Collections for a handbook of the Makua language

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Title:
Collections for a handbook of the Makua language
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Book
Language:
English
Makhuwa
Creator:
Maples, Chauncy, 1852-1895, 1852-1895
Publisher:
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
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17 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Makhuwa language
Makhuwa language -- Dictionaries
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Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Mozambique -- Nampula
Coordinates:
-15.25 x 39.5

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SOAS, University of London
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lccn - 43035963
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Table of Contents
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Full Text
COLLECTIONS FOR A HANDBOOK
OF THE
MAKUA LANGUAGE.




COLLECTIONS FOR A
HANDBOOK
OF THE
MAKUA LANGUAGE.
BY
CHAUNCY MAPLES, M.A.,
CHAPLAIN TO BISHOP STEERE.
LONDON:
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE; NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS;
4, ROYAL EXCHANGE ; AND 48, PICCADILLY.


LONDON :
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.


INTRODUCTION.
The Makua language is a step further from Swahili than Yao, and is on the whole far more difficult to acquire upon the basis of a knowledge of Swahili. In Makua some very marked characteristics are met with which are entirely without parallel in Swahili and its allied languages, and there are certain peculiarities of enunciation and accent very difficult for a foreigner to catch up. Whereas Makuas can always speak the neighbouring tongues, Yaos and other bordering tribes never seem able to talk Makua. It is classed by Dr. Bleek, in his Comparative Grammar of South African Languages, as belonging to what he terms the middle branch of the Bantu family, and in that branch to the southern genus of its eastern portion, under which he includes the dialects of Tete, Sena, Lorenzo Marques, Inhambane, Sofala, 'Quilimane, Makua, Cape Delgado, and Mara vi. The simpler classification of Frederich Muller ( Allgemeine Ethnographie ) places it in the Zambezi branch of the eastern group of Bantu languages.


vi
INTRODUCTION.
Dr. Peters vocabularies of Mogambique dialects, which were compiled thirty years ago at that town, contain a tolerably long list of Makua words which differ but slightly from the present Collections. It is much to be desired that a complete Grimms law be drawn up for the Bantu tongues. Dr. Bleek has already effected something towards it in the table he has put forth exhibiting the phonetic changes or permutations of sounds in some of the principal members of the group. The following list of substantives will serve to show some of the more important variations in the phonology of Makua and Swahili
Swahili. Makua. English.
MfuTco mhuko a bag.
Matumbo marujpo stomach.
Galawa halawa canoe.
Mafuta makura oil.
Nguo ikuo cloth.
Mtima mrima heart.
Magano makano agreement.
Ngoma ikoma drum.
Tembo itepo elephant.
Masindano. mashindano contest.
From this list it will appear that the mb of Swahili becomes p in Makua, the t becomes r, the ng becomes k, the / becomes either h or k, and so on. It is also important to observe that the s of Swahili and


INTRODUCTION.
kindred languages becomes in Makua sh invariably, while the hard ch almost invariably becomes sh. As the English th represents the t of Sanskrit, Greek, or Latin, so in Makua th represents the t of the neighbouring tongues. Whatever may be the ultimate explanation of this phonetic variation in the languages of Aryan descent, the reason of it in Makua is not far to seek. It is pretty evident that the Makua custom of filing the front teeth to a point is the true explanation of this variation, just as a similar custom in the case of the Otyi-herero tribe is believed to be the true and really scientific solution of a similar phonological problem.
It is also highly probable that the Makua lip-ring, which is only worn by women, has played a considerable part in modifying the phonology of the language as spoken by the female members of the tribe. While to the same cause is due the excessive nasalization that is so,apparent in this and all languages of tribes where this custom is prevalent.
Although d finds no place in Makua, the strongly trilled r, following upon n, has often the sound of a d before it. Thus, nrata sounds very like ndrata when uttered emphatically; but in truth nothing but emphasis will account for a d in this word, inasmuch as it is a dental entirely absent from the language except in this particular connection. It is not an integral part of the word, and its occurrence finds an exact parallel in the Greek avhpos, and the


Till
INTRODUCTION.
English, thunder and tender; the insertion of the dental in these words being, as is well known, an assistance to their pronunciation, but etymologically unconnected with them.
Although the distinction between I and r is well defined amongst the Makuas, their language exhibits great uncertainty as to the difference between I and n. The one letter is often made to do duty for the other, while a Makua speaking the Yao tongue will always confuse the common verbal terminations ele and ene. The I of the Kafir language is n in Makua, although its equivalent in nearly all the other tongues of the same branch is r.
Another characteristic of the phonology of the Makua language is its large use of the aspirate, which finds no place in Yao, and but a comparatively subordinate one in the adjacent dialects.
To turn from the sound of Makua words to the grammar of the language, it is to be observed that there is on the whole far less to confuse and perplex a foreigner than in Yao. Thus the changes a verb undergoes in its various moods and tenses are for the most part as plain and straightforward as in Swahili. The letter n does not appear to work so many changes, but is altogether firmer than it is in Yao, while the perfect tense is simply formed by a syllable prefixed to the root of the verb after the personal prefix. There appear to be not less than nine classes of substantives, if, indeed, that be their extreme limit. The


INTRODUCTION.
ix
adjectives are, as might be expected, very few in number. There is a small number of words in Makua identical with Swahili, and a somewhat larger number that are either borrowed from Yao or have been given to that language. The Makuas are a very large and extensive tribe, inhabiting the country that lies at the back of Mogambique, stretching inland for several hundreds of miles. Here they swarm and build large towns, but a considerable number of the tribe have detached themselves from time to time from the main body and spread to the north, settling, at various spots, on the Rovuma, both above and below its junction with the Lojenda. They have driven scattered bands of Mweras and other tribes from these places, and have taken possession of the country. These Collections give a key to the Makua tongue as spoken on the Rovuma and at Masasi, and probably contain some words that more properly belong to Yao. The Makuas, as I have known them at Masasi, seem to be a very domestic and peace-loving people compared with the Yaos: there is more of a home life amongst ^)them, and little desire for trading with the coast or for becoming more civilized. ,Thev seem quite untainted by coast influences, and, though somewhat superstitious, have adopted none of the so-called Islamism which many of the Yaos have freely imbibed. At Masasi no Yao will touch pigs flesh. The Makuas delight in it. The Yaos deem their


INTRODUCTION.
Makua neighbours an inferior race, and even the Makuas themselves appear to consider the Yaos a quicker witted and more civilized people. Be this how it may, it is an undoubted fact that the Makuas are not equal to the Yaos in any of the native industrial works, such as iron-working, basket-making, and pottery: in these arts the Yaos are allowed, on all hands, to surpass their neighbours. Like the Yaos, the Makua tribe has supplied a very large number of slaves to the market, and there can be little doubt that at one time the tribe was a far larger and more powerful one than at present.
My instructor in Makua was a lad about eighteen years old, who had been resident at Masasi some seven or eight years before our mission station was planted there. He was a Makua by birth, had been carried away captive in one of the petty wars, and had lived in a state of nominal slavery ever since. At the time he undertook to help me, he had been in our school two years, and had a very good knowledge of Swahili, understanding well most of the worlds in our translations of the Scriptures. Being at the same time able to read and spell quite easily, he was able to spell for me all the Makua words he gave me, the sound of which I was not always able to catch without this assistance. Had he remembered more of his own language, I could have put forth these Collections with more confidence. As it is, I am conscious that there may be much incorrectness and


INTRODUCTION.
xi
still more incompleteness. The young lad who thus enabled me to compile these pages was baptized at Masasi on Christmas Day, 1878,the first convert from heathenism in the district,after showing an earnestness of purpose and excellence of behaviour during the whole period of his probation, that made the day of his baptism a day of thankfulness and joy for all who knew him. Amongst many curious pieces of information I gathered from him as to the manners, customs, and beliefs of his tribe, I was told that all the Makuas had a belief in the resurrection of both body and soul, and that the word uliihimwa expressed this belief. Since the Makuas have had but little intercourse with Arabs, and thus little connection with Mohammedanism, this looks like a primitive belief; although it is just possible that it may be connected with the teaching of Portuguese missionaries, who in the past came into contact with the tribe. Anyhow, the belief itself is amongst the Makuas an universal one, and connects itself with the dances and games they celebrate after the death of one of their number for the repose of his soul. From the position of the country now occupied by the Makua tribe, it is clear that they cannot now be much longer without missionaries. Already the advanced posts of our Central African mission are situated in the midst of Makuas, while there is scarcely a spot on the banks of the Rovuma where they are not to be found.


Xll
INTRODUCTION.
The study of the Makua language, therefore, becomes an important thing, if not a necessity, to missionaries desiring to carry the gospel to the next stage beyond Masasi. It is hoped that these vocabularies may be a help to the mastery of an African tongue, by no means the easiest for a foreigner to acquire.
CHATOCY MAPLES.
Masasi,
January, 1879.


COLLECTIONS FOR A HANDBOOK
OF THE
MAKUA LANGUAGE.
-*04-
THE ALPHABET.
As a rule, the vowels must be pronounced as in Italian, and the consonants as in English.
A is pronounced like the a in father.
B, as in English.
CH, as the Italian c in ci or ce, or as the English ch in cherry.
E, as the a in late.
G-, always to be pronounced hard, as in gate.
H, always strongly aspirated, as in house.
I, like ee in sleep.
J, as in English, e.g. just.
K, as in English, e.g. keep. N if prefixed to K changes the two letters into NG.
L, as the English I, e.g. like.
M, as in English, e.g. much.
N, as in English, e.g. not.
O, like oa in roar.
P, as in English, e.g. paper.
B
*
si


2
THE ALPHABET.
/ _
R, a strongly trilled r, as in tlie French rien. If the r follows an n the trill is so strong that it is difficult to say whether a d does or does not intervene; e.g. nrata, nroe, which might be written ndrata, ndroe.
S, not used except in conjunction with h, when it is to be si funded like the English sh, e.g. shirt.
T, like the English t, e.g. teach. Th is of very constant occurrence in Makua, and is sounded by pressing the flat of the tongue against the front teeth of the upper jaw, with its tip slightly projected beyond them, and then bringing it away sharply so as to give the effect of an explosive letter.
U, like the oo in fool.
V, like the English v in very.
W, like the English w in will.
Y, like the English consonant in you.


( 3 )
SUBSTANTIVES.
Makua nouns have two numbers, singular and plural, which are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon the form of the substantives depend the forms of adjectives, pronouns, and verbs governed by them. Makua substantives may be divided into nine classes, according to their initial letters, and the changes which they undergo in forming the plurals.
I. Words beginning with m> being the names of living creatures. These become plural by changing m into a.
Mtu = a person; atu = persons.
IT. Words beginning with m, for the most part not the names of living creatures. These are made plural by changing m into mi.
Mehamiro = a pillow; mishamiro = pillows.
III. Words beginning with na and ha. These are made plural by prefixing a.
Nakuo = a cob of Indian com; anakuo = cobs of Indian com.
IY. Words beginning with n or ni before a consonant. In the plural the n becomes ma.
Ntinji = an island; matinji = islands.
Y. Words beginning with u, which for the most part are abstract nouns and verbal substantives.


4 SUBSTANTIVES.
The plurals change the u into ma; and when the final letter is a in the singular, it becomes o in the plural.
Uthakala = an evil; mathakalo = evils.
VI. Words beginning with mwa. The plurals change the mwa into ashi, and insert an i before the next vowel.
MwamunTcu = & caterpillar; ashimiunlcu = caterpillars.
VII. Words beginning withe* which do not change in the plural. Most words introduced into the language from foreign sources belong to this class.
Ihatha = a claw; ihatha = claws.
VIII. Words beginning with yo. The plurals change yo into cho.
Yolia = food ; cholia = foods.
IX. Words beginning with va and vo, mostly connected with the idea of place. The plurals change va into m, vo into mo.
Vachitu = place; mchitu = places.
Locality is expressed by the use of three prefixes, together with the suffix ni.
1. m, mu, denoting within, to or from within.
Mmashini.
2. u, denoting motion to, or at (of a place far off).
Umashini = to the water.
3. va, denoting at, near, or before.
Vamashini at the water.


SUBSTANTIVES.
0
LIST OF SUBSTANTIVES.
Abhorrence, ukinanarela.
Ability, woria.
Abscess, yowipa; pi. chowipa.
Abundance, winchi.
Acceptance, utuna.
Accident, kihimwaini ; kihuiraukusera.
Accounts, walakera ; pi. walakero.
Accusation, uhimiacha ; pi. mahimiacho.
Ache, uTciwerea.
Action, yowira ; pi. chowira.
Addition, jumula (Sw.).
Adornment, wipapa.
Adultery, uluva.
Advantage, fayida (Sw.).
Adversity, uhuva.
Advice, shauri (Sw.).
Affection, utuno.
Affliction, uhuva.
Age : Wina miaka michano ? How old are you ? Old age, ushuru pali. Old time, kalai.
Agreement, maagano (Sw.).
Aim, ulika.
Air, ipio.
Alms, ipepa (Sw\).
Altar, vantoloni: the place where natives offer their 8adaka of corn, etc., to the Deity.
Amusement, wopamwaha.


94
VERBS.
Tickle, uthekinya.
Tie, utuka.
Tighten, ulipiha.
Tipsy, To be, uhapalia.
Tire, wochehiha ; to be tired, wochea.
Toast, upaha.
Torment, utarusha.
Totter : tremble, utetemela ; to be shaken, uveverua. Touch, ukwakwanya ; to touch up, urehereria.
Track, utara inyao.
Trade, uthuma maronda.
Train up, ulela.
Trample, unyikala.
Transform, wakakaniha.
Trap, urea.
Travel, weta mkwaha.
Treat, upangela.
Tremble, utetemela.
Trouble, uhuviha; to be troubled, uhuva.
Trust in, ukuluvela.
Try, ulika.
Tumble, uwuluwa; to tumble into, uwuluwela
Turn, urukunusha (neut.), urukunua.
Turn aside (neut.), unyopotoa.
Twist (a rope, etc.), uritha.
*
Unclose, ukunula.
Uncomfortable, To be, uhuva.
Uncover, ukunula.
Understand, uchuela.
Undo, uthapula; to ruin, urihiha.
Unite, uluta.
Upset, urukunusha.
Urge, ukaka.
Urinate, urucha.
Use (accustom), ulemaleliha ; to become accustomed to, ulemalela.


VERBS.
95
Vanish, urihea.
Vex, uthunaliha.
Visible, To be, wonea.
Vomit, urapea ; to make to vomit, urapeha.
Wait, ulita ; to wait for, ulitelela.
Wake, uwuwa (neut.), uwusha (act.); to be awake ukala mitho; to wake up suddenly with a start, uthuthua.
Walk, weta; to walk about, weta; to walk lame, utumbela.
Wander, uruhueria.
Want (need), utuna.
Ward off, uteleria.
Warm up, ukutiha.
Wash, uhapiha; to wash clothes, upuputa; to wash ones self, unyawa; to wash ones hands, unyawa miono.
Waste, uhononacha.
Watch, wipithela.
Water, uhela mashi.
Waylay, ulohera.
Weaken, ushokoyiha ; to become weak, ushokoya. Wear, uwara ; to wear away, uwukuwa.
Wep, ivunla.
Weigh, upima ; to weigh down, ulemela.
Wh et, unona.
Will, utuna.
Wink, wupila.
Wipe, uvuta.
Wither, unyala.
Withhold from, uthua.
Witness bear, wonechesya.
Wonder, uthikinacha.
Work, upanga mitheko.
Worry, uhuviha.


8 SUBSTANTIVES.
.
Beard, erori.
Beast, inama ; pi. inama.
Beauty, urera; pi. marero.
Bed (for planting potatoes, etc.), ntuto ; pi. matuto. Bedstead, ulili.
-legs of, ipata cho mhori.
-side pieces of, mikungkuti chaia,
-head of, wowesha muru.
Bee, inui ; pi. inui.
Beehive, mchinga ; pi. michinga.
Beggar, mtu ola mela uvekela.
Begging, uvekela ; pi. mavekelo.
Beginning, mpacho; pi. mipacho.
Behaviour, mweto ; pi. mieto. Good behaviour, wira rata. Ill behaviour, wira chonanara.
Bell, ikengele ; pi. ikengele.
Bellows, mrupa ; pi. mirupa.
Belly, marupo.
Bend, upinda.
Betel leaf, tambun.
Bhang, ishuruma.
Bier, mtembo ; pi. mitembo.
Bile, yamwe.
Bill (chopper), imbopo ; pi. imbopo.
Bird, shanuni; pi. ashanuni. The young of birds, maTcanda. A small dove, kaula. A crane, chiun-kuru; pi. achiunkuru. A green dove, ikurangu. A Java sparrow, impera. An owl, echichi.
Birth, uyaria ; pi. mayario.
Bitterness, uwawa.
Blacksmith, nohana ; pi. ohana (?).
Blackwood, ummiko (?).
Bladder, itoto hiro.
Blade (of grass), inyashi.
Blanket, nikapa; pi. makapa.
Blindness, ohona.


SUBSTANTIVES.
9
Blindness of one eye, opwea nito.
Blood, ipome ; pi. ipome.
Blood-vessel, mtitari ; pi. mititari.
Blue vitriol, mtrutu.
Boards, mapatankwa.
Boat, mashua (Sw.).
Body, irutu ; pi. irutu.
Boil, nalipwe ; pi. analipwe.
Bone, nikuva ; pi. makuva.
Book, napwipwi; pi. anapwipwi.
Bother, uthia (Sw.).
Bottle, ichorochoro ; pi. ichorochoro.
Bottom, vathi.
Bough, mwaurita; pi. mirita.
Boundary, mwinano ; pi. minano.
Bow, mura ; pi. miura.
Bowl (wooden), nipawa ; pi. mapawa.
Box, ikasha ; pi. ikasha. A small box for lime, mtete ;
pi. mitete.
Boy, mirao ; pi. mirao.
Bracelet: of ivory, nikoslia; pi. makosha: of brass, nia ; pi. mania.
Brains, ukoko.
Bran, nankanka ; pi. anankanka.
Branch, mwaurita ; pi. mirita.
Brass, achikungu.
Bravery, ohova, ochacha.
Brawler, namrokotole.
Bread, mkate; pi. mikate (Sw.).
Breakfast, yolia yo Jiihiu.
Breast, vamirimani; breasts, mapele.
Breath, ipumu ; pi. ipumu.
Brink, mcJiereshere ; pi. mchereshere.
Brook, mwamoloko ; pi. ashimioloko.
Broom, mvelo; pi. mivelo.
Brother, mwamunaka mwamlopwana.


10
SUBSTANTIVES.
Brother-in-law, mlamu; pi. amlamu. Wifes brother, arokoro atwa. Husbands brother, arukaralca. Bubble, niporu; pi. maporu. .
Buckler, ichikopa ; pi. ichikopa.
Buffalo, inari; pi. inari.
Bug, ikukuni.
Building, utheka; pi. matheko.
Bull, ingope.
Bullet, ipololo.
Bunch, ikonyo ; pi. ikonyo.
Bundle, mrindi ; pi. mirindi.
Burial-place, vanuvithia.
Business, mtheko ; pi. mitheko.
Butterfly, ichipepeta ; pi. ichipepeta.
Buttocks, makutu.
Buyer, othuma ; pi. othuma.
Caffre corn, meli.
Cake, mkate; pi. mikate.
--of tobacco, inguri.
Calabash, mtumba wa mlapa.
Calabash tree, mlapa ; pi. milapa.
-pumpkin shell used for water, iku ; pi. iku.
Calf, mwangope mwamkani.
Call, uwihana, mahano ; a cry, unyakula.
Camel, ngamira.
Cannabis Indica, isfiuruma.
Cannon, mchinga; pi. michinga.
Canoe, ikalawa ; pi. ikalawa.
Cap, ikopio ; pi. ikopio.
--of a gun, fataki (Sw.).
Capacity, kadri (Sw.).
Caravan, urendo. Caravan porter, baharia (Sw.). Carcase, mrutu; pi. mirutu.
Care, ushunga; pi. mashungo. Caution, uweherera; pi. maweherero.


SUBSTANTIVES.
11
Carpenter, uJiemachetu; pi. mahemachetu.
Cashew nut, ikachu ; pi. ikachu.
Cask, nipipa; pi. mapipa.
Casket, ipache chilcani.
Cassava, manangwa.
Castor oil, makura oparika.
--plant, iparika ; pi. iparika
Cat, paka ; pi. apaka.
Cattle, ingope.
-fold, inupa ingope.
Cause, nioko ; pi. maioko.
Cave, nikuku ; pi. makuku.
Caterpillar, mwamunku pi. ashimiunku.
Centipede, nanrere; pi. ananrere.
Chaff, nankanka ; pi. anankanka.
Chain, nyororo, nkulu.
Chair, ihiche ; pi. ihiche.
Chameleon, nriya; pi. ananriya.
Charcoal, makala.
Charm, ingirishi ; pi. ingirishi.
Chatter, uhiloka.
Chatterbox, iyano ; pi. iyano.
Cheat, upenya ; pi. upenya.
Check, nrama; pi. marama.
Chest, vamirimani.
Chicken, mwalaku; pi. achilaku.
Chief, amwene ; pi. mamwene.
Chiefship, umwene.
Child, mwamhima; pi. achihima.
Childhood, unamwene.
Choice, utanla ; pi. matanlo.
Cinders, makala.
Circumstances, nonetu.
Civet cat, ituko ; pi. iiuko. Another kind, nrwani;
pi. anrwani.
Civilization, unethi.


12
SUBSTANTIVES.
Clap (of thunder), itari.
Claw, ihatha ; pi. ihatha.
Clay, itaia (?).
Clearness, otela.
Cleverness, nnema.
Cloth, ikuo. Blue calico, namuri. A cloth with a coloured border, ichiJcoi. A turban cloth, irewani. Clothes, ikuo.
Cloud, niliute; pi. mahute. A rain cloud, nihute no pula.
Coals, makala.
Coast, umaka. Language of the coast, imaka.
Cob (of Indian corn), nakuo ; pi. anakuo.
Cock, mthupi ; pi. mithupi.
Cocks comb, ichunjuru yo mthupi.
Cockroach, nivepe ; pi. mavepe.
Cocoanut, mkole-; pi. mikole.
-the leaf of, miritehaia.
Cold, ipio. A cold in the head, marnila.
Colour, rangi.
Comb, ivachero ; pi. ivachero.
Commission, nleho ; pi. maleho.
Companion, mkwao ; pi. akwao.
Company, uloko.
Completeness, ukumi.
Concealment, mavitho.
Conclusion, umaleloaia; pi. mamaleloaia.
Concubine, ahano; pi. manyahano.
Confidence, makuluvelo.
Conscience, mrima ; pi. mirima.
Conspiracy, mapatano.
Continuance, ukumi.
Contract, makano.
Cook, notereka; pi. anotereka.
Cooked grain, mrama ; pi. mirama.
Cooking-pot (earthen), iopwe; pi. iopwe. Frying-


SUBSTANTIVES.
13
pan, mivali ; pi. mavali. Stones to set a cooking-pot on, matua.
Copal, mkumbi.
Copper, achikungu.
Cork, itielelo ; pi. itielelo.
Corn (Indian), nakuo ; pi. anakuo. Millet, meli. Corner, mnyaka ; pi. many aka.
Corpse, mrutu ; pi. mirutu.
Corpulence, uritimala.
Corruption, younta.
Cotton, ntoche.
Couch, mkori; pi. mikori.
Cough, nikotokoto.
Council, vatato.
Counsel, mashauri.
Country, iwani.
Courage, uchacJia.
Courtesy, umanya.
Courtyard, nikure; pi. malure.
Covenant, makano.
Cover (of a dish), iokunela.
Cow, ingope yo mtiana.
Coward, owova.
Crab, inkala ; pi. inkala.
Crack, mnyate; pi. minyate.
Credentials, ichuuoelelo: the axe, knife, sword or stick sent by a chief to signify that he is the sender of the message accompanying it. ,
Crocodile, ikonya ; pi. ikonya.
Crossways, ipiro cho mwalano.
Crossing place, volapua.
Crow, nikuku ; pi. anakuku.
Crowd, uhimane.
Cry, ikuto ; pi. ikuto.
Cucumber, ntanga ; pi. matanga, mshirimaka.
Cubit, mwono; pi. miono.


14
SUBSTANTIVES.
Cultivation, ichirimo.
Cultivator, mtu o lima.
Cup, mdumu ; pi. midumu.
Curry, mhuji; pi. mihuji.
Cushion, mshamiro; pi. mishamiro.
Dance, utwela ; pi. matwelo. Names of various Makua dances : masewe, ipalawala, nikwerema, makuware, nigumbuli, nikwata.
Danger, wopia.
Darkness, ipipi.
Dawn, wichichuru.
Day, nihuku ; pi. mahuku. Time of daylight, uthana.
All day, mchua piro.
Daylight, uthana.
Death, ukwa.
Deceit, mothacho.
Deep waters, vowisha.
Defect, uwukuwo.
Derision, uheulacha; pi. maheulacho.
Design, mwaini ; pi. miaini.
Descent, nkuruo ; pi. makuruo.
Desert, uthako ; pi. mathako.
Destruction, uhononea ; pi. mahononeo.
Devil, minepa.
Dew, ukame; pi. makame.
Dialect, molumacho.
Dinner, yolia yo thana,
Direction, wituchiha; pi. metuchiho.
Dirt, ikokola.
Disease, werea; pi. mawereo.
Disgust, mananarelo.
Dish, ikarekare.
Disgrace, mcheche ; pi. micheche.
Dissipation, wamama ; pi. mamamo.
Distress, uhuva ; pi. mahuvo.


SUBSTANTIVES.
15
Disturbance, wapa ; pi. mapo.
Dog, mwalapwa ; pi. achilapwa.
Dollar, indarama.
Dominion, imwene; pi. imwene.
Donkey, puru ; pi. apuru.
Door, mlako ; pi. milako.
Dove, nchia; pi. machia. Pigeon, ikunda ; pi. ikunda. Dream, uloha ; pi. maloho.
Dregs, ishenga; pi. ishenga.
Dripping, makura o inama.
Drop, itotwa; pi. itotwa.
Drum, ikoma ; pi. ikoma.
-when used to call to war, nakwala ; pi. anakwala.
Drunkard, ohapalia; pi. ohapalia.
Duck, nrata ; pi. marata.
Dust, matukuruku.
Dye, rangi.
Dwarf, mtu okuvia.
Dysentery, mirimani mokuma ipome.
Eagle, nrepo ; pi. marepo.
Ear, nyaru ; pi. maru.
Earth, ilajpo.
Earthen pots, iopwe; pi. iopwe. For cooking pombe (very large), mtereko ; pi. mitereko. For cooking ugali (small), ikariko ; pi. ikariko.
East, uno kuma nchua.
Ebony, miko ; pi. nimiko.
Echo, namalowe ; pi. anamalowe.
Egg, nyoche; pi. moche. White of egg, yotela yo moche. Yolk of egg, yokwila yo moche. Egg-shell, makotope o moche.
Elbow, ikokuno ; pi. ikokuno.
Elder, ashulupali; pi. ashulupali: owuluwala. Elephant, itepo ; pi. itepo.
Emetic, urapia; pi. marapio.


16
SUBSTANTIVES.
Employment, mieko ; pi. miteko.
Encampment, vorula ; pi. morula.
Enclosure, nikure ; pi. mahure. Ntenje ; pi. matenje. Enemy, onioko aka.
Entrails, marupo.
Entrance, ulcela; pi. mahelo.
Error, uwonya ; pi. mawonyo.
Esteem, utuna; pi. matuno.
Europe, TJlaya.
European, Mshungu ; pi. Ashungu.
Evening, uchochilo ; pi. machochilo.
Excrement, mavti.
Eye, mitho; pi. metho. Eyebrow, nikwihwi; pi. ma kwikwi. Eyelid, imboni.
Face, ikowe ; pi. ikowe.
Faggot, itathu.
Falsehood, wotha ; maothacho.
Familiarity, malemalelo.
Family, uloko; pi. maloko.
Famine, ithala ; pi. ithala.
Fan, ichepepeta; pi. ichepepeta.
Fat, makura.
Father, athithi ; pi. athithi.
Fatigue, urushia ; pi. marusMo.
Fault, uwonya; pi. mawonyo.
Favourite, ichipendo ; pi. ichipendo.
Fear, uchukula; pi. machukulo.
Feather, nipururu; pi. mapururu. Awing, nipupa pi. mapupa.
Fence, mtathi ; pi. mitathi.
Ferry, volapua va msheloni.
Fierceness, uchacha ; pi. machacho.
Fight, mashinano.
File, tupa ; pi. atupa.
Filth, unyala; pi. manyato.


SUBSTANTIVES.
17
Fineness, urera.
Finger, nilwho; pi. makolco.
Fire, moro ; pi. mioro.
Firewood, ikuni; a piece of firewood half burnt, niM-yalala.
Fireplace, ihuri; three stones to set a pot upon, over the fire, matuo.
Firefly, nianyimanyi.
Fish, ihopa ; pi. ihopa. MiJcopo, a river fish with large flattened head, in shape slightly resembling a gurnet, full of bones, and very plentiful in most rivers. Muka, an eel, the same in appearance and taste as the common eel of English rivers. Kam-pango, a fish found in large rivers, and said to be the size of a shark. Nikupa, a short thick fish of oval shape, with sharp spikes all over its body, and of a white hue. Tapatire : namimlo.
Fisherman, mmenji; pi. cimenji.
Fist, ikwipi; pi. ikwipi.
Flag, ibendera; pi. ibenderci.
Flatterer, mlapi.
Flattery, ulapa.
Flavour, uchiva.
Flea, ntitiri; pi. matitiri.
Flesh, inama.
Fleshiness, ithayi.
Flint gun, kapwiti ingume.
Floor, vathi. Chunammed floor, vopa patiya. Upper floor (roof), nivatho, pi. mavatho.
Flower, ituva ; pi. ituva.
Fly, ipepele ; pi. ipepele.
Foam, niporu, pi. maporu.
Fog, ukame ; pi. makame.
Fold, upinda; pi. mapindo.
Foliage, mathakuru.
Follower, mtari; pi. atari.
c


18
SUBSTANTIVES.
Folly, ulochua; pi. malochuo.
Food, yolia; pi. cholia. Food saved from an evening meal and eaten in the morning, mivithe.
Fool, mlochoa, pi. alochoa.
Foot, nyao ; pi. manyao.
Force, ikuru ; machiri.
Ford, volapua ; pi. molapua.
Forehead, iuji.
Foreigner, mleto ; pi. aleto.
Forest, mwithupi.
Forking of a tree, ipata ; pi. ipata.
Form, upia.
Fortune, impumi.
Foundation, mikurio.
Fowl, ilaku ; pi. ilaku.
Fox, nikule (?); pi. makule.
Fraud, mathepiu.
Freedom, neihi.
Friend, mwathithi ; pi. achimivatliithi.
Fright, uchukula ; pi. machukulo.
Fringe, marocho/
Frog, marapi; pi. marapi.
Fruit, chowima; pi. chowima. Kachere, a fruit the size of a cherry, and of similar hue. Nakopo, the size of an apple, and red. Itema, dark purple, round, and about the size of a medlar. Ithapa: naningave: wepa: tamarinds. Mope: rawa : mpira, the fruit of the indian-rubber, much appreciated and largely consumed.
Frying-pan, nivali ; pi. mavali.
Fun, uthuela ; pi. mathuelo.
Furnace, tukuta ; pi. atukuta.
Gain, fayida (Sw.).
Game, malupato.
Gate, mlako ; mchele.


SUBSTANTIVES.
19
Gazelle, nachoro ; pi. anachoro.
Gentleman, nethi; pi. cmethi.
Gentleness, ulolca ; pi. malolco.
Ghee, isamuli.
Giddiness, nariuru; pi. anariuru.
Ginger, ichihazu.
Giraffe, itata.
Girdle, ikulula.
Girl, mirao; pi. amirao.
Gizzard, ivisinyingi.
Gladness, utelia; pi. matelio.
Glance, uvela; pi. mavelo.
Glass, harirole; pi. akarirole. Drinking glass, mdumu.
Gum, inonohiro.
Glutton, mtu mlula ; pi. atu milula.
Goat, epuri ; pi. epuri.
God, MluJcu.
Gold, indaramci.
Goodness, urera; pi. marero.
Goods, ichipanji; pi. ichipanji.
Goose, uratci Mesungu.
Grain, cleaned: sorghum, mchoro wo mele; rice, mchoro wo mulca.
Grandchild, mivanju ; njulu.
Grandfather, amuna: pi. amunci.
Grass, manyashi.
Grave, nihie; pi. mahie.
Greatness, ulupale.
Greediness, mlula ; pi. milula.
Grey hairs, ipwii.
Grief, uchukula ; pi. machuhulo.
Ground, iwani; pi. iwani.
Ground nuts, mtesha ; pi. mitesha.
Gruel, nikolw.
Guest, mleto; pi. aleto.


20
SUBSTANTIVES.
Guide, mholeli ; pi. aholeli.
Guinea fowl, ikaka ; ikololo.
Gum: birdlime, ulipo ; of the teeth, uhinini.
Gum copal, mkumbi; pi. mikumbi.
Gun, kapwiti ; pi. akapwiti. The barrel, mthuthu ; pi. miihuthu. The lock, mrere ; pi. mirere. A cannon, mchinga; pi. michinga.
Gunpowder, uka.
Gut, merimani ; pi. merimani.
Habits, malemaleliho.
Hair, ikarari: of the beard, irori; straight hair, ikarari chorapa ; woolly hair, ikarari chalca.
Half, nussu (Sw.).
Hammer, inuto; pi. inuto.
Hand, mthatha ; pi. mathdtha.
Handkerchief, nlesho ; pi. malesho.
Handle, mini; pi. mivini.
Happiness, utelia ; pi. matelio.
Hardness, ulipa.
Hare, liukula; pi. almkula.
Harvest, mathikilo.
Haste, ivakuva.
Hat, ikopio.
Hatchet, ipacho ; pi. ipacho.
Hatred, mananarelo.
Hawk, amangweve ; pi. anamangweve.
Head, muru; pi. miru.
Healing things, mawoniho.
Health, ukumi.
Heap, nchala; pi. machala. A raised bed for plants,.
ntuto ; pi. matuto.
Heart, mrima; pi. mirima.
Heat, moro ; pi. mioro.
Heaven, irimu.
Heaviness, ulemela; pi. malemelo.


SUBSTANTIVES.
21
Heaviness of soul, uchukula.
Heel, ihotolcoto.
Heir, maJcelanupa.
Help, ukavikerera.
Hen, ilalcu. A full grown lien that has not yet laid, ndembe. A laying hen, namhutu.
Herdsman, mshunga; pi. aslmnga.
Hiccough, nathehume ; pi. anathehime.
Hidden things, matielelo.
Hide, nrapala ; pi. marapala.
Hill, mwciJco; pi. miako. A rocky hill, mioala; pi.
miala.
Hilt, ivihi.
Hindrance, anolcitielela.
Hippopotamus, ipitu ; pi. ipitu.
History, itele.
Hoarseness, ulala nlove.
Hoe, ihipa ; pi. ihipa.
Hole, mwiihe ; nihuku.
Hollow of a tree, ipao.
Home, uwanuhu.
Honey, urao too inui.
Honour, mama.
Hook, nimenjo.
Hope, mahuluvelo.
Hordeolum, iparamela.
Horn, mnyaka; pi. manyalca. When used as a trumpet, nipenga; pi. mapenga: nipalapata, pi. mapala-pata.
Hostility, oniolco.
House, inupa ; pi. inupa.
Hump (of an ox), iputhu.
Hunger, ithala.
Hunter, mlupa; pi. alupa.
Hurry, ivalcuvacha.
Husband, mlopwana; pi. alopwana.


22 SUBSTANTIVES.
Husk, malcova.
--of rice, mdkaelta.
Hyrena, hujupa ; pi. alcujupa.
Idleness, urushia; pi. marusMo. Ignorance, ujinga (Sw.). Imprecation, ulapa.
Incense, rubani (Sw.). Indian-rubber, mpira (Sw.). Indian corn, nahuo ; pi. anahuo. Inheritance, makelanupa. Inheritor, nokela inupa.
Insect, mwamivetu; pi. achimioetu. Instruction, metujiho.
Insult, maraano.
Intellect, iruslio.
Intention, imiveni.
Intestines, marupo.
Interruption, matielelo (?). Intoxication, uhapalia.
Invalid, mreta : pi. aretci.
Iron, iyuma.
Island, ntinji; pi. matinji.
Itch, uvele.
Ivory, nydka notepo.
Jackal, mwichi ; pi. michi.
Jar, muno ; pi. mino.
Jaw, ntere ; pi. matere.
Jealousy, ihache.
Joke, ubisM.
Journey, urendo.
Joy, utelia ; pi. matelio.
Judgment, walzanyulaniha.
Juice, maslii.
Justice, elcelccii.


SUBSTANTIVES.
Kernel, ilcorosho.
Key, mpunguriro ; pi. mipunguriro. Kidney, ipio.
Kindness, urera (?).
Kindred, achiliimaga.
King, mwene ; pi. mamivene. Kingdom, imwene.
Kitchen, unoterikia, wiwurini.
Kite, namangweve ; pi. ccnamangiveve. Knee, nikutha; pi. makutha.
Knife, mwalo ; pi. mialo.
Knot, nluto ; pi. maluto. Knowingness, uriaria.
Labour, mthelco ; pi. mitheJco. Ladder, nivata ; pi. mavata.
Lake, ntia ; pi. matia.
Land, iwani.
Language, malove.
Laugh, matheo.
Lead, ichumbu.
Leader, oholela ; pi. oliolela.
Leaf, ntahuru ; pi. matakuru. Lean-to, nipiroti ; pi. mcipiroti. Leather, nrapala.
Left-handedness, emushi.
Legend, itheli.
Length, utaliva.
Leopard, Jiavara; pi. ahavcira.
Liar, mwothi.
Licentiousness, ulavalava.
Lid, yokunela ; pi. chokunela.
Lie, wotha.
Life, ukumi.
Lights (of an animal), mapawelci. Lime, ishoakara.


24:
SUBSTANTIVES.
Limit, mwinano ; pi. minano.
Lion, haramu.
Lip, iyano.
Lip-ring, mthathi; pi. mithathi.
Liver, hapa; pi. ahapa.
Lizard, impara : kumbulu. A large water lizard, ing-9oto.
Load, mrindi; pi. mirindi.
Loaf, mkate ; pi. mihate (Sw.).
Loan, mashimo.
Locust, ichorope.
Log, mlcululu; pi. milmlulw.
Loins, iunu.
Looking-glass, harirore; pi. aharirore.
Loss, uuhua.
Luck, impumi.
Lungs, mapaioela.
Magic, uJciviri ; pi. maJcwiri.
Maggot, ihune ; pi. ihune.
Malice, uthaJcala; pi. mathahalo.
Man, mtu ; pi. atu. A male, mivamlopwana. Mangouste, mthiilu; pi. amihulu.
Mangrove, ingapa.
Manners, mwirelo ; pi. mirelo. Good manners, uteri-hela.
Mark, alama (Sw.). Tribal mark, inepo.
Market, ushohoni.
Marrow, mthuthu.
Mast, mringote ; pi. miringote.
Master, puria.
Mat (coarse matting), ntato ; pi. matato.
Matter : What is the matter ? urini f Mattress, ninguna; pi. manguna.
Meal, yolia ; pi. cTiolia.
Meaning, malumbo.


SUBSTANTIVES.
25
Meat, inama.
Meatiness, ithai.
Medicine, mrete; pi. mirete. Medical knowledge, mugaha ; pi. angaha.
Meekness, umala.
Melancholy, mchinjiri.
Merchant, mtu nothumetlm.
Messenger, harumia.
Middle, iriari.
Midnight, uliiyu iriari.
Milk, mapele.
Mill, iriawe.
Millipede, monholo ; pi. mionholo.
Millet, mele.
--, the stalks of, mithathi.
Mind, mrima; pi. mirima.
Misery, uliuva.
Mist, uhame.
Mistake, moony a.
Modesty, islioni.
Money, inclarama.
Monkey, mshapive; pi. mashapive. An ape, hole. A small black monkey, tupili.
Mouth, mweri ; mieri.
Morning, wichishu.
Morsel, vahani.
Mosque, musihitini.
Mosquito, ichenjema.
Mother, manyi.
Mould, ichipara (?).
Mound of earth, irua.
--of stones, ichengo.
Mountain, mwaho ; pi. miaho.
Mouth, iyano.
Mucus, nanihatako.
Mud, ipepe.


26
SUBSTANTIVES.
Mule, inyupu (?).
Multitude, mahimano.
Music, iJcomci. A plate of copper sounded by beating, nipasho.
Nail, of a finger, ihatha.
-of iron, ikomo.
Name, nchina; pi. machina.
Nape of the neck, isliiko.
Napkin, ntabivata ; pi. matabivata.
Nation, nikosho; pi. makosho.
Navel, mteku ; pi. mitelm.
Necessaries, mpumi.
Neck, ishiko.
Need, utuna; pi. matuno.
Needle, singano.
Neighbour, uloko ; pi. maloko.
Nest, ipuru; pi. ipuru.
Net, ntavi; pi. matavi. For fish, nikoko. Another kind, ikupe. Fish net fixed with bamboos, mthololo.. A large kind of a round shape, itlmmbi.
News, mreteli ; pi. mireteli.
Night, uhin.
Nipple, vekani vo nipele.
Nobody, ka mtu.
Noise, nloioe.
-of voices, unyalmla.
Nonsense, upioapwa.
Noon, nchua amuru.
Noose, ithululela ; pi. ithululela.
Nose, ipula.
Nostril, ipao yo pula.
Nurse, yaya.
Nut, ikorosho; pi. ikorosho.
Oath, ulupela ; pi. malupelo.


SUBSTANTIVES.
27
Obedience, umhela.
Occupation, mtheko ; pi. mithelco.
Offering, ipepa.
Oil, makura. Castor oil, makura parika. Semsem oil, makura nang'hakiva.
Old age, ashulu vale.
Old man, uulu vale.
Opportunity, nipuro.
Ornament, ivipapa.
Owner, mwenene.
Ox, mg ope.
Oyster, ngombe (?).
Pad, of grass, used to carry a load upon, on the head, generally ring-shaped, ikara.
Pain, mveria.
Paint, pepe.
Palm, nihau no nthata.
Pap, mapele.
Papaw, npapai ; pi. mapapai.
Paper, mkaratha.
Parable, ulikaniha ; pi. malikaniho.
Part, nikupata ; pi. makupata.
Partnership, ukavihana.
Partridge, ikivali.
Path, ipiro.
Patience, uvilela; pi. mavilelo.
Pay, mbote ; pi. mbote.
Peace, nrimanrima.
Peel, nikothope ; pi. makothope.
People, atu.
Pepper, lonko omaka. Red, lonko mankani.
Person, mtu; pi. atu.
Perspiration, mtukuta ; pi. matukuta.
Phantom, irungu.
Physic, mrete ; pi. mirete.


28 SUBSTANTIVES.
Physician, mngakci ; pi. ang'aka.
Pice, nipesha ; pi. mapesha.
Pig, ikuluwe; pi. ikuluwe.
Pigeon, nchia ; pi. machia.
Pillar, mkurio ; pi. mikurio.
Pillow, mshamiro ; pi. mishamiro.
Pimple, iyuku.
Pincers, ipano.
Pine apple, inika ; pi. inika.
Pipe (for tobacco), inyukwa.
Pistol, namkoyo ; pi. anamkoyo.
Pit, nliti ; pi. maliti.
Pity, ikiriri.
Plain, inriwatlii.
Plank, nipatamkwa; pi. mapatamkwa.
Plant, imbeyu. A plant with a head of red flowers, ithali. The blue water-lily, ikogoa.
Plantains, inika.
Plantation, imata.
Plate, ikarekare.
Pleasure, utelia.
Plenty, winchiva.
Pocket, mliuko ; pi. mihuko.
Point, wikani; pi. wikani.
Poison, uchungu. Fish poison ; mtutu.
Pole, mwiri pi. miri. For carrying burdens on, ikolokopiko.
Politeness, umanya.
Pool, ntia ; pi. matia.
Porcupine, nashinuku; pi. anasMnuku.
Porridge, ishima.
Porter, mbaharici.
Possessions, mhaku ; pi. mihaku.
Possessor, mivenene.
Post, mwiri.
Posterity, amyanre.


SUBSTANTIVES.
29*
Potato, Icaraka.
Potsherd, nivali ; pi. mavali.
Potter, anopa miapu.
Poultry, ilaku.
Poverty, olmva.
Powder, ipepa. Gunpowder, uka.
Power, ikuru.
Practice, malemaleliho.
Prayer, uvekela.
Precepts, metujiho.
Pregnancy, irukulu.
Present, mituro.
Prey, malupato.
Pride, uhiloka.
Privy, ivitupini.
Progeny, amanalmmu.
Prohibition, makotiho.
Property, mhaku; pi. miliakit.
Provisions, cholia.
Pumpkin, nchuku ; pi. maclmku. When used to carry liquids in, mtumba; pi. mitumba. The large kind,. shinti ; pi. shinti.
Purgative, nrete wo mjalua.
Purpose, mwaini.
Python, ikuka.
Quarrel, namrukotoli; pi. anamrukotoli.
Question, makohano.
Quietness, umala.
Eabbit, hukula ; pi. ahukula.
Race, ukotolano ; pi. makotolano.
Rain, ipula. Rainy season, mlala. The lesser rains,.
ipula yo yaka.
Rainbow, nikwi ; pi. makwi.
Rammer (for beating roofs), mpapato; pi. mipapato.


30
SUBSTANTIVES.
Ransom, nopo.
Hash, uvele.
Eat, nikule; pi. makule. A very large kind, nivala ;
pi. mavala.
"Rawness, ukithi.
Razor, nimeto ; pi. mameto.
Reason, mlatu; pi. milatu.
Redeemer, moopoli.
Reed, mthale ; pi. mithale.
Refuge, matiaivelo.
Rejoicing, utelia.
Relations, uloko.
Relish, mathapa.
Remainder, malialiho.
Remission, makumihero.
Repentance, utarua.
Reproaches, molumelo.
Reptile. A large lizard, ing'oto. Another lizard, ivili. A python, ikuka.
Rest, metuuo.
Resting-place, marulo.
Resurrection, uhiliimwa.
Return, mahokolio.
Reverence, umala (?).
Reviling, marelo.
Rheumatism, ichikweni.
Rhinoceros, pela ; pi. apela.
Rice, moka.
-, when cleaned from the husk, mchoro ; pi. mi-
choro.
-, various kinds of, ngwindimba ; ebungala; ika ;
singano.
Riches, mhaku; pi. mihaku.
Rich man, mtu ovanga.
Ridicule, uhehulacha.
Right, ikekai.


SUBSTANTIVES.
Rind, makothope.
River, moloko ; pi. miololco.
Road, epiro; pi. epiro.
Roar, uritima; pi. maritime>.
Robber, owiia ; pi. owiia.
Rock, mwako ; pi. miako.
Roof, nivatho; pi. mavatho. The roof over a watching-place in the fields, itala.
Room (space), nipuro.
-(apartment), inupa yo mhina.
Rope, mkoi ; pi. mikoi.
Row (line), mtethela ; pi. mitethela.
Row (noise), unyakula ; pi. manyakulo.
Rubbish, ikokola.
Ruins, mauluo.
Rust, mrenji; mirenji.
Sacrifice, ipepa ; pi. ipepa.
Safety, upiarata.
Sail, ntanga ; pi. matanga.
Sailor, baharia.
Saliva, eshene.
Salt, maka.
Salute, michinga, choko Jiachia.
Salver, nipasho ; pi. mapasJio.
Sand, mhava ; pi. mihava.
Sandals, ikokwata.
Sap, mashi o mwiri.
Saucepan, mwapo o yuma.
Scab, nihoko; pi. mahoko.
Scabbard, nigonelo ; pi. magonelo.
Scales (of a fish), makahapapa.
Scar, nihoko ; pi. mahoko.
Scorn, uherihatu.
Scorpion, namrere ; pi. anamrere.
Scraps (after eating), makombo.


on
oJi
SUBSTANTIVES.
Scratch, nkwciramorelo ; pi. mikwaramorelo* Scull, nikurukucha ; pi. makurulmcha.
Scum, niporu.
Sea, mashomaka. -
Seam, mtoto ; pi. mitoto.
Season, malcati.
Seat, ihiche.
Secret, wapa.
Seed, mbeyu.
Self, mrima.
Semsem, ncimhakwa ; pi. anamhakwa.
Sense, kamrusho.
Servant, karumia ; pi. akarumia.
Service, upota.
Shade, mtuchi.
Shadow, irungu.
Shame: disgrace, uhononeci; modesty, ishoni. Share, umhuku.
Sharing, ukavihana.
Shark, paapa.
Sharpness, uchachci.
Sheaf, iuku.
Sheath, nigonelo ; magonelo.
Shed, nigongwe; pi. magongwe.
Sheep, ikondoro ; pi. ikondoro.
Shells, shwakara.
Shepherd, mshunga.
Shield, ichikopa.
Shin, nikuva no mpacha.
Ship, merikebu. Dhow, ichombo.
Shirt, malaya.
Shivering, mathunkomelo.
Shock, uthuthua.
Shop, nduka ; pi. madukci.
Shot (small), ithathu.
Shoulder, nikatha; pi. malcatha.


SUBSTANTIVES.
33
Shout, unydkula; pi. manyakulo.
Shower, mevela.
Shrewdness, openya.
Sick person, mreta; pi. areta.
Sickness, ureta ; pi. mareto.
Side, ntliela; pi. maihela. Of the body, iparari; pi.
iparari. Other side of the river, etc., ukopelele. Sieve, nipite ; pi. mapite.
Sign, uvela; pi. mavelo.
Silence, umala; pi. mamalo.
Silk, hariri (Sw.).
Silver, ndarama.
Silversmith, mhani wo ndarama.
Simpleton, mjinga ; pi. ajinga (Sw.).
Sin, uwonya. (This word only signifies mistake: all kinds of sin, such as theft, cursing, adultery, murder, slander, are expressed by uchawi when it is intended to speak of them as wrong doings.) Sister, urokora.
Sister-in-law, mlamu.
Size, nclmsha; pi. machuslia.
Skilled workman, pundL^pi. apundi.
Skij
Sky, nihute; pi. mahul Slander, ivotheria.
Slaughter house, vamahiteloni.
Slave, ipota ; pi. ipota. Slave girl, mwanthiana ; pi.
achithiani. Fellow slave, mlokivaka; pi. alokwalca. Slavery, upota.
Sleep, ikove.
Sleeping-place, vorupa ; vamaroponi.
Sleeve, mono ; pi. miono.
Slipperiness, uthetheria.
Sloth, urushia.
Smallness, uyeva.
Small-pox, induvi.


34
SUBSTANTIVES,
Smith, mhani; pi. ahani.
Smoke, mivishi; pi. miislii.
Snail, ikoropa; pi. ikoropa.
Snake, inoa ; pi. inoci.
Snare, ithapa; pi. ithapa.
Sneezing, loitiamuri.
Snoring, ungonga.
Snuff, shoni o nukia.
Soap, shdbuni.
Soldier, amirawo.
Sole, inyao ; pi. inyao.
Solitude, uveka.
Somebody, mtu ; pi. atu.
Son, mwana; pi. ashana.
Son-in-law, aukohi; pi. aukohi.
Song, nchipo; pi. machipo.
Sore, nikwata; pi. makwata; imbecJia.
Sorrow, uchukula; pi. mcichukulo. Repentance, utci-ruwa.
Soul, mrima; pi. mirima.
Sound, nlove ; pi. malove.
Soundness, ukumi.
Sovereign, mwenene iwani.
Space, nipuro; pi. mapuro.
Spade, ihipa ye Ishungu.
Speaking, ulumacha.
Spear, nivaka; pi. mavaka.
Spider, randashi; pi. arandashi.
Spirits, mashoka: minepa.
Spittle, ishene.
Splinter, nipalapatu.
Spoon, mikori.
Sport, uthuela.
Spring (of water), imparawe; pi. imparawe.
Spy, ohotela; pi. ohotela.
Squint, utenderua mitho.


SUBSTANTIVES.
Staff, ikopo; pi. ilcopo.
Stairs : upstairs, vachulu ; downstairs, vathi. Stalks (of mtama), mthathi ; pi. mithatha. Stammering, ichimene.
Stars, itotwa ; pi. itotwa.
Start, uthuthua.
Stealing, wiya.
Steel, pua (Sw.).
Stem, mwiri; pi. miiri.
Step-father, athumana owu pwanya. Step-mother, anmnwana owu pwanya, Steward, mwehereri ; pi. aivehereri.
Stick, ilcopo; pi. ilcopo.
Stillness, umala.
Stomach, irulculu ; pi. irulculu.
Stone, nluJcu ; pi. maluTcu.
Stone house, inupa yo maluku.
Stones (of fruit), ikorosho ; pi. ikorosho. Stooping, winama, woroma.
Stop (end), ukoma.
Stopper, itiyelelo; pi. itiyelelo.
Store, uyeshera.
Story, itheli ; pi. itheli.
Stoutness, uritimala.
Strainer, mhukulo ; pi. mihukulo.
Straits, uhuva; pi. mahuvo.
Strands (of a cord), wikani too mkoi. Stranger, mleto; pi. aleto.
Strength, ikuru: machiri.
Stream, mwamwoloko; pi. ashmioloko. String, ntoche ; pi. matoclie.
Stumble, makwakwathuo.
Stump, ikokolo.
Sty (in the eye), ishoshera.
Subtraction, uhala.
Sugar, ishukari.


36
SUBSTANTIVES.
Sugar cane, mhalu ; pi. milialu.
Sulphate of copper, mrututu.
Sultanship, imwene.
Sum, jumula.
Summit, vacliulumivako ; pi. vacliulumivako. Sun, nchuiva ; pi. machuwa.
Sunset, uchechUo.
Supper, yolia yo chochUo.
Sweat, nihiro; pi. mahiro.
Sweetheart, atwaka ; pi. atwaka.
Sweet lime, ndimu cliochiva.
Sweetness, yochiva.
Sweet potato, karalca ; pi. dlcaraha.
Swindler, mtu owo thotha.
Swing, mkumrumbwalelo; pi. mikumrumbwalelo. Swine, ikuluwe ; pi. ikuluwe.
Sword, upanga.
Syrup, urao ; pi. marao.
Tail, mwila; pi. mila.
Tailor, mtoti; pi. aioti.
Taking away, makumihero.
Tale, itheli ; pi. iiheli.
Talk, mopa mwdha.
Talker, mulumachi; pi. mulumachi.
Tamarind, tvejpa; pi. awejpa.
--, the tree, mwepa ; pi. mhvepa.
Tartar (on the teeth), nahavala.
Taster, mlawihi; pi. alawihi.
Teaching, metuchiho.
Tear, mithori; pi.mithori.
Ten, kumi ; pi. makumi.
Testimony, uoneshesha.
Theft, iviya.
Thickness, uritimala. .
Thief, owiya; pi. owiya.


SUBSTANTIVES.
37
Thieving, wiijci.
Thing, itu ; pi. itu.
Thirst, ntona ; pi. matona.
Thorn, mwiwa ; pi. miivoa.
Thorny shrub, nripwi ; pi. maripwi.
Thought, wupuwela; pi. maupuwelo.
Thread, ntoiche; pi. matoiche.
Threat, wopopilm.
Throat, ishilco ; pi. isMho.
Thumb, nihoko nulupale.
Thunder, ithari.
Tickling, uthildnya.
Timber, miri.
Time, makati; leisure, malmti oivithua; midnight, uhiyu; morning, wicliishau; mid-day, nchuwa va mum ; evening, uchechilo.
Tobacco, shone.
To-day, lelo.
Toe, makolw o mnyani.
Tomb, nihiye; pi. mahiye.
To-morrow, melo.
--the day after, mroto.
----after that, nilmcha.
----------after that, mthela,
Tongs, ipano.
Tongue, nlimi; pi. malimi.
Tooth, nino ; pi. mino.
Top, mchulu.
Tortoise, hapa ; pi. akapa.
Track, inyao ; pi. inyao.
Trade, maronda.
Trader, mpanga maronda.
Trap, ithapa; pi. ithapa.
Traveller, mwetakachi.
Treasure, iiihiilmmaniha.
Tree, mwiri; pi. miiri.


38
SUBSTANTIVES.
Tribe, nikosho ; pi. makosho.
Trot, ihito.
Trouble, uhuva.
Trowsers, marapi.
Trumpet, nipenga; pi. mapenga.
maparapata.
Trunk, mioiri.
Truth, ihehai.
Truth-teller, mhimya ikekai.
Tub, nipipa; pi. mapipa.
Turban, mlesho ; pi. malesho. Turmeric, mbirichira.
Turtle, nipethe, nikohiva.
Turtle dove, nchiya; pi. machiya. Twin, navata; pi. mavata.
Udder, wiJcani ivo nipele.
Ulcers, nilcivata ; pi. mahwata. Umbrella, ishumburere. Uncleanness, unyala.
Uncle, athatha.
Understanding, irusho.
Unity, umoka.
Universe, ilapo.
Uproar, manyakulo.
Urine, uruclia.
Utensils, meapo.
Valley, nrapo; pi. marapo.
Value, ikwelo.
Vegetables, machuko.
Vegetable marrow, machuko.
Vial, ichorochoro.
Vice, unanara.
Victuals, cholia.
Violence, wilipia.
Niparapata; pL


SUBSTANTIVES.
39
Voice, nlove; pi. malove.
Vow, ulupela ; pi. malupelo.
Voyage, mhwaha; pi. mikwaha.
Vulture, nrepo ; marepo.
Wages, imbote.
Wailing, ivunla.
Waistcoat, ipithao ; pi. ipitliao.
Walk, weta. To go for a walk, uroa weta haclia. Wall, ishiri.
War, ihoto.
Warmth, moro ; pi. mioro.
Wart, iparamela.
Waste, urialcacho.
Waster, mrihahachi ; pi. arihakachi.
Water, mashi. Fresh water, mashi o chiva. Water-jar, muno; pi. mino.
Way, ipiro ; pi. ipiro.
Wealth, mhako mwinchi.
Weapon, nivaha ; pi. mavaha.
Weaver, mtavi; pi. atavi.
Weeds, manyashi.
Well, ihimi ilushi.
Weeping, tounla.
West, uchechilo.
Whirlwind, iyupuru.
Whistling, mthuri.
White ants, ucheshe.
White of egg, yotela yo nyoche.
Whiteness, yotela.
Widow, namlcweli; pi. anamkiveli.
Width, witivala.
Wife, mthiana; pi. athiana.
Wilderness, louthalconi.
Wild animals, inama cho mivitupini.
Will, mrima ; pi. mirima.


40
SUBSTANTIVES.
Wind, ipeo.
Winding, urukurera.
Wine, nipa.
Wing, nipupa ; pi. mapupa.
Wink, wpila.
Witch, mkwiri ; pi. akwiri.
Witchcraft, ukioiri.
Wizard, mkwiri ; pi. akwiri.
Woe, uhuva.
Woman, mthiana ; pi. athiana. Young woman, mwa-nati.
Womb, irukula.
Wonder, matikinacho.
Word, nlove; pi. malove. Bad words, maruano.
Work, mtheko ; pi. mitheko.
Workman, pundi ; pi. apundi.
World, ilapo.
Worm, nrithi; pi. mirithi.
Wound, nkwata ; pi. makwata.
Wrath, uweria mrima.
Wrist, nrecha no mono.
Yam, nipeta; mapeta.
Yard, unikureni.
Yawn, wiria moria.
Year, yaka. Last year, mwechana. The year before last, mwejuni.
Yesterday, mjana. The day before yesterday, mchuri.
Yolk of an egg, yokwila yo nyoche.
Youth, uyeva.
Zanzibar, Unguja.
Zeal, uihuaihua. Jealousy, ihachi.
Zebra, iputa; iputa.


( 41 )
ADJECTIVES.
Makua adjectives are few in number, their places being for the most part supplied by the use of verbs, substantives and adverbs preceded by the particle -o, or by verbs denoting the possession of such and such qualities.
The regular adjective -kani (small), varies according to the different class of nouns, as follows :
I. Mtu mwamkani, a small person; atu achilcani, small people.
II. Mshamiro mlcani, a small pillow; mishamiro chikani, small pillows.
III. Ncikuo nikani, a small cob of Indian corn; anakuo achikani, small cobs of Indian corn.
IY. Ntinji nikani, a small island; matinji makani, small islands.
Y. Uthakala ukani, a small evil; mathakalo ovakani, small evils.
YI. Mivamunku mwamkani, a small caterpillar; ashimiunku achikani, small caterpillars.
VII. Ihatha ikani, a small claw; ihatha ikani, small claws.
VIII. Yolia ikani, a little food; cholia chikani, little food.
IX. Vachitu vekani, a small place; mchitu mwikani, small places.
The irregular adjectives, verbal and others, aro


42
ADJECTIVES.
made to agree with their substantives in the different classes as follows :
0 rera, beautiful.
I. Sing., o rera, Plural, o rera.
II. >5 wo rera, 55 cho rera.
III. 55 o rera, 5? o rera.
IV. 55 no rera, 5? o rera.
V. 55 loo rera, 55 o rera.
VI. 55 o rera, 55 o rera.
VII. 55 yo rera, 55 cho rera.
VIII. 55 yo rera, 55 cho 'rera.
IX. 55 vo rera, 55 mo rera.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
The comparative degree may be expressed by merely coupling the things to be compared by putting ni (with) between them. The more common way of expressing comparison is by the use of the word upwaha, to exceed.
TJle mtule mulupale vo wcipwahale, that man there is bigger than that; lit., That big man there exceeds that one.
The superlative is expressed by the use of the adjective in an absolute sense.
Mlu ula mulupale, this is the great man, i.e. This is the greatest man.


ADJECTIVES.
LIST OF ADJECTIVES.
Able, noria.
Alike, sawasawa (Sw.).
All, -onhea.
Ancient, Tzalai.
Awake, urimitho.
Bad, -nanara.
Bare, -Hum.
Beautiful, -rera.
Best, bora (Sw.).
Bitter, -owawa.
Black, -oripa.
Blind, -ohona.
Blunt, -ohivia.
Bold, -ohova.
Broad, urunku.
Cheap, -ohilipa.
Chief, ulupale.
Choice, uthalia.
Civilized, -nethi.
Clean, -orera.
Clever, -orusTio.
Clumsy, -olemela.
Common, chicliale.
Covetous, nlula.


44
ADJECTIVES.
Cross, uchacha.
Cunning, -o upenya.
Deaf, -o uhiva.
Dear, -o ulipa.
Deformed, -o ulemala.
Different, -ikina.
Distinct, kilikane.
Double, veli.
Dry, uuma.
Dull, uruchia (?).
Easy, uveua.
Elder, yulupale.
Empty, ituru.
Equal, sawasawa (Sw.).
Every, vavireule.
Eat, -o neneva.
Eeeble, shokoya.
Female, thiana. A she hyaena, kuchupa omthiana. A lioness, karamu omthiana.
Few (to be few), uyieva. The people who followed me were few, atu ya kitandu ya hoyem.
Fierce, uchacha. A fierce man, mtu o chacha.
Filthy, -o unyala.
Fine, -o rera.
Foolish, -olochoa.
Foreign, -leto.
Former, -o upacha.
Free, -nethi.
Fresh, -kithi. Fresh water, mashi oriria.
Full, -o uchara. The water is up to the top, mashi yahochara.
Generous, -o uvaha.
Good, -o rera.


ADJECTIVES.
45
Greedy, -o mlula.
Great, mulupale.
Gratis, yochicho.
Happy, wichivela.
Hard, -olipa.
Having, with, being with, -mwenene; a strong man, mtu mwenene ileum.
Healthy, -humi; a healthy house, inupa ilcumi; a healthy man, mtu mlmmi.
Heavy, -o ulemela.
High, -otaliva.
Hollow, -o pao.
Hot, -o moro.
Idle, -o rushia.
Ignorant, -jinga (Sw.).
Insignificant, -o uvea.
Irrational, -o himanya.
Jealous, -o liache.
Just, ehehai.
Large, yulupale.
Lean, -o wota.
Left (hand, etc.), loimuslii.
Light: not dark, -otela ; not heavy, uveua.
Like, chinre.
Little, -Icani; a little water, mashi valcani.
Living, -shima, -humi.
Long, -otaliva.
Low, -o ulcuvea.
Mad, ihalahala.
Male, mlopwana.
Many, chinji.
Moist, yotapwatapwa.


46
ADJECTIVES.
Naked, wikaletu.
Narrow, uhechevala.
New, yonanano.
Old: of things, -o kalai ; of persons, -ulujpale. Only, yoveka.
Other, -kina.
Patient, -uvilela.
Perfect, -chekai.
Pleasant, -ochiva.
Poor, -ohuva.
Possible, -looria.
Quarrelsome, nanrokotoli.
Quick, uveua.
Quiet, -mala.
Eaw, -kithi.
Red, -kwila, -osliera (?).
Regular, -ratarata.
Remote, utaliva.
Rich, anene mhako.
Right (hand, etc.), mlopwana.
Ripe, utokota.
Righteous, -ekekai.
Rotten, unta.
Round, uvilikea.
Sad, upwela.
Savage, uchacJia.
Secret, uvitha.
Sharp, wivya.
Short, -kuvea.
Sick, -reta,
Silent, -mala.


ADJECTIVES.
Slim (see Narrow).
Smooth, -ivereryana.
Soft, woloa.
Some, akinakina.
Sour, uny-unya.
Spotted, manepa.
Stout, witivala.
Strange, -leto.
Strong, -olipa.
Stupid, -lochoa.
Sweet, -ochiva.
Tall, utaliva.
Thick, witivala.
Thievish, ushiia.
Thin, uchechevala.
True, -kekai.
Uneven, uhilikana.
Unwashed, unyala.
Various, ikinakina.
Wasteful, mriJiakachi.
Warm, -mtukuta.
Weak, ushokoya.
Well done (i.e. well cooked), utokota. Wet, utapwatapwa.
White, -otela.
Whole, -kumi.
Wide, -urunku.
Young, -kana.
Younger, -himaka.


( 48 )
THE NUMEKALS.
1, imoka.
2, pili.
3, taru.
4, cheshe.
5, ihanu.
6, ihanu na imoka.
7, pili.
8, taru.
9, cheshe.
10, kumi.
11, kumi na imoka.
12, pili.
13, ,, taru.
14, cheshe.
15, thanu.
16, kumi wathiru thanu na imoka.
17, ,, ), ,, pili.
18, ,, ,, ,, taru.
19, ,, ,, ,, cheshe.
20, makumi meli.
30, mar aru.
40,
50,
60,
70,
80,
90,
100,
macheshe.
mathanu.
,, na nimoka.
5) ,, meli.
mar am.
macheshe. makumi.


THE NUMERALS.
49
The changes undergone by the numerals when in agreement with substantives in the nine classes are as follows:
I. Atu eli, two; araru, three; acheshe, four; athanu na araru, eight.
II. Mishamiro mili, two ; miraru, three ; micheshe, four; mithanu na miraru, eight.
III. Anakuo eli, two; araru, three ; acheshe, four;
athanu na araru, eight.
IV. Matinji meli, two ; mararu, three; macheshe,
four; mathanu na mararu, eight.
V. Mathahalo meli, two ; mararu, three; macheshe, four ; mathanu na mararu, eight.
VI. Ashimiunku eli, two; araru, three ; acheshe, four; athanu na araru, eight.
VII. Ihatha jpili, two; taru, three ; cheshe, four;
thanu na taru, eight.
VIII. Cholia pili, two; taru, three; cheshe, four; thanu na taru, eight.
IX. Vachitu veli, two; vararu, three; vacheshe, four; tathanu na vararu, eight.
Owce, fioice, etc., are expressed by prefixing va or by changing the first syllable into va:
Once, vamoka.
Twice, veZ.
Thrice, vararu.
Tour times, vacheshe.
Five times, vathanu.
Six times, vathanu na vamoka.
Seven times, veZe.
Eight times, vararu.
Nine times, vacheshe.
Ten times, nikumi.
E


50
THE NUMERALS.
Second, etc., are denoted by prefixing the particle o- with its appropriate initial letter for the different classes of substantives, and by prefixing to the numeral the syllable ne, or by modifying the first syllable into ne. The word denoting first is irregular.
Mtu o pacha, the first man.
naeli, the second man.
neraru, the third man.
necheshe, the fourth man.
neihanu, the fifth man.


( 51 )
PRONOUNS.
Personal Pronouns.
The full forms of the personal pronouns are
I, mi, minyano. We, hiyo, Jiiyano.
Thou, uwe, weyu. You, nyenyu, nyuo.
He or she, yoyo. They, yayo, ayo.
It and they, when referring to nouns of other than the first class, are expressed by the demonstrative pronouns.
The second and third persons plural are always used in addressing or speaking of an equal or a superior. The second and third persons singular are only used in speaking of or to inferiors, as to slaves and children. The personal prefixes to the verbs referring to nouns of the first class are
Subjective. Objective.
I Tci- Me -M-
Thou u- Thee -u-
He or she (a-) Him or her -m-
We n- Us ' -ni-
You m-, mw- You -u-
They a,- ya- Them -a-
The subjective prefix of the third person singular is frequently omitted.
Apparently no objective prefixes are used for


52
PRONOUNS.
nouns of the other classes : it and them, when referring to nouns of other than the first class, must be expressed by the demonstrative pronouns. The following examples will show how the subjective prefixes appropriate to the various classes are employed in connection with the word -horoa, the past tense of uroa, to go:
I. Mtu ahoroa; atu y ahoroa.
II. Mshamiro uhoroa ; mishamiro chihoroa.
III. Nakuo haroa; anakuo ahoroa.
IV. Ntinji nihoroa ; matinji ahoroa.
V. TJthakala uhoroa ; mathakalo ahoroa.
VI. Mwamunku horoa; ashimiunku ahoroa.
VII. Ihatha ihoroa; ihatha chihoroa.
VIII. Yolia ihoroa; cholia chihoroa.
IX. Vachitu vahoroa ; mchitu mhoroa?
The following examples will show the use of the
subjective and objective prefixes, referring to persons :
Ki-ho-u-himeria I have thee told.
U-ho-m-himeria thou hast him told.
A-ho-ki-himeria he has me told.
Ni-ho-himeriani we have told you.
N-h(o)-a, himeria you have them told.
A-ho-ni-himeria they have us told.
Possessive Pronouns.
The initial letters of the possessive pronouns vary according to the class of the thing possessed. The invariable parts are
My, -aka. Our, -ihu.
Thy, -ao. Your, -inyu.
His, her, or its, -awe. Their, -aya.


PRONOUNS.
53
A longer form is as commonly used by prefixing aw- before aha, ao, awe, etc.
The changes of the initial letters of -awaha, my, will show the necessary forms throughout.
I. Mtu awaha ; atu awaha.
II. Mshamiro wawaha; mishamiro chawaha.
III. Nahuo awaha; anahuo awaha.
IY. Ntinji nawaha ; matinji awaha.
Y. TJihahala wawaha ; mathahalo awaha.
YI. Mwamunhu awaha; ashimiunhu awaha.
VII. Ihatha yawaha ; ihatha chawaha.
VIII. Yolia yawaha ; cholia chawaha.
IX. Vachitu vawaha; mchitu mawaha.
My own, Ms own, etc., are expressed by adding the word -ene, with its personal prefix, to the possessive pronouns aha, awe, etc.
My own, awaha himwene.
Thine own, awao umwene.
His, her, or its own, awawe mwenene.
Our own, awihu nanene.
Your own,'awinyu mwanene.
Their own, awaya anene.
Reflective Pronouns.
The Makua verb is made reflective by inserting i as an objective prefix
Self may be expressed by mrima, heart.
Where self is employed chiefly to give emphasis to the personal pronoun, it is expressed by the personal pronoun followed by the word -ene, with its appropriate prefix
Utuna
Wituna
to love.
to love myself.


54
PRONOUNS.
I myself Thou thyself He himself We ourselves You yourselves They themselves
minyano kimwenene. weyu umwenene. yoyo mwenene. hiyano nanene. nyenyu mwanene. yayo anene.
By myself\ ourselves, etc., are expressed by vek-prefixed to the possessive pronouns.
By myself vekaka. By ourselves vekehu.
By thyself vekao. By yourselves vekenyu.
By himself vekawe. By themselves vekaya.
Demonstrative Pronouns.
There are four demonstrative pronouns: 1. This, denoting objects near at. hand. 2. That, objects at a distance. 3. More directly specific, This or that one here.
1. 2. 3.
I. Mtu ula ule yole.
Atu ala ale yayo (?)
II. Mshamiro ula ule yole. _
Mishamiro chila chile chechile.
III. Nakuo ula ule yole.
Anakuo ala ale yale.
IV. Ntinji nna nne nnene.
Matinji ala uu? ale yale.
Y. ITthakala ule wo we.
Mathakalo ala1 ale yale.
YI. Mwanmnku ula ule yole.
Ashiminuku ala ale yale.
VII. Ihatha ila ile yele.
Ihatha chila chile chechile.
TUI. Yolia ila ile yele. _
Cholia chila chile chechile.
IX. Vachitu vaa .j^ale^vavaire'.'')
Mchitu muu \mule , momule.


PRONOUNS.
55
The fourth form is made by a sort of double demonstrative before and after the noun
I. Yole mtule; yale atu ale.
II. Yole mshamiro ole ; checMle mishamiro chile.
III. Yole nakuole ; yale anahuo ale.
IY. Nene ntinji ne ; yale matinji yale.
Y. Wowule uthakala wule ; yale mathakalo ale.
VI. Yole mwamunku ule ; yale ashimiunku ale.
VII. Yele ihathele ; chechile ihatha chile.
VIII. Yele yoliele ; chechile cholia chile.
IX. Vawale vachitu vale ; momule mchitu mule.
r~
The demonstrative pronouns are very frequently doubled; as, yoleyole, chechilechechile, aleale, etc.
The usual place of a demonstrative is after the noun; as, Mtu ula, this man; but it may be put before the noun, and then the last syllable is repeated after itUla mtu la.
The general demonstratives, here and there, are va and uo.
There is a sort of demonstrative with the meaning, This is the one, It is this, Here is the place, etc. Its form for the several classes is as follows
I. Thiola, piayo.
II. Puyola, pichechi.
III. Thiola, piyala.
IV. Pinena, piyala.
V. Puwowu, piyala.
VI. Thiyola, piyala.
VII. Piyela, pichechi.
VIII. Piyela, pichechi.
IX. Pivava, pumomu.
Vavaoy here is the place.
Wowo, there is the place.


56
PRONOUNS.
Relative Pronouns.
There are no relative pronouns in use. The relative, when the subject of the verb, is expressed by the direct sentence. When the time is either past or future, a particular tense form is used. The past tense form has the termination -ele or -He, and the future (equivalent to the -taka- tense in Swahili) is nololia.
When the relative is the object of the verb, these tense forms are again always used, while its subject (if a pronoun) is in the possessive form, and placed after it with the past or present tense, before it with the future.
.9
The man who went The food that went The man whom we sent The man who is going"
The man whom I saw The man whom thou sawest The man whom he saw The man whom we saw The man who will go The man whom he will see The food which we saw The man who sees me The man who saw us Where I am sleeping Where he is sleeping Where I shall sleep Where he will sleep
mtu aruele. cholia chiruel^. mtujmnelernle hu. mtu noroa. mtu amonile aka. mtu amonile ao. mtu amonile awe. mtu amonile hu. mtu nolohoroa. mtu nolohawemwona. yolia yonile hu. mtu nokona. mtu anonile. vanorupaka. vanorupawe. vanlohakurupa. vanlohaweurupa.
When joined with the verb to be, the relative is expressed by -ri, with the appropriate prefixes.
I. Uri, ari which is, which are.
II. Uri, chiri ,,


PRONOUNS.
57
III. Ori, ari which, is, which are.
IV. Niri, ari
V. Uri, ari
VI. Uri, an
VII. In, chiri
VIII. JW, chiri
IX. Fan, mn
Interrogative Pronouns.
Who?
What?
What is the matter ? What thing?
What man ?
What food ?
When?
Which ?
Where ?
Where is he ?
Where are they? Here (inside)
By (by the side of)
upani? apanif shiani f urishiani f itu shiani f mtu shiani ? cholia shiani f yahanif shiani f uvi ? vai f uri vai f ari vai 9 mmo. hapo.
Where do you come from ? mnokuma vai f How ? chani ?
How many? I. Achani. IV. Machani. VII. Mchani.
II. Michani. V. Machani. VIII. Mchani.
III. Achani. VI. Achani. IX. Mchani. How often ? vachani ?
Whoever I. Uri othe, ari othe.
II. Uri nothe, chiri chothe.
III. Uri othe, ari othe.
IV. Niri nothe, ari othe.
V. Uri wothe, ari othe.
VI. Uri othe, ari othe.
VII. In othe, chiri chothe.
VIII. In othe, chiri chothe.
IX. Fan vothe, mri mothe.


( 58 )
VERBS.
Makua verbs always end in a in their simplest form. The simplest form standing alone is the singular of the imperative, as in English
Panga do Boa / go away !
The person and tense are most commonly denoted by varying prefixes. There is a negative as well as an affirmative conjugation.
In using or construing Makua verbs, the plural of the second and third persons is always employed instead of the singular, where no special inferiority in the person addressed or spoken of is meant to be implied.
Infinitive Mood.
The Infinitive is made by prefixing u to the simplest form of the verb
Upanga, to do ; uroa, to go away.
Wata, to beat (the u becoming w before the vowel).
The infinitive may always be used as a substantive, like the English verbal substantive in -ing
Upanga, doing.
The infinitive may be prefixed to other parts of the verb to intensify its meaning
TJtuna Mnotuna, loving, I love, i.e. I love exceedingly.


VERBS.
59
Indicative Mood.
Present Tense.
The Present tense, which is also, used as a future, is formed by prefixing no to the simplest form of the verb:
hi ^ I go or will go.
u
a, ttj a, n't, u, a, a, %, vet ni m
)no-roa
ya, chi,a, a,a,a, chi, chi, m,
thou goest or wilt go. he goes or will go. we go or will go. you go or will go. they go or will go.
Present Imperfect.
The Present Imperfect tense answers to our tense with am: I am going, I am loving, etc. It is formed by suffixing the syllable -ha to the form of the present:
hi \ (1 am going.
u
I no-roa-ha {
thou art going, he is going.
we are going you are going, they are going.
a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va
ni m
ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m
. Second Future.
There is a kind of Second Future formed with the auxiliary verb to be, and used in the sense ofI shall be doing, loving, going, etc.:
hi
u
a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, \ i, va )
ni
m
ya, chi, a, a, a, a, ) chi, chi, m J
nohela oroa
/1 shall be going, thou wilt be going.
he will be going.
we shall be going, you will be going.
they will be going.


60
VERBS.
Present Perfect.
The Present Perfect answering to the English tense made with have, is formed by prefixing -ho- to the simplest form of the verb:
hi \ (I have gone.
u
a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, % va ni
\ ho-roa (
m
thou hast gone, he has gone, we have gone.
you have gone, they have gone.
ya, chi, a, a, a, a, cM, cM, m /
Past Perfect.
The Past Perfect is formed from the present perfect by merely inserting -a- between the personal prefix and the verb. The -i- of the first persons singular and plural is dropped before the sign of the past perfect.
h ^ went.
w thou wentest.
a, w, a, n, w, a, a, y, v \ a_i0_r0a\ h went.
n I \ we went.
mw I I you went.
ya, ch, a, a, a, a, c^, c7&, mw J v they went.
Relative Past.
A kind of Relative Past tense is formed by adding the termination -ele to the root of the verb: hi ^ (I who went.
u I thou who wentest.
a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va \ 7 / he who went.
/ ro-eie [ i .
ni / \ we who went.
m
ya, cifo*, a, a, a, a, cM, m
you who went, they who went.
A Future Relative is also formed by prefixing noloha or nloha to the simplest form of the verb: hino-loharoa, I who will go, etc., etc.


VERBS.
61
Past Imperfect.
The Past Imperfect is formed from the present tense by inserting a between the personal prefix and the verb:
h \ /I was going.
thou wast going, he was going. a-no-roa / we were going.
you were going.
they were going.
w
a, w, a, n, w, a, a, y, va n mw
ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw
}
Imperative Mood.
The Imperative Singular is the simplest form of the verb:
Panga do! Boa go away!
The Plural is made by adding -ni to the singular, and is much more commonly employed even in speaking to a single person.
Pangani! do! Boani go away!
Subjunctive Mood.
*The Subjunctive, which is also used as an imperative, is formed by changing the final vowel into -e, and prefixing the signs of the person:
hi
u
\
a, u, a, nt, n, a, a, i, va ni m
ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m
roe
V
/that I may go, or, let me go. that thou mayest go that he may go. that we may go. that you may go. that they may go


62
VERBS.
That, when it denotes an object or intention, and and, when in English it is used to connect an action with some preceding action which leads to it, are expressed by the use of the subjunctive :
Awiye akalie, let him come and sit down.
Conditional.
There is a tense made by prefixing the syllable ga- to the present perfect form, which is used to express a contingency :
Ngahoroa, I should go or have gone.
Ukahoroa, thou shouldest go or have gone.
Ay uy a, ni, u, a, a, i, va, -kahoroa, he should go or have gone.
Ningahoroa, we should go or have gone.
Mkahoroa, you should go or have gone.
Ya, chi, a, a, a, a, cM, cM, ni, -ngahoroa, they should go or have gone.
The being in a state, or in the act, of doing anything is expressed by the adverb va placed before the verb, the verb being followed by the possessive pronoun.
Vanlohaweolumacha when he shall speak.
Variayairuaka when they were going.
Vanoliawe when he is eating.
Valileyaka when I ate.
Vakilumileawe when he was hurting me.
Negative Tenses.
Negative Present.
The Negative Present is formed by prefixing ha->


VERBS.
63
followed by the sign of the person, to the present tense. The first person, however, is irregular:
ahi
hu
ha, hu, ha, ha, hu, jh, hava han ham
ha, hachi, ha, ha, ha, ha, hachi, hachi, ham
}
}
noroa
I do not go or am not going, thou art not going.
he is not going.
we are not going, you are not going.
they are not going.
Negative Future.
The Negative Future is formed by prefixing h-, followed by the sign of the person, to the simplest form of the verb:
ahi hu
ha, hu, ha, ha, hu, ha hi, hi, hava hani ham
ha, hachi, ha, ha, ha, ha, hachi, hachi, ham
}
}]
roa
' I will not go. thou wilt not go.
he will not go.
we will not go. you will not go.
^.hey will not go.
Negative Past.
The Negative Past is formed by prefixing h-, followed by the sign of the person, to the ele tense.
ahi hu
ha, hu, ha, ha, hu, ha hi, hi, hava hani ham
ha, hachi, ha, ha, ha, ) ha, hachi, hachi, ham J
/
}
) roele
I have not gone, thou hast not gone.
he has not gone.
we have not gone, you have not gone.
they have not gone.


64
VERBS.
Negative Subjunctive.
The Negative of the Subjunctive is formed by inserting between the personal prefix and the form of the present subjunctive, the syllable hi:
hi \ / that I may not go.
u that thou mayest not go.
that he may not go.
a, u, a, ni, u, a, ) a, i, va )
ni
m
\ hi-roe
ya, chi, a, a, a, a, ) chi, chi, m j
that we may not go. that you may not go.
that they may not go.
A form of negative with the sense of not yet is formed by the insertion of -na- between the negative and personal prefixes, and the present subjunctive of the verb :
ahi
hu
ha, hu, ha, ha, hu, ha, hi, hi, hava hani
ham
ha, hachi, ha, ha, ha, ha, hachi, hachi, ham
}
na-roe
}
/
/I have not ^ 3t gone, thou hast not yet gone, he has not yet gone, we have not yet gone, you have not.yet gone, they have not yet v gone.
THE PASSIVE VOICE.
The Passive is formed from the active by inserting -i- before the final vowel. It is in all other respects like the active.
TJtuna, to love; utunia, to be loved.


VERBS.
65
THE VERB TO BE.
The verb uhala, to be, is somewhat irregular.
In the present tense the personal signs are used alone, to represent is or are. Is (and are) not is expressed by ngati or ha.
Present Perfect.
hiri I have been.
uri thou hast been.
a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va, -ri he has been.
niri we have been.
mri you have been.
ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m, -mri they have been.
Past Perfect.
The Past Perfect is formed from the present perfect by prefixing -a- to the final -ri:
hari I was or had been. wari thou wast or hadst been. a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va, -ari he was or had been.
nari we were or had been. mwari you were or had been. ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw, -ari they were or had been.
Past Imperfect.
The Past Imperfect, was or was being, used also like the Swahili nihiwa, uhiwa, alciwa, etc., is formed regularly from the root of the verb, by prefixing -a- to it, and by suffixing ha:
h ^ fl was being.
w
a, u, a, m, u, a, a, i, va
ahalaha (
n
mw
ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw
thou wast being, he was being, we were being, you were being. ^ they were being. F


66
VERBS.
Future.
The Future, shall or will be, is formed regularly, by prefixing -no- to the root of the verb.
hi \ (I shall be.
u
nohala
thou shalt be. he shall be. we shall be. you shall be. they shall be.
a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va n m
ya, eft, a, a, a, a, c^, ch, mw
Subjunctive.
The Subjunctive, may be or let be, is formed regularly from the root by changing a into e, and prefixing the personal signs.
hi u
a, u, a, w, a, a, i, va ni m
ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw
^that I may be.
that thou mayest be.
7 7 / that he may be. kale \ i , J
\ that we may be.
I that you may be.
(that they may be.
THE VERB TO HAVE.
*
The verb to have is expressed by ukala, followed by na, i.e. to be with.
DERIVATIVE VERBS.
From any simple verb others may be formed by a change in its termination.
I. By changing the final a into ela or era the effect is the same as that of adding a preposition in English. The termination era is used when the


VERBS.
67
consonant of the preceding syllable is h or y. Era and ela cannot be interchanged or used as though r and I were the same letter. In Makua it is most important to distinguish r from I.
To make, upanga; to make for, upangela.
To bring, uwiha; to bring for, uwihera.
To be sorry, uchuhula ; to be sorry for, uchu-hulela.
To fall down, uwuluwa; to fall down to, uwuluwela.
To perplex, utapaniha; to perplex for, utapa-nihera.
To miss, wwonya; to miss for, uwonyera.
To climb, uwela; to climb for, uwelela.
To buy, uthuma ; to buy for, uthumela.
The passive of this form refers to the person, etc., to, for, from, with, etc., which the action is done; and means, to have such a thing done to, for, with, etc., the person, etc.
II. The verb is made causative by changing the final a into iha. If the termination of the simple verb be ua, the causative sometimes makes ula, and sometimes usha:
To increase, uthepa; to make to increase, uthepiha.
To grow less, uvuhua ; to make to grow less, uvukula.
To be angry, uihanala ; to make angry, uiha-naliha.
To climb, uwela ; to make to climb, uweliha.
To go out, uhuma ; to make to go out, uhumiha.
To go down, ulcurua; to make to go down, uJcuruslia.
To change, urulcunua; to make to change, uruhumsha.


68
VERB3.
III. A passive or quasi-gerundive form is made by the use of the termination eci in place of the final a.
To cheat, wothothci; to be cheated, wothothea. To cut, uthikila ; to bo cut, uthikilea.
To find, wona ; to be to be found, wonea.
To hear, uwiwa ; to be to be heard, uwiwanea. To increase, woncherera; to be increased, wonchererea.
IV. The verb is made reciprocal by changing the final a into ana.
To hear, uwiwa ; to hear one another, uwiwa-nana.
To love, watha ; to love one another, wathana. To fight, wata ; to fight one another, watana.


VERBS.
69
LIST OF VERBS.
In the Makua language there is no hu- prefix as in Swahili, Yao, Shambala, Nyamwezi, etc., to signify the to of the infinitive mood. Most Makua verbs begin with the letter u. Thus, to do in Makua is upanga.
Abhor, unanarela.
Abide, uhalathi.
Able, To be, woria: urochiha.
Abound with, ujara.
Abstain from, uhapua.
Abuse, uruana.
Accept, utuna ; to receive, wakela.
Accompany, utuhanloha.
Accomplish, umalia.
Acpuse, uhihimya.
Accustom, ulemaleliha ; to become used to, ulemalela. Ache, uweria ; my head is aching, mum unoweria. Acquit, uhia.
Act, upanga.
Add to, uoncherera.
Admire, utuna.
Admit, ugeliha.
Adorn, moarara.
Adultery, To commit, ulura.
Advance (money, etc.), uhopiha.


70
VERBS.
Advise, uvaha mashauri.
Adze, uthokola.
Afflict, uhuviha.
Afraid, To be, wova.
Agree, wirana.
Aim, To take, ulika.
Alarm, wopopiha ; to be alarmed, ukelia ulata. Alienated, To be, uhiana.
Alter, urukunusha (neut.).
Amazed, To be, uthikina.
Angry, To be, uthunala; to make angry, uthunaliha. Annoy, uhuviha.
Answer, wakula.
Appear, wonelela.
Approach, watama.
Approve, utuna.
Arise, uroa.
Arrange, urehereriha.
Arrive, upiya; to make to arrive, upiha; to reach a person, ukipwanya.
Ascend, uwela. .
Ascertain, uchuhelesha.
Ashamed, To be, ulia muru; to make ashamed, umhela mcheche.
Ask, ukoha; to ask for, uvekela ; to make enquiries on behalf of, umkohera ; to ask in marriage, uveka. Assemble, wokela; wokelana (neut.).
Astonish, umtikinachiha; to be astonished, uthikinacha. Attack, ushenga.
Attempt, ulika.
Attend, ulita (i.e. wait upon).
Audible, To be, wiwanana.
Avail, uloka.
Avoid, uhapua.
Awake, wuwa ; to waken, umusha (act.).
Aware, To become, ushurimuka.


VERBS.
71
Backbite, wotheria.
Bake, wosha ; to bake pottery, upaha.
Banish, womola.
Bar, utea.
Bark, unla.
Bask in the sun, wotela nchua.
Bathe, urapa.
Be, ukala.
Bear (fruit, children, etc.), uyara; carry, uhusJia;
tolerate, uvilela ; bear witness, wonechesha.
Beat, wata; beat to pieces, uwota; beat a roof, upa-pata ; beat a drum, wopa.
Beckon, uvela.
Beg, uvelcela.
Beget, uyara.
Begin, upachera.
Behave, upanga.
Belch, uhanana.
Bend, upinda ; to bend down, uromiha.
Benumb, uhwita.
Beware, uwechechesya.
Bewitch, uloha.
Bind, utuha.
Bite, uluma.
Bitter, To be, uwawa.
Blaze, uparela.
Bleed, ukuma ikomi.
Blind, To be, upweya.
Blossom, uhala ituwa.
Blow, as the wind, uruma ; to blow with the mouth, uchelela ; to blow the nose, uutha mamila.
Boast, wihimeacha.
Boil (bubble up), uvilua ; to cook by boiling, wapea ;
to be cooked by boiling, utokota.
Border, weshana mwinano.
Born, To be, uyaria.


72
VERBS.
Borrow, washimia.
Bother, uhuviha.
Bow, woromiha (act.), woroma (neut.).
Box the ears, umwata ninthatha.
Break, upwesha (act.), upwea (neut.); to break through, utemula.
Breathe, umumula.
Breed, uyara.
Brilliant, To be, wonela.
Bring, uwiha; to bring to or for, uwihera ; to bring up, ulela.
Bruise, uvyonola; to be bruised, uvyonyoa.
Brush, uhukuta.
Bud, upua.
Build, utheha.
Burden, To be a, ulemela.
Burn, uparela ; to set on fire, uparehela.
Burst, uparua.
Bury, uvitha.
Buy, uthuma; to buy for, uthumela; to buy back, wopola.
Buzz, urithima.
Cackle, utetera: urotoTca.
Call, wihana. *
Calm, To be, umala ; to make calm, umaliha.
Can (to be able), woria ; I cannot, ahinoria; I can, Tcinooria.
Care (take care of), uweha; to take care, uwehechecha ; to consider, upwela ; I dont care, pahi.
Carry, uhusha; to carry for, uhushera; to carry (a baby on the back), umyara; to carry off as spoil, uvara.
Cast, uriha ; to cast at, urihela.
Catch, ukapula; to catch in a trap, urea; to catch fish, umenja ihnpa.


VERBS.
73
Cease, ukoma; to make to cease, ukomiha; to cease (talking, etc.), umala.
Change, urukunusha (act.); urukunua (neut.).
Charge, ulehera.
Chase, ulupata ; to chase away, womola.
Chastise, utarusha.
Cheat, wothotha; to be cheated, wothothea.
Chew, ukura.
Chirrup, uchonya.
Choke, wama.
Choose, uthanla.
Chop up, uthakacha.
Circulate (news, etc.), uwanheliha.
Circumcise, winela.
Clap the hands, ukwata.
Claw, uwarakula.
Clean, ureriha.
Clear (to make plain), umhimeresha ; to clear (ground in a forest, etc.), uvera; to clear a path by laying aside the grass, uhata.
Cleave, uparula ; to cleave to, uvarechesya.
Climb, uwela.
Close: the eyes, etc., upithiha; the fist, uhurua; a book, ukunela.
Clotlie, wariha ; to put on clothes, uwara.
Cold, To be, uriria ; to feel cold, wona uriria.
Collect, ukela (act.), ukelana (neut.).
Comb, uvacha.
Come, ua; to come to, uwela; to come out, uroa ; to come in, ukela; to come upon (meet with), up-wanya; to come near, watama; to come to life again, uhihimwa; to come to an end, ukoma; to arrive, upiya.
Comfort, umaliha ; to be comforted, umalihea. Command, ulamula.
Complete, wiraniha ; to be complete, wiranihea.


74
VERBS.
Comprehend, uclmwela.
Conceal, uvitha ; to be concealed, uvithia.
Confident, To be, ukuluvela.
Confound, utakaniha.
Connect, uparana.
Conquer, uvelaveliha, uvelavelihia (pass.).
Consent, utuna.
Consider, wupuwela.
Console, umaliha.
Construct, utheka.
Consult, upanga mashauri.
Consume, upaha.
Continue, upicha; to make to continue, upichiha. Contract, ukula ; to shorten, ukuveha.
Contradict, uvaniha.
Control, utielela.
Convert, urukunusha ; to turn, urukunua.
Cook, wapea; to cook with fat, warika; to bake, wosha ; to become cooked properly, utokota. Corrupt, uhononacha, uhononea (neut.); to go bad, untwa.
Cough, ukothomola.
Count, walakela, walakelea (neut.).
Cover, ukunela.
Crack, upanga mnyate. *
Crawl, wapacha. #
Create, wupa.
Cross, ulapua.
Crow, wipa.
Crumble, utikita.
Crush, uwota ; to crush up, uhekaheka.
Cry, wunla ; to cry about, wunlela.
Cultivate, ulima.
Cure, uwoniha, uwona.
Curse, umlapa ; to be cursed, ulapea.
Cut, uthikila; to be cut, uthikilea; to cut for, uthi-kilela ; to cut up, uparula.


VERBS.
75
Destroy, uhononacha.
Dance, utwela.
Dare, woria.
Daub, uhika; to daub on, uhikela.
Dawn, ujpachosha.
Deceive, wothoiha ; to be deceived, wothothea (neut.). Decide, uthikila malove.
Decrease, uwukula (act.), uwukua (neut.).
Defend, ulita.
Delay, upicha (neut.).
Deliver, wapula ; to be delivered, wapulea.
Demand, utuna (?).
Deny, ukota; to deny to a person, uthuwia.
Depart, uroa.
Deride, uthea.
Descend, ukuruwa.
Describe, ulepa.
Desert, uhia.
Desire, utuna.
Despise, uveha.
Detain, upichiha.
Die, ukwa ; to make to die, umwiva ; to lose by death, ukwelia.
Dig, uthipa.
Dignify, ulemiliha ; to become dignified, ulemela.
Dij), uruwea.
Direct, ulehera.
Disagree, uwana.
Disembowel, upula.
Disgrace, umhela mcheche.
Disgust, unanarela.
Dish up, uvanla.
Disquiet, uhuviha ; to be disquieted, uhuva.
Disobey, uhirumia.
Disorder, uthipula ; to be in disorder, uthipulia. Distort, unyopotola; to be distorted, unyopotoa.


76
VERBS.
Distribute, umeaniha.
Drive, unela.
Divide, umeaniha.
Do, upanga ; to be done, upangea (neut.).
Doubt, uhuva ; there is no doubt, kavo uhuva.
Doze, uhichiva; to wake up suddenly from a doze, uthuthua.
Drag, upurula.
Draw (water), urika; t draw near, watama; to draw a line, upanga mthethela; to draw breath, uhihimeria; to draw up the earth round plants, ukunjerera; to draw the end of the loin cloth between the legs and tuck it in, uwara mgonda.
Dread, wova.
Dream, umela.
Dress, uwara ikuo ; to dress up, wipapa.
Drink, uria.
Drip, utonya.
Drive (to lead, conduct), uholehiha; to drive as a shepherd, ushunga ; to drive away, womola.
Drop, uwuluwa (neut.), uwulusha (act.).
Drop into, uwuluwela.
Drunken, To be, uhapaliha.
Dry, wuma (neut.), wumiha (act.); to put out to dry, wanea. '
Dust, ukukuta mtukuruku.
Dwell, ukala.
Earn, upata.
Ease ones self, unya.
Eat, ulia; to eat for, ulielia; to be eaten or eatable, ulea ; to over-eat ones self, wipelia.
Educate, wituchiha.
Embark, uwela.
Employ, uruma.
Empty out, uriha.


VERBS.
77
Enable, woriha.
Encamp, urula.
End, umala (neut.).
Endure, upicha.
Enervate, ushokoiha.
Enjoy, utelia.
Enlarge, wonjerera.
Enough, To be, uthosha.
Enquire, uhoha.
Enslave, uhelia mu potani.
Enter, ukela.
Entreat, uvekela.
Entrust, weshera.
Equalize, ulikaniha.
Err, uwonia.
Escape, wapua.
Exalt, winula.
Exceed, uvira.
Exchange, wakakaniha.
Excuse, uhia.
Exercise, ulemela.
Exhort, woniha.
Expect, walita.
Exgel, womola.
Explain, uthapula.
Extend, wokola (act.).
Extinguish, utipiha ; to go out, utipea.
Extol, ushipa.
Fade, uma; to grow weak and thin, ushokoia wukua. Faint, ukomoa.
Fall, ulua; to fall into, uluwela; to let fall into, uluweliha ; to fall in, upomoa; to fall sick, uwereia. Fan, upepetela.
Fast, utuka.
Fasten, utuka.


78
VERBS.
Fatten, uneneva (neut.).
Fatigue, wocheha ; to be fatigued, wochea.
Fear, wova.
Feed, uliha.
Feel, wona.
Feign, wipanga.
Fell, uthekila.
Ferment, uchasha.
Ferry, ulapusha.
Fetch, uwiha.
Fight, umanana.
Fill, uchariha; to become full, nchara; to be full, to have had enough, urupala.
Find, wona; to be to be found, wonea.
Finish, umaliha (act.), umala (neut.); to finish off, urehereria; to finish a journey, upia.
Fire (to set on fire), uhela moro ; to apply fire in any way, upaha.
Fish, umenja ihopa.
Fit, uloka.
Fix, uparelela.
Flame, upara.
Flash (to lighten), uverunya.
Flay, ukava.
Flee, utiawa.
Flexible, To be, uhongomana. #
Float, urapela,
Flinch, wova.
Flourish, ukonda.
Flow, uvira.
Flower, ukuma ithuthu.
Fly, uvava.
Fold, upinda.
Follow, utara.
Forbid, ulumela.
Force, uhela ikuru.


VERBS.
79
Forge, uhana yuma.
Forget, uliyala.
Forgive, uhiera.
Forsake, uhia.
Free, uhia unethi.
Frighten, woviha.
Frown, uwiha mahinyari.
Fry, werilca.
Fulfil, umaliha.
Gain, upata impumi.
Gape, wiria muria.
Gather, urukula; to gather together, wukela.
Get, upata; to get better, uwona; to get drunk, uhapalia; to get dry, wuma ; to get for, upatela; to get goods on credit, ukopa ; to get into, ukela; to get out, ukuma; to get ripe, utokota; to get through, upwaha; to get up, uroa; to get upon, uwela.
Give (a thing), ukumiha; to give to a person, uvaha; to give back, uhokoleshera; to give trouble, uhuviha.
Glide, uthereria.
Glitter, utela.
Glorify, ushipa.
Gl<\w, ung'ala.
Go, wetha ; to go for, wethela ; to go ashore, ukochera ; to go away, uroa; to go away from, uhia ; to go back, uhokolea; to go bad, wunta; to go before, uholela; to go by, uvira ; to go crooked, urukureria; to go into, ukela; to go on board, uwela; to go over, ulapua; to go running, wetha uwakuvacha.
Govern, ukeli inupa.
Grasp, uvara.
Greedy, To be, ukalia milili.
Grieve, umchukuliha (act.), umchukula (neut.).


80
VERBS.
Grin, ushenya mino.
Grind, ushila.
Groan, wipulela.
Grow, uloha; to become large, unua; of plants, umea; to become full grown, ukomala; to grow fat, uneneva; to grow thin, wota; to grow less, ukua ; to make to grow up, unuwiha.
Grumble, utokuta.
Guard, ushunga.
Guess, wanihera.
Guide, uihonya.
Halt, urula ; to go lame, utembela.
Hammer, ukomela.
Hang, wanea; to be suspended, utukelela; to hang up, uthomea ; to strangle, unyopotola.
Harass, ulmviha ; to be embarrassed, uhuva.
Harm, upwerera.
Hasten, wakuviha (act.), wakuva (neut.).
Hatch, uthatha ; to break the egg, uthothola.
Hate, unanarela.
Have, ukala na.
Heal, uwoniha ; to be healed, wiwanea.
Hear, wiwa; to hear one another, wiwanana ; to be to be heard, wiwanea. '
Hearken, wiwelela. (
Heat (get hot), upata mtukuta.
Help, ukaviha.
Hesitate, wuma uwanoni.
Hide, uvitha.
Hinder, utiyelela.
Hit, wata.
Hoarse, To be, ulala nlowe.
Hoe, ulima ; to hoe up, weslia matuto.
Hoist, uthomea.
Hold, uvara.


VERBS.
81
Hollow out, uwuTiula.
Honour, ulemeliha.
Hope, ukuluvela.
Humble ones self, wiyeviha.
Humble, uyeviha.
Hunger, wolia ithala.
Hunt, ulupata.
Hurt, uluma, uweria (act.).
Husk (of Indian corn, etc.), uhahata.
Ill, or unwell, To be, uwereia.
Imitate, utara.
Immerse, uruwea.
Imprecate against, ulapiha.
Imprison, utuka.
Incline, woroma (neut.), woromiha (act.).
Increase, woncherera (act.), wonchererea (neut.). Indebted, To be, wulumihia.
Indulge in, ulemaleliha.
Ingratiate ones self, wipwaneliha.
Inhabit, uhalathi.
Inquire, wavia.
Instruct, wetujiha.
Insult, uruwana.
Inter, uvitha.
Intoxicate, uhapaliha; to become intoxicated, uha~ palia.
Invite, wihana ; to invite to come in, uwihanela.
Itch, unena.
Jam, uhordmela.
Jest, uhewulacha.
Join, uluta (act.); ulutana (neut.).
Judge, wdkanyulaniha.
Jump, uvava.
G


82
VERBS.
Keep, wesha; to take care of, ushunga; to hold, uwara; to keep (animals), uhuwa; to keep from, uhapuwiha.
Kick, wata ninyao.
Kill, wiva ; to kill for food, uhitha.
Kind, To be, upanga cho urera.
Knead, uwota.
Kneel, ulcoroma.
Knock, watakela.
Know, uchuela ; I know where he is, kihochuela uri-awe; I know how to speak the language of Zanzibar, kihochuela ulamacha imaka ; I can do blacksmiths work, kihochuela uhana; to recognize, uchuela ; to be knowable, uchuelachia; to make to know, uchueliha ; to become known, uwanela.
Lace (the rope of a bedstead), uranda.
Lacerate, wahula.
Lame, To be, utumbela.
Last, ulipa.
Laugh, uthea.
Lay, uhela; to lay down, wathalela; to lay eggs, urela 'moche ; to lay open, ukunula.
Lazy, To be, ukalorushia.
Lead, wokola ; to lead astray, wonyiha.
Leak, uwuva.
Lean upon, withokochira.
-, To be, wota.
Learn, wituchiha.
Leave, uhia ; to leave to, uhiyera ; to be left, uhala ; to take leave of, uleha; to leave one another, ulehana.
Leaven, uchukumala.
Lend, washima.
Lessen, uwukula.
Level, urehereria.


VERBS.
83
Liberate, uthapula.
Lick, ulatha.
Lie: to tell falsehoods, wotha; to lie down, uyatha-lela ; to lie heavy on, ulemela ; to lie in wait for, ulohera.
Lift, winula.
Light, unena.
Like, utuna.
Liken, ulataniha.
Linger, upicha.
Listen, wiwelela.
Live (stay, or, be), ukalala; to be alive, ukala mkumi.
Load, umkucJiiha ; to load a gun, uhelela.
Long for, umirieria ukwilu.
Look, uweha ; to look out, or look carefully, uwehe-rera; to look for, uwavia; to look after, uthoko-reria.
Loose, uthapula.
Lose (to be lost to), urimela; I have lost my knife, mwalo uhokirihia.
Love, utuna.
Magnify, usTiipa.
MakS, upanga; to create, wupa; to make for, upa-irujela; to make sorry, uchukuliha; to make to agree, wiraniha ; to make to enter, ukeliha.
Mark, uhela alama.
Marry : of the husband, uthela ; of the wife, uthelia ; of the couple, uthelana; of the parents, utheliha. To ask in marriage, uveka.
Mean, umwayina.
Measure, upima.
Mediate, wakanyulaniha.
Meet, wonana ; to meet with, upwanya.
Melt, uthothoa (neut.), uthothosha (act.).


84
VERBS.
Mend, upangacha; to sew up, utotelela.
Mention, uromola.
Milk, wama.
Mind (take care of), uthokoreria.
Mingle, uthakaniha ; to be mingled, uthakanihea.
Miss, uwonya.
Mislead, uriha.
Mock, utara.
Molest, upacha.
Mount, uwela.
Mourn, ukala mariro.
Move, uchusherera (neut.), uchusherilia (act.); to shake, utikinya ; to change the place of dwelling, uthama ; to cause to remove, uthamiha.
Multiply, uthepiha.
Murder, wiva.
Murmur, utokuta.
Name, uromola.
Need, utuna.
Neglect, uhiyerera.
Nod (doze), uhichila.
Noise, To make a, unyakula.
Nourish, uliha.
Nurse, ulela.
Nudge, ukaka.
Obey, urumela.
Object to, uhituna.
Obstruct, ukotiha.
Offend, uihunaliha.
Offer to, ukumihera.
Old (to grow), wuluwala.
Omit, uhia.
Open, ukunula (act.).
Opposite, To be, watamela.


VERBS.
85
Oppress, upacha.
Order, ulehera; to put in order, urehereria.
Over-eat ones self, wipelia.
Overfeed, wipeliha.
Overflow, uminea.
Oversee, wemelela.
Overturn, urukunusha ; to be overturned, urukunua. Owe, wulumihia.
Pain, uwerea.
Pardon, uhiera.
Pass, uvira; to make to pass, uviriha; to pass through, upwaha; to pass over (of a river), ulapuha; to be passable, wetea.
Pasture, ushunga.
Patient, uvelela.
Pay, uliva ; to pay to, ulivela.
Peel, ukakata.
Peep, uthurumela.
Pelt, uwonyera.
Perfect, wiraniha ; to be perfected, wiranea.
Perforate, utemlacha.
Perplex, utapaniha.
Persecute, womola.
Pei*spire, ukuma mtukuta.
Persuade, uthepia.
Pick, urukula; to pick out, uthanla; to pick up, urokota.
Pinch, uthina.
Place, wesha.
Plait, utava.
Plant, wala.
Plaster, umara.
Play, uihwela ; to play upon an instrument, wopa. Please, upwanela; to be pleased, upwanelia.
Pluck (feathers, etc.), unyochola.


86
VERBS
Plug Tip, utiyela.
Plunder, uvara.
Point, uthokola.
Polish, ukuta.
Possess, uvaria.
Possible, To be, worea.
Pottery, To make, wupa.
Pound, wotawota; to clean corn by pounding, uthitha. Pour, umina; to pour away, uriha.
Practise, wilimaliliha.
Praise, ushipa.
-ones self, wishipa.
Pray, uvekela.
Precede, uholela.
Precipitous, To be, uthokolea.
Pregnant, To be, ukala nerukulu.
Prepare, wesha kalairu.
Press, utinyeririha; to press out, wama; to press heavily upon, ulemela; to press against one another, uthukumala.
Pretend to be, wipanga.
Prevent, utielela.
Proclaim, uwaneliha.
Prohibit, wulomela.
Profit, upata impumi.
Prop up, withokocheriha.
Provoke, uthunaliha.
Puff (to be puffed up), uthamalea.
Pull, upurula; to pull out, upela ; to be pulled out, upelia.
Punish, utarusha.
Purify, ureriha.
Pursue, utara.
Push, ukaka.
Put, uhela ; to put across, ulapusha; to put a pot on the fire, wapea ; to put down, urula; to put on


VERBS.
87
(clothes), uwara; to put out (fire, etc.), utipiha; to put to rights, urehereria; to put through, upwahiha.
Putrify, unta.
Quake, uihuhumela.
Quarrel, wana.
Quiet, umaaliha.
Quench, uthipiha.
Race, ukotholana.
Rain, urupa.
Raise, uthesha.
Ransom, wopola.
Raw, To be made, uthunyua.
Reach (arrive at), upia; to reach a person, wpiela;
to cause to reach, upiha.
Read, ushoma ; to teach to read, ushomiha.
Reap, uthikila.
Rear, ulela.
Rebel, umrela.
Rebuke, wulumela.
Receive, wakela; to accept, utuna; to receive for some one else, wakelela.
Reckon, walakela.
Incline, wiyokola.
Recognize, uchuela ; to be recognizable, uchuonea. Recollect, wupuwela.
Reconcile, wiraniha.
Reflect, upuwela.
Refuse, ukota ; to refuse to, uthua.
Regret, uchukula.
Reign, ukela inupa.
Reject, ukota.
Rejoice, utelia (neut.), uteliha (act.).
Release, uhia.


88
VERBS.
Remain, ukala ; to be left, uhala.
Remember, wupuwela.
Remind, wupuweliha.
Remove, urochiha.
Rend, warakula ; to be rent to pieces, uthalachatho-lacha.
Repent, utarua.
Reply, wakula.
Repay, uliva.
Reproach, urela.
Rescue, wapula.
Resemble, ulikana ; to make to resemble, ulikaniha. Rest, witua (neut.), wituwiha (act.).
Restore, urokolosha.
Resuscitate, uhihimwiha.
Return, uhokolea.
Reveal, ukunula.
Reverse, urukunusha.
Revive, ulama.
Ride upon, uwela.
Ridicule, uhemulacha.
Ripen, uthokota.
Rise (ascend), uwela; to get up, uroa ; to rise to (i.e.
out of respect to), uroela.
Roar, wipa.
Roast, wosha.
Rob, uiera ; take by force, uchomola.
Roll, upikirisha (act.), upikiria (neut.).
Rot, unta.
Round, To be, uvilikea.
Rouse, wusha.
Rub, ukuta; to rub to pieces, utikita; to rub in ointment, etc., uhika.
Ruin, urihiha.
Rule, ukela inupa.
Ruminate, uchukula.


Full Text

PAGE 1

COLLECTIONS FOR A HANDBOOK OF THE M A K U A LANGUAGE.

PAGE 3

COLLECTIONS FOR .A. HANDBOOK OF THE MAKUA LANGUAGE. BY CHAUNCY MAPLES, M.A .. CHAPLAIN TO BISHOP STEERE. LONDON: SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE ; NORTHUMBERLAND A VENUE, CHARING CROSS; 4, ROYAL EXCHANGE; AND 481 PICCADII.LY.

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LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, ST.AMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS, ..... ( .,-;---... __ ... 1..'-...J '' ._., '\ .... "" \ c.. ' v:/ ... .. :} ... . .------.. -

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INTRODUCTION. THE Makua language is a step further from Swahili than Y ao, and is on the whole far more difficult i o acquire upon the basis of a knowledge of Swahili. In Makua some very mar ked characteristics are met with which are entirely without parallel in Swahili and its allied languages, and there are certain pecu liarities of enunciation and accent very difficult for a foreigner to catch up. Whereas Makuas can always speak the neighbouring tongues, Yaos and other bordering tribes never seem able to talk Makua. It is classed by Dr. Bleek, in his "Comparative Grammar of South African Languages," as belonging to what he terms the middle branch of the Bantu family, and in that branch to the southern genus of its eastern portion, under which he includes the dialects of 'rete, Sena, Lorenzo Marques, Inham bane, Sofala, ,Quilimane, Makua, Cape Delgado, and Maravi. The simpler classification of Frederich Muller ("Allgemeine Ethnographie ") places it in the Zam bezi branch of the eastern group of Bantu languages.

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. VI INTRODUCTION. Dr. Peters' vocabularies of Mo<;ambique dialects, which were compiled thirty years ago at that town, contain a tolerably long list of Makua words which differ but slightly from the present "Collections." It is much to be desired that a complete "Grimm's law" be drawn up for the Bantu tongues. Dr. Bleek has already effected something towards it in the table he has put forth exhibiting the phonetic changes or permutations of sounds in some of the principal members of the group. The following list of substantives will serve to show some of the more important variations in the phonology of Makua and Swahili-SwAHILI. MAKUA. ENGLISH. Mfuko rnhuko a bag. Matumbo marupo stomach. Galawa kalawa canoe. Mafuta makura oil. Nguo ikuo cloth. Mtima heart mnma Mag a no makano agreement. Ngoma ikoma drum. Tembo itepo elephant. Masindano. mashindano contest. From this list it will appear that the mb of Swahili becomes p in Makua, the t becomes r, the ng becomes k, the f becomes either h or k, and so on. It is also important to observe that the s of Swahili and

PAGE 7

.. INTRODUCTION. Vll kindred languages becomes in Makua sh invariably, while the hard ch almost invariably becomes sh. As the English th represents the t of Sanskrit, Greek, or Latin, so in Makua th represents the t of the neigh bouring tongues. Whatever may be the ultimate explanation of this phonetic variation in the languages of Aryan descent, the reason of it in Makua is not far to seek. It is pretty evident that the Makua custom of filing the front teeth to a point is the true explanation of this variation, just as a similar custom in the case of the Otyi-herero tribe is believed to be the true and really scientific solution of a sin1ilar phonological problem. It is also highly probable that the Makua lip-ring, which is only worn by women, has played a consider able part in modifying the phonology of the language as spoken by the female members of the tribe. While to the same cause is due the excessive nasal ization that is so-apparent in this and all languages of tribes where this custo1n is prevalent. Although d finds no place in Makua, the strongly trilled r, following upon n, has often the sound of a d before it. Thus, nrata sounds very like ndrata when uttered emphatically; but in truth nothing but emphasis will account for a d in this word, inas1nuch as it is a dental entirely absent from the language except in this particular connection. It is not an integral part of the word, and its occurrence finds an exact parallel in the Greek &.vopos, and the

PAGE 8

Vlll INTRODUCTION. English, thunder tender ; the insertion of the dental in these words being, as is well known, an assistance to their pronunciation, but etymologically unconnected with them. Although the distinction between l and r is well defined amongst the Makuas, their language exhibits great uncertainty as to the difference between land n. The one letter is often made to do duty for the other, while a Makua speaking the Yao tongue will always confuse the common verbal terminations ele and ene. The l of the Kafir language is n in Makua, although its equivalent in nearly all the other tongues of the same branch is r. Another characteristic of the phonology of the Makua language is its large use of the aspirate, which finds no place in Yao, and but a comparatively subordinate one in the adjacent dialects. To turn from the sound of Makua words to the grammar of the language, it is to be observed that there is on the whole far less to confuse and perplex a foreigner than in Y ao. Thus the changes a verb undergoes in its various moods and tenses are for the most part as plain and straightforward as in Swahili. The letter n does not appear to work so many changes, but is altogether firmer than it is in Yao, while the perfect tense is simply formed by a syllable pre fixed to the root of the verb after the personal prefix. There appear to be not less than nine classes of substantives, if, indeed, that be their extreme limit. The

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. INTRODUCTION. IX adjectives are, as might be expected, very few in number. There is a small number of words in Makua identical with Swahili, and a somewhat larger number that are either borrowed from Yao or have been given to that language. The Makuas are a very large and extensive tribe, inhabiting the country that lies at the back ofMo<;ambique, stretching inland for several hundreds of miles. Here they swarm and build large towns, but a considerable number of the tribe have detached themselves from time to time from the main body and spread to the north, settling, at various spots, on the Rovuma, both above and below its junction with the Lojenda. They have driven scattered bands of Mweras and other tribes from places, and have taken possession of the country. These "Collections" give a key to the Makua tongue as spoken on the Rovuma and at Masasi, and probably contain some words that more properly belong to Yao. The Makuas, as I have known them at Masasi, seem to be a very domestic and peace-loving people compared with the Y aos : there is more of a home life amongst ?them, and little desire for trading with the coast or for becoming more civilized, They seem quite untainted by coast influences, and, though somewhat superstitious, have adopted none of the so-called Islamism which many of the Yaos have freely im bibed. At J\iasasi no Yao will touch pig's flesh. 1The Makuas delight in it. The Yaos deem their

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X INTRODUCTION. }fakua neighbours an inferior race, and even the Makuas themselves appear to consider the Yaos a quicker witted and more civilized people. Be this how it may, it is an undoubted fact that the Makuas are not equal to the Yaos in any of the native industrial works, such as iron-working, basketmaking, and pottery : in these arts the Y aos are allowed, on all hands, to surpass their neighbours. Like the Yaos, the J\Iakua tribe has supplied a very large number of slaves to the ma:rket, and there can be little doubt that at one time the tribe was a far larger and more powerful one than at present. My instructor in lVIakua was a lad about eighteen years old, who had been resident at Masasi some seven or eight years before our mission station was plan ted there. He was a Makua by birth, had been carried away captive in one of the petty wars, and had lived in. a state of nominal slavery ever since. At the time he undertook to help me, he had been in our school two years, and had a very good know ledge of Swahili, understanding well most of the words in our translations of the Scriptures. Being at the same time able to read and spell quite easily, he was able to spell for me all the Makua words he gave me, the sound of which I was not always able to catch without this assistance. Had he remembered more of his own language, I could have put forth these "Collections" with more confidence. As it is, I am conscious that there may be much incorrectness and

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. INTRODUCTION. x1 still more incompleteness. The young lad who thus enabled me to compile these pages was baptized at Masasi on Christmas Day, 1878,-the first convert from heathenism in the district,-after showing an earnestness of purpose and excellence of behaviour during the whole period of his probation, that made the day of his baptism a day of thankfulness and joy for all who knew him. Amongst many curious pieces of information I gathered from him as to the manners, customs, and beliefs of his tribe, I was told that all the J\iakuas had a belief in the resurrection of both body and soul, and that the word uhihimwa expressed this belief. Since the Makuas have had but little intercourse with Arabs, and thus little connection with Mohammedanism, this looks like a primitive belief; although it is just possible that it may be connected with the teaching of Portuguese missionaries, who in the past came into contact with the tribe. Anyhow, the belief itself is amongst the Makuas an universal one, and connects itself with the dances and games they celebrate after the death of one of their number for the repose of his soul. From the position of the country now occupied by the Makua tribe, it is clear that they cannot now be much longer without missionaries. Already the advanced posts of our Central African mission are situated in the midst of Makuas, ,while there is scarcely a spot on the banks of the Rovu1na where they are not to be found.

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.. Xll INTRODUCTION. The study of the Makua language, therefore, becomes an important thing, if not a necessity, to mission aries desiring to carry the gospel to the next stage beyond Masasi. It is hoped that these vocabularies may be a help to the mastery of an African tongue, by no means the easiest for a foreigner to acquire. CHAUNCY MAPLES. MASASI, January, 1879.

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COLLECTIONS FOR A HANDBOOK OF THE MAKUA LANGUAGE. THE ALPHABET. As a rule, the vowels must be pronounced as in Italian, and the consonants as in English . A is pronounced like the a in father. B, as in English. CH, as the Italian c in ci or ce, or as the English ch in cherry. E, as the a in late. G, always to be pronounced hard, as in gate. H, always strongly aspirated, as in house. I, like ee in sleep. J, as in English, e.g. just. K, as in English, e.g. keep. N if prefixed to K changes the two into NG. L, as the English l, e.g. like. M, as in English, e.g. rnuch. N, as in English, e.g. not. 0, like oa in roar. P, as in English, e.g. paper. B

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2 THE ALPHABET. I R, a strongly trilled r, as in the French rien. If tho r follows an n the trill is so strong that it is difficult to say whether a d does or does not intervene; e.g. nrata, nroe, which might be written ndrata, ndroe. S, not used except in conjunction with h, when it is to be snunded like the English sh, e.g. shirt. T, like the English t, e.g. teach. Th is of very constant occurrence in Makua, and is sounded by pressing the flat of the tongue against the front teeth of the upper jaw, with its tip slightly projected beyond them, and then bringing it away sharply so as to give the effect of an explosive letter. U, ljke the oo in fool. V, like the English v jn very .. W, like the w in will. Y, like the English consonant in you.

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( 3 ) SUBSTANTIVES. MAKUA nouns have two numbers, singular and plural, which are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon the form of the substantives depend the forms of adjectives, pronouns, and verbs governed by them. Makua substantives may be divided in to nine classes, according to their initial letters, and the changes which they undergo in forming the plurals. I. Words beginning with m, being the names of living creatures. These become plural by changing minto a. Mtu = a person ; atu = persons. II. Words beginning with m, for the most part not the names of living creatures. These are made plural by changing rn into mi. Mshamiro = a pillow ; mishamiro = pillows. III. Words beginning with na and ka. These are made plural by prefixing a. Nakuo =a cob of Indian corn; anakuo =cobs of Indian corn. IV. Words beginning with n or ni before a con sonant. In the plural then becomes ma. Ntinji = an island ; matinji = islands. V. Words beginning with u, which for the most part are abstract nouRs and verbal substantives.

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4 SUBSTANTIVES. 'rhe plurals change the u into ma; and when the final letter is a in the singular, it becomes 0 in the plural. Uthakala = an evil ; mathakalo = evils. VI. Words beginning with mwa. The plurals change the mwa into ashi, and insert ani before the next vowel. Mwamunku =a caterpillar; ashimiunku =caterpillars. VII. Words beginning with i which do not change in the plural. Most words introduced into the language from foreign sources belong to this class. Ihatha = a claw ; ihatha = cia ws. VIII. Words beginning with yo. The plurals change yo into cho. Yolia =food ; cholia =foods. IX. Words beginning with va and vo, mostly con nected with the idea of place. The plurals change va into m, vo into mo. Vachitu = place ; mchitu = places. Locality is expressed by the use of three prefixes, together with the suffix ni. 1. m, mu, denoting within, to or from within. Mmashini. 2. u, denoting motion to, or at (of a place far off). Umashini = to the water. 3. va, denoting at, near, or before. Vamashini =at the water.

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SUBSTANTIVES. LIST OF SUBSTANTIVES. Abhorrence, ukinanarela. Ability, woria. Abscess, yowipa ; pl. chowipa. Abundance, winchi. Acceptance, utuna. Accident, kihimwaini ; kihuiraukusera. Accounts, walakera; pl. walakero. Accusation, uhimiacha; pl. mahimiaclto. Ache, ukiwerea. Action, yowira; pl. chowira. Addition, jumula (Sw.). Adornment, wipapa. Adultery, uluva. Advantage, fayida (Sw. ). Adversity, uhuva. Advice, shauri (Sw.). Affection, utuno. Affliction, uhuva. Age: Wina miaka michano? How old are you? Old age, ushuru pali. Old time, kalai. Agreement, maagano (Sw. ). Aim, ulika. Air, ipio. Alms, ipepa (Sw.). Altar, vantoloni: the place where natives offer their sadaka of corn, etc.. to the Deity. Amusement, wopamwaha.

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94 VERBS. Tickle, uthekinya. Tie, utuka. Tighten, ulipiha. Tipsy, To be, uhapalia. Tire, wochehiha ; to be tired, wochea. Toast, upaha. Torment, utarusha. Totter: tremble, utetemela; to be shaken, uveverua. Touch, ukwakwanya ;, to touch up, urehereria. Track, utara inyao. Trade, uthuma maronda. Train up, ulela. Trample, unyikala. wakakaniha. Trap, urea. Travel, wet a mkwaha. Treat, upangela. Tremble, utetemela .. Trouble, uhuviha ; to be troubled, uhuva. Trust in, ukuluvela. Try, ulika. Tumble, uwuluwa; to tumble into, uwuluwela. Turn, u1ukunusha ( neu t. ), urukunua. Turn aside ( neut. ), unyopotoa. Twist (a rope, etc.), uritha. Unclose, ukunula. Uncomfortable, To be, uhuva. Uncover, ukunula. Understand, uchuela. Undo, uthapula ; to ruin, Unite, uluta. Upset, urukunusha. Urge, ukaka. Urinate, urucha. Use (accustom), ulemaleliha; to become accustomed to, ulemalela.

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Vanish, urihea. Vex, uthunaliha. Visible, To be, wonea. VERBS. Vomit, urapea ; to make to vomit, urapeha. Wait, ulita; to wait for, ulitelela. 95 Wake, uwuwa (neut.), uwusha (act.); to be awake ukala mitho; to wake up suddenly with a start, uthuthua. Walk, weta; to walk about, weta; to walk lame, utumbela. Wander, urukumia. Want (need), utuna. Ward off, uteleria. Warm up, ukutiha. Wash, 'lthapiha ; to wash clothes, upuputa; to wash self, unyawa; to wash one's hands, unyawa mwno. Waste, uhononacha. Watch, wipithela. Water, uhela mashi. Waylay, ulohera. Weaken, ushokoyiha ; to become weak, ushokoya. Wear, uwara; to wear away, uwukuwa. wunla. W upima ; to weigh down, ulemela. Whet, unona. Will, ut,una. Wink, wupila. Wipe, uvuta. vV i ther, unyala. Withhold from, uthua. Witness bear, wonechesya. Wonder, uthikinacha. Work, upanga mitheko. Worry, uhuviha.

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8 SUBSTANTIVES. t,_' Beard, erori. Beast, inama ; pl. inama. Beauty, urera; pl. marero. Bed (for planting potatoes, etc.), ntuto; pl. matu.to. Bedstead, ulili. --legs of, ipata cho mkmi. --side pieces of, miknng'kuti chaia. --head of, wowesha muru. Bee, inui ; pl. inui. Beehive, mchinga ; pl. michinga. Beggar, mtu ola mel a uvekela. Begging, uvekela ; pl. mavekelo. Beginning, mpacho ; pl. m1paclw. Behaviour, mweto; pl. mieto. Good behaviour, wira rata. Ill behaviour, wira chonana'ra. Bell, ikengele ; pl. ikengele. Bellows, mrupa ; pl. mirupa. Belly, marupo. Bend, upinda. Betel leaf, tambun. Bhang, ishuruma. Bier, mtembo; pl. mitembo. Bile, yamwe. Bill (chopper), imbopo ; pl. imbopo. Bird, shanuni; pl. ashanuni. The young of birds, makanda. A small dove, kaula. A crane, chiun kuru ; pl. achiunkuru. A green dove, ikurangu. A Java sparrow, impera. An owl, echichi. Birth, uyaria; pl. mayario. Bitterness, uwawa. Blacksmith, nohana ; pl. ohana (?). Blackwood, ummiko (?). Bladder, ito to hiro. Blade (of grass), inyashi. Blanket, nikapa; pl. makapa. Blindness, olwna.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Blindness of one eye, opwea nito. Blood, ipome ; pl. ipome. Blood-vessel, mtitari; pl. mititari. Blue vitriol, mtrutu. Boards, mapatankwa. Boat, mashua (Sw.). Body, irutu; pl. irutu. Boil, nalipwe ; pl. analipwe. Bone, nikuva ; pl. makuva. Book, napwipwi; pl. anapwipwi. Bother, uthia (Sw.). Bottle, ichorochoro; pl. ichorocho1o. Bottom, vathi. Bough, mwaurita; pl. mirita. Boundary, mwinano; pl. minano. Bow, mura; pl. miura. Bowl (wooden), nipawa; pl. mapawa. 9 Box, ikasha ; pl. ikasha. A small box for lime, mtete ; pl. mitete. Boy, mirao; pl. mirao. Bracelet: of ivory, nikosha; pl. makosha: of brass, nia ; pl. mania. Brains, ukoko. Bran, nankanka ; pl. anankanka. Branch, mwaurita ; pl. mirita. Brass, achikungu. Bra very, ohova, ochacha. Brawler, namrokotole. Bread, mkate; pl. mikate (Sw.). Breakfast, yolia yo hihiu. Breast, vamirimani ; breasts, mapele. Breath, ipumu ; pl. ipumu. Brink, mchereshere; pl. mchereshere. Brook, mwamoloko ; pl. ashimioloko. Broom, mvelo ; pl. mivelo. Brother, mwamunalca mwamlopwana.

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10 SUBSTANTIVES. Brother-in-law, mlamu; pl. amlamu. Wife's brother, arokoro atwa. Husband's brother, arukaralca .. Bubble, niporu ; pl. maporu. Buckler, ichikopa; pl. ichikopa. Buffalo, inari ; pl. inari. Bug, ikukuni. Building, utheka; pl. matheko. Bull, ing' ope. Bullet, ipololo. Bunch, ikonyo; pl. ikonyo. Bundle, mrindi ; pl. rnirindi. Burial-place, vanuvithia. Business, rntheko ; pl. mitheko. Butterfly, ichipepeta; pl. ichipepeta. Buttocks, rnakutu. Buyer, othuma; pl. othuma. Ca:ffre corn, meli. Cake, rnkate ; pl. mikate. --of tobacco, ing'uri. Calabash, rntumba wa mlapa. Calabash tree, mlapa; pl. rnilapa. --pumpkin shell used for water, iku; pl. iku. Calf, rnwang' ope mwamkani. Call, uwihana, mahano ; a cry, unyakula. Camel, ngamira. Cannabis Indica, ishuruma. Cannon, mchinga; pl. rnichinga. Canoe, ikalawa ; pl. ikalawa. Cap, ikopio; pl. ikopio. --of a gun, fataki (Sw.). Capacity, kadri (Sw.). Caravan, urendo. Caravan porter, baharia (Sw.). Carcase, mrutu ; pl. mirutu. Care, ushunga; pl. mashungo. Caution, uweherera; pl. maweherero.

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SUBST .A.NTIVES. Carpenter, uhemachetu ; pl. mahemachetu. Cashew nut, ikachu; pl. ilcachu. Cask, nipipa ; pl. mapipa. Casket, ipache chikani. Cassava, manangwa. Castor oil, makura oparika. --plant, iparika; pl. iparilca. Cat, paka ; pl. apaka. Cattle, ing' ope. --fold, inupa ing' ope. Cause, nioko; pl. maioko. Cave, nikuku ; pl. makuku. Caterpillar, mwamunku; pl. ashimiunku. Centipede, nanrere ; pl. ananrme. Chaff, nankanka ; pl. anankanka. Chain, nyororo, nkulu. Chair, ihiche ; pl. ihiche. Chameleon, nriya; pl. ananriya. Charcoal, makala. Charm, ingirishi ; pl. ingirishi. Chatter, uhiloka. Chatterbox, iyano; pl. iyano. Cheat, upenya; pl. upenya. Check, nrama ; pl. marama. Chest, vamirimani. Chicken, mwalalcu ; pl. achilaku. Chief, amwene ; pl. mamwene. Chiefship, umwene. Child, mwamhima ; pl. achihima. Childhood, unamwene. Choice, utanla ; pl. matanlo. Cinders, makala. Circumstances, nonetu. 11 Civet cat, itulw; pl. ituko. Another kind, nrwani; pl. anrwani. Civilization, unethi.

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12 S UBST .ANTIVES. Clap (of thunder), itari. Claw, ihatha; pl. ihatha. Clay, itaia (?). Clearness, otela. Cleverness, nnema. Cloth, ikuo. Blue calico, namuri. A cloth with a coloured border, ichikoi. A turban cloth, irewani. Clothes, ikuo. Cloud, nihute ; pl. mahute. A rain cloud, nihute no pula. Coals, makala. Coast, umaka.. Language of the coast, imaka. Cob (of Indian corn), nttkuo; pl. anakuo. Cock, mthupi ; pl. mithupi. Cock's comb, ichunjuru yo mthupi. Cockroach, nivepe; pl. mavepe. Cocoanut) mkole; pl. miko'le. --the leaf of, miritehaia. Cold, ipio. A cold in the head, mamila. Colour, rangi. Comb, ivachero ; pl. ivachero. Commission, nleho; pl. maleho. Companion, mkwao; pl. akwao. Company, uloko. Completeness, ukumi. Concealment, mavitho. Conclusion, umaleloaia; pl. mamaleloaia. Concubine, ahano; pl. manyahano. Confidence, makuluvelo. Conscience, mrima ; pl. mirima. Conspiracy, mapatano. Continuance, ukumi. Contract, makano. Cook, notereka ; pl. anotereka. Cooked grain, mrama ; pl. mirama. Cooking-pot (earthen), iopwe; pl. iopwe. Frying-

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SUBSTANTIVES. 13 pan, mivali ; pl. mavali. Stones to set a cooking pot on, matua. Copal, mkumbi. Copper, achikungu. Cork, itielelo; pl. itielelo. Corn (Indian), nakuo; pl. anakuo. Millet, meli. Corner, mnyaka; pl. manyaka. Corpse, mrutu ; pl. mirutu. Corpulence, uritimala. Corruption, younta. Cotton, ntoche. Couch, mkori; pl. mikori. Cough, nikotokoto. Council, vatato. Counsel, mashauri. Country, iwani. Courage, uchacha. Courtesy, umanya. Courtyard, nikure ; pl. mal ure. Covenant, makano. Cover (of a dish), iolcunela. Cow, ing' ope yo mtiana. Coward, owova. Crab, inkala; pl. inlcala. Crack, mnyate ; pl. minyate. Credentials, ichuwelelo: the axe, knife, sword or stick sent by a chief to signify that he is the sender of the message accompanying it. Crocodile, ikonya ; pl. ikonya. Urossways, ipiro cho mwalano. Crossing place, volapua. Crow, nikuku; pl. anakuku. Crowd, uhimane. Cry, ikuto; pl. ikuto. Cucumber, ntanga; pl. matanga, mshirimaka. Cubit, mwono; pl. miono.

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14 SUBST .A.NTIVES. Cultivation, ichirimo. Cul ti va tor, rntu o lirna. Cup, rndumu ; pl. rnidumu. Curry, rnhuji; pl. rnihuji. Cushion, rnshamiro ; pl. rnisharniro. Dance, utwela; pl. rnatwelo. Names of various Makua dances : rnasewe, ipalawala, nikwererna, makuware, nigumbuli, nikwatet. Danger, wopia. Darkness, ipipi. Dawn, wichichuru. Day, nihuku; pl. rnahuku. Time of daylight, uthana. All day, rnchua piro. Daylight, uthana. Death, ukwa. Deceit, rnothacho. Deep waters, vowisha. Defect, uwukuwo. Derision, uheulacha; pl. rnaheulacho. Design, rnwaini ; p 1. miaini. Descent, nku1uo; pl. rnakuruo. Desert, uthako; pl. rnathako. Destruction, uhononea ; pl. rnahononeo. Devil, rninepa. Dew, ukarne; pl. makarne. Dialect, rnolurnacho. Dinner, yolia yo thana. Direction, wituchiha ; pl. metuchiho. Dirt, ikokola. Disease, werea ; pl. rnawereo. Disgust, rnanana1elo. Dish, ikarekare. Disgrace, mcheche ; pl. micheche. Dissipation, warnama; pl. mamamo. Distress, uhuva ; pl. mahuvo.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Disturbance, wapa; pl. mapo. Dog, mwalapwa; pl. achilapwa. Dollar, indarama. Dominion, imwene ; pl. imwene. Donkey, puru ; pl. apuru. Door, mlako; pl. milako. 15 Dove, nchia; pl. machia. Pigeon, ikunda ; pl. ikunda. Dream, uloha; pl. maloho. Dregs, ishenga ; pl. ishenga. Dripping, makura o inama. Drop, itotwa ; pl. itotwa. Drum, ikoma ; pl. ikoma. --when used to call to war, nakwala; pl. anakwala. Drunkard, ohapalia ; pl. ohapalia. Duck, nrata; pl. marata. Dust, matukuruku. Dye, rangi. Dwarf, mtu okuvia. Dysentery, mirimani mokuma ipome. Eagle, nrepo ; pl. marepo. Ear, nyaru; pl. maru. Earth, ilapo. Earthen pots, iopwe; pl. iopwe. For cooking pombe (very large), mtereko ; pl. mitereko. For cooking ugali (small), ikariko ; pl. ikariko. East, uno kuma nchua. Ebony, miko; pl. nimiko. Echo, namalowe; pl. anamalowe. Egg, nyoche; pl. moche. White of egg, yotela yo moche. Yolk of egg, yokwila yo moche. Egg-shell, makotope o moche. Elbow, ikokuno; pl. ikokuno. Elder, ashulupali; pl. ashulupali: owuluwala. Elephant, itepo ; pl. itepo. Emetic, urapia ; pl. marapio.

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16 SUBSTANTIVES. Employment, mleko; pl. miteko. Encampment, vorula; pl. morula. Enclosure, nikure ; pl. makure. Ntenje ; pl. matenJe. Enemy, onioko aka. Entrails, marupo. Entrance, ukela; pl. makelo. Error, uwonya; pl. mawonyo. Esteem, utuna; pl. matuno. Europe, maya. European, Mshungu ; pl. Ashungu. Evening, uchochilo; pl. machochilo. Excrement, mavi. Eye, mitho; pl. metho. Eyebrow, nikwikwi; pl. ma kwikwi. Eyelid, imboni. Face, ikowe ; pl. ikowe. Faggot, itathu. Falsehood, watha; maothacho. Familiarity, malemalelo. Family, uloko; pl. maloko. Famine, ithala; pl. ithala. Fan, ichepepeta; pl. ichepepeta. Fat, makura. Father, athithi; pl. athithi. Fatigue, urushia; pl. marushio. Fault, uwonya ; pl. mawonyo. Favourite, ichipendo; pl. ichipendo. Fear, uchukula; pl. machukulo .E,eather, nipururu; pl. mapuru1u. A wing, nipupa; pl. mapupa. Fence, mtathi; pl. mitathi. Ferry, volapua va msheloni. Fierceness, uchacha ; pl. machacho. Fight, mashinano. File, tupa ; pl. atupa. Filth, unyala; pl. manyalo.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Fineness, urera. Finger, nilcoko; pl. makoko. Fire, moro ; pl. mioro. 17 Firewood, ikuni ; a piece of firewood half burnt, nild yalala. Fireplace, ihU'ri; three stones to set a pot upon, over the fire, matuo. Firefly, nianyimanyi. Fish, ihopa; pl. ihopa. Milwpo, a river fish with large flattened head, in shape slightly reseinbling a gurnet, full of bones, and very plentiful in 1nost rivers. Mule a, an eel, the same in appearance and taste as the common eel of English rivers. Kam pango, a fish found in large rivers, and said to be the size of a shark. Nikupa, a short thick fish of oval shape, with sharp spikes all over its body, and of a white hue. Tapatire: namwalo. Fisherman, rnmenji; pl. arnenji. Fist, ilcwipi ; pl. ikwipi. Flag, ibendera; pl. Flatterer, mlapi. Flattery, ulapa. Flavour, uchiva. Flea, ntitiri ; pl. matitiri. Flesh, inama. Fleshiness, ithayi. Flint gun, kapwiti ingume. Floor, vathi. Ohunammed floor, vopa patiya. Upper floor (roof), nivatho, pl. Flower, ituva ; pl. ituva. Fly, ipepele; pl. ipepele. Foam, niporu, pl. maporu. Fog, ukame; pl. malcame. Fold, upinda; pl. mapindo. Foliage, mathaktwu. Follower, mtari; pl. atari. c

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18 SUBSTANTIVES. Folly, ttlochua; pl. malochuo. Food, yolia; pl. cholia. Food saved from an evening meal and eaten in the 1norning, mivithe. Fool, mlochoa, pl. alochoa. Foot, nyao; pl. manyao. Force, ikunt ; machi,ri. Ford, volapua ; pl. molapua. Forehead, iuJi. Foreigner, mleto; pl. aleto. Forest, mwithupi. Forking of a tree, ipata; pl. ipata. Iform, upia. Fortune, impumi. Foundation, Fowl, ilaku; pl. Fox, nilcule (?) ; pl. rrnakule. Fraud, mathepi-u. Freedom, nethi. Friend, 'rnwathithi ; pl. achimwathithi. Fright, uchukula; pl. machukulo. Fringe, ma'rocho.' Frog, marapi; pl. ma1api. Fruit, chowima; pl. chowin1ra. Kachere, a fruit the size of a cherry, and of similar hue. Nakopo, the size of an apple, and red. Itema, dark purple, round, and about the size of a medlar. Ithapa: naningave : wepa : ta1narinds. Mope : 'rawa : mpira, the fruit of the indian-rubber, much appreciated and largely consumed. Frying-pan, nivali; pl. mavali. Fun, uthuela ; pl. mathuelo. Furnace, tukuta ; pl. atulcuta. Gain, fayida (Sw.). Game, malupato. Gate, rnlalco; mchele.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Gazelle, nachoro; pl. ancwhmo. Gentleman, nethi; pl. anethi. Gentleness, nlolca; pl. rnalolco. G hee, isarnuli. Giddiness, na1iu1u ; pl. ana1innt. Ginger, ichikazu. Giraffe, itata. Girdle, ikulula. 19 Girl, 1ni1ao; pl. arni1'ao. Gizzard, ivisinyingi. Gladness, utelia; pl. rnatelio. Glance, ; pl. rnavelo. Glass, lcarirole ; pl. alccwirole. Drinking glass, rndurnu. Gum, inonohi1o. Glutton, 1nlula; pl. cttzt Goat, epuri ; pl. epuri. God, Mhdcn. Gold, indaranta. Goodness, pl. rna1'ero. Goods, ichipan_ji ; pl. ichipan}i. Goose, ttwata Mesungu. Grain, cleaned: sorghum, rmcho1o wo rnele; rice, mcho'ro 'WO Grandchild, mwan}u ; '12}ulu. Grandfather, amuna: pl. arnunct. Grass, manyashi. Grave, nihie; pl. rnahie. Greatness, ulupale. Greediness, rnlulct ; pl. milnla. Grey hairs, ipwii. Grief, uchnlcula ; pl. machtttlctttlo. Ground, iwani; pl. iwani. Ground nuts, mtesha; pl. mitesha. Gruel, nikolw. Guest, mleto ; p 1. ale to.

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20 SUBSTANTIVES. Guide, r;nlwleU ; pl. aholeli. Guinea fowl, ikaka; ikololo. Gum : birdli1ne, ulipo ; of the teeth, Gum copal, ; pl. mikU?nbi. Gun, kaprwiti ; pl. akaptviti. The barrel, mthuthu ; pl. mithutlu.t. The lock, mrere; pl. mirme. A cannon, mchinga ; pl. michinga. Gunpowder, ulca. Gut, 1herimani; pl. me1imani. Habits, maler;naleliho. Hair, ikarari: of the beard, i1mi; straight hair, ikarmi chorapa; woolly hair, ilcara1i cltaka. Half, nussu (Sw.). Hammer, inuto ; pl. inuto. Hand, mthatha ; pl. mathatha. Handkerchief, nlesho ; pl. maleslw. Handle, mini; pl. mivini. Happiness, utelia; pl. mcdelio. Hardness, ulipa. Hare, hukula; pl. ahulatla. Harvest, mathikilo. Haste, wakuva. Hat, ikopio. Hatchet, ipacho; pl. ipacho. Hatred, mananarelo. Hawk, am,angweve; pl. anamangweve. Head, muru ; pl. miru. Healing things, r;nawoniho. Health, ukumi. Heap, nchala; pl. machala. A raised bed for plants,. ntuto; pl. matuto. Heart, mrima ; pl. mirima. Rea t, moro ; pl. mio1o. Heaven, irimu. Heaviness, ulentela.; pl. malernelo.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Heaviness of soul, uchttkula. Heel, ikotolwto. Heir, makelanupa. Help, 21 Hen, ilalcu. A full grown hen that has not yet laid, ndembe. A laying hen, Herdsman, mshunga; pl. ashunga. Hiccough, nathekU/me ; pl. anathekltme. Hid'den things, matielelo. l-Iide, n1cpala ; pl. Hill, mwalco ; pl. A rocky hill, mwala; pl. miala. Hilt, ivihi. Hindrance, anolcitielela. I-Iippopotamus, ipittt; pl. ipitu. History, itele. Hoarseness, ulala nlove. Hoe, ihipa ; pl. ihipa. Hole, mwithe; nihuku. Hollow of a tree, ipao. Home, uwannhu. Honey, wo inui. Honour, maina. Hook, Hope, makuluvelo. Hordeolum, iparamela. Horn, mnyaka; pl. manyalca. pet, nipenga; pl. 1napenga: pata. Hostility, oniolw. House, inupa ; pl. inupa. l-Iump (of an ox), iputhtt. II unger, ithala. Hunter, ml'ltpa; pl. alupa. Hurry, walawacha. vVhen used as a trun1-nipalapata, pl. mapalaHusband, mlopwana ; pl. alopwana.

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22 SUBSTANTIVES. Husk, ?nalcova.. --of rice, rmakaclta. Hyrena, knJnpa; pl. akn}upa. Idleness, 'lWztshia; pl. ma1usltio. Ignorance, ujnga (Sw. ). Imprecation, ulapa. Incense, 1ubani (Sw.). Indian-rubber, 1npi1a (Sw.). Indian corn, nakuo; pl. anakuo. Inheritance, makelanupa. Inheritor, nokela inupa. Insect, ?mva1nwetu; pl. achimwetu. Instruction, metu.fiho. Insult, ma.ruano. Intellect, lruslw. Intention, imweni. Intestines, 1narupo. Interruption, 1natielelo (?). Intoxication, ultapalia. Invalid, 1meta: pl. aretct. Iron, iynma. Island, ntinji ; pl. rnatinj'l. Itch, 'lwele. Ivory, nyaka notepo. Jackal, mwichi; pl. michi. Jar, muno ; pl. mino. Jaw, ntere ; pl. mat ere. Jealousy, ihache. Joke, Journey, 'lt?endo. Joy, utelia ; pl. 1natelio. Judgment, 'Walcanyulanz7ta. Juice, maslti. Justice, elcelccd.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Kernel, ilcorosho. Key, mpunguriro; pl. mipungu'ri1o. l{idney, ipio. Kindness, (?). Kindred, achihimaga. King, mwene; pl. mamwene. Kingdom, imwene. Kitchen, unotmikia, ttviwurini. Kite, namangweve ; pl. anamangweve. Knee, nikutha ; pl. makutha. Knife, mwalo ; pl. mialo. l(not, nluto ; pl. rnaluto. Knowingness, uria1ia. Labour, mthelco; pl. mitheko. Ladder, nivata; pl. mavata. Lake, ntia ; pl. matia. Land, iwani. Language, malove. Laugh, matheo. Lead, ichumbu. Leader, oholela; pl. oholela. Leaf, ntalcuru ; pl. matakuru. Lean-to, nipiroti; pl. mapirot. Leather, n'rapala. Lefthandedness, ernusld. Legend, itheli. Length, utaliva. Leopard, havara ; pl. aha.vco-ct. Liar, mwothi. Licentiousness, ulavalava. Lid, yokunela ; pl. cholcunela. Lie, wotha. Life, ukumi. Lights (of an ani1nal), mapawela. Lime, ishoaka1a. 23

PAGE 36

24 Li1nit, mwinano; pl. minano. Lion, karamn. Lip, iyano. Lip-ring, mthathi; pl. mithathi. Liver, hapa; pl. ahapa. Lizard, ilnparct : A large water lizard, ing'oto. Load, 11windi; pl. mirindL Loaf, mkate; pl. ?nikate (Sw.). Loan, mashimo. Locust, ichmope. Log, mknlulu; pl. milatlullC. Loins, iunu. Looking-glass, kari1me ; pl. aka1irore. Loss, Luck, impmni. Lungs, mapawela. 1\.'Iagic, pl. malcwi1i. 1\faggot, ikune ; pl. 'l\Ialice, uthakala; pl. mathakalo. }Ian, rntu; pl. atu. A male, mwamlopwana. Mangouste, ; pl. amthullt. l\iangrove, ingapa. Manners, mwirelo ; pl. mirelo. Good 1nanners, uterihela. l\fark, alama (Sw.). Tribal mark, inepo. Market, Marrow, mthuthu. Mast, mringote ; pl. miringote. Master, puria. Mat (coarse matting), ntato; pl. matato. Matter: What is the matter? u1ini? ninguna; pl. manguna. Meal, yolia; pl. cholia. Meaning, mctlumbo.

PAGE 37

Meat, inama. 1\ieatiness, ithai. SUBSTANTIVES. 25 niedicine, rnrete; pl. mhete. Medical knowledge, 1nng' alca ; pl. ang' alca. 1\Ieekness, urnala. J\;felancholy, mchin}i1i. Merchant, 1ntlt nothttnwtkn. Messenger, kant1nia. iriari. Midnight, ithiyLt iricwi. 1\iilk, rnapele. Mill, iriawe. Millipede, rnonlcolo; pl. mionlcolo. l\iillet, nwle. --, the stalks of, rnithathi. 1\iind, mrirna; pl. mirima. 1\iisery, uhnva. 1\iist, 'Ltkmne. Mistake, uwonya. 1\iodesty, ishoni. Money, inclmama. l\Ionkey, mshapwe ; pl. mashapwe. An ape, lcole. A s1nall black monkey, tupili. 1\iou th, rnweri; mimi. J Morning, wichislut. Morsel, valcani. Mosque, nntsilcitini. l\iosq ui to, ichenJema. Mother, manyi. Mould, icldpa1ct (?). 1\iound of earth, irua. --of stones, ichengo. Mountain, 1nwalco; pl. miako. Mouth, iyano. Mucus, nanilcatako. lVI ud, ipepe.

PAGE 38

26 SUBSTANTIVES. l\Iule, inynpzt (?). l\Iultitude, mahimano. l\!usic, ikoma. A plate of copper sounded by beating, nipaslw. Nail, of a finger, ilzatha. --of iron, ikmno. N arne, nchina; pl. mach ina. Nape of the neck, ishilw. Napkin, ntabwata; pl. matabwata. Nation, nikosho; pl. makosho. Navel, mtekrn; pl. rniteku. Necessaries, mpund. Neck, ishiko. Need, ntuna; pl. rnatww .. Needle, singano. Neighbour, uloko; pl. 1naloko. Nest, ipurn ; pl. ipuru. Net, ntavi ; pl. matavi. For fish, nilwlw. Another kind, ikupe. Fish net fixed with ba1nboos, mthololo .. A large kind of a round shape, itlmmbz'. News, 1meteli ; pl. mireteli. Night, uhiu. Nipple, vekani vo nipele. Nobody, lea Noise, nlowe. --of voices, unyakula. Non sense, upwapwa. Noon, nchua anutr-n. Noose, ithululela ; pl. ithululela. Nose, ipula. Nostril, ipao yo pula. Nurse, yay a. Nut, ilcmosho; pl. ilcmosho. Oath, ulupela; _pl. rnalupelo.

PAGE 39

SUBSTANTIVES. 27 Obedience, urnhela. Occupation, rnthel};o; pl. rnithelco. Offering, ipepa. Oil, rnakura. Castor oil, rnal};U'ra parika. Sen1sem oil, makura nang'hakwa. 0 ld age, ashulu vale. Old 1nan, uulu vale. Opportunity, nipuro. Orna1nen t, wipapa. Owner, rnwenene. Ox, ing' ope. Oyster, ng'ornbe (?). Pad, of grass, used to carry a loacl upon, on the head, generally ring-shaped, ikara. Pain, uwe'ria. Paint, pepe. Palm, nihau no nthata. Pap, rnapele. Papaw, npapai; pl. mapapai. Paper, rnkaratha. Parable, ulil};aniha; pl. rnalilcanilw. Part, nikupata ; pl. rnakupata. Partnership, ulcavihana. Partridge, ikwali. Path, ipiro. Patience, 1-wilela; pl. rnavilelo. Pay, mbote; pl. mbote. Peace, nrimanrirna. Peel, nikothope ; pl. rnalcothope. People, atu. Pepper, lonl};o omalca. Red, lonko mankani. Person, mtu ; pl. atu. Perspiration, mtukuta; pl. rnatulatta. Phantom, irungu. Physic, rnrete ; pl. mirete.

PAGE 40

28 SUBST .A.NTIVES. Physician, mng' aka ; pl. ang' ale a. Pice, nipesha ; pl. mapesha. Pig, ikuluwe ; pl. ikuluwe. Pigeon, nelda ; pl. machia. Pillar, 1nkurio; pl. mikurio. Pillow, msham,iro; pl. mishamiro. Pimple, iyulat. Pincers, ipano. Pine apple, inika; pl. inika. Pipe (for tobacco), inyukwa. Pistol, namkoyo; pl. anamlwyo. Pit, nliti; pl. maUti. Pity, ikiriri. :Plain, inriwathi. Plank, nipatamkwa; pl. 1napatamkwa. Plant, imbeyu. A plant with a head of red flowers, ithali. The blue water-lily, ilcogoa. Plantains, inika. Plantation, im,ata. Plate, ika1elca1e. Pleasure, 'lttelia. Plenty, winchiva. Pocket, mhulco; pl. mihulco. Point, wikani; pl. wilcani. Poison, uchungu. Fish poison ; rntutu. Pole, mwi1i; pl. 1niri. For carrying burdens on, ikolokopiko. Politeness, umanya. Pool, ntia; pl. matia. Porcupine, nashinulat; pl. anashlnuktt. Porridge, ishima. Porter, 1nbahcwia. Possessions, mhaku ; pl. mihaku. Possessor, mwenene. Post, Posterity, amyan1e.

PAGE 41

SUBSTANTIVES. Potato, lcaralca. Potsherd, nivali; pl. mavaU. Potter, anopa miaptt,. Poultry, ilakn. Poverty, ohuva. Powder, ipepa. Gunpowcler, tdca. Power, iku1u. Practice, malemalelilw. Prayer, uvekela. Precepts, metujiho. Pregnancy, irukuln. Present, mituro. Prey, malupato. Pride, uhiloka. Privy, witupini. Progeny, amanahunm. Prohibition, makotiho. Property, mhaku ; pl. mihaku. Provisions, cholia. Pumpkin, nchulcu ; pl. maclmkzt. When used to carry liquids in, mtumba; pl. milrlMnba. The large kind,. shinti; pl. shinti. Purgative, nrete wo vyalua. Purpose, mwain'i. Python, ilcuka. Quarrel, nam1ukotoli; pl. anamrukotoli. Question, malwhano. Quietness, umala. Rabbit, httkula; pl. ahukula. Race, ukotolano ; pl. malwtolano. Rain, ipula. Rainy season, rnlala. The lesser ipula yo yaka. Rainbow, nikwi; pl. rnakwi. RamJner (for beating roofs), mpapato; pl. mipapato.

PAGE 42

30 Ransom, nopo. Rash, 'lwele. SUBSTANTIVES. Rat, n,ikule; pl. makule. A very large kind, nivala; pl. 1navala. Rawness, uJdthi. Razor, nimeto; pl. rJ'lwnwto. Reason, m1atu ; pl. ntilatu. Redeemer, moopoli. Reed, mthale ; pl. mithale. Refuge, matiawelo. Rejoicing, utelia. Relations, uloko. Relish, mathapa. Remainder, mahalilw. Remission, makumihero. Repentance, utarua. Reproaches, molumelo. Reptile. A large lizard, ing' oto. Another lizard, ivili. A python, ikulca. Rest, metuuo. Resting-place, marulo. Resurrection, uhihimwa. Return, mahokoUo. Reverence, umala (?). Reviling, marelo. Rheumatism, ichikweni. Rhinoceros, pela ; pl. apela. Rice, nwlca. --, when cleaned from the husk, mchoro ; pl. mi choro. --.-, various kinds of, ngwindimba ; ebungala ; ika ; szngano. Riches, mhaku ; pl. 1nihaku. Rich man, mtu ovanga. Ridicule, uhehulacha. Right, ikekai.

PAGE 43

SUBSTANTIVES. Rind, makothope. River, 1noloko; pl. 1rdololco. Road, epirro; pl. epiro. Roar, nrUima; pl. maritimo. Robber, owi,ia ; pl. owiia. Rock, mwalco ; pl. mialco. 31 Roof, nivatho; pl. 1navatho. The roof over a watchingplace in the fields, itala. Room (space), nipuro. --(apartment), inttpa yo mhina. Rope, mlcoi ; pl. milcoi. Row (line), mtethela ; pl. mitethela. Row (noise), ttnyalnda ; pl. manyakttlo. ikokola. Ruins, mauluo. Rust, mrenji ; mirenji. Sacrifice, ipepa ; pl. ipepa. Safety, upiarata. Sail, ntanga ; pl. matanga. Sailor, baharia. Saliva, eshene. Salt, malca. Salute, michingct, clwlco hachia. Salver, nipaslw; pl. 1napasho. Sand, mhava ; pl. mihava. Sandals, ilcolcwata. Sap, mas hi o mwiri. Saucepan, mwapo o yttrna. Scab, niholco; pl. mahoko. Sea b bard, nigonelo ; pl. 1nagonelo. Scales (of a fish), makahapapa. Scar, nihoko ; pl. mahoko. Scorn, uherihatlt. Scorpion, nam1ere ; pl. anam'tere. Scraps (after eating), 1nakombo.

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32 SUBSTANTIVES. Sera tch, nlcwararnmelo ; pl. rnikwarammelor Scull, nilcurukucha ; pl. makurulcucha. Scum, niporu. Sea, rnash01nalca. Seam, rmtoto; pl. rnitoto. Season, ?nakati. Seat, ihiclze. Secret, wapa. Seed, rnbeyu. Self, uwhna. Semsem, narnhalcwa; pl. anamltalcwa. Sense, lcarnrusho. Servant, ka1urnia; pl. aka1wnia. Service, upota. Shade, rntuchi. Shadow, Shan1e: disgrace, 1noclesty, islwni .. Share, urnhuku. Sharing, ukavihana. Shark, paapa. Sharpness, uchacha. Sheaf, iukn. Sheath, nigonelo; ?nagonelo. Shed, nigongwe; pl. magongwe. Sheep, ilwndoro; pl. ikondo1o. Shells, shwalcara. Shepherd, mshunga. Shield, ichikopa. Shin, nikuva no mpacha. Ship, Dhow, ichmnbo. Shirt, malaya. Shivering, mathunkomelo. Shock, uthuthua. Shop, nduka; pl. madulca. Shot ( sn1all ), ithathu. Shoulder, nikatha; pl. makatha.

PAGE 45

SUBSTANTIVES. Shout, ttnyalcula; pl. manyakulo. Shower, mevela. Shrewdness, openya. Sick person, 1meta ; pl. a1eta. Sickness, u1eta; pl. mareto. 33 Side, nthela; pl. mathela. Of the body, iparari; pl. iparari. Other side of the river, etc., ttkopelele. Sieve, nipite ; pl. mapite. Sign, uvela; pl. mavelo. Silence, umala; pl. mam,alo. Silk, hari1i (Sw.). Silver, ndmama. Sil versn1i th, mhani wo ndct1ama. Sin1pleton, m}inga; pl. aJinga (Sw.). Sin, uwonya. (This -word only signifies 1nistake: all kinds of sin, such as theft, cursing, adultery, 1nurder, slander, are expressed by uchawi when it is in tended to speak of the1n as wrong doings.) Sister, urokora. Sister-in-law, mlamu. Size, nchusha ; pl. machusha. Skilled workman, pun pl. apundi. Ski .Sky, nihute; pl. mahu Slander, wotheria. Slaughter house, Slave, ipota; pl. ipota. Slave girl, mwanthiana; pl. achithiani. Fellow slave, mlokwctlca; pl. alokwalca. Slavery, upota. Sleep, ilcove. Sleeping-place, vontpa; vamaroponi. Sleeve, mono ; pl. miono. Slipperiness, ttthethmia. Sloth, u1ushia. Sn1allness, uyeva. Small-pox, indttvi. D

PAGE 46

34 SUBSTANTIVES. Smith, mhani; pl. ahani. Smoke, mwishi; pl. miishi. Snail, ikoropa ; pl. ikmopa. Snake, inoa ; pl. inoa. Snare, ithapa ; pl. ithapa. Sneezing, 'lvitiamuri. Snoring, ung' ong' a. Snuff, shoni o nukia. Soap, shabuni. Soldier, amirawo. Sole, inyao ; pl. inyao. Soli tude, uveka. Somebody, mtu; pl. atu. Son, mwana ; pl. ashana. Son-in-law, aukohi; pl. aukohi. Song, nchipo; pl. machipo. Sore, nikwata; pl. makwata; imbeclza. Sorrow, uchukula; pl. mach'ltkulo. Repentance, utantwa. Soul, mrirna; pl. mirima. Sound, nlove ; pl. malove. Soundness, ukumi. Sovereign, mwenene iwani. Space, nipuro; pl. mapuro. Spade, ihipa ye Ishungu. Speaking, ulumacha. Spear, nivaka; pl. mavaka. Spider, randashi; pl. a1andashi. Spirits, mashoka: minepa. Spittle, ishene. Splinter, nipalapatu. Spoon, mikori. Sport, uthuela. Spring (of water), impa'tawe; pl. imparatve. Spy, ohotela; pl. ohotela. Squint, utenderua mitho.

PAGE 47

SUBSTANTIVES. Staff, ikopo; pl. ilwpo. Stairs: upstairs, vachulu; downstairs, vatld. Stalks (of n1ta1na ), rnthathi; pl. mithatha. Stamn1ering, ichimene. Stars, itotwa ; pl. itotwa. Start, Stealing, W'iya. Steel, pua (Svv.). mwir,i; pl. mi,iri. Step-father, athumana owzt pwanya. Step.,.nlother, an,umwana owu pwanya. Steward, ?nwehermi ; pl. awehere'ti. Stick, ikopo; pl. ilwpo. Stillness, umala. Sto1nach, ; pl. indculu. Stone, nluku ; pl. ?nahtku. Stone house, 'inupa yo rnalukzt. Stones (of fruit), ilcmosho; pl. ikmosho. Stooping, winama, wormna. Stop (end), ukoma. Stopper, itiyelelo; pl. itiyelelo. Store, uyeshera. Story, itheli ; pl. itheli. uritimala. Strainer, mhukulo; pl. mihztkulo. Straits, uhuva; pl. rnahuvo. Strands (of a cord), wikani wo mkoi. Stranger, mleto; pl. aleto. Strength, ikuru : rnachi1i. Strea1n, mwamwololw; pl. ashimiololco. String, ntoche; pl. matoche. S tun1 ble, rnalcwalcwathruo. Stu1np, ikolcolo. Sty (in the eye), ishoshera. Subtraction, uhala. Sugar, ishttkmi. 35

PAGE 48

36 SUBSTANTIVES. Sugar cane, mhalu; pl. mihalu. Sulphate of copper, m2utlttu. Sultanship, i1nwene. Sun1, Jumula. Su1n1nit, vachulnmwako; pl. vachulumwako. Sun, nchuwa; pl. machuwa. Sunset, uchechilo. Supper, yolia yo chochilo. Sweat, nihiro; pl. mahiro. Sweetheart, atwaka; pl. atwalca. Sweet lime, ndimlt chochiva. Sweetness, yochiva. Sweet potato, karaka; pl. alca2aka. S windier, mtu owo thotha. Swing, mkumrumbwalelo; pl. 'lnikunwumbwalelo. Swine, ikuluwe; pl. S1vord, upanga. Syrup, urao; pl. 1na2ao. Tail, 1nwila; pl. mila. Tailor, rntoti ; p 1. atoti. 'raking away, makumihmo. Tale, itheli; pl. itheli. Talk, 1nopa mwaha. Talker, mulumachi; pl. mulumachi. Tan1arind, wepct ; pl. awepa. --, the tree, mwepa ; pl. miwepa. Tartar (on the teeth), nahavala. Taster, mlawihi; pl. alawihi. Teaching, metuchiho. Tear, mithori; pl. mithmi. Ten, kumi ; pl. makumi. Testimony, uoneshesha. Theft, wiya. Thickness, uritimala . Thief, owiya; pl. owiya.

PAGE 49

SUBSTANTIVES. Thieving, wiya. Thing, itu; pl. itu. Thirst, ntona ; pl. matona. Thorn, mwiwa ; pl. miiwa. Thorny shrub, nripwi ; pl. maripwi. Thought, pl. maupuwelo. Thread, ntoiche ; pl. matoiche. Threat, wopopiha. ishilw; pl. ishilr,o. Thumb, nilwko nuZ.upale. Thunder, ithari. Tickling, uthikinya. Timber, miri. 37 Tilne, 1nakati ; leisure, malr,at,i 'lthiyu, ; 1110rning, wichishau ; nnwu,; evening, twhechilo. owithua ; 1nidnigh t, 1nid-day, nchuwa va Tobacco, shone. To-day, lelo. Toe, makolw o 1nnyanL To1nb, nihiye; pl. 1nahiye. To-morrow, melo. ----the day after, 71Hoto. ---------after that, nikucha. after that, mthela, Tongs, ipano. Tongue, nlimi; pl. malimi. Tooth, nino; pl. mino. Top, mchnlu. Tortoise, kapa ; pl. akapa. Track, inyao ; pl. inyao. Trade, 1nmonda. Trader, mpangct maronda. r:rrap, ithapa; pl. itlzapa. Traveller, mwetalr,achi. 'Ireasure, 'ltthuk'ltmaniha. mwhi; pl. mii1i.

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38 SUBSTANTIVES. Tribe, nikoslw ; pl. malcoslw. Trot, ilcito. Trouble, 'lthuva. '11rowsers, marapi. Trumpet, nipenga; pl. mapenga. N1jJmapata; pl. maparapata. Trunk, n'twi1i. Truth, ikekai. Truth-teller, mhimya ilcekai. Tub, nipipa ; pl. mapipa. Turban, mlesho; pl. malesho. Tunneric, mbi1ichi1a. Turtle, nipethe, nikokwa. Turtle dove, nchiya ; pl. macltiyct. Twin, navatct; pl. mavata. Udder, 1vikani wo nipele. Ulcers, nikwata ; pl. makwata. U 1n brella, ishumburere. Uncleanness, unyala. Uncle, athatha. Understanding, intslw. Unity, umoka. Universe, ilapo. Uproar, manyakulo. Urine, urucha. Utensils, 'rneapo. Valley, n1apo ; pl. marapo. Value, ikwelo. Vegetables, machulco. Vegetable n1arrow, maclmlco. Vial, ichorochoro. Vice, unanara. Victuals, cholia. Violence, 1vilipia.

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SUBSTANTIVES. Voice, nlove ; pl. ?nalove. V ovv, ulupela ; pl. malttpelo. Voyage, mkwaha ; pl. ?nikwaha. Vulture, nrepo; marepo. Wages, imbote. Wailing, wunla. Waistcoat, ipithao; pl. ipithcw. Walk, weta. To go for a vvalk, 'ur;oa weta lcaclta. vV all, ishiri. War, ikoto. \Vannth, moro; pl. mimo. Wart, iparamela. Waste, ur;iakacho. Waster, mr;ihalcachi ; pl. arihakachi. )Vater, mashi. Fresh water, r;nashi o chiva# Water-jar, muno; pl. mino. "\Vay, ipiro ; pl. ipiro. vV ealth, mhako mwinchi. Weapon, nivalca; pl. mavakct. Weaver, mtavi; pl. atavi. Weeds, manyashi. Well, ihimi ilushi. Weeping, wunla. West, 'ltchechilo. "\Vhirlwind, iyupu1'u. Whistling, mthu1i. ltVhite ants, ttcheslw. White of egg, yotela yo nyoche. Whiteness, yotela. Widow, namlcweli; pl. ana1nkweli. "\Vid th, 1vitivala. Wife, mthiana; pl. athianct. "\.Vilderness, 1vuthalwni. Wild aniinals, inama cho mwitupini. ltV ill, mrima ; pl. mi1'ima. 39

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40 Wind, ipeo. vVinding, 'lWZtlcurma. Wine, nipa. SUBSTANTIVES. Wing, nipupa; pl. mapupa. Wink, upila. Witch, mkwiri; pl. akwi1i. Witchcraft, ulcwiri. Wizard, mkwiri; pl. akwiri. Woe, 'lthuva. W o1nan, mthiana; pl. athiana. Young 'vo1nan, mnanati. W on1 b, irukula. Wonder, matikinaclw. Word, nlove ; pl. malove. Bad words, ma1uano. Work, mtheko; pl. 1nitheko. Work1nan, pundi; pl. apundi. World, ilapo. Worm, nrithi; pl. ndrithi. Wound, nkwata ; pl. makwata. \Vrath, uweria mrima. Wrist, nrecha no mono. Y an1, nipeta ; mapeta. Yard, 'ltnikureni. Yawn, wi1ia moria. Year, yalca. Last year, mwechana. The year before last, mweJuni. Yesterday, mJana. The day before yesterday, mchuri. Yolk of an egg, yokwila yo nyoclze. Youth, uyeva. Zanzibar, UnguJa. Zeal, uthuathua. J ihacld. Zebra, iputa ; iputa.

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( 41 ) ADJECTIVES. MAKUA adjectives are few in nurnber, their places being for the n1ost part supplied by the use of verbs, substantives and adverbs preceded by the particle -o, or by verbs denoting the possession of such and such qualities. The regular adjective -kani (srnall), varies according to the different class of nouns, as follows :. I. MtM mwamkani, a small person ; achilcani, small people. II. Mshamirro mlcani, a srnall pillow ; mishamiro chikani, srnall pillows. III. Nakuo nikani, a small cob of Indian corn ; analaw achilcani, sn1all cobs of Indian corn. IV. Ntini nikani, a small island ; rmatinJi malcani, small islands. ,r. Uthalcala ulcan-i, a small evil; mathakctlo ovakani, small evils. VI. Mwarnunlat nnvamlr,ani, a small caterpillar; achilcani, small caterpillars. VII. fllatha ilcani, a srnall claw; ihatha ilumi, small claws. VIII. YoUa ilcani, a little food; cholia cldkan-i, little food. IX. Vachitu velcani, a srnall place; mwilcani, small places. The irregular adjectives, verbal and others, are

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42 .ADJECTIVES. made to agree with their substantives in the different classes as follows:0 1era, beautiful. I. Sing., o rera, Plural, o 7'e1'a. II. re1a., cho 1era. III. o rera, o 1era.. IV. no rma, o 'rera.. v. wo rerct, o re1a. VI. o rera, o 'rera. VII. yo rera, cho 'rera. VIII. yo rera, clw 'rera. IX. vo rera, mo 1era. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. The comparative degree may be expressed by merely coupling the things to be compared by putting ni (with) between them. The n1ore common way of expressing comparison is by the use of the word upwaha, to exceed. me mtule mulupale vo wapwahale, that lnan there is bigger than that; lit., That big man there exceeds that one. The superlative is expressed by the use of the adjective in an absolute sense. Mtu ula mulupale, this is the great n1an, i.e" This is the greatest man.

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ADJECTIVES. LIST OF ADJECTIVES. Able, noria. Alike, sawasawa (Sw.). All, -onkea. Ancient, kalai. A wake, urirnitho. Bad, -nanara. Bare, -it,uru. Beautiful, -rera. Best, bora (Sw.). Bitter, -owawa. Black, -oripa. Blind, -ohona. Blunt, -ohivia. Bold, -ohova. Broad, urunku. Cheap, -ohilipa. Chief, ulupale. Choice, uthalia. Civilized, -nethi. Clean, -orera. Clever, -orusho. Clumsy, -olernela. Common, chichale. Covetous, nlula. 43

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44 Cross, ttchacha. Cunning, -o upenya. Deaf, -o 'lthiva. ADJECTIVES. Dear, -o nlipa. Deformed, -o ulemala. Di:fferen t, -ikina. Distinct, kilikane. Double, veli. Dry, 'ltttma. Dull, nruchia (?). Easy, tweua. Elder, ynlnpale. Empty, iturn. Equal, sawasawa (Sw.). Every, vavirettle. Fat, -o neneva. Feeble, shokoya. Female, thiana. A she hyoona, latchupa omthiana. A lioness, karamu omthiana. Few (to be few), nyieva. The people who followed me were few, atu ya kitandu ya hoy eva. Fierce, nchacha. A fierce man, mtu, o chacha. Filthy, -o nnyala. Fine, -o 'rera. Foolish, -olochoa. Foreign, -leto. Former, -o npacha. Free, -nethi. Fresh, -kithi. Fresh water, mashi ori1ia. Full, -o ucha1a. The water is up to the top, ?nashi yahochara. Generous, -o uvaha. Good, -o rera.

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Greedy, -o m1ula. Great, mulupale. Gratis, yochicho. Happy, Hard, -olipa. ADJECTIVES. 45Having, with, being with, -rnwenene; a strong n1an,. mwenene ilcunt. Healthy, -kurni; a healthy house, inupa ilcunti; a healthy man, rnkumi. Heavy, -o ulemela. High, -otaliva. Hollow, -o pao. Hot, -o moro. Idle, -o 1ushia. Ignorant, -jinga (Sw. ). Insignificant, -o uvea. Irrational, -o himanya. Jealous, -o hache. Just, eke Large, yulupale. Lean, -o Left (hand, etc.), Light: not dark, -otela; not heavy, uveua. Like, chinre. Little, -lcani; a little water, rnashi valcani. Living, -shima, -kurni. Long, -otaUva. Low, -o ulcuvea. Mad, ihalahala. Male, rnlopwana. Many, chinji. Moist, yotapwatapwa.

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46 Naked, wikaletu. Narrow, New, yonanano. ADJECTIVES. Old: of things, -o lcalai; of persons, -ulupale. Only, yoveka. Other, -kina. Patient, Perfect, -chekai. Pleasant, -ochiva. Poor, -ohzwa. Possible, -wmia. Quarrelsome, nan'rolcotoli. Quick, uveua. Quiet, -rnala. Raw, -kithi. Red, -kwila, -oshera (?). Regular, -'ratarata. Remote, utaliva. Rich, anene rnhako. Right (hand, etc.), mlopwana. Ripe, utokota. Righteous, -ekekai. Rotten, Round, uvilikea. Sad, upwela. Savage, uchacha. Secret, uvitha. Sharp, wivya. Short, -kuvea. Sick, -reta, Silent, -mala.

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Slim (see Narrow). Smooth, -were1yana. Soft, woloa. Some, akinakinct .. Sour, unyunya. Spotted, manepct. Stout, witivala. Strange, -leto. Strong, -olipa. Stupid, -lochoa. Sweet, -ochiva. Tall, utali,va. Thick, 'Wit,ivala. Thievish, ushiia. Thin, True, -lcekai. Uneven, uhilikana. Unwashed, Various, ikinakina. ADJECTIVES. Wasteful, m1ihakachi. Warm, -mtukuta. Weak, ushokoya. Well done (i.e. well cooked), utokota. Wet, utap'Watapwa. White, -otela. Whole, -kumi. Wide, Young, -kana. Younger, -himaka. 47

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( 48 ) THE NUMERALS. 1, imoka. 2, pili. 3, taru. 4, cheshe. 5, thanu. 6, thanu na imoka. 7' pili. 8, taru. 9, cheshe. 10, kun'ti. 11, kumi na imoka. 12, pili. 13, taru. 14, cheshe. 15, thanu. 16, lcumi wathiru thanu na irnolca. 17' " pili. 18, , taru. 19, , cheshe. 20, rnakumi rneli. 30, rnararu. 40, macheshe. 50, mathantt. 60, " 70 80, 90, 100, " " " makumi. na ninwlca. meli. mararu. , macheshe.

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THE NUMERALS. 49 The changes undergone by the numerals when in agreement with substantives in the nine classes are as follows :-I. Atu eli, two ; araru, three ; acheshe, four ; athanu na araru, eight. II. Mishamiro rnili, two ; rniraru, three ; micheshe, four; rnithanu na eight. III. Anakuo eli, two ; araru, three ; acheshe, four ; athanu na araru, eight. IV. MatinJi rneli, two ; rnararu, three ; rnacheshe, four; rnathanu na rnararu, eight. V. M athakalo rneli, two ; rnararu, three ; rnacheshe, four ; rnathanu na rnararu, eight. VI. Ashimiunku eli, two ; araru, three ; acheshe, four ; athanu na araru, eight. VII. Ihatha pili, two ; taru, three ; cheshe, four ; thanu na taru, eight. viii. Cholia pili, two ; taru, three ; cheshe, four ; thanu na taru, eight. IX. Vachitu veli, two ; vararu, three ; vacheshe, four; vathanu na vararu, eight. Once, twice, etc., are expressed by prefixing va or by changing the first sy Hable into va :Once, vamoka. Twice, veli. Thrice, vararu. Four times, vacheshe. Five times, vathanu. Six times, vathanu, na vamoka. Seven times, veli. Eight times, vararu. Nine times, vacheshe. Ten times, nilcumi. E

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50 TIJE NUMERALS. Second, etc., are denoted by prefixing the particle o-with its initial letter for the different classes of substantives, and by prefixing to the nu1neral the syllable ne, or by modifying the first syllable in to ne. The word denoting first is irregular. Mtu o pacha, the first man. naeli, the second man. ,, neraru, the third rnan. ,, necheshe, the fourth man. the fifth man.

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( 51 ) PRONOUNS. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. THE full forms of the personal pronouns are-1, mi, minyano. We, hiyo, hiyano. Thou, uwe, weyu. You, nyenyu, nyuo. He or she, yoyo. They, yayo, ayo. It and they, when referring to nouns of other than the first class, are expressed by the demonstrative pronouns. The second and third persons plural are always used in addressing or speaking of an equal or a superior. The second and third persons singular are only used. in speaking of or to inferiors, as to slaves and children. The personal prefixes to the verbs referring to nouns of the first class are-Subjective. Objective. I ki-Me -ki-Thou uThee -u-He or she (a-) Him or her -m-We nUs -ni-You 'm-, mw-You -u'rhey a,ya-Them -a-The subjective prefix of the third person singular is frequently omitted. Apparently no objective prefixes are used for

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52 PRONOUNS. nouns of the other classes: it and them, when referring to nouns of other than the first class, must be expressed by the demonstrative pronouns. The following examples will show how the subjective prefixes appropriate to the various classes are em ployed in connection with the word -horoa, the past tense of uroa, to go :-I. Mtu ahoroa ; atu yahoroa. II. Mshamiro uhoroa ; mishamiro chihoroa. III. N akuo haroa; anakuo ahoroa. IV. Ntinji rdhoroa ; matinji ahoroa. V. Uthakala uhoroa ; mathakalo ahoroa. VI. Mwamunku horoa ; ashimiunku ahoroa. VII. Ihatha ihoroa ; ihatha chihoroa. VIII. Yolia ilwroa; cholia chihoroa. IX. Vachitu vahoroa ; mchitu mhoroa., The following examples will show the use of the subjective and objective prefixes, referring to persons:lri-ho-u-himeria U-ho-m-himeria Ni-ho-himeriani N-h( o )-a, himeria A-ho-ni-himeria I have thee told. thou hast him told. he has me told. we have told you. you have them told. they have us told. PossESSIVE PRONOUNS. The initial letters of the possessive pronouns vary according to the class of the thing possessed. The invariable parts are-My, -aka. Thy, -ao. His, her, or its, -awe. Our, -ihu . Your, -inyu. Their, -aya.

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PRONOUNS. 53 A longer form is as commonly used by prefixing aw-before aka, ao, awe, etc. The changes of the initial letters .of -awaka, my, will show the necessary forms throughout. I. Mtu awaka ; atu awaka. II. Mshamiro wawalca ; mishamiro chawaka. III. N akuo awaka ; anakuo awaka. IV. NtinJi nawaka ; matinJi awaka. V. Utha.kala wawaka ; mathakalo awaka. VI. Mwamunku awalca; ashimiunku awaka. VII. yawaka ; ihatha chawaka. VIII. Yolia yawaka; cholia chawaka. IX. V achitu vawalca ; mchitu mawaka. My own, his own, etc., are expressed by adding the word -ene, with its personal prefix, to the pos sessive pronouns aka, awe, etc. My own, awalca kimwene. Thine own, awao umwene. His, her, or its own, awawe mwenene. Our own, awihu nanene. Your own,-awinyu mwanene. Their own, awaya anene. REFLECTIVE The Makua verb is made reflective by inserting i as an objective pre:fi.x-Utuna to love. Wituna to love myself. Self may be expressed by mrima, heart. Where self is employed chiefly to give emphasis to the personal pronoun, it is expressed by the personal pronoun followed by the word -ene, with its appropriate prefix-

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54 PRONOUNS. I myself minyano kimwenene. Thou thyself weyu umwenene. He himself yoyo mwenene. We ourselves hiyano nanene. You yourselves nyenyu mwanene. They theinselves yayo anene. By 'tnyself, ourselves, etc., are expressed by vek-pre:fixed to the possessive pronouns. By myself vekaka. By ourselves By thyself vekao. By yourselves By himself vekawe. By themselves vekehu. vekenylL. vekaya. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. There are four demonstrative pronouns : 1. Th1s, denoting objects near at. hand. 2. That, objects at a distance. 3. More directly specific, This or that one here. I. Mtu Atu II. Mshamiro Misbamiro III. Nakuo Anakuo IV. Ntinji Matinji V. lT thakala Mathakalo VI. Mwamunku Ashiminuku VII. Ihatha Ihatha VIII. Yolia Cholia IX. Vachitu J.Ichitu 1. ula ala ula chila ula ala nna ala uu/ ala' ula ala ila chila ila chila vaa muu 2. 3. ule yole. ale yayo (?). ule yole. chile chechile. ule yole. ale yale. nne nnene. ale yale. ule wowe. ale yale. ule yole. ale yale. ile yele. chile chechile. ile yele. chile chechile. 1

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PRONOUNS. 55 The fourth form is made by a sort of double demonstrative before and after the noun-I. II. III. IV. v. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Yole mtule; yale atu ale. YoTe mSiiamiro ole; chechile mishamiro chile. Yale nakuole ; yale anakuo ale. Nene ntinJi ne ; yale matinji yale. Wowule ulhakala wule; yale mathakalo ale. Yole mwamunku ule ; yale ashimiunku ale. Yele ihathele ; chechile ihatha chile. Yele yoliele; chechile cholia chily. Vawale vachitu vale; momule mchitu mule. r The dernonstrative pronouns are very frequently doubled ; as, yoleyole, chechilechechile, aleale, etc. The usual place of a dmnonstra ti ve is after the noun; as, Mtu ula, this rnan; but it may be put before the noun, and then the last syllable is repeated after it-Ula mtu la. The general demonstratives, here and there, are va and uo. There is a sort of demonstrative with the rneaning, 'rhis is the one, It is this, Here is the place, etc. Its form for the several classes is as follows-I. Thiola, piayo. II. Puyola, pichechi. III. Thiola, piyala. IV. Pinena, piyala. V. Puwowu, piyala. VI. Thiyola, piyala. VII. Piyela, pichechi. VIII. Piyela, pichechi. IX. Pivava, pumomu. Vavao, here is the place. Wowo, there is the place.

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56 PRONOUNS. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. There are no relative pronouns in use. The re lative, when the subject of the verb, is expressed by the direct sentence. 'hen the time is either past or future, a particular tense form is used. The past tense form has the tennination -ele or -ile, and the future (equivalent to the -taka-tense in Swahili) is nololta. When the relative is the object of the verb, these tense fonns are again always used, while its subject (if a pronoun) is in the form, and placed after it with the past or present tense, before it with the future. The 1nan who went mtu aruele. The food that went 'I cholia The man whom we sent ...__ mtu umelemle hu. The man who is goillg ---1ntu00raa. The man whom I saw mtu amonile aka. The man whom thou sawest mtu amonile ao. The man whom he saw mtu amonile awe. The man whom we saw mtu amonile hu. The man who will go mtu nolohoroa. The man whom he will see mtu nolohawemwona. The food which we saw yolia yonile hu. The man who sees me mtu nokona. The man who saw us mtu anonile. Where I am sleeping vanorupaka. Where he is sleeping vanorupawe. Where I shall sleep vanlohakurupa. Where he will sleep vanlohaweurupa. When joined with the verb "to be," the relative is expressed by -ri, with the appropriate prefixes. I. Uri, ari II. Uri, chiri which is, which are. '' ''

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PRONOUNS. III. Ori, ari IV. Niri, ari V. Uri, ari VI. Uri, ari VII. Iri, chiri VIII. Iri, chiri IX. Vari, mri which is, which are. '' '' '' '' '' ,, " ,, '' " INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Who? upani ? apani ? What ? shiani ? What is the matter? urishiani? What thing ? itu shiani ? What man? mtu shiani? 'Vha t food ? cholia shiani ? When? yakani ? Which ? shiani ? Where ? uvi ? vai ? Where is he ? uri vai ? Where are they ? ari vai ? Here (inside) mmo. By (by the side of) hapo. Where do you come from ? mnokuma vai ? How? chani? 57 How 1nany? I. Achani. IV. Machani. VII. Mchani. II. Michani. V. Machani. VIII. Mchani. III. Achani. VI. Achani. How often ? vachani ? Whoever I. Uri othe, ari othe. II. Uri nothe, chiri chothe. III. Uri othe, ari othe. IV. Niri nothe, ari othe. V. Uri wothe, ari othe. VI. Uri othe, ari othe. VII. Iri othe, chiri chothe. VIII. Iri othe, chiri chothe. IX. Vari vothe, mri mothe. IX. Mchani.

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( 58 ) VERBS. 1\fAKUA verbs always end in a in their simplest form. The si1nplest form standing alone is the singular of the imperative, as in English-Pang a! do Roa! go away! The person and tense are most commonly denoted by varying prefixes. There is a negative as well as an affirmative conjugation. In using or construing Makua verbs, the plural of the second and third persons is always employed instead of the singular, where no special inferiority in the person addressed or spoken of is meant to be implied. INFINITIVE MooD. The Infinitive is made by prefixing u to the simplest form of the verb-Upanga, to do; uroa, to go away. Wata, to beat (the u becoming w before the vowel). The infinitive may always be used as a substantive, like the English verbal substantive in -ingUpanga, doing. The infinitive may be prefixed to other parts of the verb to intensify its meaning-Utuna kinotuna, loving, I love, i.e. I love ex ceedingly.

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VERBS. 59 INDICATIVE Moon. Present Tense. The Present tense, which is also. used as a future, is formed by prefixing no to the simplest form of the verb:lei u . a, u, a, u, a, a, va m ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m no-roa I go or will go. thou goest or wilt go. he goes or will go. we go or will go. you go or will go. they go or will go. Present Imperfect. The Present Imperfect tense answers to our tense with am: I am going, I am loving, etc. It is formed by suffixing the syllable -ka to the form of the present:-ki u . a, u, a, u, a, a, va no-1oa-ka I am going. thou art going. he is m ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m Second Future. we are you are going. they are going. There is a kind of Second Future formed with the verb to be, and used in the sense of-1 shall be doing, loving, going, etc. :-ki u a, u, a, .ni, u, a, a, } va m ya, chi, a, a, a, a, } chi, chi, m nokela moa I shaH be going. thou wilt be going. he will be going. we shall be going you will be going. they will be going.

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60 VERBS. Present Perfect. The Present Perfect answering to the English tense made with have, is formed by prefixing -ho-to the simplest form of the verb:-ki u . ho-1oa a, u, a, nz, u, a, a, z, va m ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m Past Perfect. I have gone. thou hast gone. he has gone. we have gone you have gone. they have gone. The Past Perfect is formed from the present perfect by merely inserting -a-between the personal prefix and the verb. The -i-of the first persons singular and plural is dropped before the sign of the past perfect. k w a,w,a,n,w, a, a,y,v n mw ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw a-ho-roa Relative Past. I went. thou wen test. he went. we went. you went. they went. A kind of Relative Past tense is formed by adding the termination -ele to the root of the verb:ki I who went. u thou who wen test. a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va ro-ele he who went. ni we who went. m you who went. ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m they who went. A Future Relative is also formed by prefixing noloha or nloha to the simplest form of the verb: kino loharoa, I who will go, etc., etc.

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VERBS. 61 Past Imperfect. The Past I1nperfect is formed from the present tense by inserting a between the personal prefix and the verb:k w a,w,a,n,w, a,a,y,va n mw ya,ch,a,a,a,a, ch,ch, 1 mw 5 a-no-roa I was going. thou wast going. he was we were you were going. they were going. IMPERATIVE MooD. The Imperative Singular is the simplest form of the verb:Panga I do! Roa I go away! The Plural is made by adding -ni to the singular, and is inuch more commonly employed even in speaking to a single person. Pangani I do! Roani I go away! SuBJUNCTIVE MooD. The Subjunctive, which is also used as an impera tive, is formed by changing the final vowel into -e, and prefixing the signs of the person :-ki u . a, u, a, nz, a, a, 't, va nz m ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m that I may go, or, let me go. that thou mayest go roe that he may go. that we may go that you may go. that they may go

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62 VERBS. That, when it denotes an object or intention, and and, when in English it is used to connect an action with some preceding action which leads to it, are expressed by the use of the subjunctive:.Awiye akalie, let him come and sit down. Conditional. There is a tense made by prefixing the syllable ga--to the present perfect form, which is used to express a contingency :N_qahoroa, I should go or have gone. Ukahoroa, thou shouldest go or have gone .A, u, a, ni, u, a, a; i, va, -kahoroa, he should go m have gone. Ningahoroa, we should go or have gone. Mkahoroa, you should go or have gone. Y a, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, ni, -ngahoroa, they should go or have gone. The being in a state, or in the act, of doing anything is expressed by the adverb va placed before the verb, the verb being followed by the possessive pronoun. Vanlohaweolumacha Variayairuaka Vanoliawe Valileyaka Vakilumileawe when he shall speak. when they were going. when he is eating. when I ate. when he was hurting me. NEGATIVE TENSES. Negative Present. The Negative Present is formed by prefixing lea-,

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VERBS. 63 followed by the sign of the person, to the present tense. The first person, however, is irregular:-aki ku ka, ku, ka, ka, ku, ka, } noroa ki, ki, kava kan kam lea, kachi, ka, ka, ka, } ka, kachi, kachi, kam I do not go or am not going. thou art not going. he is not going. we are not going. you are not going. they are not going. Negative Future. The Negative Future is formed by prefixing k-, followed by the sign of the person, to the simplest form of the verb :-aki ku I will not go. thou wilt not go. ka, ku, ka, ka, ku, ka, } ki, ki, kava he will not go. kani kam roa we will not go. you will not go. ka, kachi, ka, ka, ka, } ka,. kachi, kachi, kam they will not go. ) Negative Past. The Negative Past is formed by prefixing k-, followed by the sign of the person, to the ele tense-. aki I have not gone. ku thou hast not gone. ka, ku, ka, ka, ku, ka, } h h t ki, ki, kava e as no gone. kani roele we have not gone. kam you have not gone. ka, kachi, lea, ka, ka, } they have not gone. ka, kachi, kachi, kam

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64 VERBS. Negative SubJunctive. The Negative of the Subjunctive is formed by inserting between the personal prefix and the form of the present" subjunctive, the syllable hi:-ki that I may not go. u that thou mayest not go. a, tt, a, 1!'i, u, a, } that he may not go. a, z, .va hi-roe that we may not go. m ya, chi, a, a, a, a, } chi, chi, 'In that you may not go. that they may not go. A form of negative with the sense of not yet is formed by the insertion of -na-between the negative and personal prefixes, and the present subjunctive of the verb :-aki ku ka, ku, ka, ka, ku, ki, ki, kava kani kam ka, kachi, ka, ka, ka, ka, } kachi, kachi, kam na-roe I have not .. '?t .. gone. thou hast not yet gone. he has not yet gone. we have not yet gone. i you have not.yet gone. they have not yet gone. THE PASSIVE VOICE. The Passive is formed from the active by inserting -ibefore the final vowel. It is in all other respects like the active. Utuna, to love ; utunia, to be loved.

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VERDS. THE VERB TO BE." The verb ukala, to be, is somewhat irregular. In the present tense the personal signs are used alone, to represent is or are. Is (and are) not is expressed by ngati or ka. Present Perfect. kiri I have been. uri thou hast been. a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va, -ri he has been. niri we have been. mri you have been. ya, chi, a, a, a, a, chi, chi, m, -m1i they have been. Past Perfect. The Past Perfect is formed from the present per by prefixing -a-to the final -ri :-kari I was or had been. wari thou wast or hadst been. a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va, -ari he was or had been. nari we were or had been. mwari you were or had been. ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw, -ari they were or had been. Past Impm-(ect. \fhe Past Imperfect, was or was being, used also like the s,vahili nilciwa, ulciwa, alciwa, etc., is formed regularly from the root of the verb, by prefixing -a-to it, and by suffixing ka :k w a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va n mw ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw I was being. thou wast being. he was being. ''re were being. you were being. they were being. F

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66 Future. The Future, shall or will be, is formed regularly, by prefixing -no-to the root of the verb. ki I shall be. u thou shalt be. a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va nokala be shall be. n we shall be. m you shall be. ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw they shall be. Subjunctive. The Subjunctive, that may be or let -be, is formed regularly from the root by changing a into e, and prefixing the personal signs. ki that I may be. u that thou mayest be. a, u, a, ni, u, a, a, i, va kale that he may be. ni that we may be. m that you may be. ya, ch, a, a, a, a, ch, ch, mw that they may be. THE VERB TO HAVE." The verb" to have" is expressed by ukala, followed by na, i.e. to be with." '' DERIVATIVE VERBS. From any simple verb others may be formed by a change in its termination. I. By changing the final a into ela or era the effect is the same as that of adding a preposition in English. The termination era is used when the

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VERBS. 67 consonant of the preceding syllable is h or y. Era and ela cannot be interchanged or used as though r and l were the same letter. In Makua it is most important to distinguish r from l. To make, upanga; to make for, upangela. To bring, uwiha; to bring for, uwihera. To be sorry, uchukula; to be sorry for, uchu kulela. To fall down, uwuluwa; to fall down to, uwuluwela. To perplex, utapaniha; to perplex for, utapanihera. To miss, uwonya; to miss for, uwonyera. To climb, uwela; to climb for, uwelela. To buy, uthuma; to buy for, uthumela. The passive of this form refers to the person, etc., to, for, from, with, etc., which the action is done; and means, to have such a thing done to, for, with, etc., the person, etc. II. The verb is made causative by changing the final a into iha. If the termination of the simple verb be ua, the causative sometimes makes ula, and somatimes usha :,, To increase, uthepa; to make to increase, uthepiha. To grow less, uvukua ; to make to grow less, uvukula. To be angry, uthanala; to make angry, uthanaliha. To climb, uwela; to make to climb, uweliha. To go out, ukuma; to make to go out, ukumiha. To go down, ulcurua; to make to go down, ukurusha. 'l,o change, urnkri,nua; to make to change, tt/I"Ultunusha.

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68 VERB3. III. A passive or quasi-gerundive form is made by the use of the termination ea in place of the final a. To cheat, wothothct; to be cheated, wothothea. To cut, uthikila; to bo cut, uthikilea. To find, wona ; to 1o to be found, wonea. To hear, uwiwa; to be to be heard, uwiwanea. To increase, woncherera; to be increased, wonchererea. IV. The verb is_ made reciprocal by changing the final a in to ana. To hear, uwiwa; to hear one another, uwiwa nana. To love, watha; to love one another, wathana. To fight, wata; to fight one another, watana.

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VERBS. 69 LIST OF VERBS. IN the Makua language there is no ku-prefix as in Swahili, Yao, Shambala, Nyamwezi, etc., to signify the "to" of the infinitive mood. Most Makua verbs begin with the letter u. Thus, "to do in Makua is upanga. Abhor, unanarela. A bide, ukalathi. Able, To be, woria: urochtha. A bound with, u}ara. Abstain from, uhapua. Abuse, uruana. Accept, utuna; to receive, wakeZa. Accompany, utukanloka. plish, umalia. ukihimya. Accustom, ulemaleliha ; to become used to, ulemalela. Ache, uweria; my head is aching, muru unoweria. Acquit, uhia. Act, upanga. Add to, uoncherera. Admire, utuna. Admit, ugeliha. Adorn, utvarara. Adultery, To commit, ulura. Advance (money, etc.), ukopiha.

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70 Ad vise, uvaha. mash a uri. Adze, uthokola. Afflict, uhuviha. Afraid, To be, wova. Agree, wirana. Aim, To take, ulika. VERBS. Alarm, wopopiha ; to be alarmed, ukelia ulata. Alienated, To be, uhiana. Alter, urukunusha (neut.). Amazed, To be, uthikina. Angry, To be, uthunala; to make angry, uthunaliha. Annoy, uhuviha. Answer, wakula. Appear, wonelela. Approach, watama. Approve, utuna. Arise, uroa. Arrange, urehereriha. Arrive, upiya; to make to arrive, upiha; to reach a person, ukipwanya. Ascend, uwela. Ascertain, uchuhelesha. Ashamed, To be, ulia muru; to make ashamed, umhela mcheche. Ask, ukoha; to ask for, uvekela; to make enquiries on behalf of, umkohera ; to ask in marriage, uveka. Assemble, wokela; wokelana (neut.). Astonish, umtikinachiha ; to be astonished, uthikinacha. Attack, ushenga. At tern pt, ulika. Attend, ulita (i.e. wait upon). Audible, To be, wiwanana. A vail, uloka. A void, uhapua. A wake, wuwa ; to waken, umusha (act.). A ware, To become, ushurimuka.

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VERBS. Backbite, wotheria. Bake, wosha ; to bake pottery, upaha. Banish, womola. Bar, utea. Bark, unla. Bask in the sun, wotela nchua. Bathe, urapa. Be, ukala. 71 Bear (fruit, children, etc.), uyara; carry, ukusha; tolerate, uvilela; bear witness, wonechesha. Beat, wata; beat to pieces, uwota; beat a roof, upa-pata ; beat a drum, wopa. Beckon, uvela. Beg, uvekela. Beget, uyara. Begin, upachera. Behave, upanga. Belch, ukanana. Bend, upinda ; to bend down, uromiha. Ben urn b, ukwita. Beware, uwechechesya. Bewitch, uloha. Bind, utuka. Bite, uluma. Bit-ter, To be; uwawa. Blaze, uparela. Bleed, ukuma ikomi. Blind, To be, upweya. Blossom, ukala ituwa. Blow, as the wind, uruma; to blow with the mouth, uchelela ; to blow the nose, uutha mamila. Boast, wihimeacha. Boil (bubble up), uvilua; to cook by boiling, wapea; to be cooked by boiling, utokota. Border; weshana mwinano. Born, To be, uyaria.

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72 VERBS. Borrow, washirnia. Bother, uhuviha. Bow, wororniha (act.), wororna (neut.). Box the ears, urnwata ninthatha. Break, upwesha (act.), upwea (neut.); to break through, uternula. Breathe, urnurnula. Breed, uyara. Brilliant, To be, wonela. Bring, uwiha; to bring to or for, uwihera; to bring_ up, ulela. Bruise, uvyonola ; to be bruised, uvyonyoa. Brush, ukukuta. Bud, upua. Build, utheka. Burden, To be a, ulernela. Burn, uparela ; to set on fire, uparehela. Burst, uparua. Bury, uvitha. Buy, uthurna; to buy for, uthurnela; to buy back, wopola. Buzz, urithirna. Cackle, utetera : urotoka. Call, wihana. 11 Calm, To be, urnala; to make calm, urnaliha. Can (to be able), woria; I cannot, akinoria; I cab, kinooria. Care (take care of), uweha; to take care, uwehechecha ; to consider, upwela; I don't care, pahi. Carry, ukusha; to carry for, ukushera; to carry (a baby on the back), urnyara; to carry off as spoil, uvara. Cast, uriha ; to cast at, urihela. Catch, ukapula; to catch in a trap, urea; to catch fish, umen,ja ihnpa.

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VF..RBS. 73 Cease, ukoma ; to make to cease, ukomiha ; to cease (talking, etc.), umala. Change, urukunusha (act.); urukunua (neut.). Charge, ulehera. Chase, ulupata; to chase away, womola. Chastise, utarusha. Cheat, wothotha; to be cheated, wothothea. Chew, ulcu1a. Chirrup, uchonya. Choke, wama. Choose, uthanla. Chop up, uthalcacha. Circulate (news, etc.), uwanheliha. Circumcise, winela. Clap the hands, ukwata. Claw, uwarakula. Clean, ureriha. Clear (to make plain), umhimeresha; to clear (ground in a forest, etc.), uvera; to clear a path by laying aside the grass, uhata. Cleave, uparula; to cleave to, uvarechesya. Climb, uwela. Close: the eyes, etc., upithiha; the fist, uhurua; a book, ukunela. Clotl!e, wariha; to put on clothes, uwara. ColQ., To be, uriria; to feel cold, wona uriria. Colfect, ukela (act.), ukelana (neut.). Comb, uvacha. Come, ua ; to come to, uwela ; to come out, uroa ; to come in, ukela; to come upon (meet with), up wanya; to come near, watama; to come to life again, ; to come to an end, ukoma ; to . arrive, Comfort, umaliha ; to be comforted, umalihea. Command, ulamula. Complete, wiraniha; to be complete, wiranihea.

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74 VERBS. Comprehend, uchuwela. Conceal, uvitha ; to be concealed, uvithia. Confident, To be, ukuluvela. Confound, utakaniha. Connect, uparana. Conquer, 'lwelaveliha, 'ltVelavelihia (pass.). Consent, utuna. Consider, wupuwela. Console, umaliha. Construct, utheka. Consult, upanga mashauri. Consume, upaha. Continue, upicha; to make to continue, upichiha. Con tract, ukula ; to shorten, ukuveha. Contradict, uvaniha. Control, utielela. Convert, urukunusha; to turn, urukunua. Cook, wapea; to cook with fat, warika; to wosha; to become cooked properly, utokota. Corrupt, uhononacha, uhononea (neut.); to go bad, untwa. Cough, ulwthomola. Count, walakelea ( neut. ). Cover, ukunela. Crack, upanga mnyate. Ora w 1, wapacha. Create, wupa. Cross, ulapua. Crow, wipa. Crumble, utikita. Crush, uwota ; to crnsh up, uhekaheka. Cry, wunla; to cry about, wunlela. Cui ti va te, ulima. Cure, uwoniha, uwona. Curse, umlapa ; to be cursed, ulapea. f Cut, uthikila; to be cut, uthikilea; to cut for, kilela; to cut up, uparula.

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Destroy, uhononacha. Dance, .utwela. Dare, woria. VERBS. Daub, uhika; to daub on, uhikela. Dawn, upachosha. 75 Deceive, wothotha; to be deceived, wothothea (neut.). Decide, uthikila malove. Decrease, uwulcula (act.), uwukua ( neut. ). Defend, u_lita. Delay, upicha (neut.). Deliver, wapula; to be delivered, wapulea. Demand, utuna (?). Deny, ukota; to deny to a person, uthuwia. Depart, uroa. Deride, uthea. Descend, ukuruwa. Describe, ulepa. Desert, uhia. Desire, utuna. Despise, uveha. Detain, upichiha. Die, ukwa; to 1nake to die, umwit'a; to lose by death, ukwelia. Dig, uthipa. Digflify, ulemiliha; to become dignified, ulemela. u_ruwea. Direct, ulehera. Disagree, uwana. Disembowel, upula. Disgrace, umhela mcheche. Disgust, unanarela. Dish up, uvanla. Disquiet, uhuDiha; to be disquieted, uhuva. Disobev, uhirumia. t.l Disorder, uthipula; to be in disorder, uthipulia. Distort, unyopotola; to be distorted, unyopotoa.

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76 Distribute, umeaniha. Drive, unela. Divide, umeaniha. VERBS. Do, upanga; to be done, upangea (neut.). Doubt, uhuva; there is no doubt, kava uhuva. Doze, uhichiva; to wake up suddenly from a doze, uthuthua. Drag, upurula. Draw (water), urika; t8 draw near, watama; to draw a line, upanga mthethela ; to draw breath, uhihimeria; to draw up the earth round plants, ukunJerera; to draw the end of the loin cloth between the legs and tuck it in, uwara mgonda. Dread, wova. Dream, umela. Dress, uwara ikuo ; to dress up, wipapa. Drink, uria. Drip, utonya. Drive (to lead, conduct), uholehiha; to drive as a shepherd, ushunga; to drive away, womola. Drop, uwuluwa (neut.), uwulusha (act.). Drop into, uwuluwela. Drunken, To be, uhapaliha. Dry, wuma (neut.), wumiha (act.); to put out to dry, wanea. Dust, ukukuta mtukuruku. Dwell, ukala. Earn, upata. f Ease one's self, unya. Eat, ulia; to eat for, ulielia; tQ be eaten or eatable, ulea; to over-eat one's self, wipelia. Educate, wituchiha. Embark, uwela. Employ, uruma. Empty out,

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Enable, woriha. Encamp, urula. End, umala ( neut. ). Endure, upicha. Enervate, ushokoiha. Enjoy, utelia. VERBS. Enlarge, wonjerera. Enough, To be, uthoslta. Enquire, ukoha. Enslave, uhelia mu potani. Enter, ukela. Entreat, uvekela. En trust, weshera. Equalize, ulikaniha. Err, uwonia. Escape, wapua. Exalt, winula. Exceed, uvira. Exchange, wakakaniha. Excuse, uhia. Exercise, ulemela. Exhort, woniha. Expect, walita. womola. Explain, uthapula. E:!tend, wokola (act.). Extinguish, utipiha; to go out, utipea. Extol, ushipa. 77 Fade, uma ; to grow weak and thin, ushokoia wukua. Faint, ulwmoa. Fall, ulua; to fall into, uluwela; to let fall into, uluweliha ; to fall in, upomoa ; to fall sick, uwereia. Fan, upepetela. Fast, utuka. Fasten, utuka.

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78 VERBS. Fatten, uneneva (neut.). Fatigue, wocheha; to be fatigued, wochea. Fear, wova. Feed, uliha. Feel, wona. Feign, wipanga. Fell, uthekila. Ferment, uchasha. Ferry, ulapusha. Fetch, uwiha. Fight, umanana. Fill, uchariha ; to become full, ftchara ; to be full, to have had enough, urupala. Find, wona ; to be to be found, wonea. Finish, umaliha (act.), umala (neut.); to finish off, urehereria; to finish a journey, upia. Fire (to set on fire), uhela moro; to apply fire in any way, upaha. Fish, umenja ihopa. Fit, uloka. Fix, uparelela. Flame, upara. Flash (to lighten), uverunya. Flay, ukava. Flee, utiawa. Flexible, To be, Float, urapela. Flinch, wova. Flourish, ukonda. Flow, uvira. Flower, ukuma ithuthu. Fly, uvava. Fold, upinda. Follow, utara. Forbid, ulumela. Force, uhela ikuru. t f

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Forge, uhana yuma. Forget, uliyala. Forgive, uhiera. Forsake, uhia. VERBS. Free, uhia unethi. Frighten, woviha. Frown, uwiha mahinyari. Fry, werika. Fulfil, umaliha. Gain, upata impumi. Gape, wiria muria. Gather, urukula; to gather together, wukela. 79 Get, upata; to get better, uwona; to get drunk, uhapalia; to get dry, wuma; to get for, upatela; to get goods on credit, ukopa ; to get in to, ukela ; to get out, ukuma; to get ripe, utokota; to get through, upwaha; to get up, uroa; to get upon, uwela. Give (a thing), ukumiha; to give to a person, uvaha; to give back, uholwleshera ; to give trouble, uhu. viha. Glide, uthereria. Glitter, utela. G lodfy, ushipa. G l0;w, ung' ala. Go, wetha; to go for, wethela; to go ashore, ukochera; to go away, uroa; to go away from, uhia; to go back, uhokolea ; to go bad, wunta ; to go before, uholela; to go by, uvira; to go crooked, urukureria; to go into, ukela; to go on board, uwela; to go over, ulapua; to go running, wetha uwakuvacha. Govern, ukeli inupa. Grasp, uvara. Greedy, ':ro be, ukalia milili. Grieve, umchukuliha (act.), umchukula (neut.).

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80 Grin, ushenya mino. Grind, ushila. Groan, wipulela. VERBS. Grow, uloha; to become large, unua; of plants, umea; to become full grown, ukomala; to grow fat, uneneva ; to grow thin, wota ; to grow less, ukua; to make to grow up, unuwiha. Grumble, utokuta. Guard, ushunga. Guess, wanihera. Guide, uthonya. Halt, urula ; to go lame, utembela. Hammer, ukomela. Hang, wanea; to be suspended, utukelela; to hang up, uthomea; to strangle, unyopotola. Harass, uhuviha; to be embarrassed, uhuva. Harm, upwerera. Hasten, wakuviha (act.), wakuva (neut.). Hatch, utlzatha; to break the egg, uthothola. Hate, unanarela. Have, ukala na. Heal, uwoniha ; to be healed, wiwanea. Hear, wiwa; to hear one another, wiwanana; to be to be heard, wiwanea. Hear ken, wiwelela. Heat (get hot), upata mtukuta. He1 p, ukaviha. Hesitate, wuma 'u,wanoni. Hide, uvitha. Hinder, utiyelela. Hit, wata. Hoarse, To be, ulala nlowe. Hoe, ulima; to hoe up, toeslta matuto. Hoist, utlwmea. Hold, uvara.

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Hollow out, uwuhula. Honour, ulemeliha. Hope, ukuZ.uvela. VERBS. Rumble one's self, wiyeviha. H urn ble, uyeviha. Hunger, wolia ithala. Hunt, ulupata. Hurt, uluma, uweria (act.). Husk (of Indian corn, etc.), ukakata. Ill, or unwell, To be, uwereia. Imitate, utara. Immerse, uruwea. Imprecate against, ulapiha. Imprison, utuka. Incline, woroma (neut.), woromiha (act.). Increase, woncherera (act.), wonchererea ( neut. ). Indebted, To be, wulumihia. Indulge in, ulemaleliha. Ingratiate one's self, wipwaneliha. Inhabit, ukalathi. Inquire, wavia. Instruct, wetujiha. Insult, uruwana. In te;, uvitha. 81 Intuxicate, uhapaliha; to become intoxicated, ulta palia. Invite, wihana; to invite to come in, uwihanela. Itch, unena. Jam, ukoromela. Jest, uhewulacha. Join, uluta (act.); ulutana (neut.). Judge, wakanyulaniha. Jump, U'Vava. G

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82 VERBS. Keep, wesha; to take care of, ushunga; to hold, uwara ; to keep (animals), uhuwa; to keep from, uhapuwiha. Kick, wata ninyao. Kill, wiva ; to kill for food, uhitha. Kind, To be, upanga cho u1era. Knead, uwota. Kneel, ulcoroma. Knock, watakela. Know, uchuela; I know where he is, kihochuela uri awe; I know how to speak the language of Zan zibar, kihochuela ularnacha imaka; I can do blacksmith's work, kihochuela uhana ; to recognize, uchuela ; to be knowable, uchuelachia ; to make to know, uchueliha ; to become known, uwanela. Lace (the rope of a bedstead), uranda. Lacerate, wahula. Lame, To be, utumbela .. Last, ulipa. La ugh, uthea. Lay, uhela; to lay down, wathalela; to lay eggs, urela moche; to lay open, ulcunula. Lazy, To be, tdcalorushia. Lead, wokola; to lead astray, wonyiha. Leak, uwuva. Lean upon, withokochira. --. -, To be, wota. Learn, wituchiha. Leave, uhia; to leave to, uhiyera; to be left, ulz.ala; to take leave of, uleha ; to leave one another, ulehana. Leaven, uchukumala. Lend, washima. Lessen, uwulcula. Level, urehereria.

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Liberate, uthapula. Lick, ulatha. VERBS. 83 Lie : to tell falsehoods, wotha ; to lie down, uyathalela; to lie heavy on, ulemela; to lie in wait for, ulohera. Lift, winula. Light, unena. Like, utuna. Liken, ulataniha. Linger, upicha. Listen, wiwelela. Live (stay, or, be), ukalala; to be alive, ukala mkumi. Load, umkuchiha ; to load a gun, uhelela. Long for, umirieria ukwilu. Look, uweha; to look out, or look carefully, uwehe rera; to look for, uwavia; to look after, uthoko-. rena. Loose, uthapula. Lose (to be lost to), urimela; I have lost my knife, mwalo uhokirihia. Love, utuna. Magnify, ushipa. Makld, upanga; to create, wupa; to make for, upa n.gela ; to make sorry, uchukuliha ; to 1nake to agree, wiraniha; to make to enter, ukeliha. Mark, uhela a lama. Marry: of the husband, uthela; of the wife, uthelia; of the couple, uthelana; of the parents, utheliha. To ask in marriage, uveka. umwayina. Measure, upima. Mediate, wakanyulaniha. Meet, wonana; to meet with, upwanya. Melt, uthothoa ( neu t. ), uthothosha (act.).

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84 VERBS. Mend, upangacha; to sew up, utotelela. Mention, uromola. Milk, wama. Mind (take care of), uthokoreria. Mingle, uthakaniha ; to be mingled, uthakanihea. Miss, uwonya. Mislead, uriha. Mock, utara. Molest, upacha. Mount, uwela. Mourn, ukala mariro. Move, uchusherera (neut. ), uchusheriha (act.) ; to shake, utikinya; to change the place of dwelling, uthama ; to cause to remove, uthamiha. Multiply, uthepiha. Murder, wiva. 1\-furmur, utokuta. N arne, uromola. Need, utuna. Neglect, uhiyerera. Nod (doze), uhichila. Noise, To make a, unyakula. Nourish, uliha. Nurse, ulela. Nudge, ukaka. Obey, urumela. Object to, uhituna. Obstruct, ukotiha. Offend, uthunaliha. Offer to, ukumihera. Old (to grow), wuluwala. Omit, uhia. Open, ukunula (act.). Opposite, To be, watamela.

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VERBS. 85 Oppress, upacha. Order, ulehera; to put in order, urehereria. Over-eat one's self, wipelia. Overfeed, wipeliha. Overflow, uminea. Oversee, wemelela. Overturn, urukunusha; to be overturned, urukunua. Owe, wulumihia. Pain, uwerea. Pardon, uhiera. Pass, uvira ; to make to pass, uviriha ; to pass through, upwaha; to pass over (of a river), ulapulza; to be passable, wetea. Pasture, ushunga. Patient, uvelela. Pay, uliva; to pay to, ulivela. Peel, ukalcata. Peep, uthurumela. Pelt, uwonyera. Perfect, wiraniha ; to be perfected, wiranea. Perforate, utemlacha. Perplex, utapaniha. Persecute, womola. Pe1Bpire, ukuma mtukuta. Pjrsuacle, uthepia. Pick, urukula; to pick out, uthanla; to pick up, urokota. Pinch, uthina. Place, wesha. Plait, utava. Plant, wala. Plaster, umara. Play, uthwela; to play upon an instrument, wopa. Please, upwanela ; to be pleased, upwanelia. Pluck (feathers, etc.), unyochola.

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86 Plug up, utiyela. Plunder, uva1a. Point, uthokola. Polish, ukuta. Possess, uvaria. VERBS Possible, To be, wo'rea. Pottery, To 1nake, wupa. Pound, wotawota; to clean corn by pounding, Pour, umina; to pour away, uriha. Practise, wilimaliliha. Praise, ushipa. --one's self, wishipa. Pray, uvekela. Precede, uholela. Precipitous, To be, utlwkolea. Pregnant, To be, ukala nerukulu. Prepare, wesha kalairu. Press, utinye.ririha; to press out, wama; to press heavily upon, ulemela; to press against one another, uthukumala. Pretend to be, wipanga. Prevent, utielela. Proclaim, uwaneliha. Prohibit, wulomela. Profit, upata impumi. Prop up, withokocheriha. Provoke, uthunaliha. Puff (to be puffed up), uthamalea. Pull, upurula; to pull out, upela; to be pulled out, upelia. Punish, utarusha. Purify, ureriha. Pursue, utara. Push, ukaka. Put, uhela; to put across, ulapusha; to put a pot on the fire, wapea; to put down, urula; to put on

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VERBS. 87 (clothes), uwara; to put out (fire, etc.), utipiha; to put to rights, U'rehereria; to put through, upwahiha. Pu trify, unta. Quake, uthukumela. Quarrel, wana. Quiet, umaaliha. Quench, uthipiha. Race, ukotholana. Rain, urupa. Raise, uthesha. Ransom, wopola. Raw, To be made, uthunyua. Reach (arrive at), upia; to reach a person, upiela; to cause to reach, upiha. Read, ushoma ; to teach to read, ushomiha. Reap, uthikila. Rear, ulela. Rebel, umrela. Rebuke, wulumela. Receive, wakela ; to accept, utuna ; to receive for some one else, wakelela. walakela. !\ecline, wiyokola. Recognize, uchuela; to be recognizable, uchuonea. Recollect, wupuwela. Reconcile, wiraniha. Reflect, upuwela. Refuse, ukota ; to refuse to, uthua. Regret, uchulcula. Reign, ukela inupa. Reject, ukota. Rejoice, utelia (neut.), uteliha (act.). Release, uhia.

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.. 88 VERBS. Remain, ukala ; to be left, uhala. Remember, wupuwela. Remind, wupuweliha. Remove, urochiha. Rend, warakula; to be rent to pieces, uthalachatha.lacha. Repent, utarua. Reply, wakula. Repay, uliva. Reproach, urela. Rescue, wapula. Resemble, ulikana; to make to resemble, ulikaniha. Rest, witua ( neut. ), wituwiha (act.). Restore, urokolosha. Resuscitate, uhihimwiha. Return, uhokolea. Reveal, ukunula. Reverse, urukunusha. Revive, ulama. Ride upon, uwela. Ridicule, uhemulacha. Ripen, uthokota. Rise (ascend), uwela; to get up, uroa; to rise to (i.e, out of respect to), uroela. Roar, wipa. Roast, wosha. Rob, uiera ; take by force, uchomola. Roll, upikirisha (act.), upikiria (neut. ). Rot, unta. Round, To be, uvilikea. Rouse, wusha. Rub, ukuta ; to rub to pieces, utikita; to rub in ointment, etc., uhika. Ruin, urihiha Rule, ukela inupa. Ruminate, uchukula.

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VERBS. 89 Run, uthyawa; to make to run away, uthyawiha; to run away (from a master, etc.), utoroka ; to run down with blood, ukuma ipome. Rush along, wakuwacha. Rust, uvara mrenje (neut.). Satisfy (with food), urupaliha; to be satisfied, u1upala ; to be enough, uthosha. Save, uwapula; to be saved, wapua. Say, wulumacha; to say to, ulela. Scald, upwaha ; to be scalded, uvia. Scare, womolela. Seatter, urihakacha ; to be sea ttered, urihakea. Scold, wulumela. Scorn, uveha. Scour, ukuta. Serape, wakula. Scratch one's self, wichuna. Search for, wavy a. See, wona ; to be seen, wonea. Seek, utuna ; to seek ad vice, utuna ushauri. Seize, uvara. Select, uthanla. Sell, uthuma. Selld, uvelela; to send to, uvelelela; to send away, ,.uruchiha ; to send back, uhokolosha; to send upon business, uruma. Separate, umeaniha; to leave one another, uhiyana; to alienate; uhianiha; to become alienated, uhiana. Serve, urumela ; to be a servant, urumea. Set, wesha; of the sun, wila; to set a trap, urea; to set in order, upaka (?); to set out on a journey, weta Settle (to settle an affair), uthikila. Sew, utota. Shade, uhela mtuchi.

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90 VERBS. Shake, utikinya (act.). Shame, uhela mcheche; to be put to shame, uhelea mcheche. Shape, wupa. Share, umeaniha ; to be partners in, ukavihana. Sharpen, unona. Shave, wowula. Shell, ukakata. Shine, wonela. Shiver, utetemela (neut. ). Shoot, umopa kapwiti; as a plant, upua. Shorten, ukuveha. Shout, ukua. Show, woniha; to show a light, umwalea; to show one's teeth, ushenya mino. Shrink, uyeva. Shrivel up, unyala. Shrug one's shoulders, winula makatha. Shun, uhapua. Shut, utea; to fasten, utuka; to close, upithiha. Sick, To be, uwerea. Sift, uvera. Sigh, wiha. Silence, umaliha ; to become silent, umala. Sin, uwonya. Sing, wipa. Sink, uneliha (act.), unela ( neu t. ). Sit, ukalathi; like a hen, uramela. Skin, ukava. Slander, wotheria. Slap, wathantha. Slaughter,' uhitha. Sleep, urupa; to doze, uhichila. Slide, uthereria. Slit, uparula. Slope, woroma.

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VERBS. Smart, unena ; to make to smart, uneniha. Smear on, uhika. Smell, unuka (neut.). Smile, uthea. 91 Smoke, ukuma mwishi; to smoke tobacco, umlia shoni. Smooth, urureria. Snare, urea. Snarl, ushenya mino. Snatch, uchomola. Sneeze, wichamuria. Snore, ung' ong' a. Soak, uruea. Soothe, umaliha. Sorry, To be, uchukula. Sound (i.e. to sound depths, etc.), upima. Sow (seeds), wala. Sparkle, wonela. Speak, ulumacha ; to speak to, ulumachela ; to speak against, wapa. Spend, ulia; to spend time, wopamwaha. Spill, uriha; to be spilt, urihea. Spin, upota. Spit, ushua isheni. Splash, umicha (act.). Splice, uruta. Split, uparula. Spoil, uhununacha. Spoil, uhononea (neut.). Spout out, uthupa. Sprain, uthuthusha mtitari. Spread, wanela ( neut. ), waneliha (act.); to spread a bed, etc., etc., wathala. Sprinkle, unyunyera. Sprout, umela. Spy out, uhotela. Squabble; wana.

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VERBS. Squeeze, to squeeze together, unyopotola. Stain, uhela manepanepa. Stammer, ukalana ichimene. Stand, wemela, to make to stand, wemeliha ; to stand by, wemelela. Start : to be startled, uthuthua ; to set out, wuua. Startle, uthuthusha. Starve, ukwa ithala (neut. ), ukwiha ithala (act.). Stay, ukalathi; to loiter, upicha; to stop, utierela (act.). Steal, wiya; to steal from, wiyela. Stick, uvara (neut.). Stick fast, To, upotwela Sting, uluma. Stink, unuka. Stir, wothoa; to stir up, urua; to stir up (fire, etc.). uthetheria. Stoop, woroma. Stop (to make to cease), uvelaveliha, wemela ( neut.); to stop up, utiela. Straighten, wokola. Strangle, unyopotola. Strain (a liquid), uhukula. Stray, urimela. Strengthen, uhela ikuru. Stretch, wokola. Strew, umicha. Strike, wata; to strike the foot, ukwakwathua. String, uhulela. Strip off, ukakata. Strive with, ukotolana. Stroke, wapapela. Suck, wamwa. Suckle, wamwiha. Suffer, uhuvihia. Suffice, uthosha. Suit, uloka. I

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Superintend, wemelela. Support, withokocheriha. Surpass, uvira. Surround, urukureria. Sway about, uthetherua. VERBS. Swear, ulupela; to swear at, ulupeliha (?). Sweat, ukuma mtukuta. Sweep, ukwecha. Swell, wipa. Swim (of a man), urapela. Swing, urukureria. 93 Take, ukusha; to receive, wakela; to take to, uvele lela; to take something from a dish, umea; to take a walk, wetakacha ; to take across, ulapusha ; to take by force, uchomola; to take care of, utho koreria; to take leave of, uleha ; to take off, urula ; to take out of the pot, uvaula. Talk, ulumacha; to talk about, ulumachela; to talk through the nose, ulumachela mpulani. Tangle, uthapaniha. Taste, ulawiha. Teach, wetuchiha. Tear, wahulacha; to be torn, wahua. upacha. uhimeria. Tempt, ulika. rrend, ushunga. Terrify, wopopiha. Thatch, utunela. rrhink, wupuwela; to think one's self, wiona. rrhirst, wona ntona. Threaten, wopopiha. Thresh, weteta. Thrive, ukonda. rrhrow, uriha; to throw down, uwulusha.

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94 VERBS. Tickle, uthekinya. Tie, utuka. Tighten, ulipiha. Tipsy, To be, uhapalia. Tire, wochehiha ; to be tired, wochea. Toast, upaha. Torment, utarusha. Totter: tremble, utetemela; to be shaken, uveverua. Touch, ukwakwanya ;, to touch up, urehereria. Track, uta1a inyao. Trade, uthuma maronda. Train up, ulela. Trample, unyikala. Transforrp., wakakaniha. Trap, urea. Travel, weta mkwaha. Treat, upangela. Tremble, utetemela .. Trouble, uhuviha; to be troubled, uhuva. Trust in, ukuluvela. Try, ulika. Tumble, uwuluwa; to tumble into, uwuluwela. Turn, urukunusha ( neu t. ), urukunua. Turn aside ( neut. ), unyopotoa. Twist (a rope, etc.), u1itha. Unclose, ukunula. Uncomfortable, To be, uhuva. Uncover, ukunula. Understand, uchuela. Undo, uthapula ; to ruin, urihiha. Unite, uluta. Upset, u1ukunusha. Urge, ukaka. Urinate, urucha. Use (accustom), ulemaleliha ; to become accustomed to, ulemalela.

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Vanish, urihea. Vex, uthunaliha. Visible, To be, wonea. VERBS. Vomit, urapea ; to make to vomit, urapeha. Wait, ulita ; to wait for, ulitelela. 95 Wake, uwuwa (neut.), uwusha (act.); to be awake ukala mitho; to wake up suddenly with a start, uthuthua. Walk, weta; to walk about, weta; to walk lame, utumbela. Wander, urukumia. Want (need), utuna. Ward off, uteleria. Warm up, ukutiha. Wash, uhapiha ; to wash clothes, upuputa; to wash self, unyawa; to wash one's hands, unyawa mwno. Waste, uhononacha. Watch, wipithela. Water, uhela mashi. Waylay, ulohera. Weaken, ushokoyiha ; to become weak, ushokoya. Wear, uwara; to wear away, uwukuwa. wunla. upima; to weigh down, ulemela. Whet, unona. Will, utuna. Wink, wupila. Wipe, uvuta. vV i ther, unyala. Withhold from, uthua. Witness bear, wonechesya. Wonder, uthikinacha. Work, upanga mitheko. Worry, uhuviha.

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96 'V ound, umwereha. 'Vrap, upinda. 'Vring, wama. 'V rinkle, ukwitha. 'V rite, wandika. Yawn, wariamuria. VERBS.

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( 97 ) LIST OF ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CON JUNCTIONS. About (near), watama. Above ( adv.), mchulu. --(prep.), vachulu va. Abundantly, chinene. After ( adv. ), utuli. Afterwards, utuli wau,e. Again, thoni. Against, vachulu va (?). Ago (long ago), kalai. Alone (by himself), vekawe. Along with, utukanloko omoka. Already, miholo. Also, na. Always, makuko onkea. Amidst, iriare yo. Among, iriare. And, na. Anywhere, vari vothe. A part, utai. lcuno ; like, tholw. Ai, u-; at first, kalai; at home, u-; at night, uhiyu. Back, uthuli. Because, umlatu wo. Before, miholo ( adv.), miholo mo (prep.). Behind, uthuli. Below, vathi; uva.thi vo (prep.). Between, iriare ya. Both of them, onkea o pili. But, namcho. By (after a passive verb), ni. H

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98 .ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, .AND CONJUNCTIONS. Down, vathi. Directly, nana no vava. Early, mapikosha. Even, anakala. Ever, mahoko ene. Far, utai. First, kalai. Forth, vathe. Forward, uholu. G-ently, mrimamrima. Gratis, uchicho. Hastily, wakuva. Here, va ; he is here, ukala va ; I am here, mi va. Hither, anakala va; hither and thither, uno na uno. Hitherto, anakala leo. How? cha? How often ? va chani ? If, kuno. In, m, mu-. In tbe middle, iriare; Inside, mhina. Like, thoko. Little, vakani. Merely, tu. Moreover, thoni. in the middle of, iriare yo. Near, watama; near to, watama ni. Neither-nor, anakala-anakala. Next, o nay eli. N k .. o, Not, akihiwe. Not yet, kanayo. Now, manano; now directly, manano vava.

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ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CONJUNCTIONS. 99 Of, -o, with a first letter varying according to the class of .the preceding word; that is, of the thing On, vachulo vo ; on both sides, makopela o meli; on every side, wothewothe ; on foot, wo meto ; on pur-. pose, Only, velca. Orderly, ratarata. Out, vathe. Outwardly, wo vathe. Over, vachulu vo. Perhaps, nokalathoko. Properly, rata. Quickly, wakuva. Quietly, mrimamrima. Slowly, .mrimamrima. So, chicho. So1netimes, nanano. Soon, manana vava. Still, thoni. Strongly, vo kuru. (how that), wira. Then (then it was), pivavao. Tiiere, vale, ule. pumlato (?). Thus, cho. Till, mpika. rTo, before a verb where it expresses the purpose or the object arrived at, is expressed by the use of the subjunctive. As the sign of the infinitive, it is ex sed by u-. Together, vamolca. Truly, ikekai.

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100 ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CONJUNCTIONS. Under, vat he vo. Until, mpika. Up, mchulu. Vainly, yo chicho. Very, maromaro. Well,. rata. What? shiyani ? What do you want? unotuna. ishyani? What tree is it? mwiri shiyani ula 1 What man? mtu thuvi? When ? yakani ? When (if, as soon as), anakala. Where? vai? I don't know where he is, akichueuli va uriawe; I don't know where I am going, aki chueuli va nokelaka; where the tree is, va mwirini. Wherever, vare vothe; wherever I go, unokela ka wothe; wherever I enter, nlohaka ukela mothe; wherever I am, variaka vothe. Whether-or, anakala-anakala. Why? vowira chani? With, ni; with me, naminyo; with thee, nowe ;with him, nula; with us, nahena; with you, nanyenyo; with them, naala. Within, mhina. Without, vathe. --, vahi; without seeing him, ahimone. Yearly, yaka pi yaka. Yes, eyo, chicho, urera. Yonder, uo, uoooo. LONDON : PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND BONFI1 LIMITED !TJ.lfFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.