakaloud ."3Thislineisalsorecitedin theway: es-salik iUiJiqimellel bit-taklU (1, djannet ytma!Jtar IamBI uyamin.

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine321Callouta AobaA forthosewhoarethievesand robbers;' Who stammer (prayer) with their lipswhilepeopleareunconscious,omyfriend,ifthouseestthem gatheredatnight Inthe neighbourhood of the prophet's tomb,seizedwithpassionfor hislove.tThe saints are compared to robbers and thieves, ashas already been mentioned and explained.21

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INDEXOFPLACESAND"SAINTS" (awlia) Sincethe "List of Contents" atthe beginning ofthebookis sufficiently detailed asa guide tothe subject matter, onlythepropernamesofplacesand saints are here indexed. The order oftheEuropeanalphabet isfollowed,andundereachletterwillbe foundthe Arabicletterconcerned andits manneroftranscription. Names beginning with cayin,e, are givenattheendthe alphabet.Undereachletternamesofplacesarefirstgiven,andthenthose ofthe awUd.A dottedlinemarksthedivision betweenthetwo. A. and' Abft Die 4:5 Ghos (BeeQariyeh, el-) Suseh 288 Aqsa, el-15,79Ararat6 AJiis 66,96Aaron6Abraham6, 152 78,81,89,90,93,186, 276,283,293 -imprintsof241 AbulArqub282 Ibrahim276 -elcA wadjiz 274,276 Dababeh 2835 Enen 96,230,247 83, 115 Ghet -Hurerah3,98,104,106,298ij:arrubeh 236., 283 :aalaweh 20,26, 30, 64, 101,257 :aammadi 274,276 l;[anifeh 82 J;[asan 310 Ismacil 16,52,931 ,238 Kaskul 260 I-Kfer 62,28o,288 Lemun 10, 34, 70,227 Madian 105, 113 AbuMite. 260 Nada283& Nar, sadjaret 70 -Ndjem96l-cOf 245,246,298 -I-COn11, 962 Qass 247er-Rayat105 Ris 70,962-Sall 282 Sef 8276 952Sa'r 282 Suseh 230,246Tor0, 9,283, 287, 298. Tug34, 58, 59. Yamin 8,53,110,118, 249, 257,303 Yusif44 Zagariyah 255 Zed 112 Zetun 105 Adam 13 Al}mad(ij. el74,103 (ij:. Q.S'ideh)4, 84,103,237, 238,239 AbuTor (see Abu rror) Abu Sall282 eI-'Adjami 250 el-Bustami 23,29 el-Dadjdjani 2891

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Index 323Al}mad el-Faludji 285 el-Gharib 57el-Ghmar!257,2582el-Ghreiyb 59,106 80, 44,57,240,256,265,303 -el-Kabritel-Ahmar 306 -el-Karaki et-1.'aiyar 3,10,11,45,103, 245,"283er-Rifa.'i, see er-Rifaci es-Sarrisi18 et-Taiyar 22,23, 245, 306f. et-Tori (see AbuAJ.t madi welis 253 Aiyu b, 78-(E.of :ijarbata) 111.250 (Ras ibn SimJ.tan) 111, 21o, 239 (DerAiyub) 112, 285 -bir(Silwan)111 -(Der Aiyub) 112cen (E.of lJarbata) 112 ibriyet 112,215 27,29,115,272 Arami, el-113Arb'in,el(general) 290f. (Qubebeh) 34, 291 (Jerusalem) 291 -el-(Nablus)291 -djami' CEsawiyeh) 60,95,291 --(Djib) 103 -madjma' (Nablus) 291--mashad(Hebron)290-magsm(Nazareth) 290 -mghazi (Bet Liqia) 58, 291 --59,291 --qubbet(Mt.of Olives) 08, 291 -irdjal (Biddu) 261,291 --tell285 -(Satif) 291 Asar see el-Anbia 295 el batmeh 276Band yBab cAla ed-Din el-Buseiri 197 ed-Djanneh 280 el-Habs 197 197 -er-Rahmeh78,298 -sittiMariam 197,286 el-Wad 145 Balatah, el-, es-Sodah 82Benina-78 NCem 20,21,25,78,105,292 BetcAnan a,8,16,23. Djila. 13,62,66,149,221,291 -Djibrin239,287-Duqquh4,16,24,304 ij:anina 16,35,58 el-Halil 293 Idjza 4,17,294,295 Iksa 8,11,17127, 222 -Lahim286 Liqia 4,8,16,58 Safafa 30 auar 255 Surik 11,258 Unia 104, 304 CUr 287Bethany55(seeCEzariyeh) BetheI 84 BethHoron287 Bethesda 69 Biddu 11,27,58BirelBa]at 46 -Aijub(Silwan)67,111 -(Der Aiyub) 112 el-Arway 82 -ed-Damm292 -ed-Djabbarah68 el-Halil 293 en-Nubani 65,67 -immDjde'68 cOna 66,68,240 Qadisma 108 -es-Sahar67,112 Sindjil 67,2952-el-Waraqah68 Zamzam 65 Zet 11,13,24 ez-Zqaq 56 BaalRazor288 abdal276 "Badwi,el-246,251,256,274f.,276Badr, sultan (Sarafat) 285, 306 ff.el-Ghafir 29seg 8,9,23,24,26 Badriyeh, el-13, 20, 23,24,26,35,43, 69,98,105,227, 239,307 f. 211j:

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324 IndexBahlul, el-276 BahluJ, bahaJil 278Bairam Sawis 5,29,105Bakri,el-113,Il4,. 253 Balqis 38, 661Ballutet el-ij:alil (Sebta)293 Banat er-Rfaci 236 ea.ealag 84,96,236,239,240 YaCqub 1194 295Barraq239Barri70,105 Baz, al-270f.Bebars299f. BlJet 53Bingamin 295 Birdaq, el74-Bisr el-Hafi20,239, 282Brek 36 Brediyeh, el246Bugtiari, el105 Burningbush73,93Butmeh,el(Beteafafa)30, 72 --(Nuba) 71 -(Q,ubebeh) 71,105 -elcA(jra 73cCain 287 Cave,seemghdrah-of Qattawah 254 below es-sadjarah254 Chapel of Ascension 79,98,293 --Nativity997 --HolySepulchre991Christ79, 241, 242 cribof 52 impressions 241,293Dand) Danian 285 Dares-Seg 308 Der, ed-2871Aiyub 112,285 cAD:lmar 22 -el-Azhar2878-Duwsn 44 Ghasaaneh18,58,55,66,286,296,303f.ns-, lstia 285 es-Sidd 43,56 Saraf 285 ea-Seg 285,308 .-. yasin 4,16,17,287. Dome ofthe Rock(see e,eagrah) ed-260,285 Dahud,seg(Bet Duqquh)47 --Jerusalem258, 311 -Sarafat 306 -King(seeDsvid) Danian 62,105,14 239,285 Darun, ed-299 Darwis, darawis 310fr. Darwii(seb) 56, 304Da.suqi, ed246,276,.297 David15,81,89,218,286, 294 -mulberryof78 Dawacri, ed4, 7,23,25,27,29,64,256, 305D =)I)ib304l-Kafl 10, 286 --(Kafl Uaris) 297 --(Kafr cAttiyeh) 297 Damrah18,256,298Dj= c:: Djdedah97Djibiah62 Djorif 305 Djabir 260Djabr119,303 Djabbarah,ed-240 DjaCabri,eel-53Djacfar 2737 Djarahid,ad9,.27, 29 5,18,19,27,39,52,277,286Djazairi287f. Djilani, ed-275 f.Djibrin227Djinn36f., 45, 73, 87, 186 r,254, 261, 280f.,311f.Djuned298

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Ebal6Eglon286Ephron288EIndexHabil, aI65, 304Hud 296 Husan 282,285,287 Husac62 325Ebenezer76 Elias,Mar 73,76,SO,98,2151,282,241Eleazar287,292Eliezer 6 Elijah6,284Ezra292Eve93 Fand J Farhah76 Field oftheGreyPeas293 Fatmeh, daughterofcAli20 el-Barri 2731 ,251f.307f.Fattumeh68 61,72,249Forty,the289f.GGerizim 6 Gethsemane 78,997Gezer288Gilgal76 Golgatha 79Gomorrah78, 243, 2924 Gabrianus 68 Gabriel 8,15,241 ,276,287 Gideon 291, 292 Gh= tGhar, el-83 Ghanim 8,25,104,115Gharah, el-71,239Ghawanmi278 Ghet 227,228, 304 Ghreiyb (Ysdo) 62 (ijadr) 58,110H =. Hebron24, 53, 58, 116" 288 HolyRock (seeeabrah)ul 805 .J;IammamcAsurah 65-ed-Daradjeh66,67 el-cEn 120 -sittiMariam66,67 es-Sifs66, 67,83 -ea-Suljdn83 J;Iaram el-ij:alil 94 J;[auran 97 }Jisban 241 l;Iadjar el-cArliri 71-el-,el-Mansi79 l;J adj djAt, el-236Hamad" 16,17,23, 24, 2710,47,69 :aamdallih27, 39,65,246,303 l;Iamid 103 l;Iarilzeh 82 J;Iassn(BetIksa) 11Abfr l-cAlumen aoa -el-cAruri71 -el-Baqari246el-Gerami 5 er-Ra, 14,17,19, 20, 27,75,104, 110,199 l;[an,aI276 ana53,304 llmediyeh 305 asen 16,239Husen,el-65(Bet-Sfu-ik) 52,239,240,247--(Kolonis) 10,68(ed-Dahriyeh) 1355
PAGE 334

326 IndexIJan es-Sahl 299 Yunis 11, 294}Ja9r, el58, 79,94 }Jarbata 22 IJil wetcAli82 J;[irbet CAdjlun287cAlmit 43 cAzzuni 285 -Deres-Sidd 43,56-Ibqu'ed-Damm43-Idjdfir 285 -(I)sCideh4, 34, 103,238-Huaeh 285,287 el-Kfereh 62, 285 er-Rl].ab 286 -Tellel-Arb'tn285 -Zif241 }Jaiy4 el.. 84iar 276 el.. (general)81,119, 1510 r,137,232,239,240, 257 (Bet-Djala) 13,62,74, 7Q, 122f."(Nablus) 19,66,121 (Lydda) 215 (Mt. Carmel) 58, 215 -(Jerusalem)120,121 (Taiybeh) 121(BetCAnan) 121-(Djifna)122-(BetRima) 122-(Karak)122 batwet122seg 122 ij:adra, el(Nablus) 9,19, 30, 46, 112,216,286,287,283 --(Djorah)118,286 :ijalid 240,257,304 ij.alifeh 227 IJalilAllah (seeAbraham)Qalawani 96 Jlalili, el.. 114, 298 Varrftb tree37 ij:arrllbet el-cAiarah 2 s, 70,72, lOO,291Ibrahim el249.254, 255,266,282.298 IJrea114ijuIdah 67,284Jand\ !. Jericho4,7.8,25,80, oF) Jerusalem 5, 8,9, 24 Jordan69, 991 Jacob 24,40,115, 232(see Anbia)Jazdji '276Ibrshim (seg,Bet Djibrin)110, 139 -(-DerGhassaneh) 304-(-el-Hadr) 254 -el-Hadami 008 el-ij:alil (see Abraham) el-Adhami 141 61.102.239, 250,266-(Bet:aaniDa) 20,16, 35, 51,240,266,810 -(eoba) 61.71 Abu l-cAlamen276 Icbed53. 74Tbrek68,111Idris81,242Idjdur 286 Jesus65,69,89,276,293 L'mar4,24,47, 216, 804f.Imm el-Ghet 220,228ea-Beg289 1,304(I)m harak 8,27, 05 Imbsrakeh61 Inqula,mar 91, 149, 280,256, 264, 266 J"ob65,67,119 (seeAiyub) Jona(seeYunis) Irdjal el-cAmud8.28,29,47,256, 283 AbuTUb 34,58, 59, 103 -sl-Arb'in(Biddfi)58, 69 --(Jerusalem) 291 cAzzuni 28:) el-Badriyeh 277Sufa 18,53-Isachar19, 295 (see Anbia) 285 Isma11 22, 27,29-el-, clnb&.wy24, 803 Ic s&.58 lteyim 17.:K and Kafl I;Iaris 96', 297, 288Ka'beh991KafrNicmeh 44

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Index 327 Kafr 297Siba 295Kolonia 2,16, 24 Kufr'Agab 58 Kafl 215. 288 Kamali, el806 113Katharina2885 Kilani, el270,283 Land 285 LaurelLady71 Lemun (see Abft L.). Liqia (Prophet)4, 286 Lot(see Luke,St.287 Lftlft 283 152 ,21,20,78,106,241,246, 285]f and Mall}a 35,110 Maqtal el-masaiyg 77 Martum, el-78 Matba cah,al-42, 64, 68,III Mazaricen-Nubani 18,298 Mdjedil 57,59 Mecca 66, 108,161. MgharetAbu FarlJ,45 Mardj el-Badd 45 ei-seg 58, 264 ea-sittinnabi291254 Milk Grotto 60,80,98,.110MizpahSamuel 11, 58 (seeNabi Moriah6 Mosque of Omar, see 9agrah MountCarmel 6, 58 -Hor6-Horeb6 Nebo 6 -of Olives 2, a.4,7,16,18, 22, 27, 298, -ofQuarantine 998 -ofTabor293Mariam-Mary(theVirgin)65-68,98,109,111,188,232,241,286 Marrar 47Masadjid sittna 18,61,104Masalmeh,el-110, 802Mafad 3,18,79 Mas'udeh591\latar 304 90 Mol;lammad (= Mul}ammad)(Wadi ed-Darnm) 42,239 (Bet-Sfrrik) 258 (Bet Djibrin) 304 -(theProphet)15,89,100,276, 29fl --theimpressionsof, 81,82,241,296f.el-CAqrabani 216 -el-Baqqsni 22 el-Bubari 216Abft 260el-Halili (see el-1Jalili) en-Nfihi 80a es-Sabti216es-Safarini 216 Sacleh 284 Mrad 62 Mufa44el, el-10, 15, 17,26,26, 55Mulattam, el-274,276 Muntar, el299Murad23 Mudjihdin,el-,generaldescriptionof277(Hebron) 24 -(Ramleh) 63 -(.Jerusalem) 277 Murdjsn 74Murdjaneh, thetalismanof1173Mu)minah 66,68 Muss (theProphet) 4,6, 8,9,17,27, 75, 88,89,110,113, 184:, 193ft'., 239, 246, 246,299 (seg) 59,264 66,71Nand 0 Nablus8,9,16,17, 22, sa, 24 ....................Naaman69 Madjgub, el-,114, 125, 804 Nadjlah 305 265 Nafit 68 Man,uri 17, 25, 26, 84,aa,66, 104; 292Nafub 282

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328 Index24 Nicola (see Inqula) Noah (Nul}) 6,lOO,283 Nubani, en-17,18, 65, 119, 249, 286Nun 946 ,105,285N uraD 8, 97r,106Nussak2786pPlainofRephaim73Pelagia57,284 Q and 3 2862Qariyeh, el-16,18,24, 292 3,10,11, 40, 77 10, 22,247288&Qrun elJ;ladjar 256Qubbeh,el962 Qubebeh46Qabr lJabrun 288Qaitun110 Qalcet erRfaci 78 Qarini, el-181 Qasim 47 el-3,10,11,18, 24, 84, 46, 61,133I, 227,230,267, 269,2885 -thechepherdof,23Qemariyeh 277Quddameh 303 aqtab 274 fr.Rand) Ram, er80 Ramallah66 &selcAmud 198,213 -ibn 111, 216, 289Rehob286 Rabcah, er-22,26,57,268 t.284 RamacJan 22,103,110,247, 264:, 303 RayaIun (seeZebulon) Rdjal (seeIrdgal) Rhab 286 Ril}an 5,26 Rifacj, er-78, 92, 119, 246,266, 266,274f.,297Rock,theHoly-80f(see Rubin 213,215,295Sand ...". Sebastia 01 Sheba88Sinai6 Sodom 78,248,292 4 Springofthe A postIes 832---Sun882StablesofSolomon62 Surbahir 4,7,17,22,23,27,28 Saba(Mar) 78,94,108,133Sard 89-u Scjd 6,18, 62, 286 (Abu Dis) 74 (BetLiqia) 8Sa'id62,115 Salman(BetSurik)84 el-Farsi4, 16,18,29, 34, 67, 145,297Samuel76, 229 (see eamwil) -motherof237Sidri22,48,44,66,103, 2492 285 SlimaDeAnata)46 -(Der' Aban) 106Slemiyeh(sitt)257 Solomon(Ring)37t..81Soulofthedead280f.Srirrlsa 52, 242 es-Saiydih 802,1063 ,242 Srur 17,43 Sufa,Rojal 119, 184, 303Sukeinah 941eagrah,e,14', 44, 52,60,76,80f.,107, 241 96 181 eaba 66, 6930, 50eafuan 272 273eabretAiyu b78

PAGE 337

Index329 Telab 258, 303Tari 295 rr aldjeh 303'faha cAbdel-Qadir256 Tarafini 239,267 (= !ori) 47,288,287,298yand Yahfidiyeh285,295vue36,62,240 Wahii, el-307f.Well, awlia 273Wand, Wadi edDamm42 -Djhannam99en-Nusfrr305f.3 Yahftda285, 295Yamin23(seea180 Abu Yamin)-Kafr Saba 295Yaqin20,78,105,106,287 YaCqub (seeYacob) YaSadjar (seeIsachar) Yasln 4,16,952 ,287 Yusif (nsbi)Nablus 294, 295(nabi) BetIdjzi4, 17, 295 (nabi)Hebron 296 (nabi)bir-(Sindjil)67(sell) BetJ;lanin8. 58(sey) N.ofBireh44,105(sey)ljarbata 22Yfmis,generaldescription273, 294 (lan285,294 (J;lall}ul) 294 -(Meshed)294 -(NahrSukrer)294 -(N.ofSidon)294,299 Tell287,294 (en-nabi,Ramleh)17", 110, 215, Tell Yunis 287,288,294 296,299Turkishbath65 t (en-nabi,Ramleh,en-nabi 110, 215,266,273,296,299 -(--Marlul) 296 -(-Ic}na) 296-(--Acre)297,299sey
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330 IndexZandjZamzano 65, 67,99ez-Zarqa 210Zarqa Macin 66 Zacharias19 Zakariya. (Nablus)19 (Bet Zakariya)112 zawiet el-As'adiyeh301 -el-Afghaniyeh301el-Buhariyeh BOO -el-Bustami301 en-nabi Dahud 301,302 -ed-Darwisiyeh24 el-:ijankah 301 el-Hnfid 300el-Maghdrb! 300 el-MauwlswiyehBOO-el-Qadriyeh301301Zebulon19,289,292 Zed 8,25,27 Zenab 68 Zetun 289 Zetunet el-ij:adr 120. -en-Nabi70,142Zughbeh (M9Jl}a) 110,113 CAwartah) 27,30,55Zucbeh8zuhada2786c= C CAdjur297 285 cAnata 2, 3 ; 7,8,18,22, 24, 27 cAtArah (see cAwartah 2, 3, 8,11,16,22,27,48,59, 246,292 cEnAbu Fakkah112el-Amir68cArik 134 Arf,8,s 66Aiyub 112-edDjakfik 68-Djifnd93ed-Djoz66,68, 709 Fauwar 66f.}Jadjar 66,68 cEnij:adjdji 83 el-l;o
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Index 331 CAdjami (DerGhass8,neh) 251(Bet Djibrin)251, 263 Al]mad 260,261 AbuRis251, 70,962 lsma "il251Man,ur 251 Salman 251 cAdjam, Nuqqar el-78cAdjlun286f. CAiy8.B,mar 292 cAll207, 2582(Qatanneh) 303 (Der Ghassaneh)304Bakka 283, 298 -ibnC(E)lim47,89,215,216-Marrar 47imarn145 18,39,305 -'Obed308 Qaitun 58TallaJ 61cAmari,djami' el-503 cAmmar 44 cAnbar11,28,24,27,30,43,47,144,1583 ,288 cAnnir 20, 105, 215cAruri 71,78,119,285 57,75,76,258,282, 304 281 cAzerat, el-8,16,144, 23H, 245 cEredjeh (see RifaCi) c1sa (seeJesus)sell 103'Inbawi285,288 cOkaseh 5,298 cObed 184 cObadah bin 298cOmaribn el-:ijatt3b 17,60,51 cUbed 103 cUr 287 cUzer (Bethanien)" 292 _(el-Qariyeh)16, 34, 50,287,292_ eAwartah) 3,17,22,24,26,34,44,51,55,292'Umari(Jericho)97(IJizmah) 59 -el-,ed-Djbe'i3,4,10,11, 266cBed 22 cNeni 26 'TerieAteri) 65,115