Churches of the captivity in Malaya

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Title:
Churches of the captivity in Malaya
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Bryan, John Northridge Lewis, 1892-, 1892-
Publisher:
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
Place of Publication:
London, United Kingdom
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Materials:
Paper ( medium )
Measurements:
25 x 19 cm.
Technique:
Illustrated, partially coloured

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Armies   ( lcsh )
World War, 1939-1945 -- Prisoners and prisons, Japanese   ( lcsh )
Prisoners   ( lcsh )
Prisoners of war   ( lcsh )
Christianity   ( lcsh )
Concentration camps   ( lcsh )
Malay Peninsula   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Malaysia -- Malay Peninsula
Asia -- Singapore
Coordinates:
4.03962 x 102.12891

Notes

General Note:
72 p.

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SOAS, University of London
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This title was digitised with the permission of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and, is available under a Creative Commons (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives, CC BY-NC-ND) license. For contact information, see http://www.spck.org.uk/
Resource Identifier:
soas shelfmark - HG949 / 606015
System ID:
LOAA000025:00001


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Full Text
THE CHURCHES OF
THE CAPTIVITY IN
MALAYA

BY

THE REV. J. N. LEWIS BRYAN, M.A.

Formerly A.C.G. Far East

This title has been digitised
with the permission of the

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING
CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LONDON

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING
CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE
NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE. W.C.Z


THE CHURCHES OF
THE CAPTIVITY IN
MALAYA

BY

THE REV. J. N. LEWIS BRYAN, M.A.

Formerly A.C.G. Far East

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C.Z


DEDICATION

To the Chaplains of all DenominationsC. of E., C. of S., Methodist
United Board and Protestant Reformed Church of HollandBritish,
Australian and Dutchwho worked in No. 1 P.O.W. Camp, Changi,
Singapore, from February, 1942, to September, 1945, in splendid
co-operation in the Service ofjthg_Master^ an^His^Ghurch on earthand

years of captivity,

Published 1946
Made in Great Britain


CONTENTS

PAGE

FOREWORD ....... 5

INTRODUCTION ....... 7

THE CHURCHES OF THE CAPTIVITY . . . g

NOMINAL ROLL OF CHAPLAINS ..... 16

CASUALTIES OF CHAPLAINS ..... 17

COMMUNICANTS . . . . . .18

TEMPLE CHURCH ...... 20

BRITISH BATTN. CHURCH, CHANGI VILLAGE ... 22

GLADE CHURCH, CHANGI ..... 22

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, INDIA LINES (Mark I) . .24

CHAPEL OF ST. BARBARA, 11th DIV. AREA, CHANGI . . 28

CHAPEL OF THE TRANSFIGURATION, KUALA LUMPUR, 1942 . 29

ST. EDMUNDS CHURCH, CHANGI . . . . 32

SINGAPORE RACE CLUB CHURCH .... 33

ADAM PARK CHURCH . . . . . .36

CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION, GREAT WORLD ... 37

ST. LUKES CHAPEL, SELARANG ..... 40

MEMORIAL ALTAR . . . .41

ST. LUKES CHAPEL, ROBERTS BARRACKS HOSPITAL . . 42

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, TANJONG PRIOK, JAVA ... 44

HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, SELARANG .... . 46

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, KANBURI (Mark II) ... 47

ST. DAVIDS CHURCH, SIME ROAD CAMP, SINGAPORE . 50

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, CHANGI GAOL AREA . ... . 52

ST. PAULS CHURCH, CHANGI GAOL .... 57

CHAPEL OF ST. ANDREW AND ST. LUKE, CHANGI GAOL HOSPITAL

AREA ...... 60

ST. GEORGES OFFICERS AREA, CHANGI GAOL, ST. GEORGES

(Mark IV) . . . .61

SYNAGOGUE OF OHEL JACOB, CHANGI GAOL ... 62

CONFIRMATION, SEPTEMBER 7th, 1945 . 64

BRITISH CEMETERY, CHANGI ..... 66

FINAL THANKSGIVING SERVICE .... 68


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

*Errata.These two plates have been printed with the titles transposed.

PAGE

TEMPLE CHURCH . . . . . .21

BRITISH BATTALION CHURCH, CHANGI VILLAGE ... 23

GLADE CHURCH, CHANGI ..... 23

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, INDIA LINES (Exterior) ... 25

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, INDIA LINES (Interior) . . . 26

CHAPEL OF ST. BARBARA ...... 27

CHAPEL OF TRANSFIGURATION, KUALA LUMPUR . . . 30

ST. EDMUNDS CHURCH, CHANGI . . . .31

SINGAPORE RACE CLUB CHURCH .... 34

ADAM PARK CHURCH . . . . . . 35

CHURCH OF ASCENSION, GREAT WORLD .... 38

ST. LUKES, SELARANG . . . . . . 39

MEMORIAL ALTAR AT SELARANG . . . .41

ST. LUKES CHAPEL, ROBERTS HOSPITAL .... 43

PROPAGANDA PICTURE FROM THE NIPPON TIMES ST. GEORGES

CHURCH, TANJONG PRIOR, JAVA ... 45

HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, SELARANG .... 48

*ST. GEORGES OFFICERS AREA . . . . .49

ST. DAVIDS CHURCH, SIME ROAD P.O.W. CAMP . . . 51

ST. GEORGES CHURCH, CHANGI GAOL AREA ... 53

CEMETERY IN KANBURI (THAILAND) . . . . 54

MEMORIAL CROSS IN MALAYA HAMLET, THAILAND . . 55

ST. PAULS CHURCH . . . . . .56

CHAPEL OF ST. ANDREW AND ST. LUKE . . . . 58

*ST. GEORGES CHURCH, KANBURI .... 59

SYNAGOGUE ....... 63

CONFIRMATION OF P.O.W., CHANGI GAOL . . . . 65

BRITISH CEMETERY, CHANGI ..... 67


FOREWORD.

The Word of God is not bound. The Book of Revelation came from a
prisoner on the Isle of Patmos, and Pilgrims Progress from Bedford Gaol.
There is a Word of a different kind but of the same spirit in this Book.
It is more than a record of what was done in the Name of God in the prison
camps of Malaya. It is evidence written for our learning that faith in
God supports men in all dangers and carries them through all temptations.
It goes forth upon a work of witness.

What was going on in the silence of the Far East ? How many relatives
were asking that, and praying and hoping that all was not tragedy and
despair? This lifts the veil to show the courage and the triumph of the
Cross.

Men who are employed in forced labour and growing weak through
insufficient food do not build Churches and worship in them unless they
are persuaded that there is real value in such toil. This is a record of how
strong that conviction was and how repeatedly they toiled.

The Churches of the Captivity witness to faith in the Companion-
ship of Christ, in the resources of the Unseen Kingdom, in the power of
corporate prayer and worship. The constant repetition of church-
building zeal, as time after time camps were moved, is proof that this
faith was not found vain. At the last Thanksgiving Service men in
thousands thanked God for His Grace and power, and passed through the
gates to Freedom with a true experience of both.

I hope many will think over this booka record of Out of the deep
have I cried unto thee, O Lord and a witness to Gods swift and gracious
answer. As servus servorum Dei Padre Bryan writes this tribute to
brethren and companions in tribulation.

F. Ll. HUGHES,

Chaplain-General.


6


INTRODUCTION

In adversity men turn to religion for moral support. The officers and
men who fell into Japanese hands at Singapore in February, 1942, and
those who joined them later in the prisoner of war camps from other parts
of the Far East were no exception to this rule. Very soon churches began
to appear. In some cases the ruined remains of existing buildings were
adapted for this purpose; in others new buildings were erected with such
material as could be found. In the grossly over-crowded camps building
material was scarce and many of the churches seemed, as it were, to grow
out of nothing. Under the direction of the chaplains they were built by
the willing hands of voluntary workersand there was never any lack of
volunteers. But the churches were but the visible sign of the religious
revival which was taking place. In those dark days, when news of the
outside world was scarce and when most of what there was came from
enemy sources, there could be in those prison camps little of that national
fervour which impels the peoples of belligerent countries in times of stress.
Something else was needed to take its place. It was found in the develop-
ment of an implicit faith in the ultimate triumph of right over the forces of
evil which was threatening the very existence of peace-loving and God-
fearing people. Every Sunday the churches were filled, and, where there
were no churches and no chaplains, services were held in ordinary buildings
or in the open air and were conducted by the prisoners themselves. In the
main camp at Changi on Singapore Island a large number of officers and
men were confirmed by the Bishop of Singapore, who himself set a
wonderful example of courage and endurance under torture and
privations. Wherever possible, Communion services were regularly held
and were always well attended.

Inspired by faith, the British soldiers in these camps displayed some of
the finest qualities of their race. Courageous under oppression and
starvation, patient through the long years of waiting, and cheerful and
dignified in face of adversity, they steadfastly resisted all the efforts of the
Japanese to break their spiritand finally conquered. That was an
achievement of which all may be proud.

The churches themselves may disappear, but this book will remain as a
record of work well done by a devoted and tireless band of chaplains, and
of the triumph of the Christian Faith over the forces of evil.

A. E. PERCIVAL,

December, 1945. Major-General.

Formerly C.inC. Malaya Command.

7


THE CHURCHES OF THE CAPTIVITY
IN MALAYA.

FEBRUARY 15th, 1942.

One of the darkest days in British Military History for it saw the
Capitulation of Singapore, the end of the Malayan Campaign, the
beginning of the onward sweep of the Japanese Forces across the
fabulously wealthy Islands of the South Seas, and the beginning of three
and a half years of captivity for 52,000 British and Australian Troops.

It is not my purpose to enter into any details of our experiences as
Ps. O.W. Much has been written, and will still be written, about our
conditions the grim tragedies which cost so many gallant men their
lives the courage with which they met every misfortune.

The purpose of this book is to show how the Churches got down to their
task of providing spiritual and moral uplift for their peoplekept them
in living touch with the one Power which alone could lift them above the
immediate present, and gave them hope and encouragement for the
future whether of life or of death.

We tried to build not only for ourselves to develop and offer every
means of Grace the Sacraments and Services of our Churches can give
but to send officers and men back to their home parishes with new life and
enthusiasm, consecrated to the Service of God and of His Church on earth.

Time alone will prove how far we succeeded in our second endeavour.
Here is recorded something of what we were able to do, in the immediate
circumstances, and the measure of Gods blessing on our work.

It deals only with the Church of England (although a painting of the
Jewish Synagogue in Changi Gaol has been incorporated as a token of our
co-operation). The paintings and sketches are exclusively of that
Denomination but I would here pay a tribute to the work of the
Chaplains of all Denominations British, Australian and Dutch, who
worked in splendid harmony and co-operation, and all with the same ends
in view, and whose work was equally blessed.

The Changi Area, where all Ps. O.W. were concentrated in February,
1942, was divided into Sub-Areas as follows:

1. Command H.Q. and Third Indian Corps.

2. Southern Area (late Singapore Fortress).

3. 18th Division Area.

4. 11th Division Area.

5. A.I.F. Area.

All Indian Troops had been concentrated in a separate area but officers
and British personnel of Indian Units remained at Changi.

The opening Sunday saw Services of all Denominations being held in
every area, with enormous congregations. From the first the I.J.A. placed


no restrictions upon Religious activities, and of this we took the fullest
advantage.

Sites were selected for Church buildings and construction at once put
in hand. Officers and men offered their services willingly. Each Church
had its own peculiar designeach was planned with the greatest care and
foresight. An Indian Muslim Mosque, a N.A.A.F.I. Refrigeration
building, a bombed 30 yards rifle range, a large garageamongst other
buildingswere reconstructed. Architects designed Altars, and Church
furniture was made from all kinds of materials.

Hymn sheets were compiled, which later proved of immense value, as
paper soon became short.

There was a limited amount of Bibles and Prayer Books brought into
the camp at the beginninglater on increased by a small quantity from the
American Red Cross. It can safely be said that had 10,000 Bibles been
available, they could have been given away inside a month of our
captivity. It was the one request of all ranks. At a later date they were
loaned out for seven-day periods as though they were library books and a
copy was kept in each Church for general use, but not to be removed.
They were in constant use.

By the middle of 1942 the following Churches were in operation.The
Volunteer Church at Fairy Point, the British Battn. Church in Changi
Villagethe Glade Church in 1st M.I.B. AreaSt. Georges
St. Edmunds and the Garage Church in 18th Div. Areathe Church of
St. Barbara in the 11th Div. Area, and many sites were being used
regularly for open-air services in all parts of the camp.

Daily celebrations of Holy Communion, Week-day Services,
Confirmation Classes, Choir practices, Soldiers Guild of St. George,
Toe H Branches, etc., were in full operation.

University Schemes were started in Southern Area and 18th Div. In
each a Theological Faculty was incorporated and a full course of
instruction up to Part 1 G.O.E. given by Chaplains. Twenty-four officers
and men attended in all, with the definite intention of taking Holy Orders.
Many others attended the lectures for instructional purposes (including
Major-General Beckwith Smith, G.O.C. 18th Div.). The Chaplains of
other Denominations also had their training scheme under the able
guidance of Rev. J. Foster Haigh, C.F. (U.B.), who later died a gallant
death in Thailand.

Although the University Scheme later lapsed, continuous preparation
for Candidates for Holy Orders was carried out to the last day under the
inspired leadership of the Rev. E. W. B. Cordingly, C.F.

In April, 1942, the first overseas party left for Saigon, but many parties
in addition had been drafted to town camps. Wherever possible
Chaplains accompanied these parties, and carried on their spiritual work,

9


though working hours interfered in many cases with regular services.

On 20th July, 1942, our first Confirmation Service was held in St.
Georges Church and 179 candidates were confirmed by the Bishop of
Singapore at a most impressive Service, followed afterwards by the
Ordination to Priest of a serving Officer who had been ordained Deacon
on the Friday prior to our capitulation. The Bishop was able to hold
smaller Confirmations in town camps before he himself was taken by the
KEMPIE (the Japanese Gestapo) and suffered eight months of
imprisonment and torture at their hands.

On August 16th, the Generals, Brigadiers and Colonels left for Japan,
but not before they had completed the building of Command Church in
Temple Hill.

In September, we evacuated Changi Village and many of our Churches
had to be left behind, as we closed in to a more constricted area, in
Selarang.

Before we left an incident occurred which I feel I must tell here, in
order to keep faith with four very gallant men to whom I gave the promise
that their names would never be forgotten.

On September 2nd I was ordered to meet the Commander and the four
area Commanders at a given R.V. We were taken by a lorry to a spot
near the sea and told that we were to witness the execution of four of our
men. They were Cpl. Brevington, A.I.F., Pte. Page, A.I.F., Pte.
Walters, East Surrey Regt., and Pte. Fletcher, R.A.O.C. They had been
taken by the I.J.A. after attempting to escape in the first few weeks after
capitulation.

Cpl. Brevington and Pte. Fletcher were taken from Roberts Hospital
the former suffering from dysentery and malaria, only able to walk with
the aid of a stick, and clad in hospital pyjamas. Pte. Page was wearing a
pyjama jacket. The other two men had been brought up from Outram
Road Gaol.

They were paraded before the I.J.A. Commander and told (through an
interpreter) that they had been condemned to death and would be shot in
five minutes. They were then handed over to me. I spoke to them for a
few moments. They then knelt down and I gave them Absolution.

Cpl. Brevington said to me, I have my New Testament here, sir, and I
am going to read it while they shoot me. I shook hands with them
commending them to the care of the One who would walk with them
through the Valley of the Shadowfor them so near at hand.

Cpl. Brevington tried to take full responsibility on himself and get his
companion off. It brought no response.

They were lined up before an Indian Viceroys Commissioned Officer
and three Indian soldiers who had gone over to the Japanese.They refused
to be blindfolded and faced their murderers without a sign of fearCpl.

10


Brevington reading the New Testament open in his hands. I will not go
into the gruesome details of that scene. Four heroes had won the Crown of
Life.

By October more parties had left for up country and overseas, again
accompanied by Chaplains.

Xmas 1942. Permission was given by I.J.A. for Lights Out to be
extended to 0100 hrs. 26.12.42. Midnight Celebrations of Holy Com-
munion were held and in all 2,475 C. of E. officers and men made their
Xmas Communion. Carol Services were held in all Churches, and
decorations (as far as possible) were put up. The Dutch Forces who by
now had joined us, were very conspicuous at all our Services.

Easter Day, 1943, saw the biggest party to leave the camp on its way
to the ill-fated labour camps in Thailand where so many thousands lost
their lives. Four Chaplains died, but a wonderful work was donethe
one bright spot in that ghastly tragedy. I would mention one item only
in that connection. Hundreds of men had attended Confirmation Classes
since the Confirmation Service of the previous year. These had been
given a slip of paper stating that they had received instruction, been
admitted to Holy Communion, and would apply for Confirmation on their
release from captivityin their home parishes, if they survived.

It was reported to me on the return of the survivors to Changi, that in
scores of cases, men who had died under the awful conditions prevailing,
had two or three possessions in the worlda pair of shorts in rags and
tatters, perhaps a photo of their wife or mother, AND the slip of paper
guarded and preserved to the end. They held fast that they had, and no
man could take their crown.

With the departure of this party, the area again closed in. St. Georges
Church was abandoned, but all furniture and fittings moved, and handed
over to the new Church of Holy Trinity, and the Gymnasium Church,
Selarang Area. Holy Trinity was built from the materials brought across
from the Garden and Wood Area Church which also closed down.

During the early months of captivity in the Hospital Area, the Chapel
of St. Luke had been erected in the Dysentery Wing, adorned by
magnificent life-sized figures in panels painted by a patient as his thank-
offering for recovery from the D.I. List.

In September, 1943, the Hospital moved into the Selerang Area,
and with it the Church, to be rebuilt in a converted bandstand. The
Methodists used the Dining Hall of the Officers Mess for Evening
Services, and the C. of S. built their Church close to Command H.Q.

In May, 1944, came a final move to the Gaol Area. Again all our
Churches had to be abandoned, but an altar was erected in a glade by
Holy Trinity Church and left with a notice in Japanese requesting that it
might be preserved as a memorial to our dead.

11


By June the move was completed.

We set about the task immediately of finding sites for our Churches.
Inside the Gaol, the Courtyard between the Isolation and Punishment
Blocks was taken over. This had been used by the Civilian Internees, but
nothing had been done towards making it into a Church. A site for the
Hospital Church was chosen. No. 2 Area (South of the Gaol) was chosen
for St. Georges (Mark III) and the Officers Area took over the use of the
open-air stage in their area. The C. of S. also found a site. Other
Denominations combined their Services in the New Theatre Area inside
the Gaol. A Jewish Synagogue was also constructed.

From this time to the end of our captivity, Australian and British
Chaplains combined and all the religious work of the camp was centralized
under one administration. Once the Churches were built there came a
re-awakening of the spiritual life of the camp.

Communicant numbers were doubled within a month. Holy Com-
munion Services were held daily in all C. of E. Churches. Mattins and
Evening Prayers were held each day. Additional Services and meetings
were arranged, until the number weekly reached 103 (excluding R.C.).
Sunday evening Services in every area were filled to capacity. Personnel
were not asked to come to Churchwe brought the Church to their
doorsteps.

Xmas Eve, 1944. Midnight Services were again arrangedthe only
stipulation being that only one light was allowed (on the altar), to conform
with I.J.A. A.R.P. rules, as all sanctuary Churches were in the open air,
and no singing. All Churches were crowded. No holiday was allowed
as in previous years, but Evening Services were held. In all there were
836 Communicants, excluding C. of S., Methodist and R.N.F. Services.

By this time, the creepers planted around the sanctuaries had grown,
and each was a mass of flower and leaf; adding most effective natural
decoration and covering the beams of the structures.

In the Gaol Church (St. Pauls) a Question Hour had been carried
on since the Sime Road Camp was moved into the Gaol Area and every
Monday evening, fifty, and often more, O.Rs. attended to hear Chaplains
answer the many and various questions previously handed in in writing
all having something to do with Religion in its many forms and aspects.

Harvest Festivals were held each year. It gave us an opportunity of
singing the Harvest Hymns and feeling in touch with the Churches at
home. An effort was made always to add some kind of decoration.
Altar Flowers were provided each week by men on working parties outside
the camp. Candles were not procurable after the early days, but in each
Church, electric bulbs from torches were fixed up in home-made candle-
sticks and lit from the main.

Communion Wine presented a great difficulty. We were able to pro-

12


cure a few bottles from time to time, but in addition various expedients had
to be tried. Black currant jam was boiled in the early days and bottled.
Raisins were treated in the same manner, and even Gula Malacca.
Intinction was used throughout, not only as a method of conserving
our supply, but as a means of preventing infection. Breads were made
from rice flour, maize flour and tapioca as available.

The Armistice Day of Remembrance was kept annuallyin 1943 and
1944by United Services of all Denominations. In the former year, the
Service was held in Selarang Squarein 1944 in the Gaol Theatre, when
1,600 officers and men were packed into the Theatre which normally sat
900. The Last Post and Reveille were forbidden by the I.J.A.,
but this in no way detracted from the solemnity and inspiration of the
service.

Thanks to the wireless, which was operated at great personal risk, and
functioned throughout our captivity, we had advance news of all National
Days of Prayer. In each C. of E. Church, the following scheme was
adopted. The day was divided up into watches of fifteen minutes. A
spaced form was placed on each notice board, and officers and men were
asked to be responsible for one or more periods throughout the day. Holy
Communion was celebrated at the usual timeMattins as on ordinary
daysa Chaplain would take a form of Intercession at 12 oclock.
Periods were allotted to the other Denominations and Royal Netherlands
Forces for a Service during the afternoon, and at 9.30 p.m. Family Prayers.
So it was, that throughout the whole day from dawn until 10 p.m., con-
tinuous Intercession was going up from our prison camps, as every watch
was invariably filledin many cases by several at a time. In this way
again we felt we were one with the Churches at home and throughout
the Empire.

For some months before our release, Sunday had become a full working
daythe only holiday allowed being Wednesday afternoon. This, how-
ever, in no way affected our work. Evening Communions made up the
numbers of those who had previously been unable to attend the early
morning services, and evening services were as well attended as ever.
It speaks volumes for the keenness and enthusiasm of the O.Rs. that,
having returned from a hard days work in the open, and living on
starvation dietinstead of lying uphad their meagre meal, and at once
came on to Church. Officers were not affected by working parties except
in small numbers on supervision duty.

When No. 2 Area (South of the Gaol Building) was taken over as H.Q.
of the town working (X) parties, and removed from Camp control, St.
Georges (Mark III) was moved into the officers area and re-erected.The
officers themselves completed the entire work, and built for themselves a
Church of which they could be justly prouda Church in which a grand

13


spiritual work was done right up to the end of our captivity.

There was freedom of access to all areas, with the exception that officers
could not enter the Gaol except on duty. O.Rs. had th choice of any of
the Churches for their Services. Some went around Sunday by
Sundaybut the majority became regular attendants at one particular
Church, and joined in its weekly activities.

Choirs were formed, and did valuable work, not only in leading the
singing, but also affording the only opportunity for men to sing when this
and the playing of all musical instruments was stopped by the I.J.A. order
for the whole camp, some months prior to our release. Evensong was
fully choral in each Church.

The Royal Netherlands Forces had the use of our Churches and availed
themselves of them to the fullest extent. It will be remembered by many
that when they first arrived, they joined in with us, and the Lesson was read
in English and Dutch, and their National Anthem was sung together with
ours at the end of the Services. This was later forbidden by the I. J.A., as
was the use of National flags, and pictures of reigning monarchs.

I have been particularly requested to include in this volume the Final
Thanksgiving Serviceheld on August 27th. I do so because it seems
to form such a fitting conclusion to our work. It was in every sense an
United Serviceunity of nationality and denominationunity in the
deep sense of Thanksgiving to Almighty God for our safe deliverance.

* * *

The paintings, photographs and sketches included in this book represent
but a small number of the Churches which were built and the sites used in
the various areas of Changi Camp, and elsewhere. It has been found
impossible to include sketches so kindly submitted by other artists on
account of space. I would ask them to accept my deepest regrets, together
with my thanks.

There is one sketch which I would particularly have liked to have been
included. It was the site of the Evening open-air Services held in the first
months of captivity in front of the Officers Mess in Temple Hill for
Command and Third Indian Corps. Many officers spoke of these Services
in the after years, and they stand out in my own mind with vivid
memoriesparticularly that Service on Easter Sunday Evening, 1942,
when the rays of the setting sun turned the empty Cross on the Altar into a
blaze of gold, as we thought and sang of a Risen Christ, and His glorious
victory over the powers of evil.

To those whose contributions are published herewith, particularly
Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E., who devoted much time and care not only to the
painting, but to the actual construction and planning of our Churches, I
would express on behalf of all, our deepest and most sincere appreciation
As also to Lieut.-Col. C. H. Withers-Payne.

14


A few notes on the work done in the Churches appear opposite each
sketch. Those who worshipped in these buildings will have their own
memoriesones which I am certain will remain with them while life

This account is, of necessity, brief and utterly inadequate. So much
more could be written did space permit. How many officers and men
openly stated that it was their Religionthe Sacraments and Services of
their Churches, which kept them sane, when everything men hold dear,
was lost. For many, it was their first experience of the saving and keeping
power of a living Christ. For many it was a re-union in the fellowship
and service of their Church. For all it was a knowledge deep and abiding
that Christianity WORKS. No mere theory could have survived the
experiences of those years of captivity.

The dark days are over. We have passed into the light of freedom.
May that Vision which kept us through the darkness, be our guide and
inspiration through the years to come.

shall last.

Singapore
London. 1945.

Assistant Chaplain General, Far East.


NOMINAL ROLL OF CHAPLAINS

AUSTRALIAN IMPERIAL FORCES

AT KRANJI

Chaplain Rev. A. W. Pain, A.I.F.
Chaplain Rev. H. Jones, A.I.F. (C. of S.)

16

BRITISHRoyal Army Chaplains Department.

IN CHANGI

Rev. J. N. Lewis Bryan, A/Assistant Chaplain-General, Far East.

Rev. G. W. Younge, S.C.F., C. of E. S.C.F. 18th Div.

Rev. M. McCleod, S.C.F., C. of S.

Rev. L. V. Headley, C.F.

Rev. E. W. B. Cordingly, C.F.

Rev. J. N. Duckworth, C.F.

AT KRANJI

Rev. H. F. Daniels, C.F. (M)

Rev. E. C. C. Wearne, C.F.

LEFT CHANGI

Rev. H. C. Babb, C.F. Left for Bangpong, Q Party,

1st November, 1942.

Rev. P. C. Cazalet, M.C., C.F. Left for Japan, 16th August, 1942.

Rev. G. E. McNeill, C.F. Left for Bangpong, 20th June, 1942.

Rev. P. Harper, C.F. Left for Saigon, 5th April, 1942.

Rev. T. J. Pugh, C.F. Left for Overseas, 20th October, 1942.

Rev. C. Ross, C.F. (M) Left for Bangpong, 16th August, 1942.

Rev. R. W. Pridmore, C.F. (M) Left for Bangpong, October, 1942.

Rev. V. S. Robertson, C.F. Left for Bangpong, October, 1942.

Rev. C. E. Alcock, C.F. Left for Bangpong, October, 1942.

Rev. D. E. Davison, C.F. Left Party R 31st October, 1942.

Rev. F. H. Stallard, C.F. Left for Taiwan, 16th August, 1942.

Rev. H. W. Nestling, C.F. Left for Bangpong, October, 1942.

VOLUNTEER COMMISSIONS

Rev. L. St. G. Petter, S.C.F

Rev. G. Thomson. Left for Bangpong, 20th August, 1942.

Rev. A. Webb (C. of S.) Party V overland, 28th October, 1942.

IN CHANGI

Senior Chaplain Rev. M. K. Jones, A.I.F.

Chaplain (M) Rev. S. M. Barrett, A.I.F.
Chaplain (M) Rev. J. J. Benjamin, A.I.F.
Chaplain Rev. C. E. Ussher, A.I.F.

Chaplain Rev. G. Polaine, A.I.F.

Chaplain (P) Rev. A. R. MacNeill, M.C., A.I.F.


WITH A FORCE

Chaplain Rev. W. I. Fleming, A.I.F.

Chaplain Rev. F. H. Bashford, A.I.F.

Chaplain Rev. H. Cunningham, A.I.F.

WITH B FORCE

Chaplain Rev. H. Wardle-Greenwood, A.I.F.
Chaplain Rev. A. H. Thompson, A.I.F.

AT BLACKANG MATI

Chaplain Rev. K. F. Saunders, A.I.F.

LEFT WITH F FORCE

Chaplain Rev. A. R. Dean, A.I.F. (Died on journey)

CHAPLAINSR.A.F.

Squadron Leader the Rev. J. Wanless (M) (Java-Changi-Overseas) (Deceased)
Squadron Leader the Rev. J. J. Tucker (Changi from Java)

Squadron Leader the Rev. T. A. Goss (Changi from Java)

ROYAL NETHERLANDS FORCES

Capt. the Rev. C. A. Van Wych Jurriance (Protestant)

Lieut, the Rev. V. E. Schaefer (Protestant)

Capt. the Rev. D. M. Van Hamel (Protestant)

SERVING OFFICERS APPOINTED O.C.F.

Capt. Rev. L. E. Andrews (Gen. List)

Major Rev. H. W. K. Sandy (Gen. List)

Lieut. Rev. J. B. Leech (C. of S.)

i/c JEWISH FAITH. Doctor Nussbaum (R.N. Forces)

i/c SALVATION ARMY. L/Cpl. J. Oxenbridge

There were in addition 17 Chaplains (R.C.)

(6 British, 9 A.I.F. and 2 R.N.F.)

CASUALTIES OF CHAPLAINS

DEATHS.

Rev. R. C. Chalk, C.F. Wounded in last week of fighting in Singapore Island.

Died in Roberts Hospital, Changi, 21st March, 1942
Buried by S.C.F. 18th Div. A/A.C.G., represented
C.G., 22nd March, 1942.

Rev. J. O. Dean, C.F. Died Roberts Hospital, Changi, April 18th, 1942,

from Dysentery. Buried by S.C.F. 18th Div.
A/A.C.G., represented C.G. 18th April, 1942.


(U.B.) Died of Cardiac Beri Beri 23rd September,
1943. Buried at Sonkurai Thailand, Cemetery 11,
(Two) Block A, Row 5, Grave 3.

Murdered by I.J.A. with other patients and staff of
Alexandra Hospital, 13th February, 1942. Grave
unknown.

Volunteer Commission as Chaplain S.S.V.F. Died
of Amoebic Dysentery at Kanu Thailand, 24th June,
1943.

Died of peritonitis due to acute haemorrhagic
pancreatitis, 13th July, 1945, at Kranji, Singapore.
Buried Kranji Cemetery.

Died of Septecaemia at Tarsao (Thailand) 25th
October, 1943. Buried at Tarsao.

Died at Sandakan, Borneo, 27th January, 1945.

Rev. J. F. Haigh, C.F.

Rev. J. Smith, C.F.

Rev. J. Parr, C.F.

Rev. G. J. H. Chambers, C.F.

Rev. J. Short, C.F.

Squadron Leader the Rev.
J. Wanless, R.A.F.

WOUNDED.

Rev. J. P. Ward, C.F. (R.C.) Leg removed by operation, May, 1942.

COMMUNICANTS

WITH

ANALYSIS OF CAMP STRENGTH DURING 19421945

Numbers in Areas and Hospitals.

BRITISH AUSTRALIAN DUTCH HOSPITAL COMMUNI-
CANTS
1942 (incl. Br., Austr. & Dutch) British only TOTAL
28 Feb. 52,000* 4,744 52,000
31 Mar. 45,562 3,211 45,562
30 April 19,466 8,264 4,267 4,644 31,997
31 May 16,818 . 4,071 16,818
30 June 15,445 3,494 15,445
31 July 11,811 1,561 3,656 4,623 17,028
31 Aug. 12,828 1,958 4,004 4,514 18,790
30 Sept. 14,501 2,283 4,370 4,363 21,154
31 Oct. 4,522 2,237 5,221 3,764 3,733 15,744
30 Nov. 3,053 2,801 2,331 2,739 1,762 10,924
31 Dec. 9,791 8,300 5,406 2,877 1,635 26,374
Xmas 2,475
1943
31 Jan. 9,721 8,463 4,374 2,949 2,566 25,507
28 Feb. 9,904 8,359 6,993 2,951 2,563 22,207
31 Mar. 6,651 5,679 6,974 2,907 2,644 22,211
18


30 April 3,910 2,029 1,973 2,652 EASTER 1,152 10,564
1,817
31 May 1,476 985 420 2,669 869 5,550
30 June 1,618 1,120 497 2,114 747 5,369
31 July 1,702 1,167 564 1,948 634 5,381
31 Aug. 1,643 1,163 595 1,906 615 5,307
30 Sept 1,709 1,215 646 1,762 483 5,332
31 Oct 1,735 1,290 2,045 1,809 788 6,879
30 Nov. No figures available 470
31 Dec. 2,578 2,904 597 2,394 355 8,473
^ 538
1944
31 Jan. No figures available 716
28 Feb. 2,632 3,027 607 2,296 697 8,562
31 Mar. 2,610 3,046 587 2,318 640 8,561
30 April 2,829 2,887 690 2,448 635 8,854
EASTER 646
31 May No figures available 475
30 June 4,648 4,349 1,128 1944, 606 10,125
31 July 4,528 4,399 1,156 From May, the Hosnital 1,231 10,082
31 Aug. 4,620 4,311 1,171 were not recorded 1,211 10,102
30 Sept. 4,660 4,340 1,129 separately, but in- 1,254 10,189
31 Oct. 4,670 4,362 1,233 eluded in the other 1,560 10,265
30 Nov. 4,659 4,375 1,345 totals. 1,376 10,379
31 Dec. 4,647 4,363 1,328 1,579 10,338
AS 836
1945
31 Jan. 4,756 4,299 1,290 1,450 10,345
28 Feb. 4,702 4,303 1,259 1,521 10,264
31 Mar. 4,173 4,120 1,260 1,539 9,553
EASTER 507
30 April 3,798 3,310 993 1,195 8,101
31 May 3,390 3,000 1,963 1,530 8,893
30 June 3,597 2,907 1,215 1,413 7,719
31 July 3,040 2,308 1,191 1,605 6,534
1-19 Aug. 1,014
20 -26 Aug. 501 12,005
2-< ) Sept. 450

*An approximate figure, British 37,000, A.I.F. 15,000, marched into captvity.

Other Nationalities, i.e. American, French, Italian, Danes, etc., are shown as British in all above.
IN ALL 79,646 British Communicated in Changi C. of E. Churches (as above).
8,506 A.I.F (numbers only from June, 1944, at Changi)

11,807 Kranji, River Valley Road, Bukit Timah and No. 2 Area.
9,414 F and H Parties (in Thailand) and Kuala Lumpur only.

109,433

This figure is the number recorded and takes no account of the many other camps
up-country and overseas, the Chaplains of which had no opportunity of sending in their
numbers to the A.C.G. in Singapore, and therefore cannot be included.

A complete record would undoubtedly show a phenomenal total.

19


TEMPLE CHURCH

Originally a 30 yards Rifle Range; which had been severely bombed
prior to the capitulation.

Services for Command H.Q. and Third Indian Corps were held during
the opening months in front of the R.A. Mess on the top of Temple Hill.
Later on this site was handed over as a church and office for A.C.G.

The firing point was filled in with cement and the concrete seating
chipped away by hand.

The Altar was designed by an architect, and completed in the R.E.
Workshops. The altar rails were made from materials collected from
previously occupied officers quarters.

Three Colonels cut out all the glass panes required and fitted them in
the windows which had been destroyed.

The Church was completed entirely by the voluntary work of Officers
and O.Rs. of Command and Third Indian Corps H.Q.

The opening service was held on the morning when the Generals Party
(comprising all Generals, Brigadiers and full Colonels) left for Japan in
August, 1942.

In September the Church was closed as the area had to be evacuated
and all material was removed to St. Edmunds Church.

ChaplainsRev. J. N. Lewis Bryan, A.C.G.

Rev. Major H. W. K. Sandy, O.C.F.

20

*


Photograph by the Rev. L. V. Headley, C.F.

TEMPLE CHURCH.


BRITISH BATTN. CHURCH, CHANGI VILLAGE

One of the first Churches to come into operation at the beginning of our
captivity. Fitted up by officers and men of the combined Battn. of East
Surrey and Leicester Regiments, who were first engaged against the
Japanese in N. Malaya.

This Church was the centre for the Ordinands Training Classes in
Southern Area University.

Memorial window later removed to Selarang Area.

ChaplainRev. H. C. Babb, C.F.

GLADE CHURCH, CHANGI

This was an open-air Church, the site being cleared by officers and men
of 1st Malaya Inf. Brigade, and 9th Coast Regiment R.G.A., in February,
1942.

A Cross was erected at either end, and an Altar permanently erected.

Seating accommodation was brought from barrack rooms and officers
brought their own stools.

For inclement weather a tent was provided later and Holy Communion
celebrated there.

Site later abandoned when area was evacuated.

The Crosses were left, but were destroyed when building of the
aerodrome began.

ChaplainRev. P. Cazalet, M.C., C.F.

22


BRITISH BATTALION CHURCH,
CHANGI VILLAGE.

GLADE CHURCH, CHANGE

23


ST. GEORGES CHURCH, INDIA LINES

(Mark I)

Originally a mosque and converted into a Church by 18th Div. R.Es.
By taking in the verandahs seating accommodation was 600. Opened on
first Sunday after capitulation and was throughout its existence the centre
of a deep spiritual life and tremendous activity.

The Sapper and Ordnance Workshops produced materials, and the
Church was soon lavishly furnished. The English Altar had four
wrought iron riddel posts with curtains made from a torn marquee. The
reredos was a painted and carved plaque of St. George and the Dragon.

The Altar Cross was made from a 4.5 howitzer shell and gun parts
engraved with the badges of the Regiments and Corps in the area. The
Priests stall had a large carved panel of the badge of the Royal Army
Chaplains Dept. Lighting and flood-lighting were possible by tapping
batteries from broken lorries.

On July 20th, 1942, the Bishop of Singapore confirmed 179 officers
and men in St. Georges, followed by an Ordination Service of a Deacon,
and at the Communion Service which followed Holy Communion was
received by a Christian Japanese officer, an Indian Canon from the
Cathedral, a Dutch General from Java, as well as British and Australian
officers and men.

Holy Communion, Mattins and Evensong held daily and the Church
was in constant use from dawn to Lights out.

Closed down April 1943 when area was evacuated but all furniture not
taken to Thailand removed and used in Churches built later in other areas.

Communicants, over 15,000.

ChaplainRev. E. W. B. Cordingly C.F.

Sketch and painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

24


ST. GEORGES CHURCH, INDIA LINES.

(exterior)

25


ST. GEORGES CHURCH, INDIA LINES.

(interior)


CHAPEL OF ST. BARBARA.

27


CHAPEL OF ST. BARBARA

(Patron Saint of the Gunners)

11th Div. Area, CHANGI

This Church was an army hut in Birchwood Camp which was handed
over to the Chaplains for their work.

The Church was divided into two parts, two-thirds as Church and the
remainder as a Reading Room.

The Sanctuary (as shown) had a depth of 17 feet, and the design was
extremely effective.

All furniture was made by volunteers.

Later on when the arrival of large forces of Dutch Troops from Java
made accommodation very difficult the Church was dismantled and
handed back.

Had the Camp remained, a new Church had been designed and would
have been erected.

ChaplainsRev. J. H. Short, C.F. (Deceased)

Rev. T. J. Pugh, C.F.

Crayon sketch by Lance-Bdr. Lumb, R.A.

28


CHAPEL OF THE TRANSFIGURATION
KUALA LUMPUR, 1942

In May, 1942, the photographic room of the Gaol was allocated to
Ps.O.W. as a Chapel and all religious bodies combined to turn it into a
place of worship, and it was used by all.

It was opened on Ascension Day, 1942, and continued in use until the
day of departure for Changi on October 18th, 1942.

Holy Communion, Morning and Evening Prayers were held daily. On
Sunday two Celebrations and Mattins were held. The Evening Service
was held in a large open hall.

Two activities may be specially mentionedthe Padres Fellowship,
which numbered 600 out of a total of 800 Ps.O.W., which met for devotion
and discussion of spiritual problems. The other was the Fellowship of
Prayer consisting of 30 members, who bound themselves to pray every day
for specific requests. Many miracles resulted from this effort.

All funeral services were held here prior to interment.

The Chaplain, Rev. J. N. Duckworth, C.F., was assisted by Rev.
Burr Baughman (American Methodist Ministeran internee), also by a
Tamil Priest, Rev. A. Jesudiam, who was of outstanding help to all
Ps.O.W.

Chaplain i/c

Rev. J. N. Duckworth, C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

29


CHAPEL OF TRANSFIGURATION, KUALA LUMPUR.

30


1..



ST. EDMUNDS CHURCH, CHANGE




ST. EDMUNDS CHURCH, CHANGI

This building was originally converted into a Church by the 18th Div.,
under Rev. F. H. Stallard, C.F.

The Church as seen in the painting is as it was when it became
Command Church. The Altar and rails were brought from Temple
Church when the latter had to be abandoned.

The choir stalls were made out of the swinging doors of officers
bungalows. The pulpit was the gift of the A.I.F.

The Cross was rescued from the Lady Chapel of Tanglin Garrison
Church. Earlier it had been brought to Singapore when Shanghai was
evacuated and the Garrison services ceased.

This Cross and the larger one in St. Pauls were all that the I.J.A. left
of the furnishings of Tanglin Garrison Church when they turned the
Church into an ammunition dump.

The floor was paved and the whole fabric of the Church made by the
officers of Command H.Q.

Later this Church was shared by the 18th Div. again, and Evensong
was held twice each Sunday eveningalways with packed congregations.
The second service always providing a queue before the first was over.

Holy Communion, Mattins and Family Prayers held daily.

Chaplains

Rev. J. N. Duckworth,

C.F. (18th Div.)

Rev. H. W. K. Sandy,

O.C.F. (Command H.Q).



Drawn by Capt. J. R. Chrickmay.

Painted by Lieut.-Col. Withers-Payne.

32

Drawn by Capt. J. R. Crickmay.
Painted by Lieut.-Col. Withers-Payne.


SINGAPORE RACE CLUB CHURCH

This Church was erected in the box of H.E. the Governor in the
Singapore Race Club Grand Stand by the S.S.V.F., under the command
of Lieut.-Col. Newey, in May, 1942.

The shell hole in extreme top right hand corner is stuffed up with a
mattress.

The Altar is part of the original bar.

It was only possible to hold services here on alternate Sundays, the
Chaplain coming up from the Great World Camp.

The Evening Services were attended by an average of 100, and between
30 and 40 remained for Communion.

Chaplain

The Rev.

J. G. M. Chambers, C.F.

(Deceased)

Drawn by Capt. J. R. Crickmay.

Painted by Lieut.-Col. Withers-Payne.

33

(Deceased)

Drawn by Capt. J. R. Crickmay.
Painted by Lieut.-Col. Withers-Paync.


SINGAPORE RACE CLUB CHURCH.


ADAM PARK CHURCH.


ADAM PARK CHURCH

This Church was erected on the upper floor of a bombed house in Adam
Park, and opened on Whit Sunday, 1942.

The Cross on the Altar was brought from the Mortuary Chapel at
Alexandra Hospital, Singapore.

The Cross seen through the doorway was erected as a memorial to the
Fallen during the Malayan Campaign.

Sunday evening congregations averaged 175.

Communicants totalled 1,150.

Presbyterian Services for the Gordons were held weekly.

ChaplainCapt. the Rev. E. L. Andrews (Gen. List), O.C.F.

Painted by Lieut.-Col. Withers-Payne.

Drawn by Lance Bdr. Lumb, R.A.

36


CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION, GREAT WORLD

Among the first parties to leave Changi was one composed of A.I.F.
with some British personnel.This was billeted in the Great Worlda
former amusement park in Singapore town. To this camp on May 9th,
1942, was posted the late Rev. G. J. M. Chambers, C.F.

He at once started to find a site for a Church. The interiors of four
shops were demolished to form one building. The one on the extreme
left of the painting had been a Chinese beauty parlour.

The hangings and furnishings were scrounged from various empty
shops inside the park and adapted. Most of the rest was made on the
spot by the O.Rs. The Reredos was made from a showcase, the interior
of which was painted white, with two polished floorboards nailed on to
form a Cross. The two tall candlesticks were cut and adapted from
chromium plated ladies hatstands. The Church was opened on
Ascension Day, 1942.

Padre Chambers later told me that on one occasion a Japanese officer
and a party of men came into the Church and for a moment there was
imminent risk that it might be demolished. The Communion Vessels
were laid out under a square white cloth on the Altar, but thinking this was
an urn containing the ashes of one of our dead, he saluted and withdrew
the party without further incident.

The Church was the centre of splendid work and activity throughout the
occupation of this camp, with daily Holy Communion, Mattins and
Family Prayers at night, and packed Sunday Services.

ChaplainRev. G. J. M. Chambers, C.F. (Deceased)

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

37


CHURCH OF ASCENSION, GREAT WORLD.


ST. LUKES, SELARANG.


ST. LUKES CHAPEL, SELARANG

When Roberts Hospital moved into Selarang Area, the Chapel in the
Dysentery Wing was cleared, and all furniture carried by trailers to the
new area.

A Bandstand Practice Hut was handed over as a Church, and British
and A.I.F. personnel at once transformed it into a very well appointed
building.

The Opening Service was held on August 29th, 1943.

The Chapel was the centre of Toe H work, and the World Chain of
Light was held there on Saturday, December 10th, 1943.

Holy Communion, Mattins and Evening Prayers held daily. Royal
Netherlands Forces used the Church for their Protestant Services.
Methodists also held weekly meetings here.

CommunicantsBritish 1,618

Australian - 762

Easter - - 183

2,563

This Church was dismantled and taken to KRANJI when the Selarang
Hospital was moved to the new camp in Singapore, June 1944.

Chaplains

Rev. J. G. M. Chambers, C.F.
(Deceased)

Rev. E. C. C. Wearne, C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

40


MEMORIAL ALTAR

When Selerang was evacuated in June 1944, and all Churches in that area were dismantled for
removal to the Gaol area, a Memorial Altar was built by Rev. Capt. E. L. Andrews (Gen. List),
close to the old site of Holy Trinity.

He left a scroll in Japanese with the following wording:

This Altar has been erected as a Memorial to the fallen.

Of your charity please retain this building unbroken, until
the end of the war. (Translated.)

This is the sole surviving landmark of the many Churches built in Changi area prior to our final
move to the Gaol. As far as is known it is still standing.

41


ST. LUKES CHAPEL,

ROBERTS BARRACKS HOSPITAL

Was originally a room on ground floor of a Barrack Block, and con-
verted into a Chapel by Rev. F. H. Stallard, C.F., in the Dysentery Wing
of the Hospital, for patients and in particular for the staffs of 196, 197 and
198 Field Ambulances R.A.M.C.

It was designed by an officer of 18th Div., and the Altar rail built by
18th Div. R.E. Opened July 12th, 1942. Chaplain A. W. Pain, A.I.F,
assisted throughout.

The great feature of this Chapel was the collection of mural paintings,
the work of Bdr. Stanley Warren, 135 Field Regt., R.A., who did these
magnificent paintings as his thanksgiving for recovery from the D.I. List.
They consisted of Nativity Scene ; The Institution of the Last Supper ;
The Descent from the Cross; Christs Commission Go ye into all the
World ; and St. Paul dictating to the beloved physician, St. Luke.

A Guild of Church Workers, Toe H, production of a Church Magazine
for the Wards, were only some of the uses to which this chapel was put.

A font was made and presented to the Chapel by Capt. Cook, 5th Suffolk
Regt.

Holy Communion was held daily.

CommunicantsBritish - 2,602

A.I.F. 1,010

3,612

The Chapel furnishings were moved to Selarang Barracks on August
27th, 1943, when the Areas closed in, and was finally destroyed by I.J.A.,
to become part of a hangar for their Air Force.

By a strange coincidence, the only surviving relic of the Chapel is the
inscription over the Descent from the Cross panel, Father, forgive
them for they know not what they do.

ChaplainsRev. G. J. M. Chambers, C.F. (Deceased)

Rev. F. H. Stallard, C.F.

Chaplain A. W. Pain, A.I.F.

42


Drawn by Bdr. Stanley Warren, R.A.
ST. LUKES CHAPEL, ROBERTS HOSPITAL.

43


ST. GEORGES CHURCH,

TANJONG PRIOR, JAVA

This Chancel of a small Church was constructed by Ps.O.W. at the
above camp and dedicated on July 12th, 1942.

The site was in the centre of the camp, and facing the Church was a
green lawn 50 yards x 20 yards which was carefully tended by the Ps.O.W.
and became their favourite meeting place in the evenings.

Commander H. C. Upton, R.N.(M.)V.R., designed and painted the
East Window, in which was depicted St. George slaying the Dragon, the
flags of the Allies and the badges of the R.N. Army and R.A.F.

All the furniture and fittings were constructed by officers and men
under considerable difficulties.

A picture was taken for propaganda purposes by the Japanese Press
and printed in the Nippon Times (see opposite).

Church work in Java was very different from Malaya, and Holy Com-
munion and Services had to be held in secret and in very small numbers.

Trustees were appointed for this Church, i.e..

Col. C. M. Lane, 15/Punjab Regt.

Lt.-Col. M. C. Russell, East Surrey Regt. (Deceased).

Chaplains

Rev. H. J. Phillips, S.C.F.

Rev. J. Harper Holdcroft, C.F.

44


45


HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, SELARANG

This Church was erected from materials brought across by officers
fatigue parties from the Garden and Wood Area, when the Church in that
area (and the area itself) was evacuated.

Some of the furniture had been brought from St. Georges India Lines
after F Party had gone up to Thailand.

Structure was corrugated iron and attap.

The Memorial Window was originally in the British Bn. Church in
Changi Village, and was the work of Pte. Davies, R.A.O.C. Lieut.-Col.
Withers-Payne, J.A.G., Malaya Command, later added the colouring
effects to make it into an imitation stained glass window.

Memorial Tablets made in Changi to the memory of officers and men of
various Regiments may be seen on the East wall.

First Service held on Sunday, July 4th, 1943.

Holy Communion, Mattins and Evening Prayers held daily.

The Church was used for Lectures and Instructional Classes open to
whole camp, when not in use for Services and Church Meetings.

Total number of Communicants, 2,164.

Church dismantled and brought to CHANGI GAOL, June 1944.

ChaplainsRev. G. W. Younge, S.C.F. (C. of E.)

Rev. Captain L. E. Andrews (Gen. List), O.C.F.

Rev. Major H. W. K. Sandy, O.C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

46


ST. GEORGES CHURCH, KANBURI

(Mark II)

For nine months after leaving Changi, the party which had gone to
Thailand to make the ill-fated railway had no Church. The story of that
grim tragedy has been told elsewhere. During that period Services were
held in huts and in the open-air.

Around Christmas 1943, when only 1,000 were left in KANBURI, the
second St. Georges Church was built. It was a sanctuary only, made of
bamboo and mats, put together by the patients.

The Altar, Altar Cross and plaque of St. George had come up from
store in BAMPONG and furnished the sanctuary.

Holy Communion and Evening Prayers were held daily, and on Sunday
evenings, Evensong was sung by a trained choir, and the attendance
averaged three hundred.

At the end of April, 1944, the camp was dismantled and the Church
furnishings entrained for Singapore, to be re-erected at Changi Gaol area
later as St. Georges (Mark III).

ChaplainRev. E. W. B. Cordingly, C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

47


HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, SELARANG.


:


ST. DAVIDS CHURCH,
SIME ROAD CAMP, SINGAPORE

This Church was erected by S.S.V.F. and S.M.F.V.F. under the
command of Col. Newey, on the return of these forces from Thailand.

The panels on either side of the Altar were the work of the same artist,
Bdr. Warren, R.A., who painted the panels of St. Lukes Church in the
Dysentery Wing at Roberts Barracks.

The Church was used by all denominations (less R.C.) and later on
passed to the Civilian Internees when they were removed from the Gaol
and took over this camp.

ChaplainRev. L. V. Headley, C.F.

50




ST. GEORGES CHURCH,
CHANGI GAOL AREA.

In June 1944, shortly after the return of the survivors from Thailand
reached Singapore, the camp was centralised in Changi Gaol and the area
immediately surrounding it.

St. Georges (Mark III) was built in No. 2 Working Camp, which was
situated immediately to the South, and outside of the Gaol building itself,
ministering to 2,500 British and A.I.F. Other Ranks. It consisted of a
shelter 14 feet by 10 feet, which was simply a Chancel and cover for the
Altar, the rest of the Church being open air enclosed by an attap fence.

Flowers and creepers were at once started and soon covered the
structure, and with flower beds the site was most attractive.

St. Georges (Mark III) was furnished with the old characteristic
features of the earlier Churches of that name.

Permanent benches were fixed to seat two hundred and extra forms were
brought in for Sunday Evening Services.

Holy Communion and Family Prayers held daily, and a wide variety
of Church organizations were marked features of the work of this Church.

The area was closed by the Japanese in April 1945 and the whole
building moved into the Officers Area to become St. Georges (Mark IV)
or St. Georges in the Poultry.

CommunicantsBritish - - 3,500 June 1944March 1945

A.I.F. - - 1,224

4,724

ChaplainRev. E. W. B. Cordingly, C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

52


ST. GEORGES CHURCH, CHANGI GAOL AREA.


A sketch of a section of the Cemetery in KANBURI (THAILAND')
where so many died in the construction of the BangkokMoulmein
Railway, 19431944.


MEMORIAL CROSS IN MALAYA HAMLET, THAILAND
This Cross was unveiled in the Jungle on August 22nd, 1943, by Lieut.-Colonel
R. H. Humphries, R.A., Commanding H Force, Thailand.

It was carved by Lieut.-Col. Oakes, A.I.F.

Inscription reads:

TO OUR AUSTRALIAN AND BRITISH COMRADES
HERE LAID TO REST. 1943.

AMATOS EORUM DEUS ASCI PAT.

55


ST. PAULS CHURCH.


ST. PAULS CHURCH, CHANGI GAOL

This Sanctuary Church was constructed inside the Gaol, in an area
between the Punishment and Isolation Blocks. It had formerly been used
by the civilian internees for Services but no attempt had been possible to
make it into a permanent place of worship. Opened June 1944. It was
furnished from materials brought in from the dismantled Churches of
Selarang area. Pulpit from St. Edmunds, Altar rails and Lectern from
Changi Church room (of pre-war days). The Cross had been rescued
from Tanglin Garrison Church. Flower vases made from shell cases,
candlesticks fitted with electric bulbs. Hangings made by A.I.F.
Frontals made from various materials.

Memorial Tablets in Sanctuary as in Holy Trinity earlier.

Shrubs and creepers were planted and at the end covered the walls and
Sanctuary with tropical flowers.

Holy Communion, Mattins, Evening Prayer daily. The Church was
in constant use througout the week, and much used for private prayer
by O.Rs.

Officers were not permitted to enter the Gaol except on duty, so this
Church was entirely used by O.Rs., British and A.I.F., who took the
greatest pride in their Church, and kept it in the most efficient manner.

A Question Hour was held here weekly. Centre of Toe H work.

Communicants

- 4,982

- 1,984

Total 6,966

Chaplains

Rev. L. V. Headley, C.F. i/c.
Chaplain E. C. Ussher, A.I.F.

Sq. Leader Rev. C. J. Tucker, R.A.F.

British

A.I.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.


CHAPEL OF ST. ANDREW AND ST. LUKE.


ST. GEORGES OFFICERS AREA.



CHAPEL OF ST. ANDREW AND ST. LUKE
CHANGI GAOL HOSPITAL AREA

This Church was built in Half-Moon Street for the Hospital area, but
was attended by many from other areas, particularly A.I.F. The name is
a combination of the A.I.F. Church at Selarang and the old Hospital
Chapel from Roberts Barracks and late Selarang areas. The stained glass
window, picturing St. Andrew came from the A.I.F. Church.

Although, as in all our later Churches, the only covering was over the
Sanctuary, the area was enclosed by a more substantial wall, made chiefly
from the doors of old quarters, collected by energetic and enthusiastic
volunteers under Padre Duckworth.

The Altar was made in the officers workshop, as were many of the
fittings.

Holy Communion and Evening Prayers were held daily. Chaplains
Study Circle, and A.-C.G.s Conferences held here weekly and much used
by the Dutch Protestant Church. Evensong was attended by an average
of 400 officers and men.

The story of the Hospital with its teeming population of starved and
diseased men has been told elsewhere. All that can be said here, is that
this Church was the centre from which was brought to them the only
comfort and consolation they had to know.

Communicants (including ward Celebrations and private Communions)
British 9,755

A.I.F. - - 4,180

13,935

ChaplainsChaplain M. K. Jones, S.C.F., A.I.F.
Rev. J. N. Duckworth, C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

60


ST. GEORGES OFFICERS AREA, CHANGI GAOL
ST. GEORGES (Mark IV)

In April 1945, when No. 2 Area was removed from Gaol Control, the
opportunity was taken to move St. Georges (Mark III) into the Officers
Area, which lay to the East of the main Gaol buildings.

This area had previously had no Church building, Services being held
in front of the open-air stagethe only unoccupied spot in this very
congested areaconsisting of 1,200 officers, British, A.I.F. and Dutch.

A volunteer party of 50 officers moved the complete Church from the
old site to the new with all its seating in 24 hoursthough a longer period
and much work was necessary before the site assumed the nature of which
the painting gives an excellent representation.

It was surrounded by the poultry runs of the officers area, hence its
affectionate name of St.-Georges-in-the-Poultry.

The response of the area to their Church was truly amazing, and it
became a wonderful centre of spiritual work during the last anxious
months of our captivity.

Holy Communion, Mattins and Compline were held daily, and Even-
song on Sunday nights was attended by an average congregation of 400.

An excellent choir of officers, trained by Leiut.-Col. Withers-Payne, led
the Evening Services and gave many anthems, whilst a string orchestra
under Major Horton were able to play one Sunday evening a month.

The Church was in constant use for various Services and Meetings,
including Refresher Courses for Confirmation.

CommunicantsApril 1945September 8th, 1945 only.

British - - 2,757

A.I.F. - - 701

3,458

ChaplainsRev. G. W. Younge, S.C.F.

Rev. E. W. B. Cordingly, C.F.

Painting by Lieut. E. Stacy, R.E.

61


SYNAGOGUE OF OHEL JACOB, CHANGI GAOL

During the earlier years of captivity there had been no provision made
for a place of worship for the Jewish Community, though various
temporary arrangements were made for them to hold their Services.
When we moved into the Gaol Area, a definite site was allotted to them and
a Synagogue (the interior of which is shown opposite) was erected in a
courtyard, inside the Gaol building.

The Dedication Service on September 26th, 1945, was attended by the
Representative Officer, his staff officer and the A.C.G., and all available
Jewish personnel.

It became the centre of all Jewish activity in the Camp for British,
A.I.F. and Dutch Forces and splendid work was done by Dr. Nussbaum
of the Royal Netherlands Forces who was indefatigable in visiting his
men, particularly those in hospital.

A magazine of a very high literary standard was produced, and every-
thing done to enable those of the Jewish Faith to carry out their Religious
duties as in peace time.

SATURDAY EVENING, 7th ELLUL, 5704.
DEDICATION.

Order of the Service.

1. MaTauwu.

2. Ps. 30.

3. Maariv.

4. Prayers for Royal Families.

5. Sermon.

6. Prayer for those fallen in Battle.

7. Prayer for sick and wounded.

8. Prayer for our people at home.

9. Ps. 24.

10. Ps. 117.

11. Oleinu.

12. Adaun Oulom.

13. Hatikvah.

62


SYNAGOGUE.

63


CONFIRMATION, SEPTEMBER 7th, 1945.

Confirmation was administered by the Bishop of Singapore just after
our liberation on Friday, September 7th, 1945.

One hundred and twenty British and A.I.F. officers and men were
presented, all of whom had been prepared for, and received Communion,
pending their Confirmation, during our captivity.

Many hundreds had died during the 3| years of captivity, the majority
in Thailand.

The Service was held in St. Pauls Church, Changi Gaol.

The men are wearing newly-issued Japanese clothing, the first they had
received for many months.

64


Crown Copyright Reserved.

CONFIRMATION OF P.O.W., CHANGI GAOL.

65


BRITISH CEMETERY, CHANGI

This was started immediately we came into Changi, under 18th Div.
control. Major Harper, R.E., drew up the original plan and this was
adhered to throughout. The area was just waste land, which had to be
cleared of scrub and tropical undergrowth, and working parties were at
once laid on.

It was decided that each grave should be separate and one type of
cross used. A careful record has been kept of every burial.

Provision was made for the erection of a Chapel, which it is hoped the
War Graves Commission will later construct as a permanent memorial.

For more than two years Major Breigel, Royal Norfolk Regiment, was
in charge. His son was one of the first to be interred as a battle casualty.

On October 30th, 1944, this Cemetery was closed by I.J.A. order, and a
new one started near the gaol.

[The A.I.F. had their own Cemetery, laid out on a different plan, but
equally beautiful.

During the period February, 1942October, 1944, their death roll
came to 143.]

The Royal Netherlands Forces had a plot in the British Cemetery and

their casualties are therefore included below.
BRITISH CEMETERY.
(i) British Personnel.
Otfrs. Nurses O.Rs. Civilians Totals
Battle Casualties (died of wounds) - 10 41 51
Battle Casualties (lifted and re-interred) 1 1 18 20
Sickness and Accident _ 30 407 437
Executions - _ 5 5
Shot outside camp perimeter wire - 1 1
Totals - 41 1 472 514
(ii) Dutch Personnel.
Offrs. Nurses O.Rs. Civilians
Battle Casualities _ 2 2 4
Sickness and Accident 6 56 1 63
Totals - 8 58 i 581
THE DETAILS OF BURIALS IN SECOND CEMETERY
1st July, 1945- -8th September, 1945
British A.I.F. Dutch Total
Offrs. O.Rs. Offrs. O.Rs. Offrs. O.R.s Offrs. O.Rs.
2 15 3 1 14 3 32

Total Burials in Changi Cemeteries, up to our relief, are as follows : Offrs. O.Rs.
British - 47 502
A.I.F. - 3 162
Dutch - 12 82
Others 62 1 747 Total809 All Ranks

Sketched by Capt. L. H. Reinders, R. Neth. Forces.

66


BRITISH CEMETERY, CHANGE

Ms


FINAL THANKSGIVING SERVICE

On Saturday morning, August 11th, 1945, as soon as the news came
through that the Emperor of Japan had asked for terms, the A.C.G.
interviewed the Representative Officer with reference to a Final Thanks-
giving Service. It was agreed to hold one as soon as the I.J.A. passed on
the news officially.

By Sunday, August 19th, certain information having been volunteered
by the I.J.A., it seemed reasonable to put on individual Church Thanks-
giving Services that day, but to postpone the main service until later, when
we could sing the National Anthem for the first time for many months, and
meet in a body without danger of provoking any guards to action.

The choirs of all Churches were massed and a form of service drawn up.
Each Denomination took a part. The service was of necessity short on
account of the inability of men to stand for any length of time. A string
orchestra, which had played once a month in St. Georges Church, and a
harmonium, played by Lieut.-Col. Withers-Payne, led the service.

A bugler was present to play Last Post and Reveille. Except for
funeral parties, no buglers had functioned in the camp for two years
Only Japanese bugle calls were allowed.

On Saturday, 26th August, it was decided to hold the Service on the
following day, and to hold it on the Hospital Squarethis being less far to
walk than the Padang. The R.E. constructed a platform 16 feet by 8 feet.
This was draped with the three flags of the AlliesBritish, American and
Dutch.

All Chaplains (less R.C. and 1 Dutch, sick)16 in numberassembled
in St. Andrews Vestry and moved off to the Square at 7.45 p.m.

The earlier rain had cleared and the evening was fine though cloudy.

The crowds began to flock in from all areas by 7 p.m. Officers, bringing
their own stools, were marshalled behind the Altarall others with the
O.Rs. The sixteen Senior Officers of Services and Nationalities were
seated in front of the Altar.

By 7.45 p.m. it was conservatively estimated that 4,000 were present.
Many hospital patients who were unable to leave their wards stood around
the doors of their huts and joined in the singing.

It was a service which will long be remembered. The vast body of men
singing the hymnsthe dull thunder of 4,000 voices and more saying the
Lords Prayer togetherformed a most fitting Nunc Dimittis to the
work of the Churches in Captivity. It was a spectacle of unity in Church
and international relationships commented upon and appreciated by all.

Holy Communion was celebrated at each of the three C. of E. Churches
at the conclusion of the Service.

68


ORDER OF SERVICE.

Opening Sentences.

HYMN : O God our Help in Ages Past.

SCRIPTURE : Read in English by S/Chaplain M. K. Jones, A.I.F.

Read in Dutch by S/Chaplain J. Van Wych Jurriance, R.N.F.
Jeremiah, Chapter 29, Verses 11-14 inclusive.

HYMN : Now thank we all our God.

PRAYERS : Rev. S. W. Barret (M), A.I.F.

ONE MINUTES SILENCE IN MEMORY OF OUR DEAD.
LAST POST.

They shall grow not old etc.A.C.G.
REVEILLE.

HYMN : Praise my soul the King of Heaven.

ADDRESS : Rev. J. N. Lewis-Bryan, A.C.G.

HYMN : Abide with me.

BENEDICTION.

National Anthems : U.S.A.

Holland.

Great Britain.

Service Conducted by Rev. M. McLeod, S.C.F. (C. of E.)

SERMON BY Rev. J. N. LEWIS BRYAN, A.C.G.

(Given at the above Service)

For three-and-a-half-years we have waited for this hour.

The hour when we could all meet in heartfelt thankfulness to Almighty
God for our safe deliverance.

We felt that it was only meet and right that we who have borne the
burden of these years together should meet at the end in one great united
service, in addition to those already held in the churches of all
denominations.

And so we are here to-night.

There is an old proverb known to us all Hope deferred maketh the
heart sick but has it not been the star of hope shining undimmed through
the long darkness of our night of captivity, which has led us on
unswervingly in trust and confidence to the dawn of our liberation ?

How long and how dark that night has been is known to us all in a
greater or less degree. Those who have survived the horrors of the
working camps in Thailand will have the memory of them seared for ever
into their lives.

For all of us there has been the misery and wretchedness, the
privations and the sufferingsthe awful boredom and frustrationa sense
of the wasted yearsstarvation and diseaseand Death the Grim Reaper
for ever by our sides.

But those of us who served in the first World conflict will remember
how the experiences of those years of War were slowlyalmost
imperceptiblysmoothed away by the healing hand of time until the
grimmer memories were almost forgotten and only the less unpleasant
ones remained.

69


So it will be with us.

It is in one sense true that nothing can restore the years which the
locusts have eaten, but let us remember that these need not have been
wasted years, they can have been redeemed, in part, if only we have made
up our minds to go back into the world of free men as those who have seen
a visiona vision of what life may and can be in the futureof what
we can make of life and what life, by Gods grace can make of usand
have prepared ourselves for that task.

We have learned many lessons in this placethe art of doing without
so many things we considered vitally essential the value of simple
thingsa greater self-reliancethe ability to turn our hands to fresh
endeavoursour minds to new pursuits.

For many this captivity has been a time of awakening to the reality
of spiritual thingsthe worth of prayer and sacramenta deeper faith
and trust in Goda fuller knowledge of that glorious heritage of our
Faiththe Sword of the Spirit which is the Word of God.

For some, there may be dark days still aheadnews of which they
know nothing at the moment may await themnews which may tend to
shake their faith in God and Man. Remember then, my Brothers, in the
darkness of that hour that nothingnothingnothing can separate
us from the love of Godif only we are prepared to acknowledge ourselves
to be His children. The fact that we have survived to this hour is surely
sufficient proof of that to us.

We have met here to-night to thank Him for that crowning mercy.
If there is within us one shred of human gratitude, every day of our lives
will be an endless thanksgiving. But let us use this service for one purpose
morea solemn reconservation of ourselves to the Service of God and of
our fellowmen.

If we are honest with ourselves we must confess, each one, that we
have done many things in this place which we ought not to have done, and
left undone much that we ought to have done. But let us leave the
memory of these things behind us, and the memory of the faults and
failings of others because we are only too conscious of the many faults and
failings within ourselves.

Let us determine that we will be better men, better Christians, better
husbands, better fathers, better sons and better citizenspledged to
devote all our skill and energy to the stupendous task that lies before us
the reconstruction of the life and prosperity of those countries to which we
are each so proud to belong.

A few minutes ago we paused in our hour of rejoicing, to give a thought
to those thousands of our comrades whose bodies we leave behind in the
soil of Malaya and the islands and seas of the Far East. We stood to
attention while the Last Post and Reveille were sounded in their honour

70


our last united tribute to the memory of very brave and gallant men :

But we shall meet and greet in the closing rank
Of times declining Sun,

When the bugles of God shall sound the Call,

And the Battle of Life is done.

There is no Death.

One last word. I am told that the peasants of Spain use these
words as they part from one another, Vaya con Usted. I pass them on
to you to-night, first of all in my Masters Name as His Command, and
then as His Benediction for your homeward journey, and your onward
way across the years to be

Go WITH God
GO with GOD.

71


72


Full Text

PAGE 1

THETHECHURCHESCAPTIVITYMALAYAOFINB YTHEREV .].N .LEWISBRYAN,M.A.FormerlyA .C.G. FarEastThistitlehasbeendigitisedwiththepermissionoftheSOCIETYFORPROMOTINGCHRISTIANKNOWLEDGEALLRIGHTSRESERVEDLONDONSOCIETYFORPROMOTINGCHRISTIANKNOWLEDGENORTHUMBERLANDAVENUE.w .c.z

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THECHURCHESOFTHECAPTIVITYINMALAYAB YTHEREV.].N.LEWISBRYA N,M.A.FormerlyA .C G. F ar EastLONDONSOCIETYFORPROMOTINGC HRISTIANKNOWLEDGENORTHUMBERLANDAVENUE ,W.C.Z

PAGE 3

)2.12fJ DEDICATIONTo th e Ch aplainso fallD en omination s-C.o fE. C.ofS"Methodist ; U nitedBoa rd andProtestantReformedChurch ofHolland-British, Aus tralianandDutch-whow orkedinNo,1p a. w .C amp,Changi, S ingapore,from Fe bruary,194 2, to September 1945 in s plendid inth e on 111 b 'uryearsofcaptrvity,--j <: J' d :' '.'. I .STOKf. "G':y.r:.... .'")c... .__ "_1......-.......-_ Publish ed1946 MadeinGr eat B ritain

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CONTENTSFOREWORDINTRODUCTION" THECHURCHESOFTHECAPTIVITY" NOMINALROLLOFCHAPLAINS1 6 C ASUALTIESOFCHAPLAINS1 7 C OMMUNICANTS1 8TEMPLECHURCH2 0BRITISHBAT TN.CHURCH,CHANGIVILLAGE2 2GLADECHURCH,CHANGI 22 ST.GEORGE'SCHURCH,INDIALINES( M a rkI ) 2 4 CHAPELOFST. BARBARA 11thDIV AREA ,CHANGI2 8CHAPELOFTHETRANSFIGURATION,KUALALUMPUR, 1 942 2 9 ST .EDMUND'SCHURCH,CHANGI32SINGAPORERACECLUBCHURCH3 3ADAMPARKCHURCH36CHURCHOFTHEASCENSION,GREATWORLD37ST.LUKE'SCHAPEL,SELARANG4 0MEMORIALALTAR 4 1 ST.LUKE'SCHAPEL,ROBERTSBARRACKSHOSPITAL42 ST.GEORGE'SCHURCH,TANjONGPRIOK, JAVA 44 HOLYTRINITYC HURCH,SELARANG4 6ST.GEORGE'SC HURCH,KANBURI( M ar kII ) 47ST.DAVID'SCHURCH,SIMEROADCAMP,SINGAPORE50ST .GEORGE'SCHURCH,CHANGIGAOLAR EA 52 ST.PAUL'SCHURCH,CHANGIGAOL57C HAPELOFST.ANDREWANDST.LUKE, CH ANGIGAO L H OSPITAL ST.GEORGE'SOFFICERS' AREA ,CHANGIGAOL,ST GEORGE S ( MarkIV ) 6 1SYNAGOGUEOFOHELjACOB,C HANGIGA OL 6 2CONFIRMATION,SEPTEMBER7 th,1 945 M BRITISHCEMETERY,CHANGI6 6FINALTHANKSGIVINGSERVICE6 8

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LISTOFI LLUSTRATIONSTE MPLE C l lURCH 2 1BRITISHBATTALIONC HURCH, C HANGIVILLAGE2 3 G LADE C HUR C H, CHANGI 23 S T. GE ORGE'SC HUR C H INDIA LIN ES ( E X T E R IO R ) 2 5 S T. GEO RGE 'S C l lURCH,I NDIA LI NES ( I NTE R IO R ) 2 6 C l lAPEL OFS T.BARBARA 27 C l lAPELO FT RANSFIGURATION,K UALA L UMPUR 3 0 S T. E DMUND 'S C HURCH, C HANGI 31 SINGAPORERA CEC LUB C HURCH 3 4 A DAMPARKC HURCH 35 C HURCHOFAS CENSION,G REATWORLD3 8 S T .LUKE'S,SELARANG 3 9 M EMORIALALTARAT SE LARANG 4 1 S T.LUKE'SC HAPEL,ROBER TSHOSPITAL.43PROPAGANDAPI CTUREF ROMTHEN IPPONTIMES-ST.G EORGE'S TANJONGPRIOK, JAVA 45 H OLYTRINITYC HURCH,SELARANG4 8 *S T.GEORGE'SOFFICERS' AREA 4 9 ST .DAVID'SC HURCH,SIMEROADP.O.W.CAMP51 ST G EORGE'S C HURCH,CHANGIGAOLAREA 53 CE METERYINKANBURI ( THA I LAND) 54MEMORIALC ROSSINMALAYAHAMLET,THAILAND55 S T.PA UL 'SCHURCH56 C HAPELOFST.ANDREWANDST .LUKE58 ST .GEORGE'SCHURCH,KANBURI 59SYNAGOGUE63 C ONFIRMATIONOFP .O .W.,CHANGIGAOL.6 5BRITISHCEMETERY,CHANGI 67 Er rata.The se twop late s havebe e n printed wit h t he tit les transposed.

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FOREWORD.TheWordofGodisnotbound.TheBookof Revelation camefrom a prisonerontheIsleof Patmos and Pilgrim 's Progress fromBedfordGaol.There isa \"Xiord ofa different kindbutofthesamespiritinthisBook. ItismorethanarecordofwhatwasdoneintheNameofGodintheprison camp s of Malaya.Itisevidence written forour learning thatfaithin God s upportsmeninalldangersandcarriesthem through all temptation s. Itgoesforthuponaworkofwitness. \\lhat wasgoingonin t hesilenceoftheFarEast? Howmanyrelative s werea skingthat, and praying andhopingthatallwasnottragedyand despair?Thisliftstheveiltoshowthecourageandthe triumph ofthe Cross. Menwhoareemployedinforced labour andgro wing weakthrough insufficientfooddonotbuild Churches andworshipinthemunlessthe y are persuadedthatthereisrealvalueinsuchtoil.Thisisarecordofhow strongthatconvictionwasandhow repeatedly the y toiled.The"Churches oftheCaptivity"witnesstofaithinthe Companion shipof Christ intheresourcesofthe Unseen Kingdom, inthepowerof corporate prayer andworship.Theconstant repetition ofchurch building zeal astimeaftertimecampsweremoved,isproofthatthi s faithwasnotfoundvain.Atthelast Thanksgiving Servicemenin thousands thanked GodforHis Grace andpower andpassed through the gatesto Freedom withatrue experience ofboth. Ihopemanywill think overthisbook-arecordof Outofthedeep haveIcrieduntothee,0Lord"andawitnesstoGod 's swiftandgraciou s answer.As"servus servorumDei"Padre Bryanwritesthis tribute to brethren and companions in tribulation. F.LL.HUGHES,Chaplain-G eneral.

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INTRODUCTIONINadver sity menturnto r eligionf or m orals upport.The officer s and menwhofellintoJapanese hand s at Singapore inFebruary, 194 2, and thosewhojoinedthem later inthe p risonerofwar c ampsfr om oth erparts oftheFarEastwereno exception t oth isr ule.Ve ryso on churche s be gan to appear. In s ome c asesthe ruined r emains ofexi sting buildin gswe re adapted forthi s purpo se; in o the rs ne w building swe reere ctedw ith s uch material a s couldbefound.Inthegro ssly over-cro wded camp s buildin g material wasscarceandmanyof t he c hurches se emed,asitwere togrow outof nothing. U nderthe direction ofth ec haplainsthe yw erebuiltb y thewilling hands of voluntary work ers-andthere w asne ver an y lackof volunteers. Butthe churche sw erebutth e vi sibles ignofthereligiou s revivalwhich w astak ing pla ce. In t hosedarkda ys whenne wso fthe outside world w ass carce and w henmo st ofwhat there wa s camefrom enemysource s, there couldbein t hoseprison ca mpslittleofthatnational fervour whichimpelsthepeoplesof belligeren tc ountriesintime s of s tress. Something else w as needed totakeit sp lace.It w asfoundinthedevelop mentofan implicit faithinthe ultimatetriumphofrighto ver theforce s of evilwhichwas threatening theveryexis tence of peace-loving andGod fearing people. EverySundaythe churches werefilled and wherethere wereno churches andno chaplains serviceswereheldin ordinary building s orintheopenairandwere conducted bythe prisoners themselves.Inthe maincampat Changi on SingaporeIslandalargenumberofofficersand wereconfirmedbytheBishopof Singapore whohimselfseta wonderful example of courage and endurance under torture and privations. Wherever possible Communion s erviceswere regularly held andwerealwayswell attended. Inspired byfaith,the British soldiersinthe se campsdi splayed s omeof thefinest qualities of their race. Courageous under oppression and starvation, patient through thelongyearsof waiting and cheerful and dignifiedinfaceof adversity, they steadfastly resistedalltheeffort s ofthe Japanese to break theirspirit-andfinally conquered.Thatwasan achievement ofwhichallmaybe proud.Thechurches themselves may disappear, butthisbookwill remain asa record ofworkwelldonebya devoted andtirelessbandof chaplains, and ofthetriumphofthe ChristianFaithovertheforcesofevil. A.E.PERCIVAL, December, 1945.Major-General.Formerly C.-in-C. Mala ya C ommand.

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"THECHURCHES OFTHECAPTIVITYINMALAYA."FEBRUARY15th 1942. ON E ofthedark est da ys inBriti sh Military History -foritsawthe Capitulation of S ingapore,theendofthe Malayan Campaign, the be ginning ofth e onward sweepofthe Japanese Forcesacro ss the fabulou sly w ealthy I slands oftheSouthSea s, andthe beginning ofthree a ndahalfy ears of c aptivityfor5 2 ,000 Briti sh and Australian Troops. Iti s notm y pu rpose toenterintoanydetailsofourexperiencesas P s. O .W. Mu ch ha s be enw ritten,andwillstillbe written aboutour co nditions the g rimtra gedies whichco sts omany gallant mentheir l ivesthe co urage w ithwhi ch theymetevery misfortune. Th e purpo se ofthi s booki s to s howhowthe Churches gotdowntotheir tasko fprovidin gs piritualandmoralupliftfortheirpeople-keptthem inli ving t ouchw iththeonePowerwhichalone could liftthemabovethe i mmediatepre sent, and gavethemhopeand encoura gement forthe f uture -w hetheroflifeorofdeath. Wetri ed tobuildnotonlyforourselves-todevelopandofferevery me ans o fGr ace theSa craments andServicesofour Churche s cangive b utto se ndofficer s andmenbacktotheirhomeparisheswithnewlifeand e nthusiasm c onsecratedtoth e S ervice ofGodandofHis Church on earth.Time alon ew illprovehowfarwe s ucceededinour s econd endeavour. He rei s re cordeds omethingofwhatwewereabletodo inthe immediate c ircumstances,andthem easure ofGod 's blessingonourwork. Itd eals onl y withth e Church ofEn gland( althougha painting ofthe J ewish S ynagogue in Chang i Gaolhasbeen incorporated asatokenofour co-o peration).Th e paintings andsketchesareexclusivelyofthatD en omination butI w ouldherepaya tribute totheworkofthe C haplainsofallD enominations -British Australian and Dutch : who worke din s plendid harmony and co-operation, andallwiththesameends in v iew,andwhoseworkwas equally blessed .TheChangi Area whereallPs.O.W were concentrated in February, 1 942,w asdi vided into Sub-Areas asfollows:-1.C ommand H.Q.andThirdIndianCorps. 2. Southern Area ( late Singapore Fortress ). 3. 1 8th Di vision Area 4.11thDi vision Area. 5 .A .LF. Area. A ll Indian Troops hadbeen concentrated ina separate area-butofficer s andBritishper sonnel ofIndianUnitsremained atChangi. Th e op ening Sunday sawServicesofall Denominations beingheldin ev eryar ea w ith e normous congregations.Fromthefirstthe LJ.A. placed

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n o r estrictions uponReligiou s a ctivities andofthi swe t ook th e fu lle st ad vantage. Site s were s electedforChurchbuilding s andcon struction at o ncepu t inhand Officer s andmenofferedtheir s erviceswillingl y. Ea ch Chur ch hadit s o wn peculiardesign-eachw asplann edw iththe g reatest c are and for esight. An Indian Mu slim Mo sque aN.A .A.F.I. Refri geration building abombed30 y ardsrifleran ge, alargegara ge-amongsto ther buildings-were recon structed. Architect s de signed Altar s andChur ch furnitur e wa s madefromallkind s ofmaterial s. H ymns heetswerecompiled whichlaterprovedofimmen sev alue a s paper s oonbecame s hort. There wa s alimitedamountofBible s and Prayer Book s brou ghti nto thecampatthebeginning-lateronincrea sed bya s mall quantit y fromth e Ameri can R ed Cro ss. Itcansafelybe s aidthathad10 ,000 Bible s b een available the y couldhavebeengi ven awa y insideamonthof o ur capti vity. Itwa s theonereque st ofallrank s. Atalat er dateth eywe re loanedoutfor s even-dayperiodsasthoughtheywerelibrarybook s and a copywaskeptineach Church forgeneralu se, butnottob e rem oved Theywereinconstantuse. Bythemiddleof1942thefollowingChurcheswereinoperation. Th e Volunt eer Church at Fairy Point theBriti sh Battn.ChurchinChan giVillage-theGladeChurchin1 st M.I.B.Area-St.Geor ge s St.Edmund 's andtheGarage Church in18thDiv.Area-theChurchof St. Barbara inthe11thDiv.Area andmanysiteswerebeingu sed regularlyforopen-airservicesinallpart s ofthecamp Dail y celebration s ofHolyCommunion Week-dayServic es, ConfirmationCla sses, Choirpractice s, Soldier s' Guild o fSt G eorge, ToeHBranche s, etc. wereinfulloperation. Uni versity Schemeswere s tartedin Southern Areaand18thDi v. In eachaTheological Faculty wa s incorporated andafullcour se of instructionuptoPart1G.O.E.givenbyChaplains Twenty-four offi cers andmenattendedinall withthedefiniteintentionoftakingHol y Order s. Manyothers attended thelecture s for instructional purpo ses( including Major-General BeckwithSmith G.O.C.18thDiv. ). The Chaplains of other Denominations alsohadtheirtraining s chemeundertheabl e guidance o fRe v.J.FosterHaigh C.F. ( U B.) wholaterdi ed agallan t deathin Thailand. Althou gh theUni versity Schemelaterlap sed, continuou s preparatio n for Candidates forHolyOrderswascarriedouttothelastdayunderth e inspiredleadershipoftheRev.E.W.B.Cordingl y, C .F. InApril 1942 thefirstoverseaspartyleftforSaigon butman y partie s inadditionhadbeen drafted totowncamps.Whereverpo ssible Chaplains accompaniedtheseparties andcarriedontheirs piritualwork ,

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thoughworkinghours interfered inmanycaseswithregularservices. On20thJuly,1942 ourfirstConfirmationServicewas hel? inSt. George 's Churchand179candidateswereconfirmedbytheBIshopof Singaporeatamo st impressiveService followed bythe Ordination toPrie st ofaservingOfficerwhohadbeenordainedDeacon onthe Friday priortoour capitulation.TheBishopwasabletohold s mallerConfirmation s intowncamp s beforehehimselfwastakenbythe "KEMPIE"( the Japane se Gestapo ) andsufferedeightmonthsof i mprisonmentandtortureattheirhands. OnAUGust 16th theGenerals BrigadiersandColonelsleftfor Japan butnot theyhadcompletedthebuildingof Command Church in Temple Hill. In September weevacuatedChangiVillageandmanyofour Churches hadtobeleftbehind a s weclosedintoamore constricted area,in Selarang. BeforeweleftanincidentoccurredwhichIfeelImusttellhere,in ordertokeepfaithwithfourverygallantmentowhomIgavethepromise thattheirnameswouldneverbeforgotten. On September 2ndIwasorderedtomeetthe Commander andthefour areaCommandersatagivenR.V. \Ve weretakenbyalorrytoaspot neartheseaandtoldthatweweretowitnesstheexecutionoffourofour men.TheywereCpI.Brevington, A.I.F., Pte.Page A.I.F., Pte. WaIters EastSurreyRegt. andPte. Fletcher, R.A.O.C.Theyhadbeen takenbytheI.J.A.after attempting toescapeinthefirstfewweeksafter capitulation. CpI.BrevingtonandPte. Fletcher weretakenfromRobertsHospitaltheformersufferingfromdysenteryand malaria onlyabletowalkwith theaidofastick andcladinhospitalpyjamas.Pte.Pagewaswearing a p yjama jacket.Theothertwomenhadbeen brought upfrom Outram RoadGaol.Theywere paraded beforethe I.J.A. Commander andtold ( throughan interpreter ) thattheyhadbeencondemnedtodeathandwouldbeshotin fiveminutes.Theywerethen handed overtome.Ispoketothemfora f ew moments.TheythenkneltdownandIgavethemAbsolution. CpI.Brevingtonsaidtome ,"IhavemyNew Testament here,sir,andI amgoingtoreaditwhiletheyshootme."Ishookhandswiththem commendingthemtothecareoftheOnewhowouldwalkwiththem throughtheValleyoftheShadow-forthemsonearathand. CpI.Brevingtontriedtotakefull responsibility onhimselfandgethis companionoff.Itbroughtnoresponse.Theywerelinedupbeforean Indian Viceroy'sCommissionedOfficer and Indian soldierswhohadgoneovertothe Japanese.They refused tobe blindfolded andfacedtheir murderers withoutasignoffear-CpI.10

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Brevington reading theewTe stament openinhihand.I w illn otgo intothegrue some detail s ofthat s cene.Fourh eroes hadwontheCrown o f Life. By October more partie s hadleftforup countr y and ov erseasa gain accompanied by Chaplain s. Xmas1942.Permi ssion wa s givenb y 1.J.A.for Light s Out t o be extended to01 00 hr s. 26.12.42. Midnight Celebration s ofH oly C om munionwereheldandinall2 ,4 75 C.ofE.officer s andmenmad e th eir Xmas Communion. CarolService s wereheldinallChurches and decorations ( asfara s po ssible ) wereputup.TheDutchForce s wh o b y nowhadjoinedus wereveryconspicuou s atallourService s. Easter Day 1943 ,s awthebiggest party toleavethecamponit s wa y tothe ill-fated labourcamp s inThailandwhere s omanythou sands lo st theirlive s.FourChaplains died butawonderfulworkwa s done-theone bright s potinthatgha stly tragedy.Iwouldmentiononeitemonly inthatconnection.Hundreds ofmenhad attended Confirmation Cla sses s incethe Confirmation Serviceofthepreviou s year.These hadbeen givena s lipof paper statingthatthe y hadreceivedin struction been admittedtoHoly Communion andwouldapplyfor Confirmation o ntheir releasefromcaptivity-intheirhomepari shes, ifthey s urvived. Itwas reportedtomeonthe return ofthe s urvivorstoChangi thatin scoresofcases menwhohaddiedundertheawfulcondition s prevailin g, hadtwoorthreeposse ssions intheworld-apairof shortsinrag s and tatters perhaps aphotooftheirwifeor mother ,ANDthe s lipofpaperguarded and preserved totheend. Theyheldfa st thattheyhad andno mancouldtaketheircrown. Withthe departure ofthis party theareaagainclosedin St.Georgc 's Church was abandoned butall furniture andfittingsmoved andhanded overtothenew Church ofHolyTrinity, andthe Gymna sium Church Selarang Area.HolyTrinitywa s builtfromthe materia l s brou ght acro ss fromthe Garden andWoodArea Church whichal so clo sed down. During theearlymonthsof captivit y intheHo spital Area theChapel ofSt.LukehadbeenerectedintheDy sentery Wing adornedb y magnificent life-sized figure s inpanel s painted bya patient a s hi s thank o ffering forrecoveryfromtheD.!.Li st. In September 1943 the Hospital movedintothe Selerang Area andwithitthe Church tobe rebuilt ina converted band stand.TheMethodists usedthe DiningHalloftheOfficer s' Me ss forEvening Services andtheC.ofS.builttheir Church clo se to Command H.Q. InMay, 1944,cameafinalmovetotheGaolArea.Againallour Churches hadtobe abandoned butan altar waserectedinagladeby HolyTrinityChurch andleftwithanoticein Japanese requesting thatit mightbe preserved asamemorialtoourdead.11

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B y Junethemo vew as co mpleted. \Xie s etaboutth e t ask immediately offinding s itesforour Churche s. I nsideth eG aolth e C ourtyard betw een theI solation andPunishment Bl ocks wa s tak enove r.Thi s hadb een u sed b y the CivilianInternees, but n othing h ad b een d one t owards makin g itintoa Church. A s iteforthe H ospitalC hurch wasc hosen. No .2Area ( SouthoftheGao l)w as c hosen f or St .Geo rge 's( MarkIn) a ndtheOfficer s' Areatookover u se ofthe op en-airs tage i nth eir a rea.TheC.ofS.al so foundasite,Other D enominationsc ombinedth eir Ser vices intheNewTheatreAreainside th e Gaol.AJe wish S ynagoguew asal so constructed. F romthi s tim eto th e end o four captivity Australian andBritish Chaplain sc ombinedandallth e r eligious workofthecampwas centralized und er oneadmini stration. Onc e th e Churche s werebuilttherecamea re -awakening ofth es pirituallifeofthecamp Communicant number s weredoubledwithinamonth.HolyCom munionServic es w ere helddailyinallC.ofE. Churches. Mattins and Eve ning Prayer s wer e heldeachday. Additional Servicesandmeetings we re arranged untilthe number weekly reached 103 ( excludingR.C. ). Sunday eveningS ervices ineveryareawerefilledtocapacity. Personnel werenota sked tocometoChurch-webrought the Church totheir door steps. XmasE ve, 1944. Midnight Serviceswereagainarranged-theonly s tipulationbein g thatonlyonelightwa s allowed ( onthe altar ), toconform w ith I.J.A. A.R .P. rule s, a s all s anctuary Churches wereintheopenair, andno s inging.All Churche s werecrowded Noholidaywasallowed a s inpre vious y ears butEveningSer vices wereheld.Inalltherewere 8 36 Communi cants, excludingC.ofS. Merhodist andR.N.F. Services. B y thi s tim e, th e cr eepers planted around the sanctuaries hadgrown, a nd e achwa s ama ss offlowerandleaf; adding mosteffective natural deco rationand cov ering thebeamsofthe structures. In th e Gaol Church ( St. Pauls ') a QuestionHour" hadbeencarried onsi ncetheSimeRoadCampwasmovedintotheGaolAreaandevery M ondayev ening,fifty andoftenmore O.R 's. attended tohear Chaplains a nswerth e manyand v ariousquestions previously handed ininwritingallh avings omethingtodowithReligioninitsmanyformsandaspects. H arvest F estivals wereheldeachyear.Itgaveusan opportunity of s ingingth eHarvest H ymns andfeelingintouchwiththe Churches at h ome. Aneffortwa s madealwaystoaddsomekindof decoration. AltarFlo wers were provided eachweekbymenonworkingpartiesoutside th e camp. werenot procurable after theearlydays butineachChurch,e lectncbulbsfromtorcheswerefixedupin home-made candle s ticksandlitfromthe main. Communion Wine presented agreatdifficulty Wewereabletopro-12

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cureafewbottlesfrom time totime butin addition variou s expedient s had tobetried.Black currant jamwasboiledintheearlydaysandbottled Raisinswere treated inthesame manner andevenGulaMalac ca. Intinction wasused throughout notonlyasamethodofcon serving our supply butasameansof preventing infection.Bread s weremad e fromriceflour maizeflourandtapiocaas available.TheArmistice Dayof Remembrance wa s keptannually-in1943and1944-byUnited Service s ofall Denominations. Intheformeryear th e Servicewasheldin SelarangSquare-in1944intheGaolTheatre, when 1 ,600 officersandmenwerepackedintotheTheatrewhich normally s at 900.The" LastPost and Reveille were forbidden b y the I.J.A. : butthisinnoway detracted fromthesolemnityandin spiration ofth e service Thanks tothewirele ss, whichwa s operated atgreatper sonal ri sk and functioned throughout our captivity wehadadvancenew s ofall National Daysof Prayer. IneachC.ofE. Church thefollowing s chemewa s adopted.Thedaywasdividedupinto watche s" offifteenminut es. A spacedformwasplacedoneachnoticeboard andoffi cers andmenwere askedtobe responsible foroneormoreperiod s throughout theday.Hol y Communion was celebrated attheu sualtime-Mattins a s on ordinar ydays-aChaplain wouldtakeaformof Interce ssion at1 2o' clock. Periods were allotted totheother Denomination s andRoyalNetherland s ForcesforaService during the afternoon andat9.30p.m.Famil y Pra yers. Soitwas ,thatthroughout thewholedayfromdawnuntil10p.m. c on tinuous Intercession wasgoingupfromourpri son camps a s everywatch wa s invariablyfilled-inmanycasesby s everalatatime.Inthi s wa y againwefeltwewereonewiththe Churche s athomeand throughout theEmpire. Forsomemonthsbeforeourrelease Sunda y hadbecomeafullworkin gday-theonlyholidayallowedbeing \Vedne sday afternoon.This how ever,innowayaffectedourwork.Evening Communion s madeupthe numbers ofthosewhohadpreviou sly been unable to attend the e arly morning services,andeveningservice sw erea s well attended a s e ver. Itspeaksvolumesforthekeennes s andenthu siasm oftheO .R's. that having returned fromahardday 's workintheopen andlivin g on starvationdiet-insteadoflyingup-hadtheirmeagremeal andaton ce cameontoChurch. Officerswerenotaffectedbyworking partie s ex cept insmall numbers on supervision duty. \X ihen No.2Area ( SouthoftheGaol Building ) wa s takeno ver a s H.Q. ofthetownworking (" X" ) parties andremov ed fromCampcontrol St. George's ( MarkIll) wasmovedintotheoffice rs areaand re-erected. The officersthemselves completed theentire work andbuiltforthem selves a Church ofwhichtheycouldbeju stlyproud-aChurch inwhichagrand13

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spiritual workwasdonerightuptotheendofourcaptivity.Therewasfreedomofaccesstoallareas,withtheexceptionthatofficers couldnotentertheGaolexceptonduty.O.R's.hadthchoiceofanyof the Churches fortheirServices.Somewent around Sunday bySunday-butthemajoritybecame regular attendants atone particular Church andjoinedinitsweeklyactivities. Choirswereformed anddid valuable work,notonlyinleadingthe singing butalsoaffordingtheonly opportunity formentosingwhenthi s andtheplayingofallmusical instruments wasstoppedbythe I.J.A. order forthewholecamp somemonthspriortoourrelease.Evensong was fullychoralineach Church.TheRoyal Netherlands Forceshadtheuseofour Churches andavailed themselvesofthemtothefullestextent.Itwillbe remembered bymanythatwhentheyfirstarrived theyjoinedinwithus andtheLesson was read inEnglishandDutch, andtheir National Anthem wassung together with oursattheendoftheServices.Thiswaslater forbidden bythe I.J.A., as wastheuseof National flags andpicturesofreigningmonarchs. Ihavebeen particularly requested toincludeinthisvolumetheFinal ThanksgivingService-heldonAugust27th.Idosobecauseitseems toformsuchafittingconclusiontoourwork.Itwasin every" sensean United "Service-unityof nationality anddenomination-unityinthe deepsenseof Thanksgiving to Almighty Godforoursafe deliverance.***Thepaintings photographs andsketches included inthisbook represent butasmall number ofthe Churches whichwerebuiltandthesitesusedin thevariousareasof Changi Camp, andelsewhere.Ithasbeenfound impossibletoincludesketchessokindly submitted byother artists on accountofspace.Iwouldaskthemtoacceptmydeepestregrets, together withmythanks.ThereisonesketchwhichIwould particularly havelikedtohavebeen included.Itwasthesiteofthe Evening open-air Servicesheldinthefirst monthsof captivity infrontoftheOfficers Messin Temple Hillfor Command andThirdIndianCorps.ManyofficersspokeoftheseServices intheafteryears,andtheystandoutinmyownmindwithvividmemories-particularlythatServiceon Easter Sunday Evening whentheraysofthesettingsun turned theemptyCrossonthe Altar into a blazeofgold aswe thought andsangofaRisen Christ, andHis gloriou s victoryoverthepowersofevil. Tothosewhose contributions are published herewith, particularly L ieut.E.Stacy,R.E. whodevotedmuchtimeandcarenotonlytothe painting, buttotheactual construction and planning ofour Churches I w ould expressonbehalfofall ourdeepestandmostsincere appreciation Asalsoto Lieut.-Col. C.H. 14

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Afewnotesontheworkdoneinthe Churches appear oppo site ea ch sketch. Those who worshipped inthese buildings willhavetheirownmemories-oneswhichIam certain willremainwiththemwhil e life shalllast.Thisaccount is ofnecessity briefand utterly inadequate. Somuch morecouldbe written didspacepermit.Howman y officer s andmen openly statedthatitwastheirReligion-theSacrament s andService s of their Churches, whichkeptthem sane, when everything menholddear ) waslost.For many itwastheirfirst experience ofthe s avingandkeepin g powerofalivingChrist.Formanyitwasa re-union inthefellow ship andserviceoftheir Church.Forall itwasaknowledgedeepandabidin gthatChristianityWORKS.Nomeretheorycouldha ves urvivedthe experiencesofthoseyearsof captivity.Thedarkdaysareover.Wehavepa ssed intothelightoffreedom.MaythatVisionwhichkeptus through thedarkne ss, beour g uideand inspiration through theyearstocome.Singapore London.1945 .Assistant Chaplain G eneral, FarE ast.1 5

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NOMINAL ROLLOF CHAPLAINSBRITISH-Royal Arm y Chaplain s Department. IN CHANGIR EV. J.N. L EWIS BR YAN,AIAs sistantChaplain-General,FarEa st. R EV. G W YO UNGE,S.C.F., C.ofE.S.C.F.18thDiv R EV. M.MCCLEOD S.C.F., C.ofS. R EV.L.V.HEADLEY,C.F. R EV. E W.B.CORDINGLY,C.F.R EV. J N.D UCKWORTH,C.F.AT KRANJIR EV H.F DANI ELS,C.F.( M ) R EV. E.C C.W EARNE,C.F.LEFTCHANGIR EV. H C.BABB,C.F.R EV. P.C.C AZALET ,M.C.,C.F.R EV. G.E.McNEILL,C.F.R EV. P.H ARPER,C.F.R E V.T.J P UGH,C.F.R EV. C.Ross,C.F.( M ) R EV.R.W.PRIDMORE,C.F.( M )R EV.V.S.ROBERT SON,C.F. R EV. C.E A LCOCK ,C.F.R EV. D E.D AVISON,c.F.R EV.F .H.STALLARD,C.F.R EV. H.W N ESTLING ,C.F.V OLUNTEER COMMISSIONSR EV.L.ST.G.P ETTER,S.C.FR EV. G THOMSON. Re v. A .Webb( C.ofS. )LeftforBANGPONG," Q"Party 1 st November, 1942 Le ft forJAPAN,16thAugust 1942.LeftforBANGPONG,20thJune, 1942.LeftforSAIGON 5thApril, 1942 .LeftforOverseas,20thOctober, 1942.LeftforBANGPONG, 16thAugust, 1942.LeftforBANGPONG,October, 1942 .LeftforBANGPONG,October, 1942 .LeftforBANGPONG,October, 1942.LeftParty" R 31 stOctober, 1942.LeftforTAIWAN 16thAugust 1942.LeftforBANGPONG,October, 1942.LeftforBANGPONG,20thAugust, 1942.Party"V"overland,28thOctober, 1942 .AUSTRALIAN IMPERIAL FORCES IN CHANGIS ENIOR CHAPL AIN REV.M.K.JON ES,A.I.F.CHAPLAIN( M)REV.S.M.BARRETT,A.I.F.CHAPLAIN( M)REV.J J.BENJAMIN,A.I.F. CHAP LAIN R EV. C.E.USSH ER,A.I.F.CHAPLAINR EV. G POLAINE ,A.I.F.CHAPL AIN( P)REV.A .R.MA CNEILL M .C. ,A.I.F.AT KRANJIC HAPLAINR EV. A.W.PAI N, A.I.F.CHAPLAINR EV. H.JON ES,A.I.F. ( C.ofS .) 16

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W ITH "A"F ORCECHAPLAINREV.W 1.FLEMING, A.1.F.CHAPLAINR EV.F.H.BASHFORD, A.1.F .CHAPLAINR EV. H CUNNINGHAM, A.1.F.W ITH"B F ORCECHAPLAINR EV.H .WARDLE-GREENWOOD, A .1.F.CHAPLAINR EV.A .H.THOMPSON, A .1.F.AT BL ACKANGMAT ICHAPLAINREV .K.F.SAUNDERS, A .1.F .LEF T W ITH F FO RCECHAPLAINREV.A RD EAN,AJ.F. ( Diedonjourney )CHAPLAINS-R.A.F.SQUADRONL EADERTHEREV.J.WANLESS( M )( I ava-Changi-Ovcrseas )( D eceas ed)SQUADRONLEADERTHE R EV. J J. T UCKER ( ChangifromJava )SQUADRONL EAD E RTHE R EV.T.A.Goss ( ChangifromJa va )R OYALNE THERLANDS FORCES CAPT. THE R EV.e.A.VANWY CH JURRIANCE ( Prote s tant ) LIEUT.THE R EV.V.E.SCHAEFER ( P rotestant) CAPT.THE R EV.D M .VANHAM EL ( P rotestant)S ERVING OFFICE RS A PPOINTEDO.C.P.CAPT:REV.L.E.ANDREWS( Gen.List )MAJORR EV.H W.K.SANDY( Gen.List ) LIEUT REV. J .B.LEECH(e.ofS. ) i/cJ EWISHFA ITH DOCTORNUSSBAUM( RN.Force s ) i /c S ALVATIONA RMY.L/CpL.J .OXENBRIDGE Th ere wereinaddition17Chaplains ( Re.)( 6Briti sh, 9AJ.F. and2RN.F.)CAS UALTIESOFC HAPLAINSDEATHS.R EV. Re.CHALK,c .r .R EV. J. O.DEAN,c.r.WoundedinlastweekoffightinginSingaporeI sland. DiedinR obertsHospital Changi 21 st Mar ch, 194 2 B uriedbyS.e.F.18thDi v A /A.e.G., repre sentedc. c. ,22ndMar ch, 1942 .DiedRobert s Ho spital Ch angi April18th 1942 fromDysentery.Buriedb yS.e.F.1 8th Di v .A/A.e.G., repre sentedc.o.18thApril 19 42. 1 7

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REV. J. F.HAI GH ,CF.( U.B. ) DiedofCardiacBeriBeri23rd September, 1943 BuriedatSonkurai Thailand Cemetery11 ( Two) Bl ockA Row5 Grave3. REV.J SMITH C .F. Murdered byI.J.A.withotherpatient s andstaffof AlexandraHo spital 13th February 1942 Grave unknown. R EV. J. PARR,CF. VolunteerCommi ssion as Chaplain S .S.V.F. Died ofAmcebicDy sentery atKanu Thailand 24thJune 1943. R EV. G J.H.CHAMBERS ,CF. Diedofperitoniti s duetoacute h arnorrhagi c pancreatitis 13thJuly 1945 atKran ji Singapo re. BuriedKr anji Cemetery. R EV. J .SHORT,CF.DiedofSeptecremiaatTarsao ( Thailand ) 25th October 1943.BuriedatTa rsao SQUADRONLEADERT HER EV. J.WAN LESS R.A.F.DiedatSandakan Borneo 27th J anuary 1945.WOUNDED.R EV. J. P.WARD,CF.( R.C ) Leg r emovedbyoperation May 1942.COMMUNICANTSWITHANALYSIS OFCAMPSTRENGTHDURING1942-1945 Numbers inAr eas andHospitals .BRITISH AUSTRALIANDUTCHHOSPITALCOMMUNICA NTS ( incl.Br. ,Br itishAu str.&Dutch)on lyT OTAL19422 8 F eb. 52 ,000 *4.74452 ,000 3 1Mar. 4 5,5623.211.45 ,562 30 A pril 19 ,46 6 8 ,264 4 ,2674.64431 ,997 3 1M ay 16 ,8184.07116 ,818 3 0June 15 ,445 3,494 15 ,445 31J uly 11 ,811 1 ,561 3 ,6564.62317 ,028 3 1 A u g .1 2 ,828 1 ,95 8 4 ,0044.51418 790 3 0S ept. 14 ,501 2 283 4 ,3 704.36321 ,15 4 31Oct .4 ,522 2 ,237 5 ,221 3 ,7643.73315 ,744 3 0 Nov 3, 053 2, 8012 ,331 2 ,7391.76210 ,924 3 1 D e c.9 ,79 18 ,3005 4062 ,8771.635 26 ,3 7.12,475 1 9433 1J an.9 ,72 1 8 ,463 4 ,374 2 9492.56625 ,507 28F eb. 9 ,9 04 8 ,359 6 ,99 3 2 ,9512.5632 2,207 3 1Mar. 6 ,6 51 5 ,679 6 ,974 2 ,9072.64422 ,211 18

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30April3 ,910 2 ,029 1 ,9732 ,652 EASTE R1.1 52 1 0564 1.817 31May. 1 ,476 985 420 2 ,6 698695 ,550 30June1 ,618 1 ,120 49 7 2 ,1147 475 ,369 31J uly1 ,702 1,16 7 564 1 9486345 ,381 31Aug .1 ,643 1 ,163 59 51 9066155 ,307 30Sept1 ,709 1 ,215 6461 7624835332 31Oct1 ,735 1 ,290 2 ,045 1 8097 886 ,879 30Nov. Nofigure s a v ailable47031Dec.2, 5782 ,904 59 7 2 394355 8,473 5381 94431J an No figure s available71628Feb .2 ,632 3 ,027 60 7 2 ,2966978 562 3 1Mar. 2. 610 3 ,046 58 7 2 ,31 86408 ,56 1 30Apr il2 :829 2 ,887 690 2 ,4486358 ,854 E ASTEIl 64631MayNofigure s available47530June4 ,648 4 ,349 1 ,128F M1 94460610 ,1 25 31Jul y4 ,528 4,399 1 ,156 1,23110 ,0 82 31Aug.4 ,620 4 ,311 1 ,171w eren ot r eco rded1,21110 ,10 2 30Sept.4 ,660 4 ,340 1 ,129s e p a r ate l y, b uti n-1,25410 ,189 3 1Oct.4 ,670 4 ,362 1 ,233elude d i r: t he o t he r1,56010 265 30Nov.4 ,659 4 ,375 1 ,345t ota l s .1,37610 379 31Dec.4 ,647 4 ,363 1 ,3281,57910 ,338 8361 94531Jan.4 ,756 4 ,299 1 ,290 1. 450 10 ,34 5 28Feb.4 ,702 4 ,303 1 ,2591,52110 264 3 1Mar.4 ,173 4 ,120 1 ,2601,5399 ,553 E ASTEIl 5 0730April3 ,798 3 ,310 9931,1958 101 31May3 ,390 3 ,000 1 ,9631,5308 ,893 30June3 ,597 2 ,907 1 ,21 51,4137 ,7 19 31July3 ,040 2 ,308 1 ,1911,6056 ,534 1 -19Aug .1,01420 -26Aug.5011 2 005 2-9Sept.450* An a pproximatefi gur e ) Bri ti sh 37, 000,A.I. F.1 5 ,000, m a r ch edint ocap tvity, O th erNationalitie s,i .e.Am erican F rench It alian, D ane s ,et c ,a re s hown as B riti sh in a ll abov e .INALL7 9 ,646Brit ishCommunicated inCH A N G Ie.ofE .Churche s ( a s a bove ) .8 506A.I.F( number s onl y fromJune,1 944 ,at Ch angi )11 ,80 7KR ANJI, RIV ER V ALLEY RO AD B UKIT TIM AHa nd No. 2AR EA.9 ,414" F"and "H"Parties(i nTH AILAND ) andK U ALA L UM P U R o nly. 109 ,433Thisfigureis t henumberre corded andt ake s no acc ount oft hem anyot her c a mpsup-countryandover seas theCh aplains o fwhich h ad n o opp ortuni t y of s e ndin g in t heirnumberstotheA.e.G. i nSing apore a ndthe reforec annotbe i ncluded. A complete record wouldundoubtedlyshowa phenomenal t otal.19

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TEMPLECHURCHOriginally a30yardsRifle Range, whichhadbeenseverely bombed prior tothe capitulation. Servicesfor CommandH.Q.andThirdIndianCorps wereheld during the opening monthsinfrontoftheR.A.MessonthetopofTempleHill.Lateronthissitewas handed overasa church andofficefor A.C.G.Thefiringpointwasfilledinwith cement andthe concrete seating chipped awaybyhand.TheAltarwasdesignedbyan architect, and completed intheR.E. Workshops.Thealtarrailsweremadefrom materials collected from previously occupied officers' quarters.ThreeColonels cutoutalltheglasspanes required andfittedthemin thewindowswhichhadbeen destroyed.TheChurchwas completed entirely bythe voluntary workofOfficers and O.R's. of Command andThirdIndianCorpsH.Q.Theopening servicewasheldonthe morning whenthe General'sParty( comprisingall Generals Brigadiers andfullColonels ) leftforJapanin August 1942. In September theChurchwasclosedastheareahadtobe evacuated andall material wasremovedtoSt.Edmund'sChurch.Chaplains-REV.J.N.LEWISBRYAN, A.C.G. REV.MAJORH.W.K.SANDY,O.C.F.20

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TEMPLECHURCH.

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BRITISHBATTN. CHURCH CHANGI VILLAGEOneofthefir st Churche s tocomeinto operation atthe beginning ofour captivity. Fitted upbyofficer s andmenofthecombinedBattn.ofEa st Surre y andL eicester R egiments, whowerefir st engagedagain st the Japane se inN. Malaya. Thi sChurch wa s thecentreforthe Ordinand sTrainingCla sses in S outhern AreaUni versity. M emorial windowlaterrem oved to Selarang Area.Chapla in-REv.H C .BABB, C.F.GLADE CHURCH, CHANGIThis wasan open-air Church thesitebeingclearedbyofficersandmen o f1 stMalayaInf.Brig ade, and9thCoast Regiment R .G.A., inFebruary, 1942 ACrosswaserectedat either end andan Altar permanently erected. Seating accommodation was brought from barrack roomsandofficers brought theirownstools. For inclement weather atentwas provided later andHoly Communi on celebrated there. Sitelater abandoned whenareawas evacuated.TheCro sses wereleft,butwere destroyed when building ofthe aerodrome began.Chaplain-REv.P.CAZALET,M.C.,C.F.22

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BRITISHBATTALIONCH URCH ,CHANGIVILLAGE. GLADE CHURCH CHA NGI.23

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ST. GEORGE 'SCHURCH, INDIALINES( M arkI ) O riginallya m osquea nd c onvertedint oaChurch b y 1 8th Di v. R .E's. B y taki ngin th eve randahs se atingaccommodati onw as6 00. Op enedo n fi rstSunda ya fter c apitulationandwa s throu ghout it sex istenceth ec entre o f a d eeps pirituallif e andtr emendous acti vity. Th eS apperand Ordnan ce Work shops pr oduced material s, andth e Chur chw as so onla vishly furni shed.The En glish Altar hadfour w roughtironriddelpo sts with curtain s mad e fromatornmarquee.Th e r eredosw asapaintedandcar ved plaqueofSt.G eorge andthe Dragon. Th e AltarCro ss wa s madefroma4.5howitzer s hellandgunpart s e ngraved w ithth e badgesoftheRegiment s andCorp s inthearea.ThePri ests's tallhadalargecarvedpanelofthebadgeoftheRoyalArm y Chaplain 's Dept. Lighting andflood-lightin gwe repossibl e by tappin g batterie s fromb roken lorrie s. OnJuly 2 0th,1942 theBi shop of Singapore confirmed179officers a ndm en in St : G eorge's, followedbyan Ordination ServiceofaDeacon, andatth e Communion S ervice whichfollowedHoly Communion wa s r eceived b y aChri stian Japane se officer an Indian Canon fromthe Cathedral a Dutch General fromJava a s wella s Briti sh and Australian offi cers andm en. Hol y Communion ,Mattins andE vensong helddailyandthe Church w asin c onstantu se fromdawnto Light s out. Clo sed downApril1943whenareawas evacuated butall furniture not tak en t o Thailand r emoved andu sed in Churches builtlaterinotherarea s. Communicant s, over15 ,000.Chaplain-REv.E W B.CORDINGLY"C.F.Sketch a nd pai nting by L ieut.E. Stacy, R. E.24

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25

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ST.GEORGE 'S CH URCH,INDIA LIN ES.. ( INT E R IO R)

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CHAPEL OFST.BARBARA.27

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CHAPEL OFST. BARBARA ( Patron Saint ofth e Gunn er s )11THDrv.AREA,CHANGIThisChurch wa s anarm y hutinBir chwoodCampwhichwa s handed overtothe Chaplain s for their work.TheChurch wa s di vided intot woparts two-third s a sChurchandth e remainder a s a Readin g Room.TheSanctuary( a ss hown ) hada depth of17feet andthedesignwa s extremely effective. All furniture wasmadeby volunteers.Lateronwhenthe arrival oflargeforcesofDutchTroops fromJavamade accommodation verydifficulttheChurchwas dismantled andhandedback.HadtheCampremained, anewChurchhadbeendesignedandwould havebeen erected.Chaplains-REV.J.H.SHORT,C.F.( Deceased) REV.T.J.PUGH,C.F.Cra yon s kct c bb y Lan c e-Bdr,Lumb,R.A.28

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CHAPEL OF T'HE TRASFIGRATIO KUALALUMPUR, 1942InMay, 1942 the photographic roomoftheGaolwa s allo catedtoPs.O.W. a s aChapelandallreligiou s bodie s combinedtoturnitint o a placeofworship anditwa s usedbyall. ItwasopenedonAscen sion Day 1942 and continued inu se untilth e dayof departure for Changi on October 18th 1942. Holy Communion, Morning andEvening Prayers werehelddaily.On Sunday two Celebrations and Mattins wereheld.TheEvenin g Service was held inalargeopenhall. Twoactivitiesmaybespecially mentioned-thePadre 's Fello wship, which numbered 600outofatotalof800 P s.O.\V., whichmetfordevotion anddiscussionof spiritual problems.Theotherwa s theFell owshipo fPrayerconsistingof30members whoboundthem selves topra y e very da y forspecific request s.Manymiraclesre sulted fromthi s effort. All funeral serviceswereheldherepriorto interment.TheChaplain Rev.J.N. Duckworth C.F. wa s a ssisted byRev. Burr Baughman ( American Methodist Mini ster-an internee ) al so byaTamilPriest Rev.A.Je sudiam, whowa s ofout standing helptoallrs.o.w,Chaplaini /c -REV.J.N.DUCKWORTH ,C .F.P ai ntin gbyLi elit.E.St acy, R. E.29

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CHAPELOF TRANSFIGURATION KUALALUMPUR.30

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ST .EDMUND'SCHURCH,CHANGI.

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ST. EDMUND'S CHURCH, CHANGIThisbuilding was originally converted intoa Church bythe18thDiv. underRev.F.H. Stallard, C.F.TheChurch asseeninthe painting isasitwaswhenitbecame Command Church.TheAltar andrailswere brought from Temple Church whenthe latter hadtobe abandoned.Thechoirstallsweremadeoutoftheswingingdoorsofofficers bungalows.Thepulpit wasthegiftofthe A.I.F.TheCrosswasrescuedfromtheLadyChapelofTanglinGarrison Church. Earlier ithadbeen brought to Singapore when Shanghai was evacuated andthe Garrison servicesceased. ThisCrossandthe larger oneinSt.Paul's wereallthatthe I.J.A. left ofthe furnishings of Tanglin Garrison Church whenthey turned the Church intoan ammunition dump.Thefloorwaspavedandthewholefabricofthe Church madebythe officersof Command H.Q.Laterthis Church was shared bythe18thDiv.again and Evensong washeldtwiceeach Sundayevening-alwayswithpacked congregations.Thesecondservicealways providing aqueuebeforethefirstwasover. Holy Communion, Mattins and Family Prayers helddaily.Clzaplains-REV.J.N.DUCKWORTH,C.F.(18thDiv. )REV.H.W.K.SANDY,a.C.F. ( CommandH.Q).D raum b y Ca pt.J.R.Cr ickmay,P aintedb yL ieut i-C ol, lfIithcl's-PaYllc. 32

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SINGAPORE RACECL UB CHURCHThisChurchw aser ectedi nth e b oxo fH E. th eGove rn o r inth e Singapore RaceClubGrandStandb y th e S.S. V.F. und er th eco mmand of Lieut. -Col. Newe y, inMa y 194 2.Thes hellholeinextrem e t op ri ghthandco rneri ss tuff e dup wi th amattress.TheAltari spartoftheori ginal bar .Itwa s onlypo ssible tohold s erviceshere o nalt ernat e Sunda y s, th eChaplaincomingupfromtheGreat \X 1orId Camp.TheEvening Service s wereatt ended b y ana verageo fl OO ,a ndb etween 30and40 remained for Communion. . ... LUI.L (' ./33 Ch aplain-sTHER EV.J.G M.CHAMBERS C.F. ( D e c e a se d)D ra ton byCapt.J .R Cri ck m ay, P ai n ted b yL i cur -Col. H'li th ersPa Y ll e .

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SINGAPORERACECLUBCHURCH.

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ODQMPOQK. 2.ADAMPARKC HURCH .

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ADAM PARK CHURCHThisChurch wa s er ected ontheupperfloorofa bombed hou se inAdamPark, and o pened o nWhitSunday, 1942 .TheCro ss ontheAltarwa sbroughtfromtheMortuaryChapelat Al exandraHo spital Sin gapore.TheC ros s s een through the doorway wa s erected asa memorial tot he F allen during theMalayan Campaign.Sundayev eningc ongregations averaged 175. Communicants totalled 1 ,150.Presb yterian Services fortheGordons werehe ld weekly.C haplain-s-Csvv.TH E REV.E .L .ANDREWS( Gen. O.C.F.P aint e dbyL i e ut.-Col.lfIi ther s -Payn e Dra w nbyL an ce B dr .Lumb, R A.3 6

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CHURCHOFTHE ASC E NSIO GR EATW ORLDA mongt hefi rst parties toleave Changi wa s onecompo sed ofA.LP.w ith so me Briti sh p ersonnel.Thi s wa s bi lleted int heGreat \ \1orld a form er amu sementparki n S i ngapore town.Toth i s camponMay 19 42,was p osted th e l ate R ev.G J. M .Chambers, C .F. H e at o nce s tarted to fi ndas itef ora Chu rch.T he interio r s off our s hops we red emolishedto f ormone build ing .Theo neonthe extrem e lef to fth e paintin g h ad b eena Chi nesebeautyparlour .The han gings andfurn ishingswe re scro unged fr omvariou s em pt y s hopsin sidet heparkandada pted. M o st o fth ere s t wa s m adeonth e s potb y theO.R' s.The Rer edosw asmad e fr omas howca se, th e in terior ofwhich w as painted w hite, w itht wo p olished fl oorboard s nai led onto formaCro ss.Thetwotall c andlesticks we re c utand a dapted from chromiumplatedladi es' hatstands.TheChurchwa s o pened on A scensionDay, 1942 .PadreChamberslatertoldme t hat o non eocc asionaJ apaneseofficer andapartyofmencameintotheChurch andforam oment th erewas imminent ri skthatitmightbed emolished.The Communi onVesse l s werelaidoutundera square whiteclothonth eA ltar but thinkin g th iswas anurncontaining thea shes ofoneofourdead h es alutedand w ithdrew t hepartywithoutfurtherincident .TheChurchwasthe centre of splendid w orkandacti vity throu ghout th e occupation ofthiscamp withdailyHolyCommunion ,Martins andFamilyPrayersatnight, and packedSundaySer vices.Chaplain-REv.G.J.M.CHAMBERS,C.F.( Deceased ) P ainting by L ieut. E Stacy R. E.37

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w 00CHURCH OF ASCENSION GREATWORLD .

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ST .LUKE'S, SELARANG .

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ST. LUKE'S CH APEL SELARANGWhenRobert s Ho spital movedinto Selarang Area theChapelinthe Dy sentery Wingwa s cleared andall f urniture carried by trailers tothe newarea.AB andstand PracticeHutwas handed overasa Church, andBriti sh andA.l.F.per sonnel atonce transformed itintoaverywell appointed buildin g. The Opening ServicewasheldonAugust2 9th ) 1 943. T he Chapelwa s t he centreofToeHwork andthe \X Torld Chain of L ightwasheldt here onSat urday December 10t h 1 943. Hol y Communion Mattins and Evening Prayers helddail y .R oyal Netherlands Forcesused th eC hurch for th eir P rotestantService s Methodists alsoheldweeklymeeting s here Communicants-Bri tish A ustralian Eas ter 1 618 762 183 2,5 63This Church wasdisman tled andta kent oKRANJIw henth e S elarang Hospita l wasmovedtot he newcam pinSin gapore, Jun e 194 4. .. ---------Chapla ins-REV. J. G M .CHAMBERS,C.F (Deceased )REV.E.C.C.WEARNE,C.F.P ainting b y L ieut.E Stacy R. E .4 0

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. MEMORIALALTARW henS elerang wa s evacuated in J une 1 944, a nd a ll C hurche s i nth ata rea we red ismantled f or r emovaltot heGa ola rea, a M emorial Alt ar was b uilt by R ev C apt. E L. Andr ews( Gen L i s t ) close t o th eo ld site o fH olyTrinity. H e l eftasc rolli n J apanese w i th the fo llowing wo rding: "This Alt ar h as b eene recteda sa M emorialto thefallen. O fyo ur c harityplea se ret ain thi s buildin g un broken, unt il theend o fth e wa r." ( Tran s l a t e d .)This i s th eso le s urvivinglandmarko fthe m any Churches bu ilt inCh angi are a priort oourfin a l m ovetotheG aol. A s fara s i s kn own iti ss ti ll s t a nding .41

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-2 ,602 1 ,010ST. LUKE'S CHAPEL, ROBERTSBARRACKS HOSPITALWa s ori ginally aroomongroundfloorofa Barrack Block andc on ve rtedint o aChapelb y Rev F.H. Stallard C.F. intheDy sentery Wing o fth e Ho spital, for patient s andin particular forthe s taffsof196 197and 19 8F ield Ambulance s R.A.M.C. Itwa s d esigned byanofficerof18thDi v., andthe Altar railbuiltb y 1 8th Di v. R .E. OpenedJul y 12th 1942. Chaplain A.W.Pain,A.I.F, ass isted throughout.Theg reatf eature ofthi s Chapel wa s thecollectionofmural painting s, th ew orkofBdr. Stanley Warren 135FieldRegt.,R .A., whodidthe se magnific ent painting s a s his thank sgiving forrecoveryfromtheD.I.Li st.They con sisted of Nativit yScene;TheInstitution oftheLastSupper ;TheDescent fromtheCross ; Christ 's Commi ssion" Goyeintoallthe World ;andSt.Pauldictating tothebelovedphy sician, St.Luke. A Guild of Church Workers ToeH production ofa Church Magazine fo r the Wards wereonly s omeoftheusestowhichthischapelwasput. Afontwa s madeandpre sented totheChapelbyCapt.Cook 5thSuffo lk Regt. Holy Communion washelddaily, Communicants-BritishA.I.F. 3 ,612TheChapel furnishings weremovedto Selarang Barracks on August 2 7th,1943 whentheAreasclosedin andwasfinally destroyed by I.J.A. tobecomepartofa hangar fortheirAirForce. Bya strange coincidence,theonly surviving relicofthe Chapel isthe in scription overthe Descent fromtheCross panel ,"Father, forgi ve themfortheyknownotwhattheydo."Chaplains-REv.G.J. lVI. CHAMBERS, C.F. ( Deceased) REV.F.H.STALLARD, C .F.CHAPLAINA.W.PAIN, A.I.F.42

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Dra unib y B dI' S tanley lfI arre n,R. A.ST .LUKE'S CHAPEL ROBERTSHOSPITAL.43

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ST.GE ORGE'SCHURCH,TANJONGP ,RIO K JAVAThis Chancelofa s mall Church w ascon structed byp s.a.w. atthe abovecampand dedicated onJu ly 12th 1942 .Thes itewa s inthe centre ofthecamp andfacingtheChurchwa sa greenlawn50 y ardsx20yard s whichwa s carefull y tended b y theps.a.w.andbe came thei r fa vourite meeting placeinth e evening s. Command er H.C.Upton ,R.N. (M )V.R., de signed and painted the Ea st Windo w in w hichwas depicted St. George s layingthe Dragon the fla gs oftheAllie s andthebadgeso f t heR .N.Armyand R .A.F. Allthe furniture andfittingswere constructed byofficer s an d men under c onsiderabledifficulties. Api cture wa s takenfor propaganda purpo ses b y the Japanese Pre ss and print ed inth eN ipponTim e s( seeoppo site ) .ChurchworkinJavawa s very different from M alaya andHol y C om munion andService s hadtobehe ld inse cret andinvery s mall numbe rs.Trustees wereap pointed forthis Church i.e .. COL.C M.LANE, 15/PunjabRegt. LT.-COL.M.C.RUSSELL, Ea st Surrey Regt. ( Deceased ) .Clzapl ains-R EV.H .J P HILLIPS ,S.C.F.R EV.J.HARPERH OLD C ROFT C.F.4 4

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45

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HOLYTRINITYCHURCH, SELARANGThis Church waserectedfrom materials brought acrossbyofficers fatiguepartiesfromthe Garden andWoodArea,whenthe Church inthat area(andtheareaitself ) wasevacuated. Someofthe furniture hadbeen brought fromSt.George's India Linesafter"F "Partyhadgoneupto Thailand. Structure was corrugated ironandattap.TheMemorial WindowwasoriginallyintheBritishBn. Church in ChangiVillage andwastheworkofPte.Davies,R.A.O.C. Lieur-Col. Withers-Payne, ].A.G. Malaya Command lateraddedthecolouring effectstomakeitintoan imitation stainedglasswindow. Memorial Tablets madeinChangitothememoryofofficersandmenof variousRegimentsmaybeseenontheEastwall. First Serviceheldon Sunday, July4th,1943. Holy Communion Mattins andEvening Prayers helddaily.TheChurch wasusedforLecturesand Instructional Classesopento wholecamp whennotinuseforServicesand Church Meetings. Total number ofCommunicants, 2,164. Church dismantled andbroughttoCHANGIGAOL,June1944.Chaplains-REv.G.W.YOUNGE,S.C.F. (C.ofE.) REV.CAPTAINL.E.ANDREWS(Gen.List),O.C.F. REV.MAJORH W.K.SANDY,O.C.F.P ainting byLi eut. E.Sta cy, R.E.46

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ST.GEORGE 'S CHURCH KANBURI( Mark11 )Forninemonth s afterlea vingChangi, thepartyw hichhad gonetoThailandtomakethe i ll-fatedrailwa y hadnoChurch.Thes tory o fth at g rim tragedy ha s beentoldel sewhere. DuringthatperiodS erviceswe re heldinhut s andinthe open-air. A roundChri stmas 1943 whenonl y 1 ,000we releftinK ANBURI, t he s econdSt.George' s Church wa s built.Itwa s a s anctuary o nly m adeof bambo o andmat s, pu t together b y the patient s.TheAltar Altar Cro ss and plaque ofSt.Georg e had co meupfr om s toreinBAMPONGandfurni shed the sanctuar y. Holy Communion and EveningPrayers wereh eld dail y, andon Sunda y ev enings,Evensongwassungbya trained choir andtheatt endance av eraged three hundred. AttheendofApril,1944 thecampwa s di smantled andth e Church furnishings entrained for Singapore. tobe re-erected atChangiGaolar ea laterasSt George 's ( MarkIll).Chaplain-REv.E.W.B.CORDINGLY, C.F.P aintingby L i eut. E. Sta cy, R .E.47

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HOLYTRINITYCHURCH, SELARANG.

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S 1'.GEORGE' SC HR CH K ANBURI.

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ST. DAVID'S CHURCH,SIMEROADCAMP, SINGAPOREThi s Church wa s erectedby S.S.V.F. and S.M.F.V.F. underthe co mmandofCol.N ewey, onthe return oftheseforcesfrom Thailand. Thepanel s oneither s ideoftheAltarweretheworkofthesamearti st, Bdr. \X iarren R .A., who painted thepanel s ofSt.Luke 's Church inthe D ysentery Win g atRobert s Barra cks. The Church wa s u sed byall denomination s(l essR.C. ) andlateron p assed totheCivilian Internee s whentheywereremo ved fromtheGaol andtooko ver thi sc amp.Chapl ain-REv.L V.HEADLEY,C.F.50

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ST.DAVID 'SCHURCH,SIMEROADP.O.W.CAMP.

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ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, CHANGI GAOLAREA.InJune1944 shortlyafterthe return ofthesurvivorsfrom Thailand reachedSingapore,thecampwas centralised inChangiGaolandthearea immediately surrounding it. St.George 's (MarkIll) wasbuiltinNo.2WorkingCamp whichwas s ituated immediately totheSouth andoutsideoftheGaol building itself, min istering to2 ,500 Britishand A.I.F. Other Ranks.Itconsistedofa s helter14feetby10feet,whichwassimplyaChancelandcoverforthe Altar therestofthe Church beingopenairenclosedbyan attap fence. Flowersandcreeperswereatonce started andsooncoveredthe s tructure,andwithflowerbedsthesitewasmost attractive St.George 's( MarkIll) was furnished withtheold characteristic featuresoftheearlier Churches ofthatname. Permanent bencheswerefixedtoseattwo hundred andextraformswere broughtinfor Sunday EveningServices. Holy Communion and Family Prayers helddaily,andawidevariety of Church organizations weremarkedfeaturesoftheworkofthis Church .Theareawasclosedbythe Japanese inApril1945andthewhole buildingmovedintotheOfficers'AreatobecomeSt.George's (Mark IV ) or St.George'sinthe Poultry."Communicants-BritishA.I.F. 3,500June1944-March1945 1,224 4,724Chaplain-REV.E.W.B.CORDINGLY,C.F.Painting by Li eut. E S t a cy, R.E.52

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S T. GEORGE' S C H U R C H, C HANGIGAOL AREA .

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AsketchofasectionoftheCemeteryinKANBURI( THAILAND ) wheresomanydiedintheconstructionoftheBangkok-MoulmeinRailway,1943-1944.'

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MEMORIALCROSSINMALAYAHAMLET,THAILANDThisCrosswasunveiledintheJungleonAugust22nd 1943 ,byLieut.-Col onelR.H.Humphries ,R.A. ,Commanding "H"Force Thailand. Itwas c arvedbyLieut .-Col. Oakes A.I.F. Inscriptionreads: TOOURAUSTRALIANANDBRITISHCOMRADES HERELAIDTOREST.1943." AMATOSEORUMDEUSASCIPAT."55

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Vt0\ ST.PAUL 'S CHURCH.

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-4 ,982 1 ,984ST. PAUL'SCHURCH, CHANGI GAOLThisSanctuary Church was constructed in side theGaol inanar ea betweenthe Punishment and Isolation Blocks.Ithadformerl y beenu sed bythecivilian internees forServicesbutno attempt hadbeenpo ssible t o makeitintoa permanent placeofworship. Opened June1944.Itwa s furnished from materials brought infromthe dismantled Church es of Selarang area. Pulpit fromSt. Edmunds Altar rail s and Lectern from Changi Church room ( of pre-war days ).TheCro ss hadbeenre scued fromTanglinGarrison Church. Flower vasesmadefromshellca ses, candlesticks fittedwithelectricbulb s. Hangings madeby A.I.F. Frontals madefromvarious materials. Memorial Tablets in Sanctuary asinHolyTrinityearlier. Shrubs andcreeperswere planted andattheendcoveredthewall s and Sanctuary with tropical flowers. Holy Communion Mattins Evening Prayer daily.TheChurch w as in constant use througout theweek andmuchusedfor private pra yer byO.R's. Officerswerenot permitted toentertheGaolexceptonduty ,s othi s Church was entirely usedbyO.R 's., Britishand A.I.F. whotookth e greatest prideintheir Church andkeptitinthemostefficientmanner. A QuestionHourwasheldhereweekly. Centre ofToeHwork Communicants-British A.I.F.Total6,966Chaplain s -REV.L. V.HEADLEY, C.F.ijc.CHAPLAINE.C.USSHER,A.I.F. SQ.LEADERREV.C.J.TUCKER,R.A.F.P ainting b y Li eut. E St acy, R.E .57

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VI eoCHAPELOFST.ANDREWANDST.LUKE.

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ST. GEORGE 'S OFFICERS AREA.

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CHAPELOFST. ANDREW ANDST.LUKE CHANGI GAOL HOSPITAL AREAThis Church wa s builtinHalf-Moon Street forthe Hospital area but was attend ed bymanyfromotherareas particularly A.I.F. Thenameis acombinationoftheA .I.F. Church at Selarang andtheold Hospital Chap el fromRobertsBarracksandlate Selarang area s.Thes tainedglas s windo w, picturing St.Andrewcamefromthe A.I.F. Church. Although asinallourlater Churches theonlycoveringwasoverthe Sanctuary th e areawasenclo sed byamore substantial wall madechiefly fromthedoor s ofold quarters collectedbyenergeticand enthusiastic v olunteersunder Padre Duckworth.TheAltarwasmadeintheofficers work shop, a s weremanyofthe fitting s. Holy Communion andEvening Prayers werehelddaily. Chaplain s' StudyCircle and A.-C.G. 's Conferencesheldhereweeklyandmuchused bytheDutchProte stant Church. Evensongwa s attended byanaverage of400officersandmen .ThestoryoftheHo spital withitsteeming population of starved and di seased menhasbeentold e lsewhere.Allthatcanbesaidhere isthat this Church wa s thecentrefromwhichwas brought tothemtheonly comfortandconsolationtheyhadtoknow. Communicants ( includingward Celebrations and private Communions ) British -9,755A.I.F. -4,18013 ,935Chaplains-CHAPLAINM.K.JONES,S.C.F.,A.I.F.REV.J .N.DUCKWORTH,C.F.P ainting b y Li eut. E.Sta cy, R.E .60

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ST.GEORGE'SOFFICERS'AREA CHANGI GAOL ST.GEORGE'S( MarkIV )InApril1945 whenNo.2AreawasremovedfromGaolControl th e opportunity wastakentomoveSt.George s ( MarkIll)intotheOffi cer s' Area whichlaytotheEa st ofthemainGaol building s.Thisareahadpreviou sly hadno Church building S ervices b eing h eld infrontofthe open-air s tage-theonly unoccupied s potinthi s ve ry conge stedarea-consisting of1 ,200 officer s Briti sh A .LP. andDutch. A volunteer party of50officer s mo ved thec ompleteChurch fr om th e oldsitetotheneww ith allit ss eatingin24hours-though alon ger p eriod andmuchworkwa s nece ssary beforethe s itea ssumed th e natur eo f w hich the painting givesan excellent repre sentation.Itwas surrounded bythe poultry run s ofthe o fficers ar ea h ence it s affec tionate nameof St.-Georges-in-the-Poultr y."Theres ponse o f theareatotheir Church wastrul y amazin g andit becamea wonderful centre of s piritualwork during thela st anxi ou s monthso f our captivity Holy Communion Mattins and Compline werehelddail y andE ven s ongon Sunday n ights was attended byanavera ge congregation of4 00. Anexcellentchoirofofficers trained byLeiut. -Col. With er s-Payne l ed the Evening Service s andga ve many anthem s w hilsta s tringorche str a underMajorHorton wereabletopla y one Sunda yev eningamonth.TheChurch wa s incon stant u se for v ariousS er vic es andM eetings including Refre sher Cour ses for Confirmation Communicants-April1945-September8 th 1945onl y. British 2 ,7 57 A .LF. 70 1 3 ,458Chaplains-REV.G.W.YOUNGE, S.C .F. REV.E W .B .CORDINGLY, C.F.PaintingbyLieut .E.Stac y, R.E .61

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SYNAGOGlJE OF OHEL JACOB ,CHANGIGAOLDuring the e arlieryear s ofcapti vity therehadbeennoprovi sion mad e forapla ce ofwor ship fortheJewish Communit y, thoughvarious temporar y arran gements weremadeforthemtoholdtheirService s. When w emo ved intotheGaolArea adefinite s itewa s allotted totheman d aSyna gogue ( the interior ofwhichi sshownoppo site ) wa s erectedina courtyard ,i nsidetheGaolbuilding.TheDedication Serviceon September 26th 1945 was attended bythe Repre sentative Officer,his s taffofficerandthe A.C.G. andall available Jewi sh per sonnel. ItbecamethecentreofallJewi sh activity intheCampfor British A.I.F. andDutchForcesand s plendidworkwasdonebyDr.NussnxunoftheRoyal Netherland s Force s whowas indefatigable invisitinghis men particularly thoseinhospital. A magazine ofaveryhigh literary standard was produced, andevery thingdonetoenablethoseoftheJewishFaithto carry out their Religiou s dutiesasinpeacetime. SATQRDAY EVENING,7THELLUL,5704.DEDICATION. Ord er ofth e Servic e.1.MaTauwu.2.Ps.30. 3.Ma'ariv. 4. Prayers forRoyal Families. 5.Sermon. 6.PrayerforthosefalleninBattle. 7.Prayerforsickandwounded. 8.Prayerforourpeopleathome. 9.Ps.24. 10.Ps.117 11.Oleinu. 12.AdaunOulom. 13. Hatikvah.62

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63

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CONFIRMATION, SEPTEMBER7TH,1945.Confirmation wa s administered b y theBi shop of Singapore justafter o urlib eration on Friday September 7th 1945. On e hundred andtwentyBritishand A.I.F. officer s andmenwere pr esented allof w homhadbeen prepared for andrecei ved Communion p ending th eir Confirmation duringour c aptivity. Man y hundred s haddiedduringthe 3 } yearsof captivity themajority in Thailand. TheServicewa s heldinSt.Paul 's Church Changi Gaol.Themenarewearingnewly -issued Japane se clothing thefirsttheyhad r eceived formany 64

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Cr ownC opyrightR eserved.CONFIRMATION OFP .O.W.,CHA NGI GAOL.65

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BRITISHCEMETERY, CHANGIThisw as s tartedimmediat ely w e cameintoChangi under1 8th Div control. MajorHarper, R.E. drewuptheoriginalplanandthi s wa s a dheredto throughout. Theareawa s ju st wa ste land whichhadtob e clearedof sc rubandtropical undergrowth andworkingpartieswereat oncelaidon. Itwa s decidedthateachgraveshouldbe separate andonetypeof c rossu sed. Acarefulrecordha s beenkeptofeveryburial. Pro vision wa s madefortheerectionofa Chapel whichiti s hopedth e WarGrave s Commi ssion willlatercon struct asa permanent memorial. Fo r morethantwoyear s Major Brei gel, Royal Norfolk Regiment,wa s inchar ge. His s onwasoneofthefirsttobe interred asa battle casualty OnOctober30th 1944 thi s Cemetery wasclosedby I.J.A. order anda newone s tartednearthegaol.[TheA.I.F. hadtheirown Cemetery laidoutonadifferentplan bu t equ ally beautiful. During theperiod February ,1942-0ctober, 1944,theirdeathroll c ameto143.]TheRoyal Netherlands Forceshadaplotinthe British Cemetery and theirca sualties are therefore includedbelow.BRITISHCEMETERY.( i )Briti sh P e rsonnel. BattleCasualities ( diedofwounds ) BattleCa sualities (liftedandre-interred ) Si ckness andAccident Exe cutions ShotoutsidecampperimeterwireOtfr s. Nurses101 30 O.R's.CiviliansTotals 41 51 18 20 407 4375 51 1 British A.I.F. Dutch Others Totals 41 472 514 ( ii) Dut ch P ersonnel. Offrs.NursesO.R's.Civilians BattleCasualities 2 2 4 SicknessandAccident 6 56 63 Totals 58 581THEDETAILSOF BURIALS INSECONDCEMETERY1stJuly ,1945-8thS eptember, 1945 British A.I.F. Dutch Total Offrs.O .R's. Offrs.O.R's.Offrs.O.R'.sOffrs.O .R's. 215 3114332 TotalBurialsinChangiCemeteries uptoourrelief areasfollows:-Offrs.O.R's. 47502 3162 1282 62 747Total-809AllRanksSk etchedbyCapt.L H.R einders,R.N eth. For ces.66

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BRITISHCEMETERY,CHANGI.

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FINALTHANKSGIVINGSERVICEOn Saturday morning Au gust 11th 1945 a ss oona s thenew s cam e thr ough thatthe Emperor of Japan hada sked forterm s, the A.C.G int erviewed the Representati ve Officer w ithreferencetoaFinalThanks gi ving Service.Itwa s agreedtoholdoneas s oona s the1.J.A.passedon thenew s officially. B y Sunda y, Au gust 19th ce rtain information havingbeen v olunteered b y the1.J.A. it s eemedr easonable toputon individual ChurchThanks g ivingServic es thatday buttopo stpone themainserviceuntillater when w ecouldsingthe National Anthemforthefirsttimeformanymonths and m eet inabodywithoutdan ger ofprovokinganyguardstoaction.Thechoir s ofall Churche s werema ssed andaformofser vice drawnup. Ea ch D enomination tookapart.Theservicewa s ofnece ssity shorton ac count ofth e inabilityofmento s tandforan y lengthoftime.Astring o rchestra,whi ch hadplayedonceamonthinSt.George 's Church anda harmonium playedby Lieut.-Col. \Xiithers-Payne ledtheservice.Abu gler wa s presenttopla y" LastPo st"and"Reveille. Exceptfor funer al partie s, nobugler s hadfunctionedinthecampfortwoyears Onl y Japane se buglecallswereallowed. On Saturda y, 26thAugust i t wasdecidedtoholdtheServiceonthe follo wing day andtoholditontheHo spitalSquare-thisbeinglessfarto walkthanthe Padang.TheR.E. constructed a platform 16feetby8feet Thiswa s drapedwiththethreeflag s oftheAllies-British, Americanand Dutch. All Chaplains ( lessR.C. a nd1Dutch, sick)-16innumber-assembledinSt.Andrew s Vestryandm oved offtothe Square at7.45p.m.Theearlierrainhadclea red andtheeveningwasfinethoughcloudy.Thecrowdsbegantoflockinfromallareasby7p.m.Officers,bringing th eir own s tools,weremar shalled behindtheAltar-allotherswiththe O.R 's.ThesixteenSeniorOfficer s ofServicesand Nationalities were s eatedinfrontoftheAltar. B y 7.45p.m.itwas conservatively estimatedthat4,000 werepresent.Many hospital patient sw ho w ere unable toleavetheirwardsstoodaround thedoorsoftheirhuts a ndjoinedinthesinging. Itwasaservicewhichwilllongbe remembered.Thevastbodyofmen s ingingthehymns-thedull thunder of4,000voicesand more sayingthe Lord 's Prayertogether-formedamostfitting "NuncDimittis tothe workofthe Churches in Captivity. Itwasaspectacleofunityin Church and international relationships commented uponand appreciated byall. Holy Communion was celebrated ateachofthethreeC.ofE. Churches attheconclusionoftheService.68

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ORDEROF SERVICE.Opening Sentence s.HYMN:" 0GodourHelpinAge s Pa st."SCRIPTURE:Readin English b ySjCHAPLAINM.K.JO NES A .I.F. ReadinDutchbySjCHAPLAIN J. VAN W YCH JURRIAN C E R N.F.'[ eremiah,Chapter29 V erses11-14i nclusive.HYMN:" Nowthankwe a llourGod. "PRA :R EV. S.W BARRET C M),A.I.F.ONEMINUTE'SSILENCEI NMEMORYOFO UR D EAD.LASTPOST. They s hallgro w not o ld"e tc.-A.e.G.REVEILLE.HYMN:" Praisemy soultheKingofHe aven."ADDRESS:R EV. J.N.L EWIS-BRYAN ,A.e.G.HYMN:" Abidewithme ."BENEDICTION. N ationalAnthems:U.S.A.HO LLAND. GR EAT BRIT AIN. S ERVICE COND UCTEDB YR EV M M cL EOD S .e.F. ( C.ofE. )SERMONBYREV.J.N.LEWISBRYAN A.C .G. ( Givenattheabo ve Ser vice ) For three-and-a-half-years wehavewaitedforthi s hour Thehourwhenwecouldallmeetin heartfelt thankfuln ess t oA lmighty Godforoursafedeliverance. Wefeltthatitwasonlymeetandrightthat wew hoha ve b orne th e burden oftheseyearstogethershouldmeetattheendinon eg reatunit ed service,inadditiontothosealreadyheldinthechur cheso fall denominations. Andsowearehereto-night. Thereisanoldproverbknowntou sail-' Hopedeferredmak eth th e heartsick'-buthasitnotbeenthestarof hop e s hiningundimm ed throu gh thelongdarknessofournightof captivity whichha s ledu s on unswervinglyin trust andconfidencetotheda wn ofourliberation?" Howlongandhowdarkthatnightha s beeni s kno wn tou s allina greaterorlessdegree.Thosewhoha ves urvivedthehorror s ofthe workingcampsin Thailand willhavethememoryof them s earedforever intotheirlives."Forallofustherehasbeenthemiseryandwretchedne ss, the privations andthesufferings-theawfulboredomandfrustration-as ense ofthewastedyears-starvationanddisease-andDeath theGrimReaper foreverbyoursides."ButthoseofuswhoservedinthefirstWorldconflictwillremember howthe experiencesofthoseyearsofWarwere s lowly-almostimperceptibly-smoothedawaybythehealinghandoftimeuntilthe grimmermemorieswerealmostforgottenandonlytheless unpleasant onesremained.69

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" Soitwillbewithus. Itisinon e sens e truethatnothing c anrestoretheyearswhichthe locustshaveeaten butletus remember thattheseneednothavebeen wa sted years theycanhavebeenredeemed in part, ifonlywehave made upourmind s togobackintotheworldoffreemenastho se whohaveseen avi sion-avi sion ofwhatlif e mayandcanbeinthefuture-ofwhat w ecanmakeoflifeandwhat life byGod'sgracecanmakeofus-andhave prepared our selves forthatta sk. Weha ve learnedmanyle ssons inthisplace-theartofdoingwithout s omanyth ings w e con sidered vitallye ssential-thevalueofsimple thin gs-ag reater s elf-reliance-theabilitytoturnourhandstofre sh endea vours-our mind s tonewpur suits. Formanythi s capti vity ha s been atimeofawakeningtotherealit y o f s piritualthin gs-theworthofprayerandsacrament-adeeperfaith andtru st inGod-afullerknowledgeofthatglorious heritage ofour F aith-theSwordofthe Spirit whichistheWordofGod. For s ome, theremaybedarkdaysstillahead-newsofwhichthey knownothin g atthemomentmayawaitthem-newswhichmaytendto s haketheirfaithinGodandMan.Rem ember then myBrothers inthe darkne ss oftha t hourthatnothing-nothing-nothingcanseparate u s fromtheloveofGod-ifonlywearepr epared toacknowledgeourselve s tob e Hi s children Th e factthatwehave s urvivedtothishourissurely s ufficientproofofthattou s. Weha ve methere to-night tothankHimforthatcrowningmercy.Iftherei sw ithinu s one s hredofhuman gratitude everydayofourlives willbeanendlessthanksgiving.Butletusus e thisserviceforonepurpose m o r ea s olemnreconservationofourselvestotheServiceofGodandof ourf ellowmen. "Ifwearehonestwithourselveswemustconfess each on e thatwe havedonemanythingsinthisplacewhichweoughtnottohave done and leftundonemuchthatweoughttohavedone.Butletusleavethe m emory ofthe se things behind us andthememoryofthefaultsand failing s ofothersbecauseweareonlytooconsciousofthemanyfaultsand failing s withinourselves. Letus determine thatwewillbe better men better Christians better husband s better fathers better sonsand bettercitizens-pledgedto devoteallourskillandenergytothe stupendous taskthatliesbeforeustherecon struction ofthelifeand prosperity ofthosecountriestowhichwe areeachsoproudtobelong. Afewminutesagowepausedinourhourofrejoicing togivea thought totho se thousands ofourcomradeswhosebodiesweleavebehindinthe soilof Malaya andtheislandsandseasoftheFarEast.Westoodto attention whiletheLastPostandReveilleweresoundedintheirhonour--70

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ourlast united tribute tothememoryofverybra ve and g allantm en : Butweshallmeetandgreetintheclo sing rank Of time's declining Sun WhenthebuglesofGodshall s oundtheCall Andthe Battle ofLifei s done. 'THEREISNODEATH." Onelastword.Iamtoldthatthepea sants ofSpainu se th ese w ordsastheypartfromone another ,' Vayacon Usted. Ipa ss th emon toyou to-night firstofallinmyMa ster'sNameasHi s Command and thenasHis Benediction foryour homeward journe y, andyouronward wayacrosstheyearstobe Go \X1ITH God GOwithGOD.'"71

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24 / 3 / 201 4 S O A S M a i l T h e c hu r c he s o f t h e c ap t i v i t y i n M a l a y a b y t h e R e v Jn N Le w i s B r y a n h tt p s :// m a il g oo g l e c o m / m a il / u / 0 / ?u i = 2 & i k = 3 f b41535d7 & v i e w = p t & s ea r c h = i nbo x & m s g = 144d ff 844938441d & s i m l = 144d ff 844938441 d 1 / 3 E r i c h K e ss e < e k13 @ s o a s a c u k > The church e s of the capti v ity in Mala y a by the R e v Jn N L ew is Br y an R e b e cc a C e r i o < r c e r i o @ s p ck o r g u k > 2 0 M a r c h 201 4 14 : 5 1 T o : E r i c h K e ss e < e k 13 @ s oa s a c u k > H a T h i s i s f i n e b y me E r i c h j us t b e su r e t o a s y o u s a i d c r e d i t t h e s o u r c e a cc o r d i n g l y B e s t, R e b e cc a F r o m : E r ich K ess e [ m a il t o : e k 13 @s o as a c u k ] S e n t : 2 0 M a r ch 201 4 11 : 4 5 T o: R e b e cca Ce r io C c : N G J E NN Y S u b j e c t : R e : T h e c hu r c h e s o f t h e c a p t i v i t y in M a l a y a b y t h e R e v J n N L e w is B r y a n NU T S I ga v e y o u t h e w r on g t i t l e T h e c o rr e c t t i t l e i s T H E CHURC H O F T H E C AP T I V I T Y I N M A L AY A b y T h e R e v J N Le w i s B r y an M A 194 6 E r i c h K e ss e D i g i t a l L i b r a r y P r o j e c t O ff i c e r L i b r a r y an d I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s D i r e c t o r a t e S c hoo l o f O r i en t a l an d A f r i c a n S t ud i e s U n i v e r s i t y o f Londo n T ho r nhaug h S t r ee t Londo n W C 1 0 X G T e l ephon e 020 7 89 8 479 8

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h tt p s :// m a il g oo g l e c o m / m a il / u / 0 / ?u i = 2 & i k = 3 f b41535d7 & v i e w = p t & s ea r c h = i nbo x & m s g = 144d ff 844938441d & s i m l = 144d ff 844938441 d 2 / 3 24 / 3 / 201 4 S O A S M a i l T h e c hu r c he s o f t h e c ap t i v i t y i n M a l a y a b y t h e R e v Jn N Le w i s B r y a n E r i c h K e ss e < e k13 @ s o a s a c u k > The church e s of the capti v ity in Mala y a by the R e v Jn N L ew is Br y an On 20 March 2014 11:34, Erich Kesse < ek13@soas.ac.uk > wrote: D ea r SP C K P ub li s h i ng W i t h apo l og i e s t h i s i s a f a i r l y s i m p l e bu t m u l t i f a c e t e d r eque s t I ha v e r e c e i v e d a r eq ue s t f r o m t h e A r c h i v i s t J enn y N g o f t h e M e t hod i s t C hu r c h i n S i ngapo r e r eque s t i n g d i g i t a l c op y o f t h e SP C K t i t l e F r o m M i ss i o n t o C hu r c h pub li s he d i n 194 6 ( w i t hou t c op y r i gh t no t i c e ) i n G r ea t B r i t a i n w i t h c op y t o b e m ad e f r o m a n o r i g i na l i n S O AS U n i v e r s i t y o f Londo n li b r a r y I w r i t e t o r eque s t pe r m i ss i o n t o m a k e t h e c op y f r o m t h e o r i g i na l i n t h e S O AS U n i v e r s i t y o f London I f pe r m i tt e d an d a t y ou r i n s t r u c t i on I c a n s upp l y e i t he r a pape r o ff p r i n t o r d i g i t a l v e r s i on w h i c h c a n b e p r o v i s i one d i n P D F J P G o r T I F S O AS a t n o c o s t t o SP C K w il l happ il y s upp l y y o u w i t h c op i e s o f a l l d i g i t a l i m ag e f il e s ( T I F F v 6 un c o m p r e ss ed R G B c o l ou r / 24 b i t pag e i m age s ) I w r i t e f u r t he r t o r eque s t pe r m i ss i o n t o p l a c e a d i g i t a l c op y i n t h e f o r t h c o m i n g S O A S D i g i t a l L i b r a r y S u c h c op y I r eque s t w ou l d b e a v a il ab l e unde r a C r ea t i v e C o mm on s li c en s e ( A tt r i bu t i on / N on C o mm e r c i a l / S ha r e A li k e O R A tt r i bu t i on / N on C o mm e r c i a l / N o D e r i v a t i v e s ) W e w il l c r ed i t t h e S o c i e t y f o r P r o m o t i n g C h r i s t i a n K no w l edg e i n b i b li og r aph i c r e c o r d s i n on li n e d i s p l a y an d li n k t o t h e w e b pag e o f y ou r c ho i c e f o r add i t i ona l i n f o r m a t i o n abou t t h e S o c i e t y W e a r e c apab l e o f m on i t o r i n g u s e an d p r o v i d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n u s e o f t h e d i g i t a l c op y T h e pape r c op y i n ou r c o ll e c t i on s appea r s t o ha v e en t e r e d t h e S t o k e N e w i ng t o n P ub li c L i b r a r y i n 1947 w he r e i t w a s ne v e r u s ed I t w a s t he n t r an s f e rr e d t o t h e G r een w i c h P ub li c L i b r a r y a t a da t e un c e r t a i n w he r e i t w a s u s e d on l y on c e be f o r e i t w a s t r an s f e rr e d t o S O AS U n i v e r s i t y o f Londo n i n 1991 S i n c e c o m i n g t o S O AS t h e t i t l e ha s ha d n o r e c o r de d u s e M an y t han k s f o r y ou r c on s i de r a t i on W i t h B e s t R ega r d s E r i c h K e ss e E r i c h K e ss e D i g i t a l L i b r a r y P r o j e c t O ff i c e r L i b r a r y an d I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s D i r e c t o r a t e S c hoo l o f O r i en t a l an d A f r i c a n S t ud i e s U n i v e r s i t y o f Londo n T ho r nhaug h S t r ee t Londo n W C 1 0 X G T e l ephon e 020 7 89 8 479 8 T h i s e m a i l ha s bee n sc anne d f o r a l l v i r u s e s b y C l a r ane t T h e s e r v i c e i s po w e r e d b y M e ss ageLab s F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n o n a p r oa c t i v e an t i v i r u s s e r v i c e w o r k i n g a r oun d t h e c l o ck a r oun d t h e g l obe v i s i t : h tt p :// www c l a r ane t. c o u k