Heads of Mpongwe grammar, containing most of the principles needed by a learner

Material Information

Title:
Heads of Mpongwe grammar, containing most of the principles needed by a learner
Alternate title:
Vocabulary of the Mpongwe language
Physical Description:
59, 54 p. : 24 cm.
Language:
English
Myene
Creator:
Wilson, J. Leighton (John Leighton), 1809-1886, 1809-1886
Publisher:
Mission House
Place of Publication:
New York, NY
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mpongwe language -- Mpongwe language -- Dictionaries -- English -- Mpongwe language -- Grammar -- Myene language   ( lcsh )
Genre:
indexed   ( marcgt )
Grammar
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Zambia -- Copperbelt -- Mpongwe Mission
Coordinates:
-13.5 x 28.16667 ( Mpongwe Mission )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Wilson, J. Leighton (John Leighton), 1809-1886
Funding:
Digitisation funded by SOAS, University of London.
Biographical:
Includes (with separate title page): A vocabulary of the Mpongwe language / by American Missionaries, at Gaboon, West Africa.

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Resource Identifier:
lcna - no90000707
lcsh - sh85088210
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Full Text
HEADS
OF
MPONGWE GRAMMAR,
AND A
VOCABULARY
OF THE
MPONGWE LANGUAGE.


Presented
to the
School of Oriental Studies
London,
by
The Rev. Th. L. Elliott, D.D.


SOAS


HEADS
OF
MPONGWE GRAMMAR
CONTAINING
MOST OF THE PRINCIPLES NEEDED BY A LEARNER.
BY A LATE
MISSIONARY.
GABOON, WEST AFRICA.
NEW YORK:
MISSION HOUSE, 23 CENTRE STREET.
1879.


School of Oriental Studies, London


CONTENTS.
PAGE
ORTHOGRAPHY................................................................................................................7
Elementary Sounds.................................................................................9
Vowels..............................................................................................................................9
Diphthongs......................................................................................................................9
Consonants......................................................................................................................9
Orthography Phonetic..................................................................................................10
ETYMOLOGY......................................................................................................................10
Gender and Denominatives...............; ......................................................10
Number and Classification..........................................................................................10
First Class................................................................................................................10
Second and Third Classes....................................................................................11
Fourth Class.................................................. 11
Note.Ny, Sin., changed to m, etc........................................................................10
Nouns used only in Plural........................................................................................12
Verbal Nouns..................................................................................................................12
First Class................................................................................................................12
Second Class.........'.........................................................................................13
Third Class................................................................................................................13
Fourth Class..........................................................................................................14
Nouns in Superlativo Degree..................................................................................14
Adjectives ..................................................................................................................14
Comparison of......................................................................................................14
Table of Adjectives and Nouns......................................................................14
Nouns used as Adjectives....................................................................................15
Pronominal Adjectives........................................................................................15
How Inflected........................................................................................................15
Fragments of Adjectives......................................................................................16
Tabic of Compounded Adjectives....................................................................16
" Plurals Compounded..........................................................................16
Loeafion of Adjective Pronouns........................................16
Table of Classes......................................................................................................16
Terminal i, initial iyarn........................................................................................18
Table of Nouns and Adjective Pronouns........................................................17
Emphatic Suffix, miSmS......................................................................................17
Demonstrative Pronouns....................................................................................18
Used in Interrogations..........................................................................18
Numeral Adjectives...................A :.,,..............................................19
(3)
'if.',;


4.
CONTENTS.
Decimal or Digital................................................................................................19
Used as Nouns ......................................................................................................19
Classed as Nouns..................................................................................................19
Tabic of Cardinal Numbers................................................................................19
Remarks.Nouns 1st Class Singular..............................................................20
Arrangement of Nouns and Numerals............................................................21
Abbreviation of Numerals................................................................................21
Numbers become Nouns, and Njun Numbered Possessive....................21
Answer by show of Fingers.........................................................21
Adjective Phrases..................................................................................................21
Diminutive ye.................... ..........................................................21
Ordinals................................................................................................................22
How Formed............................................................................................................22
Fractional Parts............................................................22
Pronouns.............................,........................................................22
PersonalNo Gender.............. <............................................................22
Number and Case................................................................................22
Table.......................................................................................22
Second Person Singular, Si.........................................................................23
Subject of Nle, Objective.....................................................................23
Rela tive Pronouns.....................................................................................23
o, Singular, wi, Plural..................................................................................23
Agree with Antecedent in Number and Person................'. 24
Interrogative Pronoun........................................................................24
How Used.........................................................................................24
Definite Pronoun.. ................................................................25
Very Indefinite.......................................................................................25
Table of Class and Number....................'........................................25
Nominative Case changed to Objective........................................................25
Particles.....................................................................................................26
Adverbs of PJace....................................................................................26
" Time...................................... ......................26
Verbs as Adverbs........................................................................................26
Adverbs of Manner and Cause......................................................................27
Prepositions........................................................................................................27
Meaning from the Verb...................................................................................28
Nd\ ndH, and ndS............................................................................................28
Conjunctions .......................................................................................................28
Copulative Conjunctions.................................................................................28
Disjunctive .....................................................................................28
Interjections................. .. ..........................................................................29
Verbs ............ ......................................................................................29
Regular Verbs............. ...........................................................................29
Initial, Consonant, and Reciprocal.......................................................29
Root or Stem of Verb................................................................................29
Table of Change to Imperative.....................................................30
Conjugation of Verb .............................................. 31
Formation of Passive Voice..................................................................31
I.Radical Conjugation ................................... 31
II.Causative .................................... 31


CONTENTS. 5
III.Relative Conjugation........................ ......................31
IV.Frequentut'e " .......,..,,.,................................33
V.-Reflexive ......................................................32
VI.Reciprocal ........................................................................32
VII.Indefinite ...,.,..,.....................................................33
Compound ........................................................................33
Table of Compound Conjugations................................................33
Augments Parts of tho Verbs......................................................................34
Negative, Active, and Passive..........................................................................34
" How Formed........................................................................................34
" Verbs......................................................................................................34
ModesFive............................................................................................................35
Indicative, the Radical..............................................................................35
Imperative Formed.....................................................35
Subjunctive ........................................................................................35
Signs of Subjunctive....................................................................................35
PotentialCharacteristics..........................................................................36
Infinitive Sign of............................................................................................36
Tense, Number, and Person......................................................................37
Imperative PluralNumber.....................................................................37
Immediate Past Tense..................................................................................37
Paulo Past ....................................................37
Historical ................................................................................37
Perfect ..................................................................................37
Pluperfect ..................................................................................37
First and Second Future Tense ..............................................................38
Another, Nle be Tense................................................................................38
Irregular Verbs....................................................................................................38
Substantive Verbs................................................................................................39
" Negative................................................................................39
Participles ..............................................................................................................40
PARADIGM OF REGULAR VERB..............................................................................42
Indicative Mode...................................................> 42
Imperative ............................................................................................................43
" Negative..........................................................................................44
Subjunctive" ..........................................................................................................45
" Causative Conjugation................................................................45
Potential Radical ................................................................47
Infinitive ............................................................................................................47
Participle........................................................................................................................48
LIST OF ADVERBS ........................................................................................................48
SYNTAXnouns.................................................................................................................52
Nouns and Adjectives................................................................................................53
Verbs..................................................................................................................................53
Place of Nominative Case..........................................................................................53
Verbs and Verbs............................................................................................................53
Passive Voice........'................................................................................................54
SALUTATIONS....................................................................................................................54
ADIEUS..............................................................................................................................55
Mbolo, Adjective Verbalized......................................................................................55


6
CONTENTS.
ELISION AND CHANGE OF VOWELS................................. 56
In Verbs.............................................................. 56
In Nouns............................................................ 56
In Pronominal Adjectives..........................................................................................57
EWIRIADark Sayings..................................................................................................57
GENERAL REMARKS........................................................................................................58
LanguageIlow Cultured..........................................................................................58
" How Preserved........................................................................................59
Proverbs............................................................................................................................59


HEADS OF THE MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
The Mpongwe is a dialect of one (the Southern) of the two
great families of language spoken over the greater part of the
continent of Africa. Commencing at the Caraeroons Moun-
tain and River at the north-east corner of the Gulf of Guinea,
this language extends across the continent to the Mombas
country on the east, and is spoken over a great part of Africa
South. There is five times as much difference between the
Dualla language, spoken in Cameruns, and the Efik, spoken
in Old Calabar, fifty miles west, as there is between the Dualla
and the Zulu-Kafir, spoken in South-eastern Africa, near
three thousand miles away.
The Mpongwe, or Ayogo (wise ones, as they modestly call
themselves), live on both sides of the Gabun River, about a
half degree north latitude, extending fifty or sixty mile3 inte-
rior. The Orungu, about sixty miles south, and the Nkarai
people from eighty to one hundred miles beyond, speak the
same language, with a few differing words, and a slight dif-
ference of pronunciation.
In the present limited extent to which these languages, or
dialects, are known and written, it would be useless to attempt
to trace their relations and analogies; and we, of the present
day, can only contribute our mite for the use of the ones who
shall follow us in the coming century. And they will revel
in the beauties of a language or dialects as elaborate in
structure and as musical in tone as any of the old unspoken
(not dead) languages that are the delight of the scholars of the
present day. And it is only forty years since any of these di-
alects (with, perhaps, one or two exceptions) had a sentence
written, or even an alphabet.
An outline grammar of the Mpongwe language was printed
in 1847, written by Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, modestly cred-
(7)


8
HEADS OF THE MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
ited to the Missionaries of the A. B. C. F. M., Gaboon Mission, W. A. This was written about four years after the missionaries first went to Gabun, and gives the general principles of the language with marvelous accuracy, after so short a study.
The present work was commenced at the request of a gentleman, lung residing on the coast, as the-mere outline of the grammar, to be printed inj, book which he was writing. The ^ book has not been published, and the work has grown tQ its present dimensions; tand is printed for the use of the American missionaries and others at Gabun and vicinity.
After an absence of more than seven years, with no possibility,of consulting a native Mpongwe, it is with, many misgivings that some of the inodes and tenses (more especially the negative forms) are put forth; and it is with little hope of perfect accuracy that it. is now allowed to be printed.


ORTHOGRAPHY
1. All the sounds in thilanguage can be expressed by the Roman alphabet with a little modification. The language has been written phonetically, and the letters are used as follows:
^VOWELS.
2. a as a in far, tar ; d as a in fall, tall.
e as e in they, prey; I as e in met, pet. i as i in machine, ravine.
o as o in notei, mote; ^ as o in not, pot. u as oo in moon, soon.
3. Diphthongs ai, as in Krais; ao, as in osaon, a thing or affair ; iu as in mpiu, hot or heat; ie as Angambic, God; mbiam-iie, well. And these may all be resolved into their original elements by prolonging a little the sound of each letter.
CONSONANTS USED ARE I 1 x i >4~S } S'I *- 4 % 6>
4 b, d, f, g (always hard^, j, k,.^jijjvp, r, s, t, v, w, y, z, c; h, f. i* (9)


10
MPOHGWE GRAMMAR.
The combinations, contractions, and coalescences, for the sake of euphony, are almost endless.
ORTHOGRAPHY.
5. The orthography as used in writing this language is entirely phonetic. No vowel has two sounds, and no two vowels are used to represent the same sound, as hay and they in English. With the exception of the adjective pronouns, and less ^ than a half dozen nouns, no word in the language terminates with
a consonant. Or, in other words, with the exceptions named, jsve.ry word and every sylkblo termmates with a vowel sound. There has been no attempt made to represent every shade of sound in the language, for this would cumber the alphabet.
ETYMOLOGY.
6. There are eight parts of speeeh in the Mpongwe language, the same as in English^ noun,. pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.
NOUNS.
7. Nouns have number and classification, but no case end-_ ing or gender.
Cage is known as it is in English.
Gender is expressed by suffixing the word man or woman, as oywanlome, child-man, or boy; oy-wcmto, child-woman, or girl; nyar&wyanto, cow; tvywre-nome, bull: the denomina-tives calf, lamb, kid by prefixing the word child to -the noun; as oywdr-wyare, child of a cow ; oyw-idmribe. child of a sheep; oywar-mboni, child of a goat. = Jfac-tsCtx.
NUMBER AND CLASSIFICATION.
8. The Mpongwe nouns may be arranged injfour classes, distinguished by the manner of forming the plural of each.
Number is expressed on theinitial syllable of the noun.
First Class.
9. This class embraces all those nouns which commence


ORTHOGRAPHY.
11
with a consonant sound (written with one or more consonants) and form their plurals by prefixing i or si to the singular.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Goat, mboni, irriboni or mriboni.
House, nago, i/nago or sinago.
Gorilla, njmla? i/njinla or smji/nla.
Second Glass.
10. This class embraces all those nouns having e for their initial syllable, and forms the plurals by dropping this letter; thus: >
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Head, eworyo, wonjo.
Boat, elende, lende.
Chest, ega/ra, gct/ra.
Note.If the first consonant of the word be z, in forming the plural e is dropped, and the z is changed to y ; thus:
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Book,
Thing,
Broom,
ezango, esama, ezamb&la,
Third Class.
yango.
yama.
yambala.
11. This class embraces all those nonns which have o for their initial letter; and they form their plurals, first, by changing o into i; second, by changing o into a; third, by changing o into si.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
1. River. oldvi, , ilam.
Basket, otorido, itondo.
' 2. Arm, ogd. ag&.
Canoe, owaro, ama/ro.
3. Feather, owowa, sibowa.
Shoulder, ovega, sibega.
Song, owemibo, yerribo or sijembo.
Leaf, owa/vi, ijavi or sijavi.
Hair, > orue, itue or sit/m.


12
MPOSttVPB GRAMMAR.
NoTEliTo this-class belongs a large! number of nouns used only in the singular; as omtrU, ashe.s; ompunga^ wind; oywei, breath.
Notk 2.Abstract verbal nouns also belong to the plural of the third division of this class. They take the initial letters si or i, usually the latter, as pakilia, to begin; ipakilia, the begining; benda, to hate; Ibendb, hatred; tonda, tolove; itonda, love, si in these Verbal nouns is used for emphasis; as he is sick; are
nla sijdgd, he is very sick.
Fourth Glass.
12. This class embraces all nouns haying i for their initial in the singular, and forming their plurals by changing i into
a, thus:
SINGULAR. FlJJliAL.
Sheep, idambe, adambe.
Stone, | ido, ado.
Banana, itatA, atata.
Note 1.If the first two consonants in the singular be ny, the ny is changed to m: if the first consonant be , the v is changed jn the plural to mp; if it be w, the w is changed to mb.
SINGULAB. PLURAL.
Post, imyenga,, amengd.
Poison, inyemba, * amerriba.
Law, i/oanga, ampanga.
Wing, wava, ampa/oa.
Jtfw, iwugu) a/mbugu.
Breast, ivmle, amberde.
Note 2.To this belong many nouns used only in the plural, usually the names of liquids, thus: anlhl/jo, water; alugu, rum; agali, oil; aka, sap; mnpum, foam; amenje, peace.
VERBAL NOUNS.
13. Verbal nouns belong to all the four classes of nouns above, and are arranged according to the order of those classes, to which also they are to be refejed.
! Class First.
Yerbals of this class are usually formed by prefixing n to the ground form of the verb; thus, ntango, number, from


ORTHOGRAPHY.
13
tanga, to. count,nkambinli, maimer-of speaking^droxocTeamiba, /: to speak. AVlioii the verb lias b or p for the'initial consonant, it forms this class of nouns by prefixing m to the ground form of the verb. Euphonic3cpneord will be noted here, b and p are labials, and the prefix must be the same, nibohinU, manner of barking, from boTea, to bark ; mboginli,manner of shouting, from boginla, to make a disturbance; mpandinlo, ladder, from ptmda, to ascend.
Others are formed from the; imperative of the verb, nyinli-
nlo, a dream, fronv yirdi/doy Aro>im thou; nyembi, a song, from yemba, sing thou,
Note.'There is no rule apparent for using the ground form in one verb, and, the imperative in another, as above and below.
Second Class.
14. Nouns of this class are formed by prefixing e ground form of the verb, thus :
X Eka/nibm, interpreter, from Jsamba, to speak, (ra*-*-
Edingo, crying, from dinga, to cry, mourn.
EboU, fist, from bola,to strike.
Or, from the imperative, thus:
Egenlizo, a measure, from gmlisa, measure thou.
Eromi, a messenger, from wms, send thou.
Eyenlo, mirror, from yerda, see thou.
Third Class.
15. This dags is formed by prefixing o to the imperative of the verb; the terminal .vowel, like the. other classes* is changed variously, .bjit sometimes not at all.
Oginda, a stranger, from genda, travel thyu., >
Ogorriba, a. fence, from gmnba, enclose thou. ,
Oymlo, a dance, from ymla, dance thou.
% rA Ozywao, puijishment, from syMaay punish, or whip. fyfj Some from the ground form of the verb, thus:
Ohugi, pauper, from huga, to become .poor.
Otertlu, simpleton, from few, to. aot foolishly-.-
to the


For abstract nouns see note under the third division of the third class of' nouns. They belong to the plural of this class of verbal nouns.
Fowrth Glass.
16. Nouns of this class are formed by prefixing i to the imperative of the*verb, and forming the plural after the fourth class of nouns.
+ Igamba, a word, from garnba, speak.
I'omda, greatness, from venda, become great.
Inyoffiardo, contention, from yofrumla, contend.
There are also nouns in the superlative degree, formed by reduplicating the noun, expressing the highest degree of greatness or excellence.
A nlofhenlomie, cmlofKe, men, chiefasfc men.
Antocmtwe, a/nto, women, chiefs**- women.
Igonligordoe, igonlo, on high, most high.
Ongulxmgul/ume, ngtda, strength, Almighty.
Orundorundie, orunda, sacred, Most Holy.
Each of the foregoing may be used in the singular or plural.
ADJECTIVES.
17. The Mpongwe language is poor in adjectivies, and the few in use Ifave no regular degrees of comparison. There is a form of comparison, not much used, and perhaps not authorized fully. Mbia, good; mbia hwe, better; mbia me, best. Comparison is often expressed by the use of words, and even phrases and circumlocutions. Viagard/u,, from piaganla, to surpass, to excel, is much used. Posyo, more than. Emphasis is also used to express comparison, but is necessarily very indefinite.
IS. Adjectives of themselves have neither class or numbers, but receive these from the nouns with which they are used.
1st Class, Sin.nagS mbia, house good.
Plu.sinago simbia, houses good.


OBTHOGEAPHY.
15
2d Class, Sin.erer' erna, tree good.
Pln.rere via, trees .
3d Sin.ogvfoi ombia, rope good.
Plu.'i/iujulu imbia, ropes
2d Sin.ogd ombia, arm if
8 Plu,agd ambia, arms.
3d Sin.owavi ombia, leaf good.
u pju_Sija/vi sibia, |
4th Sin.igamV i/uia, word good,
j Plu.agomib ambia, words good.
19. There is a class of nouns which are used as by taking the vinculum of the definite pronoun to conform them to the number and class of the nouns which they follow and qualify.
1st Class, Sin.Nago yapv/pu, house of whiteness.
Plu.tmMfflo sa/pupu, houses of whiteness.
2d Sin.elende zatenlaterda, boat of redness.
Plu.lemde yatenlatenla, boats of redness.
3d- Sin.ogdli vn-ngulu, twine of strength.
Plu.igdli yi-ngulu, twines of strength.
4th Sin.ilasa ny-onUgij orange of sweetness.
Plu.alasa m-onligi, oranges of sweetness.
Sin.itdtd nyantuntu, the whole banana.
Plu.apaki ma/vidvid, caps of blackness.
Aha mi-rwrili, sap of bitterness.
Bi Anl/i/ngo, mi mpiu, water of heat.
The above table does not pretend to exhaust the list of substantive adjectives, neither does it appear why the definite pronoun unites so differently with different words.
adjectives
IO
1
PBONOMINAI ADJECTIVES.
20. These are inflected in nearly the same manner as the preceding. The roots or stems of these adjective pronouns are as follows:
Sin.am my, d your, e his.
Plu,azyo ours, ani yours, ao theirs.


16
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
yam my sam
yarn.
nyam
PLURAL FORM OF ABJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
1st Class..... (C U Sin. Plu. yazyo our. sazyo ya/nli your. swrdi yao their. 800 W
2d ..... Sin. zazyo zariU zoo u
a u Plu. yazyo ydnli yao
3d . . Sin. wazyo wanli woo
a u 4tli . . . Plu. yazyo ya/nH yao
Sin. nyazyo nyardi nypo
u Plu. mazyo rrimdi mao
21. The adjective or adjective pronoun usually stands next after the noun which it qualifies. The following table will better show the relation of adjective pronouns to the nouns which they qualify, than any description:
HOUNB.' vex. THY. m
1st Class . . Town Sin. nkali yam yd ye
u u a Plu. inkali 8am sd se
2d . . Chest Sin. ega/r%\ zawt zd ze
U it (6 Plu. goun yam- yd yve
The fragments of definite pronouns with which these are compounded for use, and which inflect them to agree with the different classes of nouns, are as follows:
1st Class, Sin.y. Plu. s or si.
2d 2. y.
3d to. y.
4th ny m.
yd your ye I
8& se
za sS
yd ye
wd' we
ya ye
nyd nye
md me
Sin.
Plu.
Sin.
Plu.
Sin.
Plu.
Sin.
Plu.
1st Cl
u
2d 1 a
3d 1
(C I
4th


OBTHOGEAPHY.
17
ogali
igali
ogd
agd
owa/oi
sijavi
igi
zgi
THY. HIS.
warn yam warn mam warn sam
nyam \nyd mam \md
wd
yd
wd
md
wd
sd
we
we
jmS
\we
m
Inye
\m$
NOUN. OUB.
let Class. Town Isin. nkali yazyo
66 66 u Flu. inkali sazyo
2d Chest Sin. egan zazyo
Tlu. gam yazyo
3d Twine Sin. ogali vmzyo
66 66 Vine Flu. igali yazyo
2d. Arm Sin. ogd wazyo
. 66 66 66 3d. Biscuit Flu. Sin. aga, oleqi mazyo wazyo
66 66 66 66 Plu. stdegi mzyo
4rth Forest Sin. igi nyazyo
Plu. *7* mazyo
66 66 , Branches Flu. mnpare 'nazyo
3d Class
C( u
a u
66 66
66 66
66 66
4th
66 66
Tine
u
Arm, 2d 66 66
Leaf 3d 66 66
Forest
There is an emphatic suffix to the prononn and (he adjective pronoun alike; m3, miems, myself; a/weme, yourself; ayome, himself; asuwbne, ourselves; aidueme, yourselves; waome, themselves. The same suffix is to the adjective- pronouns, thus, yamime, 'my own; samime, plu., my own. All the persons the sams.
Note.Most of the nouns m this table end properly in a, and after the common manner of writing the a is changed to i. But the probability is that the terminal a should be elided, and i prefixed to the adjective pronoun, as: iyam, iyd, iye.
22. Table of plural form of adjective pronouns, as used with the nouns which they qualify:
YOUR. I THSIB.
yanU yao
sanli jsao
zanli \zao
yanli \yao
wanli \wao
yanli yao
vtoanli woo
ma/nli mao
wanli woo
sanli sao ny inli \nyao
\manli mao
\manl! (mao
Sin.
Plu.
Sin.
Plu.1
Sin.
Plu.
Sin. I
Plu.],


18
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
23. These are of two classes, yinld, this; and ydnld, or meydnld, that.
The following table will show the classification to be the same as the adjective pronoun:
THIS. THESE.
1st Class..... Foot Sin. ntyozyo yinld sinld
2d a ..... Basket 66 otondo winld yinld
3d . . . Chest 66 egara zinld yinld
4th . . '. Eye 66 i/ntyd nyinla minld
NOUN. THAT. THOSE.
1st Class . Hammer Sin. ntyolo meydrdd mesdnld
2d . Head . 66 ewonjo meza/nld meydnld
3d . Fruit 66 olonda mewdnld meydnld
4th . Orange 66 ilijbsa menydnld memanld
These definite or demonstrative adjective pronouns are more frequently used in an interrogative sentence, thus:
NjaU yinld yamande ? Iyd.
Gun this whose ? yours.
Here yinld ya/ma/iide f iyam.
Trees these whose ? mine.
Aba minld imd; ndo memdnld. ime.
Mangoes these yours but those his.
Owatanga mewdnld we? wi NgesK.
Ship that what? of English.
Elcnde mezdnld ze f zi Mpongwe.
Boat that what? of Mpongwe.
Ndaga nde yinld ? Aznejpa mia.
Affair what this? We do not know.
Elendinla nde meza/rild f zi Bafafi.
Bow what kind. that? of Pa2?wes.
Eza nde mezdnld ? Igdnga ny* OTceti.
Thing what that? a spear of a Bakele.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
19
In the first two of the above sentences, mande f is the interrogative word. In the fifth, we?-, in the sixth, ze f; and in the last three, nde ?
. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
24. The manner of counting is decitnal or digital (counting always with their fingers) to ten, and then reduplicating. They have no abbreviated words like twenty, thirty, forty, but number the tens thus: two tens, three tens, four tens. The numerals are sometimes used as nouns, and the first five are in the, first class of nouns. The last five are more frequently used as nouns, thus: Orowa vrinlA, this six; or dr genlo mewdnld, that seven. Six and seven are of the third class. Enmlai zi/rild, this .eight; enldgomi mezmld, that nine. And eight and nine are of the second class. Ten igomi, plu. agomi, is of the fourth class, forming its plural in the same manner, and taking numerals after the same form. WTeama, one hundred, is in the 1st class of nouns, and takes numerals as other nouns of tlStt class; nkama rribanli, two hundred; nkama ntya/ro, three hundred. For thousand they have no word, but have taken the English, calling it ntausen, when speaking their own language. This word also belongs to the first class of nouns.
CARDINAL NUMBERS.
1st class. 2d class. 3d class. 4th class.
1. nba/ri Emri Ofn/ri imri.
2. niba/M vanli imbanh anibanli.
3. ntya/ro raro ira/ro ara/ro.
4. nlm rilai Mai anlai.
5. ntyanli tanli itanli atanli.
6. orowa, indeclinable, invariable.
1. oragenlo, U
8, enenlai, ((
9. enlagomi, I
10. igomi, plu. agoim.
11. igomi nVimari, ten and one.
12. igomi nlivanli, ten and two.


20
MPONGWE GRAMMAR
ST CLASS. 2D CLASS.
igomi igomi igomi igomi igomi igomi igomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi agomi mlmla/i. agom/i enldgomi. Nkama, 1st Class. Nleama nVigomi. Nkama nVigomi nkama nl''agomi ntausen, 1st Class.
8d class. 4th class.
nVi/ra/ro. ,
nlanlai.
nVatanli.
nl'orowa.
nl'ordgenlo.
amba/nM.
atanli,.
orowa.
ordgenlo.
nlivanli.
ambanli.
7denenla/i. nVenlagom.
ambanli, nVifna/ri. ambanli nlambanK.
a/raro.
ara/ro. riPiMa/ri, tens, three and one. anlai, tens, four. a/nlai rili nai.
REMARKS.
26. Nouns of the First Class, when followed by a numeral, are used only in the singular number, thus: nago ntya/ro, house three ; rvyilu ntyanU, anchor five. To nine the numeral stands next after the noun which it numbers. Tango vanli, books two; aka/nda enenlai, plantains eight; igomi (ten) with its plural agomi, uniformly precedes the noun which it numbers, thus: igomi ny'i/nibonli, ten of goats; agomi m'adambe amba/nM, tens of sheep two.
Nyi, a form of the definite pronoun, uniformly comes between igomi and the noun following, dropping its vowel when
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20. 21. 22.
30.
31. 40. 44. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. .00. .10. .12. .20. >00.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
21
the following noun begins with a vowel, thus : igomi ny'a-d&mie, ten of sheep.
The plm'al of ten, agorm, brings the vinculum in the same manner, thus:
agomi manlag ardai nUardag atardi. tens of people four and people five.
Abbreviated thus: agorm ardai nVa/rdag atardi.
tens four and people five.
' Sjo as they ascend in numbering, they condense ;
8L 3 10s _ 6
vikarrya s'anlaga ntyaro nVagomi rrCardag1 orowa nVanlaga 8
enlerdm. Abbreviated thus:
nleama ntyaro rd?agomi orowa nVanlaga enlenlai.
hundred three and tens six and people eight.
They frequently abbreviate in this manner : vrvya/re ata/nli, cattle fives, tens being understood; because inyare and atanli can not be construed together ; but agomi, tens, does agree with atanM, and the mind instantly takes it thus: agomi mHnyare ata/rdi, tens of cattle five. In these cases the hundreds and tens become nouns, and the noun numbered takes the definite pronoun and comes into the possessive case; unless you call the articulation a preposition, and then the noun is in the objective case.
Again, a person asks, aJcdnda, memarda mi re nta/ngo se f Plantains those are what number ? The person interrogated holds up, say, eight fingers, and replies, mo mirda, they are these. The first person answers, enlerdai, eight.
The want of adjectives in this language is supplied by phrases, thus: are juwa pa, he is he died, or he is dead: e jagd ya/rda, he hears hunger: ejenV esyove, he sees thirst. The few adjectives are used with much latitude of meaning. Participles are considered in their own place. Ye is prefixed to some nouns to express a few, thus: ye yama,'a few things; ye nya/re, a few cattle; yaddrribe, few sheep. And this may be a contraction from the following, or the following may be a compound from it; sinago sinyewA, a few housfs; gara


22
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
ye,wa, a few chests; inlamV imiewd, few cloths; adarribc arnewd, a few sheep.
ORDINALS.
27. These are formed by prefixing the definite pronoun to the number, or inserting it between the noun and the numeral; thus, nago y'irribanli, house of two, or second house ; ega/ra zi raro, chest of three, or third chest; ofnenlo winlai, fourth finger; iddmbe nyenlmldi, eighth sheep ; ilasa nyatatdi, fifth orange.
There is no word for half except erenli, a cutting, from tenia, to cut; erenV evolo, a large cutting, more than half; erenV ezango, small cutting, less than half; otenle is also used. Anlingo mi re se go Ituluf how is the water in the pail ? Mi r'oteriLe, it is half. Eyare is another word meaning a splitting, ja/rua, to split, and used the same as erenli. Mbei, a pieee, is used nearly in the same way. And these are all nouns.
PRONOUNS.
28. The Mpongwe language is rich in pronouns, and, taking various forms according to the four declensions of nouns (singular and plural) for which they stand instead, they can be used with a definiteness found in few languages which are not cognate, and constructed in nearly the same manner. There are three kinds of pronounsPersonal, Relative and Definite.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
29. These have no gender, but have person, number and case. The following table will exhibit most of the forms of personal pronouns :
Singular. Plural.
Nominative. Object. Nom. Object.
1st Person . mi mie azue azue
2d . . o, offiy a/we a anlue a/nlue
3d e, a/ye ye,e woo


ORTHOGRAPHY.
23
For the emphatic suffix to these, see under adjective pronouns.
Note 1.The first and second persons plural are the same in the nominative and objective cases. The probability is that in the third person singular e is the root of the objective case. And no pronoun ending with e is ever used as the direct subject of a verb, unless standing next after it, and usually incorporated with it.
Note 2.The m in the second person singular is used only to make a euphonic concord when o would come next to a in the verb, and thus avoid the coalescence of the two vowels or the suppression of either; as, o akamba, you have spoken; here o is the nominative to the verb, and a forms the immediate past tense. Both must be preserved; but the harshness of speaking both separately must be avoided; so the m, a mere breathing, is put in to bridge the hiatus, om akamba.
Note 3.When the personal pronoun of either the first, second, or third person is used as the subject of the substantive verb nle, to be, it invariably takes the form of the objective case, thus:
Omd doanla vdvd nle mie,
The person who lives there is6n Oma m&wdrild mande % nle y£,
The person that who ? it is mnjsj &
Note.Almost any irregularity of construction throws the nominative case into the objective form, and puts it after the verb.
The relative pronoun o, who, in the above sentences, coalesces with final a in 6ma, into d.
relative pronouns.
30. The relative pronoun in the singular is o, and in the plural wi, when relating to persons; and when no question is asked, thus:
VeW onlome o kenda vdffd,
Call the man who goes there.
Ga/mba nVowcmto o re go nago,
Speak with the woman who is in the house.
JSPbe Icamba nVanlaga wi re gowaro,
I will speak with the people who are in the canoe.


24
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
When an appellative or other noun stands for the antecedent, the relative pronoun must agree with it in declension or class and number, thus :
lieri yazyo yi re gorowa,
Father our who is in henven. V
Ge syuge mbonli yi nye ntogolo,
Go scare the goat which eats the pepper.
Va Bring the oars which are in the boat.
Nlwnj egara si re nVUamba,
Shut the chest which has the cloth.
Got ingozyo si Tcarnba va/od,.
Catch the parrots which are talking there.
Mi tin ogula wi singa vdvd,
I fear the tornado which roars there.
E bei ilondayi re gwerere mezd, ,
He wants the fruits which are on that tree.
Asue penginV ama/ro mi bia nlenla.
We wait the canoes which come to-day.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN.
31. Mcmde ? who ? is used when referring to persons, or when asking a persons name, either of himself, or of a third person.
Awe mwnde f who are you ? Aye mande ? who is he ? Ini nya mande f what is your name ?
Ini nye ma/nde t name his what ?
Nago meyd ya mande f house that of whom ?
Wd mande is the plural form, and is sometimes used at tlie beginning of a sentence, sometimes at its close, thus :
Wi be panda go nleala wa rrumde, or mande ?
Those who will ascend to the town who ?
Wa ma/nde sa/rribo wi be tigarda gwelende ?
Who therefore will remain in the boat ?
Note 1.The plural here is to be distinguished from the possessive case singular, as follows:
Oywanla m&w&nlti wa mande f Child that whose, or of whom ?


ORTHOGRAPHY.
25
Note 2.The vowel e, with its inflecting consonants, is used as a distinguishing interrogative, and always follows the noun, thus: Nago ye $ which house ? egombe zye i What time ?
Owaro we ? which canoe ? izydge nye ? which duck ?
DEFINITE PRONOUN.
32. The term definite is used for want of a better definition, for nothing can be more indefinite than this little servant of all work, in some of its uses. It is sometimes a personal, sometimes a relative pronoun. Sometimes it is a preposition (of) or the sign of the possessive case. It stands entire, it coalesces, it drops its own vowel (or being) to make a euphonic concord; and in almost every case, by its consonants, it makes the alliteral concord; which is one of the peculiar features of the Mpongwe language and its cognates.
The following table will show the classification of this pronoun, and its correspondence to the nouns in class and number:
Singular. Plukal.
Nom. Pos.. 01)j. Nom. Pos. Obj.
1st Class. 2d . 3d . 4th . m zi wi nyi ya, or y sa, or s wa, or wr nya, or ny yo zo wo nyo si yi m mi sa, or s ya, or y ya, or y' raa, or rri so yo yo mo
Note 1.The a in the possessive case is used only before nouns commencing with a consonant, for euphony.
Note 2.The nominative case stands immediately before the verb, or after it, and in the latter case takes the objective form.
Note 3.The nominative case is changed to the objective form when anything very definite or emphatic is to be expressed, and still retains the place of the nominative before the verb. This occurs more frequently when the verb is in the passive voice.
Ngozyo meydnld yo ttindo nd%.
Parrot that it is loved by him.
Owaro rri&wdnld wom% wrakdmbizo zuwe,
Canoe that one itself it was chased by us.


26
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
PARTICLES.
33. The Mpongwe, like the English, has four parts of speech called particlesthe Adverb, the Preposition, the Conjunction, and the Interjection.
ADVERBS OF PLACE.
34. vei-verda, are vei, he is here; wi re venld, they are here. gun, or gunlu. hither; yogo gun, come here.
vava, there; are vava, he is there.
Anlaga wi ja/rija va/va, People they work there. go, or gogo, thither; e kenda gogo, he goes there.; place or direction.
mevanla, in that direction, so; *directions or orders to a helmsman. gwi, where, o kenda gwi ? yon go where ? vingovingo, around, from jpingwa, to deflect, imper, reduplicated to vingovingo, round about. baraba, near, igonlu, above.
kili, for a short time, mi kenda gmeatcmga TciU, Tee fwinlia, I go to the ship for a time and return.
ADVERBS OF TIME.
35. Jani, day before yesterday; jaw, yesterday.
Nlenla, to-day; mMe, to-morrow.
Mbanli, two ; day after to-morrow.
Jajangwe, presently ; e bia jajamgwe, he comes presently, soon.
Jamgoja/ngo (of motion), softly, slowly.
Tete verdd, dbia tele verdd, he came just now.
Pekepelee, pe kenda pe Tcenda, still going, still going, continually, forever.
Many adverbs are in the form of regular verbs, having different modes and tenses in use, as follows :
Ebe donqe leenda, he will first go.
Walongi kenda, they first went, or firsted to go.
Longe jay a Ted va/nge sy&va :
First work and then play.


OBTHOGBAPHT.
27
Fa, again ; e fa bia, he again conies.
Yafwinlimli, again return.
Wi ga v& nmge, they must again learn.
Sunga, soon, quickly ; sv/nge Icenda, quickly go. sungefwMia/rili, return ye quickly.
In these verbal adverbs the principal verb takes the imperative plural ending, when the nominative is plural.
Some adverbial conjunctions are used in the formation, of the Subjunctive Mode, and these are correlative.
Ja, or jaga, if; gambenle, then, pres., tense.
Kdnle, if, gqvanla, then, historical tense.
ADVERBS OP MANNER, CAUSE.
36. WlanlA, yenla, so,- that is true, that is right.
Pitre, near, almost; posyo, more; polo, much.
Ga, ga nte, as, so as.
Gobwi, openly, boldly.
Vende, perchance, e vendebia^ lest he come.
O vende poswa, perchance you fall.
Yendelma, perhaps ; if it turn out.
Yendetua e Icalua, perhaps he change.
Vanganle, even ; vanganle go jua, even to die.
- Yange ril&nM, suppose it be so.
Toazamge, it may be.
ADVEBBS OF NEGATION-.
Nya/we, no, in answer to a question.
Nyaweg&, iio, emphatic; -rather slangy.
Pa, not; e pa Tcenda, lie has not gone.
Mi a mie, I do not know ; negative accent.
PBEPOSITIONS.
37. These are few, but taking their special significations from the verbs wifti which they are used, one preposition answers many purposes.
, Go,, to. qu, at, with, etc>; ahendi go rikala, he has gone to town..ijEpila go nkala, he is from town.


28
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
Are go nago, he is in the hou3e.
Are gw'igdla, he is in the street, or out of doors. Here the o is elided because coming before i, and w is inserted as a vinculum for the sake of euphony. Go, when used with reference to persons, is changed to gore j mi dbict gore we, I have come to you.
Mi apila gore ye, I am from him.
Nla, with ; e kenda nla mie, he goes with me.
E ja/nja nla woo, he works with them.
Nli, with ; the instrument: nli ntyambi, with a harp. nVeremi, with an ax ; nli njali, with a gun. nlinka/oi sayogo, with paddles.
Nd\ as the agent; and is seldom, or never, used except in composition with the objective case of the second or third persons singular of the personal pronoun, making nda and nde, ijanja si jartjo nda, the work which is worked by you. Ntyonli y'avangio nda, the wagon made by you.
Elende z'a/oanlio nde, the boat hewed out by him; used with the passive voice.
CONJUNCTION'S.
Copulative Conjunctions.
38. JVU, and ; idarribe nU nibonli, a sheep and goat. Ardome nl'anto, men and women.
. NVagendi wao, and they went.
Ke, also; awe Tee, o be kenda,
you also, you will go.
Ka ; wonganli ye, Tea jekelianli ye, take ye him, and judge him.
Nte, as ; gamba rite pikilia, speak as you think. Kdnde, because : akenda kande afwelio,
he went because he was called.
Sambo, therefore, consequently. E jAga, sambo azye ngulu yi bia. He is sick, therefore he cannot come.
DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS.
39. Va/nga/rUe, although, even if. Mi kenda vanganle
wodu w'afwi/rdia, I go even if they all return.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
29
Ndo, but; m/i ajasi, ndo mi Tcenda, I am tired, but I go.
Kao, except. Waodu w'cdnenU, Tcao Rema/mo,
All have come, except Remamo.
Ka/nde yonde, for $. 'f .
Kaporo, much more.
Kaf/ule vonde ipua s avanginli nVipava soma md/ri / Tea, poro * * wi he pangirda gwemmda nVomA ffia/ri, Jisu Evens. Horn. v. 17.
Note.In Mpongwe, as in other languages, the different classes of particles blend with each other in their uses, especially conjunctions and adverbs. The above classification must, therefore, of necessity be imperfect.
INTERJECTIONS.
40. Interjections abound in frequency, but not in number. The more common are the following:
Erne wonderful! did you ever!
Mdngisweni! About the same as the first, but much coarser.
Nga I indeed I is it true! implying doubt, or unconcern. Well, what if it be so ?
OiUgUi, reti, true, aflirmation.
Ei, ngwe O mother 1 ngwe yam 1 my mother!
Yo that is right; yo, yenlfa, Uria, m, thus, mate fast.
Yagarerdi hear, give attention.
Note.These interjections and exclamations are usually accompanied by very significant gesticulations, often more expressive than elegant.
VEEBS.
41. The Mpongwe verb is almost unrivaled in the variety e-xtent and regularity of its inflections.
REGULAR VERBS. .
42. With the exception of less than a dozen, all the verbs in the language are regular; and they are inflected to mark


30
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
Conjugation, Voice, Mode and Tense. The characteristics of a regular verb are: 1st. That its incipient letter in the root (Pres. Indie.) must be a consonant. 2d. That it must be of two or more syllables. 3d. That it must terminate with a.
The consonants with which a regular verb can commence are, b, d, f, j, k, m, n, p, s, t, and sy; each one of which has its reciprocal consonant, into which it is invariably changed to form the imperative and potential modes, and certain of its past tenses. If the verb commence with b in the present indicative, the b is changed to w, or the intermediate , to form the imperative mode; thus : mi bonga, I take ; wonga, take thou ; mi baga, I bring; vaga, bring thou. If the verb begin with d, the d is changed to I, thus: mi denda, I do ; lenda, do thou. So f is changed to w, or its intermediate v, thus: mi fala, I throw; wala, throw thou; mi fela, I put; vela, put thou. In like manner j is changed to y, h to g, has no reciprocal, n to nl, I veiy
43. The following table will changes, thus:
slight, p to v, s to z, more fully illustrate
t to r. these
E bonga, he takes;
E baga, he brings;
E denda, he does;
Efala, he throws;
E fela, he puts;
E ja/nja, he works;
E kenda, he goes;
E meniza, he finishes; E noga, he builds; Epanga, he makes; E songa, he follows; E tenda, he writes;
Imperative.
Wonga, take thou; vaga, bring thou; lenda, do thou; wala, cast thou; vela, put thou; yanjja, work thou; genda, go thou; menbhza, finish thou; nloga, build thou ; vanga, make thou; zonga, follow thou; renda, write thou;
Note 1,The Imperative singular takes the accent on the ultimate syllable, the plural on the penult. Accents of negation in the imperative ore usually on the first vowel or initial syllable of the word.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
31
CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.
44. Every regular verb has a variety of derived forms, made either by prefixes or. suffixes, adding by these augments to the signification of the radical. And these modifications or species of the verb, for the sake of convenience, we call Conjugations, very much after the manner of the Hebrew Grammars. The Mpongwe verb has ah unvarying form of the passive voice, changing a final of the active into o.
These Conjugations are simple, that is, taking a single augment; and compound, that is,-taking two or more augments.
All the Conjugations except one, the reflexive, suffix the augments.
I. RADICAL CONJUGATION.
45. This expresses the simple idea expressed by the verb, without any modification whatever, unless it be by intonation or accent.
Number and person do not belong to the verb.
Mi tonda, I love; fei tonda, they love;
mi kenda, I go; anwe kenda,'ye go.
II. CAUSATIVE CONJUGATION.
46. This is derived from the radical by changing final a into i, and suffixing za, or, simpler, by changing final a into iza ; thus, ja/nja,, work ; janjiza, cause to work. This gives neuter verbs a causative or active sense ; na/nla, sleep ; nan-liza, cause to sleep. And very nearly allied to this, in form and signification, is this :
kamba, speak ; kambia, interpret. kenda, go ; Tcendia, guide.
III. RELATIVE CONJUGATION.
47. This is formed from the radical by changing final a into i, and suffixing the preposition nla, thus : kamba, speak; kambinla, speak for, or to one; janja, work; janjinla, work for one. The forms, kamba,, speak ; kambia, interpret; ken-


32
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
da, go; kendia, guide; seem to be a compromise between the Relative and Causative conjugations.
IV. FREQUENTATIVE CONJUGATION.
48. This is used to express repeated or continuous action ; and is foiined by suffixing ga to the radical, thus: janja, work ; janjaga, work continually; jenla, look ; jenlaga, look continuously.
V. REFLEXIVE CONJUGATION.
49. Verbs in this Conjugation have their subject and object identical; corresponding to the Middle Yoice in Greek, and the Hithpael Conjugation in Hebrew. It is formed by changing the initial consonant of the radical into its reciprocal, and prefixing' sya, thus : ajonla, he killed ; asyayotila, he killed himself; amepi, he has improved; asyamepi, he rectified himself; aboli, he struck; asya/woli, he struck himself; e jowmla, she is washing; e syayovmda, contracted into e sya/imnla, she bathes.
VI. RECIPROCAL CONJUGATION.
50. This is formed by suffixing nla to the radical; as, wi kamba, they talk, or speak; wi kambcmla, they converse, talk together; wi tonda, they love ; wi tondanla, they love each other; wi jomanla, they dispute.
VII. INDEFINITE CONJUGATION.
51. This is formed by reduplicating the radical, and changing the initial consonant of the reduplication into its reciprocal, thus: e kamba, he speaks; e ka/mbaganiba, he babbles, talks at random ; e ke.nda, he goes, walks ; e Icendagenda, he walks to and fro with no object.
These Conjugations &re exhibited at one view in the following table:
1. Radical Conjugation.kamba, speak.
2. Caus. kairibiza, cause to speak.
3. Relative ka/mbirda, speak for another.
4. .Erequentve ka/rribaga, speak continuously.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
S3
: 5. .Reflexive Conjugation syagamba, speak to oneself.
,6. Reciprocal , kambanla, convene.
7. Indefinite rlewmbagamba, babble.
; The 5th, reflexive form, is seldom, if ever, used with kamba, but is inserted for uniformity.
There is a variety of other forms of modifying the signifi cation of words, but they are irregular verbs, thus: mi: nya, I eat; mi nyeze, I. feed him ; mi jonga, I drink; mi jonje, I cause him to drink, or give him drink. And there is another meaning to the word nyeza, feed ; nyeza mie ibe sam, cause me to eat my sin, or, annihilate me my sin. No one word is properly used in all these Conjugations.
COMPOUND CONJUGATIONS.
52. By combining two or more of the simple conjugations, we may form as many more. Thus the causative and frequentative combined, form Tcambizaga, cause to speak continually. The causative, relative, and frequentative form kambinlazaga, to cause to speak to, or for, another continuously. : But the following table will exhibit this to the eye better than words can describe it:
TABLE QF COMPOUND CONJUGATIONS.
. 1. kambizaga, causative and frequentative.
2. Ttambinlaga, relative and frequentative.
, S. Tcarrtbinldsa, relative and causative.
, 4, kambinlazaga, relative, causati ve, and frequentative.
, 5. Tmnthagarribaga, indefinite and frequentative.
b. lcambagqmbiza, indefinite and causative.
j .7, kambagambizaga, indefinite, causative and frequentative.
Jjk.; kambagambinla, indefinite,and relative.
kambagambinlaga, indefinite,relative, and frequentative,
, Thi& table might be extended, but this is deemed sufficient* and not: many single words can be nsed.with all these conjugations; a,n(l not many: of. them, are w.eonomon use with any


34
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
words. But any adult native will understand and use all these, and more, if need be. Each has a well-defined meaning ; and each can be inflected through all the voices, modes, and tenses, by the same rules and principles as in the radical conjugation. The Yoices, Modes, and Tenses are all formed on the initial and final syllables of the compound conjugations, indicating that the augments are considered as parts of the words themselves.
Many verbs whose radicals are neuter or intransitive, are made transitive by some of the conjugations.
Most of the verbs have not only an active and passive form, but a negative, active, and passive form ; and verbs in the middle voice take the negative form.
53. Negation is expressed : 1st. By the particle pa, coming immediately before the verb; thus, o pa held, you do not want; e pa iia, he has not come ; wi pa kenda, they have not gone. This particle is used principally, if not wholly, with the indicative mode, present tense. 2d. By an accent, usually on the first syllable of the verb, but sometimes on the auxiliary to the verb; and this accent often changes the tense, without changing the form of the verb. Thus: Mi kenda, I go; mi kenda, I did not go ; emphatic, mi kenda du, I did not go at all, du being the radical syllable of the word all; mi agende, I will not gopositive refusal. This negative accent troubles not only foreigners, but even natives, intelligent and educated in their way, and sometimes they change the structure of a sentence, that they may be sure not to be misunderstood as expressing an affirmative when they mean a negative, or a negative when they mean an affirmative. In the future it changes neither form or tense; thus, e be leenda,, he will go; e be kenda, he will not go; mi nk&mba, I did not speak. Here a nasal sound, expressed by n prefixed to the verb, makes an element in the negation. There are also words which seem to be of themselves negatives, and contain in themselves the substantive verb re: azyele, he is not; asya, contraction of the former, and used as a substantive. Ga mie, not me, or not I; used in prompt denial. These


OETHCGEAPHY. 3S
last three words, each may take all the personal pronouns immediately following. Arango, mie, not me. When a pronoun, subject, of a verb, follows the verb, it always takes the objective form.1
MODES.
54. The. Mpongwe verb has live modes; the Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Potential, and Infinitive. These are identical with the modes as defined in English grammars. The Indicative is here treated as the radical form of the verb. All the tenses are used in this mode.
55. The Imperative is formed from the Indicative by-changing its initial into its reciprocal consonant; thus, mi kenda,,
I go; genda, go thou ; e panga, he makes ; vanganli, make ye; .asm tenda, we write; rendamli, write ye. There are contracted forms of certain verbs, used only in the imperative ; thus, oka, go ahead ; okanli, go ahead ye, from kenda, go; oviro, come on ; overoanli, come on, from bia, come; yogo, come; yogonli gunu, come ye here, seems to be a verb used only in the imperative.
SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.
56. The characteristic of this mode is a prefixed to the radical form of the verb, both in the conditional and conclusive members of a sentence. The conditional particle, in the present tense, is ja ; and the conclusive, gambenle; ja mi akenda go nkala, gambenle mi ajenle, if I go to town, then I see (or shall see) him. This is the common simple form. But a clause coming between the conditional and conclusive members of the sentence, often causes gambenle to be dropped. But the tenses vary these particle signs of the subjunctive mode, as will be seen by the following example: Ndo a/roe ynK, Krais e tongwa, ga/vdnlA ikambinli sazyo nVosaon wa/nr yav:e, But if Christ -te not risen, or-have-not risen (Greek, Perf. Passive), then is our faith vain.
In. the perfect tense, kdnle is the sign of the subjunctive in the conditional sentence, and gavdnld in the conclusive; and ;


36
MP03STGWJS. GRAMMAR.
in .simple, consecutive sentences a is prefixed to the verbs in both.
POTENTIAL MODE. .
57. The characteristics of this mode are, changing the initial consonant of the radical into its reciprocal, and the final a into e, and placing the particle ya before the verb, thus :
mi ga gende go mkala,
I must go to town.
azue ga gatnbe nla woo,
we- must speak with them. oywa/nla e ga ronde ngi ye,
. child he must love mother his. anlaga wi ga venginle gwdende, people they must wait in boat. *
For urgency the plural takes the ending of the imperative plural:
azue ga gendenli,
we must surely go.
Another form of the Potential Mode retains the form of the radical, and takes the auxiliary Tea instead of ga, and the subjective of the verb is usually in the objective case :
Awe lea janja ? Tou can work ?
IK, mie lea janja. Yes, I can work.
With the auxiliary ta the same forms hold.
INFINITIVE MODE,. *
58. The sign of the infinitive is go, befeye the Radical form of the verb, thus: Mi lefaida, tfoUrmbfb go leola, I go up the river to trade. 'But when the infinitive follows immediately the preceding verb, the particle go is dropped:
. e l>el^, fM^nliar he,wants to return.
, mi,lee. hove. nkaroi, l.go bring the oar.
Here he is a contraction from lcenda, go. Mi tonde. nengd, I love to learn. The verb tftnda is also used with another mtgmingi, afl'wde Teenda, loye pot to go.; or, never mind going.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
37
This mode'igalso used thus: are go kehdA, Be is to g6. 'Another structure riinkes a greater change: w'akendi go janja (dimg' if a, they went to work and g'et pay. Aleng' is here in the conjunctive form, and retains the same mode and tense' as the preceding vorb.
TENSE, NUMBER, AND PERSON OF' VEJtBS.
69. Except in the im|)&rMvf plural, verbs have no change or form for numbep cir pefsCjh. ;
Four e6hsfeciitife!te'hgSl areformed feyrchauges on the verb, without .the aid of auxiliary particles.
60. The Preseiittenee is idenfical with the English. Eken-da, he' goes......
The immediate Past tense is formed from the present by dropping e and prefixing a, thus : akenda, he has gone ; bu t is within sight, or call. Whether the personal pronoun e, of the present; is Changed to a, and is still a pronoun, or whether the a is to be construed in some other way, is not yet settled.
61. For want of a better term we designate another the Paulo Past tense. It indicates time farther advanced than the immediate past, but not extending beyond to-day. It is formed from the immediate past by changing final a into i, thus: akendi, he has gone.
; 62 The historical tense indidates indefinite past time, not including the present day ; and is formed from the paulo past tense by changing the initial, consonant into its reciprocal, thus : agenda, he went.
63. The perfeet terise is forrriedby placing the substantive verbal as an auxiliary before the radical, and the particle pa after it, thus : are kendaga pa, he has gone.
Another construction puts the subject of;the verb between the auxiliary and the verb, thus?: "
yi re mie fela pa g'ogd rod,
which I have put. in hand thine.
But hdre mie, nominative t<5 fela, is in! the objective form.
. 64, The' pluperfect teftse is formed by placing the past


38
KPONGWE GRAMMAR.
tense of the substantive verb duo before the paulo past tense of the verb, thus: aduo dkendagi, he was, he went; or he had gone; or, mi aluo mi dkendagi, I was, I went, or I had gone.
65. The first future tense is formed by placing before the radical the auxiliary particle be, thus: e be kenda, he will go ; wi be kenda, they will go.
66. The second future is formed from the first future by placing before it the substantive verb duo in the immediate past tense, thus: aduo e be Mnda, he will have gone; or, literally, he was, he will go.
67. There is also another form of a paBt tense used in narration, but becoming obsolete. This form also takes the nominative after the verb, and then repeats the verb in a different form, thus:
Nle be bulia Anyambie awulinie Noah, inle,
And spake God He spake to Noah thus.
The initial particle nle is frequently omitted. There are other tenses formed by accents, which will be better illustrated in the paradigm of the verb.
IRREGULAR VERBS.
68. These are not numerous, neither is it necessary to give a full list, or an extended analysis of them. Avoro, know; used only in the present indicative, and used regularly with all the numbers and persons of the personal pronouns:
Aga/mi, dislike ; same rule as above.
Oka, sin. Okanli, pi., go ahead.
Oviro, sin. OviroanH, pi., come on.
The last two used only in the imperative.
Oka is doubtless contracted from kenda, go. Oviro is also contracted from bia, come. Bia, come; mia, know; and others containing only a diphthong, are treated as monosyllables, and are formed like pa and nya, to give, eat; thus: mi pa, I give; mi a penli I have given; mi amerdi, I gave.


ORTHOGRAPHY.
39
Ge nyd, go, eat; and some others are contractions, and used only in the indicative and imperative. Toa is used as an auxiliary, sometimes as a principal verb, but usually with a conditional sentence. Some of the substantive verbs are also irregular.
jSHBSTAKTIVB VERBS.
69. There isa number of verbs usedwith thissignification, but most of them with other meanings. lie is used exclusively to express existence, as, a/re, he is; yi re, it is ; and is used only in the present tense. Pegaga is a regular verb, used principally to express existence in the past tenses.
Doanla is also a regular verb, used to express existence, but more commonly has the meaning of dwelling. Duo is a contraction from doanla, sometimes used to express beings but more commonly is an auxiliary to form tenses, thus: ad/uo akmdagi, he had gone, or he was, he went.
Nle answers often the purpose of a verb of existence, but its nominative is always in the objective form, and usually comes after the verb, as, nle mie, it is me. Toa is also used in the sense of to be, and to become, thus : Samljo atoe mie mbia, atoe wao mbia, 'yenla agcmbinli sue, yenla k'e ayimri nlue Therefore, whether it be I, whether it be they, So we preached, and so ye believed. 1 Cor. xv. 11.
Are he toa pa ttolond along a,v
He has also become the fruit first.
Toa is a regular verb, used in most of the modes and tenses.
SUBSTANTIVE VERBS NEGATIVE.
70. There are a number of words that express negation of existence or denial of fact, and are used principally in the present tense.
Ara/nga ye, not him; ara/nga nlue, not you. Ga, contraction of aranga, and used in strong positive denial; ga, mie, not me. Zyele; asyele, he is not; wi zyeU, they are not; yi syele, it is not. Contracted, asye va/Sa, he is not there. Zya, contracted from same, and with a .prefixed, makes sub-


40
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
junctive mode; azya mie,< gambenle opera, if: not fot' me then he had perished; azya we, gambenle mi ajua, if not for yon then I had died.
Most of i these words, followed by the preposition J nli, express possession or ownership, thus': are nli njali,. he has a gnn ; wi re nVadambe, they are with (or possess) sheep. So also the negative; azyele nli nyare, he is not with (does not possess) a cow ; asye nVezama, he has not a thing.
The .regular substantive verbs express the same in the past tenses. All might be arranged in modes and tenses, but with the irregular it would be only a repetition of the numbers and persons of the pronouns.
PARTICIPLES.
71. Not every word that we translate from the Mpongwe by a participle, or that we are compelled so to translate, can properly be called a participle. It is doubtless difficult to distinguish all the forms that might be placed under this part of speech, but a few will be noticed.
72. The most numerous class of participles is that formed by prefixing n to the frequentative conjugation, thus : denda, do ; ndendaga, doing; kenda, go ; nkhidaga, going. This is frequently used with an emphatic repetition after the same verb, thus: e jcmja nja/njaga, he works working, or he works vigorously and continually; e jufa njufaga, he steals stealing, or he does nothing but steal. It is formed also with the reciprocal and frequentative conjugations,-thus : janja, work; anlome nPanlome njamjaadag' agamba mi ntyanli, men with men working that which is unseemly; working mutually, intensely and incessantly. .
. 73. Another form of expression we are compelled to translate with a participle, but the analysis of the Mpongwe sentence is somewhat doubtful: a
. Tomba/re tf anto nVawanla,
Throwing out women and children; or,
Besides women and children.


OETHORBA.PHT. 41
Another form is this :
Ngwe avienli, oywanli ye juv:a pa,
The mother camc, her child having died.
Awe vie nVmcnga, ha hmda go nhala,
Ton having finished learning,, can go .to town.
Njdgu jono pa, anlga vfanyenli.ye,
Elephant being killed, the people they ate him.
There is also another forth of the passive' : "'
NVmegagw gogo g'orove, syariago nle Seta/n.
And he was there on the desert tempted by Satan.


PARADIGM
OF THB
REGULAR YERB KAMBA, TO SPEAK.
Radical Conjugation.
Active and Passive Voices.
Negative and Affirmative.
Indicative Mode.
Present Tense.
74. >5 ( Act. e kamba, he speaks.
< ( Pass, e kambo, he is spoken,
u I Act. e kamba, he does not speak.
t Pass, e ka.mbo, he is not spoken.
t*> | Act. a gmibe, he does noj; speak (intensive).
(Pass, a gunbo, he is not spoken to (intensive).
Immediate Past Tense.
75. ( Act. a kamba, he spoke (within an hour, or two).
5 ( Pass, a kambo, he was spoken
tb j Act. e pa kamba, he spoke not.
** ( Pass, e pa kambo, he was not spoken.
Paulo Past Tense.
70. ) Act. a kambi, he spoke (to-day, an hour past).
f
** 1 Pass, a TtamMo, he was spoken (to-day, an hour past).
& I Act. e pa kamba, he did not speak.
( Pass, e pa kanibo, he was not spoken.
(42)
*


PARADIGM.
43
Historical Tense.
W 1 j Act. a ga/mbi, he spoke.
<1 (Pass. a ga/mbio, he was spoken.
&b 1 Act. e kamba, he did not speak.
1 Pass. e kumbo, he was not spoken.
Perfect Tense.
78- i Act. a/re kamba pa, he has spoken.
<1 I Pass. are kambo pa, he was Spoken.
bb ( Act. e pa kamba, he has not spoken.
& (Pass. e pa kambo, he was not spoken.
PT/uperfect Tense.
81 j Act. a luo akambi, he had spoken.
1 Pass. a l/uo akambio, he had been spoken.
fei) J Act.' e duo akambi, he had not spoken.
( Pass, e duo akambio, h.e had not been spoken.
First Future Tense.
8. | I Act. e be kamba, he will speak.
1 Pass. e be kambo, he will be sppken.
sf j Act. e be kamba, he will not speak.
% I Pass. e be kambo, he \yill not be spoken.
Second Future Tense.
81. |j j Act. e be duo akambi, he will have spoken.
*t I Pass, e be duo akambio, he will have been spoken, si j Act. e duo agambi, he will not have spoken, fc ( Pass, e duo agambi, he will not have been spoken.
IMPERATIVE MODE.
Affirmative Actwe.
82. s-ff I Sing; Garnba, speak.
o | Plu. Gambanli, speak ye.
j Sing. Gamba/re, speak (emphatic), t Pin. Gambarenlij Spe&k ye (emphatic).
O 0 a o PhO


MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
g'ff I Sing eauser,to; speak.
oS I Pin. Gambizimli, cause ye to spealc. g-ffjSing. Gambisare, cause to speak (emphatic). o3 } p]u. Gambizarenli, cause ye. him tb speak (emphatic).
jRemark.
All the simple- and compound conjugations form their imperatives by the same rules.
Affirmative Passive.
83. g-g- j Sing. Gdmbo, be spoken.
(So | Plu. Gambonli, be ye spoken.
§5,j Sing. Gamiizo, cause to be spoken,
oo ( Plu. GambizonU, cause ye to be spoken.
Remark.
In the passive voice the imperative mode is less used out of the radical conjugation.
Negative.
84. Sing, ag&mba, speak not.
Plu. aga.mbcm.li, speak ye not.
Sing, ar&nde, hamba, you need not speak.
Plu. a/ra/nde Tcambenli, ye need not speak. .
Sing. Miff ag&rnba, leave not speak (Doub. Neg.)
Plu. Rig' agambanli, leave not speak ye (Doub. Neg.)
Remarh.
The simple verb takes the negative accent on the second vowef, and the prefixed a makes a part of the negative element. The auxiliary verb tonda, to love, takes the accent in the same manner. The auxiliary tigay to leave, contracted to Rig in imper., throws the negative1 accent on to the initial vowel of the verb, making a double negatiVd." In the Expression (very common) rige hambd, the form arid force of the negative is in the auxiliary frige, lettving the verb in the form of the indicative present. !-


PARADIGM.
45
SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.
Present Tense.
85. g- j Act, Ja mi dkaniba, if I Speak.
< ( Pass. Ja mi akambo, if I am spoken.
.sjjj Act. Ja miag&raba, if I speak-not. ,
* I Pass. Ja mi agmibo, ii I am not spoken.
Imperfect Tense.
86. ( Act. Kanle mi akambi, if I spoke.
5 | Pass. Ktimle mi akambio, if I was spoken.
Historical Tense.
87. £ j Act. Kdnle mi agambi, if I spoke.
Kanle mi agambio, if I was spoken.
ti I Act. Kanle mi nka.mba, if I did not speak.
1 Pass. Kanle mi nkarribo, if I was not spoken.
Perfect Tense.
88. Jj j Act. Aroe inle mi akambi, if I have spoken.
*=) (Pass. Aroe inle mi akambio, if I have been spoken, si j Act. Aroe i/M mi k&mba, if I have not spoken. (Pass. Aroe inle mi k&mho, if I. have not been spoken.
' Pluperfect Tense.'
89. j Act. Kanle mi aVuo mi akamhi, if I had spoken. ? I Pass. Kanle mi (duo me akambio, if bad been
m ( Act. Kanle mi nduo mi akambi, if I had not
K ( Pass. Kanle mi ndno mi akambio, if I had not been, spoken.
fcW "r vA'&fei J >A 1
CAUSATIVE CONJUGATION.
Present Tense.
90. i j Act. Ja mi alcambiza, if, I cause to speak.
"i t Pass. J[ami akambiso, if l am q^u§ed,to Neg. Same as the radical conjugation.


46
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
91.
Act.
Pass.
92.
Act. Pass, ti j Act. I Pass.
93. Act. Pass.
94.
Imperfect Tense.
Kdnle mi akambizi, if I caused to sp Ka/nle m/i akambizio, if I was caused to speak.
Historical Tense.
Kdnle rm aga/mbizi, if I caused to speak. Kdnle mi agarribizio, if I was caused to speak. Aroenti mik&mbiza, caused not to speak. Aroenli 'mi ka,mbiso, if was not caused not to speak.
Perfect Tense.
Kanle mi are kambiza pa, if I have caused to speak.
Kdnle mi a/re ka/mbizo pa, if I have been caused to speak.
1st Pluperfect Tense.
Kdnle mi aduo mi akambizi, if I had caused to speak.
Kdnle mi aduo mi akambizio, if I had been caused to speak.
Kanle mi nduo mi akambizi, if I had not caused to speak.
Kanle mi aluo mi akambizio, if I had not been caused to speak.
2d Pluperfect Tense.
Kanle mi aluo mi agambisi, if I had caused to speak.
Kanle mi aluo mi aga/mbizio, if I had been caused to speak.
Kanle mi duo mi agambizi, if I had not caused to speak.
Kanle mi duo mi agarribizio, if I had not been caused to speak.
Note.The formation of tenses, and also of the forms of the negatives, are the same in the remaining Simple and in all the Compound Conjugations.
95.
Act. Pass. Act. Pass.
Act. Pass, f Act. 1 Pass.
I



PARADIGM.
if
The correlative of Ja or Jdgd, is G-ambenle. The correlative of kdnle is Gavanld. Example:
Ja ?ni akenda, gamb$nl8 awti kd tiganla,
If I go then you can remain.
Kdnle o luo v&nld, gavdnld ... e tdjxiwa du.
If thou hadst been here, then . . he had not died.
# John xi. 32.
POTENTIAL MODE,RADICAL CONJUGATION.
Present Tense.,
96> i j Act. Mie ka karriba, I can speak.
% 1 Pass. Mie ka leambo, I can be spoken.
Act. Mi ga-gambe, I must speak.
0 ( Pass. Mi ga gambo, I must be spoken.
j Act. Mi ugarriba, I must not speak.
& 1 Pas3. Mi agambo, I must not be spoken.
Perfect Tense.
9Y- i 1 Act. Mi ata karriba, I might speak.
3 1 Pass. Mi'atd kambo, I might be spoken.
be j Act. Mi ta, karriba, I could not speak.
* i Pass. Mi t-1 kambo, I could not be spoken.
Pluperfect Tense.
Act. Mi ora- karribi, I might have spoken.
Pass. Mi ard ka/mbio, I might have been spoken. Act. Mi nt& kamba, I might not have spoken.
Mi ntk kambo, I might not have been spoken.
INFINITIVE MODE.
99. Akendi go kamba, he went to speak.
Alee kamba, he went to speak.
Are go janja, he is to work.
A leganli go kamba, forbid not to speak. E toa go juwa, he goes to die.
E k&nda go kola, he does not go to trade.


4S
4
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
, (?<> js the proper sign. of the inflnitiTOj but in the following examples go is omitted :
Ebele.nogenago, he wants to build a house.
Mi tonde hole mpunji,I love to buy ivory.
Zunge kove nkavi, quick bring an oar.
In these examples the governing verb coming directly before the infinitive, drops go, and changes final a into e, and the verbs noge, kole, and kove coming directly before nouns commencing with a consonant, change the normal a into e.
PARTICIPLE.
100. Act../ Nkamhaga, \
Pass. JVhambago; spoken to.
Act. Kambinlaga, speaking with. Pass. Kambinlago, spoken with.
Past
Act. Ka/mbaga pa, having spoken.
Pass. Ka/mbago pa, having been spoken.
Tomba/re pa, having thrown out. vie nli jamja, ha vange sheva, haying finished working, then play.
A LIST OK SOME ADVERBS. M Baraba. Near, in time or place, or number.
Ba/roibit nli mpanlA, near the path.
' Ba/raba nVompum'a w'arA, near a whole year. Bar aba nli ntausen, near a thousand.
. Bo. Far off: Arebo,he is'far away.
Bunya. At .dawn, fiwiya/gambmle. azu dMndga.
( In the early'dawn, then we go. Bwebwe. Openly, boldly.
Go bm. .Openly,; ;bo]dly. i E kenda go bmy ndo mpangmli ga,mbyaria, he walked not openly, but as it were in secret.


A LIST OV SOME ADVEEBS.
49
Buku.
Dadie.
Data.
Davadava. > Genld.
Gobosyo.
Gogo.
Gontye.
Goiemnld.
Gwnfo/,.
, Gw'igonlo.
Ja/ja/ngwe.
JdnM.
Jau.
Kendekende.
Kw'ekwe. Kwe .
Kw&mnno.
Mhia/mbie.
Mente. ' Nlenld. 3
Openly, plainly, from y. biikunld, to Speak
- boldly; intensive, bukunla buku.
Nl afnikunlieigct/rnba menyanld buku,
and he opened word that boldly, plainly.
Only. Miedadie ? J I only'2 Far off. rJStende- si re daya, the boat is far away.
. Intensive of Iasi., : / *;
N either. Mi Tcaryba nla viao,. genld p\kil/ia. onon mewdnld, 1. did not speak at all with- them, neither think of that affair. Ahead. Are gobosyo, he is ahead.
There. Wi hetula gogo, they go there. Below. Wi re go ntye, they are on the ground. Wi sumMa go ntye, they descend to earth.-Just now. W'apegaga gunlu goteverila, They were here just now.
Here. Are gunlu, he is here. j Yogo gun, come here.
Above. Inydnli si dogwa gwigoilo,
birds they fly above.
Vuginlia yi dandala/rtda go ntye, Insects they crawl on the earth.
Presently. Mi bin jajangwe, I come presently, by and by.
Day before .yesterday.
Yesterday. j
Softly, softly. Genda nla ye. lcende kende I Tcaride a/re nla sij&ga, go with him very '. softly, because he is very sick:
Sufficient.
V ery little. Genda kwe, go a little way. Zi/usya ltwe, move along; a little.
Little shut them, a wink, an instant.
Well. OremManibie? are you well ? To-morrow. Mi biameide, I come to-morrow. To-day. E kenda nlenld, he goes to-day.


50
MPONGWE GEAMMAB.
Nleganlega.
Ngwa.
Nje.
Nlanla.
NlenZa.
Nyawe.
Nya/wenyawe.
Nyawege.
Pekepeke.
Pele.
Pi&re.
Polo.
Rega.
Relanganlo.
Tetevenld.
Vcmga.
Yateverda.
Ya/va.
Yei.
Vendetma.
Vende.
V&nM.
Yia.
Yiaga/nlo.
Quickly. Genda nleganlega, go in haste.
Shut. Nago yi re ngwa, the house is shut.
Ajar. Igugi nyi re nje, the door is ajar.
Thus, so. Atoe nlanla, it happened thus.
To-day.
No. 0 kenda f do you go ? Nyame, no.
To no effect, for nothing. Azw' akendi vA nyawenyame, we went for nothing.
No, sir-ee, by no means. Genda nla mie vava, go with me there. Nyawege, by no means.
Contracted from pe kenda, pekmda, still going, still going; fqrever and ever.
Soon, quickly. Genda pele, go soon, immediately.
Near. AtoeriU piere nVowata/nga, he has come near the ship.
Very. E jAgA polo, he'is very sick.
Crookedly. E kenda rega, he walks crook-edly.
Crosswise. Rere yi re relanganlo, the sticks axe crosswise, or crossed.
Just now. Abia tetevenla,, he came jnst now.
So. Yanga-nlArda, mi Vigende, even if so, I will not go.
Just now. Aja/n/ja vava vAtenenlA f he was working there just now.
There. E doanla vava, he lives there.
Here. Are vei, he is here.
Perhaps. Vendetwa wi' bia, perhaps they will not come.
Lest. Genda neganega,'e vende pera,
Go quickly lest he escape.
Here. Wi bia venla, they come here.
Entirely. Wanyenli sodu via, they have eaten all entirely.
Beyond. W'akendi viaganlo nPowatanga,


A LIST OF SOME ADVERBS.
51
they went beyond the ship ; more than. Wmld w'anlengi viagardo nla mewdnld, these learned more than those. Yenld. So. Ya/nja yenld, work so.
Donga. Eirstt A donge kenda, he first went.
Sunga. Quickly. Zunge bia, quickly come.
Many adverbs are used as adjectives, and in the same form. The last two adverbs in the list are specimens of a large class in the form of regular verbs, used .adverbially, in the different modes and tenses, and uniformly standing next before the principal verb.
102. For an imperfect list of Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections, see Paragraphs 37, 38, 39, 40.


SYNTAX.
Notms.
103. Every proper name, or name of persbn, standing before the verb, takes, the personal pronoun between it and the verb, thus : Njiwo e Tcenda go nTcala, Njiwo she goes to town. Angile eTcole mrpwnji, Angile he buys ivory.
Every common noun also takes, its definite, pronoun in the same manner, thus:
Mbordi yi bia, the goat it comes.
Izyage nyi dogwa, the duck it flies; and
Izyage nyadogwi, the duck it flew.
' In the last sentence i coming before a is dropped.
yfj- Otwtu wi panda, the smoke it rises.
Erdingo zi powa, the tide it ebbs.
NOUNS AND NOUNS.
104. The possessive case is formed by the use of the definite pronoun standing between the noun limited and the noun of possession, thus : Nago yOnleme, the house of Onleme, or Onlemes house. NTcavi y'elende si NtaTcd, oar of the boat of Ntaka, or oar of 1ST takas boat. Inyoi nyoramba, the voice of the trumpet.
In all cases the definite pronoun must agree in number and class with the preceding noun, thus : ATcd/nda mi ntryaga yi Keiya, the plantains of Keiyas garden. In this sentence mi agrees in number and class with aJcdndd, and yi with ntyaga. When the following noun commences with a vowel, the i of the definite pronoun (or articulation) is dropped, and the fragment, a consonant, is attached to the noun of possession with an apostrophe.
(52)


SYNTAX.
53
NOUN AND ADJECTIVE. ,
105. The adjective which qualifies op limits the noun stands after it, and must be of the same number and class, thus :
Nago m.polo, house large.
Stnago simpolo sirribia, houses large good.
1 E&rngo evolo, book large.
Yango volo, books large. '
OM/ui ola, 'river long.
Ilav ila, rivers long.
Sijavi sida, leaves long.
The same rule of arrangement and agreement applies to all the adjective pronouns. Instead of my house, it is house / mine, book yours, hat his, etc.
106. For the use and construction of personal, definite, ad-,' jective, and interrogative pronouns, see Paragraphs 20-23, and 29-32.
VERBS.
107. Usually in a direct affirmation or narration, the subject (or nominative) of the verb.stands before it. But jxua_ conjunctive sentence the subject of the verb follows it; and if a pronoun, is incorporated with it after the manner of the Hebrew, thus: NVa/wulinUe woo, and said he to them.
In that sentence the preposition to, is contained in the verb itself. But if the subject be not a pronoun, the verb is repeated, after the nominative, thus : NVa/Beli Jon aveV vtdengi ye. And called John, he called his-disciples.' Nlayiviri Jim amulMhlia wao. And answered Jesus and said to them.
In the above sentence, at t|je second verb, awulinlia, the initial a, makes, what is called the conjunctive form of the verb, which form is in very frequent use.
Nouns have no case form ; but wherever a pronoun is the subject of a verb and follows it, the pronoun takes the form of the objective case.,
NPawulinlie wao,. and he told them.
Nlmoulinlio ye nla wao, and was told him by them.


54
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
Iu the above sentences, one active the other passive, the e and ye are both subjects of the verbs, and are both in the objective form.
When the subject of a verb is a noun, and comes before the verb, the personal pronoun uniformly stands between the noun and the verb, thus: Angile e kamba, Angile he speaks. Sonia e jamja, Sonia he works.
Mbordi yi re va/Bd, the goat it is there.
A verb seldom follows a verb (in the same sentence) in the same form, though all be in the same mode and tense, thus 1 Ndo randanV ilofialovi yanli, Tea dende mbia, asunga, but love your enemies, and do good, and lend. In this sentence the first verb, rdndanli, is imperative plural ; the second, dende, is in the form of the indicative present; the third, asunga, is the conjunctive form, which is the form of the imperative sin. with a prefixed. But frequently, when two or tliree verbs follow in a sentence as above, all in meaning in the imp. plu., the second takes the imp. plu. ending, and the third is in the conjunctive form, thus : RandanV ilovalo-vi yanli, Tea dendanli mbia asunga.
108. One peculiarity of this language is the very frequent use of the passive voice. The natives love it. Instead of saying, And Jesus rebuked him, it is, NVazembio ye riti Jisu, and he was rebuked by Jesus. Instead of, Whatsoever thou shalt ask, it is, Eza/mH edu zi be bambio ndd, Whatsoever shall be asked by you. E iondo nVanlaga, he is loved by the peo-. pie, and not, The people love him. Inya si nyo mie, food eaten by me.
The first is the salutation after long absence, or on the arrival of strangers. The host, sitting, receives them in silence, until all have been seated for a space of time. He then gives the salutation or welcome, Salenli, welcome. They respond,
SALUTATIONS.
109. 1. Soli, singular.
2. Mbolo, singular.
Salenli, plural. Mbolocmli, plural.


/ SYNTAX. 55
' &T
Ai, saU Tie, yea! welcome, thou. After a minute or two* and perhaps passing a, few words, the host commences the Common salutation, Mbolocmli, and the response, Ai, mbolo Tte, or mbolomih ke,\t there be others-with the host. If there be special friends, long separated, they throw .their arms around each others shoulders, with the salutation, Samba, strongly accenting the final syllable* The salutation always begins)
) with the host, never with the visitor. If there be no salutation \
1 there is mischief intended. Depart.
If there be frequent meetings during the day, the pass-word is abio,sm., dbionli, plu.
ADIEUS.
110. Mi akendaga, I.am gone.
Ai, gendaga mbiartibie, yea, go prosperously.
Mi aketidaganli, plu., I am gone;you.
Ai, gmdaga mhiqmhie, yea, go prosperously.
Azue, khidagaidi, plu., we are gone/you.
Ai, gmdaga/nli mbiambie, yea, go ye prosperously.
ANOTHER FORM.
lilt' Mi abia go tiginla cjanli,
I have come to leave thee, good-bye.
Mi abia go panganla nVawe, or nV anlue,
I have come to promise with thee, or with you.
; The response is, Gendaga, or gendaganH, mbiambie,
Go thou, or go ye, prosperously.
Note 1.In the above salutation, Mbolo is the adjective old, v applied principally to persons. It is made into an irregular verb, imperative mode, and, the plural is a regular imperative plural, Mboloanli.
t
Note 2.The Mpongwe verb for salute is bogizya. If a person do not hear or heed a salutation, he is told, e bogizya, he salutes you; or, mi abogizya. To refuse a salutation is to offer the grossest insult, and a slave will resent it.
Note 3.If a person be going to King Georges, another will say to him, Wogizya mi& Renjogo. Salute, me Renjogo.
Or, Wogizyanli mi& anlaga wi re vdvd,
Salute ye me the people who are there.


56
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
ELISIONS AND CHANGES OE TOWELS.
112. Remarh.Where euphony requires it, vowels are elided, or coalesce. The elision is usually made of the final vowel of the word standing first.
VERBS.
113. A verb ending in a, followed immediately by a noun commencing with a, e, i, or o, elides its final vowel.
E tond? awa/nla, he loves children.
Venjavenj agamb ambia, keep good words.
Avedi avia, despise not the good.
E mnginV ikugi, he saves the poor.
E jiw ilasa, he knock off an orange.
Wi tenV ika/ndd, they are cutting a plantain.
Azue Tcot idambe, we catch a sheep.
Vag epwi, bring a chair.
E bonV epokolo, he puts on a hat.
O beg' erere zwiganli, you cut anothers tree.
Ge did okanda, go pick cotton.
Abdnj omerdo we, he cut his finger.
. Punctuation, or anything producing suspension of voice, or hiatus, between words, obviates elision or change of vowels.
NOUNS.
114. Nouns ending in a elide the final vowel when standing next an adjective commencing with a vowel, only it coalesces with o into d:
Anlarf awenge, people many. .
AV a/mbia, mangoes good.
Oma ompolo, is Om dmpolo, person large.
Ngw og&i, mother-in-law.
Om? ambia, person good.
But Owar ompolo, canoe large.
Ozy ombia, face beautiful.
Egar' evolo, chest large.
Ezam evia, a thing good.


SYNTAX.
m
. Prepositions are usually, elided for euphony. >Go a/Sierili a/nlaga a/mAri nli elende ezenle. This sentence is spoken, and properly written, thus:
Gw'avienP a/tilag am&ri tiPelencP ezenle,
When came people other with boat other.
. In Gw the to is only a vinculum in place of o. The other four contractions follow the common rule of elision.
PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.
115. Nouns standing next before pronominal adjectives with final; a, change a to i, thus.: igambi nyam, my word ; vowigi wye, his law ; agangi mazyo, our spears. But, rather, | agwig' imazyo ; Igo/mli inyam voarig i/nye / thus eliding? a, and joining-i to the pronoun, where it belongs.
Nouns terminating in other vowels remain unchanged, thus: ilcanda nye, his plantain; imenlo yao, their fingers ; Owaro wazyo, our canoe; .Ozunge wa, your Saviour. But write, ik&ndd nye, his plantain; imenlo yao, their fingers; Ozunge wa, your Saviour. For, ask a man, elende zinla za-mande, f boat this whose ? He replies, izam. Ozyeviwinld wa/mam-def this1 spoon whose 2 He replies, iv:a, yours. Poholo rrieya ya/ma/nde? whose hats those ? He replies, iyao, theirs.
^ Thtls the i, which probably belongs to the pronominal adjective, in the first examples, has been transferred to the noun, and in the last examples has been elided. These are suggestions for consideration.,. /S^ew. ^ = u. C'k*.) Kai<
EWIRIADakk Sayings.
116. This is a language spoken only by the elders, and used only in their secret councils; though the secret council may be held in open assembly. It is formed by changing words, and making a Babel. Tree, may mean a fish ; water, may mean a gun ; gorilla, may mean a ship, and life, may mean death. And the verbs are transmuted in the same manner.
No cipher telegrams ever equaled it for confusion and ob-


58
MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
scurity. And no man under twenty-five years of ago is initiated into it, and then with the most binding oaths of secrecy.
GENERAL REMARKS.
117. Although these Central and South African dialects be flexible, soft, musical, and abounding in euphonic concords, and though their grammatical structure be so methodical, consistent, and uniform, and the classification of the substantives and their adjuncts, and the conjugation of the verbs be almost unrivaled, yet it is not claimed that this is the perfection of a language for commerce, the arts, and sciences of a highly civilized state of society. But the present form of the Mpongwe language is amply sufficient for all present necessities, and its pliability will doubtless render it equal to all' future contingencies. Many of the dozen and more conjugations will rapidly fall into disuetude, and most of the definite pronouns will be dropped. These changes- will come gradually r, from necessity, and not by revolution or revisions.
Therj^wbi]ity_of the language is seen in the rapidity with which it has been Christianized, and a large class of its words adapted to the expression of Christian ideas and principles in the translation of the whole New Testament and a part of the Old, and is readily understood by the people.
118. If one ask how the language of the Mpongwes has been cultured to such grammatical order and euphony, it will be difficult to answer.
119. If it be asked how it is kept in such exactness and purity without dictionary, grammar, spelling-book, or alphabet, there is a ready answer. A mans standing in society depends upon his speaking well, and that includes grammar, rhetoric, and elocution. A mother never allows ungrammatical speech ojf inaccurate pronunciation in the child. She says, Epwi wi\na, chair this. The instant exclamation of the mother is, Ei orf wami ngi yd ma/nde ? Oh, my child who is your mother ? Epwi sinla, putting emphasis on sMA, that is not easily forgotten. If the child had said offtenlo


GENERAL REMARKS.
59
loinld, this finger, it would have been correct. But epwi winla could not be tolerated, except in a foreigner who is attempting to speak, and he will be tolerated in anything.
^ Such a training will preserve the spoken language of a people in its purity, better than all the dictionaries and grammars that ever were written.
120. The Proverbs of the Mpongwes form a large part of their current literature, and their songs are never exhausted.
Solomon spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five. But there is little probability that he' originated three hundred of the proverbs, or one hundred and five of the songs.
Proverbs originate with the people, and probably most of them in the more primitive state of society. And the proverbs of the Mpongwes are worth preserving.




VOCABULARY
OF THE
MPONGWE LANGUAGE,
BY
AMERICAN MISSIONARIES,
AT
GABOON, WEST AFRICA.
NEW YORK:
MISSION HOUSE, 23 CENTRE STREET.
1879.




MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
A.
Abe, 3 pi. Burying-place.
Abio, pi. abioni. Salutation for second meeting on same day.
Abobo, 3 pi. pangs.
Aboke, a. Speckled.
Abuhwe, 3 pi. Taws.
Adune, d. Small yellow bird.
AgaM, 3 pi. Oil, vegetable or animal.
Agwfrti, v. Hate, ir. and def., used only in Indicative Present.
Agei, a. Fresh (water), see NkSi.
Aya/ndi, 3 pi. Apprehension, anxiety, sorrow.
Aguga, 3 pi. Trouble, distress, desolation.
Ai. Reply to the salutations, Mbolo and Abio.
Aha, 3 pi. Sap.
AMtald, 3 pi. dovi akatdla. To kneel down, let set the knees..
Akaga. A head-warrior.
Akete. Aghast, ph. syum akete.
Alee, 3 pi. Laughter.
Aleeva, pi. akevatii. Thank you, def. verb and n.
Akoffia. A head-wind.
Akulu, 3 pi. v. Bribe; pay for buying something for another.
Alenin. A disease of fingers and toes.
Alata, 3 pi. Fellowship.
Alugu, 3 pi." Spirituous liq-uors, palm-wine.
Af&araJeanlo, 3 pi. Forks (of a road).
AfUanli, 3 pi. Grass.
Amale, 1 irreg. (s. and pi. same). A fabulous kind of animal.
Ambilie, 3 pi. Modesty, false delicacy.
Ambe-nl/ingo, 3 pi. Milk.
Affienje, 3 pi. Peace, quiet.
Amptmdia, 3 pi. Flood, flowing (of tide).
A mpunli, 3 pi. Foam, froth.
Ande, rel. pron. What.
Ang&la. Scarlet, colored cloth, red flannel.
Aniko, 3 pi. Swollen limbs from rheumatism.
AnZingo, 3 pi. Water.
Anlima Apparition, any strange unaccountable thing happening, spetter.
Anli'oa, 3 pi. Money, articles of trade, sometimes singular.
Anlea, a. Privately, apart from others, alone. ,
Anlango, 3 pi. Smell, stench.
AntyarSinla, 3 pi. Sleep.
Ardue, pers. pron. 2d pi Ye, you.
Anyamia 3 pi. Ebb (tide).
Arvyarribie. The Creator, God.
Alonga, n.. Former time, at first.
Alongi bosyo. Persons who have died before.
Anueae, 3 pi. The fringe of a cloth, etc.


6
MPONGWE DICTION'A KY.
Aludofelia, n. A tree, the bark of which is used in healing wounds.
Ard, a. All, whole, entire, complete.
Are, n. Poison.
Arovi, 3 pi. ex tova. Vomit. Ase/jd, 3 pi. Foretaste.
A/dse, 3 pi. Bashfulriess. Atanlia, a. Spotted.
A td, aux. part. Had.
Ati, 3 pi. Fceces, excrement. Atinla, 3 pi. Stern (of boat, canoe, etc.)
Avende, 3 pi. In place of.
J Take a hat in place of a chest.
J wang epokolo gwa veiide m ogara.
Avoro, v. ex. Know, def. v.
only Indicative Present. Avonlo, 6 pi. Skill, cunning. Awangempondo,vt. A species of antelope.
Awaga, 3 pi. Palsy.
A nnp per.pron. 2d sing. Thou, you.
, ti emp. Thou, Ihyself.
Ayenjmla, ad. At dav-break, early.
Aye, pers. pron. 3d sing. He. Azue, pers. pron. 1st pi. We. Azue,ms, pron. Ourselves. Asyingo, 3 pi. Anguish, extreme.
Azyo, 6 pi. Mouth of a river. Azyile, 3 pi. Pain, grief, dan-
ser- .
Azyigwazyigwa: A small scrub.
B-
Ba, pi., Bani, ir. v. Here, take it; mostly in offering a thing.
Ba, ad. Down ; in phrase, bola ba, throw down.
Baga, v. i. Bring, fetch.
' Baginlo, v. in. To have a thing brought to one by chance.
BaJsabalca, ad. All about, all over; of tracks on beach.
Bala, v. t. Inspect (a farm); to. keep watch at night.
Bala. Awake.
Baka, v. i. To inquire the piice of anything.
Baka, v. t. Kindle (lire). |
Baku, part. To stumble.
Bakunin, v. t. Interfere, meddle ; answer for another.
Bambia, v. t. Ask.
Bamba, v. t. Shine.
Bambiza, v. t. Cause to shine.
Bamirda, v. t. Blaze.
Baminlia, v. t. Cause to blaze.
Bandaffiinla, v. t. Be careful of; mind.
Banda, ad. Tight; fast.
Banda, v. t. To have sexual commerce with.
Baiidisa, v. t. Prostitute; cause to commit adultery.
Bandanla, v. t. Cohabit together, man and woman.
Bandisa, v. t. To make fast.
Bangatia, v. t. Jam, press, squeeze, crowd; to fasten with button.
Bango, ad. Cut asunder.
Bongo nla bango. Trading without trust.
Bangunlia, v. t. Separate ; divide.
Bangwa, v. t. Separate, divide; be apart.
Bangwanla, v. i. Separate from each other.
Bana, v. i. Be suspended, hung up.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
7
Banlia, v. t. (Kelekele). Hang up, suspended.
Bara, v. in. T6 be in the habit of doing.
Baraba, ad. Near.
Bare, adverbal verb. Many times.
Batia, v. t. Join, put together.
Bata, ad. Perched, seated.
Bata/minla, v. i. Alight.
Bate-mpira. A keg.; powder.
Baza, y. t. (Bazya). Skin ; cut up animals and birds.
BA, a. Alive.
BaibA, ad. Leaky.
BAdia, v. Be ungrateful, express ingratitude.
Bala, v. in. To get up at night, to seek to destroy by witch poison.
Bali, ad. Clear, quite, wholly, entirely.
Bali, ad. Within.
Ba/nda, v. i. Bipen; red.
Ba/n(Ua, v. cans. To ripen.
Banda, v. i. To become angry.
Ba/njunla. Finish off (a canoe, etc.)
BAnla, v. i. Rot.
Banja, v. i. Cut, wound.
BAnjanla, v. i. To be cut with knife; wound.
Bara, v. t. Wear (clothes).
Be, aux. v. Will.
Benga, v. t. Name of- a tribe.
Bega, v. t. Fell (tree).
Bekelia, v. t. Trust in.
Bela, v. t. Want, seek.
Benda, v. t. Be angry.
Bendiza, v. t. Cause one to-be angry.
Bendinta, v. t. Be angry at any one.
Benga, v. t. Follow.
Bengirda, v. i. To be, or come or go close to one.
Benia, v. i. Be or become Hot. boil (water).
Beba, v. Stick a thing fast, seal.
Beria, v. To allay pain, apply medicine, stick on, as a plaster.
Beri/iila,v. t. Accuse falsely.
Bede, t. ad. Indentation, bruised.
Bedia, v. t. Bruised ; indent.
Bekunia. Divide, break in two.
Bekwa, v. i. Divide in halves.
Bengvmla, v. t. Define, explain, interpret.
Benia, v. t. Plant, bury.
Be/faba, v. t. Watch, (a thief, etc.)
Beta, v, t. Name; call; suppose.
Beta, v. Suppose, mean.
Beya, v. To lufi.
Bia, v. i. Come.
Biha, v. t. Hat^.
Bilia, v. t. Preserve the remains of a meal.
BiUa, v. t. To be shy of, coy, reserved, bashful; not forward.
Bimbia, v. t. Bespect, reverence.
Bi/nda, v. t. Knead, mix.
Bindahanlia, v. t. Mix.
Binla, v. t. Skim.
Bioga, v. i. Belch.
Bira. To, stop people fighting ; make peace.
Bimvria, v. t. Respect, reverence, regard, honor.
Bo, ad. Far away.


8
MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
Boanganya, ad. Arrived Hn
Boba, a. Lop-sided, onesided.
Bobiza, v. t. Half sheet.
Boga, v. t. Chew, masticate; to crack with teeth.
Bogirda, v. i. Cry aloud; bluster.
Bogizya, v. t. Salute one with Ml)olo.,s
Bogianla, recip. conj. Salute one another.
Bolca, v. t. Bark.
Boka, v. t. Dig out (canoe).
Bokwa, v. i. To cave in (well); grave; open.
Bolanganla, v. i. Toss about, as canoe in wave.
BolinVokv/w.ika/pa g'osaon. To glory in.
Bold, v. t. Whip, beat, strike.
Bold (njali). Discharge (a gun).
Bola (as ngdma). Beat (drum).
Bold (itu). Crack (a joke).
Bold (evo). Use (indecent words).
Bola (ba), v. t. To throw down ; e. g., a cow.
Bola (isa/poga). To slap with open hand.
Bola (ikupa). To boast.
Bor/wa, v. t. Arrive; come ; to go to a place.
Bor/wa, v. i. Appear in sight; be rich.
Bojwa, v. i. Leak.
Bor/wu, n. Loom.
Bongumia, v. To bubble up.
Bongwnla, v. t. To bring up an orphan.
Bongeni. Bung.
Bonda, v. t. Concert; a plan; cum Monda.
Bonla, v. i., bonVepokolo. To put on a hat; cover a house; put on (hat).
Bonla, v. i. Empty, pour out.
Bordwda, v. i. To upset, capsize.
Bordio, v. p. Be empty.; destitute of, dbonlio anliva.
Bowunlia, v. t. Appear; enrich.
Bozya, n. To groan, or struggle in death. .
Bosyo (with go). Ahead, before.
Ba, or bo, a. Alive.
Bonga, v. t., or banga. Take.
Banginla, v. t., or bon. Take away, deprive.
Bongo nValugu, or bango. Drunk.
Bu, ad. Reclining, down.
Buebue (with ga). As well as.
Bue, a. Dead.
Bue, a. Open, unobstructed, clear.
Buka. Strangle.
Buku, ad. Plainly, openly, fearlessly, (of speaking).
Buhwrila, v. t. Speak without fear, boldly, plainly.
Bulia,v.t., ja. Say, tell, speak.
Bunja, v. t. To break, or follow an animal.
Bv/rda, vi. Be many; abound, increase.
Bv/rdAa, v. t. Make to be many, multiply, increase.
Bunde. A small insect.
Bimdu, ad. Upside down.
Bund/wrda, v. i. Boil (as spring of. water).
Bundwnla, v. t. To stir.
Bundaka/rda, v. t, Break, spoil.


MPONGWE DICTION ART.
Bundakcmla, v. i. To spoil.
Bv/n/ya. The next day.
Burriba, v. t. To go and get a wife.
Bmriba,, v; t. To snatch, as children, food.
Bumbulia, v. t. To scatter about and, spoil.
Buia, v. t. Seek.
BurinUa, v. t., nVompiza. : To dash ones self to the earth.
Bwata, v. t. To touch.
D.
Da, nda, ad. Long.
Dadie, ad. Alone. |
Daga, y. i. Chirp, bleat, scream, squall.
Dagcilaga, v. i. Complain, grumble.
Daginla, v. t. Desire, long for.
Dailia, v. i. Cross (river, etc.)
Darribe, ad. Soon.
Dafrwrda, v. t. To stretch or reach out.
Dcunda, y. t. Deny.
Danda, v. i. Creep, crawl; go on all-fours ; walk;
Dandua, y. i. To be redeemed, redeem ones self.
Da/ndunla, y. t. Redeem.
Daginla, v. t. Lose utterly.
Data, v. To meet.
Datanla, v. i. Meet, assemble.
Datisa, v. t. Cause to meet or assemble.
Dama, v: and a. Tall, be tall; long; be distant.
Da/Sisa, v. t. Make tall, lengthen, spin out; talk.
Davvrda, v. i. Extend, reach after.
Da/via, Pp t. Give, entrust, bestow, hand to.
Da/oada/vie, ad. Distance, fan aWay.
Da, ad. Silent, still.
DA. contra, of ddko. Master Or mistress.
Dddinla, v. t Peep, spy.
DAga, v. t. Curse.
DAkalia, v. t. Bow (the head).
DArtiba, y. t. Conquer, oppress.
Daminla, y. t., v. i. Sink, drown.
Ddnddlia, y. t. Flatter.
DAsya, or dasyu, y. t. Worth-less, as fools.
Da/Bar, v. t. Fish (with hook).
. Davadava. Outer or great darkness.
Damvrda, y. i. Beach out, as with the hand.
Dega, v. t. Stop, prevent.
Derriba, v. t. Taste, try.
Demha (as mlenge), v. t. Take aim.
Derriba, or dernbianla, v. t. Spar, wrestle.
Denda, v. To do, make.
Denla, v. i. Cry.
Devarila, v. t. Forget.
Devi/iila, v. i. Hope, think, suppose ; seem' to ones self.
Devinla, v. t. To impute.
De, ad. Quickly, immediately.
Dika, v. t. Catch (a thing thrown). :
Dfflaj v. i. and a. Soft; weak.
Deladela, a. Very soft.
Deliza, v. fed Soften, weaken.
Denibia, v. i. Bow, bend the body.
Dembiea, v. t. Bend.


10
MPONGWE DICTIONAKY
Derribialembia, a. Supple, pliable.
Dembirdia, v. i. Bow down.
Dhnbianla, v. i. Race.
Denda., v. To begin to go up, as the tide.
Denga, v. i. Get, find, obtain.
Denginlia, v. t. Reach up, to a thing above.
Dengelia, v. t. Disrespect, dishonor.
Diano, ad. Apart; far apart.
Diana, n. Disposition.
Dienga, ad., or die' used with Riga. Alone.
Dienga, ad. (with tig a). Let alone.
Dimbirda, v. t. Put, place, lay down.
Dingilia, v. i. Mark, take notice.
Dinga, v. i. Be a long time.
Dira, a. Heavy.
Dima, v. t. Honor. Prov. iii. 9.
Dma, v. t. Tie, make fast.
Di/vinla, v. t. Enclose, surround, obstruct, shut out and in.
Diva, v. t. Prov. i. 14. Be with; take part with.
Doarda, v. i. Live, be.
DogvmMa, v. i. Go away quietly or secretly.
Dogwa, v. i. Fly, leap, bounce.
Doka, v. t. Knock.
Dolo, ad. Seated; shine.
Dombiida. To become old; decrepid.
Dofninlia, v. t. Begin (a work).
Dondoa, ad. High.
Donga, a. and v. i. First, and Be first.
Dongo, n. Small-pox.
Dovia, v. t. Put or place on, mostly on fire; set upright.
Dovalova, v. i. Be at enmity.
Dov, aJedtdld, v. t. Kneel.
Dova, v. t. (with Mpaga). Doubt, bet, dispute, disbelieve.
Dova, v. t., as idyale, tune, erere. Set, put, place, establish.
f All and ad., at all; with sing;
7)*/ n J noun any.
-Ljuj* <*. 1 om'edu, any person; ez&rn'edu,
(. anything.
Dvba, v. t. Honor (as parent), as subject a king.
Dubwa, v. i. Depart, get away.
Duda, v. i. Be weary.
Dudia, v. t. Gause to be weary, tire.
Duere. Quiet. Prov. i. 33.
Duka, v. t. Butt, strike.
Dukcmla, v. i. Butt each other.
Dula, v. t. Pluck, pull (Com.), to pull out or off.
Dwmha, v. t. Surprise.
Dv/mbvrda, v. t., i. g. dimbinla. Put down.
DufOa, v. i. Swell.
Duminla, v. t. Strive, agonize.
Duo, v. i. Be at or in a place.
Dv/rdo, v. t. Be at a place with another; find one there.
Dv/ra, v. t. Pull, haul.
Duri/rda, v. t. Attract, draw to.
Dv/via, v. t. Sop, dip.
E.
E, pers. pron., A. He or she.
Ebabago, 2. Saw-fish.
Ebaganlo, 2. Resemblance.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
11
Ebaka, 2 pa. A garden-knife.
Ebandanhe, 2. Adulterer.
Ebcmda, 2. Skin.
Ebabd, 2. Any worn-out or spoiled thing.
Eirtbdngdmbdnga, 2. Knee-pan.
Eheke, 2. Fire-place.
Ebelabela,, n. Precipicg.
Ebende, 2. Corpse.
2. An herb ? (Gen. i. 11).
EM Zatanga. Purslain.
Ebole, 2. Fist.
Eboke, 2. Cripple, so can not walk.
Eboko, 2. Loins, small of back.
Ebogonyo, 2. Apparition, vision. Luke i. 22.
Ebubu, n., 2. A bundle of bamboo leaves.
Eddda, 2. Eye (of needle).'
Eddsyu, 2. Fool; vain fellow.
Eddsyd, 2. Foolishness.
Edaku, n. A small fetich.
{Picture, likeDess used only of persons; for things and animals, egdlanli and mbondinli.
Edvngo, 2. Crying, screaming, wailing.
Edo, 2. Bar (at mouth f river).
Edinga, 2. Caseada garden, com or pea-nut patch,
Eduge, 2. Cork, stopple.
Ed/uika, 2. Pistol.
Edukaitdnda, 2. A fruit, grows on vine.
Edimgu, 2. Great; affair.
Edunnlia, 2. A thing which draws another.
Efizagmge, 2. Water-spout; whirl-wind.
Efu, 2. Blanket.
EJmlizyar 2. Bender (as money lent).
Efanga, 2. Fear, or afraid.
Efangiza, 2. Cause to fear.
filia, 2. Cause to call.
_ %7tiba/ny Ega/tilo, 2. Fetish (for detecting adultery, theft, etc.)
Ega/ra, 2. Chest.
Ega/tidd, 2. Dependent; ward; apprentice; disciple.
Eg&lahli, 2. Likeness, sameness:
Egalanli, 2. Leprosy. See Ga-
lanii.
Egdmba, 2. Shave, drawing-ing-knife, etc.
Egdmba, 2. Parable; a roundabout repi-oof. Nathan to David.
Egdnga, 2 and a. Poor, lean.
iiganU, 2. Cascade, cataract, rifle.
EgagdU, 2. (See ekakali). %.dams apple (in the throat).
Egero, 2. An ear of corn.
EgmMzo, 2. Measure, with which to measure quantity or length.
Egeza, 2. Auger, gimlet.
Egege, 2. Tusk of ivory weighing less than 20 lbs.
Egenga,, 2. A white spot on a black person.
Egombe, 2. Time.
Egomboga/oa, 2. A kind of small fish.
Egorozvmba, 2. An ear of com with the husk on.
Egoro, 2. Sheath.
Egv/wa, 3. A fathom.
Equva, 2. Snot; cold in the head.


12
MPONGWE DICTIONAUY.
Egunlu, 2. Anger.
Egwa, 2. Kind of yam.
Egwasya, 2. Saw ; file.
Egwaro, 2. Trigger.
Elen, 2. Throne, kings seat; power; dominion.
Ekaga, 2. Land turtle.
Ekale, 2 and a. Pride ; contempt and proud.
Ekaka, 2. A load, charge of a gun.
EkambiZ, 2. Interpreter, spokesman.
Eleanda, 2. Tinder; also a wild animal.
Ekasa, ad. To scold, speak harshly.
Ekaka, 2. Cause, reason.
Ekakali, 2. Adams apple.
Ekdmirda, 2. Peg, pin (of wood).
Ekdga, 2. Log, fallen tree.
Ekdtda, 2. Phlegm.
Ekangwe, 2. Humpback.
Ekdtd, 2. Defense; pickets.
Eksileei, 2. Infant, baby.
Ekembe, 2. Animal poison, venom.
Ekenje, 2. Intense pain.
Ekeva, 2. Pity.
.S&o, 2. A kind of bituminous soil.
Ekokore, 2. Cock, rooster.
Eleoka, 2 (sorderribe). Honeycomb.
Ekolo, 2. A. kind of fish.
Ekirmbasyanli, 2. A kind of bird.
Ekoto, 2. A quiver for arrows.
Ekombo (zi njirda), 2. A head ; gorilla.
Ekotagota, 2. Touching.
Ekuka, 2. A thing obtained;
a beast killed by chance. Ekuru, 2. Owl.
Elcuntmiy 2. Stump. Ekwende, 2. Fish tail. Elasyi, 2. Glass.
Elavinli, 2. Length.
Elango, 2. Hoop.
Elaiyje, 2. Proud.
EldgaU, 2. Sting (of bee, etc.) Elambe, 2. Chat, chit-chat, conversation.
Elerriba, 2. Sign, wonder. Elembelembe, 2. Large leaf used for wrapping up food. Elernbo, 2.- A useless thing. Elende, 2. Boat.
Elmgele, 2. Poor; fool, idiot. Elenge, 2. Poor; fool. Elendinla, 2. Bow (for fihoot-
ing)-Elelu, 2. Beard.
El/inga, 2. Gown. Elingalinge, 2. Corpse carried out to burial.
Elingilio, 2. Mark.
Eliwa, 2. World, universe. Elivinli, 2. Lake.
EU/omti, 2. Obstruction. Eli/Ba, 2. Pond, pool, mud-hole, lake.
Eloko, 2. Strong vine.
Elolo, 2. A fish (resembling sardines).
Elondivinli, 2. Height. Elongo, 2. Conflagration, unquenchable fire.
Elova, 2. Seine, drag-net. Elumi, 2. Fame ; report. Ehimbago, 2. Bracelet, armlet. '
Emama, 2. A kind of fish. Effi£nta, 2. Life.
Emondo, 2. A water bird.


MPONGWE DIOTIONAET.
13
EndfyL 2. targe flat fish.
Endindi, 2. Foetus of one or two months.
Endondo, 2. An albino.
Enga/mha, 2. Demijohn.
Engwamba, 2. Scarcity of meat. ;
Enjunja, 2. Brass pan.
Envmba, 2. Secret.
Erilefna, 2. Lame person j maimed in any part,; e. g., the eye, leg, arm.
EnUngo,2. Tide (ebb or flood).
EUffia, 2.. Badger.
EnlaMi, 2. Rich man.
EliMe, 2. Patch.
Enlingo, 2. Disease supposed to be affected by the tide, $
EnlofRo, 2. Dry season (ex.
middle of May to middle of September.
Etmngunla, 2. To open the key.
Enya/rogolo, 2. A kind of bird.
Enyengemyenge, 2. Bustle; unsteadiness.
'Epa, 2. Bone.
Epanga, 2. To make.
Epokga, 2. Partition.
Epe, a. Short.
Epembe, n. Saw of the sawfish.
Eve, 2. Dagger (poniard).
Epele, 2. Plate.
Epepa, 2. Rudder ; fan.
jute 2. See Bold.
Epokwe, 2. A meddler in others affairs.
Eponga, 2, Beeswax.
Epoge, 2. Wakefulness.
Epomba, 2. Roll ; loaf (of food)., jjj
Eponga, 2. Cover.
Epongo, 2. Gullet,ffisophagus. Epondofna, 2. Pillow. EpondnS, 2. Shorn head. Epokolo, 2. Hat; small flat basket.
Epoti, 2. Head, pate. I Epwi, 2. Stool, seat.
Epwi a'atanga.' Chair. Eranga, 2. Beauty (of person). Eranbia, a. Insane.
Eraraga, 2. Kind of fish. Erenle, 2. Half.
Erevey'2i. Tree.
Ereria, a. Dreadful, terrible. Erefhi, 2. Axe, hatchet. Eriga, 2. Hollow (in a tree). Eromi, 2. Messenger. Erogora, 2. Perspiration. Eroro, 2. Cob ; skin, rind. Erovia/rovie, 2. Nausea. Era/nge, 2. Frog.
Erumbe, 2. Youth, period of youth.
Erningu, ad. Secretly. Erungu, 2. Con., Maga. A
secret.
Esadomba, 2. Hill, elevation. Esapala. A temporary house; booth.
EsdkadA, 2. A spear with round iron point.
Eseka, 2. Altar; .sacred place where idols are kept. Esekv/ma, 2, Sob, sigh. Esamba-ta/Boro. Waiter (at table).
Eseku, 2. Hiccough. Eserengila, H. Tale-bearer. Esesege, 2. Rags, old cloth.. Esyala, 2. Tail (of bird). Esyalia. Measles.
Esyanga, 2. Palm ; cabbage. Esya/ng!}, Hawk. Esyenginla-bama, 2.. Moth.


14
MPONGWE DICTION"ART.
Esyvoemhene. A large water-bird.
Esyove, 2. Thirst.
Esivagenda, 2. Beneh.
EtambedevMa, 2. Indecision.
Elatabarigo, 3. One kind of ant, chiefly on orange trees.
Etabwe, 2. Small fish.
Etava, 2. Mat.
Etakuma. Small bird.
Etebombe, 2. Scorpion.
EtenlOy 2. Partition (a cross, a house); end of house.
Etinla, 2. Buttock.
Etuta, 2. Switch end of cows or horses tail.
Etombenanga, n. Flannel shirt.
Etulc.a, 2. Husk or rind (of plantains).
Etiu/rnhut/umbu, 2. Part of a gun.
Etv/mbamgon/ja, 2. Whirlwind.
Eva, 2. Limb (of ones body).
Ena, 2. Phial.
Eva/nda, 2. Tune and song.
Evagaza, 2. Fin on the back of a shark.
Evomga, 2. Kind of wicker basket.
Evatigo, 2. Harpoon, fish-spear.
Evdva. Gizzard.
Evwnganli, ad. About (in | point of time).
Evago. Any vessel for holding.
Evaÿa, 2. Sprit.
Eve, ad. Bad.
Euemba, 2. Violent person ; courageous.
Evendirdi, 2. Greatness.
Evero, 2. Place to water, 6pring.
E'Senge, a. 2. Mane (of horse). Eveve, 2. Panting.
Evema. Twine made of the plantain leaf.
Eve&yv,, 2. Scar.
Evelesyi, 2. Handkerchief. Evere, 2. Meat; fish. Evernba. Strong, brave man ;
as leader, prince, warrior. Evia. Good.
Evilo, 2. Work, calling, occupation.
Evila, 2. Ebony. Evmdi, 2. Oloud. Eviga, 2. Men.
Evisd, 2. War-club. Evindinla, 2. Bowsprit. Evinlo, 2. A kind of tree. Eoi/nlo, 2. A nap; sound sleep. Evora, 2. Wound, gash. Evonge, 2. Indifference. Evovevove, 2. Adulteress.
Evove, 2. -.
Evovo, 2. Adder, snake. Evugvnlia, 2. Any insect or creeping thing.
EmvMla, 2. A kind of fish. Evundurila, 3. A large slug
cut from the iron bar. Evundu, 2. Piece or chunk of flesh or fish.
Evunga, 2. Epidemic. E&ungu, 2. Piazza.
Evuva, 2. Jealously. Evj&rina. 2. Garment of any kind (an old word).
Ewi/rie, 2. Dark saying; words not commonly understood.
Ewonjo, 2. Head.
Ewongolo, 2. Wooden bowl; buoy.
EwogoriU, 2. Wasp.
Ewomba, 2. Nape.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
15
Ewole, 2. Generous, generosity of money.
Ev:omarungulu, 2. A spotted lizard (said to be poisonous).
Ewoga, 2. Old site of a town..
Ewogo, 2 (e.q.) Mbora. Place.
Ewowa. Bladder.
Ewumbw, 2. Firebrand.
Ewuki, 2. Chaft, trash.
Eyambv/rilia, 2. A flood.
Eyanjini, 2. Ministration; service.
Erya/re, 2. Piece, part; small quantity.
Eu&rdo, 2. Mirror.
Eydka, 2. A kind of fetish.
Eyale, 2. Hard, strong.
Eya/nga,\ 2. Drunkard, inebriate.
F/yogwe, 2. Disposition; habit, custom.
Euigo, 2. Red-wood.
Eza, 2. A thing.
Ezanga, 2. Salt.
Eza/ngo, 2. Book, paper; anything written.,
Ezanga/ngowo, 2. Book, etc.
Ezangdbobo, 2. Sole-fish.
Eza/nde, 2. Int. pron. What, why.
Ezalinla, 2. Oomb.
Ezdmba, 2. A kind of sea-turtle.
Ezdmbi, 2. Sister, cousin ; relative top near to marry.
Ezama, 2. Thing; any material thing.
Ez&ganlo, 2. An herb.
Ezdmbald, 2. Broom.
Ezemhat, 2. War-cap.
Esmli, 2. Forehead, front.
Ezenya, 2. Bait.
Esiga, 2. Dwelling-place.
Ezimba, 2. Ant-hill.
Ezyila, 2. Bunch of palm-nut.
Eziwo, 2. Wild goat.
Ezyigo, 2. Red-wood.
Ezo, 2. Mortar; mill.
Eeyazya, 2. Bamboo fish-spear.
Ezyenle, 2. Landing-place.
Eziga/mngo, 2. Small red bird.
F.
Fala, v. t. Castaway.
.Fas, ad. Away (with fala).
Fata, v. The whole body is not well; unwell.
Fatisa, v. Causing to be unwell.
Fatu, n. Stockings, hose,
Fanga, v. t. Escape, run away from; run away.
jRs, prep, or part. Without position (always following the noun).
Fa, ad. Again.
.2^ kunda. Add more,
v. t. Put, place.
Fela, v. t. Breathe, (/e? (ygwei).
Felia, v. t. Call (see Fwelia, both are used).
Feya, v. i. Grow.
Fffoa, v. i. Be or become bad; unpleasant.
Feviza, v. t. Make bad.
Fina, V. t. Fold (cloth).
Fimya,fw'mya, v. i. Return.
Ftmniavinlia, ad. Returning the same day.
Fa or fo, prep, and ad. Without; always follows the noun it governs.
Fuma, v. Grunt, strain; bear down.


16
MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
Fuffiavuma, v. Grumble, complain.
Fwelia, v.. t. Call (see, also, FeUa).
Fweia, v. t. Call.
Fweyiza, v. t. Call; cause to be called.
Fwema, v. i. Mistake, err.
FuieMiza, v. t. Cause to err; lead astray.
Fenla, v. i. Be cooked properly, done.
Fwinya, v. i. Return (see Finia and Finya.
Fwinisya, v. t. Return, bring back.
Fwvnizya ngaka,. Requite.
Fwiza, v. t. Turn.
Fwizmiza, v. Stir up.
G.
Ga, aux. v. Must; only with 1st and 3d pers., but both sing, and plur.
Ga, ad. and conj. As; like ; since.
Gambenle, ad. conj. Therefore ; then, wherefore.
Gcure, and garegara, 1. Middle ; inside.
Gdlanli, 1. Leprosy,
Gagwanli, 1. Go ye out.
Gdrriba, 1. As (Orega) scrape the cask.
Ge, conj. Or.
GevHa, conj. Or.
Geva/jeva, 1. Sorrow, sadness; sullenness.
GUigUi, a. and ad. True; truly.
GHido. Flat-iron.
yando, 1. Alligator. yando, 1. A company of persons sitting or standing. yandi, 1. Envy, envious. yango, 1. Mediciile. yanja, 1. Parlor. yomba. Hedgehog. r/arnbe. Guano. yambi, 1.. One-stringed harp.
yanbi, n. Jibboom.
Gogo, ad. There.
Go, prep, and ad. To ; at; on'; in, etc.; when; where, etc.
Gore, prep. To (used only before persons and pronouns referring to psrsons).
Gore, ad. Standing; straight.
Gunlu, ad. Here.
Gviamla. 1. Comb with its honey.
Gwaruenli, 1. Edge (of a tool).
Gwerdi, ad. Where.
Gwi, ad. Where.
I.
Jia, 3. Fruit of the Dika tree. (Oba).
Ibandaminla, n. Care, watchfulness.
Ibagvtilo, dinga nlibagmlo. To get by chance.
Ibambia, v. n. Asking.
Ibanda, v. n. Sexual commerce.
Iba/nga, n. Morning.
Ibcmgwanla, v. n. Putting asunder.
1 bahu, 3. A root; stone, etc.; used with Pofho nVibahu.
Ibaka, 3. Jungle.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
17
Ibambo, 3. Departed spirit.
Ibando, 3. Adulterers.
lbdndakdt, 3. Tadpole.
Tbadia, v. n. Ingratitude.
Ibddie, pi. abddie. An ungrateful person.
Ibdnja, v. n. Cut, flesh wound.
Ibanja, 3. Lizard.
1 bdra, v. n. Tlie act of putting on clothes.
Ibambu, 3. A woman taken away by force with a fetish.
Ib&nla, y. n. Decaying matter.
IbeJca, 3. Mueic-box.
Ibelcelia, v. n. Faith; trusting ; confiding in.
Ibe, pi. Evil; sin, wickedness.
Ibeld, v. n. Want, desire.
Ibenla, y. n. Boiling.
Ibembe, 3. Pigeon, dove.
Ibenda, v. n. Anger.
Iberia, v. n. Alleviation.
Ibenla. Planting, burying.
Iberinla, v. n. Accusation (false).
Ibeku, 3. Half a round thing; semicircle.
Ibere, 3. Malagnette paper.
I bia, v. n. Coming.
Ibobo, 3. Cowardice.
Ibobo, 3. Lung.
Iboku, 3. Presence. Are gui iboku, he is present; lair; place.
Iboboti, 3. Spider (insect).
Ibobobob3, 3.5 Coward, cow-Obobobobo, | ardice.
Ibogizya, v. n. Salutation.
Iboginla, v. n. Shout; crying out..
I boko, n. Large cow or horse fly.
Iboka, v. n. Barking of a dog.
( A bow and string; breathed
Ihnin 3 J upon near one end, and 5 "j struck with a short stick,
* makes music.
Ibotd, 3. Poison, witchcraft.
I bonyambala, n. Small partridge.
Iboga, 3. A bitter stick.
Ibongiria, v. n. Arriving.
Ibongunlia, V. n. Cherishing; bringing up.
Ibdngo, v. n. Drunkenness.-
Ibonga, v. n. Taking;
Ibuku, 3. Vexation'; chagrin; sensation of choking.
Ibundfinla, v. n. Mixing.
Ibuiiga, 3. Top-knot.
Ibimdakanlia, v. n. Injuring, destroying.
Idandunla, v. n. Redeeming, redemption.
Idaga, v. n. Cry out; scream; bleat.
Idagi/rda, v. n. Hope; earnest expectation.
Idagurda,, v. n. Answering.
Iddmbe, 3. Sheep.
Idand.alia, v. n. Flattery.
Iddda, 3. Drop.
ld,o, 3; pi .ado. Rocks, stone.
Ido mtii njaU, 3. Gun-flint.
IdomvnMa, v. n. Beginning.
Ido nyi porMia, 3. Grind and whet-stone.
Iladu, v. n. Fatigue.
Idurvrdia, v. n. Drawing to; attAction.
If era, 3. Nail (of fingers). (See Ofhera).
Ifwe. Cold.
IfwefHa. v. n. Error> mistake, sin.
Igaavmaj n. 3. Stuttering.
Igala, 3. Street, (of; town) ;
I out of doors.


18 MPONGWE :
Igelenge, 3. Bell.
X lgamba, 3. A word.
lgamba ny agwa/nla. A moment.
Igambo, 3. Fine (for adultery).
Iganda, 3. Boldness, inde-
corum. ylga, 3. Woods, bush.
Igando, 3. Sole (of foot); paw of dog.
Iganja, 3. Fish.
Jgdvi, 3. War.
IgdlAngd, 3. Sea-sickness.
Igdma, 3. Circle; circular spot; firmament.
lgamba, 3. Land-crab.
Iganga, 3. Spear; with go in honesty and truth.
IgdgwMo, 3; ex. hdgwa. A place for going out.
Igega, 3. Sea-erab.
Igenle, 3. Shell-fish.
Igeva, 3. Negro dance; mirth; exaltation.
Igevu, 3, (igu). Bundle of meat tied up in leaves, or anything else.
Igenga, 3. Swarm (of bees).
Igero, 3. Part, side, division. Adunga azye gwr igero si Mpongwe, are gw' igero ny immisS.
Iaende, 3. Errand, messenger.
IgevUi, 3, Sprain, strain.
Jginji, a. Awkward.
Igogo, 3. Long coarse-grass.
Igomi, 3. Ten.
Iaogosyo, 3. Carpenters plane.
laordinlo, 3. Market-place.
Igonla, 3. Stature ; height of persons and things.
Igordo, 3. Top, summit, high, aloft.
Igolo, 3. Trade.
Igombe, 3. A mat sail. Igombegombe, 3. Umbrella. Igombegowa, 3. Large fish. Iauva, 3. Bellows. fgumba, 3. Cargo, effects. Iguffiu, 3. Hope, expectation. Iguwu, 3. Pineapple. Iguruguru, 3. Turkey.
Iguge, 3. Door.
Igulakahd, 3. Rock-crab. Igwanla, 3. Spittle.
Igw&ra, 3. Notch, mark, hour, pound.
Ijanjinla, v. n. Service! v Ijcmja, v. n. Work, laborj
toil.'
Ija/nla, v. n. Birth, begetting. Ijcurua,, v. n. Split, rent. Ijdwa, v. n. Resting. Ijambwa, v. n. Brightness. Ijdgd, v. n. Sickness.
Ijdla, v. n. Strength.
Jjegerie, v. n. Shaking of the hips.
Ijemba, v. n. Singing.
Ijenja, v. n. Day-breaking. Ijehso, v. n. Imprisonment. Ijekelia, v. n. Judging.
Ijeka. Easing off; slaking. Ijeza, v. n. Leaning upon;
trusting.
Ijiga, v. n. Inheritance. Iji/Bvra, v. n. Believing, willingness.
Iji/nga, v. n. Healing, curing. Ijingirda, v. n. Entering in. Ijordia, v. n. Filling. Ijonginlia. Remembering. Ijonla, v. n. Killing, cost. Ijomba, v. n. Marriage. Ihimbv/nZo, v. n. Gliding. Ijufa, v. n. Stealing. j
ljuwa, v. n. Death.
Ijv/rdo, v. n. Bereavement.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
19
ljuwe, n. Gray hair.
Ika, 3. Meteor.
I kamba, v. n. Speaking, existence. t
Ikambmla, v. n. Speaking to; or for some one; prayer;
Ika/nda, a. Acid.
Ikaga, 3; pi. Akaga. Leader.
Ika/nga, 3 and a. Baldness, bald; frying.
Ikanla, 3. Miracle.
Ika/nga/nla, v. n. Walking about.
Ikasya, 3. Bridge.
Ikataka, 3. Bunch.
Ikasya, 3. Red-water; ordeal.
Ikd, 3. A knot in. tying on bamboo to a house.
IkAgd/rd, v. n. Snoring.
Ikambiso, -3. Persecution.
lkaminla, v. n. Nailing.
Ikandd, 3. Bunch of plantains.
Ikdte, Question.
Ikdtd, 3. Kind of bamboo.
Ikeva, v. n. Conquering, excelling, victory.
Ikenga, v. n. Heaping, preparing.
Ikesyi, Xj pi. and a. Want of nerve ; mercy ; merciful; tender-heartedness. (Some have ekeva, and have not ikesyi).
Ikeso, a.; pi. akeso. Squint-eyed.
Ikendo, 3. Fire-steel.
Ikenge, 3. Skill.
ITeeke, v. n. Cackling.
Ike. Egg.
Ikiekd, 3. Perverseness, contrariness.
lkika, 3. Only child.
Ikika, ad. Only, alone.
IkUikiU. Heavy tramping j stamping.
Ikonli. Fire-wood.
Ikonda, 3. (See Okondo).
Ikombmla. Hem, binding.
Ikopa, 3. Jar.
Ikora, v. n. Tying, band.
Ikoko, 3. Sugar-c^ne; sugar.
1 kota, v. n. Catching.
Ikowa, 3. Thick fish.
Ikosyo, 3. Leg (of fowl and
* bird).
Ikudukwe, e.g., n eg (meg a (apparently an ad.) Quickly.
Ikuku, 3. Sail.
1 kundu, 3. Nest (of fowl and bird).
Ikunaa, v. n. Addition.
Ikungula, v. n. Growling.
Ikulu, 3. Guo' JTidu. An arm cut off.
Ikwmbu, 3. Claw (of crab).
1 kwtu, 3. A narrow-mouthed basket.
IkweUki, 3. Betrothment money.
IkwentyuvM, 4. A wild plum, black; grows in clusters.'
Ihweta, 3. A bend in a river; bay; harbor.
IlaKnlo, 3. Ford, crossing-place.
Ita/nga, 3. Lily.
Ilasa, 3. Orange.
lla/vod, 3. Fish-hook.
Ilandd, 3. Fresh-water crab.
I Idtd, 3. Mate; second in power.
Hold, 3. Pawpaw.
llende, 3. The saddle on the roof of a house.
/ A sleeper. Poisonous
w a ') slime from the sting of
ILende* 6. \ the ray-fish ; spittle or
j mucus that dries on
( the cheek of any slime^


20
MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
lleve, 3. Palm (of hand).
lliria, 3. Knot.
Iloanlo, 3. Dwelling place.
Ilombo. World of Spirits.
Jlosi, 3. Lime.
Imama, v. n. Amazement; astonishment.
Imanda, 3. Caterpillar.
Immilo, 3. Things gotten by robbery; obtained without work.
Imamisa, v. n. That which causes astonishment.
Imamu, 3. Dumb.
Imagi, 3. Mug; pitcher.
Imdga, v. n. Backbiting.
Irribala, 3. Hammer.
Imbangi, 3. A head of wheat, etc.; a long feather at a cocks tail.
ImefFia, v. n. Acknowledging.
Imbugu, n. Cheek.
Imepa, v. n. Mepejenlo. Beauty in looking; beautiful-looking.
Imunga, 3. Loaf; ball.
Impdnta. Dagger.
Imungure, 3. A fruit, grows in clusters on vine.
Ina, 3. Name.
Inlmilo, 3. Bed
Inaka, v. n. Care.
Ina, 3. Tooth.
lndmyigwhnibolo. Lightning.
Indd. Secret society of males.
Ingongo, 3. Tin; any vessel of tin; zinc, etc.
Inda/un. Elastic.
Induandua, 3; pi. And/uan7 dua. Bubble.
Ingeyd, 3; pi. Angey&n. A kind of trap.
Inlinli, 3. Liver.
Igeiah, 3. Gin; trap; deadfall.
Inlipdti, 3. Iron-ppt.
Irikva, 3; plu. Mpney; gpods (for barter).
Inivo, 3. Bondage.
Inkanda, pi.; Ukanda, sing. Purposely; intention.
Irdanga, 3. Mppnlight.
Inldngd,3. Nation; kingdom.
Inle, conj. Saying.
lnVinla, 3. Shadow (of person) ; soul; spirit.
Iningo, 3. Water; plu. ^471-lingo.
Inoana, 3. Debt.
Inoki, 3. Lie; falsehopd.
Intyd, 3. Eye; grain (of com, etc.)
Intya ny' atwriga. Telescope.
Inbydnli, 3. Tear.
Intyime, 3. Monkey-apple.
Inu. Fire (made for cooking); fire-place; stove.
Inumba, v. n. Hatred; animosity.
Inyanga, 3. Lake; authority.
Inyardi, 3; pi. AmanU. Grass.
Inyoma/rilo, 3; pi. Amomanlo. Altercation; quarrel.
Im/ydngi, 3. Drunkard; wine-bibber.
Inyenli, 3. Glutton.
Inyengd, 3. Post which supports ridge pole, etc., of house.
Inya, v. n. Food.
Inyena, v. n. Gain; profit.
lnyanla,Z;pi. Affoanla. Coal; charcoal.
Inyemba, 3; pi. Affiemba. Poison.
InyeMe, 3; pi. Am. Foetus.
Inyingila, 3; pi. Affdngila Live-coal.
lrvyoi, 3; pi. Af/loi. Voice.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
21
Ipa, v. n. Pay J wages; hire. Ipa, 3. FloCkTfof birds); herd
(of cattle)'; 'shoal (of fish). Ipaginla. Charge (for gun or
Ipahifaa, v. n. Beginning. Ipakiy 3. Cap (for man or
a. Diarrhoea. Ipanginla. Government. Ipa/nda (enlingo s ajxin/li). The tide is running or com-1 ing up. lpasanganla, v. n. Scattering. Ipaku, 3. Blind persou; blind; (a) blindness.-
taga. Prophecy. andia, v. n. Dissembling. Ipamu, 3. Withj? or tawa, a challenge.
Ipedia, v. n. Insult;. disobedience.
Ip'esyi, 3. An affair ; occurrence. *
Ipi, 3. Armadillo. tpi. Painful swelling on arms, hands, or feet.
Ipinja, v. n. Choice; preference.
lpivia, v. n. Thinking. Ivikila, v. m Thinking. Iminju, 7. Brains.
Isusa (Pusya). Accident, with (nle) accidentally.
Tpote, 3. Disease of skull. fra, 3. Hip.
Iromdi', 3. Oyster.
Irdga, 3. Kind of yam. Ir&ra, 3. Navel'; step (of mast).
Irevo, 3. Smart; smartness (of pain).
Irbide, 3. Thorn.
Irigo, 4; pi. Tigi/nl' irrigo.
Make a will. Ezango s irigo.
Iririla, 3. A pod (of groundnuts).
IroTci, 3. Button.
Iroanlo, 3. A burden.
Ironda, 3 Favorite ; one i loved much.
Isa/mba, 3. A kind of crab. Isavi/nlm, v. n. Worshiping. Isapoga, 3. A slap with open hand. *
Isarili, 3. Shot; ball. Isasagald. Measles.
Isa/Ba,, v. H Sbrrow.
Jsegk Entrails:
JsendOi. Dizziness.
Isyangu, 5. A hankering after meat.
Isydled, 3. Crumbs of tobacco left in the pipe after smoking.
IsycHA, 3. Need, care, regard, respect.
Isyimda, 3. Dwarf.
Isyinga, 3. Deer-net.
Isyuka. A wife lent to a guest.
IsvMi/rdia, v. n. Praise. Zsyusya, 3, "Wadding (for [ gun).
Isyangala, 3. Window. Isydngd, 3. Pain of parturition.
Ita, 3. Bundle:
Italtvili, 3 ex. tahilia. Testimony (mostly plural), narra-1 tive, or things narrateid. Itataihirila, v. n. Trembling. Itanda, 3. Mangrove tree. Itambe, 3. Paw.
Itemisa- v. n. Temptation. Itenla, v. n. Cutting, harvest. Itia, v. n. Fear.


22
MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
Itita, 3. Scratch (with finger); pimples.
Itmibmrimbia, v. n. Stagger-ing.
Itornba, v. n. The removing.
Itanda, v. n. Love.
lima (swalca yire tua). The knife is sharp; edge (of tool).
Itw, 3. Joke, fun.
Itula (iremi zi re tula). The axe is not sharp.
Itutu. Palm-wine.
ItunUa, v. n. Shortening.
Ivan, 3; pi. amp. Bough, limb, branch.
Ivakwa. Scales, crumbs.
Ivanga, 3 ; pi. amp'. Law.
Ivam/0, 3. Reins.
Iva/rdi, 3 ; pi. amp'. A place where a canoe is made.
Ida/Ba, 3; pi. amp. Wing.
Ivazya, 3; pi. amp. Twins (mostly pi.)
Ivaka, 3, amp'. A knot in tree or board.
Ive. Wine.
Iveniba, 3, amp. Hole (in ground); big pit, or little.
Ivela, pi. amp* 3. White plain cotton cloth; bafts.
Ivenda, pi. amp'. Greatness, government, glory, rule.
IvevenU, 3, amp'. Thigh.
IvengvnZo; pi. amp?. Place of waiting.
Ivenge, 3, amp'. Corner of cloth.
Ivenga, 3; pi. amp'. Tune and song.
Ivenli, 3; pi. amp'. Lat; mammary gland.
Iviri, 3. Shade; Shadow (not of a person).
Ivvmbize. Kind of ants.
IvokMo, pi. amp gj ex. poka. A place that may be waded; a ford.
Ivombo, 3, amp. Boil.
Ivoma, 3, a/mpoffia. Men of the same age; generation.
Iftogo, 3, amp. Hole through anything.
Ivuva, 3, amp. Knee.
Ivuva, 3. Jealousy.
IvugMo, 3, amp. Anchorage.
Ivugiza. Stingily.
Ivunli. Froth, scum.
.Iwa/nJA, 3. Young man.
Iwaga, 3. Mourning ; wailing (for dead).
Iwald, 3; pi. ami. Bamboo swamp.
Iwara, 3, a/mb. Pair; suit of clothes.
Iw&nle, 3, a/mb. Breast, teat.
Iwola, 3, a/mb. A stroke ; a charge of powder or shot.
Iuaombi, v. n. Obscurely.
Iwomi, 3, amb. A blister.
Iwongo, 3. Bottom.
Iwugu, 3, amb. Cheek.
Iwv/ru, 3. A place of dry soft sand.
Iwuffm, 3. Belly, womb, etc.
Iyela, 3. A dirt-heap.
Iyeye, 3. Cramp; sleep (of a limb).
Iya/rMo, 3. Foot-stool; a place often trod upon.
Iyingirdio, 3; ex. jinginla. An entrance wav.
Iyitmbwnlo, 3. Hiding-place, secret.
Izanga, 3. A place for a house; and the vacant place after a house has been removed.
Isauzam, 3 and a. Brackish-ness, sour.


MPOHGWE
Izydg&, 3. Dncl^
Izungaka/nlo, 3. Chain.
Izyunga, 3. A noose ; slipknot.
Izyali, 3. Virgin.
Izyambunlo, 3. Hiding-place for a person.
Izyeva,Z; pi. azy. Play.
Izyigo, 3. A tree and its fruit; a purple plum.
J.
Ja, conj. If.
Jaga, v. t. Plaster a crack.
JagiMa, v. i. To awake.
Jagv/nla, v. i. Creep.
fagiayagia, v. i. To be spread abroad- (as news, fame).
Jajangwe, ad. Soon, presently ; by and by.
Jdka, v. i. Hitch; be caught; become entangled.
Jdkiza, v. t. To cause to be caught.
Jamba, v. t. Cauterize, corrode.
Jcmibiza, v. t.* To cause to corrode.
Jambv/nUa, v. t. Overflow as a flood.
JarTivnla, v. i. More to lee side of boat.
Janga, v. t. Singe.
JanLia, v. t. Spread (as a cloth) in sun.
Janja, v. t. Work, perform, do.
Janjirda, v. t. Work for; serve.
Janla, v. t. Beget; bring forth ; bear (fruit).
Jangimlia, v. t. Melt.
JangMia. v. i. Float.
DICTION AB Y. 23
Ja/ra, v. t. Tread upon; trample.
Ja/nua, v. t. Be split.
Ja/rmda, v. t. Split.
Jasa, v. i. Be tried, weary.
Jasiza, v. t. Tire, weary.
Jao, ad. Yesterday.
Jazya, y. t. To sneeze. '
Javit/ra, v. i. and a. Be or become light; not heavy.
Javuria, v. t. Lighten; assist; make light of.
Jaza, y. i. Sneeze.
Jaga and Ja, conj. If.
{Ja becomcs^d when it precedes a vowel with which it coalesces).
Jdgd,Y. t. Hear; feel.
Jdgd, v. i. Be sick.
Jdgiza, v. t. To cause sickness.
Jaginlo, v. t. Obey; rel. conj. of-jag a.
Jaga, v. i. Swim. Oyagisyi, swimmer.
Jala, v. i. Hard; strong; tough, etc.
JaUAza, v. t. Harden; strengthen ; toughen, etc.
Jalinla, v. t. To resist any one.
J&mbunla, v. t. Sweep.
Jambua, v. i. and a. Be bright; shine.
JAmbunUa, v. t. Make bright.
Jd/nibuiza, v. t. Brighten.
Ja/nga,\. t. Nurse; cause to suck, or give to drink.
JdMla, v. i. and v. t. Laugh; laugh at, etc.
Jd/nli, ad. Day before yesterday.
Jmoa, v. i. Rest.
Jdwunlq, v. i. Pant.
Jega,v..i. Blossom. *


24
MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
Jega, v. t. Get; obtain money or trust.
Jegvnla, v. t. Trust.
Jegeria, v. t. Stir up.
Jegeria, v. i. Dance; wriggle; shake hips in dancing.
Jeka, y. i. Slacken; abate (as wind).
Jekiza, v. t. Slacken (as a rope).
Jekanla, y. t. Mingle blood of tribes in making treaty.
Jeka, v. t. With njelca, to make a treaty covenant.
Jela, v. i. Be in distress; difficulty.
Jelisa, v. t. Distress; punish.
Jemba, v. t. Sing.
Je/rfta, v. t. Awake a person, but the person (enangun) awakes.
Jemiza, v. t. Awake; to send, a second; to awake, a third person.
Jenja, v. i. Dawn.
Jenjiza, v. t. Cause to dawn; enlighten.
Jerda, v. t. See.
Jenin, v. t., with ntydnU. Be ashamed.
Jerda, with yandi. Be envious at.
Jerdarda, v. i. See each other.
Jenliza, v. t. Cause to see.
Jenla, with ekeva, Pity.
Jeaya, v. t. or v. i. To cast, as a wave a boat; go to leeward.
Jezya, v. i.: Lean; incline.
Jezya, v. t. Wag the head; deride.
Jigeria, v. t. Add firewood.
JekeUa, v. t. Judge persons. (See Terdizoi).
Jengeria, v. t. Wait for.
Jerua, v. i. To turn aside out of the road.
Jiga, v. t. Choke.
Jiga, v. t. Inherit.
Jua, v. i. Decline, as day.
JUanganla, y, i. Be or become black; dark.
Jilanga/nUa, v. t. Blacken; darken.
Jila, v. i. Incline to one side (as a boat) ; tip ; overturn.
Jilisya, v. t. To destroy.
Jilinlo, v. t. Dream.
Jilirdo, v. t. (Nyilinlti). To dream a dream.
Jmda, v. Fellowship.
Jindanla, v. Be good friends, with Miji/nda/nlia rdi kadie.
Jinga, v. t. Cure; heal (any disease).
Jingi/rda, v. i. Enter; go; come in.
JingmUa, v. t. Cause to enter.
Jmla, v. i. Dance.
Jira, v. t. Pour out; set a person on shore ; land.
Jvrinla, v. i. Spill; be poured out.
Jiva, v. t. Pick (fruit); punch fruit with pole.
Ji/Bira, v. t. Be willing; reply ; believe.
Joba. To take back a gift.
Jogolia,y. t. Disregard; slight; mock.
Jokwa, v. i. Hub skin off ones self.
Jokunla, v. t. To be torn?
Jola, v. t. Make thread of the fiber of pine-apple leaf by scraping.
Jorriba,, v. t. Marry.
Jomba/rda, v. i. Marry each other ; intermarry.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
25
JonUl, v. t. Be or become dry; wither.
JoManla, v. Quarrel.
Jonga, v. t. Join; unite.
Jongimlia, N. t. Remember.
Jongunla,,, v. t. Wish for; long; Inst for.
Jonla,. v. t. Kill; cost; be worth.
Jonlia,'v. t. Fill.
Jorili'a, v. i. Fill.
Jora, v, i. Be satisfied with food; filled.
Jorisa, v. t. Satiate; fill; satisfy with food.
Jova, v. t. Bail (canoe or boat).
Jovnrda, v. t. Wash a thing, or part of ones person.
Janga, v. t. Drunk, suck, smoke.
Jowa, v. 1.1 Iteh.
Jufa, v. t. Steal.
Jugumia, v. i. Brood (on
eggs). r
Jumbvmla, t. t. Hide ; conceal (a thing).
Junlo, v. t. Be bereaved; left desolate.
Juwinlo, rel. conj. But, always, contradicted.
Jurunla, v. t. Draw water, or rum from cask.
Juwa v. i. Die.
Juwayuvia, v. i. As vessels,
K.
Kaga, v. i. Sour; spoil (as food).
Kadie, 1. Man, person, anybody.
KagvMa, v. i. Stutter, stammer.
Kdka, a. Dry, low (tide).
Kaikiza, v. t. "Ward off (a blow).
Kakwa, v. i. Fall.
Kakurdia., v. t. To cause' to fall.
Kalua, v. i. Change.
Kahmlia, v. t. Change.
Kalangmilo, v. t. To tie [Ikalanganlo), on rafters of house.
Kamba, v. t. Speak, talk.
Kambirda, v. t. Speak to, and'for; pray to.
Kami/rda, v. i. Become dry.
Kanda, a. | Sour.
Ka/njv/rda, v. t. Strain ; skim ; sift out..
Kanga, v. t. Fry, parch.
Kcmgcmla, v. i. Walk about; frequent a place.
Ka/rda, v. t. Before, advocate, defend, favor.
Kanla, v. t. To relate {sin-kardo); legends.
Kao, conj. Except.
Ka^pa, v. t. Threaten.
Kapa, 1. (See boli kapa). A board.
Kapa, 1. Cloth worn on shoulders.
Kaurda, v. t. (kawvznla). Change, alter.
Kmalia, v. t. Roll.
Kawa, v. i. Fade.
(with poro), correl. of vonde. Much, more.
Ka, aux. v. Can; be; sign of pot, mood.
Kaga. Launch out, or into the water; push.
Kdgara, v, i. Snore.
Kagwa, v. i. .Go out. ,
Kagunlia, v, t. Bring; put; cast out; utter.


26
MJPONGWE
JHCTIONARY.
KdkalA, v. JDef. verb. Be pleased ; please ; I beg you. PI. laikatounli; kahala g'ompende, gw Anyanibie.
KaZa, v. i. To be settled just right.
Kala,, v. t. Beget or bear a child in ones own likeness.
Kdlanla, v. To resemble.
Kamba,, v. t. Paraboliza
Kamba, v. t. and i. Scrape; walk to and fro.
Kd/mbiza, v. t. Follow, chase, persecute.
Kdftiinla, v. t. Drive (a nail); ram.
I KAndA,* to allow; in
TZAnjJn it t J the Phrase k&nd'
-H-u /bUsU.) v. i. osaka or osyaka, to / buy a slave.
Kanga/nde, conj. Because.
Kdnderde, conj. Because.
Ka/nde, conj. Because.
Kamle, 1, with rdi. Continual. (See Idioms).
Kdnle, conj. If, though.
Kdngwa, v. i. To continue to the end. Kdngwa nV Kdnla, v. i. Cough.
Kanlakd, v. n. To the end.
Kdta, v. t. Question, catechise.
Kate, 1. Question.
Kam, 1. Back of the head.
Kama, v. t. To glory over; hector.
Kama, v. t. (kawia). Do work handsomely.
Kazagdza, v. i. To make noise against the side of a house.
KeTta, v. i. Be ready ; contain ; hold; snfflce,
Kekiza, v. t. Make ready; prepare.
Kegwa, v. i. To turn round ones self.
Kegvmlia, v. t. Turn (Luke vi. 29).
Kela, v. i. To spoil (as old cassada roots by turning to wood).i |
Kelirna, v. t. To act contrary ; disregard.
Kemba, v. t.; Paint.
Kembq, v. Ache.
Kendekende, ad. Quiet, mild.
Kenya, v. t. Lay up; collected together; to arrange.
Kenja, v. i. To be near setting (of sun).
Ker'a, v. t. Divide, distribute.
Keriza. To give others chop; food, etc.
Keta, v. t. Cool; cold ; become cold; become stiff and painful.
Keva, v. t. Conquer, surpass, excel.
Ke, ad. Too, also.
KegeruKa, v. t. Tickle.
Kegera, v. t. Nibble, gnaw, grate, creak.
Kela, v. t. Mince, hash.
Kelagela, v. t. Examine, search.
Kelekele, a. Hanging by one end, or side.
KUina, v. t. Cut in straight' lines, or square pieces.
Kenda, v. i. Go.
Kendia, v. t. To lead.
Kendiza, v. t. To cause to go ; drive; impel.
KenUza. Measure, try.
Kendele, v. t. Decanter.
Kegera, n. Insect that bores holes.
Kengele, ad.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
27
Kenl/ia, v. t, To -exclaim Eh! at a person.
Kenla, v. t. Resist'; advantages.
Kera, v. t. Circumcise. j Kid, ad. Entirely: clear (used with Magunla, to break). Kiln {akeiiga).. Give a look of contempt.
Kila, v: tj.-- Anoint head of thing, but not body; smear; daub ; iron clothes; rub. Kinda, v. i. Arrive. *
Kirua, v. i. To excel all former doing; condition; custom..
Kiyaniba, 1> Green parrot. Kwanga, ad. and prep. Be-. fore; until; up to.
Koga, v. i. Crow, gape. Kogirda, v. t. -Snuff.
Kogova, v. t. To speak a foreign language imperfectly. > Kola, v. t. Buy, sell.
Komba, v. t. Fence.
Komba, v. t. Dodge. Kombinla, v. t. Hem ; surround ; flow round, as a river.
In the phrase, c janja k&ndani when a slave works for a third person and his master takes hi-i wages.
Kongo,, 1; pi. Ikonga, A reed. See Ogonga. Kora, v. t. Tie up into a bundle. .
Korowa, 1. A crown.
Kota, v. t. Catch.
Kotiza, v. t. Understand. Kova, v. t.. Get.
Kova, v. Use. illustration;
make a supposition.
Kosa, v. t. To rub against one.
Kubu, ad. At anchor.
Kubunla, v. t. Dip up (as water).
Kuga, v. i. Deprived ;. or friends bereaved; difficulty; distress, etc.
Kylembenli, 1 (Nkulenibenli). Mangrove-seed.
Kufrianla, v. i. Stand up.
Kumba, v. L To carry a load of something.
Kufftinfia, v. t. Collect; gather together.
Kufrianla, v. i. Rise up;
stand up. ...
f Straighten ; lift
Kufrtimlia, v. t. ] Ma£e0Jawint;
( e.g., a road.
Kumba, v. t. Carry on back;-shoulder.
Kumba, 1. Dam (across a water-course).
Kumhisa, v. Keep oft" (nautical).
Kund'e, 1. Remainder, when part has been paid (in trade).
Kunda, v< t. Add; increase ; give more.
Kunda, v. t. To avenge.
Kungula, v. i. (irowl;. roar; rumble (as tiger, Ran, etc.); distant thunder.
Kundinla, v. t. Heap up; preserve.
Kwria, v. t. As ones racing, horse.
Kutye, 1. Pay we, fetish.
Kwa, v. i. Fall.
Kwa, v. i. Faint.
Kwa, v. t. To reap; cut plantations.
Kwandammla, v. i. Pounce.
Kwada, v. t. To snap a gun.
Kwomga. Event up to a given time or place.
K&ndanli.
Kdndani.


28
HPCWGWE imctionakt.
Kvianle, 1 (Uhwanle). Wild hen, or grouse.
Kwerda, v. i. Embark ; to go into.
Kwenla, (inkala). Get upon the knees; beg; implore.
Kwe, ad. Little. (Suffixed to adjectives, it forms comparatives).
Kwekwe, ad. Enough; prop-erly.
Kujera, v. t. Gut a gash in anything; bleed.
Kwsra, v. t. Rob; plunder.
Kweza, v. t. Cause to fall offend.
Kwezanganla, v. i. Agree.
Kwe^adungu. To cause quarreling.
Kwera, v. i. Wink (with the
eye);^
JSwevi/mo, ad. Afterward; soon; immediately.
M.
Mama, v. i. Be amazed; wonder.
Mande, int. pro. Who.
Mania, v. i. Be completed; finished.
Mango, 1. Swiftness; running (with nli).
Manja, 1. The relationship of the same husband of the head wife to the other wives.
Manga, 1. Manatus, sea-cow.
Ma/nga, 1. Treaty made by mixing blood.
Manji, 1. Maid.
Maheta, 1. Ginger.
Maga, v. t. Slander; belittle; backbite.
Maga, v. t:{ertmgu). Whisper.
Magwa, v. L Break (as a Stick, pole, etc.)"'
Magunla, v. t. Break.
Mdnai or Mongi, 1. People.
Mania, 1. Large yam.
Mdndi, 1. Large black monkey.
Mari, num. a. One.
Mdri, a. pron. Other.
Mia, 1. Corn: maize.
Mbadi, 1. Squirrel.
Mbalo, 1. A relative on the mothers side.
Mbafiie, 1. Forehead; skull.
M bcvnibi, 1. Gourd.
Mba/mba, 1. Great grandchild ; niece; nephew; child of a slave.
Mbamba, 1. Genealogy; generation.
Mbanli, num. ad. Two.
Mbao. Violence.
Mbato, 1. Miser; stingy person of money.
Mbata, 1. Stool.
Mbanli, 1. Day after to-morrow.
Mbawasya, 1. A wart.
Mbdgd, 1. Fishing-ground.
Mbau, 1 (mbdfiu). Pus, the collect in the corner of the eye.
MbdnginU, 1, banga. Manner of taking.
Mba/ngmlo, 1, banga. Manner of being taken.
M bela, 1, in phrase (jvoelia Tcadie mbela), when k is at, ad is tune.
Mbe, conj. Or. Mbb,-~-mbe whetheror.
Mbe, a. Bad; ugly; disagreeable.
M beli. War expedition ; army.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
29
Mbeleke, 1, and a. Discord ;
quarrelsome.
Mbenda, 1. Ground nut; peanut.
Mbei. Piece;, part.
M. ben'jo, 1. Thwart (of boat: or canoe).
M bevZe, 1. Spring; fountain. Mbezyo, a. Raw ; uncooked ; i i green/; ; n<5fJdry.
M b&fnii1 In the right.
Mbel/i, 1. Army ;-host. Mb'ere, 1. Herring (fish). MbMe.,i\. Level; -fiat.
Mbia,a. Good; pretty ^agreeable. .
MbimrJAe, ad. Well; satisfactory.
Mbia go, v. i. Belch.
Mimoi, 1. Satiety. .
Mbiba, 1. Palm-nut. Mbinde, 1. Wild goat. Mbi/nda. Menses.
Mbinla,, 1. Louse.
M bipa, 1. Stripe; welt (from whipping), j Mbinji, 1. Wild dosr; jackal. Mbow. Dog.
Mbogo, 1. Mouthful.
Mboko, 1. Squirrel.
Mboni, 1, iribonli. Goat. Mbora, 1. Place,
Mbolo, a. Old ; applied only to persons and animals. '
M bolo, pi. mboloanU, i. v. The word wf salutation. Mbongwe, 1. Yam.
Mbonga, 1. Bribe-.
MbufOu, 1. Egg-plant; tomato.
Mbumba, 1, Rainbow. Mbungu, X. Toothache, i Mbunlinli, ;1; bunla. Abundance.
Mbwegezi, 1. Turtle.
Mbundaki, 1. Carelessness; wastefulness.
Mbute, 1. Bottle.
Mbuve, 1. A tribe.
Mbuzya. Eish-net.
M bwetli, 1. Captive ; prisoner.
M.etvda, I, Hatchet.
Menga, 1. Pigeon.
Meza, v. t. Dash (water) down or upon.
Mezme, a. Left-handed.
I. Hom.
That same ; emphatic. Suffixed to pronouns, self to adjective forms the superlative degree ; prefixed to adjective-pronouns, that very same.
Mega, v. i. Doze; nod ; slumber.
Mekelia, v. t. Accede; agree.
'Mfyn-de, a. Flexible; elastic.
Menle, -ad. To-morrow.
M&rfia, v. t. Confess; acknowledge.
Mena, v. t. Become accustomed to a place or thing.
MenUza, v. t. Fihish; complete; end.
Meng1 aulangA, 1. Wild
. pigeon.
Mema, v. t. Swallow.
Mengele, 1. Water-snail; screw.
Me-pa, v. i. Be or become good; pretty; pleasing.
Mfrpia, v. t. Make good; pretty; sanctify.
Mepanla, v. i. Be good for each other ; fit; suit.
Me/oanlA, ad. There.
Mi, pers. pron., 1st sin. Mie, I.
Mia, v. t. Know.
Mia, a. What number; how many.
Mieza, pro. To make known.


x>;
30
MPONGWE
DICTIONARY.
Mienli, 1. Manner of knowing ; knowledge.
Minla, v. t. To not answer.
Mo, a. One; the same.
Monda, 1. Amulet; charm; fetish.
Monda, 1. Plan for doing anything.
Mondo, 1. Snare; trap.
Manga y' atanga. Sweet-potato.
y Mpago, 1. Tribute; custom; duties on goods.
Mpaga, 1. Doubt, with dova.
Mpandinlo, 1. Ladder; stairs.
Mpanlo, 1. Adze.
Mpardi, 1. Fashion ; custom; action; deed.
Mpanga, 1. Spur.
Mpanga, 1. Yoke.
Mpangirdi, 1. Manner of doing; character; nature.
Mpava, 1. Whip; stick for whipping.
Mpanda, 1. Hoof.
Mpanga, 1. Joint.
Mpanga, 1. Thing; matter; affair ; difficulty.
Mpanla, 1. Road ; path; way.
Mpawgd, y soon. Something being spoken.
Mpaga, 1. Lock.
Mpa, mpa mo, ad. Together.
Mpe, a. Short.
Mpeniba, 1. Chalk, flour, bread.
Mpenju, 1. Cockroach.
Mpenli. A gift.
Mpendinli, 1. Size, greatness.
Mpezyu, 1. A burnt place ; house; farm, etc.
Mpela; 1, Blemish.
Mpesyimla. Manner of* weighing.
Mpi/ra, 1. The second plantain of a field. The first is Okengo.
Mpi/ra, 1. Gunpowder, shoot, pot-black.
Mpira yi tendinla. Ink.
Mpiri, 1. Darkness.
Mpio, 1. Hotness, heat.
Mpivimla, 1. Thought.
Mpo, adv. Afloat; moving on the'ground in water.
Mpoge, a. Deaf.
Mpogo, 1. Mouse.
Mpolo, a. Large.
Mponja, a. Solid; not hollow.
Mponde, 1. The wild fig-tree of several species.
Mpongwe, 1. Wisdom, precocity.
Mpongwe, 1. Tribe of people, and language.
Mpofna, 1. A head-tide.
Mpovo, 1. A fish-spear.
Mpwnji, 1. Tusk of ivory weighing above twenty pounds; ivory.
Mpjundu, 1. Billet of wood (as ebony, red-wood, firewood).
Mpungu, 1. Palaver.
Zuzyu, a. (ompuzyu). "Wide. zimla, v. t. Crumble; shell off (as corn).
Mw&ra, v. t. Scratch.
Mwetinla, v. t. Motion to; wink at; nudge; jog.
N.
Nago, 1. House.
Nlai, number, ad. Four.
Ndka, v. t. Care; want; care for.
Nwmha, v. t. Cook (by boil-ing)-


MPONGWE
DICTION AR Y.
31
Nani a, v. ii Lie down.
Nani aAtydftMd, v. t. Sleep.
Nanda, 1. Milo. I
Nanlo, 1. Spittle, drive.
Na/nga, 1. Dirt, dirty.
Na/nga, 1. Dry season of January and February. 1
Ndga, v. i. Rain.
Ndgiza, v. t; ; Cause to rain.
Ndganla, v. i. Pass by.
Nd/nld, ad. So.
Nantye, 1. Room (in a house).
Ndzya, v. t.1 Pass, hand.
Ndsinla, v. t. Pass, hand to.,
NdngwcC, v4f, To- arise.
Nangunlia. To cause to arise.
Nda, a. Long, tall.
Ndago. A fragrant medicinal plant.
Ndaga, 1. Thing.
Ndagvrda, 1. Desire.
Ndatizo, 1. Seam in a garment.
Nddko, 1. Brother ; cousin; relative-too near to marry.
Ndavwdi, 1. Length, distance.
Nda, compound ex. j nli, d, prep, and pron. by the, after pass. verb.
Ndego, 1. Friend.
Ndare. Hold here ; hand here.
Nde, compound ex. nle ye or e prep, and pron., by him, after pass. verb.
Ndele, a. Soft, weak.
Ndege, 1. Division ; knot or ioint'of plantains, etc.
NdeM, 1. Deck of ship; story of house ; floor of planks.
Ndigo, 1. Date tree and fruit.
Ndo, conj. But. I
Ndoanlinli, 1. Being, existence, living.
Ndova, H Enemy (mie).
Ndolo, 1. : Scar.
Ndondui, a. High.
Ndondo, 1. Albmo.
Ndua, 1. The month after > child-birth.
Ndumbaga, 1. Sudden fear; fright.
Negwa, v. t. Beg.
Nega, v. i. To haste.
Nega/nega, ad. Soon; quickly; in a hurry.
Negiza, v. t. Hasten.
Neffia, v.. t.- "Weed; .cut off or up by roots, weeds, grass, etc.
Nemba,Y. t. Coax; entice ; allure; wheedle; flatter in order to obtain a favor.
NemenUa, v. i. I.imp; be lame ; make lame.
NengenUd, v. t.' Show ; point out.
Nenga, v. t. Learn.
Nenja, v. t. Teach. .
Nenge, 1. Island.
N&ra, v. t. Lick.
Ngdka, 1. Ant-nest; mushroom-shaped ; earth-made. yandi. Envy, covetousness.
Nganli, a. Anothers; not-ones own. yando, 1. An assembly of people.
ycznribi, 1. Harp of many string.
Nad, int. Indeed? ah !
Ngdla, 1. Whirlpool.
Ngdld/ngdld, ad. with ponla. Intently.
Ngawe, 1. ; Captain (of a vessel).
Ngdvja. Hook.
Ngdnlej 1. Hoarseness, huski-ness.


32
MPONGWE DICTIONA'KT.
Ngai, 1. A piece of cloth for wearing.
Ngai-koti), 1. Coat.
Ngai-y'okanda, 1. Pants.
Ngai sydtu, 1. Shirt.
Ngdndd, 1. Gourd.
Ngdri, 1. .Nape of the neck.
Ngdve-dosyi, 1. Snuff-box. j
Ngeva, a. Bow-legged.
Ngo, 1. Mamma.
Ngosyu, a. Obstinate ; cruel, (opposite of ikesyiy
Ngozyo, L Parrot.
Ngoa, 1. Hog.
Ngunge, 1. Owl.
Ngv/tia, 1. Porpoise.
Nav/wa, 1. Shield.
Ngubu, 1. Strength, power, ability.
Nguwu, 1. Hippopotamus.
Ngwa, a. Shut; not open ; closed.
Ngwangndndd, 1 Trumpet-bird.
Ngwasyi, ad. Fast (in the hand).
NgwanydnM, 1. Eagle.
Naw'dgdi, 1. Wifes mother.
Ngwe, 1. Mother.
Ngwesyirriba, 1. Sensitive-plant.
Ngwbityontyo, 1. Hop, hopping.
Niga, v. t. Abuse, curse.
Nige-nkondi. Repent, regret.
Nirriba, v. t. Hide; conceal; keep secret.
NiMa, v. t. Extinguish (a candle).
Niffiinla, v. t. Refuse to give.
NiMiarda, v. t., rel. conj. of nifrdnlq.
Ni/mha/nla, v. i. Be hid.
Ni/nia, v. i. Dive, sink-.
Ni/ndiai, v. i. To start 5 jump with fright.
Ningo, 1. Rain.
Nifaj a. Strong; fiery (like pepper) ; proof rum, etc. NvSa, v. t. Own.
Njalie, 1. First-born.
Njalie, 1. Post- supporting the ridge-pole in a house. Njali, 1. Gun.
Njali-tova. Thunder. Nja/nla, 1. Hunger.
Njanlo, 1. Birth.
Njasyinli, 1, Weariness. Nja/w. Leaf of a tree, i NjaiBe; 1. Fruit (wild, whose seed yield oil for food); Njajd/nM, 1. Fowl, chicken. Njagu, 1. Elephant.
Njdla, 1. Fiddle-string. Njdlibe, 1. A kind of snake which lives in salt water. Nja/mbwe, a. Bright, shining. Njegd, 1. Leopard.
Njeka, 1. A covenant. Njenge, 1. Ant.
Njemo, 1. Yiew, prospect. Njbrribe, 1. Female secret society.
Njegelu, 1. Chin; lower-jaw. Njeve, 1. Ripe plantain. Njelertgele, a. Glistering, as sun.
Njele, 1. Knife-blade.
Njiko, 1. A kind of bird which lives in river^. Nji/rila, 1. A monster monkey, larger than a man. Njvwo. A kind of musk-deer. Njuhe, 1. Trouble; vexation. Njuwmli, 1, ex.jwwa. Manner of dying; death. Nkaga, 1. Armadillo. Nkambi, I; A deer.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
53
Nhago, 1. A Mud of monkey.
NkambinU, !. Manner- of speaking; dialeet; language.
JVkala, 1. Town ; a coffin.
N hazy a, 1. Pain. -
JS'lcafha, 1. Hundred, ft
Nkazyo, 1. Scale (of fish).
Mhanli, 1. Sickness.
Nhanda, 1 (with nli). .(Purposely.
NTcangOf 1. Fragrance ; perfume.
JVkavala, 1. Horse.
Nkavi, 1. Paddle; oar.
Nkambi, 1 (pi. Iha/nibi). A kind of deer.
Nhardo, 1. A legend; story.
Nhagdzyd, 1. Elbow.
Nhagu. Cane; staff.
JSfkande, 1. Perseverance ; continual exercise.
Nkdnda, 1. Company of persons traveling. .
Nkcmg&rda, 1. Millipede. *
Nkdngdnla, 1. Windpipe.
ATkdnja, 1. Bat.
Nhdnjb, 1, Shark.
Wkala, 1. A kind of shell.
Wkdla, 1. Clock ; Watch.
JYhdld, 1. Petition ; desire ; prayer. .
Nkdmbd, It A spiked panicle, like wheat. .
jfkdMi, 1. Seaward ; southward.,
Nk&nqe, 1. Concubine; anothers wife kept.
JVkerdd, 1. Wise; sober; thoughtful; wide awake.
Nkei, a. Cold; dam,p.
y kele. 1. Barren female^ land.
NkegwMi, 1, ex.kcgwa. Turning ; manner of turning.
1Viceva, 1. Gum; copal.
Nkmja,: 1. Gizzard.
Nfceli, 1. ; A skull.
Nkegere, 44. Any creaking sound, as rudder, etc.
Nkende, -1., Fool; raca (Mitt't. v. 22).
Nkegenli, 1. Spark (of fire).
Nkeffia, 1. Monkey.
NkeMa-yimpWida, 1. Large, black monkey.
NkiMtia-yinAd/Ba. Large, yellow monkey.
Wkema-y osyoke, 1. White-
nosed monkey.
Wkerribd, 1. A suit of fine clothes.
JSTkembe, 1. A cat-fish.
N'Jcmga, 1. Kindness.
JVkenjo, 1. Dwarf.
Wkere. Nice; dean ; particular; pure; holy.
Whilinga, 1. very small monkey.
Nkima, 1. Boiled plantains mashed.
Wkizyi, 1. Fragment; small piece of anything.
Nkirula, 1. Departed spirit,
i.g., Onyambe and Ibambo.
Nhinji, 1. Oollection.
Nhoga, 1.; Orown-bird.
Nkogo, 1. Supposition ; illustration ; figure of speech; proverb; law.
JYholo, 1. Evening ; P.M.; near sun-set.
Nkonla, 1. Of one age j a contemporary.
Nka/mbd (pi. Ikambd), 1. -A cross-street.
NkofUa, 1, with doanla. To be angry with one another.
Nkombu, 1. Sun; calico ; cloth.


34
MPONGWE
DICTIONARY.
Nkomberdongo, 1. Raven.
Nhrmbe-nyondo, 1. Noon ; twelve oclock.
Nkombetenliarenlia. Two-headed snake.
Nkonde, 1. Head-wife.
Nkogora, 1. Whip-snake.
Nkondi, 1, in phrase rdige nleondi (f osaun. .Repent of a thing.
Nkonga, L Copper; chiefly, copper-rod.
Nkongo, 1. Cat-fish.
Nkoro, 1. Centipede.
NkoSa, 1. Direction ; course.
Novo, 1. Scab; an eye-lid.
Nkvla, 1. A round nut; knob.
Nkuvia, 1. Shell
N kumba, 1. Dana.
I A dam to keep off wa-
j,T7 7 i ter from a fish-hole
jy/cumba. 1. -s while a woman bales J it and catches the ( fish.
Nkumba, 1. Company (of persons); a party of persons.
Nkuniu, 1. Sea-turtle.
Nkundu, 1. Fetish-house.
Nkuvu, 1. Large mat made of flags.
Nkwdta, 1. Carelessness,wastefulness. Plenty, abundance of food (yasinya).
Nkwere, 1. Grating of teeth ; ex. nkwegere.
Nla, conj. and prep. And, with, by, etc., used with sab. verb. pas. and neg., viz: an doanla azyele, etc., and denotes possession.
Nle, prep. By; used with the passive voice of verbs.
Nla, conj. Neither, nor.
NVenla, ad. To-day.
Nlengenlenae, ad. Midnight.
NU, prep. W ith, denoting ac-
companiment. Before words beginning with r and w it changes to nla.
N lo'ffie, a. (onlofrie). Male.
Noa, v. t. Fight, war.
Noarda, v. t. Wear (clothes).
Noana, v. t. To owe.
Noga, v. t. Build (house).
Noginla, v. t. Net, braid, plat.
Noka, v. t. Lie, deceive.
Nokmla, v. t. Lie to, or for, a person; deceive.
Nofha, v. t. Bite, sting.
Nomba, 1. Hill, mountain.
Nonga, a. First.
Nome, a. Bitter.
Nonda, 1. Flower (general name).
Nongo, 1. A very thorny tree, leaves like the butternut.
Nangwa, v. i. Arise, awake.
Nangunlia, v. t. Lift up; straighten up.
Nta, ad. As.
Nta/mhi, 1. Property; riches; goods of all kind.
Ntango, 1. Number.
Nta/ua/nga. Early morning.
Ntare, i. e. nte a/re. As it is.
Ntari, 1. Witness.
Ntaga. The same.
Ntango, 1. Number, account.
Nta/ndi, or ntdndi, 1. A lover (ntandi yanliva).
Ntandi/nla, or ntdndinla, 1. Will, pleasure.
Ntasen, 1. Thousand (English).
Nte, ad. As, like.
Ntevo, ad. Empty, only) solely, desolate.
Ntewe, 1. Rafter made of a bamboo.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
35
Nti/nla,.^,., Butt-end; cause, reason, purpose.
Nti/rribi, 1. Plank, board.
Ntomha,\. Sand-bar, shallow.
Ntornbo,!. Needle.
Ntornbo yi Icotjinla;, 1. Pin.
Ntogolo, 1. Pepper (red).
Ntonda, 1. Current of a river, etc.
Ntongo, 1. Stick, drum-stick, cane.
Ntori, 1. Eat.
Ntonlo, 1. Breast;, bosom of person, or garment.
Ntuenli, 1. A sharp edge.
Ntugu, 1. Hip.
Ntulungu, 1. Comer, angle.
Ntuffia, 1. Pork-(for eat-
ing);
Ntumbu, 1. Heel.
Ntumba, 1. Contention, fighting.
Ntuazange, ad. Peradventure.
Ntunlu, 1. "Whole, entire. O'wenja wantwntu, whole day. Phrase, Anycmbie a stye nVomawa/ntv/ntu : God is no respecter of persons.
Ntyaga, 1. Garden, farm.
Ntyambi, 1. Harp- of five strings.
Ntyanga, 1. A flag, ensign.
Ntyango, 1. News.
Ntycde, 1. Custom, fashion.
Ntyago, 1. Feast.
Ntycmde, 1. Two and half fathoms, cloth.
Ntyavu, 1. Soap.
Ntyava, 1. Yine, hoop.
Ntyangilia. Rapidly and louflly speaking.
Ntyango.' Distance.
Ntycmja, 1. Rain season.
Ntyai, 1. End.
Ntyai nli mbMa. From the beginning to end.
Ntya, conj. Either. Ntydr nt/yd. Either, or.
Ntydge, 1, with Tcwa. Quarrel, palaver.
Ntyd, prep. | Between. Ntydmbd, 1. A loan to be repaid in kind.,
Ntydli, 1.. Small bird. NtyamgaJicmlo, 1. Joint. Ntya/nU, 1, Shame. Ntydngwe, 1. Excuse. Ntya/rnbi, 1. Plum.
NtydMe, 1. Hand.
NtydmM, 1. Marrow. Ntydria. Secretly. Prov. i. 18. Npyeri, 1. Gazelle.
Ntyendd, a.. Awry ; crooked;
out of square.
Ntye, 1. Earth, world, country, land.
Ntyemhd, 1-, Censure, blame.. Ntyenge, 1. Wash-basin, cup, bowl.
Ntyenge, 1. Sand.
Ntyege, 1. Short-tail monkey. Ntyelele, 1. White ant. Ntyere, 1. Kamrod.
Ntyembd, 1. Blame, reproach. Ntyigo, 1. Chimpanzee. NtyiriLa,, 1. Blood.
Ntyinli, 1. House-fly. N^tyutmli-pati, 1. Iron pot. Ntyua-yogo, 1. A native pot. Ntyolombo, 1. Brass kettle. Ntiyolo, 1. Hammer, anvil.^ Ntyovi, 1. Bamboo-nut. Niyonda, 1. Pudenda. Ntyondo, 1. Heart.
Ntryonde, 1. Head of navigation.
Ntyongi. The lead of a lead-; line; a Britannia cup.


MPONGWE
DICTIONARY.
Ntyonjo, 1. Leech.
Ntyozyo, 1. Foot. Nf/yozyo-y'-atanga. Shoe, boot. Ntyogo, 1. Fetter.
NtyOro, 1. Loop.
Ntyange, 1. A play and the board for the game. NtydngA, 1. Nail for fastening and nailing.
Ntyonga, or nbya/nga, 1. Quarter, part of town.
Ntyugu, 1. Day.
Ntyuga, 1. Jug.
Ntyunla, 1. A deer-fly. Ntyuva, 1. Open sea. Ntyunlu, 1. Driver-ant. Ntyumbu, 1. A kind of tree. Ntyume. Large tish.
Nua/ida, v. t. Owe.
Nuga, v. t. Row, paddle. Nugirdia, v. t. To incite. Numbu, 1. Bow of boat, etc.;
boat; canoe.
Numbirdi, 1. Hatred. Nutriba, v. t. Hate.
Nurda, v. i. To smell. Nurdisa, v. t. Cans, of nurtla. Nwnya, v. t. Shut. Nundiifiele, 1. A fragrant herb; mint.
Nunga, v. t. Light (a candle). Nwngu, a. Old (of things). Nungv/nla, v. t. Help, open (a door).
Nungwa, v. t. Be opened. Nungunla, ex. nungurda ir.
Help each other. JVungwanla, (as keys). To open each other.
Nuww/rda, a. Last; ex.
nwnwunla.
Nya, a. (owsnja nya). Day, opening.
Nya, v. t Eat.
Nyalurda. An orphan still an infant, and nursed by another.
Nyango, a. Small.
Nyambie, a. Yain, useless
Nyavali, 1. Arm-pit.
Nyare, 1. Cow, bull (wild or tame).
NyaMa, 1. Wild beast.
Nyatiga, 1. Bust, salt-water.
Nyawe, ad. No. Nyaviege and nyawedu. No, siree.
Nyawenyamoe, 1. Nothing, no.
Nya/nge, 1. White crane.
Nycmto, a. (as nyafha). Female.
Nyasyi, l.' Sneezing. (See jafya).
NyandA, 1. Whale, onion.
Nyarda, 1. New.
Nya/rdi, 1. Bird.
Nydnyua, v. i. To be straight; to be stretched out.
Nydnymda,v.t. To stretch out.
Nyembi, 1. Dancer, singer.
Nyenge, a. Many, plenty.
Nyerme, 1. Brass (metal).
Nye (same as nya), v. t. Eat.
Nyezya, v. t. Feed, pardon.
Nyena, v. t. Gain, profit (by trade).
Nyezya, v. t. Buie; govern; lit., cause to eat.
Nyenya, v. t. Sprinkle, scatter, sow.
Nyenga, v. i. Tremble, quiver.
Nyerde, a. Another.
Nyewd, a. Some.
Nyilo, 1. Anchor.
Nyilirdo, 1. Dream.
Nyi/rvya, v. Urinate.
Nyo'uie, 1. Honey-bee.
Nyongo, 1. Steward (bond or free). .


MFONttWB DrCTKXNAKY.
37
JVj/Snyva. -v* Be st might..
Nycm/yunlia, v. t. Straighten.
JS ytrco, 1. An instrument to bail1 a canoe. '
NyuMa, 1. Baek (of the body).
2fydnge (wydnge), 1. Thread.
Nyor^gd (wyanga), 1. Time;
. as, I saw him three times. *
NydngaMj 1. Noise, racket.
Nyonla (or nydtdd), 1. Ant. .
O.
0, pers. pron. Thou, also; rel. pron:, who.
Oba, 4. Tribute, duty, pay, wages.
Oba, 4 (odikci). Nut-tree.
Obakd, 4. Bamboo-pith basket.
Obalenga, 4. Harlot.
Ob&rinla. Accuser.
Obebi. Sickly person; sickness.
Obo, 7. Iron bar.
Obobobobo, 5.. A coward.
Obota, 4. Female that has produced. ;
Obu, 4. Streak, stripe.
ObuVimgu, 4. Cavern.
Obumbulu, 4. An open.* court with houses on three sides.
Obwe (obue), 4. jj .Light, open, unobstructed.
Oda/ndo, 4 and a. Pride, proud man ; proud.
Odd, 4. Silence.
OdMe, 4. Valley.
OmdewM, 4. Calm.
Odiha, 4. A kind of condiment prepared from a nut.
Odo, 6. .Bed.
OdokeboU, 4.. Striker; vicious person.
Ododo, 4. Scale, balances, steelyards.
Odolongo (used with go). On the under-side; under. Odovalova, 4. Enemy, een-surer.
Odominlia, 4. Beginner (of a thing).
Od'iiMa, 4. Cannon.
Odvma, 4. Snake, i Odusyd, 4. Ignorant-person. Oduern, 4, Contentment.
Of a, 4. Fish-bone. | Ofalifa, 4. Thorny plant;
thistle. -Ofafa, a. Brittle.'
; Qfe, 4. Thief.
Qfevisa. Deteriorator. Ofuru, 4. A small fly; sand-, fly; gnat.
Oga, 5. King; head man of a town.
Ogakigi,4,haJcisa. Defender. Ogalrmganlo, 7. Ite tied on the rafters to support the thatch.
Ogambw<},(). Orator; spokesman, ,
Ogambctgambo, n. Palaver;
dispute; noise.
Oganganlo, 4. Companion;
neighbor. |
Ogcm)i, 4. Vein ; tendon. Ogandii, 7. A wash or bathing-plaee.
Oga/ndaga, 4. Health; healthy person.
Oganla, 7. Statue; idol. Oganga, 5. Doctor; conjuror;
prophet. .
Oganjo, 4. Switch.end of an elephants tail.
Oga/ra, a. Condemned; cast (in a trial). i Ogaza. Juice of-ripe plantains. .


38
MPONG-WE
DICTIONARY.
Ogazagaza. Strong, healthy person.
Ogasyo, 4. Greediness; greedy (of meat or money).
Ogavalm, 4. Ravine. ngj
Ogd, 6. Arm.
Ogd, 6. Handle (of jug). I
Ogdmiba, 7. Path beyond but near a town.
Ogali, 4. Rope; cord ; vine.
Ogdi, 5. Mother, father, brother, or sister-in-law.
Oga/ndd. A row; quarrel.
Ogdndisi, Kanda. Mild word for slave.
Ogings, 7. Eyelash.
Ogdnld, 4. An elephant-trunk. (Onlanld).
Ogdgwo (Kagwa,). A going out.
Ogerribia. Pain. (See Kembd).
Oge ; pi. Sike, 7. A fainting.
Ogemba. Handsome article of dress or furniture.
Ogenge, 4. A pod (of pepper).
Ogengendc, 4. Bad-disposi-tioned person; foolish.
Ogera, 5, a. Lazy.
Ogela, 4. Crack; split.
Ogele,a Stingy; op. Ogvxmde (of food).
Ogenda, 5. Guest; stranger.
OgengiUa, 5. Copper-colored man; white man.
Ogendd, 7. Journey.
Ogendagendo: Journeying; a wanderer.
Ogengenli, 4. Star.
Ogengd, 7. Lower-jaw.
Ogenle, 4. Flea.
Ogege, 4. Plover.
OgiUgili, 4. Truthfulness; justice.
Ogo, 4, ex. Ogovo. A piece or
bolt of cloth, usually 14 or 18 yards.
Ogola, 4. Intestinal worm. Ogu-ola.
Ogolo, 6. Leg.
Ogolongozyo. A cross, thus: x a mans mark.
Ogolo nja (ojgolonja). Astride.
Ogomba, 7. Fence.
Ogomhe, 4. Crbcodile.
Ogonli, 7. Fire and firewood.
Ogombmlo, 4. Hem.
Ogonga, 7. Boil.
Ogonlo, 4. Calling; duty; employment.
Ogwve. 4. Apangwe knife.
Ogowa, 4. Boil; kind of tree.
Ogoro, 4. A band; a chord, etc.
Ogore, 6. Equity; uprightness ; upright. '
Ogozyi. Shouting (of E) at top of voice.
Ogu, 4. A worm; maggot.
Ogu, 4. Sense; gumption ; the mind.
Ogula, 4. Tornado.
Ogula, 4. Tree which bears Nhula nuts.
Ogul/u, 4. Rope ; cable.
Ogv/fna, 4. Cassada.
Ogunle, 4. Eyebrow.
Oguvaguva,6. Blacksmith.-
Ogumia, 4. Mast.
Ogumbmiyonza,, 4. A tree resembling a hazel tree.
Ogumbu, 4. Strap for holding anything on the back; suspender.
Ogwa/nla, 6. Mouth.
Ogwa/nde, 6. Generous ; liberal; op. ogele.
Ogwera, 6. Night.
Ogwera-nlengemenge. Midnight.


MPONGWE DICTIONARY.
39
Ogweli, 6. Moon/
Ogwerc, 4. Sole-fish.
Ogwirinlu, '7. Back-yard.
Ojwnli, 4. Farewell (tiginla ojam>K).
Ojo, 4. A native candle; torch.
Okcmja, 4. A tent (house);
Oka/rda. Advocate, defender.
Okanibi, 4. A speaker in a palaver; preacher.
C Used only in impora-
l tive second per. in
yo7 -i ( starting for some
(JKiCb, Clet. V. -s place, or to in-
I crease the speed
| of a person, v\ no is
I! doing something.
Okao, 4. Boundary, division-line.
Okapo, 4. Leanness.
QJeasongmm, 4. A raw-hido.
Okddu, 4. Weariness, e. g., of sea; of one kind of food.
Okdngdnde. Because (of time long past). /
Okd/ndd, 4. Cotton.
Oka/ngd, 4. Spine.
Okangald, 4. Keel (of boat).
Okeva, 4. Wave.
OkeU, 4. Skill, cunning, sagacity, discretion, carefulness, watchfulness, guard; got okeU, be on your guard against.
Okenja, 4. Green snake.
Okendekmde, 4. Quietness, humility, quiet person, etc.
OkeU (bakele), 5. Man or woman.
Okelakela, 4. Brightness (as of sun).
Okengele. Being up at night.
Okengo, 4. The first planting, or ear of com, of a field.
Okengekenge, 5. Carpenter.
OkiPjmgdi, 4. To iron shirts, or any clothes.
Okita, 6. -Residence far from home; to trade.
Okokotwe, 7. Bed-bug.
Okolongo, 4. Dead standing tree. -
Okondo, 4. Heap, pile!
Okongolia, 4. Something resembling sugar-cane.
Oleombanddndd, 4. The crescent over which the hair is braided.
Okorwe, 4. Binding (of a garment).
Okugi, 4. A person bereaved of all friends.
Ohrnoa, 4. Body.
Okukwe, 4. A person dressed hideously in disguise.
Okume, 4. The tree of which canoe boats are made.
Okwara, 4. Cutlass, matchet.
Okwara w'uodrh. Sword.
Okwende, 4. Tail.
Okwerda, 4. Inside (of boat,
' etc.)
Olako. A place of temporary residence;
Oldgd. A kind of devil;
OlMa, 4. Pawpaw, tree.
Olddi/nli, 4. Spy. (Gen. xlii.
m
Oldgdsyonge, 4. Fire-fly.
Oldvi, 4. River.
Olambo, 4. India-rubber.
Ordambanli, 4. Dozen.
Olasa, 4. Orange-tree.
Olanda, 4. Dutch knife.
ihlandunli, 4; ex. dandwnla. Redemption-money.
Ola/nga, 4, a. Calling, or shouting at the top of the voice ; elephants voice.


Full Text

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1 Jrr!il'utl'lltot1)t of Ql)ril'lttal1!iOUllOU, by

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.... I; ......

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HEADS OF MPONGWE GRAMMAR; CONTAINING MOST OF THE PRINCIPLES NEEDED BY A LEARNER. BY A LATE MISSIONARY. GABOON, WEST AFRICA. NEW YORK: MISSION HOUSE, 23 CENTRE STREET .

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CONTENTS. l'..!.Glil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Elementary Sounds . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Vowels............................................................... 9 Diphth o ngs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Orthr>graphy Phonetic..................... . . . . 10 El'Yl\IOLOGY.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Gender and Denomin atives .... ......... ; . . . . . . . . . . 10 Number and Classi.tl.cation................. .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. . 10 First C l ass.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Second and Third Classes.. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . 11 Fourth Class.. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. 11 NOTE.-Ny, Sin., clmnged to m etc .................................... 10 N ouns u se d only in Plural......................................... 12 V erba l Nouns......................................................... 12 First Class.. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Second Class ......... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 13 Third Class.................... .. . . . . . . . . .. . 13 Fourth Class......................................... . .. . . 14 Nouns in Superlative D egree...... .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 14 An.TEOTIVES . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Comparison of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . 14 T ab l e of Adjectives nnd Nouns ................................... 14 Nouns u sed as Adjectives .......................................... 15 Pronomin a l Adj e ctives . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. 15 H ow Infl ec t ed..... . . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15 Fragments of Adjectives. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 Tabl e of Compoundei\ Adj e ctives .................................. 16 Plurals Compounded .................................. ... 16 Location of Adjectiv e Pronouns.......... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. ... .. 16 Tttble or Classes.. . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 Terminal i, initial iyam...... .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 Table or Nouns and Adjectiye Pronouns............................ 17 Emphatic Suffix, miitmit . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 17 Demonstrative Pronouns ....................... : .................. 18 Us e d in Interrogat ions .............................................. 18 Numeral Adjectives ........... : : ... : : .. ' : n .... .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. 19 ,:" : . ,;: (3) . \ .. I ....... ... t:4f:.:. .: :.-: ; ..

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, 4. CONTENTS. Declmo.J or Digital . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . 19 Use() as Nouns ................................................... 19 Cl assed as Nouns.......................................... .... .. 19 Table of Cardinal Numbers........................................ 19 Remarke.-Noune1st Class Singular ............................... 20 Arrangement of Nouns and Numerals.... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 21 Abbreviation of Numerals ........................................ 21 NumberR become Nouns, andN J un Numbered Possessive.......... 21 Answer by show of Fingers ...... ................................. 21 Adjective Phrases.................................................. 21 Diminutiv e ye ..................... .............................. 21 0RDmALS .... ............................. ..................... 22 How Formed...................................................... 22 Fractihnal Parts ..... ....... .. ... ..................... ... .. .. 22 PRONOUNS .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22 Personal-No Gender .. ,., .. , ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22 Number atld Case ............. , ................................ 22 'l' able .............. ,.". , .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. 22 Second Pers on Singular, m . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23 Subject of Nle, Objective ............ ...... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 23 R elative Pronouns ................................................ 2S o, Singular, wi, Plural .... . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. 2S Agree with Antecedent in Numb er Person ............ :. 24 Interrogative Pronoun, ...... : ......... : .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24 How Used .............. : ............................ .... .. . 24 D efinite Pronoun ........ : ..................... :.. .. . .. . .. . .. .. 25 Indefinite ................ ,................................... 25 Tabl e of Class and Number ............. ...... :.................... 25 Nominative Case changed to Obj ective:o. ... ... .... .... .. .. .. . . 25 p ARTIOLE8 ................ ................... ................ .... 26 Adverbs of PJace ................ . . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . 26 Time ...... ....... : ...... : .............................. 26 Verbs as Adverbs .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26 Adverbs of Manner and Cause.......... .. . .. .. .. .. . ... ... . 9J1 PREPOSITIONS.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9J1 Meaning fro m Verb ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . 28 ndii, and ndK .... ,.................. ... ... .. .. .. .. .. 28 CONJUNCTIONS .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 Copulative Conjunctions.... . ............... . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 28 Disjun ctive '' ,, . ; ............. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 28 INTIUUEOTIONS ...... , ...... _. .-, . ................... ...... ,. 29 VERBa ......... ,., ._,,..,. , , ........................................ 29 Regular V e rbe ....... ... , .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29, Initial, Consonant, and Reciprocal, .......... :..................... 29 Root or Stem of. Verb, ............ ...... .. ............................. 29 !r a bl e o f Cbange to Imperative .................... : ....... :........ SO Conjugation ofVerb ... .-............................................. 31 F.orma.ti on o f Paee ive Voice .... ......... : ......................... 31 I.-Radi cal Conjugation .. ,.. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. 31 II.-Caueative H .... ..... ...... .. .. .. .. .. 31

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OONTENTS. 5 Conjugation........................ . . . . . . 81 IV.-Fre quentut'e ............... . . . . . . . . . 82 V.-Re tlexive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 82 VI.-Reciprocal .. .... .. .. .... .... . .. . . . . .. . .. 82 VIT.-Inde flnite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Compound . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Table of Compound Conjugations... ..... . . . . . 88 Augm e nts Parts of Verbs .... ................................. 34 Negative, Active, o.nd Pass ive ..................................... 34 How Formed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 34 Verb s ................................................... 34 Modes-Five.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . 85 Indicative, th e R ad ical . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 85 Imperative Formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Subjunctive .............................. :.. . . . 85 of Subjunctive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 85 Potential-Characteristics.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Infinitiv e S!gn of. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Tense, Numb er, and P erson.......................... ....... . 87 Imperative Plur11l-Num1J e r ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Immediate Past Tens e............................ .... . ...... 87 P aulo Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 87 Historical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 87 Perfect" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 PluperfP.ct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 First nnd Second Future Tense .. ; . . . . . . . . . . .. . . SS Anoth er, Nle be T enso .......................... ............. Irregular Verbs . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . Substantive Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... ...... Negative ........................ ....... ...... Participles ............................ ..................... ..... PARADIGM OF REGULAR VERB ..................... ................ Indicative Mode ............................................ ...... '. 8S 8S 89 39 40 42 42 48 44 4{) Imperative '' " Negative ..................................... ...... . Subjnnctive " Causative Conju ga tion................................ 45 Potentia l Radical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Infinitive .................................................... Participle ............................................................ LIST OF ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ....... . .... 47 48 48 SYNTAX-NoUNs ................ ............................... . ....... 52 Nouns and Adjectives .................................. ............. 58 Verbs .............................................................. . 58 Plac e of Nominative Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 58 Verbs and Verbs. ............................ .... ......... ....... .... 58 Pn ss lv e Voice ........ :. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 54 SALUTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 54 ADIEUS .... :. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Mbolo, Adjective Verbalized ................................ ......... 55

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6 CONTENTS. ELISION AND CIL\NGE OF VOWELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 In Verbs .............................................................. 56 In Nouns ............................................................ 56 In Pronominal Adjectives .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 57 EWIRJA-DARK SAYINGS ................................................. 57 GENERAL REMARKS.................... .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58 La.nguage-How Cultured ............................................. 58 '' How Preserve d ........................................... 59 Prov e rb!. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . . .. 59

PAGE 10

BEADS OF THE MPONGWE GRAMMAR. THE Mpongwe is a dialect of one (the Southern) of the two great families of language spoke n over the greater part of the contin ent of Africa. Commencing at the Oameroons Moun tain and River at the north-east corne r of the Gulf of Guinea, this l anguage extends across the continent to the Mombas countr y on the east, and is spoken over a great part of Mrica South. There is :five times as much di:ffereqce between the l anguage, spoken in Oameriins, and the Efik, spoken in Old Oalabar, fifty miles westJ as there is between the Dua lla and the Zulu-Kafir, spoken in South-eastern Africa, near three thousand miles away. The Mpongwe, or .A.yogo_ (wise ones, as they modestly call live on both s ides of the Gabun River, about a hali d egree north latitude, extending :fifty or sixty miles inte rior. The Orungu about s ixt y miles south, and the Nkami peopl e from eighty to one hundred miles beyond, speak the same l anguage with a few differing words, and a slight dif-., f . _) .u::rence o pronunCiatiOn. In the pres ent limited extent to which these languages, or dialects, are l"llown and writt e n, it would be useless to attemp t to trace their relations and analogies; and we, of the present day, eau only contribute our mite for the use of the ones who shall follow us in the coming century. 4-nd the y will revel in the beauties of a language or dialects as elaborate in structure and as musical in tone as any of the old unspoken (not d ead) languages that are the delight of the scholars of the present day. And it is only forty years since any of these alects (with, perhaps, one or two exceptions) had a written, or even an alphabet .A.n outline grammar of the Mpongwe language was printed m 1847, written by Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, modestly cred l7}

PAGE 11

8HEADS OFTHEMPONGWE GR.AMMAR it ed t o th e M iss ionaries o fth e A .B.C F .M ,Gabo on Mis s ion, IV. A."T hi s w as writtena bout f our y ears a fterthe mi ssionari es fir st w ent t o G abun,a ndgi ves the g enera l prin cipl e so fth e lan guage wi th m arvclousa ccuracy, a fter s o s hort as tudy. Th e pr ese nt w or kwa s c ommenced atth e r equesto f a g cu tl ema n,l ong r e s idingo n t he co ast, a s th e m er eo utlineof t he gram mar,t o b e prin ted in a b ook whi ch h e Th e v' book h a s n ot b een p ubli sh ed,a nd t heworkh asg rowntoits p re se ntd im ens ions, and i spr intedf or th e u se o fth e Arn e ri ca n m i ss ionarie s a ndot her s at Gab un an d vicinity, After a n abse nce o fm oret han seve n yea rs, w ithn oposs i ,bilityofco n s ulting a n ative Mp ongwe, i t i swithm any mi s giv ings th at so meo ft he m odesa nd t ense s ( more es pecially t hen egative f orms) a r eputf orth; a nd iti s w ith littl e h ope of p erfectacc uracyth at i t .isn owallowedt o b e printed ..,I'. ) J :(.

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"ORTHOGRAPHY." 1.Allthesoundsinthis l ang u agecanbeexpres sed by the Ro man alphabet witha little modificat ion. Thelanguagehas been written phonetica lly, andthe l ettersareusedasfollows :, VOWELS.2.aasainf ar,tar; a as a infa ll, tall.ease i nthey,prey; e as0.i nmet,pet i asi i nmachine,ravine .oas0innote,mote; 0 as0innot,pot. u as00inmoon,soon 3 D iphthongsai,asinKrais;ao,asinosaon,a thing oraf, fair;iuasinmpiu ,hotorheat; i e as An(7ambii5, God ;mbiam bi e, we ll. Andthesemaya ll beresolvedinto their original e lements b ypro longing alittletheso und ofeach l etter.C ONSONANTSUSED ARE: , '" J u)<".JI C edb 4 b,'d,f,g(always hard},j,k,.l,I,n, P -'.!, s,t,V,w,y,z,C c;h,q,andxare EQLused J, a lso combinationsof consonantsonnds,asmb,mbord ;goat; ,mboa,. a dog; mbwedi,a captive; ,ombwiri,fitish; ..!JI-p, asmpolo,, large; mpunji, ivo ry as ,!!Iwera, scratch.Thereisalsoanobscure { o f m. a ndw,_asi n omwari, written and -spoken ofl'idri,w here. m _a nd warereso lvedin to fI'i:7!:!b as i nndeqo,friend ;..!!(7J, as in 'ngoa, h og, ngdwe, captain; nj, as i n njuke, t rouble,' njinla,gori lla :1?3:l" asin ,nkombe, as nt:;n(7o,_ stick: "I1oty, asn tyozyo; nydnli,7'-h.(1"''..,(.)'--'-" b ird ,; ,nyowe, bee: :lngw,asn(7we, mother; vw v velia, i mp.o f-c -c .flr..) f welia,. sy i n sy eva, top lay, im p. zyeva, p lay t hou ?lando, ::::t-VI'(""$ congregat ion;O'!J.J)anZa,ch ild, 0?lwanga, ir on sa me:'!f'J--so und as n g .in si nger. i --( 9)

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10M PONGWE GRAMMAR Th eco mbinations, co ntractions, a ndco alescences, forthe sa ke o f e uphony, a re a lmost e ndless,OR THOGRAPHY .5. T he ort hography as u sed in writin g thi s l angua ge i s en t irely p honetic. Nov owelh as two so unds, a ndn o twovow e ls areus ed tore presentt he sameso und, as h aya ndth ey inEn g lish Wi th theexception o fth ea djectivepronouns,a ndl ess v t han a h alfdozen n ouns, n owor dinth e l anguage t erminates witha c o ns onant O r,in ot her wor ds,wi tht he excep tions n amed, ..Jlye ry word a nd e yel "y-,,"Yllable t erminates wi th a vo wel so und. Th erehas b e en n oa ttemptm ade torepresente very s hade o f so undi nthe l angliag e, f or thi s w ouldc umberthealph abet .. ET YMOLOGY.6 .T herea re eig l.J.t p arts s peec l!,. in th e Mp ongwe l an g uag e, the s a m ; n oun, pr onoun,a djective, ve rb, adverb, prepo sitio n, co njunction, a ndinterjection. N OUNS.7 Nounsh aven umbera nd c lassification,butno ca se end i n orgender. ..Q a s e i s known asi t isi nEn glish i s expresse d bys uffixingth e w ord m nnorw oman, as o?Jwanlome, c hild-man, orb oy;o!J-wanto,c hild woman,or girl; nyare-n;yanto, cow;' n y are nome ,bnll : th e d enornina t ive s c a lf) l amb Lki dby pr efixingt he w ord c hi l dt o th e noun;as o?Jwa....nyar e, c hild o fa cow; o?Jw.idambe, child o fa s heep; oywa....mboni, c hild o fag oat '"-e&.r.",w,/{..,:"", ''<'1'#<"NU MBER AND C LASSIFICATION.8 .The M pongwe noun s mayhearranged in.....f9ur c lasses di st in gu i s h e db yt hemann er of formingtheplural ofea c h.-t u,f!.' Numbcr i s expre ssedon theinitinl's.)' llable ofthenou n. ,>J'First Class 9.Thi sc lass embrace s allthosenOUD S whic h commence

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ORTHOGRAPHY.11 with aconsonantsound (writteu withoneormorec onsonants) andformth eir plurals by prefixing i orsitothesingular Goat,House, Gorilla ,SINGULA.R.. mboni, n ago,njinla, PLURAL. imboni or sirrWoni inago o rsinaqo. injinla orsinjinla. S econd Gl ass. 10 .Thisc lass e mbraces a Uth ose noun s h avingefo r th eir initi alsy llable, a ndf orms th e plur als b y d roppingth isl etter;thus: S INGULAR. PLURAL.H ead,ewon jo, w onjo.B oat,ele nde,lende.C hest, e gara,gam. N OTE.-Ifth e fi rstco nsonant o fth e w ord b ee ,inf orming th e p luralei s dr opped ,andth eei s ch anged t oy;t hus: BIKGUL AR. P LURAL .B ook,e zango, y ango. Thin g,ezd ma, y dma B room, e zdmbdld,Third C lass.11.Thi sc lass e mbracesalltho se n onns whi ch h ave0for th eir initial letter ;andth ey formth eir plur als, fir st, b yc hang in g0int oi ,.sec ond,by c hanging0intoa,.third b yc hang ing0intos i.1.River Ba sket, 2 Arm, Canoe, 3 .Feather, Shoulder, Song,Leaf, Bur GULAR .ol dvi, ot ondo, ogd owaro owowa, ov ega, ouiembo,owavi,orue ,PLURAL i ldvi. itondo. agd amaro.eiboioa;sibeqa. ijembo o r sijernho.ijavi or sijavi. itue or situe.

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12 M PONG\.... E .' G RAM M A R. j NO TE t bts -c lass-bolongsa large numberof nouns usedo nlyin t he s ingular ;aso mbu ,ashes;o mpunqa,wind;o llwei,breath.NO TE2.-Abstractverbal nounsa lsobelong totheplural ofthet hirdd iv i s lonoft his c la ss.They takethe ini tial l etterssiori,u suallythe l att er, a s pakilia ,tob egin;ipakilia,t h e b egining;b e nda,to h at e ;i b enda,h atred;t iJn da,tolovej itiJn da, love.siin t hes e v e rbal nouns i s u s e d f ore mphasis; a s ej d gd,h e is s ick;are nla s ijdgd, h e i sve ry s ick.Fo urth.C lass.1 2 T hi s c la ss em bracesa nn ouns ha vingif or th eir initi al in t he s ingular, a ndformin g th eir plural s b yc hangingiinto a,thus:SINGULA R. PL URAL.Sh eep i ddmo e, addrn1Je S tone, .ido, d do. B anana, itdtd, at dtd NOT EI.-Ift hefirstt wo consonantsinthesingularb e11,1/,the11,1/ischangedt o m ; ifthe fir stco nsonantb e 'V, the 'V i schanged i n t heplural tom p;ifitb eui,thewi sc hangedt omb. SING UL AR P LURAL.P ost, iny engd, a m en qd. P oison, i nyern1Ja, am emba.L aw, iva nga, am panqa. W ing, ivav a, amp ava J aw, i wuqu,amb uqu,B reast, iiJ e nle, am oe nl e N OT E2.-To t his be longmanynouns u sedonlyintheplural,usua lly t henameso fliquids,thus:a nlingo,water;alugu,rum;agali,o il ;a ka,s ap; ampuni/foam; am enje,pee.ce. .t, VERBALN OUNS .1 3 V erbal n ouns b elong toa n thefourcla sses ofnouus ab ove, andare a rrangeda ccording to the o rderofth ose cl asses, towh ich al so they aretober efered. Class First.V erbals of thiscla ss areu sually formedbyprefi xi ng n to th e g round fonnoftheverb;thus,ntanqo, num?e r, f rom

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ORTHOGRAPHY. ',1 13tanqa;t o count, nkarnbin li ; mannerof speaking ;Jrorn 'kamba, y: tospeak Whentheverb has borpfortheinitial con sonant, itformsthisc l ass ofnounsby p refixing mtoth e groundform ofthev erb. E uphonic con cord willb e not ed h ere. band pare I abial s ,andth e prefixmu st b e the sa me, mbokinli, man nerofb arking, fromboka,to b a rk ;mb oginli,m anner of shouting, fromb oqinla,t o mak e adi sturbau ce ; mpandinlo ,l adder,from panda, toa scend. Oth ers ar e fo 'rm ed fromtheimp erative o fth e v erb ,nyinli nlo,adrea m, from yinlinlo,dr eam thou; nyemM, a so ng, f romy emba,s ingthou; N OTE:-There i s noruleapparentforusingtheg roundforminonev erb,andtheimperative inanother,asaboveandb el ow.Seco ndGla ss .14. Nouns ofthi s c la ss arefo rmed bypr efixingetothe groundformofth e v erb, th u s : 1..Ekamb':a, int erpreter fromkamba,to s peak. 0z-uPfir"iIEdingo,c rying from d inga, t o cry,mo urn Eboli, fi st, fromb ola, o s trike ", O r, fr om theimp erative, thu s: Eg enli zo, ame asure, from g enli za, m easure th ou .Erom i,am essenger, fr omr oma,se ndthou.Eyenlo,mirror, from y enla, see thou TMr 'd Class. 1 5. Thiscla ss i s f ormed. byprefixing0tot h e imp erative o f theverb ; thet ermina l vow e l,l ik e theoth er cla sses, i sc hanged variou sly, butsom etimes notata ll. Og enda astra nger from g enda, travelthou Oqomba,afen ce, fromgomba ,enc los e tho u. ..' ,Oyinlo,ada nce from yinla, dan ce t h ou. O zyilwo, pun i s hment, fromz yiwa,p unish, orw hip. So me f rom theg round form of thever b, t hus:Okugi,pauper, from kuga, to become poor ",Otemu, simp leton,fr omtema,toaetf ooli shly..

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14-MPONGWEGRAMMAR F ora bstractnoun s seenote under the t hird d ivisiono f the t hird c lass of' nouns Theybe longt ot he plura l of th is c las s o fv erbal nouns Fourth, (}la ss.1 6 N ounsofthiscl ass areformed by pr efix ing i tot he im perativeo fthev erb, and forming th e pl ural af ter t he four th c lass o fn ouns. f' I gamba,aw ord, fr omg amba,speak.Io enda,grea tness,.fromv enda ,b ecome great lnyomanlo co ntention,from y omanla, Th erea real s o noun s inth es uperlatived egree, form ed by red upli ca tingth e noun, ex pres si ng th e high est degreeo f g reatness o r ex ce llence Anlomen lomi e, an loiiie,m en, c hief88t men. Antoant w e, an to,w omen,c hiefssew omen. Ig onligonlo i ,igon lo,o nh i gh, mo st hi gh.Ong ulung ulum e, n gula,st rength,Almi ghty .Orundorundi e, orunda,s ac r e d,Mo st Ho ly. E a ch o f thefo regoing may b e us ed inthe s ingularor plural. ADJEOTI"I"ES 17.Th e M pongwe l anguage i s p oor inadj ectives, andthe f e w i n u seha ve no r egular d egreeso f c omparison Th ere i s """ a f ormo f co mparison,n ot mu ch u sed,a ndp erhaps not author i zed full y ;1ibia, good ;mbi a hoe, b etter;mbia m e, b est Co mpari so ni s o ft e n exp re sse d by theu seo fwords, a nde venph rases an dc ireumloeutions.Vi aganiu,from' 'pi ag a nla, t o e x c el )s mn ch u sed.Posyo,morethan Em pha sis i s a lsou sed to e xpresscomp arison, but i sne cessar ily very ind efinite 1 8 Adj e ctives ofth emse lve s hav e n either c la ss o r numbers butr eceive th ese fr om thenounsw ith whi ch theya rcus ed. I st Cl ass, Sin .-nagombia,ho use good ."" Plu.-sinagosimbia,h ousesgood .

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ORTHOGRAPHY.1 52dC lass, Sin .el'el" e via,treegood. "" Plu.-l'el'e v ia,trees 3d"Sin .-oguluombla,rop e go od,"" Plu .-inguluimbia,ropes" " 2d S in.-oga ombia arm""""Plu.-agaa mbia,a rms"""3dSin.-owavio mbia, le af good """Plu .-Sijavis ibia, ""4th"Sin.-igarnb' i via, wordg ood."" Plu.-agamb' ambia, w ords g ood.19 .Th ere isa cla ss o fnoun s whi ch ar e u sed a sa djectives by taking t he vinculum o fth e d efinite pron oun t oc onformth emtoth e numbera nd c lass o fth eno unswhi ch th ey f ollow andqu alify 1st C l ass, S in -Nago y apupu, h ouseo fwhit en e ss q "" Plu .-s'i nago s apupu,hou s es o f w hiten e ss.102d"Sin. elendeza tenlatenla,bo at ofr edn es s 1 ""Plu.-lende y at e nl c tt enllz, b oatso fr edn ess. '6 Bd" Sin.-ogaU w i-ngulu,t wineo f st rength. 2> ""Plu.-igcUiyingulu ,twin es of s trength. -r 4th" .Sin. ilasa n y-onligi, oran ge of s weetn ess 6 "" P lu.-alasa m -onligi,oran ges of s weetness. r;, " Sin.-itdtd ny ant untu ,th e whol e ban ana ." P lu.-apaki rnav idvid, ca psofb l ackne s s."" .A ka m i-nonli,sa pofbit terness. "" .Anlingo,m i mpiu,w ater ofh eat. Th ea bovetab l e do e s notpretend to e xhaustth e li sto fsub s tantive adj ectives, n eith er do es ita ppear whythed efini te pronounun ites s odiff erently withdiffe rent w ords .PRO NOl\IINAL ADJECTIVES. 20 The se ar ei nflectedi nn ear ly th e sam e mann er asthe p receding. Therootsorst ems ofthe se ad je ctive prono uns a re asfol lows: Sin .-ammy, dYOUl'ti! his.Plu.-a z yoours, aniyo urs, aotheirs .

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16MPONGWE GRAMMA R. Th e fr agmentso fd efinite pr o n o un swithwhi ch the se are comp ounded f or u se,a ndwhi ch infl ect th em toagree with the diff erentclassesofno uns, areas f ollows:1 stC lass, Si n.-y. Plu. 8 ors i .2d"" z.,c y. 3d",cw." y .4 th" ny m .T headject ive p ronouns co mpounded a rc as f ollows:I stClass S in. y am m y y d yo u r y e hi s." ". Pl u.8am sa se "2d S in.zam" zd ze "' C".P Iu.yam" yd ye "3d". S in wa7TI, wd w e """.PIu.yam" y d"ye "4th" S in .nyam" n yd" nye" "".Piu.mam" md m e "PLURAL FORM OFADJECTIVEPRONOUNS. lstClass ""2d"""3d" "4 th" " Sin .yazyoo ur lya71liyo ur.y aoth eir. P Iu.sazyoc,sanli "s ao",S in.zazyo" zanU "eao PIu .y azyo yan li y ao ", S i n.wazyo wan li "uiao "P iu.yazyo yanli yao S in .nyazyoc ,n yanli" n y ao"Pin,m azyo "manU"mao"2 1.T headjec tive o r ad ject ive pro nounu suallys tands next afte rt he n oun whi ch itqualifie s. Th e f ollowing tab lewi llbetter s howt her elationo fadj ective p ronouns t o thenouns whi ch t heyqua lify,th ana nydes cription :________ __ ___ + _N_O_UN_8_,_ 1 st C lass "" l!d c.""Town"C hest"S in,nkaliP iu.inkaUS in. eg ari Piu. gari yams am zamyam-

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ORTHOGRAPHY .1 7 :NOlTN:;;. HI S .--3d C las s Vine Sin. oqali to am. wa wo "" "Plu. iq lili yam y a y o "". A rm, 2 tlS in.oqd wa m wa w e "" " P ln .aqa m am marrd3" i ,L eaf 3d I s I ''''"'warn w d w e """"P In. s am. s a s a 4th" Fo r est S i n' li qinyam n ya n ye """P lu,ag i mam-mame-NOTE.-Mo s t o f thenouns inthistabl e c udproperlyin u andafte r t h e c ommonmannerofwritingtheai sc hang e dtoi .Buttheprobability i s thatthe terminalas ho u l d b e e lided, a nd ipre fixed t otheadjectivepronoun, a s:i yam, i y d, i yiJ. 22 T ableo f p lural f o rm o f a dj ec tive pron ouns, a s u sedw ith t h e nouns w hi c h t he y qua lify: O UR .Y OUR.T HEIR.-------,--I s tC la ss. T own \ Si n n7 (aliy a z yo yan liyao"" "Pi u. i nka li s azyo sa nli sa o 2d "C he s t S in .e q a r i z az y o z anli z ao"""Piu. r/ 'lri y azyo yanliy ao3d"I TWin e S in o galiwa zyo wanh: ui ao""Vi n eI'lu.if/ rUi ya zyo y an l i yao""2<1.ArmS i ll og a w a z yo w an li wa o""" I "PI li. a ga rna z yo manlim ao""3 d .'Bi scuitSin.o t eqi u: az y o wan liWl1 0"""I "P iu. s i d e yi s a z y o s anli sa o4t h"[ F o re s t S ill i f/i n y a zyo nytnli In Y M""I "Piu .aJi Imaz y o m anlimao"",B ran ch e sI'lu.-nnparemriz u i n an l lma o'I'here i sanemphatic s uffix tot hepronounandt h ea djectivep ronoull alike; m e, m i em!3, m ys e l f; yo urse l f ; ayeme, him self;aeu i otme,o urselves; anbt e m e, yo ur selves;vmom e,t h emse lve s Th esa me s uffixi s toth e adj ective p ro IlOUllH ,t hus, yamime, m yo wn;samime ,plu.,m yown ,A llt h e perso nsth e same .

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18M PONGWE G RlilliAR P RONOUNS.23 T h ese areo f twoclas ses, y i nZn, t his; a nd yanZa, or m e y anZa th at. T h e fo llowingt abl e w ill s howth ec lassificationtob e the sam eas t h e ad j ect ive p ronolln :I s tC l ass2c1"3d "4th "I IIITnIS.IT IIESE. Footsi n' lnty o z yo y inZa/ 8i n za IBa s k etI "o tondo w i n Z a y i nZa C hes t"egara I z in Z a yinZa E ye Iintya I ny i nZ a j min Z a H amm er H ea d F ruit O range L st C lass2d "3d "4t h "e ioonjo m e zan Z d j me y an Z d I "[ o w nda I m e w a n z a m eytinlr1"ila s a 1n e n y tinZamiJ?nllnZti Th ese d e finite or d em on strati vead j ect ivepr onouns ar e m oref req ue nt l yu sed i n ani nt e rro gat iv ese n te nce, t hus:.Nja li yinld y amande ,'1Iyd. G unthisw ho se? yo urs .R e r e yinl (l y amande? i yam Tr eesthesewh ose?min e. .A b a m inl dima ; n do 7n e manla.ime. M an goe sth e sey o ur sbu tth o s e hi s. O ioa tanqa m e w anl d w e? w i N g e s n ,. Sh ipth atwhat?o fEn gli sh. E knd e m e zanld z e ?z i fflpOngwe B oat t hat wh at?o f Mp ongwe ,.N daga nde y inld? .A znepa mia.A ff a ir w hat th i s ? W e d o n ot know.EZendinla nde m8 zanld? zi Bajan B o w w ha t k ind. th at? of P avw es .Eza nde m ezanZd? Igdnga ny' OkeZi. Thi ng wh at tha t? a s pearor a B akele,

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ORTHOGRAPHY.19I n thefir st twoofthe above sentences, mande'f i s th e interrogat ive word. IiJ thefifth, we'f; inthesi xth, ze'f; and i nth e la stthree,nde 'f NUMERAL A DJECTIVES.24 Th e m anner of cou ntingi s d ecimalo rdigital(c onnting alw aysw ithth eir fin gers) t o t en,a ndth en r ednplicating. Th ey h ave no a bbreviatedwor ds lik e tw enty,thirty,fo rty, butn u m be r t het ens thus:t wo t ens,three t ens,fo ur te ns. Th e num eralsareso metimesu sedasno uns, a nd t he first fiv e ar e in t he fi rstc la ss o fn ouns. Th e l astfi ve a rem ore fr e qu ently n s ed as n ouns,t hus :O roioa winla, thi ss ix; or-a,. g enlo m ewdn ld, th atse ven. S ix a nd seve n areo f t he t hirdcl ass Enenlaizinld, t his e i g h t ; enldgomim!Jzanld, th at nin e. A nde ight andn ine a re oft he secon d clas s. Ten i gomi, p lu.aqomi,i softhefou rth c la ss, f orming i tsp lura lin th esame manne r, an d tak ingnume rals after t hesameform .Nkama,o nehun dred, i s i n t he 1 stc lass o fn ouns,an dta kesnumerals a sothern ounsof th ato lass;nkama m banli,tw o h un dred;n kama ntyar-o, th ree hundred. F or th ousand th ey h ave no wo rd,b ut h ave t aken th e En glish,ca llingi tn tausen:wh enspeak ingth eir o wn l an g u age. Thi s w ord al so b elongs toth e fi rst cla ss ofnoun s.CAlmINAL N UbIDER S 1 ST C LASS. z o g nCLASS .1 m ari Efi'i n Ofi'ir-i 2. m banli iJ anliimbanli 3. n tYMo r aro ir-MO 4 n lainlaii nlai5 .ntyanlit anlii tanli6 .oro uia,ind ecl inable, invariabl e.7 .or dgenlo,""8 e nenlai," 9 e nldgomi, "" 10 .i gomi,plu ,aqomi .H.igomi nl'imdr-i, t en andone .12. igomi nli vanli,tenandtwo 4T H CL ASS. ifi'ir-i. am banli, a raro. 'anlai. atanli.

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20 )[PONGWE G RAMMAR araro .araro. nl'imari, t ens,th ree a nd o ne.anlai ,tens, f our.an lai nli nai.ambanli; nl'ifiUiri. ambanli4 THCL ASS.atanl i. n l' a mbanli. anib anli nl'anlai.nl'atanli.3DC LASS.nlivanli a mbanli.oro ioa .o rdgenlo.nl'oroioa.nl'01'dg enlo nl 'iraro.2 D CLA.SS .n len enlai nl e nldgom. 1 ST CLAS8. 13. i gomi H igomi 1 5. i go mi 16 igomi 17.igomi 18 ig omi 19.ig omi 20 agomi21.ag omi22.agomi 3 0 agomi31.agomi 4 0. a gomi 44. agomi 50 agom i 60.agomi 7 0 agomi 80 ag omi e nl en lai. 90 agomie nldgomi. 1 00.Nkama,1 stClass .11 0.N kama n l'igomi .112 .Nkamanl'ig omi 1 20. nkama nl'agomi 1000.ntaueen,1 stClass 26 Nouns o f t he F ir st Cl ass, wh enfo llowed bya n umeral, are usedon lyi nthesingula r n umber, t hus:n ago ntyaro, house threejnyilun tyanli,a nchor fi ve T o nin e t he nu meralstands n extaf t er th e n ounwh ichi t num bers .Y ango iJ anli,b ooks akdnd{ie nen la i, pl antainse ight;i gomi( ten)withits p luralag omi,uni formlyprecedes th e noun which i tnu mbers,thu s:i gominy' imbonli,t en of g oats;agomi m'add mb e am banli,t enso f s heeptw o .N yi,afo rm o fth e d efinite pr onoun, uniformly c omesbe tweenigo mia ndth e nounfollowin g, dropping i t s vowe l when

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ORTHOGRAPHY.21t he f oIlowin g nounb egins with a vow el, thus: igominy'lJr.d dmbe t eno f s heep Th e plu ral o ft en,agom i,brin gs th e vin culum inth esa me mann er, thu s :ago mim 'anlag' an lai n l'anlag' a tanli .te u so f peo pl e fou r andp eop le fi ve .Ab breviated thu s:agomian la i n l'anlag' a tanli. te ns f ouran dp eop l e fi ve.as t hey asce ndinnum bering,t hey c ondense;1 00 310' 6nkamas'anlagan tyaron l'agomi m 'anlag' or oioa nl'anlag"a 8e ni e nlai:Abbreviatedt hus:nkama ntyaro nl' agomior owa n l'anlaga if n tlf nlai, hun dr edthree and t ens slxa ndp eoplee ight.Th ey fr equently a bbreviate i nthi s m anner:inyarea tanli,cattl e fi ves, t ens b eing und erstood;b ecau s e inyar e a nda tanlica n n ot b eco ns true dto get her;butagomi,t ens, do e s a gree withata nli,a ndth e mindin st antly t akes i tthus:agomim'inyare at anli,t ens of ca tt le fiv e Inth esec asest h e h un dr edsan d te nsb ecome n ouns,a ndth e n oun nu mbered t akes th e d e finite p ronouna nd c omesinto th e p os s e ss i vecase ;un l e s s yo u ca ll t he arti culationa pr eposition,a ndth en th e n oun i sin t he ob jecti vecase A gain,apersonasks, a l.'dnda m mnan ld mi r e n tango s e? P l antain s th o s ea rewh at num b er ?The p er s on in te rrog at ed hold s up s ay,e ightfin gers,an dr e pli e s,mo m inla, t h ey a re th ese.The fir st p ersona nswers, e nlen la i, eig ht Th e w anto fadj ectives in t hisl anguage i ss uppliedbyphrases, thu s : a re j uwa p a,h e i s h e di ed,o rh e i s d ead:e j dga ?Janla,h e h ear shun ger :ej enl' esyove, h es ees t hirst. Th e f ew adj ectives areu sed wi th mu ch l at itud e o f m e auing. P arti c ipl esa re c onsidered i nth eir o wn p l ace .Y ei s p refixed t o s omenounstoexpre ss af ew, thu s :y e y ama, a f ew thin gs;y enya re,afew eattle ; y'addmb e, f ews heep.Andth i s may b eaco ntraction fromt he fo llowing, orthefo llowing ma y be a compo undf rom i t;sinaqo sinyiiwa, afewho us rs ; gara

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22 1l!PONGWEGRAMMAR.y e wd, a f ewc hests;i n l amb' imiewd, few cloths;adambC am ewd af ews heep.ORDINALS.27 Th e s e are f ormed byprefixing th e d efinite pronoun to t hen umb er, o ri n s erting i t b etween th e n oun an dt henumeral;t hu s, nago y' im banli,h ouse o f tw o, o r secon dh ou se; eg a1'a zi 1'a1'O, c hes toft hre e o r thirdc hest;o meniow'inlai,f ourth fi u ge r; i ddmbe n y' enlenla i, eig hth s heep;i lasany'at anli,fifthoran ge . .There i s nowo rd fo rh alfexce pte re nl i,ac uttiug, f rom tenl a ,t o cut;er enl?eoolo,a l argec utting,m ore th an half;eren l ezanq o ,s ma ll c utting,l es s th an h alf;ot en lei sa lso u se d. .t1 nlingo m i re s e go h ow i s th e w ater in t h e p ail?J i r'ot enle,iti s h alf.Eya1'ei sa notherword m e a nin g asplitting,[arua ,t osp lit, a ndu s ed th esa measer e uli. HMi, a p iece,is u sed nea rlyinth e s amewa y .Andthe se ar e a ll no uns. .P RONOUNS.2 8 Th e Mp ongwe l anguage i s ri ch inpr onouns,an d,tak ingvario u s f orms a ccording t ot hef our d eclensionso fnouns (si n gu lar a n d p lural)forwhi ch th eys tandin stead, th ey can beu sed wi th a d efinit ene s s f ound inf ew l anguages whi ch are notco g nate au d co n st ructed i nn early th es amem anner. Th ere aret hreekind so fpr onouns-Personal, R elative and D efinite. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.2 9. Th ese h ave n oge nder,buth ave p erson,number and c ase.T hef ollowing t ablew ille xhibit mo st ofth e f orms o f p e rs o nal pr onouns: SINGULAR PLURAL.N ominative.Obj ect.N om.O bject .1 st P ersonmi mie a zue a zue 2d"0,o m, alwe aanlue anlue 3 d"e aIIJe y e,e wiwao-

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ORTIIOGRAPHY.2 3Forth e emphatic s uffixtoth ese,see und er adj ective pro nouns.NOTE1.-Thefirstandsecondpersons p luralarethesa meinthe nominativeando bjectivec ases .Theprobability i sthatinthethirdp ersons ingular e i stherootofthe obj ective case.Andnopronoune ndingwith e i se veru sedasthedirects ubj ec t o fa r verb,unlesss tandingn extaf terit,andusuallyincorporatedwith it. NOT E 2 .-The m inthese condp ersons ingulari s u sedonlytomake a e uphonicc oncordwh en0wouldc omen ext t oainthe verb,andthusavoidthecoalesce nceofthetwov owelso rthesuppressiono f e ither; as,oaka mba,youhaves poken;h ere0isthenominativetothe verb,andafo rmst he immediatep astte nse. Bothmust b epreserved; bu tt heh arshnesso f speaking bo th se p a ratelymust b eavoided; s o the m am ere b reathing, i sput int obridgethehiatus, o m a kamba.N OTE 3 .-'Nhenthep ersonalpronouno f e ither thefirs t, sec ond,orthirdp ersoni s u sed a st he s ubjectofthes ubstantiveverbnle,tobe,itinvariabl ytakesthe formofthe obj ectivecase, t hus:Om tidoa nla v ava nl e m il!, Th e p ersonw holi ves th ere O ma b e k enda.g ogon le we Th epe rson w howill go th ere i sy ou .Oma m ewanla m arule nle y e,I;> The p erson th atwho?it i s ;1NOTE.-Al mostanyirregularityofco nstructionthrowsthenominativecaseintothe obj ective form,andputsitafterth e verb.The r elativepronoun0 i ;tii:e abovese ntences, c oalesceswithfinalaintnna,i nto a R ELATIVE PRON OUNS. VeZi' onlome0 k endavtZvd,C all th e m anw ho g oesth ere. Gamba nZ owan to0r e go nago, Sp eak withth e wom an whoIsInthehouse. JJl 'be kambanZ'anla qawir e g' owaro,Iw illspeakwiththep eople w ho a re I nthe c anoe.30 Ther elativ e pronoun inthe s ingulari s0 ,andinthe pluralwi,when relating top ersons;andwh en n o qu estion is asked, t hus:

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MPONGWE GRAMMAR. Wh ena napp el l ative oroth er n ou n stands f ort he a ntece d ent, th e r elative pr onoun mu sta greewithit i n d e clension or c lass a ndnumber, thus: "R eri y a z yo y i 1'13 gorowa,Fathero ur w hoi s inh eaven VG e 8 yng e mb onli y inye ntogolo,G osca r e t he goatw hich ca ts t hep epper .Vag'inkavisi 1'8 g w'elende,B ring th eoarsw hichar c in t heb oat. Nlnnf eqa ra ziren l'ilam b a,S hutt he chest w hich h as th ec loth .G ot'ingozyo si k amba iJaiJa, _C atch t heparrotsw hich a retalkingth e r e. N i t iaogu lawi si ngaiJaiJa, Ifeart het ornado w hichr oars th ere.Eb el'i londa y i1'13 gw'ere re meza H ewa ntsth efr uit s w hicha reo nth at tr ee. Azne p enginl'a marom i b ia nlenla ,"''''c wa it t he ca noes w hichco meto-d ay, L."'TERROGATIVE PRONOUN .31. Mande?who? i s u sed wh en r eferring t opersons, o r w hena sk ing a perso n's n ame, e itherofh im self, orofathirdp er s on Awe m arul e Y whoare yo u?Ayemande? who i she 1 l ni n ya mande ? -wh at i syo ur name? Ini n ye mande Ynam e hi swhat 1 Nago m e ya yamandeYho usethato f whom?l Va man dei s th e plural form, a ndi sso metimesu sed a t th ebeg inningofas entence,so metimesa tit s clo se, thus:W i b e panda gonkala wa mande,ormande?Th osewhow ill a scen d t o th etow nwho?W ama nde sa mbowi b e tig anla gw'elend e?Wh o th erefore winr emain intheboat?N OTEI.-The plural herei s tobedls tlngulshedf romth e p os se ssivec ase s ingular,a s fo llow s:Oy wanla mi!wanlii wamande 1 Child t h a t whos e, orofw hom f

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ORTHOGRAPHY.25NOTE2.-The v owel e,withits infl ectingconsonants,i s u sedas a d istingui sh ing in terrogative, andalways f ollowst he no un, t hus:N ago y e?w hich house 1 egomb e zy e Wh att ime ?O waro w e? w hich canoe 1 iz yag e nye' wh ichd uck 1 DEFINITE P RONOUN.3 2. Th et e rm d efi nitei s u s ed f orwa nt of a b etter d efini tion for n o thin g ca nb e m ore ind efi nitet han th i s l ittleserv anto f a ll work,i n s om e ofit s u ses.Iti ss o m e times ap er son al, so m e t i mesar e lativep ronoun.Somet im es it i s a pr eposi ti on(of)orthe s ign o f th e po s se s si ve c ase .Its ta n dsent ire ,itc oal e sc e s, i t drops its o wnv owel(o rb eing )tom ak e ae u pho nic concord;a ndin a l most e very ca se, by i t scon sonan ts, i tma k e sthea lli tera l co ncord;whi ch i s on e ofth e pec uliar f ea tu r e so fth eM pong wo l a n g u agea ndit sc ognat e s Th e foll ow ingt able will s howth e c lassificatio n oft hispro n oun, and i ts c orr esp ondence toth e n ouns in c la ss a ncln u m b e r:S ING ULAR. PLURAL. N om .P os.IOb j.Nom.P a s 1 s t C lass. y a,o ry' yosi s a,o rs' I ; 2d" z'/, za ,o rz'Izoyiya,ory:3d" wa ,01'w wo y i ya ,ory y o4th"n yinya,o rny'n yoImima,01' 1 n' m oN OTEI.-Theai nthe p oss e ssive casei s u s ed on lyb e fore n ou ns comme ncin g w ith a co nsonant,for e uphony.N OTE2.-Th enominativeca sestandsimmediatelyb e fore the verb,orafte r i t, andinthe l at t e rea se takest he o bjective form.NOTE3.-' hen ominativecasei schangedtotheo bje ctiveformw hen anythin g very definiteore mphatic i s tob eex pre sse d,andstill r nt ainstheplaceofthe nominative b eforet h e verb.T his o cc u rsm or e freq u e ntlyw h enthe v e rb i s inthe p assive voice. Ngoz1/o me1/anla 1/ 0 t iJndo niu:P ar r ot th at i t i s lov edby him .O uiaro m lfwanlawomlfw'akr1mbizo z uwe,Oau oc that oneit se lfitwa s cha sed byu s,2

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2 6MP ONGWE G RAM1ILl.R P ARTICLES .3 3.Th e Mpo ngwe,li ke th e Engli sh, h as f our p arts o f s peec h ca lledpa rticle s t he Adve rb,th e Prepositio n, the C on jun ction, andtheInterje ct ion.ADVERBS OFPLACE.34 v e i-viJnla, a re v e i, h e i s h ere;wi re v e nld, th ey a re h ere.g un,o r gunlu. hit her;yo go gun, com e h e re. vdiJd, there; ar e vdiJd h e ist h ere .Anlaqa w i j mijaiJdiJd, P eop l e th ey w orkt here .g o,o r go go, thither; e k enda gogo,h egoes th ere;p lace o rdire ction. m e v d n,ld, i n th at di r e ction,so;d ir e ctions o r o rde rsto a h elm sman .g w i, w h ere, 0 k enda gwi? yo n go w h e r e? v ingovingo,around,fromp ingwa,tod eflect, i mp e l', r ed upli cated tov ingovingo,r oundab out.b arab a ,n e a r,iqoniu ,above .k ili,f o r a s h or t t ime, mikiJnda g'o watangakili, k e fwinlia,Igo t ot he s hipf or a t imea ndr eturn .ADVERBSOFTI ME.35 J dn i, d ay b efore ye sterday;[au,ye s t erday NliJnld, to -day;m enle,t o -m orrow. J[banli,two; d aya ftert o -m orrow .J a j ang w e ,p re se ntly;e b ia j ajangw e ,h eco mespr es entl y, soon . J ang o jango (o f mot ion), so ft l y, s low ly. T e t e v en ld, ab i a t e t e ven ld, h eca me ju st n ow PiJkepiJkiJ, p e k enda p e k enda s till going,st illg oing conti nually,fore ver. M anyadv erbs a reinth e f orm ofr egularve rbs, h a ving different mode s a ndt ens e s in u se ,a s f o ll ows :Eb edon qe kiJnda, h e w ill fi rstg o .W 'alongi kiJnda, th ey fir st w ent, o r fi rsted t o go .Lo ng e ja?Ja. kd v ange s yeva : F irst wo rknndth en D 1ay .

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O RTHOGRAPHY .27Fd,ag a in; efa b ia,heagai n co mes. V dfw i nliLnli, aga inr eturn.W i g a v d n enge, they mu st a gai nl e arn.Sunqa,s oon,qu ickly;z ung e k enda, qu i cklyg o.z ungcfwinlianli,returnyequi ckl y I nth e s e v erba l adv erbs th e p rin cipa l v erb t ak es th e im pera ti v e plural e nding,w h en then ominative i splura l. Som ea dverbia l conj unction s are u se d i nth e f ormatio nof th e Subjun ct ive Mode,andth es e ar ec orrelat i ve .J a ,o r j dgd, i f; g arnbl n le th en,pres t en s e K dnl e if, g avtinla t h en, h i s t or i cal t ense .ADVERBS OF MA NNER, O AUSE .36 N ldnl l i, y enlti, s o,thati stru e, t hat i s r ight Pier e n ear a lm ost;p osyo,m or e ;po lo,m uch.Ga (jU nte ,as, so a G O'OblOi,open ly, bo ldly. V e nrl e p erch a nc e ,e v en d e b ia,le s th e c ome.ouendeposw a,p ercha n ce yo u fa ll .V endetu a,p erhaps;ifitt urn o ut.V end etuaek a l ua,p er h aps h e change .V anganle,even ; v an:Janle g o j u a ,ev e nt od ie.Van:Je nl dn l d, s uppo se i tb es o .To aeanqe,i t m ay b e.ADVERBS OFNEGATION. Nyawe, no, inan swer toaq ue stion .. Nya1oi!ge, n o,emphatic;rathers l angy .P a,not ;epa k il l/da,h e h a s notg one Ni11 mie ,Id o n otknow ; negat ive accen t.P REPOSITIONS .37.Th esea ref ew,butt akin g theirs pecial s ignifi ca tions fr om th ev e rbs with w hichth eya reu sed, on e pr eposition an swers man ypurposes .O o,to,o n, at with, e tc.; a k e ndi g onkala,h e h as g one to town. Ep ita go nkala,h e isfr omt own.

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28MPONGWEGRAMMAR.A?' ego n a q o,h e i s i nthehou se. A r e g w'igala,h e i s in th e st reet,oroutofd oors.Here th e0i s b e cau seco ming b efore i ,a ndwi s i n se rt e das avin c ulumf o r t he sa keof e uphony.Go ,wh en u se dwit h r ef er en cet o p er sons, i sc hangedto gor e jmiabia gor e w e Ih ave comet o y ou .11Iiapila g o?'e y e, I a mfr om hi m .N l a, with; e k en da nl am ie,h egocs with me .Ej anjan law ao,h e w orks w i th th em. NU,with; t hei nstrument:n lin tyambi,witha harp .n l' e r e ml:,w it h a n a x; n U njali,wi th a g un nl inl. :av i s 'ayogo, wi th p addles. ..LVd',as th e a ge nt; a ndi ss e ldom,orn ever, u se d ex cept i n c ompo s ition w ith t he ob je ct ive case of tile sec ondorthirdp erso n ss ingularof th e p e r son alpronoun, m aking nad and nae ijanjas ij an jondd,th e w orkw hichi s work ed byy ou. ]l,Ttyonli y 'avangiondd,th e wag onm ade byyou .Elende ;](f//)anUo nd e, theb oat h ewed outbyhim;used with t hep as si vev oice.C ONJUNCTIONS.Oopulat iveOonjunctions 38 .Nli,a n d; iddmbe nl im bonli,a s heep a ndgoa t.Amlom en l'anto,m ena ndw omen. Nl'agendi wa o,a ndth eywe nt. ill, a l so ; aw e k e, 0 b e l d nda, y o u a lso,J Ouwillgo. K a; w on ganli y e, kd j ekeli anli y e,fake ye him,andju dge him .Nte ,as;g ambante pikilid,s peaka s y o u think.Kdnde,b ecause : ak enaa k dnrle afwelio,h ewe ntb ecausehe wa s c a ll e d.Samio, ther efore, con seq uently.E j dgd, samboa z ye nguluyi bia.H e i ss i ck,t heref ore h e cannot come .DISJUNCTIVECONJUNCTIONS .3 9.Vanganle,alt hough, e veni f. M i kenda vanganllJ w odu w 'afwinlia,Igoeve n i fth eya llr eturn.

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O RTHOGRAPIIY.29N do,but;m i a jasi,ndomi ld nda, I amtir ed,butI g o.K ao,exc e pt.W al)d u w'abi enli, kaoR e mamo ,A ll hav e c ome,e xc e ptR e mamo. K ande v onde,for i f. IU tp?ro, mu ch mor e oo nde ij1 ta s 'avanginli nl 'ipava som a man"k ri para .)(* **uii b e panginla g w' ei n e nlrinl 'oma m dri, JieuEraie.R om .v .17.NOTE. -InlIIp o ngwe, as i noth e rl an guages ,the diff erentc l asses of p arti cles b lendwith e ac h oth er i n t h ei r u ses,especiallyco njunc tion s a nd adverbs.Theaboveclassificationmus t ,therefore, ofn ec e ssitybeimperfect.INTERJECTIONS.40.Interjections aboundinfr equen cy,b ut notinnu mber, Th e m oreco mmonar e th e f ollowing: E me! w onderful!d idyo u eve r! Mi5ngisw e ni! Aboutth esa me as t he fir s t,but mu ch coa rser. N gri! in deed1i sittrue! im plying d oubt, o run c once rn. W ell, wh at ifi t b e so? Giligili,re ti,tru e,a ffirmati o n.Ei,ngwe!0 m other! n gw e ya m !mym other!Yo!th at i sr ight;yo,y en l d,liria,s o, thus m ake f ast.Y d gd r en li!h ear,g ive attenti o n.NOTE.-Th ese in t erj ectionsand e xc la mations a reusuallyac compaui e dbyve ry sig n ificantgesticulatio n s, oft en moree xp r ess iv ethane l ega nt.VER BS.4 1. T he :Mp ongwe v erb i sa lmo st u nrival e d i nth e variety e xtent a ndr egul arity o f its i nfle c tions.REGULAR V ERBS .42.W ith theex c eption ofl ess th an a d ozen a ll t h e ver bs inthel anguage are r egular;andth ey ar e in fle c tedt om ark

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30MPONGWE G RllnrAR. C onju g ati o n, Voic e,Mod ea ndT ense .The chara cteristics o f a r egular ve rb are:1 st Th at i t s in cipient l e tt e rinth e ro ot(Pres.Indic .) mn st b e a co nsonant.2d Th at it mu st b e of t woorm oresy ll a bl es. 3d.That it mu st terminat e witha .Theco nso n ants wi th whi cha r egular v erbc an co mmence ar e b d f j, k ,Ill,n p ,s ,t a ndsy;eac h o neofwh i ch h as i ts r ecipro c al con so nant,in to whi ch i t i s in variablyc hangedtoformt heimp erat ivea nd p otential m odes,a nd ce rtain o f it s p as tt enses.Ift he ve rb com mencewi th V inth e pr e s ent i ndi cat iv e, th ebi s c h i m ge dt ow,o r t heintermediate v to f o rm t heimperat ivem ode;thus:mi bOnga, It ake;w ong a,tak e thou;mibaq a,Ibri ng ; vaga b ring t hou .Ifth eve rb b e g inwi th d t he d i s c hange dt o l ,thus : mi de nda,Ido;londa;d ot ho u SoJi s chang e d tow,or it s inter mediate v t hus:miJ ala,I t hrow;wala,throw t hou;m iJ el a,I p nt; v ela, pu t th an Inli ke m annerji sc hangedtoy, t o g mh as n o r eciproca l n ton l,lv e ry s light, p t ov,8to z, tt o 7' 43 Th e fo llowingt ablew illm ore full y illu strate th ese c hang e s,thus: T IVE E bOnga, h e ta kes;Eb aqa,h e br ing s ;Ed e nda,he d oes;EJ ala,h e t hrows;EJ ela,h e p uts;Ej anja,h ewo rks;E k enda, heg oes;Em e niza ,h e fini shes;Euo qa ,h e builds;E panga, h e m akes;Eeo nqa ,h e f ollows;E t enda,h e writes;rn!ERATIVE W on ga, t ake thou; vaga, brin g thou;lenda ,doth on ;wa la,eas tthou; v e la, p utthou; y m1Ja, w ork thou;g enda,go thou; m enliza, fini sh th ou ;nloqa,bui idthou;va nga,m ake thon;zo nga,fo llowthou;r enda,writethou ;N OTE1,-Theimperatives ingulartakesthe a ccentonth eultimatesyllable,thepluralonth e penult.Accentso fn egation i nthe i mperativeare usually onthefirstvowel orinitial sy ll ab le ofthe word.

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ORTIIO GRAPIlY .3 1I.RADICAL C ON J UGATION.4 5.T hisexpre s sest h e simp l e i d e ae xpre ssed b y t hev e rb, wi thou tan ym od ifi ca tionwh atever, u nle ss it b e by i nt o n a tion or ac cent. N um b el' a ndp erso ndo no t be long t o th e verb. JJIi t onda,Il ove;' Ioit o nda, t h ey l o v e; m.ik enda, Igo ; amt;]l c e nda, ye g o .CONJUGATION O F T IlE VERB. 44 Everyr egular v erb h asa variety o fd e rived f orms, m ade e ither b y p refixes o r s nffixe s ,add ing b y t h e se a ug m ents t othe s ign ifi ea t io n o fth e r a dical.A n dt h e se m odifi c ation so r s pecies ofth e v erb fo rt hes ake ofc o nv e ni e n ce, w ec a ll Conju gat ion s, v e ry m u c h a f t er th em annero ft he Hebre w Gramma rs T h e Mpongwe ve rbh a s a nu nvarying f ormoft h ep a s s i vev oi ce, e h a n g i ng afi nalof t h e a cti vein too .Th eseC o njugat i o n sa rc s imp le ,t hati s,t ak in g asi ngle au gm e nt; an d co mpound,th ati s, t aki ngt woor more a ug m ents.All the C onj ugations exc ep t o ne,ther eflexiv e ,suffix th e au gm e nt s .11.CA USATIVECONJUGATION.46.T hi s i s d e rived from th erad ical byc han g ingfi nalaintoi ,and s uffix ingz a,o r, s impl e r,b yc hangingfin alai ntoi e a ;t hu s,j anja,w ork;j anji z a,c a u se t o w ork.T hi s g ives n euterv erbs a ca usative o r ac tive sen se ;n anla,s l ee p ;nanli ea,c ause tos l ee p .Andve ryn earlya lliedt othis i n f orm and s i gnifica tion,i sthis:k amba,sp eak;k ambia,interpret. k lJnda, go ; k endia,g uidu. Ill.RELATIVEC ONJUGATION 47 This i s form ed fromth e radi cal by c hangingfin alaintoi ,and s uffixingth eprep ositionn la,thus :k amba,s peak;kamb inlu,s pea kfor,orto o no; janja,work;j anjin1a,work foron e.Theform s,kamba,s peak;kambia,int erpret; klJn-

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3 2 M PONGWE da,go; guide;seem t o b e a comp romi se be tween t he Re lntive a n d Cau sat ive con jugations,IV.FREQUENTATIVECONJUGATION -4 8.Th i s i s u sed t o e},-press re peated0 1'co nti n uousa c tion;a nd i s f o rm ed b y suffix ingga t o t he radi cal, thus : janja, w ork; j an j a g a, workco ntinu ally;j e nla,l oo k ;jenlaga,l ook c o nt in uou s l y 'V.REFLEXIVECONJUGATION.49.V er b s i nthi s Conjugation h ave t h e ir s ubject a ndo bject identical;c o r respo nd in gtotheM iddle V o i c e in G ree k a nd th eHithpae l C onjugat i o n i nH ebrew.Iti s f ormedb y c h a n g in g t h e i nitialc on s onantoft he r adical i ntoit s r ecip roca l, a nd prefix in g s y a thus:ajon la,h e kill ed; a sy ay onla, h e k illed him self;am epi ,h e h a s i mproved;aej am cp i,h e r e c tified. him self;aboli,h e st ruck; asyawoli, h e st ruckhimse lf;ejovun la,s h e i s wa sh ing;e s-yayomtnla contra cted int oe sya mun la, s heb athes .VI.R ECIPROCALCONJUGATION .50 Thi s i s formedby suffi xingnZat othe radi cal; as ,w ikamba,th ey t alk o r s peak; wi k ambanla,they c onve rse, talk to gethe r ;w it onda,t heyl ov e ;wi t ond anla, t h e y l ove e ach otber;w i joman la,t hey dis pute.VII.INDEFINITECONJUGATION.5 1.This i s formed b yre duplicatingth e rad i ca l, and c hang ingthe i nitial c onsona nt o fth e r eduplication i nt o i t s r e cipro ca l, thus :e ka m ba,h e s p ea k s ;e k ambag a mb a h e b abb les, talk s at r a ndom ;e I c enda,h egoes,walks;e k en d agend a, he wa lk s t o andf r o w i t hn oo bject. Th e s e C onjug atio ns a re ex h ibite d at o n e view i n thef o llowingtabl e : 1. Ra dica lCon jugation -kamba,speak. 2 Caus. "kam biza,cau se t o s pe a k, 3 R elative "k ambinla, spe ak for a nother. 4 .Frequ ent'vo k ambaga, speakco ntin uou s ly,

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" ORTHOGRAPHY., 5.R eflexive s peaktoone self. .( 6.R eciprocal .kambania,c onverse ,, 7. Indefinite "kasnbaqamba,babble.33 Th e 5th,r eflexive form,i sse ldom,ifever,u sed withkamba,butis i nsert e df or uniformit y. '.Thereisavari ety ofoth er form s of modif ying th es ignifi c ation of w o r ds, butth ey ar eirregular v erbs, thus:mi, nya,Ieat;m i n y e z e, I fee dhim ;m i jOnga, Idrink;m i j onje, Icau se himto drink ,o r g ivehim drink.Andther e i sa n other meanin g toth e w ordnye za,feed; .nyeza m i e ib e sa m, cause metoeatmy s in,or annihil ate m e my si n. No one wordis properl y u sed in a llthe se Conju gations. COMPO UND CONJUGATIONS.52.By c ombiningtwoormore o fth e simpl eco njugations, mayforma s man y mor e.Thus thec ausative andfre qu entative combined formkambi eaqa,cau se to s peakc on tinuall y.Thec ausative,rel ativ e. andfr equentative fo r mkambinla eaqa;to ca useto s peakto,orf or,a nother c ontinu ou sly.Butth e f ollowing table will exhibit thi s toth e eye better than wordscandescribeit:ITABLEOF COMPOUND CONJ U:GATIONS. 1.kambi zaqa;cau sative and -fr equentative., 2. kambinlaga relativeaudfrequentative. 3 . k ambinla za,reiative and causative. 4. k amlJinlazaga, . relative. v oan sative,andfr equentative :5 kambag ambaga, ind efinite and frequ entative .. 6"kambagambiza, indefinite and cau sative. . f 7. kambaga1'(bbizaga, ind efinite, c ausative and frequentati ve. r' (, 8. ;kambagambinla,indefinite ,and rei ative.'1 , 9.,ktw.nbagambinlaga,indefini te, relative,andfrequentative,rI. !Dight be oxtended,butthi s isdeemedsuffi cient. : and not, many sjngle ,words q an heused .with allthe se ( :onju andnotmany, of.themare in c ommonuse with.any2"

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34MP ONGWEGI!AMMAll w ord s. B ut anya dult na tivewillund er s tand andu sea ll th e s e a nd m o re,if n e ed b e.Eac hh asawe ll-definedm eaning;a nd eac h ca nb e infl e c ted th rougha llth evo ices ,m odes, an d t en se s, by t he sa merul esa ndprin ciplesas inth e r adical conju gation .Th eVoice s, Mo des, a nd T e nses a re a llf ormed onth e initia l andfin a l sy llables o f t he co mpound co njuga ti on s indi cat in g t hat the a ugments a re co nsidered aspar ts o f t he wo rds th emse lve s. M an yv e r bsw ho se radica ls arene uter o rin transitive,a re mad e tran sitiv e by s o m eo f t he con jugations. M os t o fthev erbs h a veno t o nly a n act ive a nd p a ss ive f or m b ut a u egati ve,a ct ive, an d pas sive f orm;a nd ve rbsin t h e m iddle vo i ce t ake then egat ive for m. 53 N ega tion i sex pressed: 1 s t.Byt he pa rti c l epa,comi ng imm e di ately b efo r e th everb;t hu s,0pab e la,you d o n ot wan t;epabia he h a snot come;wipa l ce 'llda, th ey h ave n ot go n c .Th i spartic le i s u s ed prin cipally,ifnotw holly, w ith t heindi cative mode,p re se ntt ense.2d.Byanacce nt, u su a ll y onthefir st s y lla b le o f th e ver b,buts ometimeso nth e au xili a ry toth e v erb;and t hi s accentofte n c h anges th e t en se, with outc hangingt he formo f t hev erb T hns: J.1fi I c e nda;I go;mi l d 5nda, I d id notgo ; e mp h at i c,md.k endadu, Idid n ot goa tall, d u b e ing th e r adi c al sy ll ab le o f t h e worda ll;m i agen de I w illn ot g o -po s itiver efu s al. T hi s n ega tive ac cent t r oubles noton ly fo r c igners,but ev en n at ive s, in telli ge nt a n de ducatedinth e ir way,an d s ome ti mest hey c h a n ge th e s truc tur eo fa se nte n ce,thatt hey may b es uren ot t o b e mis und e rstood a s expre ss ing ana ffirmativewh en t h e y m ean an e ga tive,o r an egat ivew hent heym eana n a ffi rmat ive.Inth efu tureit c hangesnei therf ormo r tense;thus, e b e l cdnda, h ewill g o; e b e /cfSnda, h e willn otgo; m i nkarnba, Idid n ot s peak. H e rea n a sal so und, ex pres se db ynpr e fixedto thev erb, make s a n e lementinth e n egation Th e rea real so word s whic h see mto b eo fth emselves n egatives,a nd c ontain in th emse lves t he s ubstantivev erbre : az yele,h e i snot;azya,c ontractio n o f t hef ormer,a ndu sedas a Ca m w n ot m e,or n otI;u sed inpromptdenial.These

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.., ORTIICGRAPHY.35lastthree words, ea ch ma y t ake allth e p ersonal p ronouns im mediat ely f ollowing. A ranga m ie, n ot m e.Whena pr o n oun, s ubject o f ave rb,f ollows th e verb, it a lwayst akes th e obj ectivefOI'l11. M OD ES. 5 4.T he M pol1g'we ve rb h asfive m odes'th eIndicative, Imperative, S u bjunct ive,P otential,a nd Infini tive. Th ese a rei dentical w ith th e mosl e s as d efinedi n E ngli s h g rammars Th eIndicative is h ere treate d as th era dicalf ormo f t he ver b. Allth e t enses a reu sed int his m ode. 55 TheI mperati ve i sfo rmedfr om th e I ndicativeb y changin g it s ini tialinto i ts r eciprocalconso nant;thu s,mi le e nda, Igo; g enda, got hou ; e panga,h emakes; vangm ; li, make y e;aeue t e nda,we w rite;r endan ii,wr ite ye T here a re c ontractedformsofce rtain ver bs, use d on lyinth ei mpera tiv e;t hus,olea,goa head;o leanli,goa head ye, fr omk enda,go;o siro,co me on;oo eroan li;co me o n, fro mb ia,come;y ogo,come;yo gonlig unu,C OUley e h ere,see ms tobeave rb u sedo nlyinth e im perative.SUBJUNCTIVEMODE.5 6.Thec haracteristicofthi s m odeisap refixed t o t he r adical f ormoft he ver b,b oth i n th eco ndit ional a ndco nelu:si ve m embers of ase ntence.Th e p article, inth e pr esent t ense, i s[a,and th econcl usive, g am-b[ml e ,. ja mia le enda gonkala, gam b en le miajen le,ifI go t o t own, th en I see(01's hall see) hi m. Thi sis th ecommo n s implef orm.Butac lause com ingb etween th eco nditional andco nclusive m emberso fth eseutence,of tenca uses g ambenle t o b e drop ped .Butth ete nses va ryth ese p articles igns o fth es ubjunctive m ode,as willb esee nb y th e followin gexa mple:Ndo ar oe 'nle, Kraiee t onqusi, g iJ,va nla i leambinli saz yonl' osaon. w'an yaw e Butif C hrist-be notri sen,o r h V 1) n ot ri sen(G reek, P erf. P assive), th en i sou rf aithva in.Inth ep erfectt ense,k dnlei s th es ign o fth es ubjunctivein : the co nditional se ntence,and g avanla inth e cOn
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3ll JlIP ()NG W E G RAMlIIAR. a zue qa g hu lenli, we must s urelygo. co nsecutivesent encesai s prefixed tothe verbs in bo th. POTENTIALlIIODE.57 .Th ec liaracteristicsof thi s modear e, changing thein it ialco nsonanto fth e radi cal intoit s r eciprocal,andthefinal a into e a ndpl acing th e parti cle ga beforethev erb, thus: m i g a g ende go mkala,I mu st go t o t own.a eue ga qam b en lawao,w em ust s peakwith them.o?Jwanlae g a rbn de ngiy e,_ c hildh e mu st l ove moth er his.a nlaqawi ga v enginle gw' e lende,p eople th ey m ust w aitinb oat. 'Forur gency theplu ral t akes theendingofthe imperativeplural: Another formofth ePotential Modcretain s th e formof t hera dical, andt akes the auxiliary M in steado f ga, andthe s ubjectiveofth e v erb i s inth e obj ectivec ase: A wekd j anja '! Youcan work?lh,m i ekd janja. Y es,Icanwork. Wi .th theau xiliary ta thes ame formshold.INFINITIVElIIODE. 5 8. s ignofth e i s go, beforethe radical form o fth e verb ,thus: N fk endff g'oloTll:Q.ago k ola,Igoupthe ri ver to _. But h e) nfiniiiv e f ollows immediately t hepr e cedingverb, parti cle go iadropped: (,, .,,',b ele.Jwjnliq, he.want s to return , ',' m i k e ,koee nkZiVi, I ,go ,bring theoar. IIere ke isacontractionfrom k iJnda, go t onde n enga, I .love.to learn. The vel b t onda isalsou sed with another k eooa, love nOI; togo ,;01',never going.

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ORTH OGRAPHY. r. Thi s m odo { ara l s o u se d thu s :are go" !a">nd a, li e i s t ogo. ":An o th e r st ructure : m akesag reater c hange: w 'akendi go janja aleng ipa,th ey w ent t owo rk and getpay A l e ng' i s h erei n t he co njunctivef orm,an dr etainst he sa me m ode an d t enseas ve rb; "T ENSE,NU MBER, AND PERSONOFVERBS.59 Exc ep tinth e imp erative plu ral,ve rbsh ave n oc hange orf orm f or nu mbero rp erson. F o u rconsec utive t e n sesa re for m e d byc hanges o n t he ver b, wi thout t he a id o fau xiliary p articles. 60 Th ePresent t ense i s id entical witht he E nglish .E M nda,l iegoes Th e imm ediate P ast t ense i s' f ormed fromth e pr esent by dr oppingea ndpr efix in ga ,thus: a k enda h e h as gon e; but i s w ithin s ight,or ca ll.Whether th e p ersonal pron oune,ofthe pr esent, i sc hangedtoa ,andi sst ill a pron oun, orwh ether th eai s tob ec onstruedin so me o therw ay, i s n otyetse ttled 61.F or w ant ofa be ttert erm w e d esignatea notherthePaulo P ast t enoe,Iti ndi cates ti me f arthera dvancedthan th e imm ediate p ast,butn ote xtendingb eyond t o-day.Iti s fo rmed fr om th e i mmediatepastbyc hangingfin alai ntoi,thus: a k endi, h e h as go n e. 6 2.Th e hi storical t enseindicates ind efinitepas t t imc,n ot in cludingt hep resentday ; a ndi s f orm e d fr omt he paulopas t t ense by c hangingt he i nitialco nsonanti nto it s r eci pr ocal,thus:ag endi,h e w ent. " 6 3. Th e p erfecttense i sfo rmed byp lacing t he s ubstantive v erbarea s an a uxiliary b efore t heradica l, andthe p articlep aa fterit,thus:are k endaga p a,h e h asgo ne. An other co nstructionpu ts th es ub ject o f t he ve rbb etweentheauxili ary andth e v erb, thu s : ... I' t" ..: y i r e m ii! felap a g' oga w a, whi ch I h ave pntInh and thi ne,B uthere mi e, l nominative 1;0 fela, idn'the obj ective f orm. 64 'I'ha.pluperfe ct. rtcn se -is form ed byplacingthep as t

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. 38 MPONGWEGRAMMAR. t ense ofth es u bstantiveverbduobefore th epau lo pas t' t enseo ftheve rb thus:aduo ak endagi, hewas, h ewe nt;o r h e had go ne;or,mialuomi ak endagi, I was,I we nt, or I h adg one 65 .Th e fi rstfuture t ense i s fo rmed b y placing b efore th e r adi ca l the a uxil ia ryp articleb e,thu s :e b e k enda, hew ill go ;wi b e k e nda, th ey w ill g o 66. Th e s econd future i s formed fromthefirst f utureby pl a cin g b ef or e i t th es ub sta ntiveve rbduoi nth e immed iate p ast t en s e thus:a duoe b e k end a, hew illhavegone; lit er a lly,h e w as h e willgo 67 Th ere i s al so an other formofapa st t e n se n se din n ar r ation, butb ecoming ob s olete Thi s form a ls otak es thenom in ativeaf terth e verb,a ndth en r epeatstheverb i nadiff eren t form,thu s :. N l e b e bul ia A nyambi e aw ulini e No ah, inl e, And sp uk e Go dH e sp ske to N oahthus.Th e i nitial p articlenl ei s frequ ently omitt ed .There are. o th e rt ens es form ed bya ccents, whi ch willb e better illus trated iuth e p aradigmo fth e v erb .ffiREGULARVERBS.6 8. Th e s e ar e n ot num erous, neith er i sitne cessary t ogivea fullli st,o r a n e xtended a nalysisoft hem. Avo1'O, know;u s ed only i nt hepresent indic ative, andu sed r egularlyw ith a llth e numb er s a nd p ersonso fthep ersona l prono uns:Agami,d islike;s ame ru le asabove.Ok a,s in 1' 1.,goa head.O iJiro,s in .O iJiroanli,p l., comeo n.Thelast twou sed on lyi ntheimperat ive.O kai s d oubtless contracted f rom k enda, go .O virois also c ont racted fr ombia,c om e B1:a, come;mia,know ; an d o thers c ont a iningon ly a diphthong are tr e atedasmonosy l labl e s,a nd a reform ed li ke pa and' nya,t ogive,eat;t hus:mi pa, Igive; mia penliI h avegiven;mi av enli, I gave.

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ORTHOGRAPIIY.3 9 G e nya,go,e at;and so meoth ersa r econtra ction s, and usedonlyinth e indi cative andimp erat iv e.Toai s u s ed as anau xiliary, sometimesa s ap rincipa l v erb, butu sually wit h a c onditiona l s entence Som eo fth e s ub stantive verbs a re a ls oirregular, .!1 B S TANTIVE 69 Then' ofv erbsusedwi th j hi ss ignification, b ut mo st ofth em with other m eaning s.R ei s used e xc lu s iv ely to e xpress e xistence, a s ,a re,h e i s;y i r e, itis;a nd is u se don l y i n th e--p;esent tens e,P eg agai sa EJ g u l a r v erb, u se dpri ncipally to ex presse xistence inth e p ast t en s e s.Doan lai sa lsoar egular v erb, u sed t oex pre ss ex i s tence, butmor ec ommon l yh as them eaning of dw elling ,D uoisa c ontraction fromdoanla,so met i mesu sed to expre ss b e ing butm oreco mmon ly i s anau xiliary tof orm t euses, thu s :aduoak endagi,h e had gone, o rh e w as, h e w ent .Nlea nswersoft en t he purpo se of a v erbo f ex istence,but i t s nom in ative i s alway s inth e obj ective form, an du su ally com esa fterth e v erb, as ,n le mie, iti s me.T oai s a ls ouse d inth e s en se of J gjJe, andto Sam:bo ato emie mbia,a to e toaombia, y e nl a ag ambinli eu e, y e nld k e ayi viii nlue ":"Therefore, wh ether itbeI,whet h er itb e t hey, so w e pr eached, ands o yeb e li eved." 1Cor.xv 11. "Are k e t oa pak!olond alonga,"H e h as al so b ecome th efruitfir st.Toaisar egu lar v erb, us ed inmo st ofth e mod es andt enses.SUBSTANTIVEV ERBS NEGATIVE. 7 0. There a re anumb er ofword s th at expr e s3 n egation o f exist ence ord enia l o f fa c t, andareu sed principally inthe p re sent t e nse. Aranga y e, nothim;aranga n l ue, notyou .Ga,co nt r ac tionofaranga,andus ed instrongpo sit iv e d enial;ga m ie, notme .Zy e l eja zyele,h ei s not;wi z yeli,th ey ar enot;y i z yel e i ti s not Contract ed,a z y e v ava, h e is1I0 tth ere.Z ya,contracted fr omsame,a nd withapr efixed, make s sub

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' !lOMPO;'
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ORTHOGRAPITY. Another formisthis: ffgwe a vienli, 0Tlwanliy e juwapa,Th e m other cam e h erc hildh avingd ied. A we vienl'inc nga, k d ."Mnda g onkala,Y ou h aving fin ished l earnlng,c an A0 to tow n. Njdguw' dnYenli .yiJ, El ephantb eing kill ed, th e p eople th eya tehim.r i s a lso a notherfonn -ofthe p as si ve':" '-JNl'a (lJegagiiJ gog o g'o r(}v e, sy ariago ul eS et an .Andh e w asthere onth e d esert_-tempted byS atan. 41, ,"\. .\ / I '

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PARADIGMOF TUER EGULAR VE RB KAMBA, TO SPEAK. R ADICAL CONJUGATION .ACTIVE AND PA SSIYE VOl(ms. NEGATIYE AN DAFFIRMATIVE.INDICATIVE M ODE.7 4 @ { A ct. <: .Pass. af{ A ct. Z P a s s. j A ct. Z! P a s s .7 5. @ {Act. <: P as s. j Act Z I P ass 76 .@ } Act <: P a s s. totI Ac t. Z.! P ass.(42 ) P r es ent T e nse. ek amba,h e s p ea ks .ekambo,h e i ss poken .e k amba, hedo es nots peak.e k sm b o,h e i s nots poken.a g a mb e h edo e s n o j; s peak(int ensive).a g ambo, hei s n ot s p o k e nt o( intensive).I mm e diat e P ast T ens e ak amba,h e sp oke (w ithin an h our,o rtwo).a ka mbo,hewa s spoken" "ep a kamba,h e spokeno t.ep a kamb o,h e w as n ots poken.PauloPast T ense. a k ambi,h es pok e ( to-day,anh our p ast).a kambio,h ewasspo ken ( to-day, a nh our past) .e p a kamb a h e di d n ots peak .epakambo,hew as n ots poken .

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77. ei{ A ct.-eP ass. .. { A ct. Z Pass .PARADIGM.Hist orical T ense .a g ambi, h es poke .ag ambio,h e w as spo ken.ek amba,h ed idno tspea k .e ksmbo,h e was n ot s p o k e n.' 4378. ei jA ct <11 P ass. { Ac t. Z P ass.Perfec t T en s e ar e ka mbaJJa,h e h ass poken are k ambopa,h e w a ss po k en.ep akamb a h e h a s n ot s poke n. 'e p a k ambo,h e was n ot s p oke n .79. {A ct. <: P ass. A ct. Z lPass. 80. {A ct. <1 P ass. ..\ A ct. Z ) P ass. 81. gJ A ct. <: lP a s s J A ct. Z lP ass. 82. :5':;'l Sing. PIu :5';2 ISing. &!81 P In.Plup erfe d. T ense a luoakambi, hp, hac!s poken .aluoak ambio,h e h ad b een s poken. eduoa l cambi,heh ad n ot s p o k e n.e duoak ambio,h e h ad n ot b eens poke n. First Futur e T e nse eb e k amba,h ew ill spea k.e b e k ambo,h ew ill b e spo ken ,eb ek amba,h e willn ot s pea k .eb ekambo,h e w ill n otbesp oke n.S e condFuture T e ns e.e b e duoakam b i ,h e willh a v e spoke n .e b e d uoak ambio ,h e willh a v eb e en sp oken.ed uoaq ambi,h e willn ot h ave s poke n .e dnoa g a mbi, h e willn ot h ave b e en sp oken.IJ\[PERATlVE M ODE.A ffirmativ e A etive.G amba,s peak.Ga mbanli,s peak ye .Oamb are,sp eak (emp h at i c) .Gambarenli"s peakye(emphatic).

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M PONGWEG RAMMAR. ";"2 IS ine 881 {Sing. cb PIu Gambi:za,ca use to s peak .Gambizanli, cause ye t os peak.Gam bizare,ca uset os peak (e mphatic) .Gam hizarenli,ca use ye him t o s peak (e m-. ph atie).R emark.A ll thesimpleandco mpound co njugationsformth eir i m p erativesbyt he same rul es.83 :tJ"o? {Si ng. P!8 P Iu. g'2{ S i ng 88 PI u.Affirma tiveP assive. G ambo,bes poken. Gam bonli, b e .y es poken.Gam bizo,ca uset o be s po ke n .G ambizonli,ca use ye t o bespo ken. S ing. P iu. S ing.P Iu.Sing. P iu. 8 4.R emark.Inth epass ivev o i ce th e i mp e rativemod e i s l ess u sedo ut ofth eradic al co njugation.Neg ative. agamba,spea kn ot a gambanli, s peak ye n ot. arande, kamba yo u n eed not s peak .ariindekam b enli,yenee dn ots peak.Rig'agamba,l eave n ots peak ( Donb.N eg .)Rig'a gambanli,l eave n otspea k ye ( Doub.Neg )R e mark.T hesimpleverb t akest he negative a ccento nth eseco nd vowe l, andthep refixedama kes a parto fth e ne gativeele me nt.Thea uxiliary ve rb tOnda t o l ove, tak es th e a ccent in th e same man ner .Thea uxiliaryt iga,t o l ea v e,co ntracted t oR ig'i n i mper., th rows th e n egative acce nton t o the i nitial vow elo f t he ve rb, making ad ouble n e g a tiv e ,": 'Intheex pr ession( very co mmon) rig e kamb a ,theformand f orc e o fth e n egative i s in th e au xil iary rige, l eavingt he ve rbin th e f orm ofth e indi cat ive pre se nt.I

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. 85. {A ct. 0<;P ass.tj,j A ct;K dnlemindiiomiakambi,i f I h adnot" Z I P ass. ., K dnle mi' nd ll omiakambio,if I ha dn ot b een spoken , I C AUSATIVECONJUG ATION. :" P resentT en se.. I j A ct . Ja m f ak ambiea,if) ca use t o s peak :.- "'1I Pass.Ja ,mi Cjk a mbi zo, if 'I au.! c aused t os peak.N cg.Same a s theradi calc onjugation. ,I

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46 MP ONGWE G RAlIlMAR. 9 2. {Ac t. <1 Pass. I Ac t .z 1 P ass. 94 { <1 P a s s. { Ac t ._ t Pass .'I mperfect T ense.9 1. {Ac t K dnle miakambizi,ifI ca used to s peak. <1Pass .K dnle miakamb ieio,i fIwa sc ausedt o sp eak. H istorical T ense. K l/nu mi a gambizi, ifIc ausedto s peak. Kdnle mia gam bizio,i fIwa s c aused t os peak.Aroenli m ikambi za,ca usednotto spea k.A roeniimi k ambizo, ifw as not ca usedn ot t ospea k.P erfe c t T en se .93 A ct Kdnle miarekam bi ea p a,ifIh aveca usedto spea k.Pass Kdnle miar e k ambieopa,ifI h ave b een ca used t o s peak.1 st P luperfe ct T ense. Kdnle miaduomiaka mbizi,ifIh adca used tospeak K anle miadu om iakam bizio,ifIh ad b een causedtospea k. Kanl e mindu omiaka mbizi,ifIh adnotca usedt o s peak .Kdnle m ia luomiaka mbizio,ifIh ad not bee n ca used t o s pea k. { Ac t. Pass { Ac t. P as s.95 .2dPlup e rfect T ense. Kdnle mialu omia qambiei,ifIh adca used tospea k. Kdnle mia luomia qambieio,ifIh ad b een ca usedt os peak. K dnle m id uomi a gambizi, ifIh ad not ca usedt ospea k. K dnle m i duom iaqa mbieio,ifIhadn ot beenca usedt os peak.N OTE.-The f ormationo ft enses,anda lsoofthe form s ofthen egatives,a re t he sa m 'e inthe remainingSimpleandinalltheCompoundCo njugations.

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PARADIGM .47 ThecorrelativeofJ aor J uga, i s G ambenle. Thecorrelativeofktmlei s Ga vunla. Example:J a mia kenda, g ambenle awe k a tiganla,IfI g o th en y ou ca n r emain. Kanle0 l uo 'Venla, g avanla ....e tajuwa d u,Ifth ouha dstbeenh ere,t hen . .h e h adnotd ied .J onN xi.32. PO TENTIAL iIODE.-RADICAL CONJUGATION.Pres en t T ense .96.
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MP ONGWE G RAM M AR. IG o ,i s t hep roper s ign o fth ei nfinitive,butinth e following exam ple sgo i s omi tt e d:Kbele .noq enago,h e w ants t o build a h ouse .11 l i tondeko lempunji,Il oveto b uy iv ory. Z ung e k o o enkavi,q ui ckb ring a n o ar. I nth ese exam ples t he gove rning ve rb co mingdire ctly be f or e th e infi nitive dr ops 'go,an d c hangesfin alaint oe ,and t heverb snog e ko le, a nn ko o ecom ingd ire ctlyb eforenoun scommenc ing w ith aconso nant, c h a n ge th e n ormalaintoe.100.A ct.Pass.A ct.P ass.A ct. P ass PARTICIPLE.Pres e nt T ense. Nkarribaga, s peaking.Nkambaqo;s pokento.Ilambinlaga,s peakingwith .Kamb inlago,s pokenwit h. P ast T ense K a7flbaga p a,ha vings poken .K ambagopa,h avingbe en s poken.T ombare.pa ,havin gthrown out .v ie n lij anja, k d v ange s heca,h aving fi nished. w orking, t hen play B o .Bunya.. A LIST OF S OME ADVERBS. ;)B araba. N ear, intim eo rpl ace,o rnumber.B arabanli m panld, ne ar thepath ." B araba nl 'ompuma w'ara ; n eara wh ole year .B arabanlinta us en ,n ear a th ousand.Faro ff: A r e b o,h e i s far a way.At d a wn 0 Bunya,. g ambiJonle J azu' d kendga . f'Inth e earlyd awn, th en wego B wWwe. Openly,boldly .Go Qui. Open l y ,. bold l y \Ekendagobni ,ndompang inliga nfly aria, hewa lkedno topen ly.ibuta s it.werein s ecret.

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A L I ST OF SO)!EA VVElmS 49 Buku.D adie D aca.D acadaoa Genld.Gooosyo. G ogo Gon tye. Got evenld. Gunlu. Gw'igonlo Jajangw e. J anli. J au I Cendekende .Kwekwe.Kwevi111o.Jlbia111Oie .Jfenle. N l cn ld. 3Op enly, p lainly. f romv ,bukunla,t o s peak bol dly;i ntensive,b ulsunla ouku l Yl' afukunli e igam oa m en ydnld b uku, a nd heopenedwordt hat bo ldly, plainly.Onl y.uu d adie? I o nly? Faro ff.Elend ezi re dava,thebo at i s f ar a way. In tensiveof l ast. :N eithe r -,Vi I csmb anlawao g enld pikiliaosaon. m ew dnld,I dil l n ots p e akata ll w ith t hem, n eithert hink oft hat a ffa ir Ah ead. Arego oosyo,h e isa head. Th ere. lV i k endag ogo,th eygot here B e l ow .l V i re g ontye ,th eya re ont he gr onnd. lV i s uminlcgonty e ,th ey d es c end t oea rth '.Iu st :now.IV ap egagfl;gun lu got even la Theyw ere h e r e ju st now. H ere A re qunlu,h e i s h ere.Yog a gun ,co meh ere Above Inydnli si dog wagw'i goZo,bi rd. th ey O y a bove.Vuginlia y i d andalandag o n tye,I nsectsth eycraw l o nth eea rth.Pres entl y Jli bi jajangwe,I co ruepr es e ntly,b y a ndby D ay b efore yester day. Y esterday S oftly, s oftly G ffidanlr;,y e k e n d eken dekdnde are n la sijdgd,go wi th hi)!l v ery s oftly, b ecause h e i s v erys ick Suffi cient.Verylittl e G ffida k w e g oa littl e way Zyusya k we, m ove a long a lit tle.Littl es hutth em, awink,anin stant. We ll. Or e m biambi eYa rey ou w ell 1 T o-morrow. J Ii b ia mffile, I c omet o -morrow. T o-day.E k enda nlffi ld, h e goes to -day.

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50 N leganlega Ngwa. N j e.Nldnld.NUnld N yaw e .Nyaw enya w e. N yaw eg e P ek iipek e P e le. Pier e Polo. R egd Iielanqa nlo Tet evenld Vanga Vd tev enld .fdvd.Viii Vendetua. V ende.V"enlti. Via. V iaganlo. MP QNGWE GRAM MAR Q ui ck ly G endanleganl ega, go inh aste. Shut. Nago yi r e ngwa, theh ouse -i ss hut. Ajar .I g u gi n yi r e nje, th edoo ri sa jar.Thus,s o.Atoe uldnld,ithappe ned t hus. T o-day.N o. 0 kenda? do y ou gil?N yaw e, no. T o n oe ffect,f or nothing Azw' ak endi vd ny aw enya w e w e w ent for nothing N o, s ir ee ,b ynom eans. G enda nla mie vdvd gowithm e th ere. Nyaweg e, by n o m eans. Co n tracte dfromp e k end a, p e. k enda, stilIgo in g,s tilI goi ng;f orevera nd e ver S oon, qui ckly G enaa pele ,go s oon, i mme di ate l y N ear .Atoenli pier e nl'owatanga,h e h as c omen ear t he s hip.Vc ry .E jdfJ a polo,h e i sv erysic k. C rooked l y .Ek enda r ega h ewa lks crook ed l y C ro ss wi se .Iiereyi r e r elanqanlo ,t he st i c ks a re c ros s w ise ,orcro ssed . Tli st now Abia t ete v enlti, hec ame ju stnow. So. Vanga-nldnla, mi ag ende, eve ni fso, I w illnotgo J u s tn ow.Ajanja vava vdt ene nla? he w as workingt h e rej u s t n ow. Th ere.Edoanla vdva, he li vesthere. H ere. .LIre ei,h e i s h ere P erhap s.V endeluawib ia,p erhaps th ey w ill notcome Le st G ena a n eganega, evende p era, Goqu icklyl e st h ee scape,H ere.W ibia v e nld, t heyco meh ere. En tirely.lV 'anyenli s odsvia,th ey h ave ea ten a ll e ntirely. B eyond.lV 'akendi viagan lonrowatanga,

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.A. -LISTOF SO}lE ADVERBS.51 Y en l a. Donq a. S unga. th ey w ent b eyond th es hip;mo re th an. Wi nla w 'anl en gi viagan lo nla m e wanla, th ese l earned m ore th an th ose. S o. Y anja y entd,w orkso F irst, .A d onqe k e naa, h e fir st w ent. Quickl y.Z unge b ia,qui cklyco me. M anya dverbsar e u sedasa djectives, a udi n t hesa mef orm. Th e l ast t woa dv erbsi nth e li sta re s pecimens ofa l argeclass inth e f ormo fr egularve rbs,u seda dv er bially, in th e d iff er en tmod esa ndt enses, a nd un iformlys tandingn ext b efore th e p rincipalver b. 1 02. F or a n imp erfe ct li sto fPrepositions,Co njunctions, andInterjections,se eP aragraphs37 38 39, 4 0.

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SYNTAX.NOUNS.103 Ev ery pr oper n ame,o rn ameo fp erson,s tandingbe fo re t he verb, t a kes t he p ersonal pr onoun b etween i ta ndth e ve rb, t hus : l \'jiwo e k e nda go n kala,Njiwos heg oes totown.Angilee ko lempunji,An gile h e bu ys ivor y. Ev eryco mmonn ouna lsotak es it s d efinite pronouninthe sa mem anner, thu s : Mbo nli yibi a,th e g oatitc omes l zydge nyi dogwa thedu ck itfli es;and l zydg e ny 'adogwi,t he du ck it fl ew . I nthelast s entenceicomin g befor e a i s dropped Ot"futu i oipanda,the s mokeitris es .E nlingoz ipowa,thetide i tebb s. N OUNSA....'!DNOUNS .1 04. Th e po ssessive ca se i s f ormed b y th e u seo fth e d efi nit ep ronoun s tandingbetwe en th e noun limit ed andth e n o un ofpossess ion,thu s : N ago y'O nlem e th e h ouse ofOnl erne, or Onl eme's h ouse.Nkavi y' elendez i J.Ytdkd, oar o fthebo at of N taka, oroar o f Nt aka's b oat .I nyoi ny'or dmM, th e voice o fth e tr umpet In a llea ses t he d efinite pr onoun mu st ag ree in numb er and c lasswiththep receding n oun, thu s : Akandd mintyagayiKeiya ,thep lantains ofK eiya's g arden. In this s e n tencemia grees innumbe rand c la ss with ahindd, andyiw ithntyaga .Wh en thefollowi ng no un comm ences w ith avowe l, theio f thede finite p r onoun (orartic ulation ) isd ropped, a nd thef rag m ent, aco n sona nt,i sattachedtot hen oun o f p osse s sion with an a postrophe.(52)

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SYNTAX. 53NO UN A NDADJECTIVE.105 Th e whi ch qu a lifi es or limit s s tands aft er it andmustbeofth esa me numb erandclass, thus: D ago mpo lo,hous e l ar ge S inago s impolos imbia,hou ses l argego od. E zango evolo,bo ok larg e Y ango vo lo,b ooks l arge. O ldvi o la,r iver lon g. I ldv' i la, riv ers l ong. S ijavi s ida,l eaves l on g. Th esame ru l e ofarran gementa nda greementappli es to a ll th ead jecti vepr onouns In steado f m yh ouse, iti s hou se I m ine, boo k y ours, h at hi s,e tc 10 6 .Forth eusea ndco nstructiono fp ersonal, d efinite,a d' j ective,a ndinterrogative p ronouns,see Paragraphs 20-23, and29-32.VERBS .107.U suallyina dir ectaffi rmat ion or n arration, th es ub [ ectIor n ominative)o fth e v erbstands b efore i t ButJu-a..... c onjunctive subj ecto f t he verb fo llows J.!..; a ndifa p r onoun i si ncor porate d wi thit after th em a nner of th e j;[ebrew ... thus: Dl'aWltlinli e io ao,a nd sa idh eto th em.Inth atsen tence t he p reposition to ,i sco ntainedi nt he ve rb it self. B ut i f th es ubje c t be n otap ronoun, t he ve rbi s r e peatedaft er th enomina tive. ithus : D l'affeli J 6 n a lfel' in l en gi y e. Andca lledJohn, h e call ed hi s di sc ipl es JYl' ayiv iri J isu awulinlia uiao ,A nd an swered J esusa nds aid toth em .In th e abov ese ntence,atth eseco ndv erb,a wulinlia,the initi alamakes what i s calledth ec onjunctivef orm ofthe verb whi ch fo rm i s inveryfr equent u se. No uns havenoca se form;but wher ever apron oun i s the subj ect 0 (;andfollows it,the pronoun t akes the form ofth e obj ective case . Nl'awulinlie uiao,andh e toldth em. Dl'awulinlio y e nlauiao,andwa s t old himbythem .

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54:MP ONGWE G RAMMAR. III th e ab ove sent ences, oneact iveth e oth er p assive, th e e and y e a re b ot h s ubj ec ts of th eve rbs, a nd a reb oth intheob j ec tiv e f orm. W h e nthe s ubjecto f averbisanO UD, a nd comes b eforet he v erb, th e p ersona l pro nounnni formlys tandsb etween th e n ouna n d t hev erb, th u s : .A n gile e k amba, A ngileh e s peaks.S onia ejanja,Son iah e wor k s.M bonliy i re vavd, t h e g oat it is th ere. A ve rb s e ldom f o llo wsav er b ( in t he sa me se ntence)inth e s am e f o rm,th ough allb e inth esa memod e a ndt e n se ,th us:Hdo rl lndan l ilova loiJiyanli, ka dendembia,a zunga,b ut l oveyo ur e nemie s ,anddogood a ndl end.Int hi ss e n tence th e fir s tver b, r and a nli, i s imp erat iveplural;t he se con d ,d e nde ,i s in t h e f o rm of t h e ind i cative p r esent;the third ,a z u nga,i s t he c onj u nct i ve f o rm,whi c hi s th efo rm o fth e imp eratives in. w it hap r efixed B utf requently, w hent wo o r thr ee v erb s f ollowina se n te nc easabove a llinm e aning inth e imp.p lu ., th es e co n d t a ke s t he i mp.p iu. e ndin g, an d th e third i s i nth ec onjunc ti vefo rm, t hus: R dnaanl'ilo v alo v i ya nli, k a den a an l i mbia azunga .1 08 On e p ec uli arity oft hi s l anguage i st hev ery =us e oLthe _pa ssivesoice. T he n at ives l ove _i L In s tead of say ing,AndJ esus r eb ukedhim i tis Nl'az em b i o y e n liJisu,andh e wa s r ebuk e d byJe s us,Instead o f,What s oever th ou sh alt a sk, iti s, E zam' e a u zi b e b ambiondd ,Wh at s oev er s hall h eas kedbyy o u.E tond o nl'an l aga,h e i s l oved b yt he p eo. p I e, and n ot, T hepeop lelo veh im.Inya8in yo mie, fo od e a tenb yme S ALUTATIONS.1 U9.1.sa; 2. Mb olo,s ingular.S alenli,plural. Mbol oanli, plural. T he fir s t i s the s a lut a tion a fterl ong a bsence, or o nth ea rri v alof s t r a ng e r s .Theh ost,s itting,r eceives th em in s ilence, until a llh av e h eensea tedfora s paceoftime.H e then g ives th esa lutation o rw elcome,S alenli,welcome They re spond,

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SY NTAX.IA i,saliu w elcome,t hou.Afte r a m inut e ortwo a nd p erhap s p assing afewword s, t h e ho stco mmen ce sth eco mmo n s a lut at i o n Mbo lo anli, andt her es pon se,Ai,m bolo k e, orm b oloanli k e, i f th ere b e oth ers w ithth e h ost.Ifth ere be spe c i a l fr i ends, l o ng se parated,th ey thro w their arm s aro und ea c h o ther's shou l ders,withth esa lutation, Sam ba, s t ro ng l y ac c entin g th e final sy llable .Thesa lutation al ways b eg in s )I w iththeh ost, n eve r with th ev isitor,Ifth ere b e n o s alutation 71 th er e i s mi s chi efintended.' D epart .Ifth ere b efrequent m eetingsduringth e d ay,t he p ass-word i sab io,s in.,a bionli,p iu.ADIEUS. 11 0.suak endaq,I a m go ne .' Ai, g endaga mb iambie, y ea, go pr osp erou sly }d i ak enda ga nli,p lu.,I a m g on e / yo u.Ai, g e n d a,qa m b iam bi e y ea, go pr o s per ousl y. .A zu e l c e ndaganZi, p lu.,w e a re go n e yo u .A i, g e ndaganli m biambi e, y ea,g o :le pro spero usly. 111. Jfi a bia g o t iginlti oj anli,I h a v e come to l ea v e th ee,goo d-bye, N i ab ia go panganla nl' awi3, ornl'anlu e,I h a v e c ome topr om i se wi th t h ee, o rwi th yo u The r es pons e i s, G end aga, org endaganli, m biambi e, G ot ho u,o r go y e, pr o s perously .N OTE1.-lnt h eabov e salutation,.J Ib oloi stheadjective ol d ,jappliedprincipally to p e r s on s,Iti smade i ntoani rr egularv e rb ,imper ativ e m ode and. t he p lural isar egu larimperativeplural, Plb o loanli .N OTE2 -TheMpongwove rbfors alute i s b ogi zy a .Ifa p er sond o n ot h earo rh eedasalutation,h e isto ld,e b ogizya h esa lutesyo u ; o r,miabog i z ya.T o r efus e asa lutationi stooff e rthegrossest L. i n s ul t,anda s lavewillr esent it.NOTE3.-1fap erson b e go ingt oKingGeo rg e 's, a notherwillsay t ohim, lV ogizyamie R enjugo.S alute,m e Renjogo.Or lV ogi zyanli mie an laga w i re vaiJa S alute y e m e th e p eople wh oareth ere .

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56 MP Ol
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SYNTAX. 57 Prepositions areu sually elidedfor e uphony.Go afJien lianlaga a mdri n li e iendeeze nle.Thi sse ntencei ss p ok e n andprop erly writt en, thus:Ow afJien l' an lag' amdri nl' e lend' e zenle, \ Vhencame p eopleo therwithboato th e r .Ina w'thewi so nly a vin culum inpl aceo fo .T h e ot her four c ontractionsfollowth e c ommon rul eofe lision.PRONOlllINALA D.TECTIVES.11 5 Nouns sta ndingn ext b ef ore pr onomin al adj ect iv es with fin a la ,c hangeat oi ,thus: i gambinyam ,my word;i vangi nye, hi s l aw; agdng i mazyo, o ur sp ea rs. B ut, rather, a gdng' imaeuo ; I gamb' i nyam ;, ivanil' inye;, thu se l iding S a,a ndj oining i tot hepr onoun,w h e rei t b el on gs. N o unster minatin g in ot herv owelsrema in un changed, th u s : il(,(cnd t'i n y e,h is pl a nt a in;i men lo yao ,t h e irfi n gers ;Oui arow a z yo,o ur c a n oe ; Ozunge w d,yo ur Saviour.Bntwr ite,il ..dndd n y e h is p lantain; imenlo yao,t heirfi n ge r s ;O euruje wd, y our S av iour. F or, a s k a man,e le n de zinl(i z a ma nd e ? b oatthi s who se? H e r epli es,i za m. Oz y eiJe w inld wa man d e? t his s poo n w h ose? H e r epli e s, iwd, yo urs .Pokolo m e y li y amande?w ho se h ats t ho se? H e re pli e s,i yao,t h eirs, \J 'Thu sth ei,w hi c hpr obably h elongsto th epr onom inal adj ec ti ve,inth e fi r st exam ple s, h as b een t r ans f er redtot h e n oun, andi nthe l as te xa mpl es h as b e ene lided. The se are sug g estion s fo r _luA:;U(7u><)ka?U}"'C: EWIRIA-DARKSAYINGS.11 6.T hisi sa lan guag es poken o nlyb y th ee ld ers, a ndu sed onl y i nt heir sec retcoun cils;th ough the secretco nncilm ay b e h eld inop en a ssembly.Iti s f ormed by c hanging word s, andm aking aB abel,Tree, m ay m ean afi sh; w ater, m ay meana g un; go rilla,mayme an a s hip,andli fe, m a.y m ean d eath.Andtheverbs ar e tr ansmuted inth es amem anner.Nociph er t elegrams evercqualeditforconfu sion and ob .

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58MP ONGWE G RAMMAR. s curity.Andno m an un der t wenty-fiveyearsof ag
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GENERAL REMARKS.59winld, thisfinger,itwould have b eenc orrect.Butepuriuiinlacouldnotbe tolerated, exc ept inafor ei n er whoi s at ( tempting tospeak,andhewillbetoler ated luanything." Sncha training willpres erve th e spok en lan guage ofap eo plein its purity, better thanallth e diction aries audgram mars thate verwere writt en. 120.TheProverbs ofth e Mp ongwes f orma l arge 'parto f their curr ent lit eratur e, andth eirso ngsar e n everex hau s ted. Sol omons pakethree thou s and pr ov erb s,a ndh isso n gs w ere ath ou s andan dfi ve.Butth ere i s li ttl e prob ability t hat h e origin ated thr eehundredo fth e p roverbs,o r o ne hundr e da nd fiv e ofth eso ngs.Proverbsor iginate with th e p e ople,a ndp robably m ost ofthemin t hem ore primitive s tate o f socie ty.A.ndth e prov erbsofth e Mpongwe s ar e worth pr eserving.

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AVOCABULARYOFT HEMPONGWEL ANGUAGE, BY AMERICANMISSIONARIES,ATGABOON.WESTAFRICA.NEWYORK:MISSIONHOUSE,2 3CENTRESTREET.1 8 7 9.'-

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MPONGWEDIOTIONARY.A. Ab e, 3p l. Bu rying place.Abio ,p l.a bi o ni ,Sa l utation f orse condm e e ting on sa me d ay.A bob o ,3p l. L ungs Abok e a S peck led. A bukw e 3p l. Ya ws. Adune n ,S ma ll y ellow b ird. A gal i, 3p l, O il, vege tabl e o r a nimal. A ga mi, v ,H ate, ir. a U9 d ef., u sedon lyinI ndicativePres e nt Ag e i, a .Fre sh (wat er),see Nkei. A yandi 3pl.Apprehension, a n x i ety s or row Aguga,3 p l T roub le ,d istre ss, d esol ation. Ai. Replyt ot he sa lutations, M bolo"a nd"Abio."Aka,3pI. Sa p A kdtal rl 3p l.d ovi' a kdtdld T ok neeld own, l e ts et th e kn e e s .Akaqa.Ah ead -war rior.A kete .Aghast,ph. s yum' ak ete Ake, 3pl.L au ghter. Akeva, pl. a kevani. Thankyou d ef.ve rb a ndn.Akoma .Ah e ad-wind.Akulu,3 pI.v,Bribe;payfor bu ying so methingforan other. Akulu. Adis ease offingers andt oes Alatd, 3pl.F ellowship. Alugu, 3p l. S pirituousliq u ors, p alm-win e A inarak anlo, 3 .p l. Fo rks (o f a r oad). A manli, 3pl. G ras s. Amale, 1i rr eg.( s ,a ndp l.s a me ) Af abulousk ind ofanima l. Ambilie,3 pl. Mod esty, f alse d elicacy .A mb e -niin qo,3p l. M ilk Afnen j e, 3pI.P e ace ,q uiet.Ampandia,3p l.F lood,fl owiu g (o f ti d e).A mpunli,3pI. Fo a m,f roth.And e ,r el. p rou Wh at. Angdla. S c arle t,eoloredc loth, r edflann el.Aniko,3pI. Sw o ll en limb s fromrh eumatism.Anl ing o,3 pI.W a ter. Anliina A pparition,a ny s trangeuna cc ountable thin g h appening,spen ter Anlwa,3 pl. M oney, a rticles oftr ade,s ometime ss ingular.A n lra ,a .Privately,a part fr om othe r s, a lone.A nlango,3pl S m e ll, s tench. Antyd-f5inld, 3 pl. S l ee p. A nltte, p ers. pr on. 2dpI.Ye, vou. Anyamia, 3pl.Ebb(tid e). Anyambie.The C reator,G od.Alonqa,n.F ormer time at fir st.Alonqi bosyo. P ersons who hav e di ed b efore. Anyege, 3pl.The fringe of a c loth,etc .

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6MPONGWEIJICTIONARYT ha veatoone by Aiudofelia ,n.At r ee th eI B a q inlo v.in b ark of w hi c hi s u s ed i n t hin g br oughth ea lin gwounds.ch a n ce. Ara a All whol e ent ire ,Bakab a ka, 'a d .A ll a bout, a ll co mpl ete. ove r;of track s onb eac h. Are, n .P o i so n.B ala,v ,t .I t i s p e c t( a f arm); A ro iti,3 p i. f 'X tosa:V omit t ok eepw atcha t ni gh t. Asega 3 p1. Fo re tas te.Bala.A wa k e . A ..is e, 3 p l B as hfulne ss .B aka,v .1.T o in quir e t h e A tdniia, a.S potted .p r i ceo f a nyt hi ng AM, a ux.p art. H ad.B aka,v,t K indle(li re).Ati,3p l ,F oeces, excre ment. Balc u,p a r t .T os tuiuhle. Atinla, 3p I. S te rn (o fb oat,B ak unl a,v.t I nt e rf e re, ca no e,e tc .) m e d d le; a n s w e r f o r an ot her.A iJen d e 3 p I. I n p lace o f .H a mb ia ,v .t,A sk .IT akea h a tI n p l ace of a chest.B a mbaVtS hi ne ) wd u g"e poko l o g wu' v e nde TIl u gara. .l AiJ oro, v ,e x .Kn ow, d e f .v .Bambiza ,v .t .Ca us et os hm e o nlyIndicative P r ese nt. B a m i nl a v .t Bl aze .Aiionlo,6 pl Sk ill, c un ni n g B a mi nl ia, v .t. Ca use toAwangempon do,n Asp ecies bl a z e . ofa nt elope. B andam mlc: v .t .Be ca re-A wdg d 3pI. P a l sy. ful of; Awe,2 d B an da,a d. l,1$'ht; f as t. Ayel1jinla, a d A td ay-br eak ,B an da,v ,t. .1 0h a v e sex ua l ea rly co m n e rc e wi th . Aye p ers.pron 3 d s in g R e .Bandiza ,v t .Pro stitute ; Azlte, p er s p ron 1 s tp I.' Vc ca u se t o c om m it AZlt eme, pro ii,O ur se lve s.B a ndanla,v .t ,C ohabit toAzyingo,3p I. A ngui s h. ex ge t h .e r m an w oma n t reme. B andw-,:, v .t T o m a k e fas t,A zyo,6 p l, M o uth o f ariv el' .Banq atia,v ,t . J a m :p ress,A zyile, 3p l ,P a in,grief,dan s q .u e ez e c rowd;t o f ast e n ge r ..w ithb utton Azyigwazyigwa : As ma llB a nqo ,a d.Cut . s c ru bB anqon lab ango lradmg w ith o uttrus t B angunlia, v.t. S e para te :B.d i vide.B a ,pl. ,B an i,ir v H ere,Bosupoa;v .t .S ep arat e d it a k e i t;m os tlyinoff er in gv ide;b e apart. a t h i ng .Bangwanla,v ,1. B a,ad .Down;inp hra s e, fr omea ch o ther .b ola b a ,th r o w d own.Bana ,v ,1.B es uspended,Baq a,v .1.B ring,f etc h h un g up ,.

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MPO NGWE DI CTIONARY.7Banlia,v t (Kel ekeUj). H angIB enga,v.t ,F ollow. u p, s uspe n ded.B engin l a,v .i.Tob e, orBara,v. i n Tobeinth ec ome01' go dose t o o n e h ah it o f B en la,v ,i. R e or b e come Iiaraba,a d. ]'I e ar. h ot.bo il ( water). B are, a d ve rbalv erb. Many Bl:ba, v.S tick a t hin g f ast, t im e s. sea l.Batia,v t.Join,putto geth-B eri a,v ,T oa lla y pai n, a pply e r. m edicine,s tickon as a pial>Bata, a d. P erched,sea ted.t er, B ataminla, v .i.Alight.B e rinla,v t.A ccus e f alse l y.Batempi r a.Ak eg;p owd er B ed e t a d Ind en t at ion,B aza,v. t .(Baz ya).S kin;brui sed c ut up a nimals a ndbird s Bedia, v.t .B rui se d;ind ent.BI I,a A live. B ek unia. Divid e ,br eak in B dM, ad. L eaky. tw o.B Ildia,v ,B e un grat efu l, ex B ek wa, v .i.D ivide inh a l v e s pr e s in gra t itud e. B e ngunla, v,t. D efine ex -B di,v in.T o cetup a tpl ain, in terpret. night,tos ee ktoaestr oy b y B e nla, v .t Pl ant, b ury wit chpo i so n.B emba,v ,t.W atch, ( at hief, B ali,ad. Cl ear, quit e, wholl y,e t c .) ent irely. B eta, v t.Nam e;ca U; s up-tuu;ad .Within. p o s e.Bdnda,v.i.Ripen:r ed B e ta, v.Supp ose, m ean.Bd ndia,v .ca ns ,T o rip en B eya, v ,T oIuff ,B anda ,v.i T o be come an gry.Bia,v ,i O ome. BdnJunla. Fini sh off(acanoe,B ika,v,t,H ate e te.)Bilia,v ,t.Preserve th e r eB dnla v.i R ot. m ainso f a m eal. Banja, v .i.Out,w ound.Bilia,v t.To bes hyof ,coy ,BI lnjanla,v .i.Tob e cutr eserved, b ashful;n ot f orwith knife;w onnd w ard.B dra,v t W ear ( clothes) .B imbia,v t.R espect, rever-B e,aUK.v ,W ill. en ce. .' B e nga,v .t,N ameo fatribe.B inda,v t Kn ead, mix .Beqa;v.t.F e ll (tr ee).Bindakanlia,v .t, Mix B ekelia,v t.Trust in .B inla,v .t.Skim.B ela. v.t Want, s eek.Bioqa,v .i.B e lch.Benda,v.t B e a ngry .Bira.T o stopp eop le fightBendiea,v t Oa u se one t oing;makepea ce b e ang ry. B ivi ria, v .t,R espect, r ev-B endinla,v t Beangryate ren ce, r e gard, h onor . anyone.B o,ad Fa r awa y.

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8 M POXGWE DICTIONARY.B o an g anya,a d.Arrivedat.Bob a ,a .L ops ided,onesid ed .B ooi ea ,v .t. H alfsheet.B og a ,v .t ,C hew ma stieate; t oer ack w itht eeth.Bog i n l a, v i. Or y a loud;bl uster B o gi:::y a, v ,t ,Sa luteo ne wi th .iJlbol o." B o g i a nl a,r e e ip.co nj Sa luteon ean other.Boka ;v .t .B ark.B o k a ,v .t. Di go ut (ca no e) .B o kuc a,v,i.T oca vein ( w e ll ); g ra ve ; op en .Bo la nqanla,v ,i.T os s a bout, a sca n oeinw ave g 'o s aon .] 0g lorym.B o l a,v .t.Whip, h eat, s trike .B o la( njali ) .Di scharg e (a g u n ) .Bo a( a s ngdma). B eat ( d ru m).B o l a( i t u ) .Orack(a j ok e ).B o l a( e p o) .Us e (i nde ce nt w o rd s ) .B o l a ( ba ), v .t T o th row d o w n; e g ., acow .B o la ( i s ajJoga). T os lap w ith o pe n h and B o l a( ik(1pa) .T oboas t .B O!JVJa ,v ,t A rrive;co me; to g o toaplace .B O!JVJa ,v i.A ppearin s ight; b e ri ch. B O JVJa v ,i. L eak.B O!JVJu n L oom.Bon qumia .v T o bu bble up .B o nq u nl a,v ,t,T ob ringup a no rphan.Bongeni.B ung.Bon da,v. t O oncert;aplan;cum Mondd. Bonla,v .i ,bonl'epokolo .Toputona hat;cove rahouse;puton(h at).B onla,v ,t.Empty,pourout .B onlanla,v .i ,T o up set,ca p s ize.Bon lio,v,p B ee mpty;d es titutcof,aoonlio anliiJa .B ouncnlia.v, t.Appear;en ri ch.Bozya,n T og roan,or s trug g lein deat h. B osyo(w ith go) A head,b e fo re. B d, o r biI, a .Alive B on ga, v .t ., or b tinqa T ake.B dnginla,' v ,L ,o r b o n, T ake away, d epriv e. B o ngo n l alugu,or bdngo. Drunk. .Bu,a d.R e c lining, down Bue bu e ( withga) .Aswe ll a s Bue, a Dead.Ilue,a.Op en, un ob stru cted, c l ea r.B u k a ,Strangle.Bid ou,a d P lainly,op enly, f e ar l es s ly (ofsp eakin g).B ukunla,v ,t.S pe ak with ou t fe ar, bo l d ly,pl ain l y. Sa y, t ell, s peak.B unja,v,t.Tobr eak, or f ollow a n a nimal.Bunla, vi.B ema ny; a bound, in crease. B 1 tnlia, v,t M ake tob e m any, multiply in crease Bunde A s mallin sect .Bundu,a d.Upside down Bundunlu, v.i.Boil( ass pring ofwat er) .Bundunla,v ,t.Tostir.B undakanla,v ,t .Break, spoil.

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MPONGWEDICTIONARY.9D.Ila,nda,a d.Lon g.Dadie,a d Al one D aga, v .i.C hirp,b l eat, screa m, s quall.D aqalaqa,v .i.Comp l ain, gl'1unble.lJaginla,Y .t De sire, l o n g f or.Da? ia,Y .i.Cr oss( r i ver, e tc )Dumb e,ad So on.Dam inla,v ,t.To s tretchor r eacho ut.D anda,v ,t D eny.Danda,Y.i.C reep,crawl; g o o u a ll-fours; w alk. Dandua,v,i.Tober e-d eem ed r edeem on e's s elf.Dund unla,v t R edeem .Daginla,v ,t. Lo se utterly Data, v T o m eet.Datanla ,v,i..M eet, a ssemble.Datiea,v.t Ca u se tom eet oras semble.Daea,v.anda Ta ll, beta ll ; l ong ; b e distant.Daeiea,v ,t .Ma ke tal l, l eugthen, s p inout;t alk. D afJinla, v .i.Extend, reachafter.Bundalainla:v .i.T ospoi l.D aiiia,v t Give, e ntrust,Bunya.Thenextday be stow, handto.Bumba,v .t 'Togoandget DafJadafJie, a d.Di stance, fat awif e. aw ay .Bumba,v.t Tosnatch, as D d, ad Sil ent, still .c hildren,food D d, c ontra o fd ako .M asterBuml ndia;v.t.To sca tter o rmi stress. about a nd s po il. D a.d inla, v ,t P ee p ,s py.B uta;v .t.S eek.D iiqa,v.t .C urse.Burinlia,v.t. ,n l'ompiza T oD dkdlia, v,t .Bo w (th e h ead). da sh on e's se lft o th eea rth.D amba,v .t Co nquer 0ll' Bwata,v .t.To touch pr ess. D dminla, v ,t .,v .i.S ink, d rown. Ddnddlia, v .t.Fl att er D dsya. or dd s yu, Y.t VV orthl ess,as f ools D dfJa, v.t. Fish ( withh ook). D dfJdddfJd. Ou ter o r grea t d a rkn ess. D dfJmla, v .i.R ea ch o ut, as wi th th e h and .De qa,v t St op, p rev ent ,Demba;v.t T aste,t ry.D emba(as m lenge), v ,t.Takeaim .Demba ,o rd embi anla,v,t .S par,wr estle.De nda,v.Tod o, m ake.D enl a,v .i.Cry .D eeanla,v .t F orget. D eviula, v,i ,H ope,think, s uppose; see m toon e's se lf.De oinla,v t Toimpute De, ad Quick l y, imm edi ately D ek a, v.t.C atch( ath ing thrown ) D Na, v .i.anda.Soft;we ak D eladi3la, a V erys oft. D eliza, v,t ,So fteu, w eaken. D emo ia, v :i.B ow, bendthe body.D e mbiea,v.t Ben d.

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10lIfP ON G WEDICTIONARY. IJ embi a !em bia, a Suppl e, pliab le l)e mhinli a v .i B ow dow n D h nbi a nla, v ,i.R ac e .De nda.v .T obe g int o g o up as th e tid e.IJ e l/ga ,v ,i .G e t find, o bt a in D ev llinlia, v .t. R ea ch u p, t o a th i ngabov e IJ e ng e l ia v ,1.Disre sp ect, d i s honor.D i a no,a d. Apart; f ar ap art. D i a rui ,n ,Di sp osition. IJ i e nga, a d ,o rd i e'u sed with R iga .A l o n e .D ie nq a a d. ( witht ig a ).L et a l one.D i mhinla,v .t .Put,pla ce, l a y d own .IJ inOgilia, v,i.M ark, tak e n o t i c e.Dinga,v ,i.Bea l ong tim e.D ir a ,a .H eavy .IJ i ria ,v .t Hon or.Prov .ii i. 9 Diria,v ,t .Ti e, m ake f a st. IJ M : inla v,1.E n cl o s e, s urr ou nd ob s truct, s hutout a nd i n.D i ra; v .t .Prov ,i.14 .B e with:t ak e p art with.D oanla,v .i.Li ve,b e .IJ ogunli a ,v ,i.G o a way quietl y o r s ec retl y. IJ o g wa,v ,i Fl y, le ap, boun ce .IJok a,v.t .Knock .Do l o,ad Sea t e djshin e .Domb inla.T o be comeold;d ec repid.Dominl ia,v ,t.B egin (a w ork ) .Dondoa,ad .Hi gh.Donqa,a andv ,1.F irst,an d B e fir st .IJ ongo,n. S mall-pox.Doo ia,v,t,Putor place on, m os tlyo nfire;se t upright. Doealo ra ,v ,i.H ea t e nmity.Do s 'akd tdlri, v .t .Kn eel.IJo fa,Y .t (with.illp aga ) D oubt b et, di sput e,di sb eli e v e.D o f a v ,1. ,as r ot ya le,t une,e r e re.S et, pu t, pla c e, es t ahli sh .. { A ll a nd a d. a t all;w ith s ing ; 1 ')n ouna ny. U .fi. om 'e du,a ny p e rs o n ; e za m e d u. Duba,v .t .H on or ( as par ent), a s s u b j ec t a kin g Dulnoa, v. 'i.D epart,g et aw a y Duda,v .i.B e w eary .IJudia,v ,t,C a us et o b e w eary, ti re IJ u e r e Qu i et .Prov.i.3 3 .IJuka ,Y.t .Butt ,s trike.Dukanla,v .i.Butt e ach ot h e r.Dula,v .t P luck,pull( Corn .} ,t op ull o utor o ft'.Dumba,v .t.Surpri s e .D umbinla,v.t .,i.g .d i mbinla .Put d o wn .D iut; ,v .i.Sw ell.D uminla,v,t .S trive, ag o ni z e.Duo,v ,i.Be a t orinapl ace.Dunlo ,v .t.B ea tapl ace with anotherjfind o neth ere .Dura,v.t .Pull, h aul.Durinla,v ,t.Attract, draw t o. DU ffia, v ,1.Sop,dip .E,E,pers. pro n. A .H e ors he. E babago, 2.Saw -fish.E baganlo,2. R es emblan ce.

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:MPONGWEDICTIONARY.11\Ebaka,2pa,A garde n -knife .Eband anli e,2 .Adulterer.Ebanda,2. S kin E MM, 2 .Anywornoutor spo iled thin g. EmMngamb dngd, 2.Kne ep a n .Ebe k e,2 Fire-pl aoo.Ebel ab el a ,n .Precipic e .Eben de,2 .C orp se .Ebe 2 A n h e rb 1 (G e n .i ,11 ). Ebe Z atanga.Pur sl ain,Ebole,2.F i st. Ebo k e 2 Cr ippl e,s ocan n o t wal k. Ebol c o, 2 L oins,s m a ll o f b a c k.Ebo gonyo,2 .A pp a rition, v i sion L uke i.22 .Ebubu ,n.,2 A bun dl e o f b a mb oo l eaves. E ddd d, 2. Eye (o fn e e dl e ) Ed( is yu, 2 Foo l ; va in fe le l o w. E d ds y a 2 F ooli sh n ess B ll d ku n, A sma ll f e t i c h .{ Pictur e, l lk enese u sed o n l yE d i d i, 2 moonainu,Edin g o,2 .O r y ing, scre am in g, wailin g .E do,2 B ar ( at m outh o f ri v er ) .Edinga,2. O assada ga rden, co rn o rpe a-nut pa tch .Ed' ug e ,2 C ork,s topple .Eduka,2 .Pistol. EdukatandaJ 2 A fruit,g rows onvin e.Edungu,2.Great;affair Edu1'inlia, 2 A t hin g which d raws an other. Ejizag enge, 2. Water-spout;wh irl -wind .Fju,2. Blanket.Ejinlizya,2 Rend er (a s m oney l e nt) 4'fanga 2 .F ear,o r afra id.E fa ngiza,2 .Ca u se tof ear B ye l ia 2 .Cau se t oca ll.E'g am b a n y amb ia, 2 No nso us e. Eganlo ,2 ., F e t i sh ( fo r de t ec tin ga d u l tery, t h e f t ,e tc .) Eg ara, 2 .C h est Eg dnda, 2 .D ependent; w ard;ap p ren t ic e ; di scip le Eg alanli, 2 .Like n ess s ame ne ss.Eg dl anli ,2 .L epr os y. S ee O d uu. Eg am ba. 2 .S have,draw in g i n g-k nif e ,et c Eg dm ba 2 P a r a ble ; a rou nd about r e proof .Na th a u t o D avi d. Eg (tnga, 2anda P oor, l ea n. Eganl i, 2 Ca sca de ,c a t arac t, ri fl e. E g agdZi 2 ( Seee kakali) .Ada m' s a ppl e(irith et h roa t) .Eq ero,2 .Anear of corn.Eg enlizo,2 M easure, w i th wh i ch t o m e as ur e qu anti ty o r l e ngth E g eza, 2. A ug e r, g iml e t Eg eg e ,2. 'I' uskofiv oryw e igh. in g l ess th a n 2 0 lb s, E g e nga, 2 A w hit e s pot ona bl ack p er son E, qomb e, 2. Tim e Eg ombogava, 2 Akindof s mallfi sh.Eqo rozimba,2 .Anea rof c orn with th e hu sk on .Eqoro,2.Sh eath .Eguw a,3 Af athom .Egu va,2.Snot;c o l dinthehe ad.

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12MPONGWE DICTIONARY.E,qunl u, 2.An ger.IEkuka,2.Athingobtained ; Hg wa, 2.Kindofyarn a b east kill ed b yc hance.E,qwasya, 2 .Sa w;file.El-u ru,2 OwLEqioaro ,2 T rigO'er .Ele u na ou,2 S tump .. E'l m 2.T hron e,'king's s e at;E kwend e,2.Fi sh tai l. power;d ominion .E 1asyi,2 .G lass .Ekaga ,2 .L andturtle .E 1a fi n1i,2.L en gth. Eka!e, 2a nd a Pride;c on-Elanao,2 .Ho op. t e mpta ndpr oud. ElanJ e, 2 .Proud.E kaka,2.Al oad,c hargeof E1 dgd1i ,2 Stin g (ofbee etc .) ag-nn.E1 dmb e, 2.C bat, chit chat, Eka m bi e 2 .Interpreter, c onversation.s pokesman.Elemba;2.S ign,wonder,Ekanda ,2 .Tinder;a l s o aElembelembe,2.L arge leaf wi ldan imal u sed f or wrappin g u p f ood .E k a s a, a d To sco ld, spea kE1embo,2..A uselessthing. h arsh ly.E1 ende,2 B oat. E k dkli, 2 .Cau se r eason. E1 eng ele, 2 .P oor;f ool, idiot. E k d kd1i,2 A d am 's app le. E1 e ng e, 2 .Poor; f ooL E kdminla, 2.P e g, p in ( ofE1 endin1a,2 .Bow(for s hoot w o o d ) in g) Ekaga, 2 .L og, fallentr ee E1e111, 2 .B eard. E kd 1 dd,2.Phlegm Eling a.2.Gown. H umpba ck.E 1inga1ing e ,2. Corp se car -Ela i td,2 D efen s e ;pi ck ri ed outt o buri al. et s ,E1 ingilio,2 M ark.E k 8ike i, 2 .Infant, b aby .E1 iwa,2 .World, universe, Eke mbe, 2. A nimalp oison,E 1iiJin1i,2 L ak e. v e nom ,E1 ivin1i,2 .O bstruction. E k e nj e 2 .Intense p ain.su;2.Pond,po ol, mudE k eiJa,2. Pity. h ole, lak e .Eko ,2 Ak ind o fbi tuminou sEloko,2. S trongvin e so il. Afi sh (re s emblingEkoko re,2 .Co c k,roo st er.sa rdines).E koka,2 ( z' on1 e mb e ) HoueyE londi vinli, 2 H ei ght. comb. .Elonqo,2.Confl a gration, un -Ekolo.2 .A .kind offi sh qu enchable fir e.E kombasyanli,2 A kind ofElona,2.S eine, d rag-net bi rd.E1u mi,2 .Fame;report.Ekoto,2.Aqniv er forar-Elumbaqo,2 .Bracelet, armr ow s. let Ekomb o ( zi nj in1a),2.AEmama,2 A kind offi sh. b ead; go rilla. Emenld, 2 L ife.Ekotagota,2 Touching.Emon .do,2.Awaterbird .'.

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MPONGWEDICTIONARY 1 3. Endege, 2. Larg e flatfi sh F cetus ofoneor tw o mon th s.Endondo,2 .An a lb i no E ngamba, 2.D emijohn B 'ngwamba, 2.S carcity of m eat .. 2 .Brass p an Emmba, 2.Sec ret. Enle ma, 2 .L ame p erson;maim edin a n y part;e. g. th eeye l eR a rm Enli7tg o,2 'Iid e ( ebb or floo d). Eliffia, 2 B adger Enlami,2 R i ch m an. Elim e 2.P atch. Bnlingo, 2 .Di s ea s es upposed tob eaffecte db vth e tid e.Enio m o,2. Drysea so n (ex mid dl eo f May t o m iddle of Se p te mb e r. Enungunla, 2.T o op en th e k ey. Enyarogolo, 2. Akindo f bi rd.Eny en g enyeng e, 2.Bu stle;un st e adin e ss oFp a, 2.Bon e. Efanga 2 .To .Jl.1ake.Bpaga, 2 P artition.Epe,a S hort .Epembe,n.S aw ofth esa w fi sh.Epe, 2.D agger (poni a rd ) Epel e, 2 .P) ate Epepa, 2 .Rudder;f an. E po, 2.S eeBola ... Epolcw e, 2 .Am eddl er i n oth ers' aff a irs.Eponga ,2 .B eeswax Epog e, 2 .Wakefulness.Epomba,2.Ro ll;l oaf(of foo d). Eponga, 2 Co ver.Eponqo ,2.G ull et,re sop hngus,Epo ndoma, 2 P illow. Epond1t e, 2 S horn h ea d.Epokolo,2 .Hat;s ma llfla t ba sket.Epoti,2 .H ead, p ate .Epwi,2 .Stool, sea t.Epwi z 'atanga C hair ,,.Eranga, 2 .B eauty(of pers on) Eranlia,a .In s an e.Erara qa,2.Ki ndo ffi sh .Eren le,2 .H alf E rm e 2 .Tre e .E reria;a Dre adfu l, t err ible Eremi, 2 Ax e h a tch e t.E riqa,2 H ollow( in atree) E roffii, 2 M e s s enger. Eroqora,2.P e rspiration.Eroro ,2.Cob;s kin,r ind, EroDiwl'olJie 2.Nausea. Erdng e, 2 .Frog. Erumb e 2 You th,p erio dof y out h . Erung1t, a d.Sec retly. El'ungu 2 Co n Mdg a A sec ret: Eeadomba;2 Hill,e levation.E sapala.At emporary h ouse ; b ooth E sdkd dd, 2 .Aspe a rwithround ir onp oint .E s e ka,2.A ltar;sa cre d p l ace w hereidol sa re ke pt Es ek uina, 2 So b, s i g h.E s amba-taooro. .W ai ter (at t able). E s eku 2.Hiccouzh E Y e r eng ila, 2 . Es esege, 2 Rae-s, old cl oth.Esyala,2 T ail(o fb ird) .E syalia.M eas l es. E sydnga, 2.Palm;cabbage Esydng e. Hawk. E syengin la-bama, 2. M ot h.

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14MPONGWE DI CTIONARY Es yi v e mb e n e .A l arge w ater/ E iJ e ng e a. 2 "Mane (o fhors e). bird EveiJe 2 .P antin g. E yy o ve, 2.Th irst. Evi3vti. T wine m adeo fths E yiiJa f l c nd a, 2 .B en ch. p lant a inl eaf ..E u u niedeu inla,2 I nde ci si on. EL'e ZyU, 2 Sea r. E tatab a n go,3 On e k ind o f E elesyi 2. H a ndk e rchief a n t hieflyo n o r a ngetr ees E N !r e 2. M e a t ; fi s h.E tab l cc 2 S m a llfi sh EiJemb a .Stron g, bra ve m an; l\ Iat. a s l ea d e r, pri n ce, w a rrior E tdkuma-. S m a ll h ird.E via .G ood. E te bo m b e, 2 .S c o rpi on .Eoilo 2 'Vork,ca lling,oe -Etenio ,2 .Parti tion(ac ross,c u pa ti o n ,ah ous e ) ;e n dof h ous e.Eoila,2.Eb o ny .E tinl a,2 .B utt ock. E vindi, 2 .C loud.Etu ta,2 .S wit c h e nd o f c o w 's Eviga, 2 .M en orh o rse's t ai l. Em '8a, 2 . W ar-club ,Et o mb e n a nqa, .n .FlannelEvindinla,2.Bow sp rit sh i rt. R v/n lo,2 Akind oftr ee E tu k a ,2 H usk o rri nd(ofEvinlo,2. A lI ap ;sou nd s lee p p l ant a i u s ).Eoo ra,2 .'Von nd, ga s h. Etum b 1ttllm bu, 2.P artofaE vo ng e ,2 .In d iffer en c e. gnn EiJoiJeiJoiJe, 2 .Ad ult eress .E tu mbango nja,2.W hirlEiJoiJe, 2 .w in d.Eioio,2 A dder, s nake.E iJa, 2 .Limb ( ofone' sb od y ), Emtginlia-, 2 A ny in s e ct orE c o 2 Phial. c r eep i ngthin s.Eca n da,2 .Tune andso n g. E mtn la 2.A k ind o ffi sh E vcujaza, 2 .Finonth e b ack E v undllnla,:I A l a rges lug of a s har k. c utfromthei ronba r .Eca nqa ,2 K ind ofw ick erE vundu,2 P i ece orchunk b aske t. o ffl es h o rfi s h .EiJallg o ,2 .H arpo on, fi sh-E vunga,2. E pidemic s p ea r. E vungu, 2 P iazza. E vaui G izzard E vuiJa, 2 J ealously.EiJ ang anli,ad A hout( in EVJarina,2 Garmentofan y p o i nto ft im e ) ki nd (a n o ld wo rd). EiJa g o .A ny ves sel fo rh olding .Eioirie,2 D arks aying; E L ;a s y u nla, 2 S prit. w ords not c ommonly u nderE v e ad Ba d s tood E v em ba, 2 .Vi olent p erson;Ew onjo,2.II ead. courag co llS .Ewongolo,2 Wooden bowl;. E v e ndinli,2 Gre atnes s buoy .E vero,2 .Place towa ter,Ew ogonli,2 .' Vasp. spring .Eioomha,2 .Nape.

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MPONGWEDICTIONARY.15 Ew ol e 2.G enerous, generos it yo fm oney. EW OmaMtngulu, 2 A s pott e d li zard( sa idto be p oi s onou s).E woga 2.Ol d s i teo f ato wn. Ewogo 2(e .q.) jJ l b ora .Pla c e.Eioouxi,B ladd er .Eunimb u,2.Firebrand,Ew ulu,2. Chafl,tra sh .Eyamb unlia ,2 Afl ood.E yanj i ni,2 .M ini s tration; s ervice.Bya r e, 2 .Piece, p art;s m a llqu a n tit y.E y e nlo ,2 Mir ror .E.1Jilkd, 2 .Akin d o f fe ti sh.Eydle,2 .Hard, s t ro n g'.E y dn ga 2 .IDrunkard, i n e bri a t e Eyogw e 2 D i sposition; h ahit c ustom E.1Jigo 2. Eea, 2 Atl lln g .E sanqa,2.Sa lt.E zango,2.Book, pap er;a nyt hin g written .E zangangowo,2.Book, e tc. E zangabobo, 2 .S o lefish.E z a nd e ,2 .lnt.pron.What, wh y. E zal i nl l.t 2 Co mb. E za m ba 2 .Akind (If sea t urtl e E zambi, 2 Sis ter, co usin; r el a tiv e too n ear t omarry. E zama, 2.T hing; a ny mat erialthi n g E zaganlo, 2 A nh erb. E zambdla 2 .Broom.E z emb a,2 W ar cap. E z enl i, 2. F orehead,front.E zenya,2 .B ait .E ziga,2 E zimba,2 .Ant-hill.E z yila,2.B unch ofp a lm-nut. Eziwo, 2 .W ildgoa t .Ez yigo,2 .Red-w oo d .E zo,2 .M ortal' : m ill.Ez yazya,2 .B amboo fi s hsp ear .Ezyenle ,2 L and in g-place.E ziganillgo,2. ,Sm a ll r e dbi rd ,F .Fala,v .t .Cas taway .F a,a d .Away( withjala). Fata ,v .The wh ole b ody i s n utwell;u nw el l.Fatie a ,V .Causing tob eun-w ell .Fatu ,n.Stoc kings,h ose .Fanq a,v t. Esca pe,runawayfrom;runa way. Fa, prep.0 1' p art. Without po sition ( a l ways f ollow ing t henoun) F a, ad A gain F a kunda.A ddm ore .Fe la,v ,t.P ut,p lace .Feia,v t B reathe,(jel' O!lWei). F e lia v ,t Oall (s eeFwe lia,b otha re us ed).F e ya,v .i.G row.Fcoa ,v.i, Be 01'b ecome bad;un pleasant.Fe si e a,V .t. Mak e bad.Fina,v ,t.Fo ld ( c loth). ] i'inya,jwinya, V .i R eturn.Fi oiniaoinlia,a d.R eturning th esa m e d ay Fa 0 1' j 6, prep.a nd a d.Witho ut; a lways fo llows th e n oun it go verns Fuma, V.Grunt, strain;beardown.

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1 1' 6 MP ONGWE DI CTIONARY.xCa re,I .?Jando,1. A lligator .vando,1 .Aco mpany o fp erson ss ittingor st a n d in g.?Jandi,1.Envy,en vious. ?Jango, 1. 1, 1 e dieine. ?Janj a,1.P arlor.?Jomba. H edgehog .?Jl1mbe G ua n o. ?Jambi, 1. .On e-stri nged harp .vanb i, n . I ibboom Gogo, ad Th e re.G o,p r e p. a nd a d To;at ; on;in e tc ;when;whe re, etc Gore,prep. To( used o nly befo re p ers ons an dp ronou ns ref erring t o p erson s) Gor e,ad S tamling;s tra ig ht. Gu nl1t, ad.H ere .G wan la.1.C ombw ithit sh on e v, Gwaruenli, 1.Ed ge (o fa too l ).(hoenii,ad .Where.Gwi,ad Wh ere.Grumble,G .Ga ,au x.v . Mu st ;onlywith1st a nd 3dper s. b utbo th s ing a ndplur,Ga ,ad a nd co nj .As;li ke; s inc e G am benle, a d. c on j There f ore;th en, wh erefore. G(f;re, an dq areqara ,1 .M id-L ba,3 .F ruitofth e D ika dI e; in side t r ee.( Oba). Gdlanl i,1.L eprosy .Ibandaminla ,v,n Gagwa nli. 1.Goy e o ut. wat c hf ulne ss. G amba, 1 A s( Or e ga) sc rapeIb aqinlo, dinga n l 'lbagin lo. the c as k. To ge t b yc h a nce.G e,con j.Or.Lb ambia;v.n.A sk ing. GenU co nj Or .Lb anda,v n Se xua l c omG eiJage iJa,l So rrow,sad ness; meree sull enness.I banga,n :Morning.Glligili, a .anda d.TruejIbangwanla,v.n,P utting trul y as under. Gilido. F lat-iron. Ibaleu,3.A ro otjs to n e,e tc.;?Jambi,1.A nger;e .g.,u sedwit hPoitionl'iba ku. egunlu .I 1baka,3. J ungle. Fuflia vu ina, v ,c omp la in.F w el i ri ,v .t ,C a ll (s ee, a lso ,F eli a) Fw e ia,v .t. Ca l l.Fw eyi za,v ,t. Ca ll;cause tob e c alled.F wema,v .i.M i s take,err.Fi oetni e a,v ,t .C ausetoerr;l eada stray . F enla,v ,i.D ec ookedp rop e rly,d one .F winya,v .i .R et urn (s eeFini aa nd Finya. F winizya,v ,t ,R etum, bringb ack .F winiz y a ng l1ki R equite.Fui i ea,v .t ,T urn Fwiza v i z a, v ;St i rup .

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1II PO:'<"GWE DICTIONARY.1 7Fb oka,v,n Barkingofa do g. { A how81Hlstr tug ; b reat hed1 bt3u pon n ear one cud, 0a, .struckwtthushortatic k,ma kes mu etc. Ibotd, 3.P oison, wit chcraf t. Tb onqamb al u ;n ,Sm all p ar t ridge.Iboga,3 A bi tt e r Lb onquia,v .n. A rl'lVl ng :Lbo nqunlia,v ,n C henslnng ; b ringin g up lbOngo, V .n. IbOnga,V n.T. aklllg ..Tb uku,3 V exation ; chagr in;s ensat ion of c hokin g .Fbuaulunla,v n ,Mixi ng .L bunq,3 .Top-k not .Ibundakaniia;v. n I nj ur,in g, d es t roy i ng. .Idandunla ,v n.R edeemi ng, redempti on.I daga,v n Cry o ut; sc rea m; b leat.Idaginla,v n .H ope;e arnes t ex pe ctat i on . lilagunla,V .n A nsweri ng,Idsunb e ,3. S heep.Iddruidlia,v .n .F lattery l dlidd, 3 .D rop .I do 3 '] > 1.a do.R ocks,s tone .".Gf l itlilo n?f 7}:jalz, 3. >I? .Ido m i nlia,v .n B eglllnlI :g.I do n y p orinlia,3 G ri n d a nd wh et stone. I dudu, V .n .F at i gue.. I durnlia V.n .Drawingto;a ttraction, Ife ra, 3 .N a il ( of fin ge rs) ( See OJ7ie ra). I(w e.Co ld. qweJ7ia. V .n E rror, mi stake, s in .Iq aquma,n .3 .S tuttering. L arge coworho rseIgala,3.S tree t (o ft own) ; out of doors.Ibambo,3.D eparteds pirit. lbando. 3.Adulteress, IMnd dl ca, 3.Tad pole. lbddi a v. n I ngra titud e.lbadi e pl, aMdi e. Auun-"'r atef ul p elson l v .n. C ut,fl esh w o und. I Mnja, 3 .Li zard.1 Mm, v .n .Th e a ct o fputti n go n c lothes I Mmb u 3.Aw oman t ak en aw ay byforce w ith.af etis h.Fb dnl a ,v ,n D ecaymg m a t t er lbe k a ,3 .Mu sie-box.Fbe lcelia ,v. n F aith;tr u st -in g;c onfi d i n g i n. Ibe "'p1. E v il,s i n, Lbela,v ,n.W ant,d e s ir e.Lb enla ,v.n. B oiling .Ib e mb e,3 Pigeon. d ove.Ibe n da,v ,n . .1b e r ia ,v n Al l eviation. I b enla. P lanting, bu rying:. Lbirin la,v.n.Ac cu sation (f a l s e ) IbeJ cu ,a H alfa round thing; semicirc le .I b e r e,3 .M alagnette p aper.Lb iav .n Co min g .1 3 .Co wardic e .1 bob o; 3 Lun g. ,Ibok,3 .Prese nce.A r e rJ.wibol eu, h e i s pr e sent;l air; pl ace .Tbo b o ti,3 .S pider(in sect) Ibob o boOJ, 3 l C oward,co w Ob obobo oo, Iardi ce,lbogi z ya,v.n. Sa lutation.Fbo qinla,v,n .Shout;cryin g o nt oI bok o ,n . fly.

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1 8 l{ PON GW E DIafIONARYI g e l e ng e ,3.Bell K Iqamba;3 A word. Iqamba n y'agwanla. Amo m ent.I,q a mb o, 3.Fine (fora dult ery) .19an d a 3 .Bo ldn ess ,i nd e"'! co rum ....,01} ..<,.Y I ga 3 .W o ods,bu sh. ..p. I qando,3 So le ( off oot); ",/'paw of d og I gan ja,3 Fis h .1 9ri ifi 3 .W ar. 1 9 ri l d ng a 3 S ea s iekne ss. 1 9l i m a, 3 .C i rc l e ; c ircular sp ot;fi rm am e nt. 1 9d mbli, 3 La ndcra b I g ring a 3. S pea r ; withgoin h on es t yandtruth. Igligw i nZo, 3 ; ex. kd gwa .A p l a ce forg o ingonto1 9 e9 a, 3 .S eac rab 1 y e n le, 3. S he ll-fish. 1g e if a, 3 .N egro d ance;mirth;e xaltation I g eiJu 3, (igu) Bnndle o f m e a t ti edu pinl eav es,o r an ythinge lse .Ige nga, 3 S war m ( o fb e e s ) .1 g e )' 0 3.P a lt,s ide, divi s i on .Adunga a z y eg w' ige )'o ei ] J p on gw e, a re g w'ig e)'o n y' imini8e Iqe n de,3.Errand, me s senger 3 Sprai n, s t rain 1 9 ln J z a .Awkward.1 9 o 9 o,3 .Longcoar se -grass 1 9o mi, 3 T en .1 9 o 9 o z y o,3 .C arpenter's p lane .1 9 onlinlo,3. Market -place.Iqonla,3 S tature;heightof p er son sa nd things .I gonlo,3 .Top.summit, h igh, al oft.Igolo,3 .Trade.Iqombe,3.Am atsai l.Iq ombeqombe ,3 .Umbr e lla.Iqombeqoioa 3 L arg e fi sh .J.qu va,3 B ell ow s .Iqumba;3 Ca rgo, e ffec ts. 19ufnu, 3 .H ope, e xpe c ta t io n .Iq uiou,3 P ineappl e J.qu)'uguru, 3 .Tu rk e y J.qug e. 3.Door. I,qulaklikd, 3 Ro ck-C1 ab J. qwan l a, 3 Spittle . 1 9 w e ra, 3 N ot eh,mark,ho ur, poun d l}anjinut, v n.S ervi c e .1janja,v n.' Vo rk,l abor toil. 'lj an la v.n Bilth,oe g e t.ting. Ijarua.V .n.Split, rent . 1jriwa, v.n . Re s tin g' .l}dmbwa, v n B rightness. l}dga ., v.n S i ckne ss .ljdla,V n.Strength. .ljeg e l'i e v u .Shakin g oft he hip s .l } e m b a ,v .n Sin ging .Ijenja,v .n .Day -br e aking.Ijel i eo,v .n Im pri s onment. J.j l:k eli a, v n.Jnd ginO'. .l} ek a E asingo ff; s lakin g .Ije za,V.n L eaning u pon;trust ing.Iji ga,v n .Inheritan c e. Iji v ira, v. n.B elieving, will in gne s s l }inga, V .u,H ealing,c uring Ijinginla, v n,Enteringill ..lJ on lia, v.U .Filling. lJ.onginlia. Ijonla ,v,n. Ki lling, c ost .Ijomba,v .n M arriage..lj u mbunlo,V .n Gliding.l.Jufa,v,n .S tealing.Ijuwa,V.n.D eath.Ijunlo,v.n B ereavement.

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MPONGWE DICTIONARY.19I juw e ,n .Grayh ai r.Ikilikili.Heavy tramping;Lka,3 M eteor, s ta mping. 1k amba,v n, Spe aki ng ex -Ikonli.F ir e wood. i st en ce Ik on d a, 3 (Se e Okondo) .Ikambvnla,v,n,S peak ingI kombinla.H e m b inding. t o; orf orso meon e; p myer. Fkop a,3 .J ar .Lk anda.a Ac id. Lk ora,v .n .Ty in g, b and.Ikaga,3;p l .A kaqa; Lead er .Ikoko,3. S ugar caae;s ugar.Ikanga,3 a nd a B aldness,lkota,v u Oa tching b ald; fr ying.Ikowa ,3 .Thi c k:fish.I kanla,3 .Miracle.Ileo s yo,3 .L eg (offow la nd Ikamg a nla, v n W alking bi rd) . abo ut lleudul c w e e.g ., n e gan ega (a p-I kasya,3 Brid ge. p arently a n a d )Qu i ck ly .Ilc atalea,3 .Bu nch.I kuleu ,3. S ai l.Ilca zya,3.R ed-water;ord eal. l kundu,3. N e st (o f fow l a nd Ika, 3. Aknotint ying onb ird) b ambootoa h ouse.Ilc unda,v .n .A d d i t i o n. Ikagara, v n,Sn oring.I h tnlfula, v .n .G rowli ng .Ilcdmbizo,3.P e rsecution .ru a ,3.oKulu. An lkdm inla,v ,n .Nai l ing a nn cut oft'.Ilcdndd, 3 Bunch ofp l an -Ikumbu,3 C l aw ( o f crab) .t a in s ,1k utu,3 .An arrow-mouthed Ikdt e. Qu estion b asket 11cdtd, 3 .Kind of b amboo.I kw elilci, 3 .B e t rot hment Ilee va, v n. Oo nquering, ex-m oney ceIling,vi ctor y. Ikwe ntyuwa,4. A wild plum ,Lkenqa,v.n.H eap in g, pre hl a ck ; g row s in d us ters. pa ring. lkwet a, Ab end in a ri ver; Ikesyi,1, p I. and a.' Want o f bay ;h arbor. n erve;mercy;m ercifnl;Ilalinlo,3.Fo rd, cr ossing t ender-heartedness (S ome p l ac e. h ave e kMJa, andhaven otIlanga,3 TA y. ike syi) Tlasa,3 O range.Lkeeo,a.;p l,akeeo .Squintllawa, 3 Fi sh-h ook. e yed. lldnd a, 3.Fresh waterc rab.Tkendo,3 .Fire-steel. lldt a, 3 M ate; seco ndin llc e ng e 3.Skil l. pow er. Ikek e, v n.Oa ck ling. Ilald 3. P awpaw .Ilee .E gg llende 3 Th esaddleonthe Ikiekd, 3 .Perversene ss, con roof o fahou s e. t rarin es s, { A s l ee p e r, P oisonous sli m e f romt he s t i ng otl kika,3 O nly c hild. Ilende, 3 Ikika,ad On ly, a lone.tu ec neek o te nrs nrce

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MP ON GW E DICTIONARY.. .L le tie,3. .P a l m(o f h and) .L l iria,3 Knot. Iloa nlo.3.Dwelli ng p lace I l ombo.W orld o f S p irits .ru.3 .Li me.I ma ma,v .n A mazement;a s to ni sh ment,Inu indd,3 Ca terp i ll a r .I ttianlo,3.T hingsg otte n by r obbery ; ob taine dwith out w o rk.Ima misa ,Y .n .T h a twh i ch caus es a s tonis hment .Imantu;3 .D umb. l m a g i,3.:DIug ; p it c h er .Imdqa ,v n B a ckbit i ng .Imb ala,3 H am mer. I m bdngi, 3 A h ea d of wh e at,et c.: a l ong f ea th era t a c o ck 'st a i l. I m e ilfa v .n. Ac k n ow l e d g i n g'.I m b u g u, n Ohee k .Imepa ,Y.n .1.1DJpej e n lo B eau t y in l ooking;b ea utifu l l o o king .Imunqa,3 .L oaf ; b a ll.1 mp d nta.D agge r,Imunqur e ,3 'Afruit grows i n cl usters o n vin e 1 nl],,3. Name. I nlanlo, 3 B e dIna ka,v ,n Oa re .l nri, 3 T ooth 1 n rill y igw e m b o l{). L ightnin g.In dd ,Sec ret soc i e t y ofm a l e s .1 ngo ngo ,3 .Tin; a ny vess e l oftin;z inc,e tc .Indaun,E la st ic .Indua ndua,3 ; pl ..Andu an d ua .B ubble I n ge y a, 3 ;p I. Ang eydn A ki noo ft rap.1 nl i n l i ,3 Li v er I g e idn ,3 G in;trap:de ad fa ll.l nlipdt i,3 Iron -p ot. In iira,3 ; p lu, Mon ey; g oods ( fo r barte r) 1 niiJ o. 3 .B o ndag e.Inkanda ,pI.;U k anda,s in g P ur posely;i n ten tio n .Inlanqa ,3.M oo nlizht. Inldngd,3 Nati o n; k i ngdom .Inle ,c o nj Say ing .l n l inla,3 S ha do w (o f pel so n ) ;so u l ;s p i rit I ni n go, 3 .. W a t e r; p In An. l i n go Ino ana,3 .Debt. In old 3 .L i e ; f al seh o o d.1 n t y d 3 .Ey e ; gra in ( o f c o rn,e te.) I n t ya;n J / T elesc op e. 1 nt y a n h, 3 T e ar. I nty i m e 3 .Monk e y npplo.Inu.Fire(m a def or co oki ng); fi r e pl ac e ;s tove ,Inumba,v ,n .H atr e d ;ani.m o si t y .I nyanga,3 Lak e ; autho rity.I nyanli 3 ;p I. A manli. G r ass I n yo m anlo, 3 ;p I.Amoiiianlo .Alterca t io n ; q narre l. 1 m y tin g i ,3. D runkard;w ine h i bher .I ny e nli ,3 .Gln tton l ny en g ti, 3. P ost whi chs up p orts r idge p ol e, et c. o fh ouse,I nya, v .n .F ood.I ny e na, Y n. G a in ; profit .I n y anla ,3; pI ..Amanl a O oa l; c ha rcoal.I n y e mb a,3;p l..A iii emb a,P oi son l ny e ilfe, 3;pl ..Am. F oetu s.I nyingila,3;p I. ..Am ingilaLive co a l. lnyoi, 3; p l. Am{)i. Vo ice.

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:M PONGWE DI CTIONARY.21Ipa,v .n. P ay;wages; hi re.Ipa, 3 .Fl ock(o f b irds);h erd (of c attle}; shoa l ( offi sh).Ipaqin ia Charge (fo rgun or pi pe).Ipaldl ia ,v.n. Beg i n ni ng .I p a l c i ,3.Ca p( fo rm anor bo y). Ipomb a .Diarrhosu.Ip anq i nla ,Gov e mmen t l pf,n d a ( eT/J ingoapand i) 1 h e tideI Srunlllng oreOlTIi n gup .Ipa ea n q a nl a ,v n Scatterinz. l p dku, 3 Bl in d pe rson;bli nd;(a )b l ind ness .Ipdqa .Prophecy .l p dndia,v. n .D i sse mbling I p dmu,3. W ithpaort dioa,a ch al len ge. l p i!dia, v .n.Insult ;'d i sobe di enee., l p e s!Ji ,3 .Ana ffa ir ;occur r e n ce../jJi, 3 .A rmadillo .l pi.Pain f ul s welli ngonarms, h an d s, or feet.I pinj a,v n ,C hoice;pref ere n ee l pi jjia, v .n.Thinking ./jJ iki la, v .n. T h i nk i ng. l punj tt, 7 B rains Is us c(Pus yd).A cc ident, wit h (nU) a cc identa ll y.Ipote ,3 ofs kull.Ira,3 .HII"Irasul i ,3 .O yste r ..Irdoa,3 .K i ndo fy arn I rdr d 3 .Nave l; s tep (o f m a s t) .I r eiJo,3 S mar t ; sma rtness (o f p ain) Ire nd e 3 .Thorn.lrigo,4jp l ,'Tiginl'irrigo .M ak e aw ill.E ean q o z irigo. I rinla,3.A p od( of gro undn ut s ) l rol(i, 3.Button .Iro anl o,3.Ab urd e n.Irimda ,3.Favorite ;one l ov e dmu ch. I sam oa,3. Akindofc rab.I saiJinla ,v.n .' Wo rship i ng .Isapoqa ,3 .A s lap withop en h and.Ieanli,3 .S ho t; b all. I sdsd g dld.M easles v .n.Sor row. I 8eg e Entrail s.Is e nda.Di zziness I 8yangu, 5 .Ahankering aft ermeat. I s y d k ( i,3. .C rumb so ft obacco l e ft in t h e pip e a fter smokin g b ydld 3 N eed,care, r egar d, r es p ect lsyundil, 3 .Dwarf.1 8yinga,3 .D eer net 1 8 yukd. Aw ife l e n t to a gu est.I 8umi nlia ,v .n .P raise .I8 yu8ya,3 .Wadding(fo r g un). H. W ind ow. l sydngd, 3 .P ain of parturi ti on .Ita,3 .Bu ndl e Ital ( w e 3;e x. t aldlia T esti mo ny( mostly plu ral),narra tive,o r t hings n arrat e d.Itataminla,v .n .Tre mbling. c It anda,3. M angrove tree.Itambe,3.Paw,Itemiea,v n.'I' e mptation .Itenla,v ,n .C utting,h arvest.Itia,v ,n .Fear .

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22 MPONGWE DIOTIONARY .Itita,3 .Sc rat c h ( with fing-er) ; pi mples .Itimbiarimbia,v n ,S taggerItomba v.n Th e r emoving.Iuinda ,v ,n,L ove.Itu a ( swaka y ir e tua).Th e kn ife i ssha rp; c dge ( oftoo l) .Itu,3 .J o ke f un .Itula (ir efni z iret ula).Th e axe i s n ot s h arp. 'Itut u.Palm-wine.Itunlia,v ,n S hortening.Ii tari,3;p I. amp B ough, li mb,b r anc h .Icak ioa.S cales, c rumbs.Ii tanqa ,3;p l.amp' .L aw. l vango,3. R ein s l vanli, 3;p l amp A pl ace wh erea c anoe i s m ade .l vava,3 ;p I. amp Wing. l va z ya, 3 ; p l, amp Tw ins ( mostlypI. ) lfJdkd, 3 amp' Aknotin t reeorboard l v e Win e.Liemb a,3, amp. H ole( in gro und);b ig p it, o rl ittl e lfJe la, pl .a mp'3.White p l ainc otton e l ot h ; b afts.Ieenda ,pI.a mp'.Grea tness, g overnment,g lory, ru le. l v e venli, 3,amp '.Thigh.IfJe ng in l o ;pI. am p' P lace o fw aiting. l ff enge 3 ,amp' .C ornerof c loth 1ffenga, 3 ;pl.amp' .T une and so ng lfJ enli, 3;p I.amp' Lat ; mamm aryg land lfJiri, 3 Shade;Sha dow (not ofap erson).Ieimbize.K ind ofan ts, l vokinlo, p I.amp,.ex.poka .Ap la ce t hat mayb e w aded;aford.Ieombo,3 amp Boil.Ii iotii a,3 ,a mpoma : M e n o fthesa me ag e; g eneratio n. Ii to q o ,3,a mp .1 10l e throug h an ythin g lffuva, 3 ,a mp .Kn ee l V1tva, 3 .J ealousy I ff1tginlo, 3 amp Anchorage.l vugi z a .St ingily .lvunli.Froth, sc nm. .Iwanja, 3.Y oung m an. I wdga, 3 M ournin g;wa ilin g ( for d ead). l wdld, 3;pI. am bo Bamboo s wamp .Ii oara ,3 am b o P air;s uitof clothe s. lwen le, 3,a mboB reast, tea t.Iio ola,3,a mboA s troke; a c harge o fp owder or s hot.Iio ombi,v ,n Obsc urely. lioomi, 3,a mb oAbli ster .I wongo,3 .Bottom .l wugu,3,amboC heek .lwuru,3 Ap l ace ofd ry so ft sa nd .Iunititu,3.B el ly,w omb, etc .lyela.3 Adirt-he ap. lyey e 3.Cramp;s lee p(o f a l imb).lyarinlo,3.F oot-stool;a pl aceof t en trodupo n.lyinginlio,3;ex.jinginla .A n entranc e w ay.lyumbunlo,3 .Hiding-place,secre t.Izanqa,3 Ap la ce fo r a h ou s e; a nd t he vaca nt p lace a fter aho u se h asbeen remove d.Izauzau,3a nd a Brack ish n ess,so ur.(

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MPONGWEDICTI ONARY.23H earjf eel. Besick t To c ause s i ckI zy ag e, 3 .Duck.I z ungakanlo,3 C hain. I zy unga, 3.An oo se;s lip kn ot. I zy ali, 3.Virgin Izyti mb u nlo, 3 .Hidin g-place fo r a p er s on../ zy eiJa,3 ;pl a.3Y Play l zy igo, 3. A tr eea ndit s frui t;a purpleplnm.J.Ja,co nj.If.Jaq a,v ,t.Plaster a cra ck .J agima, v .i.Toawake .Jo qunla,v.i.Cr eep. J agiayagia, v.i.Tobe s pread abro ad ( as n ews, fam e).Jajangw e,ad S oon, p re sent ly; h ya ndby .Jaka,v.i.Hitch; be ca ught; b e com e e n ta n g l e d .Jakiza,v t Toca u se tob e c anght.J amba,v.t Ca uterize, co r r od e .Ja mbi za ,v ,t :To ca uset o co rr o d e .J ambunlia,v t O verflow as afl o od.Ja itiinla,v .i.Movetol e e s ideofb oat.Janq a,v .t. S inge .J anlia,v ,t .S prea d ( as a c loth) in s un.Janj a,v .t .Work,perform, do.Janjinla,v ,t. :' Workfor;se rve.Janla,v .t .B egetibringfo rth;b e ar(fru it).J anginlia,v .t J anginlia.v.i.F loat.Ja ra,v,t ,Tre ad upon;.t r amp l e ,Ja rua,v ,t. B es p l i t.Ja runla,v ,t .Sp lit.Ja sa,v .i. B e tr i ed ,\y e ary.Ja s i e a,v .t.Tire ,w eary.J a o ,a d.Y es t erd a y.Ja e u a .v ,t To s n ee ze .Ja sura v. i.an d a B e o rbe-c o m eli ght;n o t h e avy .Ja iiuria,v .t. Li ght en; a ss ist; m ake lighto f.J a z a v,i.S n eeze J dg a a ndJ d,co nj ,If.( J ah ecomoajcw henitp rec edes a v owelwtmw hi c hitco a l esces) J agu, v.t Jd gu, v .i.Jdqiea ,v,n es s. J dginlo, v .t Ob ey;r eI.eo nj,o f j ugIt.J ug a v ," i S wim Oy dgi8yi, s wi m m e r J dla, v.i .Hard;s trongjt ough,e tc J dli z a v .t H arden;s trength en;to ugh e n, etc .J dlinla,v t,T o r esista ny o ne.Jd mbunla,v.t .S weep Jrimbua v.i.a nda B ebr ig ht; s hine Jd mbunlia,v .t M ake br ight.Jdm bulea,v ,t Bri ghten. Jrinja, v .t,N urse; c auseto s uck, o r give t o dr ink .Jdnla,v .i.a udv .t ,Laugh;l au g ha t, etc .Jdnii;ad Dayb efore yester day. Jilwa, v .i.R est.Jtiiounla,v ,i.Pant.Jeqa ,v .i.Blos som .

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2 4MPONGWEDICTIONARY.Jeg a,v.t.Get; obtain money ortrust .J eginla,v .t Tru st.Jeq e ria,v ,t.Stiru p. J e g e l"ia, v ,i D ance;wri ggle; s h ake hip s ind ancing Je k a, v.i.Sl acken; a bate (a s wi nd ) : Jekiza, v ,t ,Sl acken (a s a ro p e).Jekanla ,v ,t, : Mingl e b l ood of tr ibe s inm akingt reaty.Je ka,v t .Withnjeka,to m akeat reat y c oven ant,Jela ,v,i Be indi str e ss;dif-fieultv,J eliza, t Di str e s s; puni sh.Je mb a,v ,t.S inz. J efi'i4 v .t.A w a'ke ap er s on,butth e p erson ( ena ngun) awakes. J e miz a, v .t. Awak e; t os end, a seco nd ;t oa wak e ,athird p erwn. J en j a,v .i.D awn.J enjiz a,v t. Ca u se todawn;enlighten.J e nl a,v .t.See .Jenl a ,v ,t ., with ntyanli B e a s ham e d.Je nla ,with?Jandi.Be e nvious at .Je nl an la,v .i S ee ea chother.Je nli z a,v ,t C ause to se e .J enla,w ith e kefJa. Pity. J ezy a, v.t o rv .i Toca st asa w ave a boat; goto l eeward.J ezya ,v .i..L ean;in cline J ezya, v ,t.W agthehead; d erid e. J iig e ria, v .t.Addfi rewood. J e k e li a, v .t .Judgeperson s. (S eeTenliza). J e ng e ria v,t ,Waitf or.Jerua,v ,i.T oturna side o ut oftheroad.Jiga,v .t C hoke.J iga,v .t. I nherit.J ila,v ,i.De c line, asday.Jilanganla ,v,i.Beor b ec omeblack;dar k.Jilanganlia,v t Blacken ; d arken .Jila,v .i.Incline toone s i d e (as ab oat);tip;ov erturn.Jilizya,v .t.T o de stroy.Jilinlo,v.t.D r eam .Jilinlo,v .t.( Nyilinlo) .To dr eam ad ream .Jinda,v. .Fellow ship .Jindanla,v B e g o od fri ends, with.Lli jindan lianli kadie Jinga, v .t C ur e; h e al (any di s e as e) .Jinginla,v .i E nter; go;c omein .Jinginlia,v.t C au se t o enter.Jinla,v ,i.D ance .Jira,v .t,Pouront;s et a p er s on on s hore; l a nd.Jirinla,v .i.Spill;b e pour ed o ut .JifJa,v,t .Pick( frnit);pu n c hfruitwithp o le. JifJir a, v .t.B ewilling;re ply;be li eve .Joba .To take backag ift.Jogo lia,v t.D is regard; s light;mock .Jokwa,v .i.Rubs kino ff on e'sse l f.Jokunla,v ,t. To be tormJola ,v. t .Make t hr ead o f t hefibe rof p ine-apple l eaf b y sc raping. .Jomba,Y .t.M arry.Jombanla ,v .i. Marry eac h other;intermarry..

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MPONGWEDICTI ONAR Y.25K. Kaga, v,i.Sour;s po il (a s fo od) I1adi e, 1.Man, person, any body Kaguma, v,i.St utter, stammer.Kaka ,a .D ry, l ow ( tide).Joma,V"t.Be orbe comeKakiza,v t W ard off ( adry; wither. blow).Jomanla,v,Q uarr el.Kakwa,v .i.Fall .J onga,v.t ,J oin;un it e .Kakunlia,v.t. Toc ause-toJ onginlia,v .t.R ememb er. fa ll.J ongunla,v .t.Wi shfor; Iialua, v .i.O hange. l on g ; l u s t for.lialu nlia, v ,t O hange .Jonla,v t.Kill;c ost;b e I ialangalllo, v .t Toti e w orth .(lkalanganlo),on ra ftersofJ onlia,v t.Fill. hou se .Jonl ia ,v.i.Fill.K amba,v,t Sp e ak, t alk.Jor a,v ,i Be sa tisfiedwithKambinia,v t.Sp eak t o, food;fi ll ed. and for ; pr ay to..Jor iea,v.t.Sati ate;fill; K aminla, v,i.B ecome dr y sa ti s fywithfo od .Kanda,a . So ur.JoiJa,v.t.Bail (ca noeorboat ) Iianjunla, v .t .S train;s k i m;Jo itu nla,v,t Wa sh athing,s ift o ut . orp art ofon e's p erson. I uznga, v .t.Fry, p ar ch. J anga, v.t.Drunk,s uck, I ianganla, v,i.'Va lk a bout; s moke. fr equenta pl ace.Jo ioa,v ,t.Itch.E anla,v ,t ,Be fore,ad vocat e ,Jufa,v .t .S t ea l. d efend, f avor,Juqumia;v,i.Brood(o nEanla,v.t. T o r elate( sine ggs). k anlo);l egends .Jumbunl a v.t .Hide; con -Eao,co nj.E xcept. c ea l (a thin g).Kap a,v,t,Threaten.Junlo,v.t.B e b ereaved;K apa,l.( Seeuuk apa).Al e ftd esolate. bo ard .J uwinlo,r eI.e on j.But,a l -Ea pa,1.O lothw orn on w ays, con tradi cted. s houlders.Ju runia,v .t .Draw wat er, orEa unla,v .t .(k aw unla ).rumfrom c ask. Ch ange, a lter.Juio av .i.Di e .I{ aiJalia,v.t.R oll.Juwayuwa,v.i.A s ve ssels Iiawa, v. 1. Fade. Ka ( withp oro),carr e l. o f iJona e. Mu ch, mo r e Ka, aux .v .Oan;b e ; s i gnof pot mood . I{aga L a unch out,orintothewater;pu s h. Kagara v,i.Snore Iiagwa, v.i .. Goou t. Kagunlia, v.t.Bring;p ut; castout;u tter.

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26 MI:'O NGWE !> rC TIONARY.K dkdld ; v D ef. v e rb B e iKegwa ; v .i.Toturnro und pl e a sed;pl ease; Ib eg yo u. j o ne's s elf.Pl. k ti kdloanli ; kdkdlti I Keg unlia, v,t ,T urn ( Lukeg 'omp e nde, gw'Anyamoi e. v i .29 ).Kala,v .i .T o b ese t t l edjust ,Kela,v.i.Tos po il ( as o ld r i g ht .Ic assada root s b yturningtoEala,v ,t ,B eg et orb eara w ood) c hildin o ne'sow nlik ene s s.. K e U ma ,v ,t To ac tcontrary; lU i lanl ct v ,Tor esemble. di sr egard. K timo a v t ,Parabolize.Eemb a;Y .t .P aiut. K amoa, Y .t a ndi.' S c r a p e ;Ke mba,v,A che w alktoa ndfr o ] { e nd e kend e ad Qu i et, mild K dmoi z ct, v:t.F ollow,c hase,K e nja,v ,t.La y u p;c ol p erse cute. le et ed t ogether;to a rrange K am i nla, Y.t .Drive ( a nail);K e nja,v,i T o b e n earse t ram tin g( of s un) .K e rn, v.t.Divide, distribute.E eriz a.T o giv e oth e r sc hop; fo od,e tc. Ket a, v .t. Cool;co ld;b e co me c o ld ; b ecomes tiff a nd painful.Eeca,v .t,Co nquer, s urpass, e xc e l.ss ,a d.Too,al so K egendia, v .t ,Ti ck l e K ege ra, v t .Nibble,g naw, gra te, c reak: ]{ela v ,t Min ce, h ash K el ctg ela, v ,t.Examine, se arch K elekele, a H angingbyone end 01' s ide K elina, v .t .Cutin s traight lin e s, or s quarepi eces. K end a, v .i.Go .Dowork K end ia, v ,t Tol ead.Kendiea,v ,t Tocau se to drive;impel.K enUza.Mea sure, try. ]{ende le, v.t .Decanter K egera, n.In sectthatbores ho l es. Kengele,ad .' ( Kdndo, J 't o a ll ow;in 77 ind. t -J t b e phr ase k Ond' u. a a '\ ..Ios aka o r osyaka t o bu y 8 s lave K a n{Jdnde, c o nj B e cause Kt. i n d e n l e eo nj.B ecause. lUinde c onj. Bec au se K a nd e 1,wi thn li :Continu al. ( SeeIdiomev. K an le, con j .If,thou gh K angwa, v,i.To c ontinuet o th e e nd. K angwa nI o nlr anto K anla v ,i.Co uzh. K anlctkd, Y .n 1'o.1he e nd.Kdta,v,t Qu estion, catec his e.ssu,1.Qu estion .K avi, 1.B ack ofth e h ead. K a v ia, Y.t.Tog lor y ov er; h e ct or. K dva, v ,t. (kdw ia). hand somely K dzaga z a, v .i.T o make noi se t he s ideofahous e .Ketca, v ,i.Ber eady;con t ain ;hold;s uffice ,Kekiza,v .t,Make ready;prepare.

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MPONGWE DIGrIONARY. 2ii St raigh t eu ;li ft u p onefal l e n .t.M ukestraizh t,e .g. a ro ad. Oa rry011b a ck ; : P aT/we f etish F all. F aint. Toreap;c utp l an-K enlia,v .t .Toex claim "Eh! "atap erson. K e nla, v.t advan t ag e s K era, v .t.C ireum e ise Ki a, a d.E ntirel y ;c lear ( u se d w ith J.lfrigun l a, to br eak). Kil,],( ak e ttga). G ive a l ook o f conte mpt.Kila, v:t. Anoin t h e ado f th in g b ut n otb o dy ;s mea r ;d aub ;i ron cl othes; rub .K inda,v i .A rrive .K irua,v .i.Toexce l a ll f orm e rd o ing; co ndition;c u stom 11 i yambri, 1.G r ee nparrot .K wa ng a,ad an d p rep.B ef ore;un til;upt o 11 0g a v .i.C row, g-ape E oqi nia,v .t. S nuff' K ogova ,v.t.T o s peakafo re ignl anguage imp erfe ctly K ola,v:t. Buy, s e ll.Ko mb,v .t . F e nce.Ko mba,v ,t.Do dge .Eombinla,v .t .H em;su rround;fl owr ound,asa ri ver.. {In thepb ru ee.c jmJaK andanli w hen.n s l aveK dndani ta kesu t.,wa ges. Kong a, 1;pl.lkonga .Ar eed.S eeOg onga .Kora,v.t.Tieup into abundle.Korowa,1.Acr own.Kota,v,t.C atch .Koti ea,v t .Understand.Kova,v t Get.Eoea,v Us e illustration;m ake a s upposition.Ko za,v t.Torubagain st one .Kub u,ad .Ata nchor.K ubunla,v.t.D ip up (as w ater).Kuga,v .i.D epri ved;o r fri ends b ere av ed ;difli eul t y ;di st re ss,e tc. K'lt l em b en li, 1(Nk ulem b e nli ) .Ma n grove -s eed.I { um a n la,v.i. St a ndup.K u mba,v .i,TocalTY a l o ad of s ome t hin g .Kumi n lia ,v .t Oo llect; gll,t h e r to get h er. Kttma n la, v.i.Ri se up ; s t a nd u p.Kumanlia,v ,Kumba,v.t .s h o ul de r .K umba ,1.Da rn ( ac ro ss a w aterc ourse ) .K umbi z a,v.Ke epo ff( naut ical) .Kunde,1.R em ainder,w h e n p ar th a sbe e n p ai d ( i nt r a d e). K uncla, v.t.Add;in crease;g ivem ore.I {unda,v .t T oa \ -e ng e .IiulIg ula,v .i. Grow l ;roa r ; rum ble( a st i ger,li on,e t e .);di stantthunder Kundinltt v.t,H eapup;p reserve.Kuria,v ,t A s on e's r ac in g h or s e.Kutye,1.1{w a,v i .Kuia; v.i .Kun,V .t .t ations I1wandaininla, v ,i.P ounce. 1lwada, v ,t To snap ag un .l1wanga .Eventuptoa g iven time orpl ace.

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28 llIPOXGWEDICTIONARY. K wanl e ,1 (1Jkwanle). Wild M dgwa, v.i,Break(as as tick, h en,01' g rou;:e pol e,e te.)Eio e nla,v. i.Embark;togo 1I1d g 'unla, v t .Break. in to. fiIdngi or 1I1ongi, 1.Peop le.Eioenla, (inkdld) G et u pon fifdnld,1. Lar ge yam. t hek nees;b eg; impl ore. M dndi, 1.Lar ge bla ckmonKwe ad .Lit tle (S uffixedt o k ey ad je ct ives,i tfor ms co m para iJI dTi, num a On e .tiv es). j }JaTi, a pron.Other. K w 'ik w e a d. Eno ugh;pr opj 1Iba, 1.Oo rn:m aize. erlv j 1fbadi ,1 Squirrel. KUJe ;'(t, v 't o Out gas hinj 1 Ib a lo,1.Ar elative ontheanyt hing;bl eed. m other'ss ide. I iw 'i m, v,t R ob; plund cr.iJ1bafi'ie ,1; F orehead;s kull. Kw'iza v t Oa usetofall;J Mbambi,1.Go urd. offend .1.11 b amba, 1.Greatgra nd I iw ez ang a nl a v .i. Agree. c hild;ni ece;n ephew;c hi l d I iwel"adungu. T oca n se q ua ro f as lave. r e ling. fifbamba, 1.G e.nealogy;g en K w e l'a, v ,i.' Wink ( withth eo ratio n. e ye).fifbanli, nu m. ad.Tw o. KweiJiino, ad. A fterward; fi Ibao Vi olence. soon; i mmediately. fi Ibato, 1. M iser; s tingyp erso n o fm oney j Jfbata, 1.S tool.M 1I1b anli, 1.Da yaftert o-merM ama, v.i.Bea mazed;row wonder M bawasya, 1.A wart. fiiande, i ntop ro .Wbo jJIbdgd, LFishing-ground M anl a V .i,B eco mpleted; jJIbdu, 1 ( mbMJu). Pus,thefi nished. co llectintheco rnerofthe M ango 1 .S wiftness;run-eye .ning( wit h fi Ibdnginli, 1,b tinqa. M anM a nja ,1.Th e r elationship n er of ta king, oft he sa me hu sbando fth e fi Ibanginlo, 1, M nga. M anh ea dw ifet ot he ot herw ives n er o f be ingt aken fiI anga, 1..Ma natus, sea-cow, 111 b ela,1,inphrase Cfive lia jJIanga, 1 .Treaty m ade by kadie mb ela), wh enki sa t, m ixi ng bl ood,adi s tune,. fi [anji, 1. M aid .Mbe, c onj .Or. Mbe,-mbe fi[aketa 1.Gi nger.-whether-or. J Jrjga, v ,t ,S lander;b elittle; fiIb e a .Bad;ugly;di sagreebackb ite. able 1I1aga, v t. (e Tungu). Whisper., 111lieU. W ar expedition;army.

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MPONGWEDI CTIONARY.29 N b e l e kiJ, 1, a nda.Dis cord; qu arrelsome. 1.Groundnut;pe anut.uu:Piece; part. Jl b e njo, L T hwart (o fb oat01canoe). Jlbe nle, 1. Sp ring;f ountain. Jlbe zyo, a Raw;unc ooked; g Teen ; notdry. .l11 b e mi. Inth e r i g ht 1 1 f beli, 1.Arm y; h ost .l11 1.H errin g( fish). .Jlfb eve, a L evel;fi at. .M b ia,a.Goo d;pretty;ag reea ble. JfbiambiiJ, a d.W ell;sa tisf actory. 11l1Jial/o, v .i.B e lch. Jfimbi, 1 .Sa t ie ty . N biba, 1.P a lm-nut.J l fbinde,1.Wildg oat. Nbinda.:M enses .Jfbinla, 1.L ouse Jl bip a, 1 .S tripe; welt ( from whip ping). Jfbinji,1. Wilddog;j ackal. 1 1fboa.Dog..l1lb ogo, 1. ) Io uthfu l.1 1fboko, 1.Sq uirrel. .AI b oni,I ,m bonli ,G oat. 1 11 b ora,1.Place. J fb olo, a.Old;appli edo uly t o p ersons an da nimals .AIbolo, p I.m boloanli,i.v. Th ewo rd o f sa lutation. .J1IbongwiJ, 1.Yam. Nbonga, 1.Bribe Jlbuma, 1.Egg-plant;t o mat o. .J1lb1tmba, 1. Rai nbow. .J1Ibungu, 1.T o o thache. Nbunlinli,l; b unia.Ab und ance. .J1lbwe giJzi 1.Tu rtle Nbundaki, 1.Ca relessness; w astefulness .Jl l bute, 1.B ottle. J fbuiJ e 1. A tri h e.J lbu z ya. Fi sh-net. .Jlfbwe di ,1. Captive;priso ner. .Jlle n d a, 1.H at c h e t .Jl l ell g a, 1.Pigeon .1 1f eza, v .t D ash ( water) do wn o rup on. J.lliJzwe,a L e ft -h anded .Jllengo, 1.H orn 1 Thats ameje mphatic. S uffixe d to -ill, toa djecttve -prono uua tha t v erysame MiJga, v .i. D oze;nod;s lumh er. 1 11iJ7(iJla, v t A ccede; ag ree. J )[iJndiJ, a.Fl exible ; e las t i c. J1fiJnliJ, a d.T o-morrow JfiJma, v t Co nfess;ackno wledge. NiJna, v,t B ecome a cc us t omed t oa pl aceo r t hing. N e nliza, v t.F inish;c om p lete;end Jfen g' a uldngd, 1.Wildp igeon Jfe nla, v .t Swallow J IengiJliJ, 1.W ater sna i l ; s c rew. 1 1f ep a, v.i.B eo rbe come g ood; pr etty; p leasing JUpia, v .t goo d; p retty;sa nctify. .Jlfepanla, v.i.Begood for eac h o ther;fit;s uit. ill evdn ld, a d.Th ere .su ,p ers. pron .,1s t s in.uu,1. Jlia, v .t .Know.jllia,a.What n umb er; h ow many.N i e za, p ro.T omakekno wn.

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3 0M PONGWEDICTIONARY. Jfiellli, 1. Manner of knowin?: kn owledge. .11[in la ,1' t.To n otan swer .11[0, a One; the sam e .jJIonda,1.Amulet;charm;f e ti s h. jJ[ ondd 1.Planf or d oin g a ny thi n g. J[o n do, 1.S nare;trap. jJ[ d n yd y' atanq a .Sw eetp o t ato. '/(Jfpa g o 1.Tribute;' c us tom; d ut ieso n g o o ds .JIp aga, 1.Doubt, wit h d oita J[p and i n lo 1.Ladder;s tairs. jJ[ pa n w,1. Adz e .Mp a nli ,1.F as hionjc ustom;a c ti on ; d e ed ...J.1fp anga,1.S,Pur jJ Ip an g a 1. l' ok e jJIp a ng in li 1. Manne r of d oing; c h a ra c t e r; n ature.J IpaFJa, 1. Whip; stick fo r whi p pi ng Mp d nd d, 1.Hoof. Npdngd,l. Joint. jJIp dn g d, 1.Thing;matter;a ff a i r 'diffi cultv jJf p dn ul 1.R oad ';path; wa y.Jfpd w gd y s aon,Something b eing s po ke n J Ip dga, 1.Lo ck jJIp d, mp ti m o,a d. T ogether ...J.l f p e,a S hort .x jJ/pemiJa, r.Cha lk, flour, br ead >(Mp e nju, 1.Cockroach.Mp enli.Agift.jJ Iv end inli,1.Size,greatness jJ Ip ezyu, 1.Aburntplace ; hou se;fa rm,etc. jJ fp eld, l. Bl emish. jJ Ip esyinla .M anner ing jJ[pira, 1. T h e s eco ndpl a n tai n ofafi e ld T he fir st isOk engo jJfpira, 1.G unpowd er s hoot, p ot-black.JIpira yi t endinla In k...J.1 !piri,1.D arkne ss...J.1Ipi o ,1. H o t n ess b eat.J !p ivinla, 1.T ho ug ht...J.l f p o,adv.Afloat;moving o nth eg round inw ater .o fp ol/ e a D eaf.J llp o go,1. Mou se ..J.1 f polo,a.L arge JIp onja, a .Solid;n ot h ollow Mpond e, ] .Th e w ild fig -tree of se vera l s pecies. jJ[pongwe; 1.W i s dom, pr ec oc it y . j lfpongw e 1. Tribe o fp eop l e, a ndl anguaO'e. jJIpol7ia,1.X h e ad t i de .J l f poiJo,1.Afi shsp e ar I,Tu skof i vory w eighingabove tw en ty pounds;ivory.Mpundu,1.B ill et ofwoo d (asebo ny, r ed -wood,fir e w ood) ...J.lfpungu, 1.P alaver ...J.1 Ipuzyu,a .( ompuzyu).Wide.Muzunla, 1' t.Crumble;s h e ll off ( ascorn) jJIw er a, v.t Scratch .i1fw etinla, v.t .Motio nto ; w ink at ;nu dge; j og.N.Nago.1.H ouse .j'{lai, number,a d .Four ] {aka, v, t. C are;waut; ca re f or .Namba,v t Coo k (by b o ili ng).

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M PONGWE mUfIONARY. 3 1 Nanla v .i.L i e dow n ..Nanl 'mit ydiJinld, v,t. S le ep.Nanda ,1. .Mil e .I Nanlo,1.Sp itt le, dr ive Di rt,dirty.Nanga,1.D ry s e a so nofJ an n a r y a nd F eb ruary N liga, v.i. Ra in.Nligi z u, v. t. Ca usetora in. N dganl a, v .i.Pas s by .i Ydnld, a d So .N dnt!l e,1.R oom( i na h ou se ). l Ydzya, v ,t P ass, h and. Ndzi nl a, v ,t P ass, h a udto. N dngw a, v .i Toar i se. Nrin g un lia T o cau se t oari se. Nda, a L ong', ta ll .Ndago.A f ragrant m ed i c inal pl a n t.N d a g a,1.T hin g N darJinlu, 1.D esire .Nda tizo,1.S eam : in a gar ment. Ndal.;o, 1.Brothel';co usin;re l ative to o ne ar to m arry. :Nd aiJinli,1. L en gt h, d i stanc e.. Ndd,c ompoundex.;n li, d ,pre p .an dpro n byt he,after p as s. v erb ..Nde go,r.Friend .Ndar e .H old h ere;h and h er e. .iYd e, comp ou nd e x .nle y e o r 13 pre p.a ndp ron ., by him, a ft er pa ss. v er b .J.Yde le,.1.S oft, w e ak.i'{ deg e, 1.Divisio n ;knoto r jo int o fplanta in s e tc NdeJJ J 1.D ecko f s hip;s to r y ofh onse;flo o rofplanks.Ndigo,1.Datet ree a ndf rui t.N do ,c o nj,But.N doan li nli ,1.B eing, ex ist e nce,living.NdoiJa,1.Enemy(mb e) . Ndolo, 1.Scar .Ndondui,a. Ndondo, 1.Al bino ,J.Ydu a ,i .Th e mont hatte r c h ile -b i rth. Ndumbaga, 1.S uddenf ear; fright.N eg ira, v .t.B eg . Neg a, v.i.T o h a s te. N eg an e ga, a d. So on;q ui ckly ; in a hu r ry ..Lyeg iz a ,v t. H a st en v .t.W ee d;c uto ff0 1'npbyr oot s we e ds, gra ss e t c J.Yi31nba, v.t,C oax;e ntice; a llur e; w h e edl e ; fl a tter in o rd e r to o btainafavor. N emen lia, v .i.L imp; b e 1 ame;m ak e l ame v.t. S ho w;pointout. N enga, v .t ,L earn. J.Yenja, v .t .T each. N eng e, 1.I s l a nd. NIYra, v .t .L i ck.J.Yg a k a,LAnt-nest;m u s h room shaped;ea rth made.?landi.Envy,co v e t o usness .Nganli,a .A uot hcr's ;notou e'so wn .?Jando,1.Ana s s emblyof p eople ?Jdmbi, 1.H arpofma nystringa .J.Ygd,i nt o I nd e e d ? ah !N gdla,1.W IJ irlpoo l. Ngdldng dld, ad .w ithponla.I n t e ntly. Ngdwe 1.Cap t a in (o f a v es se l). Nf..awd, H oo k. J.\ g dnl e ; 1.H oarseness, h uski n ess.

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MPO NG WE DI C TIONARY.Ng ai, I.Ap iece ofc loth f or we ar in g.. Nq di-l.;oto, 1 Coa t N'gai-y'okanda, 1 Pants, N gailiydtu, 1.Shirt. 1.Go urd .. N gdri, 1._ Na p e oft hen eck Ng diJedosyi, 1. S nuff-box. .N geiJa, a . Bow -l egge d. Ngo, l..M nnnua..N gosyu,a .Ob sti nate; c ruel,(o ppositeo fi k e syi) : .N!!.ozyo, 1 P arrot. .1\ go a,1.II 080'.Ngunge 1 wl Ngu/fa, 1 .P orpo i se.N guwa,1.S h iel d .Ngulu,1.S trengt h p ower, a b i lity.Nguwu, 1.Hippopotam u s. Ngwa, a .Shut;n otop e n; clo sed..1\Tgwangndndd,1.Trumpet b ird.Ngwasyi,ad. !ast ( inth eh and ) N,qw anydnli, 1 .Ea g le. Ngw'agdi,1. W ife' s mot her N,qw e, 1. "Mother .Ngw esyimba, 1. Se n s itivep lan t.N gwentyontyo,1. H op, h opJ ing .lHga, v.t .Abuse, c urse Nige-nkondi R epe nt,r egret. Nimba, v ,t .H ide;co nceal; k e e p sec ret N ifi'ia" v ,t,Extinguish(a can dle) Niminla, v.t .Refuseto giv e .Nimianla, v .t.,r el conl' o f niminla . NirnlJanla, v. i. B e hid N inia, v, i .D ive, sink.Nindia,v i To s tart;jumpwithfri ght. Nin[!o, 1. R ain a .S trong;fiery (lik e 1l epper); proof rum ,etc v.t .O wn. N.fa li e, 1. F irst born .Njali e,1.Po st suppo rting th e rid ge-pole in a h ouse ..N}a li,1 G un. Njalit oiJa .Thund er, liT}anla, 1.Hun g er .Njanlo,1. .Birth Njasyinli, 1. Wear i ness..Njav e.L e a f of atr ee. Njawe, 1. .F ruit (wi ld whose s ee d y i e ld o il for f ood). Ni4jdnli, 1.F ow l ,c hic k e n Nidgu, 1 .El ep h ant. Nidla, 1.Fidd l e string Njdlib e, 1.Akind of s nake wh ich li ves i n s altwat e r. N j am bw e, a Bri ght, s hining. N j egd, 1.L eop ar d. N.f e ka, 1.A cov enant. Nienge, 1 A nt. Njen lo, 1. Vi e w,pro spec t. Njemoe, 1.Fem a l esec r e t s oc iety. N.f egi lu,1. C hin;l o wer-jaw. NieiJe, 1. R ip e p lant a in. liTjelenje l e, a G li ster ing,as s un. N j e l e, 1.K nife-blad e N}iko, 1. A k indo fbi rd whi ch li ve s inri vers,Njinla,1.Amo n s t er monkey, l arg er th anama n. Niiwo. Akind ofm u sk deer. NJ.u k e : 1. T rouble; v exation. 1,ex.J uwa .Mann ero fd ying;d eath.Nkaga,1.Armadill o.. Nkambi, 1.A .d eer .

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, MP ONGWEDIarIONARY.3 3N kago,1 .Ak ind o f mo nkey. J'iTkambinli, 1.M annerof sp eaking;di alect ; l anguag e.Nkala,1.T own;a coffi n .J'iT ka zya,1.P ain. -, Y k a ina, 1 .H un dred J'iT ka z yo,1.S ca l e ( o f fi s h ).Nkanli,1.S i ck n ess.Nkanda,1(w ithn li) .Purpo se l y.Nkango,1. Fragmnce; perf um e.NkafJala,1.H orse J'iTkafJi, 1.Paddle;oar.N7c ambi,1(p I.I7c ambi). A k ind o fde er N lamlo 1. A l ege n d ; story J'iT7crigl/,zy ( [, 1.E lbow. Nlcriga C ane;s taff N kdnde 1.P er sever an ce;continu al e xe rci se J'iTlcrindd, 1.Company ofp erson strave ling. J'iTkdng((nl([ 1. Millip ed e .Nh[ng([nl ( [, 1.W ind pip e Nlcrinj([, 1.Bat. NkdnJ e 1. S hark.Nkrila, 1. A k i nd o f s hell. Nkdla,1.' C lock;w atch. -,Ykd l d, 1 .Petition;d esi re; prayer .J'iTkdmM, 1. A spi kedp ani c l e, li k e w h eat NkMni 1 Se a wa r d ; sout h ward NlNinge, 1 .Co ncubinej an ot h er's wifekep t. N l ee l l d 1.W i sejso ber; th onghtful;wid eawa ke N k e i, a. C o ld;d amp Nkele, 1. Barren fe ma le ; l a n d N leegwinli, 1,ex lccqioa .Turn ..ing;m annero fturning. N7c e va, 1.Gnm;c o pal, 1.G i zzard J'iT u ,1. A sk ull. Nkegere, 1.Anyc rea kin g so und, asrudder ,etc . N7cend e, 1. Fool;r aca (Ma t t. v 22) .N k egenli, 1.S park (o ffi re). N7c ema, 1. Mon key. _N k ema-yimpindd, 1.La rge, b lack m onkey N k ema -yinddiJa. L arge, ye l l owmo nk ey N7ce rna-y' o syo7ce ,1.White n o se dmonkey N7c emM, 1. A snitof fin e c l ot h es. N lc embe, 1.Ae at-fish. Nkengd, 1.Kindne s s, J'iT k enjo,1.Dwarf -, Yk e r e Nice;c l ean jp art ic u l ar ;p ur e; h ol y.Nkilinga,1.Y ery s m a ll m onk ey 1.B oiled p lantains ma she d. Nkizyi,1.Fragment j s ma ll pi ece o f anythin g Nkinda 1.De parted s pi rit ,i.g ., Onya mbea ndI bambo J'iT7cinji, 1.Co l le c tion.Nkoga,1.C rown-bird.N7cogo ,1.S uppo s ition;illu s tration jfi g u re ofs peech;p roverb;l aw N7colo,1.EveningjP .M.;n earsu n -se t .N7conla,1. Ofon e ag e ; a co ntem porary Nkdmbd ( p I.17camb a ),1. ..A cr oss-st reet -, Y k o ma 1 ,wi thdoanla.T o b ea ng ry w ith on e anot he r N7comb e 1.Su njealieo ; clot h.

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34 MPO:> QWEDICTIONARY. t,R aven N k o mb e-nyo,/l(lo, 1 .Noon;tw elveo' cloc k. Nkomb e unliarenlia. Tw oh eaded snak e.Nkond e,1.Head wife. 11' k oq o ra,1.Whip-snake ,.Nkondi, 1 in p hrase nlige nkondi g' os aun.R e p en t o fat hing lYkonga,1. Cop per; c hiefly, co pp e r rod ..Nkongo,1 .C at -fish. J Ykoro,1.Ce nt i pede . .1 YkoiJa, 1.Direction;co urse ,No to,1.Sca b; a n eye -lid .Nkula.1.Aroundnnt; kn ob. .LYkuiJia, 1.S h el l. .LV kumba,1.D am. { A dam tok eep o ff wn -N ku m b a,1 i tandcatchest b efl s h Nlt-u m b a 1 .Co mpany( of p ersons) ; a pa rt y of p er sons.N k uniu,1.S ea tu rtle N k undu,1.F etis h-hou se N kU iJ u, i ,La rg e m at m ade of fla1J8. Nk wdla,1. Ca reless ne ss, w aste ful n e ss Pl enty ,abu nd a nce of f ood (y asi nya) .N k w e r e ,1 ; o ft eeth;e x nkwegere co nj a nd p rcp .And, w ith, b y, e te ,u s edwithsa b. v erh.p as, a ndn eg"viz:andoanla et c., and denot es p ossess ion N le,prep. B y ; u se dwiththepa ssive voi ce o fv erbs. Nld, eon j.Neither,nor. N lenld, a d. To-day N lengenle-n[{e, a d M idnight.N l i,prep.With,denot ing aeoo mpaniment B efore word s b eginnin g with rand wi t c hangesto n la ..LV l om e a ( onloffi e). Mal e J.VOfP, v,t .Fight,war, Noal/la, v t. ,V eal' ( c loth es) 1 VOU11 a ,v.t.T oowe. J.Yo!Jll:' v .t.Buil d . Nogmla, v,t .N e t,braid ,pl at,Noka,v,t .Li e,d ec eiv e, J.Vok in la v.t.Li eto,o rf or, a p erson;d e c eive.J.Yoflia,v .t Bi te, sting .N omba,'),H ill mountain .Nonq a,a, ,First. J.Yon le a .Bitter .No nda,1.Flower( genera l n ame). .1Vongo, 1.Av ery t hornytre e, l eave slik e th ebutternut. .LY/ingwa, v,i.Ari se, awake Nang/enlia, v ,t .Liftup; stra ighten np.Nta,a d. A s N t ambi,1.Property; ri ches;go ods o fallkind..LVtan g o,1.Nnmber. .LYtavanga E arly m ornin g .Ntare ,i.e. n t e are A siti s .Ntari,1.Wi tn ess i Vt aga. Thesa me. J.Ytll n go 1. Number, acc ount. Nttinrli, 0 1'n t ondi,1.A l ov e r (ntdndi y'anliiJa ) lYttinrlinla, o rntondinla ,1 .Will,pleasure..LV tdzen,1. .Thousand( En gli sh ) .N te,ad.A s, li ke.Nt eio,ad .Empty,on ly; so le l y,de so late. Ntewe, 1.Raftermadeofabam boo,

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marIONARY.3 5 Ntinla, 1.B utt-end;c ause, r e a so n, p urpos e .. Ntim bi, 1.Pl ank, b o ard .Ntomba, l.Sa nd-bar ,sha ll o w .Nt ombo,1. Need l e .. Nt om b o yikotinla,1.Pi n. .i Y togolo, 1.Pepper( re d) N t oru lac ):Currento fa r iver, et c.Nton go,1.St ick, drums ti c k, can e.J'lto ri,1.R a t.J.V t onlo,1.Bre ast;b o s omof p e l 's on,or g a rm en t.Nt1wnli ,1. A sharp e dge.Ntllgu,1.Hip. Ntulungu, 1.C0111cr, a ngle.Ntuma ,1.Fork(f orea t-in g) Ntumbu, 1.H eel.Ntumba,l.Cont enti on, fightin g. Btua z ang e a d.P eradventure .N tunlu,1.Wh ole,entire .O w e njaioantuntu,w hole d ay .Phra s e, Anyambi e a z y e n l'omauiantuntu:God i s n o r es pe c terof p er s on s N tyaga, 1.Ga rden, fa rm.lVt yambi,1.Harp' of fi vest rings. B tyanga, 1.Afl ag,e nsign.j Ytyanqo,1.News. l iltyale, 1.Cu s tom,f a shi on. Ntyago, 1.Feas t Ntyand e 1.Twoa nda,h alf f athom s ,c loth.N tyavu,1.Soa p. B tyafa, 1.Vine h oop.Ntyangilia.R apidlya nd l outlly s p e a kin g .B tyango. Di stance.N tyanja.1.R ains eason.Ntyai,1. J;:nd.Btyai nli nb:nla Fromt he he$"inning t o cud .Ntya,c onj,Eithe r. Ntyantylt. Ei the r, o r. NtY l ig e 1 withk io a .Q ua r re l pa lav er .l Vty d ,pr ep. B etw e en l Vty dm bd, 1. A l o a n tobe r ep ai di n k ind.Ntydli,1.S m a ll b ird.. Ntydny ak an lo, 1.Jo iut .. Nty d nli ,1.S ha m e. Ntylingw e 1.Ex cuse Btydmbi 1.Plum. l Vtylll n e, 1.H and l Vt y d m be, 1. M arro w.l Vtyl ir ia .S e cr et l y.Prov,LIS.N ty eri,1. Bty end lt, a.Aw ry; c r o oke d ; o nt of s qna re Nty e,1.E a rth, w o rld, co un try, l aud. l Vt y e moa 1.C e n s ure, bl am e, .J.Vt y e nge, 1.W as h -bas in,c up, bow l. l Vtyenge, 1.S and Ntyege, 1.S hort-t a ilm onkey Ntye' ieze, 1.Whit ea ut. Nty e r e, 1.R a mr od .J.I T tyemoa 1.Bl am e r eproa c h.l. Vtyig o,1.Chim panz e e Ntyinla, 1.Bl o o d. Ntyinli, I.H o u s efly.Ntyuanli1){Ui,1.Iron p ot. .J.Ytyua.yf)go, 1.An ativ e po t.Ntyolombo,1.Bra ss k ettle .J.Vty o l o 1.Ha mm er ,a nvi l. .J.V ty ovi 1.B amb oo-nut.. Btyonda, I.P ud e nda.l. V t y ondo,1. H e a rt.Btyond e 1.H e adof n avigati on.Ntyongi.T he l e adofa l ead liue ; aBritanniac up.

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Jl[ PONGWE DICTIONARYNtyonjo,1 .L e e ch Ntyozyo, 1.Foot. S hoe,b oot ..Ntyogo,1.Fette r.J.Vtyoro,1.L oop. .Ntydng e 1.A p l ay andth e b oardfo rth e game .J.lty dngd, 1. .Na il f orfa s t e nin ga ndn ailing 'J.Yty ollga, orntydnga, 1.Quar t er,partofto wn ,.1.Y t yll gu,1.D ay J Yt y uga, 1.J ug..1.Ytyllnla,1. A d eer-fly ..1.YtyuiJa,1.Op ense a .1.Ytyunl1(, 1.Driver-ant .1.Ytyumbu, 1.Akind o ftr ee L arge fi sl:.N uanla,v ,t .Owe..Nuga,v ,t.Ro w,p addle ..LYuginlia,v t.T o i n c ite JYumbu 1.B ow of boat, et c ; b oat; ca noe JYumbinli, 1.H atred .J.l umba v ,t. HMe v ,i.T o sm ell. JYunliza, v ,t ,Ca ns.ofnunla. ..1.Vunja ,v .t .S hut .1.Y1t11duifel e 1.Afragranth erh ;mint .J.Yunga,v ,t Light( acand l e) Nungll, a Old(o f t hing s). Nungllnla, v ,t H e lp ,o pen (a do or).Nungwa,v ,t.B eo pened. Nungunla, ex .nungunlair,H elpeac h o the r .Nungwanla,( as k eys). T o op ene ach o the r. .1.Yuwunla, a .Last;e x .. nunw unla. N ya,a ( ow :m ja n ya).D ay, op ening .N ya, v ,t.E at .1.Vyalllnla. A ll o rphan s t ill a n i nf an t ,andn u rsedb y anot her ..1.Vyango ,a S mall. N yambi e, a .Vaill u selessNyavali,1.Arm-pi t.Nyare,1. Co w b ull ( w il d o r t am e ) J Yyama, 1.Wild b eas t..1.'\l.a hg a 1.Ru st, s a lt -wate r..1.\ y aw e ad N o. l Y ya w e ge an d nyaweiht. No,s iree Nl!awenyaw e, 1.Nothi ng,110 .1.'\ yange,1.W hi te cra ne .Nyanto,a .( as nyama). Fe-III a l e .N yazyi,1 S neezing,(Seejazya) . N y dnd l t, 1. '\ Vh a l e, o n i on. Nl!linla, 1.New .1 \ ydnli, 1. B i I'd.. Nyltnyua, v .i. T o b es t r a i g ht; toh es tretchedo nto.LY y dn yunla v.t.To s tretcho ut.J.Vyembi ,1.D ancer,s inger .J.Vy e nge,a M any, p lenty. Nyenlie, 1. Bra ss ( meta l ) Nye (sa me as 1 1ya), V .t.Eat. A'l!.ez ya, v.t F eed, pardo n j\ y ena,v .t Gain, p rofit ( b y t rade ) .Nyez ya,v .t. R ule; go vern; li t. ca use to ea t Nye nya, v .t ,S pr i nk le sca tt e r s o w NyiJ?tga, v .i.T r emb l e, qu iv er, Nyenle a A noth e r. Nyeivd a .S ome Nyilo, 1.An chor'.Nyilinlo,1.Dream.J.V y in ya ,v .U rinate l V.yowe, 1:H oney-bee .N yongo,1.St eward (bo nd or f ree).

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MPO NGWE DI CT IO N ARY NyonYlla, v ,B e s traight Nyony u nlia v t. S traighten NyofJo 1.A n i nstrum e ntt o b ail a c anoe. N yu ma,l. B ack( o fth e b ody). Ny() ng e ( nydnge), 1.Thread N y ong(( ( nydngd), 1.Time; a s,1 saw hi m t hreetim e s Nya n g d l e 1.Noise ,r a ck et .N y onla(o rnyanla) 1.Ant.o .0 ,p ers pron T h o u al s o; r eI.p ron ., w h o .Oba ,4 T rib u te d uty,p ay,,v a ges .oi 4(odUca). Nut-tr ee. O bakd,4. Ba mboo-pit h ba sket O bal e ngd,4 Harlut. O b erinla A ccuse r. Ob el i S ick ly p e r s on;s i c kn ess .Ob o,7.Iron bar.Ob obob o bo,5.Acowa rd.Ob ot a ,4 .F ema leth at h as p ro d u ce d.O bu,4 .S treak, s t rip e.Ob uiunqu,4 .O a v ern ,Ob umb u i u ,4 .A no penco urt w ithh ou s eso nt h ree si de s .Ob w e(o bue),4.Lig ht,op en un o bs tru c t e d.Od an d o 4an da .Pride, pr o ud m an;pro ud.Od d, 4 .S ile nce .oas u ,4 .Vall e y. Omde m b e 4 .C a lm.Odika,4 Ak indo f c ond i m entprepare dfr omanut. _Odo, 6 .B e d .Od ok eb o le ,4 S tr i ker;vi cio u s p ersun.O dod o ,4 S ca l e, b alance s, s teel yard s.Od olongo( u se d w ith go) On t h e und erside ; u nder. Od ofJaloiJa, 4 .E n e my, c e n s u re r .Od ominlia,4 B eg inner (o f a thin g ). O dUlna, 4 O a nnon.O duma,4.Sn ake.O du s y d,4 .I g n ora ntperso n Oduere, 4.Co ntentment .Ora,4 .Fi s h-b o n e O/ati/a, 4 .Th orny p lan t; t hi s tl e .Ofafa ,a .Brittle .Qfe, 4 T hief. Qfe iJ1 za. D eteriorator 0/1tru, 4 As mallfly;sa nd fl y; g l oat. Oga,5 .Ki n g; h ead m an ofa tow n .Ogakizi,4 ,kakiza .D efe nd er .Og alan ganlo, 7.I te ti ed on t h e r after s t os upport th e th atch .Ogambw e,6.O rator;s p okes m an .O gamb agam b o,n. Palave r; di spute;n oi se .Oganga nlo,4.Co mpa n ion;.n e ighbor ,Oganji,4 V e in; t end on.Ogan d e, 7 .Awa sh0 1'ba thing p l ace .O gandaga,4. H ealth;h e althy p erson .Oganla,7 .Statue;id o l.O ganga,5 .D octor;co n jur or; pr op h et. O g anJo,4 S witc h e ndof a n e le p h ant'st ail.Ogar a,a Co ndemned; ca st ( in at rial) . .Oga za.Jui c eo f r ipe p lan t ain s .

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38 MPONGWEDICTIONARY.Og a z aga za. St rong, h ea lthy p ers on, O g as yo,4 Greediness;g reedy ( of m eat0 1'm oney). O g avaZa,4 .Rav ine.Og a 6 .Ar m. Ogd, 6. H andl e (o f jn g) .Og/imM, 7. P ath b e yond butn ea r a t own. !Og a li, 4. R ope ;c ord; vin e.Ogdi, 5 Mot her,f ather, broth e l',0 1's is to rin. l aw Ogand{ t. Arow;quarrel.O qdndisi, Kanda.M ild word fors lav e O {linga 7 .Eye lash. Og an t a.4. A n e lep ha nt trunk .( On lanl{t) Og dgwo ( Itr i gwa).A g oing on t oO q emb ia.P ain (See K emba).::> O q e ;pI.Bike,7 Af ai n ting. O g e mb d H an dsom earticle ofd re ss orfurn iture. 0 rrnge,4. Ap od(o fp eppe r ) .Og engendc,4.B ad di s p o si-t ion edp er s on; fo o li sh .Og e ra,5 a L azy Og e ta, 4 .Crac k; s plit. Og ele, a. S tingy;op. Ogwand e ( offo od) .Oq en da,5.G uest; s tranger Og engil ia, 5 C opper-co l o re dm an ; w hitem an O g fm da,7. .Iouru ey ,. O g e ndag endo Journeying;a w anderer. Og engenli, 4 .Star. Og eng d, 7.L ower -jaw. Og ente 4 .Flea Og ege,4 P l over .Ogitigili,4 T ruthfulne ss ; j ustice .O go,4,ex.Ogovo .A piece or b o lt ofclo th, n snally 1 4or18v ards, Ogola ; 4.Intestinal worm.Ogu-ola .O qolo ,6 Log Ogolo ngozyo. Ac ross, t h n s :x1 a man 's"lnal'k."O golonja(agolonja) .As tride .Oqomb ,7.F e n ce.Og ombe,4. Cro codi le .Ogonli,7.Fi re an d fi rewoo d .Og ombin lo,4.H em .Oqonqa,7 .Bo il.Ogon to,4 .Ca lling ;dnty;e mployment Og ove.4 .Apangw e kn ife .O gowa,4.B oili'kind oftree.O qo ro,, A b und ; a chord,e t c.O qore,6.E qui t y; nprightn ess; upr i ght. Og ozyi.Sh outing(of" E") a t t op ofv oi c e.O qu,4. A wor m; m aggot O gu,4 S ense;g umfltion; t he mi nd.Ogu la ,4.T ornado.O qula,4 .Tree whi ch b earsJ.Vkul annts.O gulu,4 R ope;ca b le. O guma, 4 .Cas sa da. 4.' E yeb r o w .OguiJaguiJa,6 .Bl a ck smi th.Ogumia, 4. M ast.Ogu ,mbanllonza,4. A tree rese mbling a h azeltree.Ogumbu,4.S trap fo r ho ld ing a nythi ng o n th e back;s u s pe nder .Ogwanla,6 Mo uth. Ogwand e ,6 .G enerousjli b era lJO P. og ele . Ogw era, 6.Night. Ogw era.n leng enlenge .Mid n i ght.

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MP ONGWE 'DI CTIONARY. 3 9O kao,4.lin e.Okapo ,4 L eann es s.O ka s onguwu,4.A ra w-hide .o us4 W eariness,e g of sea ; o f o nek indo f foo d. O kdngande. B ecause ( of tim e l ong p ast). Okdnda, 4. Cot ton. O kdnga, 4. S pine. O kdngald, 4.K eel( ofbo at). Ok efJa, 4.W ave.o uu,4.Skill ,c unning, sa gac ity, I:li sc r e tion, ca reful n ess, w atchfnlness,g uard;g ot' o keli,beon your guard aga inst. Ok enja, 4.Gr eens nake. 'Okend ekende,4 Qui etness, humilit y, quietp erson, e tc. o uu ( bakiJle), 5.M an 91' w oman. Ok elakela, 4 .ofsun) Ok engele. B eing up a t Ok engo,4.Thefir st pl antmg, orearofcorn,ofafield. Ok engekenge, 5. Carpenter. O gw e li, 6 .M oon Ok il'ingdi, 4 T o i rons hirts, O gwerc, 4.So le-fish. or a n vclo the s . Og wirinla,1 B aek-vard.O kita, 6.U esidence far fr omOJ anli,4 .F arewell'(tiginlah om e ; t o t rade.oJ anli). Oko kotso ,7 B ed-hu g.OJ o,4.An ativec andle;' IO kolongo,4. D eads ta ndin g t orch. t ree. Ok anJa,4. At en t( house) .Ok ondo,4 pi l e .Okanla.Ad vocate, d efend er.O konqoi i a;4. So m ething r e-Ok ambi,4. As peak e ri n a s e mbling" s u sra rca n e p alav er;p reacher. .O k om bandanda,4 T he eres, U sed on l y i n I mpc r u-ce nt ov e r w hich t h e ha iri stiv ese condp er. inO ka,d ef v, b raided.c r ease th e heedO korwe,4. Bi ndin g (o f aga r-l m e nt).Bo undary,di vision-Ok ugi,4. Ap erso n be r eave d o f a ll fr iend".O knw a ,4. B ody. O kukw e, 4. A p ersondresse d hi d e ousl y in d i sg ui se. Ok uf) u 4. T he t reeofw hich can oeb oat s ar e made.O kwara,4. C n t l ass, m a tchet.Ok uiara w' iwara. S w o rd Ok w e nde, 4 T ail.Ok w e nla,4 In sid e (of b oat,. ete.) .Ol ako.A pl aceof t emporary r esidence. Ol aga. Akind o f devi l.Ol dld,4.P awpaw t re e .Ol adinli,4. S py. (Ge n. x lii.9 ). O ldgazyong e, 4 F ire-fly. Ol aiJi,4. Ri ver.Ol ambo,4.India-rubber, Onl arnbanli, 4.D ozen .Olasa.4 .Orange-tree. Brightne ss (a sOl anda,4. Dn tch k nife.Olandunl i,4;ex.dandunla.R edemption-mone y.Ol anga,4,a.C alling,01'shout ingatthetopofthe voice; elephant's voice.

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4 0 M PONGWEDICTIONARY .Olatanlo 4. Ass embly, a udien ce .O Mng a ,4 .V a lley.O lemba,4 .H erd, flo ck onzeng e,4.Aim ( withagun ).O lega ,4 .Bi scuit.O lembi anlo,4 R ace ;tri a l of swift ness.o ues.n.H ankeringa fter f ood. O wn dd,4 .Abs c ess( iuth e g roin) .o u u.Te nder. Olingo,4 A spac e o ftim e.Oi irio, '7; ex.diria .H onor,O lomba ,In t erior-ward .O lombo ,4 .Abra ss k ettle.O londa,4 .B ead,see d,nut. O Wnda,4 F lowe r.O longo,4 Neptune;alar ge, fl at br ass pan.Olo nqa,4 Ring ,a rm l et,ank l e t. .O losi,4 Lime -tre e j c itrus m edi c a ;O loso,4. A so re. O loialoiti, 4.En emy,o uu; .H onor,r everence.Ol unda .G enerously.Ol uo,4.Witness;o nepre sent O nlumbu,4. Lipt estimony .O m : edu.Anyone .Om a,pl.anl aqa.P erson,p l .p eople( manorwoman) .O mbaqo,4 .Sawfi sh.Ob aka,4.B amboo; pith-ba s ket;it sc apacity,oneb u shel.Ombama,4.B oa-constr ictor. 01liMga, 4.Ho e, pick -axe, m attock .OmJ}(iga,5 ( awaga) Stra nger, fore ign er, a li en. Ombanla, 4. Mu d. OmMga, 4. T emporary encampmentf or fi shinga nd drying fis h.Omb enla,4.Hunter,fisherm a n.Omb enle ,4.Goora-n ut.Ombiagwanla,4 .Hypoc rite.Ombilo,4. A strong man;w orker .Ombonlo,4.Sn ot .Omb u,4 Ashe s( u sedon lyi n s ing.) .Ombutoioa:Fog,mi st. (G en.ii .6 ) .O mbuioutu:Du st.Omburaunire.R il y, or muddy ( aswater). O mbioiri. A kind ofb u sh, and se a-devil.O m enl o,4 .Fin ger .O i ii e nqo,4.As inglepl antain.Om epinlo,ex .mep iania,Favor,Omia,4 .Fur,wo ol. Om i en w,4. Pure. JJfpongw e, ex. mie/Iw. Isa y Onwro w'oroyi,4.Earring .Om osyo.Id l eness.O mpango,4 Avin e, orbraid e di syonlo,forputting a round a treea ndone' s bod y t o a ss i st in c limb i ng:Qmpanqa nlo,4 Promi se .Ompabo.B arn boot hatch.Ompinq,4 Ba ll.Ompindi,4.Fa rm p lantation.Ompogonl i,4 .Hole, l a ir.Omp endi.Le g fromknee t o ank le.Omp ege,4 C heese.Ompomban la,4 .D oorway.Ompombo,4.Nose. Omp-oilw,4. Point(o fl and). O mpai. L argefis h.

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MP ONGWE DIarIONARY. 41 O mparu e Irony R ekadi e ar' omp',iron ical Omp e mo e,4. D e w.Om p e nle.A.P oisonous snake;v iper;c era stes .O mpenle,4.H a ndle ( o f a ny thing).Ompunga,4 Wi nd .Ompungawi nkami S ea bre eze. O ml'unga w' o lomba :E astb r eeze,Ompungawi ool<>. Land b r eeze Ompunla 4 St e n c h, sce n t.Om puzyu,a .Wide ,O mp o ndo 4 Ba c h e l or.Ompele;4-. N ec k.O mp i H, (o me1t l omp eyi).Th e li t tl e fi ng er; ar e n1 omp eyi,' h e h as t h e n o s e-bleed .O mp u m a, 4 Y e ar.Ompwenla, 4; e x.poa.L o w n ess oftide a tn ew an df nll mo o n.O mand a 4. Day.O m an q a, 4. K idney O inangainCW11/a, 4 T e s ticle O m.aJ'i, 5 a pron. .Other (a rtic le t o h e s upplied ).o iiia nga,f ( atan ga).Coc oa nut.O ttiondo, 4 L imit, e nd .Ona,4 Loins OnlamM, 5 Black m all;ne g ro. On lera, 5 . G rown pe r so ll OnemM,4 F l attery (See n emoa). O n e,4 A r emainder;so me thin g m ore;t hel a st o f a n y num bel' (o n e w'i g omi) ;t h e tenth. O ng o ng a 4 .Throat. Ondfingd,4 Anul cer .O ywanja?lwanja, 4 ( onia ) .R oo f .On gili,s ,a ndp.4 D ep en d e nt; ward;d i sc ipl e ,Ond anda,4 Coli c Onjeunjele, 4 .Brightn ess, e ffulgence. On1ive,4 Sl ave ; mildwo rd for s la ve. O nl e moe,4 Hon ey. O n1dngd, 5 .Kind (on 1ang{t n d e) ;w h atkind ? O nlein e, 4 Ton g u e .O nayi,4 P oi s onf ora r r ows, e t c.'P angwe,on ei O nl enj i,4 T eac h er.Onlaqa ,4 H elp;se rvan t ; m ild word f or s la ve.On1ag 'o n l agie,5 W i sem an,Onligi.Sw eet ;sweet ness of t aste : f ors me ll ,mbia .Onlamba, 4. Clot h .O nidnld, 4 An e l eph a nt's t runk, Onl<>gisyi,4 Build er .On loki, 4, Al i a r .Onlo me,5 M an, hu sband On1 dng{t,4.. K ind .O nlumbu, 4 Th elip;t esti mony;as se rtion;r eport, e tc ;n ippl e .O nonqti;4. Z ea l; a rdentde s i re;prop ens ity ,O ntinti,a T e pid.Onyamoe; 4. Adi sembod ied s p i r i t .Onyao,4(onyaw o).Ayou ng erc hild. ( Nt y aria ay e onyao wi ndinga,i syo ung ert han Ndi nga). Onya1 e 4. l'ree, with o ut o wner,pr opri etor;u sed w i th, loa,e g. ,a nto ,w at uenl'

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42 MPONGWEnrOfIONARY.M ornin g a kdndd rn a tuenl) Or endd 4 M ark, l etter. Or e ru,4 D e e r-Horn,t r umpet.Or e n unlo ,4 .Reproo f,i ll st n l e tion, c orrection. O r e illa w impyio.Coveto us n es s. O rf3fna,4. H e art. Or e ti,4. Ri ght,righteousness .O rigo,4 A nheir;inheritor, su c c e ss or to k in g.Or ogo,4 R ogue AOrondo,4 Ayoung, u nf ol de d l e af. O rong e. D ept h.Oroqosamba, 4 go w n c l oak Orol e, 4 .Anaw l.Oroi,6 . Ea r .Oronginlo 4 .G rave.O ronga, on lyin s i ng !Iush room.Orongunlio,4.Resurre ct ion.O rowa,4H eave n.Or oii e,7 .Prairie Or i5mM, orortimbti,4.T rump e t,bugl e -horn, e tc. a Ori'md a, orordndd,4 Eaves b earer, ridg e -p ole Or Onga, or or dngd, 4 Chan n el, deep,d epths. Ortmgd, or or dng(i, 4. Spro ut, blad e.Oruq o,4 Abrace .Orunda,4 .Tabooed;sacre d. Orue,7 Hai r. Oruvisi. Afa lse ac cuser.Osaun,4 T hing,affa ir.Os akampazyo,4.Grass hop p e r.Osenja,1. Sat urated wi th sa lt .Ntyuanlay a tuenl) osenja,th e p otof f ood i s t oo s alt.Os eseli,4.Liz ard. onyale ; o nya le O n y em banyein ba, 5 E nemy, w it c h -po i so n, ad ulterated.On y ale 4 .Alugu m a'soiiioanlingo,rumi s adulterated;aluqu.m 'a iuenii o npale,L e c aus e ofp uttingm auy wat er i n i t O ny e nfJe 4 .Mi st .On y ena .O mamb a,4;pl iil/,G,m b a. s n ake .O !Jwanga,4(imia ).I ron.O !Jwan l a 5 .C hi l d.Om oa nto ,5;pl,anto.(A w oman1) a gir l. 0!Jwa ngw e, 5 Abrother O !flo emM, 4 S oup, gravy.0 0w ei 4(i mi eyt) B reath;h e ato fsun.O !Jwangala,5 : A s ma ll snake .Op akilia, 4 Beginner (ofa t alk ) .Op anqa, 4 Mad e,ma ke.Op e pe 4 Plantain-s et Op o du nla,4 .To break h ouse.Opo mbolo,4 .Treeresembling ac he s tnuttree .Orala, 4 A frame overa pl ace fordr yingfishand thin gs .Oranqo, 4 .Oat h.Oralo, 4 Cl ay floo r.Oramba,4 Ro ot.Ordi ,4.Ground,so il,clay Ordso o,4;ex. ta wa. Curse, abu se. Orega,4. Cas k, ba rrel. O rendisi, 4 O ne caus ing a no the r towri te(ndinga).O rendi,4.On e w Jiting,. awriter (ndinga).

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M PONGWE D ICTIONARY.43 O sege, 4.E ntrail,b owel ( mostly .pl .) O sasa, 4 Brass r od, u sed h ere i ntr ade.O syaka,5 S lave;t hepri c e of as lave.O syan q e, 4 Pea,b ean .O s y ekianli,5 B u s hman O syalum e ngel e Bl ue (of o cean) .Osyalinla .P e rsever ance. O sy a kdlin,. I nt e rrupt e r,an n o yan e e.O sy e rnb e 4. Atr ench .Os yingi 4 A w ild a n im a l si zeof aca t; predatory,Os osyi, 4 .Whi stl illg. O syuka, 4. Adi s h of pound e dp l a ntain s, grou nd-nut s, e tc .O tal e,4.Ap l ace, r ack,o r frame to k ee pch es t son .Otanganli,4.W hit e m a n Otdk i, 4 C ock's ta il-f eat h e r.Ot e,7.Bambo o l a th O temA t ,4. St upid,d ull,f oo l i sh p e rson;g reenhorn. O t e mb e,4. P awn( not aper s o n ).Ot e t e a d. T hin (not thi c k).Ot i ka .Awif e, or n e arf ri end o f one dead ; wi dow,h e ir, etc .Ot ik e tike,.pI.iti.F ool, i diot, s tupid. 'Ot oanla.B earer .. O towdo, 4 B asket( made o fAfrican r attan).Oto wgo,4 .Ac orn-stalk. Otdnd a,4. H ai r-pino f ivo ry, w ood, ir on, b rass,etc Ot angu,4. Gun-b arrel.' Otu ;4.Joke( mostlypl.)Otumba,4.B elt, girdle.Ot utu, 4 S moke.Omb utosa;4 F o g.O sanqo.S omet hing (as p oison) .Oiam bo, 7 Dar k o fa iree u se d in b uildinghou se s, OiJamba 4 .,F r eck le. OiJamb e ,4. F lam e, bl a z e( o f fir e). OiJago. A n e xc l a mat ionof s urpri se; a m eeting p la ce OiJangi, 4 Mak e r.OiJaifi,4 M ediator; f o rme s se nge r,i g ende OiJega,7 S hould er .O ie la, 7 Aco ncea le dp it fo r c atching w ild a nimals OiJem b i, 5 ( b em ba). Spy OiJenge iJ eng e,4 Sm il e O vir;o ; p I. o ifiruanli, d ef .v .L e tI1 Sgo;c omeon OiJrivi, a .Lu s tful.Ononlo, 6.Skill ,c u n ning, art ifi ce (m ost lyinpl .)Oitaanbo, 4 Jibsa il.OiJanja 7 S ide (o f p er so n ),Oii enda 7 (w'iten a).Sc i ssors ,s h ears .O nenda; 7 (u'i s enginla ).Ra zor .Oitiaruia, 4. D ay ,i noppo s i tionto ni gh t.Oioaro,6 .Canoe .Ouiatanqa ,6.Vesse l; w hite m an 's ca noe.O ioa ro-tutu,6.S moke-canoe;stea m-boat.O manto,5 .Wom an, wife;pI.an to O manto-tigo. A. wid ow.Ottian to-tika.A w idow.O tanqo;7.D aybreak. (J waiJi,7. Leaf;pI. ij a vi. \\

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4!M PONGWE DICTIONARY. Ow tingo" 4.Herb(Gen .i x,O eanja,4 .Ee l, bus tle. 2:3) ; agrow in gc rop O zange, 4 L ight .O w en ja,6 D ay, thet im e it O eaoiulo,4. Bles sing; spcc, i s li $ht. that convey ed by pumbuiia Owe1IJa-nya. Theb egi nning O zo,mbi, 4 P arent, ance stor. of d ay O zyo" 01' o zyo, 4.Pipe; O w e nJa'81Ja. Th e cl ose oftobaccopip e. d ay .O edei, 4 P estle .\\ 7 ; pl f l'1'a. Finger-O sindi, 4 Comfort er. nail, e tc.O zira, 4 Th es ideofaho use. O w e ld,4. P aint. O eiitia, 4. Gravit y, s e ri ousOiooti ei 4 S triker,fighter n ess;opp os ite of orogo. O io o ni i a i ooniia, 4. The c rownO zoioa,4 Ve ner ea l d isea se of th e h ead;O zindio, 4 Comf orter, con-O uionda, 4 Limit b order so lat ion .Oiooniiasoordia,1 ; pI.i bonlia-O zombio, ( zombia) Corn -uxm lia .Abutt erfly ma ndm ent.Owowa ,7 ;pl ibo1Oa. A O zyald'zia, 7 K indl e r ;sma ll f eather. fire -wood O wtingd,4 Plant,see d. O zydngo"4 Arrow O y dg i sy i ( jo,qa). A sw immer. O zydgunla,4. Nostr il.Oya nli 4 Frui tfu l p erson O zyo,zyo"4 Aff a ir business,{IOyanji, 4.t (janja ) .Apal aver.Oy anjisyi,4 .Iw orker O zy endo,4 P ay, wages, hire .Oy e mbo, 7 Ba llad, so ng,O zyenld,4. Awood en wedge h ymn.O zy e iJ e,4. Spoon .o . 4 IAp erson wh o O zyege, 4.B eaeh. 4' ( tru sts a e red-OzyiiJo,4 .Whipping. y egl z )itor ,O zyo,4. Fa ce. 7 .Oyinlo ,4.D aucinz. pzyonlo, 4 "'IV ood en spear .I, Oy igo, 4(jiga). In1etitance;O zyonle, 4 F le sh, meat. p roperty l eft t o b e inh erit ed .O zyonlo, 7 African ratta n. Oy ingo, 4 R ed-woodtree.O zyoto,4 .Fnnnel ma de o f1, Oyila, 6;p l, amb o Palm-nutle aves t ree. O zydnga, 4. Mouth o fpig,Oyilisi.D estroyer d og, et c.Oyonli si,4 ;Hunter,fisherO zyun[!inlo, 4 Sa lvation. m an .Oeumin iio,4 .Prais ing. Oyombo, 4 Po ly gamist O zyung e, 4.Savio ur. Oy angayo,ngo .B everage.Ozyumbu,4. Beakofb ird. Oyu1fJe,7. Gray-hair O zyungakan lo,4. C hain: _O zaia,4.Napofcottoncloth; Ozyum e,7. Anameofwoman.inpl .fringe Oeamba,4 .Side,part,se lf.

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MPONGWE DICTIONARY.45P.P a,v ,t .G ive.P a,ad N ot.Pa.D enotingc ompleteda cti on.P aga,v ,i.R e, or b ecome ri ch; w ells upplied .P agia,v .t.;ca us o fp aga .Enrich. '.P aga,a Coarse .Paqinla,v,t. C harge (ag un); fi ll a pipe.P akilia,v ,t .B ezin. P akunla, v .t 'Peel (withfi n ge r s).P akwa,v.i.Tobreakoff, or com e off i npi eces.P ala,v ,t.Brush off .Pamba, v .i.Tohave' dia rrh cea ,Panla,v ,t Toformby c utting.Panda,v,i.A scend,c limb, ri se( astide). .Pandiza,v,t. Ca us. o fpanda. P andia,v,i.T o a scenda riv er .Panganla,v.t ,P romi se, pl edge(f riendship).Panqa,v ,t. M ake, c reate.P anginla,v .t.G overn,rule.P anla,v,t H ew, di go ut(aca noe); s harpen ( ap ole).Para,v ,t .Embrace(as fri ends by hu gging).P ara,a Crowd edfull;l um b ered up.Parapara .Things. i nc on fu sion .Para, 'v ,t.T ohangonthe.armo r sho ulder.Poranla. :v.i.T o b e full ; c rowded;r e cip co nj.ofp ara P aria,v,t .T oca rryinthearms .Parunla,v t.Di sentangle (asa n et thati s f a s t). P li sa. T os c r a t c h.Patakapataka ,a R ough( Lukeiii,5 ) P ava, v .t.Di sobey, r ebel, f or sake. P afJa, v .t .T o di g up(as pl antainset s) .P a z anganla,v ,t S catter,w aste .P a zy a,v .t. Sea rch ( byturnin g o ver thin gs). P aga, v ,t,Prophesy,c onjure. Pagwa, v .i.T o b e, orb e com es oft,rip e (abo il), a lsob anana . P akas(i, v.i.G o, orpass.throueh.r su. W ell. P dffia, v.' i B e f at P dmi z a, v ,ca us. o f p dma Fatten.Pdndia,v ,t .Feign .Pdnla,v t Be,or b ecome coo l.Pdnl i ea,a ndP dnlia, ea us ,eo nj. o fpdnla P dpalia, v ,t .P e gaga,v ,i.B e P e kwavel.: w a nla, v,i.To p ass by o ne a nother; go ing opp osite w ays. P e te, ad S oon,immediately.P en da,v .i.B e,o rbe come g reat;grow.P end iaa ndPendiza,v,t ., c a ns.e ouj .o f penda.P engakanla,v.t. :Exchange,. swap.

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4 6 MPONGWE DICTIONARY.Penqa,1.A sis ter, o rn ear afJenli z' o!Jwanli'ame zan qor ela ti v e g i, 'e n i n e xchange ga nta v e ntinyoa mengo .f ora wi f e .Peni,1.Spa n.P e nq' e e o noe .T o fa st.P eniia ,v,t.A ccom pany .Pe nqinla,v.t f o r, P en gunla v.t Ca s trate ,P e n ga v t. Co mmit a d ul v t., e.g .f anga.t e ryo rf or ni cat ion b y a m an F e ar a nd fl y f rom o n a w o m a n; 'p ass. v oi ce f orPenla ,v.t Twi st. aw oman .Psra ,v .t I mit a t e b y i n s tinct,P e nja ie nja ,v.t. K eep o r e x ampl e .Pepi a,v t .B ec k on t o ( by P e fa v .i,S tagger. w aving th e h and) P efJa v .i ,F lo a t ,driftwithP e pa,v t .Fan;u sea f an t h ec u rre ut.P e ra Y. i.E scape;r unaw ay; P i'?!a, v,t Li ft;pu sh up .bel ost .Pia,v.i .B urn.Periza,v,i,Ca useto esc ape;P i aganla,v .i.P a s sby;e xr un aw ay ee l.Pera,v .i. ( a n lingo ) .G e t, o rP iangunla,v .i.C hew,m ast i -bri n g w a t er f romt h e s prin g'. ca te.Peria, Y. t G ivepl a ce;s ta n dPiara,v t. Squ eeze (witha s ide;t o m a ke;l et; h elp t hehand,mil k a co w),o net o p a s s. P ie'1'e, a d.Near .Periza,v t L ose Pie, ad C l ose b y .P e sya, Y. t W e i g h .P iga,v t K e ep .P e sqanla.T ocon tendw ith .P igin la,v t .,r eI.co nj.K eep P efJinla, v ,i.Bl o w ( as wind ). f o r.P e z y a ,v t.Burn;ca n s.c o nj .Pika,v .t R o a s t b ake, h eat o fpia .( a n i ron) .Pe ,a d S till,n ow, y e t,P i kilia,v .t .Think.Pedia,v .t. I n s ul t ,di sregard .P ila,Y.i.B e, o r co mefr om PiHdpe k e a d. Co nt in u o usly;P inda,1.Bl ack orda rk c l ot h all th e t im e u sed f or m ou rnin g .Pela,v t .Huntfi sh wit hPinda,v .i.L o w er (a ss k y) h arpoon e tc.)Pindia,v,t P u sh, shove. P el afJe la v ,t .Brandish,Pindinla.Topu sh a long P e ka v e k a v .t.Flap( a s a .Pinga,v, t Roll u p i nto a b irdi nf1yiu g ) r oll orball;wind a ro u nd .Penla ,v.i .B e s li g ht e d;P in g wa,v .i.Go round omitt ed indi st ributiono f Pingwavingwa, v ,i.S urf av ors r b e abs e nt Kadi e r ound a ff enii eean qo ,. k adi e aff e nl i P inJa,v.t Ch oose,prefe r. e flilo [ ao ,ndinga e pe n l Pinja.Topn sh.( S ee pind i a) eza nqojao.Pinla, v ,t.D eliver;t akePenliea,v t. C aus.ofpenla t o ;r el co nj. o fp a.

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1>IPONGWEDICTIONA.RY .47 P ita,v.t Squeeze, ch eat.Pitakanla,v.t .Press aga in st, up on, d own .P iva,v,t. S uck.P iitia,v ,t Th ink, c onsider .P iza. v ,t.Wring, tnrn, bo re ( with a nger).P izanla,v ,t .Wind,e ntwine. P1za T o s p ea k a P oa,v.i. Ebb;dryup a s prin g) .Podun la ,v t. Break o pen (a h ou s e). Poe lel(t, v ,i S lip, s lide .Poganlio,v t Li sten.P oginla,v.t ,Pity;hav e m ercy .P olca,v i.Wade. Polowa, v.i. Bed ull, b lunt, not ched.Polo ,a d Mu ch, v e ry, great ly.P ottia.P ee l bar k .Potita,v.i,G row. P olniz a, v.t ,c aus ,o fpoma.Pomo ( n l 'i baku).To st umble;hurtb ys tumbling.Pomba,v.i .Wanderafu gitive.Pombiaiombia,v .i .' O s c il l a t e .Ponioe.U noc c npiedpla ce .P ona,v .i. Sec ,b ehold .P ondu a,v ,i.Towaxw ors e. P on i' a, v t ,P ointa t;aim a t .Ponja,v,t :Mi ss ( in Poria;v .t .Sharpen ( oy wh etting o rO'rinding ).Ponqio e,1. Wi sdom, pre co c i ty. ( See Npongwe).P oro, ad (se e led). Follow soondeascorre l.Mu ch, mo re. P osyo, ad M ore.P 08wa,v ,i.Fall.Posyunlia,v ,t .,ca us ,To fall;tof all up on .P osyanlio,v.p T o b e f allen np on b y.Poiia;v .i. F l ow ( asa li quid).Poioe,1.B ack d oor .Poio e ,3a nd5 .Poe a,v i. S top;l eave pili s uit; e n d ur e;b e p atientje deoanla,to f org e t; s t o p d oing a c ustomarythin g; e .g ,l o ving,g ivi n g ;p oz 'omosya,p a s s away tim e.P uqa,v .t Cov e r.Puqiea,v,t. S il e nce,int e r rnpt, e x t e nn ate P Ug1t, ad Inapil e outdo ors;b y m e,a t h and P 1tka, 1; B a$' sac k, pocket.Pulemahqo.I' orun P ul e. T o f ade .P undiga,v .T oe onceive ;b e com e p r e gn ant P unda,v.i,T o b e l aunched; a fl oa t .P unqa;v ,t.Throw,cas t (aro ck a n et).Pundia,v t.T o l aun ch P unga, v ,t ,. T oa n c hor(as b oat) .P umb e.T o run o v e r (asyeas t).P umbulia,v ,t Bl ow s pittle upon;t o bl e ss;og a nga ep o ma ig wanla ,that h e m ay killth ese a-cow,Punu,1.Pawn.P u njinla ,v t Bl ow( with m outh);bnd.Pura,v.t Fo ld up (a s cl othes).Pura,v ,t (w ithm ondo).Laya s nare ; se t a trap .P urunla,v t Ro llu pto gether(in to ballo rr oll); stoo pd own.

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48 M PONGWE DICTIONAR Y.Puranla-mbs, v ,i.T o b end d own .P ur ua ,v .i.B e, orb ecome u nti e d .Par un la,v,t. U ntie,unl oose P 1 I SU 1.S ilk ( of c orn) P usi,1.Ca t .Pupu,a White PUBd A cc ident. P U iJin la, v ,i .T o be j ealous 0; P u e io a.T o burst opcn(a s abarre l),R.R ali e, a. Fu ll. R d Wh o l e ,enti re. R dwong e .A k indo f sta rsi n t he h eavens r e s emblinga liz ard. R er ef J en l e 1.Ma s ter, owner R ekadi e.A c ertain pcrson;ap er son;su ch aone R el'e 1.Father, ma ster, pro t ector;rer a ; invo e.c ase R eg a, a .Cr o o ked, wron g. R eko p e, p robablyadv ,phrase Avenhm u00,r ekope i.e .,h eg ave it,but soo n'de m an d ed it b ack again R eti, ad .Ri ghtly, trul y Rue, a.B ent, c rooked.S .Sa A term t o frighten01'drive away,orout,anyani mal. Saga, v t .T orubo il on on e'sse lf .&gia,v ,t T orubo il o n an oth er p erson. Salinla, v t .C ombing( i.e .,Ezalinla, comb) .Salia,v ,i.B ede tected; foun d o ut. Sanli W hat? how? why? olingoea nii, how I o nga tim e? Sa mbo,co nj .T her e fo re ,so Sa nqasanq, a Thin, s leazy S angunla, v ,t. .S a lu te,em -br ace ,(Sc e 8y angunla).Sa mbakanla,v.i.B e r e stless ; sleeple ss; roll;to ss toa nd fro Samba, v.t,T o s pread(as se ttingat ab le ) Sapimina,1.Bo lt .Sapilia "v.t ,Cbnfuae,p erpIex.Saeunla,v .t Unravel;ta ke to pi ec e s. SaiJa, v .t ,C urse. Sa iJia, v,Ow enjawisaffia .Itli ghtens. Sa iJinla, v.t.R ev er ence, w ors hip, b le s s.Saiou nla,v,Prey; raven .Sae unla,v t Tear i n pieces; d evour g re ed ily (tige r, a goat ) S a zya, v .t ,T akeor t ear down (a h o us e); efface a writing &1ga, v .i.D o wrong ; g o c rooked S dgiza, v .t ,Befoo l. f:J'dgunla, v .t .T rim, ojo etc S dlawdld Si!vel' .Sdlinla, v ,i,Toperseve re i n. Samba, v.t.K i ss .Sdmb anlav ,t.;rec ip. co n. o fedmba:K i ss eac h ot her S dlna. T os tringb eads, or a nything. S dnga, v. t.Mend,r epair.

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. :MPONGWE DI CTIONARY. 49Sdga, v .t,(ikonli) .T ocutSyaiya,v.t .(say a).B e disorhewfirewood. app o int ed; a shamed.Sata,v t.C reepu ptosly ly;Syazya ,orSa zya,v t.D esurprise molish,teardown( a h ouse); S rlAJa, v.t. Smit e, cut.efface ,E'/iiJa, v.i.Be s orry. Syal' rinda, v. i . L oveo ne's Srizy e, 1.So ldi er se lf;r. ef.c onj,oft dmda Sd zya, v.t ,Seduce;l eadto SyafJanlw, v.i H an g o ne's s in. s elf; ex.ban lia,r ef.eo nj. S rizya, v ,t .Co uipl ain ;ta lkSyap e,1. K ey, mo st ly u sed ap alaver . i npl ., ev en wh eno neis S dzyinla,v ,t.To c ompla i nto.m eant Sd zi.zya, v t.Sue(at l aw);S yambua,v. i. Op en(as a ta lk apa lav er flower);b lo om . S ega, v ,t .Mo ck.Syamba ,v.t S et,a rrange( aSe nja, Y t .Disown an agent's t able);s preadout;t o hang a ct up a thin g S ezya, v ,i.Laytheh ead Syambunlia (lambu nla).To .do wn. s p r ead o utf lat. S e, ad. How, why .S yayuwa,v,i.Co mmit s uiS e, into pron.What .e i de S ei, ad.Out,protrud ing. Sy awa, v .i.F la sh ( as lightS ek e 1 (is ekii). D irt. n ing). { PrompttoSyanga,v t .( omangatunga). S ekel ia,V.t e v i l, orc on T o p eel c ocoa nut.S ek edia,v .t .tinuan ce in S yaiJa, v (saiJa). Be s orry. e v il. Syd iJunla, v .i.Batheon e's S ekuma, v,i.Sob, s ig h s elf;re l.conj,ex joiJunla. Si3la, v :t (wit h isdngd) T o Syd'zya, or Sa zya C omplain;b e i n travail. talk a palav er. S eliJla, v,i.S lip. Syd zya, v t '1.'0 gather barn -S eli a .Laugh at. boo l e aves. S emba v t S co ld, blame Sydkdlia v .1. .I nt e rrupt anS e ma, v .t ,T o a greeto noy.Se nlia,v ,i.Start(onajo urS y dmbunla, v .t.Hide on e's n ey). s elf;r e f .e onj. e x.fumbunla. SiiiJia, v,t.e.g .,nlungunl a, S ydifa, v t .Peck. tohe lp; e.g., j a if ul'ia, tos s S yaiJa, v .i.Es cape from u pan ddown;e g.,rice i n Sya ria, .y t.Allure,entice, afa n. t empt .Syagia,v. t .Anoiut,smear.Sydnganla,v 1. Be c ured ;Syawga ,v .t,Pee l. ma de w hole;getwel l.SyaiJuga,v,t. W rap(agar-Syekidia,v,t . I ndulge,e nmentr oundone 's self).co urage. .

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50MPONGWEDICTIONARY. Syefia, v t. (s efJa ). Play. S y e nga, v .t .C le a r o ut(a r oa d) ; r em ove ob s tru c tions v.t S have S yega, v .t.Mimi c. S y elia, v .t L a ugh a t ;d eride S y ezya, v .i.T o l a y d own th e h e a d. S yil. :a, v ,t. T o ca tch by n eck;t oc hoke .S yika ,1.S il ve r ( ge ne ra ll y w i th y a-pupu a n d s i ng ) S yika -yarteula teuza. G 0 1d .S yili a,v ,t.G aze a t ; exa m i n e .S yinga,v ,i T o r o ar .S yinya,v .t. S ta mp ( with f oot) .S yiza,v .t B e b o ld Syisyila,lV. n Di s ob edience .Syiwa,v ,C u t (b us h). Syiva v ,t .W hip( with a st ick) S yiminla, v,LTo g roa n.S yoka,Y .t ,S hake up ; sp ill .S yo fias y ofja, a d.In ab und a nc e.S yuga, v t ,S hak e ,di sturb,t rouble .Sy uga z ugaga,v t S h a ke S yumlnt, 1. L e a d ( t h em in e ral ) Sy usya, v .i .M oveo rhi t ch along ( near t o ap e rson) .Sy una,v t .R e v eal ( a secret ) .S yu ria,v .t ,Co nv ic tjpr ov e g uil ty .S i g a,v .LRuuag round; .gro und ( as ab o at i n s ha l l o ws ).Si k a,1.S ilver,m oney .Sik imia,v.t A sk, orinquire o utlI n y m atter.Sila,a .Y .Di s obedi ent, and t o be di s obedi ent.Silina,v .t .(si linla) Go, or a ctco ntrary;todi sobey .Simanla ,v .L ,e .g kw ezangar nla .A greetogether;fit ea ch oth er .i' Si minla, v i, Gro an.Sim ba,v i. To l a nd at a pl ace; 'b y th e wa y,01'j ourney .Simbia,v .t.Preserve, up h old .Singa,v.t.D ye,co l0 1' .Sinda, a. (is inda).C ruel.S i n rlin l a,v ,t. ,Endure, b e ar.Sir a ,Y.t,B e a ga in s t ; inopp os ition t o.Sini,1.C hemise,p ettico at S iifa, v i ,Amountto; a rrive at.Si ea,v.t .Rub.s co ur .S izi nla ,v.LT o sc r a pe .S odun la,v ,t .Bruis e .So ga,v .t.Mi x(liquid);nl'ez anqa ,s at ur a ted.S oko v ,i.S pill.So kiza.C a us ingt o s pill.So l ia,v ,t G ound er .S oliza ,v,t,Put,o r place un d er .Sombia,Y .t Co mmand.S onga,v .t.Fo ll o w .S y o n li a,v .t,L ower .Sopa,v ,t.To c l as p a ndhold in t he a rm s .Sowa ,v ,t Bruis e .S ua ,v ,t.( s w a) .To c utUIlde rbrush,g ras s e tc. Su a, v t.T o s nat c h (a th in g).Su la,v ,LCom e to a ne nd;e nd .S ul iz a,v ,t .End,fini sh, de s troy .S unta;v.t,D escend (ariv er) ; t o l and.Su minlia,v.t .D escendfroma heig-ht. Sum inlia ,v t .Praise.

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MPOXGWE DICTIONARY .51Suna, Y t. Sun! ogd g' w' oma, sun' e bd ,T om ake k nown priv ate ly;to c omplaint o thekingabout ap erson .S ungakanla,v ,t Contend (b y wo rd s, o r oth erw i se).Sunga ,v.t L en d mon ey,e tc., tob e r e s t ore d i nkind .S ung e,ad So on, qui ckly .Sung e,a d.Iualit tle tim e .Su na .Pinch, tw in ge.Sundia zundia,v.Suria,v.t To know tho r oughly.Sungi nla,v,t.S ave.Sy avuzya,v ,t .,e x .p uga.T o c over on e'sse lf; wrap ab out .Sunja,v,t,Ti e (ab andagetight).Sy ogwa,v .i. T ob oast, gl ory, e x.syog wa nrigum banddkadi e eso gwanri gmnba. Sogunlia,v ,t.B oast a gainst; glo ryover.(R om xi. 1 8 ).Sy uga,v t To s hake;ex c ite,troub l e .Syug azua,v. i. S hake,be troub le.Swaka,1. l{ n ife. Syusyunl fa, t ,T og e ther ( ast h es k i rto f dre ss).Suxunod ,a d. Oppo site, ab ove.Sy orunla, v.t .Takeoff ( a garmellt) .S yangwazyangwa,e.g.sunga k anla,i.e .,d isputeabo ut a thing.Sw ena, v .t. Sn atch.8yamba,v.t.T o h angu p ,e .g.,ac urtain. Sy angunla, v 't .T oe mbrace,S yuwun la,v.i.Shi neb right l y.8yo zua,v .i. Di ssolve(s oap i n water).' T .T avi.P l ay g ame nt ydng e Ta,v.t. (1,7lkanlo ).R elate l eg e nds .T a,v t S ting, h ur t .T aga,v .t. c1lOke (as w e eds co rn).T aganla .T o b e c ome tang l ed.Takilia ,v .t T ell, inf orm .T ako,1.T oha c co .T ala,v.t. cl ay fl oor.T alu a,v t. Q uit,l ea v e( farm).Tali ; v .t.Put, l ay u pon.Tamb a, v .t .Huntcl amsa nd fi sh l eftinhol e s b y th et ide.T anga,v .t.Sw ear;m ake oat h .T ang a ,v.t. Co unt think .T andua,v ,i.Rip( as s ew ing) .Tandunla,v,t.Tan da,v ,i D odgea bout ( whenpursu ed ) .Tanda.T obe t ame, n ot ea sil y frightened .Tangunla,v ,t.R ead .Tanl a,v I TbTanli a. i 0ec razy.Tara,v,T o k eep; withh old .Tat a,I F ather,at ermo f re spect .Tatainin la,v .i. T r emb l e.Tava,v .t C ut top i eces;r ipapart;draw out .Tava,v .i .Alter,c hange .Taii inla,v .t.Paya fine; ex p iate aClime.T anoro,1.A t able T aiJa, v i.Part(a s arope); br eak i ntwo.

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5 2 MPONGWEm qTIONARY T aiJunla ,v.t .T ake offor away a ves se lfrom t h e fir e. T a ,aux v ,Us e d wit h p ot i mp Co u ld, w ou ld.Td,a dve rbv e rb.R ather T aM, d ef .v .o ri nt o O h that! T dtli, a H e i s better ( in s ick n es s o nly).T dfnia, v ,t. Pr ef e r,c h oose ,T dmd,v ,t.O wn,.toa dopt. T affia, v ,t E s p o n se T diJa, v ,t .Ins ult ( w i t hw ord s) T e11gunla, v .t Ca u s e to kn e el, di stor t, caree n. T eg wa, v.i. Ti p down(a s b oa t) ;e rr;gowro n g, k n ee l, o rca reen.T ela,v,t .Spyo ut '1. Te l a nqanla,v ,i.an d a Across ; goac r oss.T e m iz a,v ,t .D ece iv e, b efoo l.T enlat e nl a,a R ed, yel l ow, b rown y T enla,v ,t C utwith a ny s h a rp in st rument ,T enla ,v ,i .Situ patn ight.T enl i za,v.t ,Settle de e id e ( a d ispute) T e ndia, v.t .Avoid;t urn a way. T en d a, v.t .Writ e ,engrave in s cribe TiJnd inla, v,i.Causeto wr i t e t oa n yone.T e r i a t F righten.T efJa,v.t.Sh ow .Te inmla,v .t Reprove, i n s truct, c o r rect(wi t h w ords) T e g e in.a, v ,t .Co vet .Telar ela, v .T ogo fr equently b et w ee n l lac es 'T ele ,a :N a ked. T en gunla, v ,i.Limp.. .,( T e ta ,v ,t S ay, s peak. Te tefJiJnl a, a d. J u st n o w. ,T efJenld, a d. ( go tefJen la). J u s t n o w; j us t. T efJa, v t .H at ch cr ack, T efJia, v .i. B e ,o r b eco me w et. T e v e a.W et T ev i z a, v t ,W et .T ia ,v ,i.Fear.T iaqamla ,r e l. c o n j Tof ear e a c h ot her .T i en a,v .t ,D i stru st.Tieza, 1 t .Fri g hten.Tiqa,v,t ,Stop, cease, l eave.T iqanl a.v,i.B e l e ft ;s tay b eh ind Timbiaroimbia v .i.S tagge r .T ifJa,I .i. To b e p e rm eate d w it h ( b rea d w ithl eav en) .T o a, v .i. Go ; b e be co me .Toanla ,v .t Ca r ry Toanliz a,V.t Se nd (bya n o t h er) ; ca use o net ocar ry ; t o l o a d ap e r so n .T o a zan go,a d .,e .g ,fJende t ua.P e rhaps ; if p erhaps.T od u nta,v ,t .Pullu p; n ot u p ;e rad i c at e.Toqora,v .t .P erspire.Tolea,v ,t .,e g t umba .D ig.T okunla,v t D ig; go uge ; p l u ck o ut (asthing s ). To la,v ,i B e w en ;g etw e n; b ei n co mfortable e ireum s tance s .Tol i ea,v ,t.C u re ( f ro mdan ge r) ; r e s c u e; b es tow fav ors .Tol a,v t .Breakthrough ( a. f enee) X T oli ea,v ,t.M akeah olethroug h.' "Tolo nq o ,1.T runk .T olu,LT owel.

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}[PONGWE DICTIONARY.53T oiita,v,t.S end To mil1lia, v.t .Order;se nd f or(a thin g) .To mba ,v ,t.Tak ea way;throwaway;s ubtract.To mbar epa.Excep t,b esides.T ombinla,v .t. T ake np aw ay ( stre tch o ut upth e t he a rm).To nga,v. t .S peakloud;h allo y e ll, be llow .To ngwa,v .i.R ise( fromt he d ead).T ongunlia,v .t R aise( from > th e d ead) .. Tor a,v t R emove ( one's e ff ects ortow n)f rom apl ace .. ToiJa, v.t Vo mit.To va,v .i.B e, orb ecome m ouldy. To nda, or t dnda,v t Lov e .T ondanla,o rt dndanla,v,i.L ov e eac h ot her .Ton dia;ort dndia,v .t .P l e as e, d e light .Tii ndiza,o rt dndiza, v.t. Oa u seto l ove. T ong il1 l a,o r tdngin la, v .t,Lu s tafter;d e si re( in b ad s en s e). T ongwa o rt ongwa,v ,i Ri s e (a ss jm),Tua,a.Sharp .T u e nli a ,v t Spit;sp itu pon.Tuenla.Be ;b ecome;be f ulfill e d.T uga,v ,t Tnrn (o ne's se lf) ;tu g e nyuma. T uga, v t,Abu se,o ppress;t ug'osya ka . T ug wa ,v .i.B e b lowndown;fall (asa hou se).T uk ia ,v. t .Bru i se.T uk w a,v .i,Bebr ui sed .Tula,v .i.T o ki ckabo ut, asfortuin u tero .Tu la,v.t.Pulv erize;p ound ( withp estle).T ul' ag o vi.T o sla p theha nds t ogether in as toni shmen t .T ula,v.i B e,o r be come d nll.Tuiiia, v .t .Pier c e,spea r, T umba,v .t.D ig( inth e g round).Tumbakanla,v .Tuminlia, v .t.P ointo ut; s how;aim .T umunla,v .t.T o diga s luice.T unla,v .t,T odo bla ck s mithing.Tunla,v .i ,( tuna).Be ,or b ecome s h o rt .T unli z a,o rt unlia,v,t.S hort e n .T urinlia,v .i.T os hrink (as cl oth).Tute,1.Two fathoms( fourvardsc l o th ) 'Tuta, v .t.Pres e nt,give.Tuwa,v .t.Bur s t.T uwa,v.t .T oa ccuse false ly; s lander .T uw u nla,v.i .Spring up;grow(as pl antedse eds) .Tu ezin la,v t ,Drip.T yunazunaga,v .t .(nty un. a Z ltnaga ) D ealouts par in gly. V.van ganle,eo nj .Through;e ven ye t .V ange,a d .After th at v ani, a d.(ve nli).Where 1va, pr ep.At;in;for;o nac co unt of .

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54:MP OX GW E DI CTIOXARY.i'd teiJenld, a d Just n ow vavd. ad Th e r e v dt e, a d. Jn s tn ow ; go -t e a nd g o m e v e nlti .vafdme, a d A tt h at t ime iJ engeiJenge Sm iling p l eased i'enli, a. Wh ere( (YI'I:giz o venli 1) fe-nU, a d H ere n ow .f en d e, ad L e st ad .Perh a p s. v ereve r e, a L ow. v evele, a. Smo ot h,l eve l. v i, ad En ti r ely o ut (o ffir e, light,e tc.) via Fini shed, d one ( withnli). v iaganlo, a d. M o r e .v idiJid, a .Bl ack. vinte, 1. A c e nt. vingovingo a d A rou nd volovo lo, ad Allro und.{Ifon ly8Sp r ee e dtug VOnM, co n. eondo,con ::I!:f" t han t hat. W .W a mi 1. ;pI.a aoanla .M yc hildren. lVt i nl d, a Om a,W e nl i .Onl ome .W olang a nlanyambi e ,ad .In.d i scrim inat e l y .Y.Yantyd,1. Sm a ll q ua nt i ty.Y aw a nla 1.Li ttl e( boyso r g i r l s) Yli n ld, d em o p r o n Th at ( most l yp r efixed by m e ). Y a M ad .C o n t i nually. Y ey ama. S ome( p l. o f o!Jwdzama) Y e nlti, a d S o, t h us. Y e int.pr on .Whic h ( of a num b er).Y inla,dem o pr on. T hu s.Z .Z a ng e ,a O pen(a s a d oor) Z iJ7ia, a Gra ve, se rious; (o p po s itet oo rogo ). Z ol i,pr ep. Und er.Z o w a ,a S trait, n arrow.Zog e,a .S q uattedd ow n .Zue re,a d. Use d wi th nkiJi.Zy e le, d u o I s n ota t a ll. q e le, v.d ef I s n ot Clty:.J , \