Studies in the Chi-Makua language

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Title:
Studies in the Chi-Makua language
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Makhuwa
Creator:
Maugham, R. C. F. (Reginald Charles Fulke), 1866-1956, 1866-1956
Publisher:
Universities' Mission Printing Office
Publication Date:
Measurements:
16 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Makhuwa language
Makhuwa language -- Grammar
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Mozambique -- Nampula
Coordinates:
-15.25 x 39.5

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Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
Source document: This item is in the public domain. Digital version: All rights reserved. Governed by a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA). High resolution digital master available from SOAS, University of London - the Digital Library Project Office. -- For more information, review the Rights and Permissions statements associated with this item or collection. --To assert a claim of copyright ownership, contact the Digital Library Project Office.
Classification:
PL8483
Y Makua A / 182263
System ID:
LOAA000002:00001


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Full Text
STUDIES
IN THE
CHI-MAKUA LANGUAGE.
BY
R. C. F. MAUGHAM,
H. B. M. Consul for the Districts of Mozambique, Portuguese
Nyasaland, Zambezia, and Tete, and the Territories of
Manica and Sofala.
Author of
Portuguese East Africa and other writings.
ZANZIBAR :
UNIVERSITIES MISSION PRINTING OFFICE.
1909.




FOREWORD.
MORE than two years have passed since a pleasant visit
which I received from Dr. Trower, Bishop of the Diocese of
Likoma, during which, perhaps somewhat rashly, I gave
the promise to write what little I had learned of the almost
unknown language of the wide-spread Makua tribes of
Portuguese East Africa, which has as its outcome the little
offering of my unripe gleanings gathered into the following
form.
Such as it is, I offer it to the Universities Mission as a
groundwork for more cunning hands to labour upon, in
profound admiration of the great work this Mission and its
devoted agents are doinsf in East, Central, and South-
<3 O ' '
Central Africa, to let light into the minds of a vast section
of those African races which have too long known but
darkness.
R. C. F. MAUGHAM.
British Consulate, Beira,
December, 1907.


NOTE.
The Universities Mission in Zanzibar accepts no responsibility
for this book, which is printed at the request of Mr. Maugham
for the reason given in his Foreword.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
As this small work is destined primarily for the
use of British searchers after knowledge, I have
considered it probable that correct pronunciation
will be the more easily compassed by retaining the
entire alphabet with the exception of the letter w.
So far as has been possible phonetic spelling has
been adopted ; consonants being pronounced as in
English, with the exception of some uses of g. In
some neighbouring Bantu languages and dialects the
nasal-guttural ng abounds, and is a sound extremely
difficult to indicate by letters, as, indeed, to pro-
nounce. In the examples given it will be distinguish-
ed by means of the Portuguese til accent thus g,
which will be a guide to a sound not unlike that of
ng in strong. I have also been compelled to utilise
another method of consonant combination in dealing
with cases in which the sound of t is followed by an
aspirate between that letter and a following vowel ;
in chi-Makua th is never pronounced as in thin for
example, each of the two consonants being separately
sounded thus, ukatha, to wash (clothes) would be
pronounced ukat-ha; mratha, a duck, mrat-ha, etc.
I have availed myself so far as possible of the
unmistakcable sound of k to replace c, qii, and ck,
taking advantage of the cedilla, whenever, in the
case of the use of the soft e, its position in a word
might give rise to doubt.


2
ORTHOGRAPHY.
Turniijo- to the vowels, a should be regarded as
intended to sound as it is pronounced in palm ; e has
the broad sound of a in ale; i that of ee in eel,
whilst o and u preserve as far as possible, the sounds
usually associated with them. The long i as in
find will, however, be conveyed by ai, whilst the
sound of ow in owl will be furnished bv the letters
/
au.
EXAMPLES.
Broad sound of a
E pronounced as a in ale
I ,, ,, c6 n eel
G with the til
Ai as i in find
Au as ow in owl
Ntfkiio, Maize.
Mnt;pa, Ghost.
Mr/'ma, Heart.
Gonva, Crocodile.
Ehinifa/, Useless.
Man a, Bitter.
The use of diphthongs is but rarely necessary ;
where they are employed, however, they should be
read as in English.
The only accents adopted are the acute 1 and the
circumflex A.
To return to the vowels for a moment, it may be
taken as a gsneral rule that a has, without further
indication, a broad sound as in the example given
above, invariably so when preceded by u as muana,
a child, muandpua, a dog, exception, however, being-
taken in cases where it forms the initial or terminal
letter of a word as abdre, news, uydra, to bear
(children), where its pronunciation is quite short as
in pan. Where, on the other hand, increased ac-
centuation may be placed upon a final is in cases


ORTHOGRAPHY.
3
where it is preceded by an aspirate. In these cases
the necessity for sharpness will be indicated by an
acute accent as urelidreha, to set to rights, urijnhd, to
obscure, etc.
A final e should always be shortly pronounced,
whilst that at the commencement of so many clii-
Makua words is broadly dwelt upon as eburi, goat,
e_p6me, blood, etc.
It is a curious feature of chi-Makua that the
nasal sounds which are prefixed to so vast a number
of words in chi-JNyanja, chi-Sena, and other Bantu
dialects, nyumba, house, nyerere, ant, nyccma, meat,
become ennpa, etui, enama, and so on, betokening a
curious difficulty in pronouncing a combination of
nasal and labial sounds. It follows, therefore, that
the use of e as the initial letter of so many words of
the language has conferred upon the tongue a very
singular distinction, which places it in a somewhat
isolated position among neighbouring forms of
speech, a singularity which the very liberal use of
the aspirate goes far to heighten.
It may be safely taken that no words in the
chi-Makua language end in consonants, properly
speaking ; as just stated, however, the letter h is
very freely used, and should be unsparingly aspirated
where it presents itself.
Where in a sentence a personal pronoun follows
a substantive terminating in a vowel, such terminal
vowel becomes silent as :


4
SUBSTANTIVE.
and not
Mtien'aga. My wife.*
Muanaga. My child.
Mlob uan'aga. My husband.
M tie na aga. My wife.
Muana a^a. Mv child.
Mlobuana aga. My husband.
There are no Articles in chi-Makua ; the use of
the substantive bv itself is taken to indicate that

the object referred to is definite or indefinite
according to the context of the sentence referring
o O
to it.
THE SUBSTANTIVE:
In chi-Makua, in addition to dividing nouns into
the two well-remembered classes of proper and
common, the latter fall naturally under three
separate headings of:
Concrete, signifying separate entities or wholes, as
mlobuana, a man, nyombe, a cow, ?ntale,
a tree, etc.
Collective, as athu, people, omuzi, family, etc., and
Abstract, grouping qualities arid conditions of life, for
example, ureria, happiness, osikini misery,
eyaia, shame, etc.
* A more common form used to convey this meaning is that
of Mwara, a wife, as distinguished from mtiena a woman. The
form given above might signify either my wife, or my
concubine, the natural supposition being that the latter would
be the meaning intended to be conveyed, and mwaraga, is one
which would leave no doubt on the mind as to the relationship
sought to be described,


GENDER.
The above three classes, concrete, collective and
abstract, may be taken as comprehending original or
primitive substantives; but certain derived forms
are identifiable, such as onitdra, a follower, from the
verb utdra, to follow, mlialelo, forgetfulness, from
uliala to forget, onilictua, suffering, from uliaua, to
suffer, etc.
*
GENDER.
In chi-Makua there is no sender of substantives.
The only means, among animate objects, of distin-
guishing sex, and this by no means for sake of
accurate phrase-construction but merely to indicate
sex, being the prefixing of the words mlobuana {man),
or mtieivi (woman) to be substantive, thus showing
whether it is intended to describe a male or female,
thus etebo mlobuana, a male elephant; etebo mtiena,
a female elephant, and so on. Apparently the only
exceptions to this rule apply to the two commonest
and most homely objects of the African village, the
goat and the fowl. The genders of these are
irregulars, being mrurumbe, he-goat, ejpuri, she-goat,
mtupi, cock, elako, hen.
Names of birds, beasts, insects and reptiles do
not vary in form owing to considerations of gender,
in fact they may all be stated to belong to an
unchanging neuter.
The plurals of substantives are formed by chang-
ing slightly the substantive prefix, and may be
divided into three separate forms :
(1) The M Class, which also includes classes of


6
GENDER.
substantives beginning with ma, and which might
be regarded as almost analogous to the Person
Class of chi-Nyanja and chi-Sena, comprehending
as it does peoples, individuals and living things,
wherein the m, mu, or ma prefix is elided, and the
letter a substituted as, sing, mlobuana, a man ; pi.
alobuana, men ; sing, mtiena, a woman ; pi. atiena,
women, etc.
(2) The Is Class, which is a very wide one
including some animate, as well as inanimate
objects, also comprehends those substantives com-
mencing with ni which change into m or ma, as
sing, nikuta, a knee ; pi. makuta, knees ; sing, nikuli,
a rat; pi. makuli, rats; sing, nioji, an egg ; pi. myoji
eggs.
(3) The M Inanimate Class, in m, mu, and n, in
which is included such objects as trees, mountains,
certain immovable objects, and a few low forms of
life ; this changes into mi to form its plurals as sing.
muako, a mountain ; pi. mia/co, mountains ; sing.
mia, a thorn ; pi. miia, thorns ; sing, mtali, a tree ;
pi. mitali, trees.
(4) A fourth class might perhaps be formed of
substantives in n, which also take the mi plural,
such as nrede, medicine; pi. mirede medicines; nzina,
a name ; pi. mizina, names, etc. These, however,
do not appear to be numerous, but the plural
concord particle zi, z is apparently the same for
these as for those beginning with e. In the formation
of the plural of this latter wide class of words of
which good examples would be ebula, rain, ekole,
cocoanut, edala, hunger, no change takes place; but


GENDER.
7
the plural in this E class is readily identifiable by
the particle zi, or the vowel z above referred to,
thus Ega'aua zaga, 2*hunda, my boats are rotten.
A very singular expression is employed to signify
that it rains, the phrase being Ebula onarupa,
meaning literally the rain sleeps.
It is noteworthy that in addition to the many words
which fall at once under Class (1) of substantives,
there are many more which although not possessing
the qualifying m prefix, form their plurals in the
same way, such as karagct, potato ; pi. makaraga,
potatoes; kapuiti, a gun ; makapuiti, guns; elcata, a
finger nail; pi. makata, and many more. These, so
far as it is possible to judge, can only be learned by
conversation and practice, presenting as they do no
peculiarity which would warrant their inclusion
in the class into which they would appear to in-
trude.
Class (2) is another into which many substantives
not fulfilling its conditions of prefix find their way
in search of a plural; of these exceptions the most
common are enupa, a house; pi. manvpo; Stapo,
country, territory ; pi. malopo.
Class (3) is one under which names of trees,
mountains, fruits, and certain parts of the body
would appear to fall
The e class of substantives presents no particular
peculiarity, except that it includes all names of
foreign (principally Portuguese) origin, which thus
become Makuaised bv its addition as a prefix,
thus, cadeira (Port, meaning chair)become ecadeira;
laranja (Port, signifying orange) becomes eraranja;


8
PRONOUN.
cojjo (Port, a glass) changes to ecopo, and many
more.
The following substantives form their plurals
irregularly :
Singular.
Plural.
Muabicho, a servant. Achibicho, servants.
Muanamuani, a small child. Achinamuani, small
children.
a bird. Achinuni, birds
a cloud. Meco, clouds,
a tooth. Meno, teeth,
an eye. Meto, eyes,
a tear. Metoli, tears.
Muanuni,
Neco,
Nino,
Nito,
Nitoli,
THE PRONOUN.
Personal pronouns are as follows :
Mi or minyo,
tie,
Ena,
Hinyo,
Nyuo,
Ena,
/.
thou.
he or she.
zv e.
you.
they.
Note.The second person singular, ue, is used
among intimate friends, or members of a family,
precisely in the same manner as the tic in French,
Portuguese, etc.
The Demonstrative Pronouns are:
Ela,
Eyo,
Ele, or uyu,
this.
that.
that (at a distance.)


PRONOUN. 9
The Relative Pronouns
Ndimbdni, who.
Nduvi, which or what.
Vai, where.
The Possessive Pronouns:
Aga, my.
Enyu, thy.
Uau£, his or her's.
Ihu, our.
Uenyu, your.
Uao,* their.
Indeterminative Pronouns:
Oteni, all, every.
Hateto, nothing.
Hata mtu, nobody.
Hata modza, none, not one.
Mtu, somebody, anybody.
Etupi etu, anything.
Eanene, other persons.
Returning to the Personal Pronouns for a mo-
ment, it should be pointed out that more precise
meaning may be lent to them by means of the affix
dno, thus:
Miano, / myself.
U^ano, thou thyself.
* In eases where the substantive is a word ending in a vowel, as
they almost invariably do, it elides the final letter, and joins
itself on to the following pronoun as though the two words
formed one, thus :muanu ago, my child, becomes muanaga ;
mtupi enyu changes to mtufenyu, your fowl, etc.


10
ADJECTIVE.
Envano,
* 7
Hinyano,
Nyunyano,
Enyano,
he himself,
zee ourselves,
you yourselves,
they themselves.
Examples, AJdnroctga ni ena, I will not go with
him, Kinaroaga midno, I will go myself.
The method of address varies with the age, posi-
tion, or dignity of the individual accosted or called;
for whilst those of consideration in the community
would be respectfully hailed as Nyuo, you, persons
without pretensions to position or property would
be unceremoniously greeted as Ueo, thou (the
final o to the second person singular is added for
the purpose of carrying the voice over distances.)
Small children, and members of the family, are
addressed, or as they say in France treated to Ue,
thou, tout court. The sole exception to the fore-
going consists in the use of the title N'gunyct, lord,
but this is now almost exclusively reserved for
The form of the adjective does not vary with the
sex of the substantive to which it relates, except in
so far as, in certain cases which will be dealt with
hereafter, to concord with such substantives by
adopting the same Class prefix.
The Numerals:
Europeans of distinction.
Like all Bantu tongues, numbers are counted
from 1 to 5, and thereafter 5 and 1, 5 and 2, 5 and 3


ADJECTIVE.
11
and so on up 10, after which in similar multiples of
5 to 20, thus:
Moza 1. Tano na Moza 6.
. Bili 2. Tcino na bili 7-
Taro O Tano na taro 8.
Cheche 4- Tano na caeche 9.
Tano 5- Mloko 10.
Thence forward as far as 20, mlo/co na moza,
mloko na bill, and so on.
Miloko mili 20. Miloko mitanu na moza 60.
Miloko miraru 30. Miloko mitanu na mili 70.
Miloko micheche 40. Miloko mitanu na mitaru 80.
Miloko mitanu 50. Miloko mitanu na micheche go.
Miloko zene miloko 100.
The above numbers concord with the substantive
with which the}^ are employed bv prefixing to the
main stem of the word the same prefix as that
governing it, thus manankuku mitanu, 5 crows ;
alobuana atdro, 3 men; eburi zicheche, 4 goats, etc.
ORDINALS.
Amoza 1st. Anatano na moza 6th.
Aneli 2nd. Anatano na bili 7 th.
Ananiro 3rd. Anatano na taro 8th.
Anacheclie 4th. Anatano na cheche 9th.
Anatanu 5 th. Anamloko 1 oth.
It will thus be seen that all the ordinals with the
exception of that signifying 1st, are formed by the
prefix ana to the cardinal numeral as shown,


12
ADJECTIVE.
The Possessive Adjectives are:
Aga, or iauaga, my. Iauiahu
Iauinyu, thy. Iauinyu
Iau&u6, his, hers. Iauao,
ou rs.
yours,
theirs.
The Indefinite Adjectives :
Oth£ne,
Vakani,
Vinjen6,
Guinako,
Kula,
all, every,
little.
much.
other, another,
each.
none, not one.
nothing.
Ata moza
Hateto,
Some, or any, is expressed by prefixing the form
ene to the substantive which it affects, thus elafco,
a fowl, elakoSnS, any fowl; mtu, a person, mtuene,
any person, etc.
When the speaker desires to lay special stress
upon an adjective, he does so by means of prolong-
ing the final syllable to an immoderate extent, thus,
a small child, would be muana mnankani; but an
extremelv small child would be muana muankaniiii-
One or two adjectives, principally those used to
describe certain colours, are lent additional force
by means of an affix, concerning the use of which it
/ 1 CD
would appear to be impossible to frame a rule.
Those most employed are ufipa-pi, very black, udela-
de, exceedingly white, and oshena-fiu, meaning most
vividly red. Needless to say the words used to
signify the bare fact of the colours, without any
particularly striking intensity, would be these used
minus the affix.
im m num.


ADJECTIVE. 13
The Degrees of Comparison :
In chi-Makua, as in most Bantu languages, the
degrees of comparison are simple, and positive,
comparative, and superlative can be easily express-
ed, thus:
POSITIVE. COMPARATIVE.
Mlobuanaga orera. Mlobuanaga orera fatari.
My husband is good. My husband is better.
SUPERLATIVE.
Mlobuanaga orera fatari vinjeni.
My husband is best.
The foregoing are the most usually employed,
but they do not by any means exhaust the compar-
ative methods; broadly speaking, if we translate
into English the exact forms which would be used,
the following examples would be fairly character-
istic :
Positive, My son is good, Muanaga orera.
Comparative, (the result of such comparison show-
ing a possibly unwelcome degree of
equality between the offspring) by
means of the word feto) conveying the
idea of evenness thusMy son is as
good as yours, Muanaga orera feto
auenyu.
Comparative, (where such comparison results in the
discovery of some superiority by
means of the word fatari, used to


14
ADJECTIVE.
indicate moderate, and ovigana great
superiority, as My son is better than
yours, Muanaga orera fatari auenyu,
whilst my son is infinitely superior
to yours, would be Muanaga orera
ovigana auenyu.
Superlative, This is formed by the use of the words
karere and kirere, these being applied
to persons and animated objects in-
cluded in Class I and to inanimate
objects and low forms of life compre-
hended in Class IV. respectively, as,
My son is the best, Muanaga karere
orera, or, karere orera vinjene.
To express inferiority, the word kanivigana is
employed in the same way as feto, fatari, etc;, thus,
My son is not so good as yours, would be Muanaga
urera ka nin v ia gana a uenyu. 0 mg ana and kan inv igana
make for their plurals oavigana and uinvigana.
Karere is uniform, whilst kirere makes its plural in
kisirere.
The most emphatic form of superlative is perhaps
that of adding the word balii to the adjective, thus
My son is far and away the best, Muanaga orera
bahi. Balii in ordinary use is employed to indicate
sufficiency, as when one is served with enough food
or drink, or wishes to close an argument, and
means, that will do, enough. Its importation
into the words employed to show degrees of com-
parison is thus clearly apparentMy son is good,
that is all about it, there is nothing more to be said,


ADJECTIVE.
15
For the same purpose to some extent one finds the
ki-Swahili word sana much used at Mozambique,
thus, orera sana, extremely good, orera vinjene sana,
good beyond words to express. Superlatives of
Eminence such as very, exceedingly are conveyed
by the word vinjene used above.
Gender and number, The gender of most adjec-
tives is uniform, thus :
Mlobuana oragama. a tall man.
Mtiena utakala, an ugly woman.
Malabua orera, a good dog.
The adjective in forming its plural, prefixes the
distinguishing particle of the class of the substan-
tive to which it belongs, thus :
Mlobuana orera, a good husband.
Alobuana aorera, good husbands.
Nyombe yorera, a good ox.
Enyombe zorera, good oxen.
Mluco mlipa, a hard stone.
Maluco olipa, hard stones.
Demonstrative adjectives.
These vary according as they arc applied to
persons or animated objects of Class I, or inanimate
entities and low forms of life as grouped in
Class IV, thus :
CLASS I. CLASS IV.
This, Ola, Ela.
That Cyo, Eyo.
That (at a distance) Ole, Ele.


16
VERB.
PLURALS.
These, Ala, Enya.
Those, Ayo, Inyo.
Those (at a distance) Ale, Inye.
Examples : Mlolmana old, pi. Alobuana aid, this
man; Ekole ela, pi. eAofe this cocoanut. The
same with the others.
Compound Demonstratives are formed in the
same way, thus :
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
This other man. These other men.
Mlobuana ola mguina. Alobuana ala aguina.
This other ox. These other oxen.
Enyombe ele eguina. Enyombe enya zeguina.
THE AUXILIARIES.
The tenses of the Auxiliary TJkala, to be, are so
closely prefixed, so far as the persons of the present
tense singular, and the 3rd person plural are con-
cerned, to the following word, that some difficulty
has been found in extricating and isolating them in
such a manner as to render them identifiable ; but,
so far as it has been found possible to do so, this
auxiliary will be found to conjugate somewhat as
follows :
Infinitive TJkala, to be.


VERB.
17
PRESENT. PERFECT,
Me k', I am. Me kari, I was, or have been.
Ue k', thou art. Ue uari, thou wert.
Ena t, he is. Ena ari he was.
Hinyu niri, we are. Hinyu na, we were.
Nyunyu muri, you are. Nyunyu mua, you were.
Aena p, they are. Aena ia, they were.
FUTURE. CONDITIONAL.
Me kinakala, I shall be. Me kinakala, I should be.
Ue onakala, thou wilt be. Uo onakala, thou wouldst be.
Ena anakala, he will be. Ena anakala, he would be.
Hinyu n nakala, we shall be. Hinyu nanakala, we should be.
Nyuyu munakala, you will be. Nyunyu omanakala, you
would be.
Aena anakala, they will be. Aena anakala, they would be.
IMPERATIVE WANTING.
Examples of the above :
Me korera, I am good.
Ue koripa, thou art black.
Ena toragama, he is tall.
Hinyu niri njinga, we are proud.
Nyunyu muri u-ualili, you are clever.
Aena potauene, they are far away.
Continuing the example to the perfect tense with
use of substantives instead of adjectives, we get:
Me kari muabicho, / was a servant.
Ue uari chainde, thou wert a witness.
Ena ari ouia, he was a thief.
HinyU na anachabumba, we were musicians.
Nyunyu mua anematanga, you were sailors.
Aena ia minyokata, they were washermen.


18
VERB.
Infinitive uJcalana, to have.
PRESENT. PERFECT.
Me kihana, / have. Me kahana, / /z^/.
Ue ohana', tliou hast. Ue oahana, thou hadst.
Ena ahana, he has. Ena ahana, he had.
Hinyu nihana, we have. Hinyi nahana, we had.
Nyunyu mohana, you have. Nyunyu muhana, you had.
Aena ahana, they have. Aena yahana, they had.
FUTURE. CONDITIONAL.
Me kinakalana, I shall have. Me kanakalana, I should
have.
Ue onakalana, thou wilt have. Ue nanakalana, thou
wouldst have.
Ena anakalana, he will have. Ena anakalana, he
would have.
Hinyu ninakalana, we shall have. Hinyu nanakalana, we
should have.
Nyunyu munakalana, you will Nyunya muanakalana,
have. you would have.
Aena anakalana, they will have. Aena anakalana, they
would have.
IMPERATIVES.
Kalana-ijani, have.
Nikalane, let us have.
Kalanani, have (ye).
Examples of UJcalana, to have.
Me kihana nthavi, / have a net.
Ue ohana ekangaia, thou hast a canoe.
Ena ahana nivaka, he has a spear.
Hinyu nahana oga, we have powder.
Nyunyu muahana kapuiti, you have a gun.
Aena ahana essaquati, they have a present.


VEHB.
19
Negative form of TJkalana, to have.
Hinyu kanrina, we have not. Hinyu kanarine, we had not.
Nvunyu komrina, you have not. Nyunyu komnarina, you had
not.
Aena karina, they have not. Aena kiarina, they had not.
Me akinkalana, I shall not have.
Ue kunkalana, thou wilt not have.
Ena kankalana, he will not have.
Hinyu kaninkalana, we shall not have.
Nyunyu kamunkalana, you will not have.
Aena kankalana, they will not have.
Me akinkanakalana, I should not have.
Ue kunkanakalana, thou wouldst not haye.
Ena kankanakalana, he would not have.
Hinyu kaninkanakalana, we should not have.
Nyunyu kamunkanakalana, you would not have.
Aena kankanakalana they would not have.
PRESENT.
Me kirina, I have not.
Ue kurina, you have not.
Ena karina, he has not.
PERFECT.
Me akarina, / had not.
Ue okarina, thou hadst not.
Ena karina, he had not.
FUTURE.
CONDITIONAL.
Ukala, to be, does not appear to possess any
intelligible negative form.


20
VERB.
THE VERB.
In clii-Makua, unlike most of the languages and
dialects of Central and South Central Africa, the
sign of the infinitive is the letter u prefixed, instead
of the otherwise general Jcu, as iiroa, to go, utkiima,
to buy, uritpa, to sleep, etc.
The verb may be conjugated both affirmatively
and negatively, the changes of form necessitated by
the alterations of sense in the various tenses being
effected by means both of prefixes and affixes.
Perhaps the clearest method of conveying these
changes will be by conjugating a specimen, for
which purpose the commonly used verb nroa, to go,
has been selected :
INDICATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT. PERFECT.
Kinaroa, I go. Kahoroa, I went.
Onaroa, thougoest. Uahoroa, thou wentest.
Anaroa, he goes. Ahoroa, he went.
Naroa, we go. Nahoroa, we went.
Mnaroa, you go. Muahoroa, you went.
Anaroa, they go. Anahoroa, they went.
IMPERFECT.
Karoa, / was going.
Oroa, thou was going.
1 o o
Aroa, he was going.
O <2>
Naroa, we were going.
Mnaroa, thou were going.
Aroa, they were going.


VERB.
21
FUTURE.
Kinardaga, I shall go.
Onaroaga, thou wilt go.
Anaroaga, he will go.
Naroaga, we shall go.
M naroaga, you will go.
Anaroaga, they will go.
CONDITIONAL.
Kanaroa, I would go.
Onaroa, thou wouldst go.
Anaroa, he would go.
Nanaroa, we would go.
Muanaroa, you would go.
Ianaroa, they would go.
PAST ANTERIOR.
Kahiroa, I had gone.
Oahiroa, thou hadst crone.
Abiroa, he had gone.
Nahiroa, we had gone.
Mahiroa, you had gone.
Ahiroa, they had gone.
IMPERATIVE.
Mroa-ue, Go (thou).
Mroe-ena, Go (he).
Mroene, Go (we).
Paro-ue, (they).
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
PRESENT.
Kiroeke, (that, if) I may go.
Om 1*6eke, thou mayst go.
Amroeke, he may go.
Nimroeke, we may go.
Mroeke, you may go.
Pamroeke, they may go.
IMPERFECT.
Karoale, / should go.
Oaroale, thou shouldstgo.
Amroale, he should go.
Nimroale, we should go.
Mroale, you should go.
Pamroale, they should go.
COMPOUND PRETERITE.
Amroelaga, / should have gone.
Oaroelaga, thou shouldst have gone.
Aroelaga, he should have gone.
Amrdaliyu, we should have gone.
Oamroaliyu, you should have gone.
Iamroalenyu, They should have gone.


22
VERB.
Infinitive Uroa to so.
O
INDICATIVE (NEGATIVE) MOOD.
PRESENT. PERFECT.
Akinimroa, I do not go. Akinroale, I did not go.
Konimroa, thou doest not go. Konroale, Thou didst not go.
Kanimroa, he does not go. Kanroale, he did not go.
Kanimroa, we do not go. Kaninroale, we did not go.
Konimroa, you do not go. Konroale, you did not go.
Kanimroa, they do not go. Kanroale they did not go.
FUTURE. IMPERFECT.
Akiroa, I will not go. Akaroa, I was not going.
Komroa, ihou wilt not go. Koaroa, thou wert not going.
Kamroa, he will not go. Karoa, he was not going.
we will not go. Kanimroa, we were not going.
you will not go. Manimroa, you were not going,
they will not go. Kanamroa, they were not going.
)>
>>
>>
PAST ANTERIOR. CONDITIONAL.
Akamroale, I had not gone. Akimroa, I should not go.
Komroale, thou hadst. not gone. Komroa, Thou wouldst not
Z-
Kamroale, he had not gone. Kc3.mroa, he would not go.
Kaniroale, we had not gone. Kanimroa, we should not go.
Kamiroale, you had not gone. Kamimroa, you would not
Z-
Kairoale, they had not gone. Kamroa, they would not go.
IMPERATIVE.
Onimroe-ue, go not (thou).
Aimroe-ena, let him not go.
Ahiroe, let us not go.
Aemroe, let them not go.


VERB.
23
SUBJUNCTIVE (NEGATIVE) MOOD.
PRESENT.
Kihimroeke, (that) I may not go.
Ohimroeke, thou mayst not go.
Ahimroeke, he may not go.
M'himroeke, we may not go.
Mohimroeke, you may not go.
Pomhimroeke, they 7nay not go.
IMPERFECT.
Kahamroale, (that) I should not go.
Ohamroale, thou wouldst not go.
Ahamrdale, he would not go.
Nahamroale, we should not go.
Mohamroale, you would not go.
Iahamroale, they would not go.
COMPOUND PRETERITE.
Ahimroaka, (that) / should not have gone.
Oahimroaka, thou wouldst not have gone.
Ahimroaka, he would not have gone.
Ahemroakiyu, we should not have gone.
Oahimroakinyu, you would not have gone.
Ahimroakaia, they should not have gone.
INFINITIVE Uhimroe.
Between many of the persons of the various
tenses of the verb it will be seen that no difference
whatsoever occurs, or if any but slight. In order
to avoid confusion, therefore, it is customary in such


24
VERB.
cases to employ the corresponding personal pronoun
as an affix, thus, Past Anterior, kamroale, thou
hadst not gone, is rendered unmistakable by the
addition of ue thou, and becomes Icamraoleue, to
distinguish it from kamroalena, he had not gone, etc.
Before leaving the subject of the verb, it might
be mentioned that a very emphatic imperative
sense is added by means of the words gani, or gueni,
which are used immediately after the imperative
forms for the sake of lending additional emphasis,
thus, Kivaha-gueni give me; Mroa-gdni, go thou, etc.
There appears to be no rule as to the use of these
two forms, either of which would apparently be
applicable to any verb.
Certain verbs in which the action .extends from
one person to another, as for example, to love, to
hate, to punish, to ill-treat, to givre, and so on,
designate, in the infinitive, the person upon whom
such action falls by a particle inserted between the
u of that mood and the main stem of the verb, thus
uvaha, to give, u-/a-voha, to give me. This is much
more convenient than the cumbersome uvaha minyo,
to give me, would be. The personal particles of
this form are as follows :
INFINITITE Uvaha, to give.
U/£zvaha, . to give me.
U&vaha, to give thee.
U;^vaha, to give him.
Utfvaha, to give us.
U^vahani, to give you.
U^/vaha, to give them.
*


ADVERT.
25
Examples of this rule : He does not wish to give
it to me would be Kanintuna ukivahali, the affix li
indicating the subject it, as will be shown here-
after ; He should have gone to catch us some fish,
Aroelcuja ualoa ehopa, the second syllable of the verb
TJloa representing the particle standing for us
The usual word employed at Mozambique to send
troublesome persons about their business is Kaueke,
go away, this it is difficult to connect with the
verb Uroa; but to add weight to its form as shown
the second singular ue is added, with an o to carry
the voice, and it becomes an unmistakable invitation
to begone, thus, Kauekeueo. A milder form is
Kauaguene, which is employed to hasten persons on
an errand, to admonish loiterers and the like, and
means really, Come now, tyou had better be
going.
ADVERBS.
Adverbs of Time are as follows :
The clay before yesterday
Yesterday
To-day -
To-morrow -
The day after to-morrow
The day after (3rd day hence)
The 4th day hence
Now -
After ~
Before -
When -
Yet still -
Nzuri.
Nzana.
Elelo.
Melo.
Nroto.
Pa!ama.
Sikutu.
Nanano,
Oduli.
Nrate, elemati.
Lini.
Ninlelo.


26
ADVERB.
Adverbs of Place :
Here
There
Yonder (at a distance)
Behind
In front
Between, within -
Near
Far away -
Outside
Where
Nno.
Va.
Vale.
Oduli.
Miholo.
Muina.
Vakiviro.
Utauene.
Uta.
Vai.
Various, quantity, quality, etc.:
Good -
Bad
More -
Less .
Thus -
Orera, rata.
Utakala, unyala.
Mguinako.
Vakani.
Zamo.
Affirmative and Negative :
Yes
No
Nothing -
Anything
Aio, Uhhh.
Ata, iii.
Hateto.
Etuene.
Adverbial phrases :
At morning - - Uississu.
Early in the morning - Uississuene.
From time to time - Ocalaca-Ocalaca.
Suddenly Uanannorro.
Perhaps Kassambe,


PREPOSITION.
27
Thus, Like this Dzi zamo, dzizale.
Gently, gradually Vacani vacani.
Slowly, carefully Mrima mrima.
Indeed, really Queli.
Up there - Vazulu vale.
Up above - Vazuluni.
Overhead - Vazulu.
Down below - Vatin i.
Down here - Vati va.
Down there - Vati vo.
Down yonder (at a distance) Vati vale.
Outside there - Utauo.
To this (indicated) point Paka va.
To that ,, ,, Paka vo or mu.
To yonder (distant) Paka vale.
Round about - Urukureriha.
Equal to - Uligana.
PREPOSITIONS.
The Prepositions in chi-Makua are usually more
implied than expressed but careful observation has
shown the principal ones to consist as follows :
Of - - - a, ya, na, zi.
To - - - - ata, paka.
From - - - ni.
For - - - - a, ia.
With - - - ni, na.
By - - - ni.
Until - paka.
CONJUNCTIONS.
Both - obili.
/\nd - ni, manki.


28
INTERJECTION.
Or hima.
But mazi.
As feto.
If va.
The word manJci is used ordinarily in the sense of
£ with regard to, or, concerning, thus, mania nyuo,
and what about you. etc.
INTERJECTIONS.
These are most numerous and varied, and consist
equally of the following words and of an amazing
gamut of vocal inflections, which not only import
great expression into the language as a whole, but
serve to increase its not very striking flexibility.
Really (you don't say so !) Queli.
Good gracious ! Komati or mati.
My mother ! Maiaga.
Remonstrance Kooo Kduu.
Wonder, admiration Eheee.
The phrase Amaidga if followed by the adverb
bdhi, enough, is almost regarded as a form of oath ;
thus, if the statement Kahouereya nzana vinjene; I
was very ill yesterday, be doubted, which doubt
would take the form of the delicate expression
Uota ziniju, meaning you are a liar, the bona
tides of the original allegation would be sufficiently
supported by the sufferer drawing the fingers of his
right hand across his wind-pipe, flicking them
smartly downwards, and ejaculating Amaiga bald,
meaning 4 On my mother, or words to that effect.


TIME.
29
TIME, DAYS, SEASONS, WEEKS, MONTHS
ANI) YEARS.
The year of 12 moons is yaka, pi. my aka. The
lunar month, from new moon to new moon being
muere, and the months are named and counted as
follows :
1st month Opaja November.
2nd >) Nakulela December,
3rd )> Nataru January.
4th )) Nacheche February.
5th )) Natan u March.
6th )) Natanu na moza April.
7th )) Natanu na bili May.
8th )) Nat.inu na taru June.
gth n Nataru na cheche July.
10th Namloko August.
1 ith > > Ndirishu September.
12 th M Ramadan October.
The winterfrom April to Septemberis called
alirnuL whilst the summerthe remainder of the
year-
-is known as eta.
The days of the week are known as
Nimoza.
Namili.
Namararu.
Saturday
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Namacheche.
Namatano.
Namatano na moza or Alo'hamisi.
Juma.
The dav itself is called and divided as follows
A day
Sunrise
Nihuku, pi. mihuku.
Nzua nakuma.


30
NOTES.
Sunrise to mid-day
Mid-day
Mid-day to sunset
Sunset
Thence to midnight
Midnight
Thence to about 4 a.m.
4 a.m. to sunrise
The moon
Full moon
New ,,
Uississu.
Otana erriari.
Otana.
Nzua Nekala.
Ohio.
Ohio erriari.
Ohio vatiro.
Oshaga.
Mueri.
Mueri oaraga.
Ohonia.
))
GENERAL NOTES.
The Affirmative form used to signify existence
/
is Ohavo, there is, there are, as Muako ohdvo vale, is
there a mountain there ? The affirmative reply being
Oliavo, there is. Ekole ehavo, is there a cocoanut ?
Affirmative reply Ehavo, there is.
The changes which occur in this word as it is
applied to the different classes of Substantives is
showTn by the following :
1st, or Person Class, Singular Ohavo, Plural Ahavo, there is
2nd Class ,, Nihavo Ahavo ,,
3rd ,, ,, Ohavo ,, Zihavo
4th ,, ,, Ehavo ,, Zihavo ,,
The Negative.
I do not know is expressed by Kahiki, or more
emphatically, by Kaliikene which literally means I
know nothing about it.
The Negative form Kavo, there is not, or are not,
requires some slight practice before it can be


NOTES.
31
recognized and applied in its various forms. It
applies to all classes of Substantives, but, like the
Affirmative Ohavo changes with the class with which
it is employed, thus :
Class i Singular Kavo
o
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4 ,,
M Inanimate
j j
)}
Kanivo
Kavo
Kivo
Kiivo
}> Plural Kazivo.
Examples :
Class i,
Plural
Class 2,
Plural
Class 3,
Class 4,
Muamnagci kavo,
A tie na kazivo,
Nioji kanivo,
Myoji kazivo,
Mtali kavo,
Ekole kivo,
j
my husband is not in.
there are no women,
there is not an egg.
there are no eofcrs.
O
there is no timber,
there is no cocoanut.
M inanimate Class, Msoro kuvo) there is no rice.
As will have been seen all the variation of this
word make the same plural.
Another negative form, Kaliio, no, not, so, is also
much used, especially to indicate an interrogative
meaning, as
Have you seen my friend to-day, Mnciona
patani aga elelo ? which by the aid of Jcahio becomes
unmistakable,thus You have seen my friend to-day,
is it not so ?5 which would be phrased Mnaona pa-
tani aga elelo, Jcahio ?
For ]\To, the usual expression Hi, each i being-
pronounced in turn, the voice being raised slightly
for the middle one.


32
NOTES
The sense of not yet, is conveyed by Kanati, as,
Aehibichu anahoroa, Have the servants gone ?
Kanati, Not yet.
The phrase oJiiri is used in exhortation not to do
so and so, and means 1 do not, 1 you must not. It
is joined on to the main stem of the verb in place of
the u sign of the Infinitive, thus inf. uroa, to go ;
do not go would be written ohiroe; uvalia, to give ;
i do not give ohivahe, and so no. As, however, it is
an imperative form, the final vowel changes from
the a of the Infinitive to the e which is the
imperative characteristic. Examples, That fish
is rotten, do not eat it, Ehopa ela yahunda, ohidie.
It is raining, do not go, Ebida anarupa ohiroe.
4 Within, inside of, for which the equivalent
muina is used, is also often conveyed by adding
the affix ni to the word whose interior is referred
to, thus, 4 In the classes would not be muina za
elcopo, but ekoponi; similarly, In the water instead
of muina na mad zi, would be madzini, etc.
The ordinary word for house is Enupa, but
when the inside of such house is referred to, the
word, whilst retaining them affix just mentioned,
changes its form, becomes mbdni, meaning inside
the house, as Ali aliiroa mbdni, 4 Ali had gone into
the house, etc. This form is invariable, and I have
sometimes thought may have been brought down .
from some of the Nyasaland tribes among whom
the use of Nyumba, a house, is general. Thus
Nyurnba, a house would become Nyumbani, in
the house, and finally abbreviate into Mbdni the
form used at Mozambique to-day.


NOTES. 33
Homo/ conveying the sense of the abode or
dwelling place of a certain individual or group of
individuals, is expressed as follows :
Uouaniaga, My house or home.
Uouanyaue, thy house.
Uouanyeue, his house.
Uouanyihu, our house.
Uouanyeya, your house.
Uouanyaena, their house.
Examples :
Kihodjea, kinaroa uouaniaga, I am tired, I shall go home.
Kahionali uouanyeue, I had seen it in his house.
The form Orivai, where is, where are is also one
which suffers considerable changes according to the
class of the subject it follows, thus :
Sing. PI.
Class i, Where is my wife ? Muaraga orivai. Arivai.
,, 2, Where is the rat ? Nikiili ndrivai. ,,
,, 3, Where is the thorn ? Muia orivai. ,,
,, 4, Where is the medicine ? Nrede orivai. Zirivai
M Inanimate, Where is the potato? Karaga orivai.
Subject Affix.
The subject of a sentence, when it has once been
specified, may be referred to again later in the
sentence by adding the affix li) signifying it to the
verbs, thus,
(I wanted Ali to give me my gun, but he would not give
it to me.
Kahotuna Ali ukivaha kapuita aga, massi ena kantuna
ukivaha//.'


34
XOTES.
i
Ue ohana chene ? What have you got ?
Me kihana ehopa, I have a fish.
Kivaha//, Gi ve it to me.
Complimentccry Expressions.
Like most of the native African dialects spoken
by Mahommedan tribes, chi-Makua is rich in
complimentary phrases, although some, if not most,
are borrowed from other tongues ; they are for the
most as follows:
Good day, Maskomoro.
Same to you, thank you, Amarahaba.
How is all with you, Habare.
Very well thank you, Salimini.
And how about yourself, Kahiki nyuo.
Is all quite well with you, Muahana mua-kumi.
All is well, Zihavo zikumi.
For good-bye the Swahili word Quaheri is used.
The form so constantly heard in Mozambique
Mua passare zai, is too clearly an importation from
the Portuguese to admit of any doubt; its equivalent
in that language being Como tern passado, how
have you been.


35
ALPHABETICAL VOCABULARY.
SUBSTANTIVES.
Abdomen, Irugulu.
Abscess, Nipote.
Abundance, Ioata.
Advice, Miruko.
Agreement, Uin'uanana.
Air, Mvevela.
Albino, Poana.
Alms, Molielo.
Almoner, Mloli.
Ambition, Ohamaka.
Amendment, Mtarechelo.
Annoyance, Matanga.
Anger, Oali.
Ankle, Ekosa.
Ant, Enenele.
,, Etui.
Appetite, Monkilo.
Apple, Massau.
Arch, Mura.
Ardour, Ososa.
Arm, Mono.
Arrow, Ntere.
Ashes, Etura.
Asthma, Epumo.
Aunt, Naque.
Avarice, Etama.
Axe, Epazo.
Bait, Etchambo.
Baldness, Mteri.
Bamboo, Miami.
Banana, Enika.
Banana-tree, Mmnika.
Barbarity, Ochilili.
Bark, Nikotompe.
Bat, Nantutu.
Bath, Oraba.
Beads, Mkova.
Beach (Low tide), Opoa.
Beans, Ekute.
Beard, Erero.
Bed, Kitanda.
Bee, Enui.
Beetle, Nigongolo.
,, Perikitcha.
Beggar, Mloli.
,, Oniveka.
Beginner, Onipadja.
Belt, Mzacho.
Belly, Irugulu.
Beverage, Iouria.
Bile, Namue.
Bird, Muanuni.
Bitch, Mualapua-Ntiena.
Blanket, Enikunela.
Blister, Etulzo.
Blood, Epome.
Blow, Mkutumelelo.
Boaster, Onsifa.
Boat, Egalaua,


30
SUBSTANTIVES.
Boat, Ekangaia.
Body, Erutu.
Bone, Nikuvci.
Book, Echuo.
Bottle, Ekcirafa.
Bottom, Souicha.
Boundary, M'kano.
Brain, Okoko.
Breast, Etirima.
Breasts, Mabele.
,, Enamci.
Breathing, Mmumelo.
Bridegroom, AharussL
Broom, Mvelo.
Brother, Muima.
Bubo, Muipapari.
Buffalo, Enyati.
Bug, Ekunkuni.
Bunch, Nichacho.
Buoy, Mka?ia.
Burglar, Onipaha7'ula.
Butcher, Ouiva.
Butterfly, Nikuruta.
Buttocks, Makutu.
Buyer, Ontuma.
Cage, Ekaela.
Calabash (gourd), Ekahi.
Calm, lull, Mrengue.
Canoe, Ekangaia.
Cap, Ekofia.
Captor, Onakuviha.
Carnival, Natombero.
Castor-oil, Ekura.
Cat, Paka.
Catarrh, Engamassi.
Cedar tree, Mvinja.
Cemetery, Omahie.
Centipede, Eialala.
Chameleon, Na m a n via.
Chatterer, Otongoro.
Cheek, Mrama.
Chief, Mbeue, Mfaline.
Child, Muanamuani.
Childhood, Achinamuani.
Choice, Mtanlelo.
Cholera, Etaiini.
Chopper, Epazo.
\ ,, Onatha.
Circumcision, Eluka.
Clearness, Chetoani.
Clitoris, Etuna.
Cloud, Neko.
Cloth, Ekuo.
Coal, Makala.
Cocoanut, Ekoli.
Cocoanut Palm, M'koli.
Cock, Mtupi.
Coir, Ekero.
Collector, Untukumania.
Comb, Evazero.
Combination, Mafikanelo.
Common sense, Ankili.
Compassion, Ntungo.
Compromise, Nayade.
Concubins, Auala.
,, Amasia.
Confidence, Ess ire.
Contract, Moafikanelo.
Contradiction, Mevanjihero.
Coolness, Eniririha.
Cooking pot, Mnapo.
Corpse, Muto.
Correction, Mangoca
Costume, Ekuo.
Countenance, Uito.
Cousin, Mlamo.
Coward, Movi.


SUBSTANTIVES.
Crab, Ekala.
Crack, Mnyati.
Crevice, Nyati.
Cricket, Shiriripue.
Crocodile, Enkonyci.
,, Gonya.
Crow, Nankuku.
Cruelty, Ochilili.
Crust, Nikuli.
Cucumber, Nchiri.
Cut, Ehuko.
Curlew, Nshululu.
Curiosity, Otongonoze.
Curral (Cattle,) Nzizi.
Curry, Mahuzi.
Damage, Nikuma.
Dampness, Mpeuelo.
Dancer, Ouina.
Danger, Assara.
Darkness, Mripelo.
Date, (fruit,) Tambura.
Daughter-in-law, Mmuea.
Day, Nihuku.
Day before yesterday, Nzuri.
Debtor, Onilokihia.
Deceiver, Onatota.
Defamer, Onivuihci.
Defect, Elema.
Defender, Onakiya.
Delicacy, Munkelaka.
Demon, Jini.
Devil, S hai tan i.
Dew, Mandi.
Dhow, Pangaio.
Diarrhoea, Otchurua.
Dirt, Yonanarra.
Discoverer, Onikumila.
Disorder, Epuia.
Dispute, Nankulelo.
Disquiet, O ru m u a rum a.
Distributor, Myononi.
Diver, Onizama.
Divination, Ehako.
Doctor, Mknlukaiia.
Dog, Malapua.
Door, Mkoro.
Dowry, Mahari.
Dreamer, Onildha.
Drunkenness, Ohabaria.
Duck, Mr at ha..
Ear, Niaro.
Early morning, Oshaga.
Early riser, Onipihera.
Earth, soil, Mitaga.
Earth worm, Moatta.
Ebony, Mvika.
Echo, Namuluve.
Education, Osuluhea.
Edge, margin, Mkerekere.
Edge of blade, Orere.
Egg, Oche.
Elbow, Ekokinyo.
Elephant, Etebo.
Embers, Moro.
Enemy, Muanani.
Engraver, Untukula.
Enquirer, Onikoa.
Enthusiasm, Mriti.
Envy, Nrima.
Epilepsy, Ejile.
Epileptic an, Najile.
Estimation, Mpendilo.
Estuary, Ntato.
Eyelash, Nikiki.
Eyelid, Essio.
Excreta, Mavi.
Experimenter, Onececera.


\
38 SUBSTANTIVES.
Explanation, Mlaukiero.
Extinguisher, 0 nit ip ilia.
Fables, Mo Iu me.
Face, Uito.
Fate, destiny, Aja/e.
Father, Bdba.
Fault, Etambe.
Feather, Ntenga.
Fermentation, Opuapuarua.
Fighter, Nakota.
Finger, Nikoko.
Fire, Moro.
Firewood, Ekuni.
Fish, Ehopa.
Fisherman, Mtoti.
Flatterer, Muepezi.
Flea, Utupa.
Flower, Efula.
Flower bud, Etuto.
Fly, Epepele.
Fog, Etapui.
Follower, Onithara.
Food, Ioiia.
Foot, Moedo.
Force, Ekurro.
Forehead, Eiutetche.
Foresail, Pijorna.
Fop, Iokokea.
Forest, Etakua.
Forgetfulness, Mliaieio.
Fox, Muich.
Friendship, Opatameio.
Fright, Uoveio.
Froth, Nipero.
Fruit, Atyokoroko.
Fugitive, Onitiaua.
Gash, Nianya.
Giddiness, Narurio.
Gift, Essaquati.
Gills (fish), Afalanka.
Girl, Moamoali.
Giver, Onivaha.
Glutton, Namilula.
Goat, Eburi.
Goatherd, Alakatnbuji.
God, Alluko.
Good luck, Orreria.
,, Maliziki.
Gourd, Siguia.
Grandmother, Tata pipi.
Grass, A7 las he.
Grave, Nliti
,, Nifulo.
Grey hairs, -Epeu.
Grief, Otungo.
Grinder, Onichila.
Groin, Mpuanumpuanu.
Ground nut, Manduvi.
Guest, APieto.
Guinea fowl, Ekaga.
Gums, Ohinini.
Gun, Kapuiti.
Gunpowder, Oga.
Flair, Ekarrdri.
Half, Nuko.
Hand, JS/tata.
Handle, Evihi.
Happiness, Or?'eria.
Hare, Hukula.
Haste, Uakuva.
Harlot, Ualele.
Heart, Alriina.
Heat, Ovihaviha.
\ Heel, Ekokinyo moedoni.
1 Height, Orekamelo.


SUBSTANTIVES.
Heir, Mriti.
Help, Uhavihelo.
Helper, Uakiviha.
Haemorrhoids, Moankoko.
Hen, Mualako.
Heritage, Mritelo.
Hide, Ekatcika.
Hiding place, Evito.
High grass, Epalehi.
Hippopotamus, Tomondo.
Hole, Muite.
Hook (fish), Nanjolo.
Honour, H is h im a.
Honey, Oravo.
Horns, Nyanga.
House, Emipa.
Housebreaker, Onitorola.
Hunger, Edala.
Husband, Lobuana.
,, Miiamnci.
Husks, Okajia.
Illness, Ereta.
Impatience, Evihaviha.
Impostor, A1 lavilavi.
Inkling, Otikila.
Insipidity, Ehinisifa.
Instant, Okati.
Insult, Mruanelo.
Interior, Muina.
Iron, Euima.
Island, Esissirua.
Itch, Ovele.
Itching, Onena.
Intestines, Nrupo.
Inventor, Onipuni.
Ivory, Etebo.
Jackal, Muich.
Jack tree, Yakara.
Jealousy, Ehadje.
Jester, Etete.
Journey, Nikuaha.
Joy, Cliarelie.
Jumper, Onitupa.
Keeper, Oniati.
Kernel, Ekuko.
Kite (bird), Chaka.
Knee, Nikuta.
Knife, Moaro.
Knot, Etulula.
,, Nluto.
Lake, Nyasa.
Land breeze, Afmandi.
Land tortoise, Ekcipa.
Latrine, Charirero.
Leaf, Ntakuro.
Leanness, Muodelo
Leech, Mtuto.
Leg, Moedo.
Leopard, A vara.
Leper, Nakuluto.
Leprosy, Okuluto.
Liberty, Oneti.
Lid, Iokunelfa.
Life, Okiva.
Lime, Kinambo.
Lion, Karamu.
Lips, Nlako.
Listener, Ouinuelela.
Liver, Yapa.
Lizard, Engoto.
Load, Mrindi.
Loathing, Operetta.
Locust, Yorobe.
Louse, Etupo,


40
SUBSTANTIVES.
Low-down, Okiveha.
Lungs, Epumo.
Maiden, Moamoali.
Maize, Nakuo.
Maize cane, Ntati.
Man, Mlobuana.
Mane, Zinga.
Manufacturer, Hachicha.
Mango tree, Mmanga.
Margin, Mkerekere.
Marriage, Eharussi.
Mast, Nr iJi koto.
Master mariner, Malimo.
,, tradesman, Fitndi.
Matches, Fosko.
Maw worm, Ale na.
Meat, Enama.
Measure, Mtita.
Medal, Abudu.
Medicine, Nrede.
Menses, Epome,
,, E kite ha.
Middle, Erriciri.
Millet, Mele.
Millstone, Nchilo.
Mire, Marove.
Misery, Ossikini.
Mixture, Mtcikanyero.
Mocker, Mvehe.
Modesty, Eyaia.
Money, Nzuruku.
Monkey, Nchele.
Moon, Mueri.
Morning, Uississu.
Mosquito, Puilimiti.
Mother, Mama.
Mother-in-law, AFmuera,
Mouldiness, Mo fo.
Mouse, Quati.
Mouth, Eano.
Mourner, Onikupdnya.
Mud, Otope.
Murderer, Oniva.
Nail, Nsemari.
,, finger, Ekata.
Navel, Mchombo.
Neck, Echiko.
Needle, Aguia.
Nest, Epururo.
Net, Ntavi.
News, Ah are.
Night, Ohio.
Nightmare, Manikambuli.
Nipples, Enyara.
Nod, Uuva.
Noise, Onyagula.
North wind, Kassikassi.
Nose, Epfuno.
Notch, Muititiri.
Nourishment, Zodia.
Nut, Ekoroko.
Oath, Ekilapo.
Observer, Ontonya.
Occasion, Okati.
Oil, Makura.
Oil seller, Namakura.
Old man, Mzee (Swahili).
Onlooker, Oniusha.
Opium, Anifiau.
Orange tree, Elalanja.
Owl, Namame.
Ox, Enyombe.
Paddle, Ninkassia,
Palm tree, Nikute,


SUBS TANTIVES.
Paper, Npa elo.
Paraffin, Pataroyo.
Parcel, Nikutc.
Partridge, Equali.
Path, Epiro.
Patience, Uistami/i.
Penis, Mbolo.
People, At hu.
Pepper, Pirtpiri.
Person, Mthu.
Pestle, Muiti.
Phantom, ghost, Mnepa.
Phlegm, Nikotokoto.
Pig, Ekulue.
Pigeon, E kit da.
,, Nzia.
Place, Nipuro.
Player, dancer, Onrukuna.
Plume, Enchonchoro.
Polypus, Epoeza.
Potato, Eraga.
Potato plant, Nakaraga.
Porpoise, Suke.
Potter, Namiapo.
Potsherd, Nivale.
Poultry house, Ehili.
Poverty, Ossikini.
Powder, dust, Mtupi.
Power, Unmuerela.
Pregnancy, Ehanula.
Pride, Kilntri.
Ojigan.
Profane person, Oniruana.
Proprietor, Muanene.
Puberty, Okamili.
Punishment, Ehukumo.
Pupil of eye, Emboni.
Putty, Echima,
Quail, Epuiti.
Quality, Enamuna.
Question, M'latho.
Quickness, Muakevelo.
Rabbit, Inyamarakulu.
Rags, Mititi.
Rainbow, Mkanganyama
Rascal, Nlavinlavi.
Rat, Nikuli.
Rat-trap, Chikurankuaran.
Rattle, Kapakapa.
Ray, Etari.
Reason, Esababo.
Receiver, Onakela.
Recoil, Mnyete.
Recorder, Onapuela.
Relationshp, Omuzi.
Relation, M'muzi.
Relish, Mahaza.
Remainder, Iohala.
Remission, Mopolelo.
Repentance, Zozuela.
Request, Novekela.
Resin, Sonyonyela.
Resistance, Nlipelo.
Rest, balance TJitua.
Reunion, Ntukumanelo.
Rhinoceros, Ntchocho.
Ribs, Niparari.
Rice (raw), Msoro.
,, (cooked), Mrama.
Ripeness, Mtokotelo.
Rival, Namune.
River, Muro.
Robber, Naniigulla.
Root, Mtitari.
Rope, Mkoyi.
Rubber, Mpira,


42
SUBSTANTIVES.
Rudder, Chokcini.
Sail, Ntanga.
Sailor, JVamatanga.
Saliva, Echenye.
Salt, Maka.
Sand, Mitaga.
Sandbank, Nivula.
Scale (fish) Msombe.
Scorpion, Namarere.
Sauce, Nivizi.
,, Mahuzi.
Scab, NikuZi.
Scar, Ekukonlana.
Scarecrow, Onomolci.
Scent, Monkela.
Scoffer, Mveho.
Scold, Onikua.
Scratch, Natino.
Screech-owl, Ezizi.
Scurf, Muonono.
Sea, Bahari.
Seagull, Nanyava.
Seal, Embua.
Seed, Ecio.
Seller, Onitumihci.
Servant, Mnabicho.
Sesamum, Nauakua.
Shadow, Nzurio.
Shame Eyaia.
Sheep, Epuitipuiti.
Shell, Ekombe.
Shirt, Mlaia.
Shore, Oparea.
Shoulder, Nikata.
Shoulder belt, Okapata.
Silk, Ntona.
Sinews, Altika.
Sir, Ngu?iyci.
Sister, Mrokora.
Skill Oalala.
Sky, Uirimo.
Sleep, Ekove.
Smell (good), Unkela.
Smoke, Nuishi.
Sob, iVatekunic.
Soldier, JSJainpoporo.
Sole (fish), Nikuanta.
Somersault, NankolikoIi.
Son, Muana.
Son-in-law, JVfmuea
Song, Nzipa.
Soul, Ehorro.
South, Kussi.
Sower, Onala.
Spade, Epa.
Span, Chubiri.
Speaker, Onaluma.
Spear, Nivaka.
Spleen, Eapa.
Spider, Randazi.
Spine, Eturi.
Spirit, Mlaika.
Spoon, Orukulu.
,, Ekolycr.
Squid, Lula
Stain, Alepa.
Stammering, Onikukuma.
Star, Ototoa.
Stepfather, Titi.
Stick (walking), Ekobo.
Stinginess, Etama.
Stomach Erugulu.
Stone, Nluko.
Story, Hantice.
,, Ntambelo.
Story-teller, Onitamba.
Submission, Ngamelo.


SUBSTANTIVES.
Sucking child, Onamua.
Sufferer, Onihaua.
Suffering, Myaitelo.
Sugar cane, Mhali
Summer, Elimne.
Sun, Nzua.
Swallow, Nankare.
Sweat, Oviherict.
Sweeper, Oniveta.
Sweetness, Ozifa.
Swimmer, Ojiirapelela.
Swindler, Nlavilavi.
Swing, Nachirumbuerumbue.
Sword, Opanga.
Tail, Muilci.
Tainya (fish), Mkizi.
Tale, Handice.
Tarantula, Nzizi.
Teacher, Omuishuia.
Tear, ATitoli.
Teeth, Meno.
Tendon, Ntika.
Tent, Nipanda.
Territory, Elapo.
Testicles, Ekete.
Threat, Olcikelelo.
Thief, loniya.
Thigh, Etarra.
Thing, Etu.
Thorn, Muia.
Thunderstorm, Etare.
Throat, M'milo.
Timbe, Mtali.
Toad, Oapula.
Tobacco, Soni.
Today, Elelo.
Tomorrow, Melo.
Tongue, MUme,
Tooth, Nino.
Top, Namurro.
,, (childs), Tondiri.
Trader, Nabianchakci.
Trap, Mtchichi.
Tree, Mtali.
Trick, Elema.
Tumour, Nepote.
Turtle, Engapa.
Twins, Nivata.
Uncle, Halit.
Unhappiness, Orila.
Union, Mvaranela.
Unrefined sugar, Natumbero.
Urinal, Vanruzia.
Urine, Menyozo.
Vagina, Nanyoko.
Vegetables, Matapa.
Vein, Mtika.
Viper, Evili.
Voice, Nzu.
Vomit, Marapeo.
Waist, Eiuno.
Wall, Eshiri.
War, Ekoto.
Watcher, Oniturimela.
Water melon, Niurio.
Wave, Niuimbi,
Wasp, Mdendeu.
Water, Madzi.
Whale, Namkumi.
Whoremonger, Kaupne.
Wild grapes, Mzaruba.
W'ind, Epeo.
Wing, Nipupa.
Winter, Eitq,


N,
44
Witch, Mkuiri.
Witchcraft, Okuiri.
"Witch doctor, Okiri.
Witness, chai'de.
Woman, Ntiena.
SUBSTANTIVES.
Work, M/ego.
Wrinkle, Mnyari.
Writer, Omleba.
Year, My aka.


45
VERBS.
To Abandon, uhidjalia.
Able, to be, ueria.
Abort, uhakiri.
Abound in, uatci.
Abuse, uonelila.
Accept, uaquela.
Accompany, utara.
Accumulate, utukumana.
Accustom, ulamelela.
Acquire, npudnya.
Add, uinjerera.
Adjust, ulikamha.
Admit, utuma.
Advance, uholela.
Affirm, utipansiha.
Agitate, utimpuanya.
Agree, uinuanana.
Amplify, uinjerei'a.
Amuse, urukunea.
Anchor, urinka.
Annoy, unanaria.
,, unyonya.
Anoint, uotiya
Answer, uakula.
Appear, uligana.
,, ukumelela,
Approach, uatama.
,, uatamiha.
Arrest, utuka.
Arrive, upsia.
Ascend, uela,
To Ask, uveka.
,, Inter, ugoha.
Assist, ukaviha.
Attack, nmtielelci.
Awake, uvenya.
Be, hkala.
Beautify, urrerihia.
Bear, (young,) jiyarci,
Beam, ubenyar.
Beg, uatola.
Begin, upadja.
Belch, uekcinana.
Believe, ukubali.
,, uamini.
Bend, urcimiha.
,, ukorombania.
Bind, utuka.
Bite, uluma.
Blacken, uripiha.
Board (a ship,) usola.
Boast, usifa.
Boil, upuapuriia.
ntokota.
Bore, utemula.
Bother, iw'apecha.
Break, upuesha.
Break into, upaparula.
Break open, uvenula.
Breathe, umumula.


46
VERBS.
To Bring, uruya.
,, ukusha.
Bring up, ulela.
Burgle, utorola.
Burn, uparela,
,, Up Q/ k CL
Burst, uputua.
Bury, utipela
Butt, ukutumlua.
Buy, utuma.
Cackle, urotoha.
Call, uehana.
Capture, uakuviha.
Carry, ulovola.
Catch, uvara.
,, uloa.
Change, utamicha.
Chirp, utongola.
Choose, utaula.
Chop up, uluka.
Chop, uatha.
Clean, unimpupxita.
,, upuputa.
Climb, ukunyambera.
Collide, ukumulana.
Conceive, urubaliha.
Conciliate, uatania.
Confide, uamini.
Confront, uihania
Conquer, uumeria.
Consent, utuniha.
Constitute, uteka.
Continue, uzanzira.
Contort, uripitula.
Contradict, uvanya.
,, uyanyihci.
To Comb, uvaza.
Combine, imfikMia.
Come, uhoa.
Comfort, ulipiho.
Compare, ulikaniha.
Complain, uhimiale.
Cook, uobeya.
Cool, uririha.
Correct, uterucha.
Corrupt, rot, uunda.
,, upahula.
Cough, ukotomola.
Count, ualaka.
Cover, uzuna.
,, ukunela.
Covet, uzivila.
Crack, uparula.
Cripple, ukokonyola.
Crush, upoata.
Cultivate, ulima
Cure, ulolia.
Curse, uruana.
Cut, utikila.
Dance, uuina.
Darken, uripiha.
Deceive utipia.
Decorticate, utarakula.
Deepen, uichiha.
Defame, uvaicha.
Defend, uakinya.
Demolish, ukurua.
Deny, uruna.
Depreciate, ukueka.
Descend, ukurua.
Despise, utainfo.
Destroy, umoviha.


VERBS.
To Deter, utumula.
Devour, umeria.
Die, ukua,
Dig, uichiha.
,, utipa.
Diminish, uvukula.
Dirty, unanaripa.
Disappear, usimi.
Disarrange, utambaya.
Disbelieve, usikiri.
Discharge cargo, utolo-
la.
Discolour, tarnish, uku-
chula.
Discover, unikumula.
Disdain, unitanya.
Disembark, upakula.
Disguise, uanganyy'ea.
Dislike, ukanyerera.
Dismiss, uleha.
Dispute, uakulana.
Dissolve, utotocha.
Distribute, unyona.
Distrust, utaninzera.
Disturb, uputelia.
Dive uzama.
Divide, unta.
,, uyanona.
Divulge, ulcilea.
Drag, upururia\
Draw, ukumiha.
Draw back, uthumua,
Draw near, uatama.
Dread, uova.
Dream, uloha.
Dress, uudra.
Drink, uuria.
To Drizzle, umiza.
Drop, u tony a.
Drunk, uhabaf ia.
Dry, uanae.
Dust, clean, utdta.
Dye, id na.
Eat, udia,
Embark, upakira.
Embrace, utukumania,
Empty uoarecha.
Enjoy, upuya.
Enlarge, utapula.
Enquire, ukoa.
Enrage, uiviha.
Enter, ukela.
Equalise, ulikaniha.
Escape, utiaua.
Estimate, uakavancha.
Exceed, uvirilela.
Excrete, uunya.
Expel, uomola.
Explain, ulakiera.
Extend, urekamiha.
Extinguish, utipiha.
Fade, unyala.
Faint, uzirika.
Fall, ukurucha.
Fall down, umora.
Fall ill, uerreia.
Famish, uvoliha.
Fast, utuka.
Fear, uova.
Fight, uouana.
,, umana.
Fill, uzala.


48
VERBS.
To Find, upuanya.
Finish, umala.
,, umaliha.
Flame up, uveriha.
Flatter, uepeza.
,, unyata.
Flow, upemba.
Fly, uvava.
Fold, ukuna.
Follow, utara.
Forbid, uthia.
,y ukondia.
Forget, uliala.
Fry, uareka.
Get wet, unania.
Give, uvaha.
Give back, uhokolocha.
Glitter, uaria.
Gloss over, uarriha.
Glue, upariha.
Gnaw, nibble, ukura.
Go, uroa.
Go back, uhokoloa.
Go on hands and knees,
uapaza.
Go out, ukuma.
Grin, uhinindula.
Grind, uchila.
Grow, utururoa.
Grow dark, uripiha.
Grow fat, uneneva.
Grow old, uluvaliha.
Grow thin, uonda.
Grumble, utukuta.
Guess, ulikaniha.
To Guess aright, uechera
choko.
Haggle, upuechiha.
Hang, uhelilia.
Happen, ukumelela.
Harden, urhrumaliha.
Hasten, uakuviha.
Hatch eggs, aramela.
,, ,, utotola.
Have, ukcilanci.
Heap up, unquela.
Hear, uiua.
Heat, ukutiha.
Help, uchuhudia.
,, ukaviha.
Hem, ubenyar.
Hide, uvita.
,, one's self, utiana.
Hinder, uhiza.
Hold ones peace, umala.
Honour, uhishimu.
Hope for, ualita.
Hunt, ulupata.
Ignorant, to be, utikina.
Imitate, utakiha.
Increase, uinjerera.
,, upovela.
Inform, ulatula.
Inherit, uriti.
Insist, ukanyerera.
Isolate, uirimia.
Insult, unazi.
Insolate, uirimia.
,, uruana.
Intend, desire, ulakela,


VERBS.
49
To Introduce, upoiviha.
Invent, upuni.
Invert, uj'ukunucha.
Investigate, utokoza.
Invite, ulatula.
Isolate, uirimia.
Jest, uvehula.
Join together, utukumana.
Judge, ulamula.
Jump, utupa.
Keep, uiati.
Knead, uchata.
Know, uzuela.
Lame, uokonyola.
,, upahula.
Lament, uipulela.
Laugh, utea.
Lay a line, uriata.
Lead astray, utuelela.
Learn, uishuta.
Leave, uhiu.
,, behind, uhia.
Lend, uoliha.
Let up, upanda.
Lick, ulata.
Lie, uota.
Lie down, uizokola.
,, ,, urupati.
Light, udmudlia.
,, upariha.
Like, uzivelha.
,, esteem, love, upenda.
Limp, ututunya.
Listen, uinuelela.
To Live, ukala.
Load, utemba.
Look, uueha.
Lose, urimela.
Love, utuna.
Lull, ututela.
,, a child, ututela.
Make, uira.
Marry, utela.
Measura, upima.
,, land, uhelame.
Melt, utotoa.
Mend, urehareha.
Merit, deserve, upaka.
Mew, uunla.
Milk, uama.
Miss on the road, uv.ari-
kana.
Mix, utakaniha.
,, utapuria.
Mock, uveha.
Mourn, ukupanya.
Move, stir, uvarakaza.
Micturate, urudza.
Nod, uuvela.
Nourish, utiha.
Obstinate, to be, ukange-
rera.
Obstruct, utia.
Obtain, upuanya.
,, upavela.
Offend, utoela-mace.
Open, utukula.
Oppress, ukaka.


50
VERBS.
To Order, uruma.
Ornament, ureriha.
Over tire, uojea.
Pare, uaqellci.
Pasture, unddia.
Pay, uliva.
Peel, utarakula.
Perplex, uaia.
Persecute, utuarelela.
Pinch, tighten, iititiha.
Plant, uala.
Play, urukunea.
Plough, uairakiila.
Pluck up, upola.
Point out, uonia.
,, ,, utonia.
Possess, ukalana.
Pound, utita.
Pour out, umoarecha.
Powder, utooliliha.
Praise, utotopela.
Preach, ukumela.
Present ones self, uku-
melel a.
Press, uzeyakela.
Pretend, upavela.
Prick, sting, uhoma.
Promise, ulakela.
Prop, ufuella.
Propagate, uvuiha.
Protect, ukafini.
Provoke, uta7'amula.
Pull, uvura.
Purify, uchata.
Push, uvura.
,, against, utimbuna.
To Put, place, uhela.
Question, ukoha.
Rain, urupa ebula.
Raise, uvenyiha.
Raise up, hcilehci.
Ransom, uopolci.
Read, usoma.
Record, upuela.
Recur, utimakela.
Redden, ucheriha.
Redeem, uopola.
Reduce swelling, unyala.
Refuse, nkonda.
Relate, utamba.
Rely upon, iiakulela.
Remain, uhala.
,, ukala.
Remember, upuela.
Remove, uroaha.
,, ukuahida.
,, utumua.
Repair, uherea.
Repent, unyara.
Reside, ukala.
Resist, uliba.
Respect, uistahi.
Rest, uitua.
Restitute, uokolocha.
Return, ukokoloa.
Revive, uliinumua.
Ripen, utokota.
Rise early, upehera.
Rise up, uvenya.
Roast, uarika.
Roll in the dust, uperoika.


VERBS.
51
To Rub, ukuta.
Run, utimaka.
,, aground, upueriria.
,, through, uchomeria..
,, up against, ukumula.
Salt, uluku.
Save, uopola.
Say, uhimia.
,, ukupelela.
Scald, ukupula.
Scare away, umola.
Scent, uimuria.
Scoff, jest, uveha.
Scold, unikua.
Scour, uteliliha.
Scourge, ukupida.
Scrape, upula.
Scratch, uarakula.
,, uaraquela.
Secrete, uapela.
See, uona.
Seize, utota.
Sell, uthumiha.
Send, uveliliha.
Send for, uleheria.
Separte, uamualaniha.
Set fire to, iiparikela.
Set free, utukulela.
,, ,, uopola.
Sew, utota.
Shak e, uhikinya.
,, ukupelela.
,, uotoa.
,, utata.
Sharpen, unona.
,, utokoloa.
To Shave, umeta.
Shiver, utukumela.
,, utetemela.
Shorten, ukuviha.
,, uakuviha.
Show, utonyera.
Shrink, uikurana.
Shut, utuka.
Sigh, uhihimeria.
Sing, uiba.
Sink, uzamiha.
Sit down, ukilati.
Skin, uchata.
Sleep, urupa.
,, all night, urupelela.
Slide, uterekua.
Slip, utereria.
Slumber, urupiha.
Smear, uotiha.
Smell, unuka.
,, sweet, unukela.
Smile,
Smoke (fumigate,) uazu-
la.
Smooth, uoloiha.
Snatch, ukotopila.
Sneeze, uachimuria.
Snore, ugonga.
Soften, uolouriha.
,, uvolola.
Sow seed, uala.
Speak, uuluma.
ulaula.
Spill, umuarecha.
Spit, uchua.
Splash, upathea.
Spoil, uyonona.


52
VERBS.
I
To Spread, uakola.
,, umoarea.
Squeeze, uama.
Stagger, uvevela.
Stain, utakaliha.
Stammer, ukukuma.
Stand, uemela.
Stay, remain, upiza.
Steal, uuiya.
Sting, ulioma.
Stipulate, uafikdna.
Stop, uthia.
,, umelea.
Straddle, umoaria.
Strain, melt, ukikita.
Strangle, utipa.
Strengthen, ukanylrera.
ulipiha.
Stretch, ukoka.
Stroll, uetakasa.
Stumble, uterekua.
Submerge, uzama.
Succeed, upuanya.
Suck, uamua.
Suck, draw, upota.
Suckle, uamiha.
Suffer, uajua.
Suffocate, uzamiha.
Support, uvilela.
,, upiteria.
,, uvarela.
Suppose, uampiera.
Surprise, ututucha .
,, uchanga.
Surround, uriikiirerika.
,, urukurcria.
Swallow, uni via.
To Swear profanely, urudna.
Swear on oath, ulipela.
Sweep, uvela.
Sweeten, vziviha.
Swell, uiba.
Swim, urabelela.
Tack, upicha.
Take, ukucha.
Take oath, ulapia.
Take out, ukuma.
Taste, ulciuiha.
Teach, uishuta.
Tear, uanyula.
,, to pieces, umeakasa.
,, to rend, utalia.
Tease, provoke, utara-
mula.
Terrify, a tutu a.
Think, upuela.
Thrash, umenya.
,, uputa.
Thread, ukopa.
,, uful el a.
Threaten, ulakela..
Throw, unyanydla.
Thrust, ukaka.
Tie, fasten, utuka.
Timid, to be, ulozoa.
Tinkle, uiruma.
Tired, to be, uodjea.
Touch, uopa.
Touch, uapapela.
Tremble, utultumela.
Trickle, utunia.
Trouble, annoy, unyonya.
Try, uececera.


VERBS.
53
To Turn, urukunucha.
Twist, utambanya.
,, uripitula.
Unaware of, utanya.
Unbend, utapula.
Uncover, ukumula.
Understand, uinua.
Undress, urula.
Unfasten, utukula.
Unhook, utcmola.
Unite, utukumana.
,, uvaraniha.
Visit, utotola.
Vomit, urapea.
Wait, ualita.
Walk, uenda.
,, ueda.
To Wander, uvonya.
Wash, uraba.
,, clothes, ukata.
Watch, lurk, uturumela.
Water (animals), uurya.
Weave, uthava.
Weep, uunla.
Weigh, ulemela.
Whisper, uapa.
Wipe, umila,
Wish for, utuna.
Wound, uhovia.
Wrangle, uana.
Wrap up, uvitikelela.
Wrinkle, unyata.
WTrite, uleba.
Yawn, uarimuria.


54
ADJECTIVES.
Abortive, Enihakiriha.
Acceptable, Enaquelia.
Accomplished, Iomcila.
Actual, Tananano.
Agile, Makuva.
Agreeable, Sorrerihia.
Alive, Umkumi.
Appetizing, E?izivela.
Arabian, Mnarabo.
Bad, Otakala.
Bald, Natari
Bearded, Narero.
Bitter, Iouaua.
Black, Oripa.
Boiled, Iotokota.
Brilliant, Ivuaria
Broken, Iopueia.
Broken open, Iopaparulia.
Burning, Iobiha.
Cheap, Ra/iisi.
Clear, Erai'o.
Clever, Onanali.
Close by, Vakiviru.
Cloudy, Enirunde.
Coarse, rough, Mginga.
Cold, Oriria.
Complete, Io?nala.
Cooked, Uabeya.
Cool, Mririela.
Correct, Otaroa,
Covetous, Natama.
Covered, Ioikitea.
Cracked, loparua.
Crippled, Kokonyoko.
Crooked, loo7igo?tiana.
Cruel, Mchichili.
Curable Unildlia.
Curious, Mtojigoza.
Dark, Ioripa.
Dead, Okua.
Deceitful, Motati.
Decorticated, Iotarakolia.
Deep, loicha.
Defective, Iovukua.
Desirable, Enizivela.
Desired, Iotunici.
Detestable, Inipuela.
Difficult, Enivila.
Disturbed, Ioputelia.
Dry, Iouma.
Drunken, Ohabaria.
Due, Etene.
Educated, Usuluhea.
Elastic, lojiamoa.
Enceinte, Orupala.
Enraged, Ouivelea.
Entire, Epurukuma.
Estimable, lopendea.
Exact, Iolikana.
Expert, U-ucilili.
Faded, Ionyala.
Far off, Otauene.
Fastidious, Enipuela.


ADJECTIVES.
Fat, Oneneva,
Flabby, Iooloa.
Flat, Iopatea.
Flowing, Enipemba.
Forgotten, Iolalia.
Fortunate, Overeria.
Fried, lodrrekia.
Full, lozala.
Gluttonous, Namilula.
Good, Orei'a.
Gratuitous, Iovahia.
Green, Namantapa.
Happy, Iosivilia.
Hard, loliba.
Heavy, Iolemela.
Hot, Ioviha.
Ill, Mreta.
Ill-bred, Mtoanace.
Incomparable, Iohipiela.
Incredulous, Ohinikiri.
Incurable, Ehinilolia.
Inflammable, Eniparela.
Invisible, Ehinonea.
Jealous, Nahadje.
Just, Ratta.
Kneeling, Uokokora.
Lame, Enitikila.
Lamentable, Enikupanya.
Large, big, lolupale.
Last, Omaliha,
Light, Iovea.
Loathsome, Iorapecha.
Long, loragama.
Lying,
Mad, Natoto.
Male, Elobuana.
Moist, Iopena.
Naked, Buide-buide.
Native, Ohanara.
New, Epsia.
Obstinate, Onikanyerera.
Odorous, Enunkela.
Old, Uakalai.
Old-aged, Ouluvala.
Patient, Onistamilo.
Poor, Massikini.
Powerful, Onisieria.
Praiseworthy, Onitopelia
Proud, Mjinga.
,, Onikiburo.
Quick, Onikuva.
Ransomed, Ioopolie.
Rare, lotoa.
Raw, Ekili.
Recent, Epsia.
Red, 1 ocher ia.
Rich. Tagiri.
Ripe, lotokota.
Roasted, louochia.
Rotten, Iounda.
Rough, rude, Iorurumala.
Sharp, Enitikila.
,, Iotokoloa.
Short, (persons), Okovea.
,, (things), Iokovea.


56
ADJECTIVES.
Shrunken, Iokurana.
Sleeping, Onirupa.
Slowly, Mrima.
Small, Iankani.
Smooth, Iolaua.
Soft, Iooloa.
Sour, Unyunya.
Squint-eyed, Oveveroa-nito.
Stinging, Enihomci
Stingy, Natama.
Straight, Oligana.
Strange, M'mcilapo.
Strong, Ioliba.
Suffering, Onihaua.
Sweaty, Noviherea.
Sweet, Osi/a.
Swollen, Ioiba.
Tall, Norogama.
Tame, Moerevo.
Tender, Looloa.
Tepid, Iokutihia.
Thick, strong, Ioitivala.
Thin, Uonda.
Timid, Movi.
Unovia.
,, Uoloza.
Torn, Iouanyoa.
Ugly, Otakala.
Unaccustomed, Ehinikalia.
Unequal, Iohilikana.
Unhappy, Norilo.
Unknown, Onitikinea.
White, Odela.
Wonderful, Iochcinguici.
Wounded, Nikuata.


57
VARIOUS ADJECTIVES, ADVEBRS, PRO-
NOUNS, Etc.
Above, Ozuln. Long ago, Kalai.
Adieu, Quaheri.
All, lotene. More, Zaida,
Alone, Meka. Much, Muinjene.
Always, Mancha. My, Aga,iauaga.
Another person, Eguina.
At once, Ndnano. Near, Vakiviru.
Before (time), Elimati. Neither, Uala. No, None, Hat a.
Behind, Oduli. Nobody, Hat a m'tu.
Below, Yavdti. Nothing, Hatetu.
Both, Obili. Now, Vano.
But, Mas si.
Daily, Mhikuene. Only, Meka. Other, Eanene.
Equal, Ioligana. Our, lauihu. Outside, Uta.
Full, lozala. Quickly, Akuva.
Further, Oholo.
Gratis, Yamahala. Same, loio. Since, Tango.
Yavahia. Slowly, Mrima.
Here, Va, n'no. Still, Ninlelo. Sufficient, Bahi.
His, hers, Iauao.
How, Zai. That, Ale, ela, ele.
I, Mi, minyo. There, Vale, vo. This, Eio.
Indeed, Queli.
jn front, Oholo, Thou, Ue,


58 VARIOUS ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, PRONOUNS, ETC.
Thus, Zizcima.
We, Hinyu.
When, Lini.
Whence, Vai,yavai.
Where, Vai.
Which, Duvi.
Who, Ndimbam.
Why, Prache?ie.
With, Ni.
Within, Muina.
With me, Ni minyu.
thee, Ne ueo.
,, him, Ni ena.
,, us, Ni hinyu.
,, you, Ni jiyuo.
,, them, Ni aena.
Yes, Aio.
Your, Iauenyo.


Full Text
Package Processing Log
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Package Processing Log
12/06/2014 13:44:37 Error Log for LOAA000002_00001 processed at: 12/06/2014 13:44:37
12/06/2014 13:44:37 -
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00001.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00001.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00001.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00001.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00001.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00001.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00001thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00001thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00002.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00002.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00002.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00002.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00002.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00002.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00002thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00002thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00003.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00003.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00003.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00003.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00003.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00003.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00003thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00003thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00004.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00004.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00004.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00004.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00004.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00004.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00004thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00004thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00005.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00005.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00005.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00005.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00005.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00005.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00005thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00005thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00006.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00006.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00006.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00006.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00006.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00006.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00006thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00006thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00007.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00007.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00007.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00007.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00007.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00007.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00007thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00007thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00008.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00008.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00008.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00008.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00008.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00008.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00008thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00008thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00009.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00009.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00009.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00009.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00009.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00009.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00009thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00009thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00010.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00010.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00010.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00010.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00010.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00010.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00010thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00010thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00011.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00011.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00011.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00011.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00011.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00011.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 LOAA000002\00001\00011thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:37 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00011thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00012.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00012.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00012.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00012.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00012.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00012.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00012thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00012thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00013.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00013.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00013.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00013.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00013.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00013.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00013thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00013thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00014.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00014.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00014.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00014.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00014.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00014.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00014thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00014thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00015.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00015.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00015.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00015.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00015.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00015.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00015thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00015thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00016.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00016.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00016.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00016.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00016.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00016.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00016thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00016thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00017.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00017.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00017.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00017.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00017.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00017.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00017thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00017thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00018.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00018.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00018.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00018.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00018.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00018.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00018thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00018thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00019.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00019.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00019.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00019.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00019.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00019.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00019thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00019thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00020.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00020.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00020.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00020.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00020.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00020.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00020thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00020thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00021.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00021.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00021.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00021.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00021.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00021.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00021thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00021thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00022.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00022.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00022.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00022.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00022.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00022.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 LOAA000002\00001\00022thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:38 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00022thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00023.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00023.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00023.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00023.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00023.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00023.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00023thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00023thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00024.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00024.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00024.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00024.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00024.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00024.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00024thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00024thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00025.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00025.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00025.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00025.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00025.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00025.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00025thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00025thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00026.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00026.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00026.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00026.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00026.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00026.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00026thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00026thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00027.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00027.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00027.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00027.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00027.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00027.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00027thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00027thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00028.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00028.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00028.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00028.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00028.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00028.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00028thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00028thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00029.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00029.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00029.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00029.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00029.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00029.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00029thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00029thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00030.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00030.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00030.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00030.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00030.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00030.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00030thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00030thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00031.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00031.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00031.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00031.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00031.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00031.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00031thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00031thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00032.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00032.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00032.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00032.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00032.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00032.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00032thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00032thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00033.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00033.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00033.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00033.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 LOAA000002\00001\00033.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:39 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00033.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00033thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00033thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00034.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00034.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00034.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00034.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00034.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00034.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00034thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00034thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00035.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00035.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00035.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00035.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00035.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00035.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00035thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00035thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00036.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00036.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00036.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00036.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00036.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00036.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00036thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00036thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00037.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00037.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00037.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00037.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00037.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00037.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00037thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00037thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00038.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00038.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00038.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00038.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00038.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00038.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00038thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00038thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00039.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00039.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00039.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00039.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00039.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00039.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00039thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00039thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00040.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00040.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00040.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00040.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00040.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00040.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00040thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00040thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00041.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00041.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00041.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00041.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00041.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00041.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00041thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00041thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00042.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00042.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00042.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00042.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 LOAA000002\00001\00042.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:40 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00042.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00042thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00042thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00043.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00043.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00043.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00043.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00043.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00043.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00043thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00043thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00044.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00044.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00044.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00044.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00044.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00044.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00044thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00044thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00045.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00045.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00045.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00045.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00045.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00045.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00045thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00045thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00046.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00046.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00046.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00046.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00046.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00046.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00046thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00046thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00047.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00047.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00047.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00047.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00047.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00047.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00047thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00047thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00048.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00048.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00048.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00048.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00048.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00048.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00048thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00048thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00049.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00049.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00049.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00049.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00049.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00049.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00049thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00049thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00050.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00050.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00050.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00050.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00050.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00050.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00050thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00050thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00051.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00051.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00051.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00051.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00051.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00051.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00051thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00051thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00052.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00052.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00052.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00052.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 LOAA000002\00001\00052.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:41 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00052.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00052thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00052thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00053.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00053.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00053.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00053.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00053.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00053.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00053thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00053thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00054.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00054.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00054.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00054.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00054.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00054.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00054thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00054thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00055.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00055.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00055.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00055.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00055.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00055.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00055thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00055thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00056.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00056.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00056.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00056.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00056.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00056.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00056thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00056thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00057.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00057.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00057.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00057.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00057.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00057.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00057thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00057thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00058.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00058.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00058.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00058.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00058.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00058.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00058thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00058thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00059.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00059.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00059.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00059.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00059.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00059.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00059thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00059thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00060.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00060.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00060.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00060.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00060.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00060.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00060thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00060thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00061.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00061.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00061.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00061.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00061.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00061.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00061thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00061thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00062.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00062.jp2 does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00062.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00062.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00062.txt is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00062.txt does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 LOAA000002\00001\00062thm.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!
12/06/2014 13:44:42 The checksum for file: LOAA000002\00001\00062thm.jpg does not match the checksum specified in the METS file!
12/06/2014 13:44:43 -



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STU_DIES IN THE ORI-lVIAl{UA._-LANGUAGE. BY R. C. I-I. B. M. Consul for the District s {Jf Mozambique, P ortuguese Nyasaland, Zambezid, and Tete, and tlze Territories of Manica and Sofala Author of Portuguese East Africa a rd r;ther zori t ings. ZANZIBAR: MISSION PHJNTING OFFICE.

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I FOREWOl-tD. MORE than hvo y ears h a ve passe d since a pleasant vi sit which I receiv e d from Dr. 1'rowe r, Bishop of th e Diocese of Likoma, during which, perhaps son1ewhat rashly, I gaye the promise to write wbat littl e I had learned of the almos t unkno\vn language of the ,.vide-spread Makua tribe s of Portuguese East Africa, which has as its outcome the littl e offering of my unripe gleanings gath ered into tb e follo,,ing form. Such as it is, I offer it to the Universities' Mission as a groundwork for rnor e cunning hands to labour upon, in profound admiration of the great \i\'ork this Mission and its devoted agents are doing in East, Central, and SouthC .entral .t\frica, to let light into the minds of a vast section of those African races which have too long known but darkness. BRITISH CONSULATE, BEIRA, DECEMBER, 1907. R. C. F. MAUGHAM.

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NOTE. The Universities Mission in Zanzibar accepts no responsibility for this book, which is printed at the request of M_r. Maugham for the reason given in his Fore word.

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ORTHO G RAPHY. As this small work is destined primarily for the use of British searchers after kno-vvledge, I have considered it probable that correct pronunciation vvill be the 1nore easily co1npassed by retaining the entire alphabet with the exception of the letter .w. So far as has been possible phonetic spelling has been adopted ; consonants being pronounced as in English, vvith the exception of some uses of g. In some neighbouring Bantu languages and dialects the nasal-guttural ng abounds, and is a sound extren1ely difficult to indicate by letters, as, indeed, to pro nounce. In the given it 'vill be distinguished by n1eans of the Portuguese til accent thus g, vvhich vvill be a guide to a sound not unlike that of ng in strong. I have also been compelled to utilise another 1nethod of consonant co1n bination in dealing vvith cases in \Vhich the sound oft is follo\ved by an a 'spirate bet.-vveen that letter and a follovving vovvel ; in chi-Makua th is never pronounced as in thin for example, each of the tvvo consonants being separately sounded thus, ukatha, to vvash (clothes) \vould be pronounced ukat-ha; 1nratha, a duck, 1nrat-ha, etc. I have ava.iled n1yself so far as possible of the unmistakeable sound of k to replace c, qu, and clc, taking advantage of the cedilla, 'vhenever, in the case of the use of the soft c, its position in a vvord 1night give rise to doubt.

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2 ORTHOGRAPHY. tO the \70\Ve]s, Cl should Oe regarded aS intended to sound t:ls it is pronounced in ):Jalrn; e the broad sound of a in ale; i that of ee in eel, whilst o aud u 1 reser' e as f<:lr as possible, the sounds usually assoc iated "'ith the111. 'rhe long i as in find 'vi1l howe' er, he conyeyed by a, vvhpst the sound of 01D in owl will be bv the letters au.. Broad sound of a E pronounced as a in ale I , ee eel G '" ith the til Ai as i in find Au as ow in owl Nakuo, Mnepa, Mrima, Go:1ya, Ehi11ifai, l\iua, .., lV/aize Ghost. Heart. Crocodil e Useless. Bitter. The use of diphthongs is hut rarely necessary ; where the.y a.re en1ployed, ho,vever, they should be read as in English. 'fhe onl ) accents adopted are the acute 1 and the circurnflex \. To return to the VO\vels for a 1nornent, it n1ay be taken as a g3neral rule that a has, \vithout furt}1er indication, a broad sound ns in the exan1ple gi' en a oYe inYarial,]y so \vhen pr0ceclecl hy as ?nuana, a child, 1nuauapua, a dog, exception, hovve\ T er, being taken in cases \vhere it forn1s the initial or tern1inal lett r of a \VOrcl as auare, nev\ S, U_1jdTa, to bear children; where its pronunciation is quite short as in pan. \Vhere, on the other han l, increased accentuation n1ay be placed upon a final a, is in cases

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ORTHOGRAPHY. 3 \V here jt is preceded by an aspirate. In these cases the necessity for sharpness vvill be indicated by an acute accent as ureluirelui, to set to rights, to obscure, etc. A final e should al \vays be shortly pronounced, \vhilst that at the con11nencement of so many chi Makua vvords is broadly d\velt upon as eburi, goat, epo?ne, blood, etc. It is a curious feature of chi-Makua that the nasal sounds vvhich are prefixed to so vast a number of \vords in chi-Nyanja, chi-Sena, and other Bantu dialects, nyu'Jnba.., house, n.lJerere, ant, nya1na, meat, beCOllle enUJJct, etui, enama, and so On, betokening a curious difficulty in pronouncing a combination of nasal and labial sounds. It follovvs, therefore, that the use of e as the initial letter of so n1any vvords of the language has conferred upon tho tongue a very singular distinction, vvhich places it in a somewhat isolated position a1nong neighbouring forn1s of speech, a singularity \vhich the very liberal use of the aspirate goes far to heighten. It tnay be safely taken that no \Vords in the chi-Makua language end in consonants,properly speaking ; as just stated, ho"vever, the letter lz is very freely used, and should be unsparingly aspirated \vhere it presents itself. Where in a sentence a personal pronoun follo,vs a substantive terminating in a vowel, such tertuinal vo,vel becon1es silent as :

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4 and not 1\11 tien -'aga. NI uan'aga. l\lllobuan'ag.1.. My -* } J,fy child. Jfy lzusl,and. tiena aga. My uana aga. child. :VIlobu.ana aga. A1y husband. There are no Articles in chi-Mal
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GENDER 5 .-rrhe above three classes, concrete, collective and. alJstract, n1ay be taken as con1prehending original or pri111itive substantives; but certain derived forn1s are identifiable, such .as onitdra, a follo,ver, fron1 the verb to follovv. rrdialelo, forgetfulness, fron1 u lia la to forget, onilzaua, suffering, fron1 u lzaua, to suffer, etc. . GENDER. In chi-:Yiakua there is no gender of substantives. rrhe only rneans, arnong anirnate olJjects, of distinguishing sex, and this b.Y no n1eans for sake of accurate phrnse-construction but n1erely to hldicate sex, hoing the prefixing of the ,vords -rnlobuana (rna11), or (\vornan) tJ be substantive, thus shovving 'vhether it is intended to describe a rnale or fenJale, thus eteuo 7nlobuana, a llJale elephant; etebo ?ntiena, a fen1ale elephnnt, and so on. Apparently the only exceptions to this rule to the t\YO con1n1onest and n1ost hon"..el.v objects of the .. A.frican village, the goat and the fovvl. genders of these are irregulars, 'being he-goat, e]JU?"i, she-goat, rntupi, cock, elako, hen. N arnes of birds, beasts, insects and reptiles do not vary in forn1 O\vii J g to considerat]ons of i.n fact they n1ay all be stated to belong to an ttnchanging neuter. rrhe plurals of substantives are forlned by chang ing slightly substantive. pre. fix, and n1ay be eli vided into three s9parate forrns : (1) rx.,he M Class, \Vhich also includes classes of

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I 6 GEKDER. substanti' es beginning "\ivith 1na, and vvhich n1ight be regarded as aln1ost analogous to the Person Class of chi-N yanja and chi-Sena, con1prehending as it does peoples, indi' iduals and living things, 'vherein the 1n, 1nu, or 1na prefix is elided, and the letter a substituted as, sing. 1nlobuana, a man ; pl. alobuana, n1en ; sing. 1ntiena, a 'vornan ; pl. at1ena, \von1en, etc. (2) 'rhe N Class, vvhich is a very 'vide one incl ucling son1e anin1a.te, as -vvell as i nanirnate objects, also comprehends those, substantives conlInencing 'vith ni 'vhich change into 1n or 1na, as sing. nikuta; a knee; pl. rnalcuta, knees; sing, 1u*lculi, a rat ; pl. 1nakuli, rats;sing. nioji, an egg ; pl. 1ny6j' i eoos 'l::lu (3) 'rhe .Nl Inanin1ate Class, in rn,. nut, andn. in "hich is included such objects as trees, n1ountains, certain imn1o' able objects, and a fe\v lo'v forn1s of life ; this changes into 1ni to fornJ it.s plurals as sing. 1nuako, a n1ountain ; pl. 1nialco, n1ountains ; sing. a thorn ; pl. 1niia, thorns ; sing. 1ntali, a tree ; pl. 1nitali, trees. ( 4) A fourth class i11ight perhaps be forrned of substanti' es in n, vvhich also take the 1ni plural, such as nrede, n1edicine; pl. 1nirfxle Inedicines; n zina, a nan1e ; pl. names, etc. These, ho\Yever, do not appear to be i1un1erous, but the plural concord particle zi, z is apparently the san1e for these as for those beginning 'vith e. In the forn1ation of the plural of this latter vvide class of vvords of "\tVhich good exa1nples WOuld be ebula, rain, elcole, cocoanut, edala, no change t11kes place; but I

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GENDER. 7 the plural in this E class is readily identifiaLle by. the particle zi, or the vovvel z above referred to, thus Ega\tua zaga z?:hunda, n1y boats are rotten. very singular expression is en1ployed to signify that it the phrase being E bula onarupa, n1 eaning literally the rain sleeps. It is notAvvorthy that in addition to tho 1nany 'vords \vhich fall at once under Class (1) of substantives, there are n1any n1ore which although not possessing the qualifying 1n prefix, forrn .their plurals in the san1e \vay, such as lcaraga, potato ; pl. 1nakaraga, potatoes ; a gun ; _guns; ekata, a finger nail ; pl. 1nalcata, and 1r1any n1ore. 'rhese, so far as it is possible to judge, can on1y Le learned by conYersation a,nd practice, presenting as they do no peculiarity '" hich \voulcl ":arrant their usion in the class into \vhich they \voulcl appear to inClass (2) is another into \vhich rnany substantives not fulfilling its conditions of prefix. find their \vay in search of a plural; of these exceptions the n1ost COlTill10n are enupa, a house ; pl. rnanupa; eta]JO, territory ; pl. 1nalojJO. Class (3) is one under \vhieh nan1es of trees, rnountains, fruits, and certain parts of the body \vould appear to fall 'The e class of presents no particular peculiarity, except that it includes all nan1es of foreign (principally Portuguese) origin, which thus becon1e 'l\fakuaised' by its addition as a prefix, thus, cadeira (Port. n1caning chair) becon1e laranja (Port. sjgnifying orange) becon1es eraranja;

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8 PRON OUN. COJJO (Port. a glass) changes to e copo, and many n1ore The follo'rving s ubstan t i ves forn1 t h e i r plura l s irregularly : SINGULAR. PLURAL. lVI uabic h o a servant. .A.chibi ch o M uanamuani, a small child. Ach i nam u an i 1\II uanuni, a bird. 1\chinuni, Neco, a cloud. Me co, Nino, a tooth. Meno, Nito, an eye. Meto, Nitoli, a tear. Metoli, THE PRONOUN. Personal pronouns are as foll o\vs :-Mi or minyo, T l ce1 I. .thou Ena1 he or she. Hinyo, 'We. Nyuo, you. Ena, they. servants small children. birds clouds teeth. eyes. tears. N ote.-The second person singular, ue, i s u se d an1ong intin1ate friends, or 1nen1 bers of a fa1nily precisely in the same n1anner as the tu i n French Portuguese,. etc. The De1nonstrative Pronouns are: -Ela, Eyo, Ele, or uyu, this. that. that (at a distance. )

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PRONOUN. The Relative Pronouns:. Ndimbani, Nduvi, Vai, who. which or where. The Possessive Pronouns:Aga, Enyu, Uaue, Ihu, Uenyu, Uao* my. thy. his or her's. our. your. their. Indeter1ninative Pronouns:Oteni, Hateto, Hata mtu, Hata modza, Mtu, Etupi etu, Eanene, all, every. nothing. nobody. none, not one. somebody, anybody. anything. other persons. 9 Returnjng to the Personal Pronouns fqr a rno ment, it should be pointed out that n1ore precjse meaning may be lent. t
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10 ADJECTIVE. Envano he himsellf "' Hinyano, ourselves. Nyunyano, you yourselves. they Exan1ples, Aknroa,qa ni ena, I 'vill not go -,vith hin1, K?.naroa,qa rndno, I ,vill go n1yself. The n1ethod of address varies vvith the age, posi.;. tion, or dignity of the in eli vidual accosted or called; for 'vhilst those of consideratio n in the co1nn1un_ity \vould be respectfully hailed as Nyuo, you, persons vvithout pretensions to position or property vvould be unceren1oniously greeted as Ueo, thou (the final o to the second person singular is added for the purpose of carr3 ing the voice over distances.) Small children, and nien1 bers of the fa1nily, are addressed, or as they say in France 'treated to' Ue, thou, toltt c ourt. The sole exeeption to tJte foregoing consists in the use of the title lord, but this is no\v altn ost excl usi vel v reserved for Europeans of distinction. "' ADJECTIVES. The form of the adjective does not vary vvith the sex of the substant.ive to \vhich it relates, except in so far as, in certain cases vvhich 'vill be dealt \Vith hereafter, to concord \vith such substantives by adopting the san1e Clas s prefix. The Numerals :-Like all Bantu tongues, ntunbers aro counted froln 1 to 5, and thereafter 5 an.dl, 5 ancl2, 5 ancl3

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ADJECTIVE. 11 and so on up 10, after 'vhich in similar n1L1ltiples of 5 to 20, thus: Moza I. Bili 2. Taro I') .) Cheche 4 Tano 5 T 'ano na Moza Tano na bili Tuno na biro Tario na caeche Mloko 6. 7 8. 9 10. Thence as far as 1nloko na 1noza, mlolco na bili, and so on. Miloko mili 20. Miloko mitanu na moza 6o. Miloko 30. Miloko mitanu na mili 70. Miloko znicheche 40. Miloko mitanu na mitaru So. Miloko mita nu so. Miloko mitanu na rr1icheche go. Miloko zene miloko IOO . The above numbers concord "vith the substantive with which they are e1nployecl by prefixing to the main sten1 of the "vorcl the san1e prefix as that governing it, thus 1nanankuku 1nitdnu, 5 cro\vs ; alobuana ataro, 3 Inen; eburi zicheche, 4 goats, etc. Amoza 1st. Aneli 2nd. Anararo Jrd. Anacheche 4th. Anatanu 5th. ORDINALS. Anatano na moza Anabino na hili Anabino na taro Anatano na cheche Anamloko 6th. ]th. 8th. gth. 10th. It will thus be seen that all the ordinals 'vith the exception of that signifying 1st, are forn1ecl by the prefix ana to the cardinal ntuneral

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12 ADJECTIVE . The Possessive Adjectives are:-Aga, or iawiga, Iauinyu, Iauaue, nzy. thy. his, hers. Iauiahu, Iauinyu, Iauao, The Indefinite Adjectives:-Othene, all, every" Vakani, little. Vinj'ene, much. ours. YOU:YS. theirs. Gu1nako, other, another. Kula, each. Ata moza, none, not one . Hateto, nothing. Some, or any, is expressed by prefixing the form lne to the SU bstan ti ve \V hich it affects, thUS elaJco, a fo\vl, elakoene, any fo,vl; 1ntu., a person, rntuene, any person, etc. "-hen the speaker desires to lay s .peoial stress. upon an adjective, he does so by means of prolong-_ ing the final syllable t.o an in1rnoderate extent, thus, a sn1all child, vvould be 1nuana 1nuankani ; but an extremely s:nall child \Vould be 1nuana m:uankanii?:i-One or tvvo adjectives, principally those used to describe certain colours, are lent ad eli tional force by means of an affix, concerning the usc of \vhich it vvould appear to be irnpossible to frarne a rule . 'fhose most ernployecl are nfipa-pi, very black, udelade, exceedingly \vhit e, and osl ieria-jz'u, n1eaning n1ost vividly reel. N eeclless to say the words used to signify the Lare fact of tho colours, \rithout any particularly strjking intensity, \vould be thcso used t4e affl_x,

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. A;DJECTIVE. 13 The Degrees of Con1parison :-. In chi-Makua, as in rr1ost Bantu languages, the degrees of comparison are sii?1ple, and positive, co1nparative, and superlative can be easily e x press eel, thus :-.. POSITIVE. Mlobuanaga orera. My husband is good. COMPARATIVE. l\!Ilobuanaga orera fatari. My husband is b etter: SUPERLATIVE. orera fatari vin jeni. My husband is best. The foregojng are the n1ost usually en1ployed, but they do not by ariy n1eans exhaust the cornparative Inethods; broadly if vve translate into English the exact forms vvhich vvoulcl be used, the follo\ving exan1ples vvould be fairly characteristic:-Positive, 1Jy son is good, Muanaga orera. Comparative, (the resultof such con1parison sho,v ing a possibly un\vel c orne degree of equality bet\veen the offspring) by 1neans of the vvord .feto, conveying the idea of evenness thus-lVIy son is as good as yours, Muanaga orera feto catenyu. Comparative, ("'here such con1parison results in the discovery of superiority by of the vvord j'atdri, used to

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14 ADJECTIVE. i;ndicate and ovigana great superiority, as My son is better than yours, Muanaga orera fatari \Vhilst my son is infinitely superior to yours, would be Muanaga orera . ovz. gana auenyu. Superlative, This is for1ned by the use of the \vords karere and kirere, these being applied to persons and animated objects in cluded in Class I and to inanhnate objects and lo\v forms of life compre h ended in Class IV. respectively, as, My son is the best, Muana,c;a or era, or' karere or era: 1;injene. To express inferiority, the word kaniv1'gana is employed in the same \vay as feto, fatari, etc:, thus, My son is not so good as yours, \vould be Muanaga urera lcrzninviagana auenyu. Ov(qana al)d kaninvi,qana make for their plurals and u invi,qana. Karere. is uniform, 'vhilst lcirere makes its plural in kisirere. The most en1phatic form of superlative is perhaps that of adding the \vord ba hi to the adjective, thus -My son is far and away the best, Muanaga orera bahi. Bahi in ordinary use is employed to indicate sufficiency, as \vhen one is served with enough food or or wishes to close an argument, and means, 'that will do,' enough.' Its irnportation into the "Tords employed to show degrees of coin parison is thus clearly apparent-My son is good, that is all about it, there is nothing more to be said,

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ADJECTIVE. 15 . For the same purpose to some extent one finds the ki-S,vahili \vord sana much used at bique, thus, orera sana, extre1nely good, orera sana, good beyond. \vords to express. Superlatives of Eminence such as 'very,' 'exceedingly' are conveyed by the \Vord vinjene used above. Gender and nu1nber, The gender of most adjectives is uniforn1, thus : Mlobuana oragan1a! Mtiena utaka1a, M3.labua orera, a tall man. an ugly woma .n. a good dog. '. The adjective in forming its -plural, prefixes the distinguishing particle of the class of the su bstanti ve to \vhich it belongs, thus : Mlobuana orera, Alobuana aorera, N yom be yorera, Enyorn be zorera. Mluco rnlipa, -. Maluco olipa, Demonstrative adjectives. a good. husban_ d good husbands. a good ox. good oxen. a hard stone. -hard stones. These vary according as they are 3.J!. pliecl to persons or a.nimated objects of Class I, or i)1ani1nate entities and lo'v fornls of life as grouped in Class IV, thus : This) That That (at a distance) CLASS I. OJ a, 6y6, OieJ CLASS IV. Ela. El.

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16 These, Those,. VERB. PLURALS. Those (at a distance) Ala, A yo, Ale, Enya. In yo. Inye. Exan1ples: Mlobuana old, pl. ala, this man; Ekole ela, pl. ekole enya, this cocoanut. 'The same vvith the others. Compound De1nonstratives are for1ned in the san1e way, thus: SINGULA.R. PLURAL. This other man. These other men. Mlobpana ola mguina. Alobuana ala aguina. This other ox. Tfiese other oxen. Enyombe ele eguina. Enyombe enya zeguina. THE A UXII_JIARIES. The tenses of the Auxiliary Ukala, to be, are so closely prefixed, so far as the persons of the present tense singular, and the 3rd person plural are con cerned, to the follo\ving 'vord, that sorne difficulty has been found in extricating and isolating theTn in such a manner as to render them identifiable; but, so far as it has been found possible to do so, this auxiliary will be found to conjugate so1newhat as follows:-Infinitive Ulcala, to be.

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PRESENT. Me kJ, I am. Ue kJ, thou art. En a t', he is. Hinyu niri, we are. Nyunyu muri, you are. Aena p', they are. FUTURE. VERB. PERFECT. l\lle kari, I was, or have been. lJe uari, thou wert. Ena ari he was. Hinyu na, 'Zoe 'Were. Nyunyu n1ua, you were. AeJ1a ia, they were. CONDITIONAL. Me kinakala, I shall be. Me kinakala, I should be. Ue onakala, thou wilt be. Uo onakala, thou wouldst be. Ena anakala, he will be. Ena anakala, he would be. Hinyu n' nakala, ue shall be. Hinyu nanakala, we should be. Nyuyu munakala, you will be. Nyunyu omanakala, you would be. _Aeha anakala, they 'Will be. Aena anakala, they_ would be. IMPERATIVE WANTING. Exarnples of the above :-Me korera, I am goo. d. Ue koripa, thou art black. Ena toragama, he is tall. " Hinyu niri we are proud. N yunyu rnuri u-ualili, you are clfver. Aena potauene, they are far away. Continuing the exan1ple to the perfect tense 'vith use of substantives instead of adjectives, 've get: Me kari muabicho, I was a servant. Ue uari chainde, thou wert a witness. Ena ari ouia, he was a thief. Hinylt na anachabumba, 'Were musicians. Nyunyu mua anematanga, you sailors. Aena ia minyokata, lhey were 'Washer-men.

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18 Infinitive to have. PRESENT. Me I have Ue ohana: ; thou hast. Ena ahana, he has. Hinyu nihana, we have. Nyunyu mohana, you have. Aena. ahana, they lzave. FUTURE. l\1e kinakalana, I shall have. -Ue onakalana, thou wilt have. Ena anakalana, lze 'zoill have. PERFECT. Me kahana, I had. Ue oahana, thou hadst. Ena ahana, he had. Hinyi nahana, we had. Nyunyu muhana, you had. Aena yahana, they had. CONDITIONAL. Me kanakalana, I should have. Ue nanakalana, thou woul dst have. Ena anakalana, he would have. I-Iinyu ninakalana, we shall have. Hinyu nanakalana, UJe should ha've. Nyunyu rp unakz..lana, you will have. Nyunya muanakalana, yo. u 'Would have. Aena anakalana, they u'ill have. Aena anakalana, they would have. IMPERATIVES. Kalana-gani, have: Nikalane, let us have. Kalanani, have (ye). Examples of U!calana, to have. Me kihana nthavi1 I have a net. Ue ohana ekangaia, thou hast a canoe. Ena ahan8. nivaka, lze has a spear . Hinyu nahana .oga, we have powder. muahana kapuiti, you have a gun. Aena ahana essaquat11 they have a present.

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VERB. 19. Negative form of Ukalana, to have. PRESENT. PERFECT. Me kirina, I have not. Me akarina, I had not. Ue kurina, you have not. Ue okarina, thou hadst not. Ena karina, he has not. Ena karina, he had not. Hinyu kanrina, ure have not. Hinyu kanarine, u.1e had not. Nvunyu kotnrina,you have not. Nyunyu komnarina,you had not. Aena karina, .they have not. Aena kiarina, they had not. FUTURE. Me akinkalana, I shal'l not ha've. U e kunkalana, thou wilt not have. Ena kankalana, he will not have. Hinyu kaninkalana, we shall not have. Nyunyu kamunkalana, you 'lf'ill not hazJe. Aen a kankalana, they will not have. CONDITIONAL. Me akinkanakalana, I should not have. L. kunkanakalana, thou wouldst not hape. Ena kankanakalana, he would not have. Hinyu kanirikanakalana, we should not have. Nyunyu kamunkanakalana, you would not have. Aena kankanakalanathey would not have. Ukala, to be, not appear to posseiS any intelligible negative form.

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20 VERB._ VER.B. In chi--rvfakua, unlike n1ost of the languages and dialects of Central and South Central Africa, the sjgn of the infinitive is the letter prefixed, instead of tho otherwise general ku, as uroa, to go, to buy, urupa, to sleep, etc. The verb 1nay be conjugated both affirn1atively and negatively, the changes of forrn necessitated by the alterations of sense in the various tenses being effeqtecl by n1eans both of prefixes and affixes. Perhaps tho clearest Inethocl of conveying these cb anges \Vill be b) conj ug:tting a specin1en, for 'vhich purpose the con1inonly ve:rb ttroa, to go, bas been se] ectecl : INDIC.A'riVE MOOD. PRESENT. PERFECT. Kinaroa, I go. Onaroa, thou goest. Anaroa, he goes. Naroa, we go. Mnaroa, you go. Anaroa, they go Kahoroa, I went. Uahoroa, thou u1entest. Ahoroa, he went. Nahoroa, we uent. M uahoroa, you 1 oent. Ariahoroa, they went. IMPERFECT'. Karoa, I was going. Oroa, thou uras going. Aroa, he was going. Naroa, we were going. Mnaroa, thou were going. Aroa, they were going.

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VERB. 21 FUTURE. PAST ANTERIOR. Kinaroaga, I shall J[O. Onaroaga, thou 'wilt go. Anaroaga, he j[(J. Naroaga, we shall go . M naruaga, you u'ill go. Anaroaga, they will go. COND!TIONAL. Kanaroa, I uould fiO. Onaroa, thou u/ouldst go. Anaroa, he would go. Nanaroa, 'Ze'e 'li ould go. M uanaroa, you 7f!Ould go. Ianart>a, they would go. Kahiroa, I had ![One. Oahiroa, thou hadst gone. A.hiroa, he had gone. -N ahirt>a, we lzad ![One. Mahiroa, you had gone. Ahirua, they had gone. Il\1PERATI\/E. Mroa-ue, Go (thou). Ylroe-ena, Go (he). Mroen e Go (1-ve). Part'>-ue, (they). SUBJUNCTIVE lVIOOD. PRESENT. (that, if) I nzay go. Omroeke, thou mayst go. Anuoeke, he may go. Nimroeke, 7Ve ntay go. M'ro e ke, you 1nay go. Pamroeke, 1nay go. Il\1PERFECT. Karoa1e, I should go. Oaroale, thou shouldst go. Amroale, he should go. Nimroale, we should go. M'roale, you should go. Pamroale, they should go. : COMPOUND PRE1'ERITE. Amroelaga, I should have gone. Oaroelaga, thou shouldst have gone. Aroelaga, he should have gon e Amr6aliyu, we should have gone. Oamroaliyu, you should have gone. Iamroalenyu, They should have gone.

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22 VERB. Infinitire Urva to go. INDICATIVE (NEGATIVE) MOOQ. PRESENT. PERFECT. Akinroale1 I did not Konroale, Thou didst not go. Kanroale, he did not go. Akinimroa,. I do not KO Konimroa, thou doest not go. Kanimroa, /zg does not go. Kanimroa, we do not g(J. Konimroa, you do not!{{_} Kanimroa, they do not go. -Kaninroale, we did not go. FUTURE. Akiroa, I will not go. Komroa, thou 111ilt not go. Kamroa, he U'ill not go. u1e w ll not go. you 'Will not go. the y will not go. PAST ANTERIOR. Konroale, you did not go. Kanroale they did not go. IMPERFECT. Akaroa, I 711as not going. Koaroa, thou wert not going. Karoa, he U'as n_ot going. Kanimroa, we u1ere not going. 1\tlanimroa, you were not going. Kanamroa, they were not going. CONDITIONAL. Akamroale, I had not gone. Akimroa, 1 should not go. Komroale, thou not gone. Kon1roa, Thou not go. Kar.1roale, he had not gone. Kaniroale, we had not gone. Kan1iroale, you had no( gone. Kamroa, he would not go. we should not go. Kamimroa, you would not go. K-airoale, they had not gone. Kamroa, they would not go. IMPERATIVE. Onirnroe-ue, go not (thou). Aimroe-ena, let hi1n not go. Ahi'roe, let us not go. A'emroe, let them not go.

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VERB. SUBJUNCTIVE (NEGATIVE) MOOD. PRESENT. Kibimroeke; (thctt) fJhimroeke, Ahimroeke, M 1hirnroeke, Mohin1roeke, Pomhimroeke, I may not go. thou 1nayst not go. he may not go. we n1ay not go. you 1nay not go. they may not go. IMPERFECT. Kahamroale, 0 haiTI roa} e, Ahamro8.le, N ahan1roale, l\1 ohamroale, Iahan1roale, (that) I should not go. thou wouldst not go. he would not go. we should not go. you 7fJoul d not go. they would not go. COJ.VlPOUND PRETERITE. Ahimroaka, (that) Oahimroaka, Ahimroaka, Ahemroakiyu, Oahimroakinyu, Ahimroakaia, I should not have, gone. thou wouldst not have gone. he would not have gone. we should not have gone. you would not ha've gone. they sho.uld not have gone. INFINI1'IVE Uhimroe. 23 Bet"veen n1any of the persons of the various tenses of the verb it will he seen that no difference \Yhatsoever occurs, or any but slight. In order to avoid confusion, therefore, it is Ctls. tonlary in

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24 \ ERB. I cases to e1n ploy the corresponding personal pronoun an affix, thus, Past .. A .. nterior, kct1nroale, thou hadst not gone, is rendered unn1istakable by the addition of 'ltethou, and bccon1es kconraoleue, to distinguish it fron1 ka7nr6alena, he had not gone, etc. Before leaving the subject of the verb, it n1ight be n1entioned tha.t .a very en1phatic in1perative sense is added by rneans of the 'vords gani, or gueni, "hich are used in1n1ediately after the in1perative forn1s for the sake of lending additional ernphasis, thus 1{1: aha-.queni g ive rne; Mr6a-gani, go thou, etc. There appears to be no rule as to the use of these tvvo forrns, either of \vhich \YOtlld apparently be applicable to any verb. Certain er bs in -vv hich the action _extends fro1n one person to another, as for exatnple, to love, to hate, to punish, to ill-treat, to give, and so on, designate, in the infiniti' e, the person upon \vhori.1 such action falls by a particle inserted the u. of that n1oocl and the 1n. ain ste1n of the 'erb, thus nvaha to gi' e, u-ki-voha, to gi' e 1ne. This is n1uch 1nore con' enie11t than the cu1nberso1ne 'ltvaha 1n1:n,yo, to gi Y'"e me, -vvould be. The personal particles of this forn1 are as follows:-INFINITITE Uvaha, to give. Ukivaha, lT uvaha, Umvaha, Uavaha, Uuvahani, Univaha, to give 1ne. to give thee. to give hinz. to give us. to give you. to give them.

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ADVERB. 25 Exan1ples of this rule: 'He does not 'vish to give it to me' would be J{anintltna ukivahali, the affix li indicating the subject 'it,' as 'vill be sho\vn hereafter; 'He should have gone to catch us so1i1e fish,' Aroelaga ualoa ehojJa, the second syllable of the verb Uloa representing the particle standing for us 'rhe usual \Vord en1ployed at Moza1nbique to send troubleson1e persons about their business is Kcau!lce, 'go a'vay,' this it is difficult to connect vvith the verb Uroa; but to add \eight to its for1n as sho\vn the second singular is added, vvith an o to carry the voice, and it becon1es an unmistakable invitation to begone, thus, A n1ilder forn1 is vvhich is en1ployed to hasten persons on an errand, to adn1onish loiterers and the like, and means Come novv, you had better be going.' ----. ADVERBS. Adverbs of Tin1e are as follo,vs: The day before yesterday Yesterday To-day To-morro\v The day after to-morro\i\ The day after (3r::l clay hence) The 4th day hence No'v After Before When Yet still Nzuri. Nzana. E18lo. lVI elo. Nroto. Pa!an1a. Sikutu. Nanano. Oduli. N rate, elen1ati. Lini. Ninlelo.

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26 ADVERB. Adrerbs of Place: Here There Yonder (at a distance) Behin d In front Between, V\7ithin -Near Far away Outside Where Various, quantity,. quality, etc. : Good Bad More L e ss Thus Affirmative and Negative : Yes No Nothinob .Lt\d' erbial phrases : At morning Early in th morning Fron1 time to time Suddenly Perhaps .. ,. N'no. Va. vale. Oduli. Miholo. Muina. Vakiviro. UHtuene. Uta. Vai. Or era, rata. Vtakala, unyala. Mguinako. Vakani. Zamo. Aio, Uhhh. Ata, iii. Hateto. Etuene Uississu. Uississuene. Ocahica-Ocaiaca. Uanannorro. Kassam be,

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PREPOS l TION. 27 Thus, Like this Gently, gradually Slowly, carefully Indeed, really Up there -Dzi zamo, dzi zale. Vacani vacani. Mrima mrima. Queli. Up above Overhead Do,vn below Do\; vn here Do\vn there Down yonder (at a distance) Outside there To (indicated) point To that ,, To yonder (distnnt) Round i'lbout Equal to -\'azulu vale. Vazuluni. Vazulu. Vatini. Vati va. Vati vo. Vati vale. Paka va. PG.ka vo or n1u. Paka vale. 1 J ruk ureriha. Uligana. PREPOSITIONS. The Prepositions in chi-Makua are usually more implied than expressed but careful observation has sho,vn the principal on e s to consist a.s follo"vs : Of a ya, na, zi. To a!a, paka. From n1. For With By Until Both And CONJUNCTIONS. / a, Ia. n1, na . lll. paka. obili. manki,

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28 INTERJECTION. Or hima. -But nl azi. As feto. If va. The "\vord 1nank1: is used ordinarily in the sense of '"\vith regarcl to,' or, 'concerning,' thus, 1nanlci nyuo, 'and vvhat about vou.' etc. tl INTERJECrriONS. These are most numerous and varied, and consist eq uall.) of the follovving 'vords and of an a1nazing gann1t of vocal inflections, vvhich not only in1port great expression into the language as a 'v hole, but ser{e to increase its not very striking fie xi bility. Really (you don't say. so !) Queli. Good gracious Komati or nuiti. My mother M aiaga. Remonstrance K6oo l(uuu. vVonder, admiration Eheee. The phrase Arnaidga if follovved by the adverb bdhi,. enough, is altnost reg:1rdecl as a forn1 of oath ; thus, if the state111ent Kahouereya nzana vi?' ?jene; I was 'ery ill yesterday/ be doubted, 'vhicb doubt ,voulcl take th8 forrn of the delicate expression Uota zin.lJu n1eaning you are a. liar,' the bona fides of the original allegation 'vould be sufficiently supported by the sufferer clravving the fingers of his right hand across his \Yincl-pipe, flicking the1n smartly clovvnwards, and ejaculating A1na1"ga bahi, On rny mother,' or -vvorcls to that effect.

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TIME. 29 ' TIME, YS, SEASONS, MONTliS AND The year of 12 1noons is yalca, 11l. myalca. The lunar rnonth, from nevv n1oon to nevv moon being 1nuere, and the n1onths are nan1ed and counted as follovvs : -__ 1st month Opaja November. 2nd N akultSla December, 3rd N ataru January. 4th Nacheche February. 5th Natanu March. 6th N a tan u na moza April. 7th Natanu na bili l\1ay. 8th Natiinu na t6.ru June. gth N ataru na cheche July. 1oth N amloko August. 11th Ndirishu Septemher. 12th Ramadan October. The vvinter--fro1n to Septe1nber-is called alhnue, 'vhilst the sun1.1ner-the re1naincler of the year-is knO\Yll as eta : The days of the vveek are kno,vn as:Saturday Nimoza. Sunday Namili. Monday Namararu. Tuesday Namacheche. Wednesday Namatano. Thursday Namatano na moza or Alo'hamisi. Friday Juma. '_rhe clav itself is called and eli vicled as follows :.; A dav .I Sunrise Nihuku, pl. mihuku. Nzua nakuma.

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30 NOTES .Sunrise to mid-day Mid-day Mid-day to sunset Sunset Thence to midnight Midnight. Thence to about 4 a.m. 4 a.m. to sunrise The moon Full moon New ,, Uississu. Otana erriari. Otana. N zua N ekala. Ohio. Ohio erriari. Ohio vatiro. Oshaga. Mueii . Mueri oanl,ga. Oh6nia. GENERAL NOTES. The Affirma.ti ve forrn used to signify existence is Ohavo, there is, there are, as },!luako oha:vo vale, is there a n1ountain there? The affirn1ative reply Ohavo, there is. E/cole eh.avo, is there a cocoanut? Affirn1ative reply Ehavo, there is. The changes vvhich occur in this word as it is applied to the different classes of Substantives is shown by the follovving : I st, or Person Class, Singular Ohavo, Plural Ahavo, there is znd Class ,, Nihavo Ahavo 3rd , Ohavo ZihaYo 4th , Ehavo ,, Zlhavo The Negative. I do not kno'v is expressed by or more emphatically, by Kahilcene \vhich literally means 'I know nothing about it.' The Negative form Kava, there is not, or are not, requires some slight practice before it can be

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31 11c ; ognized and applied in its various forins. It applies to all classes of Substantives, but, like the Affirn1ative Ohavo changes 'vith the c la ss \Vith vvhich it is en1ployed, thus: Class I Singular l<:avo Class 2 n Kanivo Class 3 Kavo Class 4 Kivo M Inanimate l(uvo Exan1ples: Class r; Plural Class 2, Plural Class 3, Class 4, Muamnaga kavo, Atiena kazz'vo, Nioji kanivo, Myuji kazvo, Mtali kavo, Ekole kivo, I I r Plural Kazivo. I I j my husband is not in there are no women. there is not an egg. there are no eggs. there js no timber. there i s no cocoanut. M inanimate ClaJss, !Vfsoro kuvo, the r e is no ric e As 'vill have been seen all the variation of this \Vorcl n1ake the sarne plural. Another negative forn1, J{ ahio, no, not, so, i s also n1uch used, especially to indicate an interrogati' e . mean1ng, as--. 'Have you seen n1y friend to-day,' JJnaona patani aga elelo? -vvhich by the aid of lcahio beco1nes unn1istakable, thus 'You have seen 1ny friend to-day, is it not so?' \Vhich \vould be phrasecl-JJ!lnaona JJatani aga elelo, lcahio ? For No, the usual expression 1:ii, each i being pronounced in turn, the vo ice being ra.ised slightly for the middle one.

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' 32 NOTES The sense of not yet, is conveyed by J{anati, as, Aehibichu anahor6a, Have the servants gone? Kanati, Not yet. The phrase ohiri is used in exhortation not to do so and so, and n1eans do not,' 'you must not.' It is joined on to the 1nain stein of the verb in place of the 1t sign of the Infinitive, thus inf. uroa, to go ; 'do not go' 'vould be 'vritten ohiroe; to give; do not gi' e ohivahe, and so no. ..A_s, however, it is an irnperative for1n, the final vo\ve.l changes frorn the a of the Infinitive to the e \V hich is the i1n perati' e characteristic. Examples, That fish is rotten, do not eat it,' Ehopa ela yahunda, ohidie. 'It is raining, do not go,' Ebula anarupa ohiroe. 'Within,' 'inside of,' for vvhich the equivalent ?nzdna is used, is also often conveyed by adding the affix ni to the vvord whose interior is referred to, thus, In the classes vvould not be rnuina za ekopo, but ekoponi; similarly, 'In the vvater' instead of muina na rnadzi, vvould be etc. The ordinary vvord for 'house' is Enupa, but when the inside of such house is referred to, the vvord, vvhilst retaining the ni affix just 1nentioned, changes its forn1, becomes 1nbdni, meaning inside the house, as Ali ahiroa mbani, Ali had gone into the house,' etc. This form is invariable, and I have sometimes thought n1ay have been brought dovvn from some of the Nyasaland tribes among \vhom the use of Nyumba, a house, is general. 'Thus Nyumba, a house would become Nyumbani, in the house, and finally abbreviate into Mbani the form used at Moza1n bique to-clay.

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NOTES. 33 'I-Ion1e,' conveying the sense of the abode or d'vvelling place of a certain individual or group of in eli vi duals= is expressed as follo'vvs :U6uani'aga, U-' I t ouanya ue, LT 6uan ye' ue, U6uany'ihu, U6uanyeya, lJ 6uany' aena, Exan1ples: I
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34 lTe ohana chene? Me kihana eh6pa, J(ivaha/i, E : rpressions. liVIzat lzave you got ? I have a .fish. G L. v e it to n1 e. Like n1ost of the nath e African dialects spoken b.) tribes, chi-Makua is rich in con1plin1entary phrases, although son1e, if not Inost, are borro'' eel fron1 other tongues ; they are for the n1 ost as follo,vs : Good day, San'le to you, thank you, How is all with you, Very well t!tank you, And ho'w about yourself, Is all quite 'lfJell with you, All is w e ll, l'v1askoin6ro. Amarahaba. Habare. Salimini. Kahiki nyuo. l\1 uahafla mua-kumi. Zihavo zikumi. For good-bye' the Svvahili \vorcl Quaheri is The forrn so constantly heard in Mozan1 biq ue Mua1Jassare zai, is too clearly an irnportation fron1 the Portuguese to acln1it of any doubt; its equivalent in that lang uage being Go1no passado, 'how ha\ e yo u been.'

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35 ALPHABETICAL VOCABULARY. ANTIVES. Abdon1en, Jrugulu. Abscess, .Nipote. Abundance, Ioata. Advice, Miruko. Agreement, Uin'uanana. Air, Mvevela. Albino, Poa1ut. Alms, Jv.tolielo. Almoner, J11loli. Ambition, OJtamaka. An1end1nent, Mtareclze!o. Annoyance, M atanga. Anger, Oali. Ankle, Ekosa. Ant, Enenele. Etui. Appetite, Monki!o. Apple, Mass au. Arch, Jl;fura. Ardour, Ososa. Arn1, M(nzo. Arrow, Ntere. Ashes, Etura. Asthma, E pumo. Aunt, N a que. Avarice, Etama. Axe, Epazo. Bait, Etchambo. Baldness, Mteri. Bamboo, M lanzi . Banana, Enika. Banana-tree, M' mnika. Barbarity, Ochili!i. Bark, 1\likotompe. Bat\ N antutu. Bath, Oraba. Beads, ll'fkova. Beach (Low tide), Opoa. Beans, Ekute. Beard, Erero. Bed, J(itanda. Bee, Enui. Beetle, Nigongolo. Perikitcha. Begg ,ar1 M lolz'. Oniveka. Beginner, Belt, ..!Vfzacho. Belly, Irugulu. Beverag.e, Iouria. Bile, JVamue. Bird, Muan7:tni. Bitch, Mualapua-Ntioza Blanket, Enikunela. Blister, Etuko . Blood, Epome. Mkutumelelo. Boaster, Onstja. Boat, Epalaua.

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36 SUBSTAK'riVES. Boat, Ekangaia. Body, E1--u tu. Bone, Nikuva Book, Ecftuo. Bottle, Ekarafa. Botton1, Souiclui. Boundary, JJ1'kano. Brain, Ok oko Breast, Etirima. Breasts, Mabel e Enama Breathing, JJ{mumelo. Bridegroon1, Ah2russi. Broom, Mvelo. Brother, M uima. Bubo, Muipapari. B : 1ffalo, Enyati. Bug, Ekunl,uni. Bunch, Nichac.'rw. Buoy, Mkana. Burglar, Onipaltarula. Butcher, Ouiva. Butterfly, Nikuruta. Buttocks, M akutu. Buyer, Ontuma. Cage, Ekaela. Calabash (gourd), Ekahi. Calm, lull, Mrengue Canoe, Ekangaia. Cap, Ekojia. Captor, O nakuvilza. Carnival, N atombero. Castor-oil, Ekura. Cat, Paka. Catarrh, Engamassi. Cedar tree, Mvinja. Cemetery, Omahie. Centipede, Eialala. Chan1eleon, !'l am anria. Chatterer, Oton goro. Cheek, Mrama. Chief, Mbeue, Mfalme. Child, JJ!Iuanamuani. Childhood, Achinamuani. Choice, Mtanlelo. Cholera, Etauni. Chopper, Epazo. Onatha. Circun1cision, Eluka. Clearness, Chetoani. Clitoris, Etuna. Cloud, i'leko. Cloth, Ekuo. Coal, lvl akala. Cocoanut, Ekoli. Cocoanut Paltn, .l11'koli. Cock, Mtupi. Coir, Ekero. Collector, Untuku1'nania. Comb, Evazero. Combination, M ajikanelo. Common sense, Ankili. Compassion, Ntungo. Comprotnise, N ayade. Auala. Amasia. Confidence, Essire. Contract, JJ{oajikanelo. Contradiction, Mevanjihero. Coolness, E niririha. j Cooking pot, Muapo. Corpse, JV.luto. Correction, Mangoca Costu1ne, Ekuo. Countenance, Uito. Cousin, Mlamo. Coward, Movi.

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I SUBSTANTiVES. Crab, Ekala. Crack, Mnyati. Crevice, lVjati. Cricket, Slziriripue. Crocodile, Enkonya. Gonya. Crow, N ankuku. Cruelty, Ochilili. Crust, Nikuli. Cucumber, Nchiri. Cut, Ehuko. Curlew, Nslzululu. Curiosity, Oto11gonoze. Curral (Cattle,) N zizi. Curry, ill alzuzi. Damage, Nikuma. Dampness, Mpeuelo. Dancer, Ouina. Danger, Darkness, Mripelo. I) ate, (fruit,) Tambura. Daughter-in-law, M'muea. Day, Nihuku. Day before yesterday, Nzuri. Debtor, Onilokihia. Deceiver, Onatota. Defan1er, Onivuiha. Defect, Ele1na. Defender, Onakiya. Delicacy, Munkelaka. 1 )em on, Jini. Devil, Shaitani. Dew, Mandi. Dhow, Pangaio. Diarrhoea, Otclzurua. Dirt, Yonanarra. Discoverer, Onikunula. Disorder, Epuia. Dispute, Nankulelo. Disquiet, Distributor, Myononi. Diver, Onizama. Divination, Ehako. Doctor, Mkulukana. Dog, Malapua. Door, Mkoro. Dowry, Mahan. Dreamer, Oniloha. Drunkenness, Ohabaria. Duck, Mrathcl. Ear, Niaro. Early 111orning, Oshaga. Early riser, Onipihera. Earth, soil, liiitaga. Earth worm, liioatta. Ebony, Mviha. Echo, Namuluve. Education, Osuluhea. Edge, margin, Mherekere. Edge of blade, Orere. Egg, Oche. Elbow, Ekohinyo. Elephant, Etebo. Embers, Moro. Enemy, Engraver, Untukula. Enquirer, Onihoa. Enthusiasm, Mriti. Envy, _l\1rima. Epilepsy, Ejile. Epileptic an, Najile. Estimation, Mpendilo. Estuary, Ntato. Eyelash, Nikihi. Eyelid, Essio. Excreta, Mavi. Experi1nenter, Onececera. 37

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38. Explanation, JJflauki ero. Extinguisher, On itip iha. Fables, Molume. Face, Vito. Fate, destiny, Ajale. Fathe'r, B dba. Fault, Etambe. Feather, Ntenga. Fern1entation, Opuapuarua Fighter, N akota Finger, 1\T ikoko Fire, Moro. Firewood, Ekuni. Fish, Ehopa. Fisherman, Mtoti. Flatterer, iWuepezi. Flea, [Ttupa. Flower, E j ula Flowe r bud, Etuto Fly, Epepele. Fog, Etapui. FollO\\ er, O nithdra Food, I olia Foot, Jkfoedo. Force, Ekurro F orehead, E iutetche Foresail, Pi.forna. Fop, I okokea Forest, Etakua. Forgetfulness, Mlialelo. Fox, Muich. Friendship, Opatamelo. Fright, U o velo. Froth, Nipero. Fruit, Myokoroko. Fugitive, O nitiaua. Gash, N lan ya. Giddiness, N arurio. Gift, Essaqudti. Gills (fish), .JfaJanka. Girl, M oamoa li. Giver, Onvaha. Glutton, N amilula. Goat, Eburi. Goatherd, Makambuji. God, Mluko. Good luck, Orreria. Maltziki. Gourd, Siguia Grandmother, Tata pipi. Grass, N las he. Grave, Nliti._ Nzfulo. Grey hairs, Epeu. Grief, Otungo. Grinder, Onichila. Groin, Mpudnumpudnzt. Ground nut, Manduvi. Guest, Mleto. Guinea fowl, Ekaga. Gums, Ohinini. Gun, K apuiti. Gunpowder, Oga. : Hair, Ekarrdri. Half, Nuko. Hand, Ntata. Handle, Evihi. Happiness, Orreria. liare, Hukula. Haste, U akuva. Harlot. Ualel e Heart, Mrima. Heat, Ovihaviha. Heel, Ekokiny o moe doni. Height, Orekamelo.

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Heir, Afriti. Help, Uhavih elo. Helper, U akiviha. Haemorrhoids, Moankoko. Hen, Mualako. Heritage, Mritelo. Hide, Ekataka. Hiding place, Evito. High grass, Epa!ehi. Hippopotan1us, Tomondo. Hole Muite. Hook (fish), Nanjolo. Honour, Hz:Shima. Honey, Oravo. Horns, Nyanga . House, Enupa. House breaker, Oniton3 la. Hunger, Edala. H us band, Lobuana. Muamna. Husks, 0 kana. Illness, Ereta. Impatience, Evihaviha. Impos tor, .N lavilavi. Inkling., Otikila. Insipidity, Ehiniszfa. Instant, Okati. Insult, JVIruanelo. Interior, Muina. Iron, Euima. Island, Esz:Ssirua. Itch, O vele. Itching, On e na. Intestines, Nrupo. Inventor, Onipuni. Ivory, Etebo. Jackal, Muich. Jack tr ee Yakara. J ea]ousy, Elzadje Jester, Etete . Journey, Nikuaha. Joy, Charelie. J urn per, Onitupa. l(eeper, Oniati. K.ernel, Ekuko Kite (bird), Chaka. l(nee, Nikuta. Knife, Moaro. l(not, Etulula. N!uto. Lake, Nyasa. Land breeze, M'mandi. Land tortoise, Ekapa. Latrine, C l:tarirero. Leaf, Ntakuro. Leanness, Muodelo Leech, Mtuto. Leg, Moedo. Leopard, Avara. Leper, N akuluto. Leprosy, Okuluto. Liberty, Oneti. Lid, I okune lja. Life Okiva. Lime, I(inambo. Lion, I( aramu. Lips, N!ako. List ener, Ouinu e l ela Liver, Yapa. Lizard, Engoto. Load, Mrindi. Loathing, Oper e lia. Locust, Yorobe. Louse, Etupo. 39

PAGE 44

40 Low-down, Okiveha. Lungs, Epumo. Maiden, Jvfoamoali. Maize, N akuo. cane, Ntati. Man, Mlobuana. Mane, Zinga. Manufacturer, Hachicha. Mango tree, M'manga. Margin, Mkerekere. Marriage, Eharussi. l\1:ast, Nrinkoto. Master n1ariner, .iVIalimo. tradesman, Fundi. Matches, Fosko. Nlaw worm, Meua. Meat, Enama. Nleasure, Mtita. Medal, A budu. Medicine, Nrede. l\fenses, Epome. Ehitcha. Middle, Erriari. l\1illet, JV!ele. Millstone, Nclzilo. Mire, Marove. Misery, Ossikini. Mixture, Mtakanyero. Mocker, Mvehe. Modesty, Eyaia. Money, N z uruku. Monkey, N chele. Moon, Mueri. Morning, Uississu. Mosquito, Puilimiti. Mother, Mama. Mother-in-law, M'muera. Mouldiness, Mofo. SUBSTAXTIVES. Mouse, Quati. Mouth, Eano. Mourner, Onikupdnya. Mud, Otope. l\furderer, Oniva. Nail, Nsemdri. finger, Ekata. Navel, Mclwmbo. Neck, Echiko. Needle, Ag uia. Nest, Epururo. Net, Ntavi. News, Abare. Night, Ohio. Nightmare, Manikambuli. Nippl-es, Enyara. Nod" Uuva. Noise, Onyagula. North wiod, Kassikassi. Nose, Epfuno. Notch, Muititiri. Nourishment, Zodia. Nut, Ekoroko. Oath, Ekilapo. Observer, Ontonya. Occasion, Okati. Oil, Makura. Oil seller, Natnakura. Old man, Mzee ( Swahilt). Onlooker, Oniusha. Opiun1, Anijiau. Orange tree, Elalanja. o,vl, Ox, Enyombe. Paddle, Ninkassia. Palm tree, Nikute.

PAGE 45

SUBSTANTIVES. Paper, Npa elo: Paraffin, Pataro;o. Parcel, Nikute. Partridge, E quali. Path, Epiro. Patience, Uistamili. Penis, Mbolo. People, Athu. Pepper, Pirt-piri. Person, Mthu. Pestle, Muiti. Phantom, ghost, Jlfnepa. Phlegm, Nikotokoto. Pig, Ekulue. Pigeon, Ekuda. Nzia. Place, Nip uro. Player, Onrukuna. Plume, Enchonchoro. Polypus, Epoeza. Potato, Eraga. Potato plant, N akaraga. Porpoise, Suke. Potter, Namiapo. Potsherd, Ni7Jale. Poultry house, Ehili. Poverty, Ossikini. Powder, dust, Mtupi. Power, Unmuerela. Pregnancy, Ehanula. Pride, K iburi. Ojigan. Profane person, Onbuana. Proprietor, Muanene. Puberty, Okam ili. Punishment, Ehukumo. Pupil of eye, Emboni. Putty, Echima. Quail, Epuiti. Quality, Enamuna. Question, M' latho. Quickness, Muakevelo. Rabbit, Inyamarakulu. Rags, Mit it i. Rainbow, M kanganyama Rascal, Nlavinlavi. Rat, Nikuli. Rat-trap, Chiku rankuaran. Rattle, I( apakapa Ray, Etari. Reason, Esababo. Receiver, Onakela. Recoil, M nyete. Recorder, Onapuela. Relationshp, Omuzi. Relation, M'muzi. Relish, M ahaza. Remainder, Iohala. Ren1ission, Mopolelo. Repentance, Zozuela. Request, N ovekela. Resin, Sonyonyela. I Nlipelo. Rest, balance Uitua. Reunion, Ntukumanelo. Rhinoceros, Ntclzocho. Ribs, Niparari. Rice (raw), Msoro. (cooked), Mrama. Ripeness, Mtokotelo. Rival, .Namune. River, Muro. Robber, Nantigulla. Root, Mtitari. Rope, Mkoyi. Rubber, Mpira, 41

PAGE 46

42 Rudder, Chokani Sail, _!{tanga Sailor, N amatanga. Saliva, Echenye. Salt, Maka. Sand, _lltfitaga. Sandbank, 1\Tivu/a Scale (fish) JJI/sombe. Scorpion, N amarere. Sauce, Nivizi. Malzu zi. Scab. Nikuli. Scar, Ekukonlana. Scarecrow, Onomola. Scent, Monkela. Scoffer, Mveho. Scold, O nikua Scratch, Natino. Screech-owl, Ezizi. Scurf, Muonono Sea, Bahan. Seagull, N anyava. Seal, E mbua. Seed, Ecio. Seller, Onitumiha. Servant, Muabicho. Sesam un1, N auakua. Shadow, Nzurio. Shame Eyaia. Sheep, E puitipuitz'. Shell, Ekonzb e Shirt, M laia. Shore, Oparea. Shoulder, Nikata. Shoulder belt, O kapata. Silk, Ntona. Sinews, Mtika. Sir, Ngunla. SUBSTANTIV:ES. Sister, Mrokora. Skill Oalala. Sky, Uirimo. Sleep, Ekove. Smell (good), Unkela. Smoke, Nuishi. Sob, N atekume. Soldier, Nampoporo.Sole (fish), J\Tikuanta. Son1ersault, N ankolikoli. Son, iV!uana. Son-in-law, M'muea Song, N z ipa. Soul, Ehorro. South, I{ ussi. Sower, Onala. Spade, Epa. Span, Chubiri. Spea1{er, Onaluma. Spear, 1Y ivaka. Spleen, Eapa. Spider, Randazi. Spine, Eturi. Spirit, lV!laika. Spoon, Orukulu. Ekolyer. Squid, Lula Stain, 1'/lepa. Statnmering, Onikukuma. Star, Ototoa. Stepfather, Titi. Stick (walking), Ekobo. Stinginess, Etama. Stomach Erugulu. Stone, Nluko. !:)tory, Hantice. Ntambelo. Story-teller, Onitamba. Submission, Ngamelo.

PAGE 47

SUBSTANTIVES. Sucking child, Onamua. Sufferer, Onihaua. Suffering, llf"yauelo. Sugar cane, Mhali Sumn1er, Elimue. Sun, Nzua. Swallow, N ankare. Sweat, Oviheria. Sweeper, Oniveta. Sweetness, Ozzja. Swin1mer, Onirapelela. Swindler, Nlavilavi. Swing, N achirumbuerumbue. Sword, Opanga. Tail, Muila. Tainya (fish), Mkiz i Tale, Handice. Tarantula, Nzizi. Teacher, Omuishuta. Tear, Nitoli. Teeth, llfeno . Tendon, Ntika. Tent, Nipanda. Territory, E!apo. Testicles, Ekete. Threat, O!ake!e!o. Thief, I ouiya. Thigh, Etarra. Thing, Etu. Thorn, Muia. Thunderstorm, Etare. Throat, M'milo. Timbe, Mtali. Toad, Oapula. Tobacco, Soni. Today, Ele!o. Tomorrow, Melo. Tongue, Mlime. Tooth, Nino. Top, N amurro. (child's), Tondiri. Trader, N abianchaka; Trap, Mtchichi. Tree, llf"t ali. Trick, E lema. Tumour, Nepote. Turtle, Engapa. Twins, Nivata. Uncle, Ha!u. Unhappiness, Orila. Union, Mvaranela. Unrefined sugar, N atumbero. Urinal, Vanru z ia. Urine, Menyo zo. Vagina, 1\1 anyoko. Vegetables, Matapa. Vein, Mtika. Viper, Evili. Voice, N zu. Vomit, JJfarapeo. Waist, Eiuno. \Vall, Eshiri. vVar, Ekoto. Watcher, Oniturimela. \Vater mel on, Niu.rio. Wave, Niuimbi. Wasp, .JI;J dendeu. Water, Madzi. Whale, N amkumi. Whoren1onger, K aupue. Wild grapes, M z aruba. Wind, Epeo. vYing, Nipupa . Eita, 43

PAGE 48

44 vVitchJ Mkuiri. 'Vitchcraft, Okuiri. 'iVitch doctor, Okiri. 'Vitness, chai' de. Woman, Ntiata. S UBST ANTI VES. I vVork, Mtego. Wrinkle, M nyari. 'iVriter, Omleba. Year, My aka.

PAGE 49

45 VERBS. .I. To Abandon, uh t'djalia. Able, to be, ueria. Abort, ulzakiri. Abound in, uata. Abuse, uonelela. Accept, uaquela. Accompany, utara. Accumulate, utulcumana. Accustom, ulamelela. Acquire, upuanya . A.dd, uinjerera. Adjust, ulikaniha. Admit, utunia. Advance, uholela. Affirm, utipansiha. Agitate, utimpuanya. Agree, uinuanana. Arnplify, uinjerera. Amuse, urukunea. Anchor, urinka. Annoy, unanar1a. ,, unyonya. Anoint1 uotiya Ans\\er, uakula. Appear, uligana. ukumelela, Approach, uat,lma. uatamiha. Arrest, utuka. Arrive, upsia. Ascend, uela, ,To Ask, uveka. 1 Inter. ugoha. Assist, ukaviha. Attack, umtielela. A \vake, uvenya. Be, Beautify, urrerihia. Bear, (young,) .. Beam, ubenyar. Beg, uatola. Begin, upadja. Belch, uekanana. Believe, ukubali. uamznz. Bend, uramiha. ukoro1nbania. Bind, utuka. Bite, uluma. Blacken, uripiha . Board (a ship,) usola. Boast, usifa. Boil, upuapurua. 1 utokota. Bore, utemula. Bother, urapecha. Break, upuesha. Break into, upaparula. Break open, uvenul,i. umumula.

PAGE 50

46 To Bring, uruya. ukusha. Bring up, ulela. Burgle, utorola. Burn, uparel a, upaka. Burst, uput{a. Bury, ub'pela Butt, ukutumlua. Buy, utiona. Cackle, urotoha. Call, uehana. Capture, uakuviha. Carry, ulovola. Catch, uvara. uloa. utamicha. Chirp, utong9la. Choose, utaula. Chop up, uluka. Chop, uatha. Clean, unimpuputa. upuputa. Climb, ukunyantbe ra Collide, ukumulana. Conceive, urubaliha. Conciliate, uatania. Confide, uamini. Confront, uihania Conquer, uumeria. Consent, utuniha. Constitute, uteka. Continue, uzanzira. Contort, urz'pitula. Contradict, uvanya. uvanyiha. VERBS. To Comb, Combine, uctjikana. Come, uhoa. Comfort, ulipiho. Compare, ulikaniha. Complain, uhimiale. Cook, uobeya. Cool, uririha. Correct, uterucha. Corrupt, rot, uunda. upahula. Cough, ukotom6la. Count, ualaka. Cover, uzuna. ukunela. Covet, uzivila. Crack, uparula. Cripple, ukokony6la. Crush, upoata. Cultivate, ulima Cure, ulolia. Curse, uruana. Cut, utikila. Dance, uuina. Darken, urz'piha. Deceive utz'pia. Decorticate, utarakula. Deepen, uichiha. Defame, uvaicha. Defend, uakinya. Demolish, ukurua. Deny, uruna. Depreciate, ukueka. Descend, ukurua. Despise, utainfo. Destroy, umoviha.

PAGE 51

VERBS. To Deter, utumula. Devour, umeria. Die, ukua, Dig, uichiha. ,, utipa. Diminish, uvukula. Dirty, unanaripa. Disappear, usimi. Disarrange, utambaya. Disbelieve, usikiri. Discharge cargo, utolola. Discolour, tarnish, uku-chula. Discover, unikuniula. Disdain, unitanya. Disembark, upakula. Disguise, uanganyrea. Dislike, ukanyerera. Dismiss, uleha. Dispute, uakulana. Dissolve, utotocha. Distribute, unyona. Distrust, utaninze ra. Disturb, uputelia. Dive, uzama. Divide, unta. uyanona. Divulge, ulalea. Drag, upururia: Draw, ukuntiha. Draw back, ut/zumua, Draw near, uatama. Dread, uova. Dream, uloha. Dress, uuara. Drink, uuria. To Drizzle, umiza. Drop, ittonya. Drunk, uhabaJ ia. Dry, uanae. Dust, clean, utaf, a. Dye, uina. Eat, udia, Embark, upakira. Embrace, utukuniania, Empty uoarecha. En joy, upuya. Enlarge, utapula. Enquire, ukoa. Enrage, ui-viha. Enter, ukela. Equalise, ulikaniha. Escape, utiaua. Estirnate, uakavancha. Exceed, uvirilela. Excrete, uunya Expel, uomola. Explain ulakierd. Extend, urekamiha. Extinguish, utipiha. Fade, unyala. Faint, uzirika. Fall, ukurucha. Fall down, umora. Fall ill, uerreia. Famish, uvoliha: Fast, utuka. Fear, u6va. Fight, uouana. umana. Fill, uzala. 47

PAGE 52

48 VERBS. To Find, upuanya. Finish, umala. , umaliha. Flame up, uveriha. Flatter, uepeza. unyata. Flow, upemba. Fly, Fold ; ukuna. Follow, utara. Forbid, uthia. ukondia. Forget, uliala. Fry, uareka. Get wet, unania. Give, uvaha. Give back, uhokolocha. Glitter, uaria. Gloss over, uarriha. Glue, upariha. Gnaw, nibble, ukura. Go, uroa. Go back, uhokol6a. Go on hands and knees, uapaza. Go out, ukuma. Grin, uhinind/1./a. Grind, uchila. Grow, uturur6a. Grow dark, uripiha. Grow fat, uneneva. Gro\\' old, uluvaliha. Grow thin, uonda. Grumble, utukuta. Guess, ulikaniha. To Guess aright, uechera choko. Haggle, upuechiha. Hang, uhelilia. Happen, ukumelela. Harden, ururumalih"a. Hasten, uakuviha. Hatch eggs, uramela. ,, utotola. Have, ukalana. Heap up, unquela. Hear, uiua. Heat, ukutiha. Help, uchuhudia. ukaviha. Hem, ubenyar. Hide, uvita. one's self, utiaua. Hinder, uhiza. Hold one's peace, unzala. Honour, uhishimu. Hope for, ualita. Hunt, ulupata. Ignorant, to be, utikina. Imitate, utakiha. Increase, uinjerera. upovela. Inform, ulatula. Inherit, uriti. Insist, ukanyerera. Isolate, uirimia. Insult, unazi. Insolate, uirimia. , uruana. Intend, desire, ulake/a,

PAGE 53

VERBS. 49 To Introduce,upoiziha. \ Invent, upuni. Invert, urukunucha. Investigate, utokoza. Invite, ulatula. Isolate, uirimia. Jest, uvehula. Join together) utukuman4. Judge, ulamula. Jump, utupa. Keep, uiati. l(nead. uchata. Kno,v, uzuela. Lame, uokony6la. upahula. Lament, uipulela. Laugh, utea. Lay a line, uriata. Lead astray, utuelela. Learn, uishuta. Leave, uhia. behind, uhia. Lend, uoliha. Let up, upanda. Lick, ulata. Lie, uota. Lie down, uizokola. , urupati. Light, uamu!dia. upariha. Like, uzivelha. esteen1, love, upenda. Limp, ututunya. Listen, uinuelela. To Live, ukala. Load, utemba. Look, uueha. Lose, urimela. LoYe, utuna. Lull, ututela. a child, ututela. Make, uira Marry, utela. Measura, upima. land, uhelame. Melt, ut6t6a. Mend, urehareha. Merit, deserve, upaka. Mew, uunla. Milk, uanza. Miss on the road, uv.arikana. Mix, utakaniha . ulapuria Mock, uveha. Mourn, ukupanya. Move, stir, uvarakaza. Micturate, urudza. Nod, uuvela. Nourish, utiha. Obstinate, to be, ukange, rera. Obstr:uct, utia. Obtain, upuanya. upavela. Offend, utoela-mace. Open., utukula. Oppress, ukaka.

PAGE 54

, ; 50 VERBS. To Order, uruJna. To Put, place, uhela. Ornament, ureriha. Over tire, uofea. Question, ukoha. Pare, z.;,aqella. Pasture, unadia. Pay, uliva. Peel, utarakula. Perplex, uaia. utuarelela. Pinch, tighten, utitiha. Plant, uala. Play, urukunea. 1-tairakula. Pluck up, upola. Point out, u onia. , utonia. Possess, ukalana. Pound, utita. Pour out, u1noare cha. Powder, ut66!iliha Praise, utotopela Preach, ukumela. Present one's self, ukunzelela. Press, uzeyakela. Pretend, upavela. Prick,sting, uhoma. Promise, ulakela. Prop, ufuella. Propagate, uv!-tiha. Protect, ukojini. Provoke, utara1nula. Pull, uvura. Purify, uchata. Push, uvura. against, utimbuna. Rain, urupa ebula. Raise, uvenyiha. Raise up, tta!e ha. Ransom, uopola. Read, usoma. Record, upuela. Recur, uti1nakela. R edden, ucheriha. Redeem, uopola. Reduce S\i velling, unyala. Refuse, ukonda. Relate, -utamba. Rely upon, uakulela. Remait:l, uhala. ,, ukala. Remember, upuela. Ren1ove, uroaha. ,, ukuahula. utumua. Repair, uherea. Repent, unyara. Reside, ukala. Resist, uliba. Respect, uistahi. Rest, uitua. Restitute, uok6!6cha. Return, uh6k6!6a. Revive, uhinumua. Ripen, utok6ta. Rise early, upehera. Rise up, uvenya. Roast, uarika. Roll in the dust, uper6ika.

PAGE 55

VERBS. 5il To Rub, Run, utimaka. aground, upueriria ... through, uchorneria . up against, Salt, rtduku. Save, uopola. Say, uhimia. ukupelela. Scald, ukupula. Scare away, umola. Scent, uimuria. Scoff, jest, uveha. Scold, unikua. Scour, utelililza. Scourge, ukuptda. Scrape, upula. Scratch, uarakula. uaraquela. Secrete, uapela. See, uona. Seize, utota. Sell, utlzumiha. Send, uvelilzha. I Send for, uleheria. uamualaniha. Set fire to, Set free, utukulela. , uopola. Se,v, utota. Shake, uhikinya.,. ', ukupelela. uotoa. utata. Sharpen, unona. )) utokol6a. t To Shave, umeta. Shiver, utuku1nela. utetemela. Shorten, ukuviha. uakuviha. Show, utonyera. Shrink, uikurana. S!lut, utuka. Sigh, uhihimeria. Sing, uiba. Sink, uzamiha. Sit down, ukilati. Skin, uchata. Sleep, urupa. all night, urupelela. Slide, uterekua. Slip, utereria. Slun1ber, urupz'ha. Smear, uotiha. Smell, unuka. sweet, unukela. Smile, utea. Smoke (fumigate,) uazu-la. Smooth, uoloiha. Snatch, ukotopila. Sneeze, uachimuria. Snore, ugonga. Soften, uolouriha. uvolola. Sovv seed, uala. Speak, uulu11ta. ulaula. Spill, u1nuarecha. Spit, uchua. Splash, upathea. Spoil, uyon6na.

PAGE 56

52 VERBS. To Spread, uakola. I' unzoarea. Squeeze, uanta. Stagger, uvevela. Stain,-_uta kaliha. Statnmer, ukukuma. Stand, uentela. Stay, remain, upiza. Steal, uuiya. Sting, uhonta. Stipulate, uajikana. Stop, uthia. 'l I' ume ea. Straddle, umoaria. Strain, melt, ukikita. Strangle, utipa. Strengthen, ukan_yirlra . ulipiha. Stretch, ukoka. Stroll, uetakasa. Stumble, uterekua. Submerg-e, uzama. Succeed; upuanya. Suck, uamU(l. Suck, draV\', upota. Suckle, uamiha. Suffer, uaua. Suffocate, uzamihd-. Support, uvilela. upiteria. uvarela. Suppose, uampiera. Surprise, ututucha uchanga. Surround, urukurerika. urukureria. Swallow, uniria. 'fo Swt>ar profanely, uruana. Swear on oath, ulipela. SV\ eep, uvela. Sweeten, uziviha. Swell, uiba. Swim, urabelela. Tack, upicha. ; Take, ukucha. Take oath, ulapia. Take out, ukuma. Taste, ulauiha. Teach, uishuta. Tear, uanyula. to pieces, umcakasa. to rend, utalia. Tease, provoke, utara-mula. Terrify, t:-tutua. Think, upuela. 1,hrash, umenya. uputa. Thread, ukopa. ufulela. Threaten, ulakela . Throw, unyanyala. Thrust, ukaka. Tie, fasten, utuka. Timid, to be, ulozoa. Tinkle, uiruma. Tired, to be, u9djea .. Touch, twpa. Touch, uapapela. Tren1ble, utukumela. Trickle, utunia. Trouble, annoy, unyonya. Try, uececera.

PAGE 57

To Turn, urukunucha. Twist, uta1nbanya. uripitula. U na''Vare of, utanya. Unbend, uta pula. Uncover, ukumula. Understand, uinua. Undress, urula. Unfasten, utukula. Unhook, utomola. Unite, t:ttukumana. ,, uvaraniha. Visit, utot6la. Vomit, urapea. Wait, ualita. Walk, uenda. ueda. VERBS. 53 'To Wander, uvonya. Wash, uraba. clothes, ukata. Watch, lurk, uturumela. Water (animals), uurya. Weave, uthava. weep, uunla. Weigh, ulemela. Whisper, uapa. Wipe, u'tnila, Wish for, utuna. Wound, uhoma. Wrangle, uana. Wrap up, uvitikelela. \\Trinkle, unyata. Write, uleba. Yawn, uarimuria.

PAGE 58

54 ..... ADJECTIVES. : r Abortive, Enih'akiriha. Acceptable, Enaquelia. Acco1nplished, I om ala. Actual, Tanandno. Agile, M akuva: Agreeable, Sorrerihia. Alive, Umkumi. Appetizing Enzivela. Arabian, Muarabo. Bad, Otakala. Bald, Natari Bearded, Narero. Bitter, Iouduq. Black, Oripa. Boiled, I otokota. Brilliant, Ivuaria Broken, Iopueia. Broken open, Iopaparulia. Burning, Iobiha. Cheap, R ahisi. Clear, Eraro. Clever, Onanali. Close by, Vakiviru. Cloudy, Enirunde. Coarse, rough, Mginga. Cold, Oriria. Complete, Iomala. Cooked, U abeya. Cool, Mririela. Correct, Otaroa, Covetous, N atama. Covered, Ioikitea. Cracked, I Crippled, Kokonyoko. Crooked, Ioongomana. Cruel,Mchichili. Curable Unilolia. Curious, Mtongoza. Dark, Ioripa. Dead, Okua. Deceitful, Motati. Decorticated, Iotarako!ia. Deep; I oicha. Defective, I ovukua. Desirable, Enizivela. Desired, I otunia. Detestable, I nipuela. Difficult, Enivila. Disturbed, Ioputelia : Dry, Iouma. Drunken, Ohabaria. Due, Etene. Educated, Usuluhea. Elastic, 1 ondmoa. Enceinte, Orupala. Enraged, Ouivelea. Entire, Epurukuma. Estin1able, I open de a. Exact, Iolikana. Expert, U-ualiLi. Faded, Ionyala. Far off, Otauene. Fastidious, Enipuela.

PAGE 59

Fat, Oneneva, Flabby, Iooloa. Flat, Iopatea. Flowing, Enipemba. Forgotten, Iolalia. Fortunate, Overeria. Fried, I odrrekia. Full, Iozala. Gluttonous, .. lVamilula. Good, Orera. Gratuitous, Iovahia. Green, N amantapa. Happy, Iosivilia. Hard, I oliba. Heavy, Iole mela. IIot, Ioviha. Ill, Mreta. Ill-bred, Mtoanac e Incomparable, Iohipiela. Incredulous, Ohi n ikiri. Incurable, Ehinilolia. Inflan1mable, Eniparela. Invisible, Ehinonea. Jealous, N ahadje. Just, Ratta. Kneeling, Uokokora. Lame, Enitikila. Latnentable, Enikupanya. Large, big, I olupale. Last, Omaliha, Light, Iovea. Loathson1e, Iorapecha. Long, I oragama. ADJECTIVES. Lying, Moti. Mad, N atoto. Male, E lobuana. Moist, Iopena. Naked, Buide-buide. Native, Ohanara. New, Epsia. Obstinate, Onikanyerera. Odorous, Enunkela. 0 ld, U akala i. Old-aged, Ouluvala. Patient ; Onistamilo. Poor, Massikini. Powerful, Onisieria. Praiseworthy, Onitopelia Proud, Mjinga. Onikiburo. Quick, Onikitva. Ransomed, Ioopolie. Rare, I otoa. Raw, Recent, Epsia. Red, I oche.-;ia. Rich, Tagiri. Ripe, I otokota. Roasted, I ouochia. Rotten, Iounda. Rough, rude, IorurutJzala. Sharp, E nitikila. ,, Jotokoloa. Short, (persons), Okovea. (things), Iokovea. 55 .

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56 ADJECTIVES. Shrunken, Iokurana. Sleeping, Onirupa. Slowly, Mrima. Small, I ankani. Smooth, Iolaua . Soft, Iooloa. Sour, Unyunya. Squint-eyed, Oveveroa-nito. Stinging, Enihoma. Stingy, Natama. Straight, Strange, M.'malapo. Strong, I oliba. Suffering, Onihaua. Sweaty, Noviherea. Sweet, Osija. Swollen, Ioiba. Tall, Norogama. Tame, Moerevo. Tender, Looloa. Tepid, Iokutihia. Thick, strong, Ioitivala. Thin, Ubnda. Tin1id, Movi. Unovia. Uoloza. Torn, Iouanyoa. Ugly, Otakala. U naccuston1ed, Ehinikalia. Unequal, Iohilikana. Unhappy, Norilo. Unknown, Onitikinea. 'Vhite, Odela. Wonderful, Iochanguia. \Vounded, Nikudta 1 ..

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57 VARIOUS ADJECTIVES, ADVEBRS, PRONOlJNS, Above, Ozulu. Adieu, Quaheri. All, Jolene. Alone, Meka. Always, Mancha. Another person, Eguina. At once, Ndnano. Before (time), Elimati. Behind, Oduli. Below, Yavdti. Both, Obili. But, MassZ: Daily, Mhikuene. Equal, Ioligdna. Full, I ozala. Further, Oholo. Gratis, Yamahala. Yavahia. Here, Va, n'no. His, hers, I auao. How, Zai. I, Mi, minyo. Indeed, Queli. 1n front? Oholq, Long ago, K alai. I : More, Zaida, Much, Muinjene. My, Aga, iauaga. Near, Vakiviru. Neither, U alr;z. No, None, If at a. Nobody, Hat a m'tu. Nothing, H atetu Now, Vano. Only, Meka. Other, Eanene. Our, I auihu. Outside, Uta. Quickly, Akuva. Same, loio. Since, Tango. Slowly, Mrima. Still, .Ninlelo. Sufficient, Bahi. That, Ale, ela, ele. There, Vale, vo. This, Eio. Thou, Ue,

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58 VARIOUS ADJECTIVES, PRONOUNS, ETC. Thus, Zizama. We, Hinyu. When, Lini. Whence, Vai, yavai . \Vhere, Vai. Which, Duvi. Who, N dimbanz. Why, Prachene. With, Ni. Within, Muina. With n1e, Ni minyu. thee, Ne ueo. him, Ni ena. us, Ni hinyu. you, Ni nyuo. them, Ni ahta_. Yes, Aio. vour, I auenyo.