Citation
Grebo grammar

Material Information

Title:
Grebo grammar or the use of the Protestant Episcopal Mission at Cape Palmas and parts adjacent, West Africa
Creator:
Payne, John, 1815-1874
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
Printed for the Mission by the American Tract Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Grebo
Physical Description:
60 p.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Grebo language -- Grammar
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Liberia
Africa -- Côte d'Ivoire
Coordinates:
6.5 x -9.5
8 x -5

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (Name Authority) : Payne, John, 1815-1874 URI : http://viaf.org/viaf/31310285

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
415258 ( ALEPH )
67318198 ( OCLC )
EB86.628 /63728 ( soas classmark )

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CAPE PALMAS AND PARTS ADJACENT, |
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PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY. |
§ 1. Orthography ------------------~------------------------ 7 |
I
PART Il. ETYMOLOGY. |
§ 2. Etymology in general ----------------------------------10 if
§ 8. Of nouns ------- ----------------++-----+--------------1] if
§ 4. Attributes of nouns -------------+-+------------------+--12
§ 5. Gender -----------------------------+--+--------------12 i
§ 6. Observations on gender --------------------------------12 i
§ 7. Of number --------------------------------------------18 i
§ 8. Of case -----------------------------------------------15 i
§ 9. Of articles --------------------------------------------15 i
Si Sct yes oa Sara ee Ph eo. 2G |
/ § 11. Numeral adjectives -----------------------------------18 i
§ 12. Of pronouns--- ------------------------------------+--19 |
§ 18. Relative pronouns ------------------------------------20 a
§ 14. Interrogative pronouns---.-------------+---------------2]
§ 15. Adjective pronouns -----------------------------------2] |
§ 16. Of verbs ---------«-------+--+------------------------28 I |
§ 17. Defective, auxiliary, and reciprocal verbs---- .-----------23
§ 18. Inflection of verbs ------------------------------------24 ||
§ 19. Voice-----------+----------------------+-------------24 ||
§ 20. Mood---------------+--------------------------~------25
§ 21. Participles -------------------------------------------26 I
& 99° Weriseus s0- ssa i csodewnc <2. ones eats oo es eet i
§ 28. Subdivision of tenses-~--------------------------------27 ii
§ 24. Conjugation ‘of verbs -------------------------------=--27 i
§ 26, Conjugation of the verb ni, do--------------------------98 - li
S26, -PeCultarities Of the Ver geo oe ee ee oO |
§: 27. Passives VOlCG sence se een ee aaa = oe ee aa ae mae ne ob
He 28. AdVel ps seweea a seme wa te ee een n eee eee enero = |
§ 29. Prepositions, or post-positions- ------------------+------87 |
§ 80% ConjumCtlong = == =a = = a ee ne ee ey i)
6-312 Interjections “ses. s=22 = soo a2 So Se ete ee SoS ees il
§:32: Derivation<0f -words==o=s oe oe = sess wns Soe eee 89 ih Ae
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4 INDEX.
PART III. SYNTAX,
§ 88. Sentences--------+-----~---- +2 4-se--4---2--- 2-22-40
§ 84. Rulesof syntax+--52< S22- oo. oa wee cece sgn occu df
§. 85." Rule To s+-2------- 220s 2s aa. oa eeeeeceaesce unde
§ 86) Twas =. 5-5 a eae cen ac ss oe eee oda
BOG EY oe a oS aa oe ee ee ete oo eee Am
§: 88. 88 Dirks etmek - shop seal sdk eit. ed
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Qi4le > tn Vil areas see ec ce ees... 49
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Bn EO syst Pca = oie neeae et ~ seb ue ambien Seo Sto Soe
pe 47-8 EES. -- 5-5-5 ss ae eee. | oie
S246." “XIV. ---- 5-5 2-0 eeu sect cee eng,
Rage = AK. -- ---- 255 2 beeen seer ae ebd
Be ee es oe ee een ee ee
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SbO. Sn SEVe 2 sce. oe cetie ae Se) 5 bce ee
PART IV.” PROSODY.
§ 538. Its parts -----~---------------------------- a 2-58
§ 54. Of accent --------------------------------------+-----58
§ 55. Of quantity. -----------------------+--~-~-<+--5~-- ---58
§ 56. Of emphasis, pauses, etc.-------------------------------59
§ 57. Of versification ---------------------------------------59
PART V. PUNCTUATION.

: § 58. General remarks on punctuation -----------------------6]
§ 59. Comma----------------------+---40+------0+---------6]
§ 60. Semicolon -----------------------1-------------------63
§ 61. Colon ---------------------------+------------+---+---63
§ 62. The period - - --------------++-------------------------64
§ 68. The dash, etc. -------------------------------+--~------64
§ 64. Capitals-----------------------+-----+----+--------------65 ©



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PREFACE.
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Tue design of this grammar is twofold; to assist {i
the foreigner in the acquisition of the Grebo lan- |
' guage, and to excite and help educated Greboes to \
_ the intelligent knowledge and appreciation of their i
own mother-tongue. i
Of these two objects, the latter is regarded as i
most important. The number of foreigners, whether :
missionaries or others, who will feel sufficient inter-
est to acquire one of the two hundred and fifty lan- i
guages and dialects spoken in Africa, will probably
eas Uh
be small; while it is to be hoped that the number it
of Grebo youth, educated in the schools on the |
coast, will increase year by year. |
This view will account for the plan of this gram- lI
mar. Unlike other contributions of this kind pub- li
lished by missionaries and others in Western Africa,
it is prepared for the Grebo school, rather than the
foreign scholar. It is therefore as nearly as possible iI
ves I
like ordinary English Grammars; is indeed only an |
adaptation of the rules and principles of these i)
grammars to the Grebo language. | it
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§$1.ORTHOGRAPHY. «i
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1. OrtrHogRAPpHy includes a knowledge of the |
nature and power of letters and the art of spelling i
| words correctly. i
2. The Grebo language has twenty-four princi- i
pal letters: abdefghi(g)klmnnoprss t
tuvwy Zz. ie
| 3. Those letters which can be sounded by them- i
| selves are called vowels. |
4, These vowels are, a e i 0 U. |
, These with their modifications are thus repre-
sented : |
| a e@ io u have the open (clear) sound. |
a 6 16 t have nasal sounds. |
Hi
o e have the deep sound of the respective vow- i
| els. \|
| 0 6 have the.deep and the nasal sound at once. |
EXAMPLES. i
ss a (fa) sounded as a in father. i
& (ha) es “en” (French.) !
e (de) fs e in prey, met (long or short.) |
| 6 (né) e through the nose. i
e (meke) s “aye” (German i.) a
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i 8 PART cla. g 1, ORTHOGRAPHY. im
E é (Awé) sounds deep and nasal. | |
i} i (di) sounded as i in ravine and pit. |
iH i (nwi) i nasal. |
mt 0 (so) - o in no. \
6 (mo) “ o nasal. P
o (fro) « asain all. |
0 (awd) “ deep and nasal. |
u (ku) “ as u in rule, bush. 3
t (ku) “* nasak Be |
— is sign for length, as ba, fa.
| w = shortness, as da.
There is an indistinct sound, as in the second
syllable of “nation,” “father,” etc., sometimes re-
sembling “o,” sometimes “e.” We give it with 6,
&, t, etc., (kpone, gbtro.)
5. A dipthong is the blending of two vowels in
one syllable. They are as follows: |
ai (ae) pronounced asi in pine.
au és ow in now.
iu e u in pure.
(Ow in brow, &w in dsa&w, Ow, ow, aw, etc., are
dipthongs peculiar to West African languages.)
*6. A consonant is a sound that cannot be ut-
tered without the aid of a vowel. |The consonants
are,
a. Labial: p, b, f, v, m.
b. Lingual and dental: t, d, z, s, 8, r, 1, n.
c. Palatal and guttural: k, g, h, y(j), w, n. p
Remarks: v is a softened f. —
| z is a hardened s. |
FH s sounds like English ‘‘sh.’’
aed j sounds like y, and is only ee nouns,
| nh sounds like English 4 = is . finial g.” |
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PART I., § 1, ORTHOGRAPHY. 9 ie
4 7. A double consonant is the blending of two
consonants into one, so that the sound of neither is | Hie
lost: f
The double consonants in Grebo are, bw, mw, |
r ml, pr, kp, gb, ky, gy, ty, ts, hl, ny, nw. Hi:
8. Several consonants are convertible into their a
| cognates. They are as follows: mB)
| B and P, L and R, D and R, B and N, N and D, He
= 7P-and.D. |
9. The sounds of the Grebo letters are, for the | it
most part, the same as in English. W and Y are i
always used as consonants.
10. The nasal sound frequently occurs; it is de- i
signated bya circumflex on the respective vowels. i
11. Spelling is the art of expressing a word by i
. its proper letters, and rightly dividing it into its |
proper syllables.
In Grebo, we begin with “natural spelling ;” that |
is, we divide a spoken word into its syllables, and /
| syllables into their individual sounds.
12. A word is a number of sounds (at least two) |
used together to express an idea. li
13. A syllable is so much of a word as can be I
pronounced by a single impulse of the voice; as i
“nye” in nyebwe. i
14. Every Grebo word and syllable terminates i
in a vowel. i
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§ 2. ETYMOLOGY.
ETYMOLOGY IN GENERAL.

1. Erymonocy treats of the different sorts of
words, their various modifications and. derivations. |
2. Words are certain articulate sounds, used by |

common consent as signs of our ideas.

3. Words, in respect to their formation, are

either primitive or derivative, simple or compound.

a. A primitive word is one which is not derived
: from any other word in the language, as hya, child;
ha, good.

b. A derivative word is one derived from some
other word, as hyad-ka, childlike. This class of
. words is very numerous.

c. A simple word is one not combined with any

other word, as kai, house.
d. A compound word is one made up of two (or
more) simple words, as kai-lo, housework.

4. Words, in respect to form, are either declin-

able or indeclinable.

a. A declinable word is one which undergoes cer- 7

tain changes of form or termination to express the |
1H different relations of gender, number, case, person, |

tense, etc., as hyebwe, man; nyebo, men; ni, make; |

nu, made. =o
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| PART II., § 3, OF NOUNS. 11 AR
| 5. An indeclinable word is one which undergoes | ,
no change of form, as hi, good; ond, no. i
) 5. In respect to signification and use, words are Ht

. divided into different classes, called parts of speech. |

6. There are in the language nine sorts of words, |

or nine parts of specch: namely, 1. Noun; 2. Article; |
3. Adjective; 4. Pronoyn;. 5. Verb; 6. Adverb; 7. |

| Preposition (and Post-position;) 8. Conjunction; 9. _ |
Interjection. iB

|

| § 3. OF NOUNS. i

1. A noun is the name of any person, place, or |

thing, as hyebwe, man; Bwede; bla, rice. i|

2. Nouns are of two kinds: proper and common. ~

3. Common nouns are general names; that is, |

they are the names common to all individuals of the |

same sort, as kai, house; word, town. i

4, Proper nouns are particular names; that is, |

they are the names of particular individuals of the |

same kind and sort, as Ana, Bwede. i

K ec} ps 5 ; PiRcaAk Hi

5. Under common nouns are included abstract, i

| collective, and verbal nouns. |

a. An abstract noun denotes quality apart from

the substance to which it belongs, as pro, loneli- |

ness. Hl

b. A collective noun is one which in the singular — i

, number* signifies many, as puwa, multitude; kpa, il

| host. |)

| c. A verbal noun is one derived from a verb, as i
| nunue, doing; pepa, entering. H.

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i 12 PART Il., § 5, OF GENDER. ~ 7
a § 4. ATTRIBUTES OF NOUNS.
{ 1. To nouns belong person, gender, number, and
i case.
i 2. Person in grammar denotes the relation of a
| noun or pronoun to what is said in discourse.
| a. The jirst person denotes the speaker, as “ Mo-
nu ne,’ J have done it.
b. The second denotes the person spoken to, as
“M6 Nyesoa yi mo ne,” “Thou God seest me.”
c. The third denotes the person spoken of, as
) “ Hya& ne ebé,” “The child is strong.”
§ 5. GENDER.
1. Gender is the distinction of nouns or pro-
nouns in regard to sex.
2. There are four genders: masculine, feminine,
neuter, and common.
3. The masculine gender denotes the male sex,
as Nyebwe, man ; blibeyo, bullock.
4. The feminine gender denotes the female sex,
i _ as nyene, woman.
5. The neuter gender denotes whatever is with-
out sex, as kai, house. |
fH 6. The common gender denotes such nouns as
may be either male or female, as bebu, relative;
hya, child.
§ 6. OBSERVATIONS ON GENDER.
1. In Grebo, gender is often distinguished by
a, adding the word beyo for the masculine singular,
fi and be plural; and for the feminine kpa, singular,
and kpe, plural, to the generic noun, as blli-beyo,
.



| .
" PART II., § 7, OF NUMBER. 138 He
blle-be, bullock; blli-kpa, blle-kpe, cow. Frequently
| it is distinguished by different words, as nyebwe,
man; nyene, woman. | ;
2. The masculine and feminine of pronouns is
f the same, as “ o-kai” is either his house or her house. Ra
| O di ne, he or she has come. |
In compound words the form of the masculine |
and feminine is the same. Thus we-dio, literally |
i witcheraft-eater, is applied to a man or woman. Se- i
koo, a liar, is either masculine or feminine. |
3. The neuter pronoun is generally e nom. ne, 4
obj; as e mi ne numa, it will cause it. O and no are |
however often neuter, as Tu 0 kokwe kra-a, a tree |
its dying is difficult. Kobo-t6 né di, a ship it comes. i
4, K is often interchanged with 0, and ne with |
no, except when man is the subject. Thus, neblo ne, i
or no, fli ne (the bird has flown) would be equally |
correct. Kai e boa and kat o boa (the house is large) i
would be used indifferently. i
§ 7. OF NUMBER. |
1. Number is that. property of a noun or pro- ll :
noun which distinguishes one object from more |;
; - than one. |
2. Nouns have two numbers, the singular and I)
plural. The singular number denotes one, as ryebwe, 1
man; the plural more than one, as 7yebo,men. ~ i
\ OBSERVATIONS ON NUMBER. i
a. In words compounded of nouns and verbs, i
| which are very numerous in the language, the forms i
of the singular and the plural conform to those of I
the noun; as kai-poo, singular; kai-po-o, plural, | hie
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‘i 14 PART II., § 7, OBSERVATIONS ON NUMBER. :
e: house-builder. Wudi-kweo, singular; wudi-kweo,
plural, collector of money; o being the singular, and.

( o the plural pronoun.

i Exception. In some cases the o becomes t in the
plural, as Kwe-nuo, singular; kwe-nut, plural, sick ;
person.

b. In many nouns the singular and plural are
distinguished by their final syllables, as follows:
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

Nyebwe, man. Nyebo, men.
bli-pe, citizen. bli-we, citizens.
neblo, bird. neble, birds.

_ deyo, doctor. deyo-bo, doctors.
: Grebe, a Grebo. Grebo, Greboes.
nyene, woman. nyeno, women.

hyd, child. hyeyiru, children.

habe, fowl. habe, fowls.
bli, bullock. blle, bullocks.
s6, horse. soya, horses.
sede, serpent. seda, serpents.
kai, house. kiya, houses.

| kaséra, ass. kasére, asses.
gide, medicine, charm. gidi, medicines, charms.
| pliye, cutlass. pliya, cutlasses. '
hu, leaf. hwiya, leaves.
3. In compound words the change in number
conforms to that of the noun, rather than the qual-
ifying word or phrase, as To-nyebuwe, (generic) man ; 4:
plural, To-nyebo. Gbé-ne-hya, a strong child ; plu-
_ ral, Gbé-ne-hyeyiru. ©
4, Many nouns have the same form, and are |
used in a singular and plural sense, as bla, rice ;
a



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PART I., § 9, OF ARTICLES. 15 Te

; il
kyena, palm-oil; ibo, corn; péno, trade; péma,
riches ; wudi, money. HH:
5. Some nouns are used in the singular number | f

‘ only. This is generally the case with abstract nouns, |
as pro, loneliness ; yeyede, deceit; hena, leprosy. | Ht
' § 8. OF CASE. i :
1. Case means the different state, condition, or |

: relation which nouns have to other words in the . |
same sentence. i
2. Nouns have three cases: the nominative, pos- i

sessive, and objective. i

) 3. The nominative case is that in which some- |

thing is asserted of the noun. It indicates the agent i

or doer, as Gide teo mo mo no, Gide looks on me. il

4, The possessive case denotes the relation of i

property or possession, as Horo & tomaya, Horo’s |

pipe. |

5. The objective case is that in which the noun i

is the object of some verb or preposition, as Gree i

yede toma, Gree asks for tobacco. ti
6. In form, the nominative and objective cases of |
nouns are alike. The possessive case is indicated Hi

either by placing the pronoun after the noun, as Hi

Dowe o-nyene, Dwe’s wife, or by a, the only proper

sien of the possessive case. |

§ 9. OF ARTICLES. l)

1. Articles are words placed with nouns to point HH

them out or limit their meaning. HI

2. In Grebo there is properly no definite article. ii

In place of it, pronowns are used, as nyebwe nono, |
that man; kai neno, this or that house. oy
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1 16 PART I., § 10, OF ADJECTIVES. 4
E. The place of the definite article is also supplied
| by the personal pronoun, as nyebwe no nenao, man
\ | he was, for the man, who was; nyebo no nenao,
i | no di, men they were, they come; for, the men who
S| came.
3. The indefinite article is no. This is probably
| a modification of the verb of existence, ne. ‘Thus
“Nyebwe no,’ a man, might be resolved into. “Nye-
bwe ne-o,” contracted n’o or no, “man is.” |
4, The article in Grebo is always placed after
the noun, as kai no, a house; fa no, a knife; hya&
no, a child.
5. A noun without the article is taken in its
widest sense, as to-nyebo ho, men are numerous ;
blli di bla, cattle eat rice.
6. The pronoun no, after a noun, sometimes
gives an indefinite sense; thus, “nyebwe no di,”
man he comes; or, @ man comes.
§10. OF ADJECTIVES.
1. Adjectives are words joined to nouns to de-
scribe or qualify them, as ha nyebwe, a good man ;
| hy& kuku, a bad child. |
2. Adjectives have generally three degrees of com-
parison: positive, comparative, and superlative.
3. In most languages the degrees of comparison
are expressed sometimes by changing the form of the
adjective, sometimes by additional qualifying words. \
4, In Grebo the form of the adjective never va-
im ries, and degrees of comparison are always expressed
| by qualifying words and phrases: e. g., positive, ha
nyebwe, a good man; comparative, o nu. ha nye-
Al,



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BBA | !
fe PART I., § 10, OF ADJECTIVES. 11 i
bwe, 0 hio o bino, he is a good man, he excels his
fellows; superlative, o nu ha nyebwe, o hio o bino 4 it
popleyino, he is a good man, he excels all his fellows. | '
, 5. A superlative sense is generally made out in |
Grebo by the use of the adverb baka, very much; |
as e noyino baka, it is very beautiful ; literally, it is i
beautiful much. ||
6. A superlative sense is also made by joining i ;
the verb fio, to excel, with an adjective or phrase; | :
as 9 lio kpéne noe, he excels, or he is exceedingly i
good; 0 yinono-de hio, his beauty is surpassing. |
7. As a general thing, the adjective precedes the i
noun, as ha nyebwe, a good man; yinono kai, a li
beautiful house. There are, however, not a few |
exceptions to this, as niyebwe kuku, a bad man; |
hya& kra, an ugly child. i
8. Many nouns appear to be used as adjectives, |
as o ne gbé, he is strength, for, he is strong; o ne i
ni, he is wisdom, for, he is wise. |
9. Adjectives are readily formed by the combi- \)
nation of a noun and participle, as ebé-ne-nyebwe, i
literally, strength-being man, for, a strong man; i
kpéne-no-hya, conduct-good child, for, a good child. Ht
10. Nouns become adjectives when used to ex-
press the quality of other nouns, as seni-tu, a brass H
rod ; plee-ya, an iron pot. i
- 11. Adjectives are formed by the combination of HI
verbs and adverbs, as e hlo-ya, it is long upward, Hh
for, it is high; e kwa-ya, it is short upward, for, it i i
is short. 1
12. A large number of adjectives found in other i
languages, are expressed in Grebo by a phrase com- li ite
- |
: =



esi | RHPA He Sine EA UE
i 18 PART Il., § 11, OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. .
of posed of a verb and noun, or a verb, noun, and ad-
n jective, as e pe se-nd, it puts a sweet smell; e pe no,
| it puts bad smell; 9 pe sedi, he puts on the gentle-
| | man, or freeman.
i § 11. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
| 1. Adjectives which express number are called :
| numerals. ;
| 9. Nuineral adjectives are of three kinds: card i-
nal, ordinal, and multiplicative.
7 3. Cardinal adjectives answer to the question,
“How many?” as do, sd, one, two, ete. Ordinals
answer the question, “Which of the number ?”
They are first, second, ete.; tede, first. The multi-
plicative are single, double, triple, ete.
4, The cardinal adjectives are,
do, one. puno-hn, fifteen.
80, two. puno-h’mledo, sixteen.
ta, three. puno-h’mles6, seventeen.
hé, four. puno-behébehe, eighteen.
(hm) hé, five. puno-siedo, nineteen.
h’mledo, six. woro, twenty.
h’mles6, seven. woro-no do, twenty-one.
behébehé, eight. woro-no 80, twenty-two.
siedo, nine. wore 80, forty.
pu, ten. wore-so-no pu, fifty.
puno do, eleven. wore ta, sixty.
puno so, twelve. wore-ta-no pu, seventy. '
puno ta, thirteen, | wore hé, eighty.
i puno-hé, fourteen. wore hin, hundred.
Huba, pl. hubwi, two hundred.
This is the highest cardinal number in Grebo.



OMe i reReTaEL Vat ar Le acastet Ti tery crar eran Tae MAUL TehokehiLaat ara pray erataicryn us lotaMTiMMLG MIAME a aera sta ere taal | Mee
pa GH it ea
il
P PART Il., § 12, OF PRONOUNS. 19
5. There is properly but one ordinal adjective in ie
Grebo: namely, tede, first. The ordinal sense in ie
other cases is expressed by a combination of words, ie
; ae ace . HW
as, nyenayede so dnyenayedo ; literally, days two their |
day, for, the second day; nyenayede ta 4 nyenayedo, 7
‘ 1)
days three their day, etc. i
The multiplicative sense is expressed by doub- | if
ling the cardinal adjective, as Nyebo do-do no di, the i
. . ~ ~ + iy] 1
men come one one, that is, singly; O ko gese 80-86, i
. |.)
they have handkerchiefs two two, or, two each. i
Mi
§ 12. OF PRONOUNS. |
1. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, Hh
as, o-mo ha nyebwe, he is a good man. ii
2. Pronouns are of three kinds: personal, relative, tH
and adjective. i
3. The personal pronouns are as follows: Hi
mo, 1; mo, thou; no, he, she, it; Ha
a, we; 4, you; o, they. ‘HH
They are thus declined : : Hi
SINGULAR. PLURAL. I ‘i i
Ist Pers. Nom. mo, I. Nom. a, (amu). we. Ij |
Poss. nene, mine. Poss. 4, nene, ours. Hy
Obj. mo, me. Obj. amo, us. (he
Whi
2d Pers. Nom..m6, thou. | a, amu, ye. HI
‘¢ Poss. néne, yours. | a néne, yours. i}
‘Obj. mo, you. am6, you. H |
3d Pers. Nom. 0 or no, he, she, it.| 0, no, they.
a Poss. 0, his. wa, theirs.
. ce Obj. no, him. no, them.
IMPERSONAL PRONOUN. il
SINGULAR. PLURAL. |
Nom. e, ne, it. e, ne, they. HY |
Poss. e, its. e, wa, their.
Obj. ne, it. ne, them. ie



pee NSS aeie ty bis beac ar ctad hehe tidy ou sah ta hie ha ded hy pacar ary eae Tal etm auar aan pTaA TL
a eae ; ; i } ih ¥ r + nit Hie eH aaah cae a na
i ©
ty 20 PARIS SE, § 13, RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUN.

i SINGULAR. PLURAL.

fm Ist Pers. Na nyebwe tu, myself. & fyebwe tu, _ ourselves.

| 294 ** na nyebwe tu, thyself. anyebwe tu, — yourselves.

m ti} oq o nyebwe tu, himself. o-nyebwe tu, thovnselvea |
mii e nyebwe tu, itself. wa-nyebwe tu, _ .

| THIRD FORM—NEARLY OBSOLETE. ;

SINGULAR. '” PLURAL.

Ist Pers. N& hma, myself. &hmo, ourselves.

| 294 <‘* nahmo, thyself. 4hmo, yourselves.

8d“ ohmo, _ himself. wa-hmo, themselves.
1 Hmo in this case is a modification of the per-

Hy sonal pronoun mo.

| § 13. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

1. A relative pronoun is a word that usually
stands for some word before it in the same sen-
tence, as, “nyebwe, hong 9 po no a mide dimo,’ the

man who said he would come here.

2. The relative pronouns are,

hono, who ; plural hono.
hene, which, that, plural hene.

8. The relative pronouns are not declined, being
alike in the nominative and objective cases. They
have no possessive form. The possessive in this
case, as in that of nouns, being designated by @
or 0.

4. Hono and hono are applied to persons and
animals, sometimes to inanimate objects, as, “ Kobo-

| t6, hono o pono o mina dimo,” the ship which they

ia said would come.
Hene and hene are applied to nouns of the neuter
gender, as, Hene o hle, that which they discuss.



Bereta irrsesirastarshiveeeretereiiietl eit ieiatananesaanetacsuareaaiasaneninaista ns aieaeeaTITTLHTE Prvitibiiliitiartaterietateiacneatasast ose
gE : i)
i
‘ PART II., § 15, ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 21 |
, a
§ 14. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. I i
| 1. Pronouns used in asking questions are called | |
interrogative. |
f 2. They are, Hi :
SINGULAR. PLURAL. | Hl |
nyono, who? nyono, who? Hi
dene, dend, what? dene, deno, what ? 4
3. The indefinite adjective pronoun “be,” some, Hi
is used interrogatively, as, Nyebwe be no? What 1
man? De be n6? What matter or thing? | 2
4, Nyono relates to persons; dene, deno, to things. | lI
5. Where the individual is inquired for, an in- ‘HH
terrogative phrase is used, as, “Wa nyo be no?” HH
Which one of them? “MH de be no?” Which of iH
them? that is, things. Hl
§ 15. ADJEOTIVE PRONOUNS. Hi
1. Adjective pronouns are words that resemble HHH
both pronouns and adjectives. Mi
2. There are four sorts of adjective pronouns: HH
possessive, distributive, demonstrative, and indefinite. HI
I. POSSESSIVE. a
a. Possessive pronouns are such as relate to H,
possession or property. 1 |
b. They are, nd, my; nd, thy; 9, his; e, its; d, | |
our; d, your; o and wa, their; e, their. iH
or Il. DISTRIBUTIVE. , i
a. Distributives represent objects taken sepa- i
rately in classes. We
6 In Grebo, distributive adjectives are gener- ae



- 22 PART II., § 15, ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
ally supplied by the reduplication of numeral adjec-
tives; thus, zyebo do-do, literally, men one one,
means, men taken singly; nyebo sd sd, men two two,
men taken two and two, ete.
ad So also, o gba gese sd sd, they received handker-
chiefs two two, means, they received each two
handkerchiefs.
c. Ba, bdma, (rarely ke, either, or,) and gbiye, |

i every, are distributive adjectives. |

2 Il. DEMONSTRATIVE, |

= a. The demonstrative pronouns are those which
precisely point out the things to which they relate.

b. They are as follows:
SING. PLUR. ;
stl Neno 1 Neno Jac,

i oe OF oi OF

Nono ( that. Nono (those.

_ c. Nono and noné generally refer to persons,
though sometimes to animals and things. Neno
and neno refer to things, birds, animals, etc.

IV. INDEFINITE.

al a. The indefinite pronouns are those that refer

hi to things in an indefinite or general manner.

c: b. They are as follows:

0: SING. PLUR. |

Obe, some one. obe, some persons.
a odo, some one. ode, some persons.
kK ote, some certain. . ote, some certain.
s ene, any. ene, any.
g 4



|

r PART II., §.16, OF VERBS. 93 Re

|

§ 16. OF VERBS. i

vi

1. A verb is a part of speech that expresses | ;

action or state, as, 0 di ne, he has come; 0 neo, he i| ii
2. Verbs are divided into transitive and intransi- "]

tive, regular and irregular, defective, auxiliary, and ae

reciprocal. |

3. A transitive verb requires an object after it; as, | 3

Yaba bi 9 yu ne,.Yaba has beaten his child. |
4. An intransitive verb is one that does not re- . Hi
quire an object after it; as, Dwe moe ne, Dwe sleeps. i
5. A regular verb is one that retains the ground |
form in the past tense; as, present, si, to burn; past, |
sina, burnt; present, pe, to land; past, peda, landed. Hi
6. An irregular verb is one that does not retain Hi
the ground form in the past tense; as, present, pe, to i
place; past, poda, placed; present, nt, to make; past, |
nuna, made. 1
§ 17. a2. DEFECTIVE VERBS. I

1. A defective verb is one that wants some of its My:
parts. |
2. The defective verbs are, mo, to be; ye, to say; i

te, to be or continue. |
b. AUXILIARY VERBS.

1. An auwiliary verb is one which helps to form
| the moods and tenses of primal verbs. ;

2. The auxiliary verbs are, mi, go, or will; di,
come, or will; ne, to be, or exist; na, should; yz, to |

be in the act (of doing,) ete. tit)



24 PART II., § 19, OF VOICE. |

3. The auxiliary verbs are generally themselves
also independent verbs regularly conjugated as
others.

4. The conjugation of the auxiliary verbs will
appear in the paradigm of verbs to be given here-
after.

ce. RECIPROCAL VERBS. |

1. A reciprocal verb is one that expresses mutual
action.

4. Reciprocal verbs are formed variously, as fol-
lows :

a. By prefixing a similar syllable to the ground
form of a verb, and adding no, as, no, to be good;

_ noneng, to be good to one another.

b. By placing de after the ground form and add-
ing no, as, o ledeno, they kill one another.

§ 18. INFLECTION OF VERBS.

1. To verbs belong voice, mood, and tense.

2. In Grebo the distinction of number or person
lies in the personal pronoun.

§ 19. VOICE.

1. Voice is a particular form of the verb, which
shows. the relation of the subject, or thing spoken of,
to the action expressed by the verb.

2. Verbs have two voices, the active and passive.

_ 8. The active voice represents the subject of the
verb as acting upon some object, as, Yaba bi o YUs |
Yaba beats his child. :

4. The passive voice represents the subject of the



seh aiearehaboseeesri ed UTSTES ETE ETERS 1 TU ERYTR ETRE tC EP T I ESE TET PPEYOPETT PM ete ti RR ee
|e
PART II., § 20, OF MOOD. 25
|
verb as acted upon (or suffering) by some person or | 3
thing, as, Yaba bie ne, Yiba is beaten. |

5. The passive voice is little used in Grebo. In- | '
stead of saying, Yaba bie ne, Yaba is beaten, a Grebo i
would generally say, o bi Yaba ne, they beat Yaba. i

§ 20. MOOD. |

1. Mood is the mode or manner of expressing i f
the signification of the verb. : i}

2. Verbs have six moods: the indicative, the po- i
tential, the subjunctive, the imperative, the causative, il
and infinitive. Hi

3. The indicative mood is used simply for indi- Hi
cating or declaring a thing, or asking a question ; il
as, mi ne, I go; mi dime? will you come? HI

4. ‘The potential mood implies possibility, liberty, i
power, will, or obligation, either with or, without i
asking a question; as, bo mu, he may go, or bo mu? I
may he go? |

5. The subjunctive mood affirms a thing subject i
to some limitation; as, bo nwé ne, o nu ne ne, if he Hi |
choose, he will do it. ‘

6. The wmperative mood commands, exhorts, en- i
treats, or permits, as hede nd kenede, read your book. i

7. The causative mood. The peculiar idea in this |
mood is causation. It is formed by adding e to the i
ground form, as wee no diye, cause her to go out of |
doors.

8. The infinitive mood expresses an action with- |
out limitation of number or person. It is formed |
by adding mo to the second form past of the ground
form, as, ni, numo, to make. ee

Grebo Grammar. 2



- SRT re TT errr TTT nT TTT TTT nT TTPO net nT Orne ern OTT mnt
. . |
i |
i |
~4 ; , ¢
i 26 PART II., § 22, OF TENSE.
a |
i §. 21. PARDICTPLES.
' 1. Participles are certain forms of the verb which |
st contain no affirmation, but express being, doing, or ‘
Wa suffering, and thus “take part” in the quality of |
nouns and adjectives as well as of verbs; as, nwnue,
doing; nenee, being.
2. The participle, in Grebo, is never used as an
| _ adjective, nor does it take an object after it. It is
i only used as a verbal noun.
i 3. There are three participles: present, perfect,
: | and compound perfect ; as, nunue or nue, doing; nuna,
| done, past, and finished; and die-nunue, compound
| perfect. This latter is used in reference to an ac-
| tion in process of accomplishment, as, kre o nuna e
i die nunue, thus they effected its making or prepara-
| tion. |
iy 4, The present participle is formed by the redu- |
plication of the first form past and the addition of |
e€, as, nt, present ; first form past, nw; present parti-
ciple, nunue. This is sometimes contracted into nize. |
5. The perfect participle is the same as the in-
definite past; namely, nuna.
| 6. The compound perfect is formed by prefixing |
| die to the present participle, as die-nunue.
§ 22. TENSE. |
1. Tenses are certain modifications of the verb
which point out the distinctions of time.
i 2. Time is naturally divided into present, past,
| and future.



aL reise ano Me nn nna reaTLARGABGHATTILEH AAT FHTTATAU RIAL DL DLALANESLOAAFILALBAIINIEL Lot eee
rr | | ‘
i
fo i
PART II., § 24, CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 27 | ie
Hy
| 3. The present tense expresses what is now tak- i
{ ing place; as, ndwane mo ne, I love you. ie
| 4. The past tense represents what has already | ;
5 taken place; as, nuna ne ne, I did it. |
| 5. The future tense expresses what will take Ws
place hereafter; as, mi ne nwo, I shall do it. |
om
-. § 283. SUBDIVISION OF TENSES. | :
1. The Grebo has numerous modifications of :
the primary divisions of tenses, which will appear iM.
in the conjugation of verbs. il
2. The primitive verbs consist almost univer- Hi
sally of one or two syllables. Hill
3. The tenses are formed from the original verb, H|
sometimes by modifications of the same, but more | |
| generally by additions of particles and auxiliary |
. verbs. Hi)
| 4, In Grebo, verbs do not indicate their number I |
| or person, their form remaining the same in the Hi
| first, second, and third person, and in the singular | |
and plural number. Persons and number are indi- Hi)
| cated by the personal pronoun. | :
§ 24. CONJUGATION OF VERBS. |
1. The conjugation of a verb is the regular com- | |
| bination, or yoking together, and arrangement of its | |
- several moods, tenses, etc. l :
2. There are in Grebo jive conjugations. The HH)
distinction on which these are based consists in the fel
change in the last vowel of the ground form, as HH
| indicated in the following table: ‘is
Ay



= ss adasistadanspusasdatnieiinasniaaaiunitimmetinneimmene eT TT ERT TT TTT rae
~ f ee i . ’
HH 28. PRVRI TTS § 25, CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
ae Pres- First Second Infini- ‘
q Gori. | } [ome | feck | “eater
ad First a|a}ka ka kada |kamo to shut.
| fe e|/e]seo |seo |sedao isemo to forsake.
| ee e | e|peo |peo |pedao_ |pemo to lie down.
nea | ss &é|€|;nyé |nyé |nyéda |nyémo | to hate.
I 6e i|i|si si sina | simo to burn.
| ef 0/0 soro |soro |soroda |soromo | to stretch forth.
i cf 0 | 0|bo bo boda —_| bomo to stop.
| gf 0 | 6 |modne | mone monena | minemo to leap as a monkey.
| Second | e | 0/pe po poda | pom to put, say, make, ete.
Third |e/alle la lada lamo to kill. -
Fourth |e|o|}kre j|kro |kroda ‘kromo to catch, seize, etc.
| Fifth |i | u| pri pru |pruda {prumo_ | to sell, or give.
| 3. In the conjugation of the verb as given below,
the pronouns of the first and second person singular
are not given, as they are never used except when
| emphasis is required; the distinction is made by a
1 | slight change in the accent: namely, first person
| singular, the verb has the low accent; as, mz ne, I
| go; second person singular, the verb has a high and
| pointed accent; as, mt ne, thou goest. Those of the
| third person singular and all of the plural are al-
| ways used.
4. In Grebo, the object of the verb is placed
between the ground form and auxiliaries (similar
to the position of the adverb in English); as, 0 nz
_ (ne) no, he does it habitually. These auxiliaries are
so numerous and variously modified in form and
position, that it is necessary to introduce the object
of the verb into the conjugation to show its place.
§ 25. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB WZ, DO.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
FIRST PRESENT.
la SINGULAR. PLURAL.
74 1. Ni (ne) ne, 1. A ni (ne) ne,
2. Ni (ne) ne, do it. 2. A ni (ne) ne,
8. Oni (ne) ne. 3. Oni (ne) ne.
Â¥,
,



CARES UiLehreTLi Ls Wise tebonsaabbali tec stat atu ELI es L LOL LES Star ara ena ka areas gat aba MMM Lure lar stale ra tata a oh eee ;
; | ae
j He
> |
! PART II., § 25, CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 29 )
a
SECOND PRESENT. |
SINGULAR. PLURAL. |
1. Ni (ne) no, etc. | doit habitually. | 1. A ni (ne) no, ete. |)
| |
| THIRD PRESENT. |
z | i
1, Nima (ne) ne, etc. | doit constantly. | 1. Anima (ne)ne, etc. | ae
2 fi
i
PAST TENSE, i
FIRST PAST. | |
have done it, without a
1. Nu (ne) ne, etc. reference to time or - 1. A nu (ne) ne, etc. | :
circumstance. |)
SECOND PAST. Hl
} have done it, that is, Z |
1. Nia (ne) ne, etc. now, or to-day. 1. A nia (ne) ne, etc. ; |
THIRD PAST. Hi
1. Nuno (me) ne, etc. | didit yesterday. | 1.A nu no (ne) ne,etc. i
ili
FOURTH PAST. | |
1. Nina (ne) ne, etc. | was or were doing it. | 1. A nina (ne) ne, etc. Hl
i
FIFTH PAST. [
iE |
1. Nuna (ne) ne etc. | did it. | 1. Anuna (ne) ne, etc. i
Hl
SIXTH PAST. | |
~1. Mu (ne) numo, { was or were about to l 1. A mu (ne) numo, I
etc. | do it recently. j ete. ee
$e) i)
fe]
SEVENTH PAST.
1. Mina (me) numo, § was or were about to} 1. A mina (ne) numo, Hi
etc. do it. etc. Hi
tet
EIGHTH PAST. fli
-1, Muna (ne) numo went, or undertook 1 Asmuna Gie)nu |
ma ee 4 = =e to do it, in time re- - * ais Sto = Hl
es mote. eens
| HH
| NINTH PAST. I
| was or were in the REE HH
) 1. Yie (ne) ni, etc. act of doing it just + 1. A yie (ne) ni, etc.
now. He
p—



en ener aca LPaEREE HbcaL HLH SE HL RTILILS LEAL LEL ate HST etcetera ee ata ree
i 80 PART II., § 25, CONJUGATION OF VERBS, |
ae TENTH PAST.
rh SINGULAR. PLURAL.
was or were in the
ae 1. Yido (ne) ni, etc. act of doing it yes- ¢ 1. A yido (ne) ni, etc.
4! terday.
; ELEVENTH PAST.
i : was or were in the act
an | 1. Yida (ne) ni, etc. of doing itin indef- + 1. A yida (ne) ni, ete.
| inite time past. j :
FUTURE TENSE,
j FIRST FUTURE.
1. Mi (ne) numo, : 1. A mi (ne) numo,
| ete. shall do it. ata
: ; SECOND FUTURE.
| 1. Mia (ne) numo, {shall do it to-mor-} 1. A mia (ne) numo,
ete, row. j etc.
|
|
| THIRD FUTURE.
| 1. Mino (ne) numo, oe oie a Ae) 1. A mino (ne) numo,
B | ate. some indefinite fu- ee
ture time. :
| || FOURTH FUTURE.
1. Miwa (ne) numo, { will doit at some dis- ) 1. A miwa (ne) nu-
etc. 1 tant time. ; mo, etc.
FIFTH FUTURE.
; : : shall be in the act of - ‘
| 1. Yi (ne) ni, etc. 1 doing it soon. 1. A yi (ne) ni, etc.
aa SIXTH FUTURE.
§ shall be in the act of )
1. Yia (ne) ni, etc. 4 doing it to-mor-/; 1. A yia (ne) ni, etc.
{ row. j
SEVENTH FUTURE.
[intend to be doing it )
1. Yido (ne) ni, etc. at some indefinite - 1. A yido (ne) ni, etc.
| future time.
H EIGHTH FUTURE.
i : ; : shall be doing it at) : 2
1. Yiwa (ne) ni, etc. | some distant time. { 1. A yiwa (ne) ni, ete.
|



bist) CS ea iierhetpterre ry et iterate tity ALELA Le hobehiloueer sees c oil) lt ea eae eeereeRT ELAM MLO EL PETES TTT Tees foe tn doit to john ep ane
|
|
i 4
i
1)
i 5
- OF \ VF 1 Am 4 i /
PART II., §25, CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 31 | ie
|| ae
NINTH FUTURE. i} »
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 3 |
1. Yima (ne) ni, { shall be doing itcon-) 1. A yima (ne) ni, | a
ete. ) tinually. j etc. |
L i
POTENTIAL MOOD. ie
Bl
PRESENT TENSE. 2 \ ie
" i
1. Be nu (ne), (i. Ba nu (ne), i
2. Bé nu (ne), may or must doit. 42. Ba nu (ne), (|
° > i ; 9 > |
8. Bo nu (ne). Ea: Bo nu (ne). i
i
PAST TENSE. |
FIRST PAST. | ie
s + ime\ ete Jmight or must have c |
1. Be nue (ne), etc. ) done it just now. 1. Ba nue (ne), ete. ! |
i
SECOND PAST. i
i
. = ial
_, Jj might or must have l ‘ li
1. Be nuno (ne), etc. } done it yesterday. | 1. Ba nuno (ne), etc. |
itil
THIRD PAST. } |
(might or must have ) i |
1. Be nuna (ne), etc. 4 done it in distant; 1. Ba nuna (ne), etc. |
l time past. Hee
: a
Hal Ait
FOURTH PAST. ii]
‘ ee i i
I. (Ne) mie numa, § (it) I should have] 1. (Ne) a mie numa, Ie}
etc. 1 done. ete. ||
FIFTH PAST. a
1. (Ne) mino numo, § (it) I should have} 1. (Ne) amino numo, | |
etc. | done yesterday. Cte t |
SIXTH PAST. i
é z HH]
et (it) I should have Sr es tet
1. Fr numo, ( done in past time 1 oa mina numo, fl
& : | distant. \ - i
| FUTURE TENSE. i
| FIRST FUTURE. Hl
| 1. Be nua (ne), etc may ormust doit to- | 4 5, nua (ne), etc Hil
| ee eae a morrow. Peeters 38 ee Hit
he be
> ,
Y~



= ni ousupcaunasaisa baguecs4Â¥SES4 HRLaL EPL FE UPESGHCRLDAGLATEABLETAAGuGLET EAHAETELPSELPLILETESAL GET HATE EEHEHTFELEMEAGTINL SG NEGEICTATTHLTETET AME RELEAEIEGTHt PTE
He ‘A 2
af 32. PART II., § 25, CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
a = SECOND FUTURE.
a | SINGULAR. PLURAL.
1. (Ne) mie numo, { (it) should do in the] 1. (Ne) a mie numo,
' ete. future. j ete.
| THIRD FUTURE. ,
a | : might or must do it) > 5
| 1. Be ae (ne) nu, at eanisnaannntetas l 1. Ba ame a (ne) nu,
eae ture time. See!
Another form of the potential seems to be made
| eae
| by na, auxiliary, and fe; as, te ona nu (ne), that they
| should do it.
| :
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
PRESENT TENSE.
, = FIRST PRESENT.
1. Né nu (ne), (1. Ba nu (ne),
, 2. Ne nu (ne), if—do it. 42. Ba nu (ne),
| 8. Bo nu (ne). \3. Bo nu (ne).
’
SECOND PRESENT.
| 1. Ne yi (ne) ni, §if—should be in the] eee ee Te
etc. {act of doing itnow. | Me 8 Yan) tote:
| PAST TENSE,
FIRST PAST.
Hl 1. Nenu (me), etc. | if—have doneit. | 1. Banu (ne), etc.
SECOND PAST.
1, Ne nuno (ne), etc. | if—did it yesterday. | 1. Ba nuno (ne), etc.
THIRD PAST.
1. Ne yima (ne) ni, {if—should be doing] 1. Ba yima (ne) ni, &
etc. it steadfastly. ete.
FOURTH PAST.
AE : . (if—should be in the ; :
1. Ne yi (ne) no ni, habit of doing. it 1. Ba yi (me) no ni,
etc. : etc.
continually.
i



aie ONE i cancel Bee MralslciasehatebenteracavavcsabavacecalalatanateasieasLeiiaaelaiiial MeMbLtAbatacetarstatateranatared? Mees
| ’ ras
r PART II., § 25, CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 38 | ie
a
FIFTH PAST. , | i
SINGULAR. PLURAL. i
1. Ne yido (ne) ni, § if—had been doing it | 1. Ba yido (me) ni, 8
etc. |. yesterday. etc. All| t,
Hi
a SIXTH PAST. |
1. Ne yida (ne) ni, {if—had been in the) 1. Ba yida (me) ni, | i
etc. act of doing it. etc. i
i] } ,
SEVENTH PAST. |
cs if—had been about : | ie
i Dede ne) numo to do it any dis- 1. Ba eos {as) numo i
eee tant past time. ie fl
EIGHTH PAST. i | 3
1. Ne muno (ne) nu- { if—had attempted to) 1. Ba muno (ne) nu- Hii
mo, etc. do it yesterday. mo, etc. ile
FUTURE TENSE. |
‘FIRST FUTURE. a |
1. Ne yie (ne) ni, jif—should be doing ; i ti
etc. ee at any time. z 1. Ba yle (neyini, ete. aii
’
SECOND FUTURE. HH
if—shall do it to- |
1. Ne nua (ne), etc. | SOTTO t 1. Ba nua (ne), etc. Hi
THIRD FUTURE. !
_ Jif-should do it at I
1. Ne nuno (ne), etc. ) any future time. 1. Ba nuno (ne), ete.
FOURTH FUTURE. Hii
1. Ne yima (ne) ni, { if—should be doing) 1. Ba yima (ne) ni, |
etc. it steadfastly. etc. |
FIFTH FUTURE.
b if—shall do it at ;
1. Ne nuwa (ne), etc. some indefinite fu- >} 1. Ba nuwa (ne), etc. |
ture time. Iii}
SIXTH FUTURE. Hi
1. Ne yie (ne) numo { if—should be about { 1. Ba yie (ne) numo |
mi, etc. to do it. mi, etc. meee
Q*



Pe SES RPP NET ITN Prseriti timer iterate tet te He Et ha iene tai Lua bs
i ’
i |
fi 84 PART II., § 26, CONJUGATION OF VERBS. f
i SEVENTH FUTURE.
a SINGULAR. PLURAL.
al 1. Ne yia (ne) numo § if—should be about) 1. Ba yia (me) numo
ve etc. to do it to-morrow. mi, etc.
; a
A IMPERATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT TENSE,
2. Nu (or) be nu (ne). | do it. | 2. Ba nu (ne).
Other tenses are sometimes used in an impera-
| tive sense; but as their forms are like the indica-
q tive, it is not thought necessary to enumerate them.
CAUSATIVE MOOD.
}
of PRESENT TENSE,
1. Nue no, 1. Ba nue no,
2. Nae no, I, you, etc.,cause him. { 2. Ba nue no,
F 3.. No nue no. 3. Bo nue no.
|| The other tenses are formed like the preceding,
| though this mood is rarely used except in the pres-
| ent tense.
| INFINITIVE MOOD.
Numo, to do.
§ 26. PECULIARITIES OF THE VERB.
1. By adding de to the verb, the idea of action
in a place is indicated; as,
. ° &
o nuna (ne), they did it;
o nunade (ne), they did it there.
i 2. By adding de or ne to the verb, the place of |
the preposition is frequently supplied; thus, |



tend NE POF ct NTC Rc Coreen Sa aea al RAMA relat ae are tatare ct wos :
| a
| | i
oa We
PART II., § 28, ADVERBS. 35 ~ Ho
o bi no, they beat him ; ,
° = . . . :
o bide no tu, they beat him with a stick. M
o ni se, he (tells) makes a lie ; 8
; i ie
o nine mo se, he tells a he to me. | ie
a aliit
3. The addition of de to the ground form, with |
the particle no, final, makes a reciprocal sense; as,o - We
lede no, they kill one another. | it
§ 27. PASSIVE VOICE. Hi
1. The passive voice is formed by adding e or e, i
sometimes 7, to the first tense past; as, HH
Nue ne, it is done; ‘|
nuena ne, if was done. i
i]
2. For euphony, the e or e passive are often i
changed to 7; as, nur ne, for nue ne. HI
ul}
§ 28. ADVERBS. HH
1. Adverbs are joined to verbs, participles, ad- i
jectives, and other adverbs, to qualify them. i
2. Adverbs are generally formed by adding ka HH
to the adjectives; as, ha, good; hdka, well. There "
are, however, many simple and primitive. HI
ADVERBS OF MANNER. 1
Haka, well. Soweka, ill, badly. i]
be kraka, roughly. kre, so. Hi
hatend, truly. putu, for nothing. Ht
seyade, to no purpose. _putu-putuka, in vain. |
| wore-wore, quickly. do, peculiar. |
kpeée-kpée, softly, gently. bebeka, fiercely. Ai
|



Pe Sissi nenpsesnsdptt HP tsdghtpeemermntnrpeamattermennneteapesanaanesaeanttyaipiytseay ated ebiesireititiaqinaennnuanpn® yeaa tae
a 36 PART II., § 28, ADVERBS.
i OF PLACE.
7. De, te, where.
AHL de, ya, upwards. |
. krede, ; there. kede, behind. |
I krend, ninie, after.
i gel
| tend, |
} OF TIME.
Tetind, now. titeata, sometimes.
hede, then. tede-d-tede, at some time.
| te, when. pledo, first, in the first
idu-idu, ever. place, before, until.
im |. < ie
| idu-kau, never. nyenemo, day after to-
nyene, to-day. morrow.
troroda, yesterday. nyenemona, day before
nyene-diade, to-morrow. yesterday.
| >
i OF QUANTITY.
i Baka, much. |
OF DIRECTION.
Hono, downwards. nya, forward. — le, back.
OF NUMBER, ORDER, ETC.
| Wo-do-d-ta, at once. e
Pil do-do, at once, one by one. |
s0-s0, two each.
OF AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.
Awi, yes. na,
ondo, no. né, - not. |
hate, indeed. yé,
OF INTERROGATION.
i Hane, how? de-e-ka, why ?
ti-be, when? te, whence ?
y



NG eases ilies icc Fn enn ear STAITAT MME acuta le a ranata neh | Mea +
|
| -
. PART II:, § 80, CONJUNCTIONS. 37 ti
ef
OF UNCERTAINTY. |
| ;
Bedane, perhaps. tede, perchance. Hh
} |
ae
§ 29. PREPOSITIONS. iH
| 1. Prepositions are used to connect words and |
show the relation between them. i
2. In Grebo, there are two kinds of prepositions, i
simple and compound. |
» 2 Simple prepositions are generally placed after ee
the words which they govern. (They should there- ai
ae fore be called post-positions, but in conformity to Hi
custom, the term “preposition” is retained.) Hii
4. Compound prepositions are placed partly be- |
fore and partly after the words which they govern; HII
as, ko mo mo, unto me; ko-mo is the preposition. i
ers Hl
SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. HH
Mo, to, for. nyé, among. Hl
Pa 5 i
| no, to. heidi, between, midst. Hl
ke, upon. kede, behind. Hl
kre, at. nya, before.
never. le, behind.
‘biyo, under. ye, from. fl
|
COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. ti
Ko-mo, unto, for, ete. ko-ta, on account of. Hi
kre-mo, at, with, ete. lu-ye, over. HA
be |
t § 80. CONJUNCTIONS.
1. Conjunctions are used to connect words and 1
| sentences. Hi
| 2. Copulative conjunctions are generally com- HH
od



a Lui iaiudha bats bude se bMUMat Rib guhC hE DibE LURE iste ia SeaL ad muTOLUL aL Sa TLETAL ELA cAsLaLsatEeuiLarenentuiti Hise eA rettecT Teh erat
a 38 PART II., § 81, INTERJECTIONS.
it pound, and are written one part before, the other
Tl after the second word or sentence which is connect-
J ed; as, hyd ko o de hé, the child and his mother,
om COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS. |
Ko-hé, and. de-e-ka, wherefore.
f yedi, 5 ne, if.
| yidi, sebade, )
| a

yini, | - sebase, {
| yl, emo, for, well, the truth is,
| hede, then. ete.
it te, as, since, when. né, and.
|
kore, because, now, that. pledo, and then.
| ne-e-ka, wherefore.
’ |
DISJUNOTIVE CONJUNCTIONS.
|| Ba, though, or,
| ke,
nema, > but.
kre,
|
of &
§ 31. INTERJECTIONS,
|
i | 1. Interjections are words thrown in between
i the parts of a sentence, to express passion or sud-
den emotion.
O! yi!
ns -U behold!
mide! hat! yio ! §
: what! f
de! 3 dbe! here!
hatee! indeed! so! hush!
Ne ku! expressing extreme basobade! exclamation of
disgust. indignant surprise,
4



Woabees VpLenoRe Rs is hats Me babesedebs li tein tral ates ahUby Meg bels bolehihy et arava ravenaiaceran al cla aaL OOO eLeh MCR MIDRIR TAEDA DULL RR SEM SLL OTE RELLLEL( oF othe
: oy 4h) "i Tek Ty oti Hy 4
|
| a
| |
- i /
r PART II., § 32, DERIVATION OF WORDS. 39 |
§ 82. DERIVATION OF WORDS. | ie
| A
|
Compound words are formed, i
1. By prefixing nouns to verbs; as, kpone-no, man- |
e ner good, that is, good, benevolent; kat-poo, house- |
maker. oe
| 2. By prefixing verbs to nouns; as, 2yene-kwa, to |
be bad hand, that is, stingy. a
| 3. By prefixing a noun to an adjective; as, ha-ka, me
| good custom, that is, well. ae
4. The language admits of-great liberty in com- i"
pounding words. The number of this class of words |
is consequently great; e. g., te-hla-nyenayedo, mat- Hl
ter-discuss-day, that is, judgment-day; bla-kye-ti,
rice-cutting-time, that is, harvest.
{ F



x : |
} PART THIRD. |
i SYNTAX. |
|
| § 83. SENTENCE. |
| 1. Synrax treats of the arrangement of words in |
| a sentence, and their relation to each other.
i. 2. A sentence is a number of words so arranged
| as to form a complete proposition. Thus the words,
| hya& bo kra sené te, “if a child is fond of play,” do
7. not form a sentence, because they do not contain a
distinct proposition. But, hyd kra send te, a child
| is fond of play, is a sentence.
| 3. Sentences are simple and complex. —
I | 4. A simple sentence consists of one proposition ;
as, Kra di bla ne, “ Kra eats rice.”
| 5. A complex sentence consists of two or more
sentences combined. The propositions of which it
is composed are called members or clauses; as, bo o
i ye nwé, o mi ne numo, “though he be unwilling, he
| will do it.”
i | 6. The clauses of a complex sentence are either
principal or parenthetical.

7. The principal clause contains the leading
proposition of the sentence, upon which the other
clauses or members depend.

Ht? 8. A parenthetical or secondary clause is that
| _ which depends on the principal clause, and gener-
:



For ETT Tern nny zat HLANEREGTTTHTTGTINTTUTIATHVTIAILSLILENSESTGLATLISHRIITRALS ae
| |
| PART III., § 84, RULES OF SYNTAX. 41 i
ally modifies its. meaning. Thus in the following | |
| sentence, the clauses in italics are parenthetical : | ie
“ Ne nu kowa haka, hede mi na peeda yimo,” “If a:
you do work well, then you will see your pay.” i
9. A sentence is composed of subject and predi- ie
cate. | |
10. The subject is that of which something is — - | J
| affirmed. i
| 11. The predicate is that which is affirmed of the a
| subject. | ae
In the sentence, “ Dwe di'bla,”’ Dwe eats rice, Hii
““Dwe” is the subject, and “eats” is the predicate. HI
12. The predicate of a sentence must always con- |
tain one verb; it may contain more than one, be- |
sides other parts of speech; thus, Nyebo kwidida ne |
o sedao wa teble tide idi, The men ran, and they. left HT
their things in the road. Hi
| § 84. RULES OF SYNTAX. iH
| li
| A noun or pronoun annexed to another noun or |
| pronoun for the sake of explanation or emphasis, is I
put in the same case. |
Li
Adjectives belong to nouns which they describe. |
III.
Pronouns agree with the nouns for which they
fe stand in number and person.
IV. |
The noun or person which is the subject of a |
| finite verb is put in the nominative case. . i



PSs NAL Auda hahs Ls LdLULaVAA4UDUN{ HOUSE SAIL OTONRESGHL SUD LELS HEAELE TELNAES EAE ETTVEHESEHETEHEHH SEH HEHEHE A REDASATA RG AT TOGT GATEEAE RA ATEEA HGaHG aioe tanita:
i 42 PART IIl., § 84, RULES OF SYNTAX.
i v. |
of Verbs in their variations are not affected by the :
| number of their subject, but take a singular or plu- |
ral nominative.
I VI. |
A noun or pronoun in the predicate after an in- |
f transitive or passive verb, is put in the. same num- |
ber and person as the subject, when it denotes the
Same person or thing. |
MebTs :
7 The nominative case is sometimes used without
| a verb.
| VIII.
| The possessive case is placed before the name
of the object possessed.
| The object of a transitive verb is put in the ob- |
lt | jective case. |
| x
| The infinitive mood is governed by the preced-
| ing verb upon which it depends.
Wy XI.
| Participles are used as nouns, and conform to
the same rules of government.
XII.
Prepositions govern the objective case. |
XIIL,
i Adverbs qualify verbs, participles,- adjectives,
| aud (other) adverbs. |
|
%



TCAs esse vi airss seta boned ed al UGseLGLANeTRHaTE TE EHTAGARGUALTEOOLATILATSTERNAGSIAERAALHGSTETECRERSEROIHIPEAET TIAA PLATD DUAL ALAEA eo HLeCuaa aa t Eom
|
|

f PART III., § 35, RULE I. 43 | a

| mn

XIV. | | :
| - Conjunctions connect words and sentences. | ie

} Interjections have no grammatical connection | q

with other words. | a

| Home, and nouns signifying which way, how far, | i

| how long, time when, etc., are in the objective case, |

: a preposition being understood. oR

XVII. |
Articles belong to nouns of the singular and HHI
plural number. AH
XVIII. |

Some conjunctions require the indicative and i
some the subjunctive mood after them. |
|

| § 85. RULE TI. Hi

| A noun or pronoun annexed to another noun or HH

| pronoun for the sake of explanation or emphasis, is I

| put by apposition in the same case; as, blanyo Kwée, ;

the blacksmith Kwie; bezo G'bee, the warrior Ghee; se
amu tonyebo kwe ne, we men die. |
A sentence is sometimes in apposition with a
noun or pronoun; as, koboto e mo gedide hwe no, a
ship is a wonderful thing. |
oe EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED. |
Babo & podi, Kra, 0 mu ne, Kra, the Babo hun- |
ter, has gone. ne & bleo, di ne, Hne’s minstrel has Hil
come. Kokwe mo hwdnd de no, death is a fearful fi
thing. Aa
-
Y



F a su upLianata Pusu ped aveb dd p4S{S4Rus4sfT{ PERIRESTOC3IDAFEd1€4#1EHRbG44 TES EAEHETTUESELPEITERA HIGLGCHEIHEHTOEHHELERACHATA AAT SCIEHATTREEDA THER TEGHEA ERR Dna
tf 44 PART III., § 86, RULE II. f
i Move. Ara is a proper noun in the nominative
i case, because podi is, with which it is in apposition, |
according to Rule I. Hwdnd de no, a sentence, is
Ht) in- apposition with the noun kokwe, according to |
if Note I. |
L a § 86. RULE II.
| Adjectives belong to nouns which they describe ; :
as, hd nyebwe, a good man; nyene kuku, a bad woman.
I. Any thing used as a noun, as an infinitive,
| participle, or whole clause, may have adjectives
1 belonging to it; as, kat-poe ye kra, house-building is
not difficult; nyo & be ko e ne hwand, one’s dying is
: | | fearful; e nue wore ne, its doing is easy.
| 2. Nouns are often used in an adjective sense;
| - as, e ne blidi, it is palaver (controversy), for, it is full
| of controversy; o ne ni, he is water, for, he is wet.
| 3. Verbs and phrases have often an adjective
| sense; as, e no wono no, it is sweet in the mouth; o
nyene kpone, he is bad in his conduct, for, he is bad.
Hh 4, After certain verbs it is difficult to say whether
| adjectives or nouns are used; as, 0 pe sedi, he puts
on free (freedom, that is, the gentleman); 0 ne na,
he is cunning.
| 5. The adjective pronouns and numerals agree
| in number with the nouns to which they belong; as,
| nyebwe nond, this man; nyebo nond, these men ; ke-
nede nend, this book ; kenede nend, these books.
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
Ha Ha nyebwe, a good man. Kowa-nue ye kra,
work-doing is not hard. O ne kyidida, he is quar-



UTMARET STatcHT Alita sedanedeiibati tRALETPLaTELTATET EET RTA AGIEATEAGTENATALanaRaiasauENG] seiRINEILISEEALATLTTL ETE TASHA bE buarnnabanstalacaiasaaiasi teem
= q
[ PART: III., § 3%, RULE III. 45 0
| relsome. O no woro ke no, they are benevolent. | TAR
| Hya ne ni, the child is wet. Nemle pe sedi, Nemle |
puts on the gentleman. Nyebo noné, those men. i
§ 87. RULE III. Ht
Pronouns agree with the nouns for which they Hi
| stand in number and person; as, vyebwe no o te ne tu, oe
o di ne, the man of whom I spoke has come. Koboté |
| sd ne wo de, two ships appear. 7
: 1. Pronouns refer to propositions and phrases; ,
as, a mt komo, a tbo ne ne, we shall die, we know |
that. |
2. When pronouns refer to two or more nouns,
taken separately or together, they should be in the |
| plural number; as, Kra ko Nyéma hé no di, Kra and
| Nyema they come; bo Kra bo Nyema o di, no ye- |
dede mo ne, though Kra or Nyema come, they will |
find me here.
3. When the objects are taken together, and the
| nouns are of different persons, the plural pronoun |
| must be of the first person, if one of the antecedents
| is of the first person; and of the second, if the an-
| tecedents are of the second and third persons; as, }
| mo Hne yidi na nyebwe tu yidi a mi dimo, thou |
Hne and myself we will come. Na nyebwe tu ko
Hne hé, 4 mu di, you and Hne will come. |
4. Collective nouns in the singular may have
¢ _ pronouns in the plural, when reference is made to |
| the individuals making the collection; as, powa no
di, the multitude they come.
| 5. The pronoun 0 is applied to nouns masculine, |
| feminine, and neuter; as, Kra ye, o mi dimo, Kra rH
Ja *}
S.- oN



Pee erro sess hencseesA4 SLi 94021104 SLR{S¢3 903 1DAFL4 LE SELPUPLaNENESEAEESSENELELEEINESESHH{GEIC HHEHEAEHHESESADATADEG4HdGH{ ATEHH EEDA THIKIESEAATEA SR
i 46 PART JIT., $533, RULE i says he will come; and kai no nede o boa ne, this ,
‘i house i is large.
| 6. The relative “hono, who,” is generally (not
! always) applied to persons, and “hene” to things;
Wl as, hono mi kai pomo, who, or he who will build a
7 house ; also koboto hono o pono, di, the ship which
Hie they say has come; kenede hene pe amo to, the
book which puts (in) us wisdom.
7. The pronoun, though properly representing
the noun, is often used in connection with it; as,
Bodio, 9 dudao o nwi o po no, Bodio took up his
3 word and said.
8. The pronouns bedebe, benyobe, etc., which-
| soever, whosoever, are divided by the interposition
| of the corresponding substantives; as, be kai be, o po
no, 9 hnyi mo, whatever house he says he will give
| me; be nyebo be no di, whatever people come.
| 9. The neuter pronoun is used to express,
1 | a. The subject of any discourse or inquiry; as,
ene be de ne, it will not come to any thing.
| 6. Also the state or condition of any thing; as,
| hane e nue kre m6 mo? how is it with you?
Hi | ce. The thing, whatever it be, that is the cause of
of any effect or event; as,o ye e nu hate m6 nenao,
they say it is true you were (the party).
| EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
| Nyebwe no neo. Enu hate,a midimo. Blako ©
henu hé, e no wono no. Horo mo, na nyebwe tu, a
mine. M6 ko Kra hé bé mu. Nyebo-kpa no di.
i Tode 9 mo a de. Nyebo no ko yiru ta. Koboté no
: boa. Hono o dede nyebwe hwe. Hvuno mo kai gba-
\
: e a



«tans soeeiepnrrurereeinn tetera neat TTT
PART TI., $538, RULE ALY, 44 He
da. Hene o nu ha kenede mo. Mose o dudao’o nwi Ae
| o pono. Be nyebwe be,o po noo mi pomo. EH na
| wo de wudi ne. Hane e ka mie nemo de. Wa wore :
, po no, e mi td pomo. :
|
| § 88. RULE IV. |
| The noun or pronoun which is the subject of a |
finite verb, is put in the nominative case; as, Hoto la
ini, Hoto killed fish; O hede kenede, he reads or ie
studies a book. :
1. Any verb not in the infinitive mood is called |
a finite verb.
2. The infinitive mood or part of sentence is
sometimes the subject of the verb; as, be nu nyo se
mo, yee no kra wudi, to tell (make) a le to one
vexes him; nyo 4 be hon, e ne twe, for one to be |
lazy is shameful. '
3. Every nominative, except the cases referred |
to in Rule VII, must be the subject of a verb ex-
pressed or understood; as, hyono po nwi? nono, who
spoke? he, that is, he spoke.
It is possible that the-no final, in nono and sim- |
ilar cases, is the verb of existence ne, with o eupho- |
| nic contracted into n’o; for it would be equally cor-
| rect to say nono and no neo, literally, he was.
| . 4, The verb is frequently omitted, particularly
| in the answers to questions; as, nyo hnyi mo bla?
| who gave you rice? Krade, that is, Krade gave it.
EXAMPLES IN PARSING.
Bifro pe pino. No nune. Be nu se, e ye hika |
ne. Nyebo 4 popleyino be nu kéwa, e mo Nyesoa note
|
| > a oa i



i 48 PART IIl., § 40, RULE Vi. r
‘ |
1 a tedi no. Nyono o we? Krade. Nyono o di?
i Bwedewe no.
i § 89. RULE Y. |
i Verbs in their variation are not affected by the
iW : number of their subject, but take a singular or plu- |
ral nominative; as, 9 di ne, or o dine; nyebwe no nu |
ne, or nyebo no nu ne.
§ 40. RULE VI.
| A noun or pronoun in the predicate, after an in-
4 transitive or passive verb, is put in the same number
q and person as the subject when it denotes the same
fe person or-thing; as, mo no nenao, I (am) he that
oq was; 0 nu ha nyebwe, he is (makes) a good man;
| hya ne ku, the child is the devil, (has an imposing
| appearance).
| 1. The predicate nominative is sometimes placed
| before the verb, and the subject after the verb, par-
Hi | ticularly when the predicate is ai interrogative
| noun; as, nyo moe Kra? who is Kra?
2. In some cases both nominatives are placed
a before the verb; as, bla no nee, this is the rice; iye- |
bwe kuku no nee, he is a bad man. |
| 3. The subject of. the verb may be of different
person and number from that of the predicate; as,
mo no nena, I (am) he (who) was. Bla ko henu hé
| mo a ne didede.
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
O nu h& tyebwe. Nyebwe ne ku. Nyo moe
tr kube? Ha& nyene no neo. Mo no tee buo, no tu i
: ne.



ne race TET TTT eee i carn sear
ig PART ITI, §°49, RULE’ VIII. 4y) i
§ 41. RULE VII. nig
The nominative case is sometimes used without '
| a verb. This takes place, q
1. When an address is made; as, Krade te woe? 8
2. In exclamations; as, O sdwe! o de! |
3. When attention is directed to an object be-
fore an affirmation is made respecting it; as, A buo- :
no te o nee?
4, When followed by. a subjunctive phrase ; as,
Kyra bo mu, hede a yi sowe. |
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
Nyema, m6 pede hate. Téabla, kre pe? O nye-
bo 4! O kide! Nyegbade no nena kono de? Nyebo
bo we le, né e pe hede. TO be bio, né e nu de kuku..
§ 42. RULE VIII.
, The possessive case is placed before the name
of the object possessed ; as, Dwe & kai, Dwe’s house;
té-nyebo & kpdne, men’s custom.
1. The name of the object possessed is some- ;
| times omitted ; as, nene, yours; a nene, ours; o nene,
; \ his; Kra & nene, Kra’s.
2. The signs of the possessive, 0, a, 0, wa, are
often omitted; as, buo kai biyo, in (his) father’s
house ; instead of, buo a kai biyo; o mu buono bli,
' they have gone to (their) fathers’ home, instead of,
buono wa bli.
3. When two or more nouns are used as the He |
designation of one individual, the sign of the pos-
| sessive is put after the last; as, blanyo Dwe 4 kai, ie
: Grebo Grammar. 3



Ee iuitsnisinitlsuid itil AANA MURR eT
|
| i
ir 50 PART IIl., § 43, RULE IX. ,
cH the blacksmith Dwe’s house; beyo Bwe a pu, the
q warrior Bwe’s gun. .
ni 4. A participal noun or part of a sentence may
| be placed after the possessive case ; as, ye kai a poe |
h ibo, I do not understand house-building ; nyo 4 be
my ko kai e nu de hwe, that one should have a house is
a ereat thing.
i 5. The possessive case takes adjectives after it ; |
as, nyebo a popleyino.
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
t. Ibidio &@ daro. 'TO-koo wa kenede. Ko Wa a
nene. Ba ya wa nene. Nyesoa kenede. O mu wa
| deno bli. . Blinyo Sie itu. Kobota Hne & kenede.
a | O ibo kai & poe haika. Tod-nyebwe i be wo kono a
| yea ne yi. Nyebo 4 pepe no de. Kiya & popleyino
| bi ta.
| § 48. RULE IX. :
| The objective of a transitive verb is put in the ,
| objective case; as, Bodio pe kai, Bodio builds a !
| house; 0 gye gyeya, they cut (clear) farms.
| 1. A participal noun or a clause may supply the |
_ place of the objective ; as, 0 ibo e nue ne, they know
| its doing (how to do it); hy& kra send nue te, the
1 | child is fond of playing (making play); thus, Kra bi }
| Nyema, not, Nyema bi kra. But when pronouns are |
| used, the object may be placed before the verb ; as,
kenede no ibo, book he knows.
3. The object of a verb is omitted when it is
He? something indefinite or easily supplied; as, Gede |
hede ne, Gede reads; 0 kyé ne, he learns.
4, Some intransitive verbs are followed by an
N



NTT nen eae eT aanreantnnomeme terete re ener nT cr eevee Teer
PART III., § 45, RULE XI. 51 Nf
object. of kindred signification ; as, o kwidi ha kwidt- Hi
da, he runs a good race. ;
5. Some verbs may be followed by two objec- :
tives denoting the same person or thing ; as, o dede :
no h&é nyebwe, they call him a good man; o tuda
no Dabe nyene, he named him Dabe. ,
6. Some verbs are followed by two objectives,
the one of a person and the other of a thing; as, :
Ware hnyi mo kenede, Ware gave me a book; o
tode no grama, they taught him grammar.
7. Verbs in the causative conjugation take two ;
objectives after them; as, o pee mo kai, he makes
me a house; 0 lee mo bili, they killed me a bul-
lock.
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
O la boli. Bafro bi Bodio. Kai-lo a ibo. Hya
hede ne. O hwo ha hwoé. O dede no Kupebu. |
Nemle hlo no pliye. Domo lee mo wuda so. |
§ 44. RULE X. |
The infinitive mood is governed by the preced-
ing verb, noun, or pronounupon which it depends ; |
as, 0 mi dimo, he will (to) come; Hna mi bla dimo,
Hna will (to) eat rice; o mi ne numo, they will it
(to) do.
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED. |
O dikomo. Bodio mi blidinumo. Dako mi ne
hlamo.
§ 45. RULE XI. |
Participles are used as nouns, and conform to |
the same rules of government. nh



Pe errr avitidiSteitintaremerernznrnnnenettenenmesetsceenteestansteesesattsetieeritttire torrente ary MYT NT nnn HRA BE bathe
YN |
i 52 PART III., § 46, RULE XII. |
4
: 1. If the noun is nominative case to the verb, so |
| is the participle; as, e nue blee nyo plo, its doing
pleases one’s heart.
i 2. If the noun is the object of the verb, so is the
| participle ; as, o ibo e nue ne, they know its doing. |
H 3. The participle is often connected with the
mi possessive case; as, kai-poe & te e pepe mo woro no.
i EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
Bla lo & nue kree nyg fe. O ye be bo kai a poe.
We-poe a te e ye be ba word no.
i § 46. RULE XIT.
Prepositions govern the objective case ; as,o mu
a | ni no, he has gone for water; 0 mi Taa ke, he goes
| to Rocktown; Kra ne so-o ke, Kra is on a horse;
t Nyema nede kai biyo, Nyema is in the house.
tie 1. The preposition (though according to the de-
rivation of the term belonging before) is generally
| placed a/ter the noun, as in examples above. :
| 2. Compound prepositions are placed partly be-
| fore and partly after the noun; as, ko mo mo, unto
| me; kre no mo, with him.
Hi 3. In a few instances the preposition is placed
before the noun, as in English; as, ko o ta, for his
of sake; ko m6 pé, in my stead; sometimes 0 mu mo
bla, he has gone for rice.
| EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
| A nede sdwe nyé. Ba nede kai biyo, let us re-
He main in the house. Kre amo mo, e ye haka ne.
HY Jesu koda ko a ta. A mi mo dibade.



TRMRSETatTAnrTT Hie tvenesea SEBIBATEANEHEHRTEATAAT Miatiicistatetstentetescatecusccteccleieteuet HaiLensEAi Pai AALTTAAPIAATAIPRaHT Lececc ceintaca retasesi aces
|
| PART Ill., § 47,cRULE XIII. 58 He
§ 47. RULE XIII.
| Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, !
and other adverbs ; as, 0 di wore-wore, he has come |
| quickly; hya noyino baka, the child is very beauti- tf
| ful; o ne haka baka, he is very well. .
1. Adverbs are generally placed after the words
| which they qualify, as in the examples above.
2. They are, however, sometimes placed before
the word qualified: namely,
a. When negation is used ; as, ye no po, I did not |
say it; o ye nwi po, he spoke no word.
b. In compound words or phrases having a neg-
ative sense ; as, ne po nwi nyebwe no nede, there is
a deaf man; o yede ne, he is not here.
c. In asking questions; as, te 0 woe? whence
does he come?
3. The adverb is frequently combined with parts
of verbs and other adverbs; as, o yeda no po, they
did not say so. Here da, part of the verb po, is
brought forward and joined to the adverb. O yede ,
ne, they are not here. Here the adverb de, prop- |
| erly following the verb ne, is brought forward and
joined to the negative adverb ye.
4. A negative question requires an affirmative
$ answer to make a negative sense, and negative form
| to make an affirmative sense ; as, o na dine? awi; he
will not come? yes; that is, he will not come; o na
| di ne? ondé; he will not come? no; that is, he will |
| come. i
, :
|
|
:



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f 54 PART Ill.§ 49, RULE XV. |
i EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.

oF O kwidi baka. E nyeneyino do. Ene haka

i baka. E ne ni baka, it is very wet. Ye nwi po.

i Ne-po nwi nyebwe. Te mie? Yedanoibo. Taa-

i we ona dine? Awi. Kra na di dibade ne? Ondo.

a § 48. RULE XIV.

Conjunctions connect words and sentences; as,

| nyebwe ko o yu hé, a man and his child. Bwedewe

| a popleyino no nede ko wa bino Koblawe hé.

if 1. Some conjunctions are employed as correla-
A | tives to each other ; as, komo hé, he andI. Here ko

a and hé are correlatives.
| 2.-The conjunction is often omitted; as, Kra,

a | Grebla, Wa no dine, we; Kra, Grebla, and Wa have
| all come.

i 3. Where emphasis is required, the conjunction
follows every word; as, Krade yidi, Tode yidi né
| Hne yidi o mo ha nyeno, we, Krade also, Tode also,
| and Hne also, they are all good women. Bd Kab-
| lawe b4 Wotewe b& Sedewe o we le, né 0 ye ne nu,
| though the Kablewe, though the Wotewe, though
| the Sedewe all assemble, they would not do it.

I EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED. ,
of Kano ko t6 hé ne bio. To-o nyebo 4 popleyino
no nede kono mo, o mlu ne nede wa wudi o yide
| dibade we. Nyebo ko mo hé ane. Bafro yidi, Kra
yidi no mo ha nyebo.
| g 49. RULE XV.
He Interjections have no regular connection with
ie other words; as,O,sdwe! oh, trouble! O, dee! oh,
what ! ;



hind SET TTTELTRETEA TERT TREN ea TPT area ET eT ETE ETA Ae reap a en ee et ee teted TAMAMAMALBAL TT ee tetc cri te
PART III, § 51, RULE XVII. 55 48
Interjections are used before words or phrases
| for various purposes: namely, ;
| a. To express sorrow; as, O, kide! oh, luck! i
b. To express wish or desire; as, O, be ko kai
| nono, oh, that I might have that house! He
| c. To express fear ; as, O, pi e hwand, Oh, I fear
| it! |
; d. 'To express contempt; as, O, mo so ba!
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
O, too nyebwe! O, mo Kede ko kide! O, be
kodade nyenayero nono idi! O, hya ko hwano! O, |
mo kupe-bu no!
| § 50. RULE XVI.
Home, and nouns signifying which way, how far,
how long; time when, etc., are in the objective case,
| a preposition being understood; as, o mu Q bli, he :
has gone to his home; o hide wé ta, they remained
. there three days; Kra nude e tede, Kra has gone
his way.
| After “hmo,” signifying “like,” the objective
| . ~ . . . ‘
| case is used; as, o ne hm6 gi, he is like a leopard.
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
Omu wa bli Kubli. Hna mude tede pedu. Tode |
mide wé himo. O hwa hmd gi.
Shia RULE XVIt.
Articles belong to nouns of the singular or plu-
| ral number; as, ha nyebwe n0, or, ha nyebo no, a
| good man or good men. ri
‘



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} 56 PART III., § 52, RULE XVIII.
i 1. In the singular number, the indefinite adjec-
of tive pronouns be and te are frequently used in the
| place of the indefinite article; as, nyebwe be, or, nye-
i bwe te, instead of nyebwe nO; some, and some cer-
) tain man, instead of a man. |
A 2. The definite article nd is probably a contrac-
tion of the verb of existence, ne, with o euphonic;
thus, nyebwe no, for, iyebwe neo.
i 3. The article is frequently omitted; as, nyebwe
| mi dimo, a man will come; nyebo bo di, let the peo-
i& ple come.
4, The article nd, though corresponding in part
| to a and the in English, is not well expressed by
| either; thus, de lae habe? gi no; what killed the
7 fowl? a leopard. Here the nd means not simply a
| or some leopard, as distinguished from other leop-
| ards, but leopard, as distinguished from all animals
Ve | or agents. ;
HY 5. Where emphasis is required, the article is
| repeated after every noun; as, Taawe nd, Waawe
| no, Gbwemlewe no, Blewe no, 0 weda le, the Rock-
| town people, the Fishtown people, the Cape Palmas
| people, the Grahway people, all assembled.
i} EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED.
Ha kai nd. Nyene te no nu ne. Nyimbo nu
kwidimo. Nyo mine numo? Kra nd. Tai no,
Nyebo no, Baa nd, o mo ha nyebo we. |
| § 62; RUTH XVITT.
HY Some conjunctions require the indicative and
. some the subjunctive mood after them.



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=> si nie
PART III., § 52, RULE XVIII. 5T a
1. If something contingent or doubtful is im- in
plied, the subjective ought to be used; as, ne gbade Ht
kenede né o ye ne nu. i
2. Conjunctions that are of a positive and abso- |
lute nature, require the indicative mood; as, Tene Ht
© nu e tue, kre ba nu ne. ff
EXAMPLES TO BE PARSED. ui
_.Ne po no, mi ne numo, be nu ne dédo. Tene
nyenayede tinde yu, kre o ni na ku heha (heya). if
|
|
|
ee - ; iia
~ -



Rortreenererer Tie rite tsnsisstgeomerenseeneerernerennnsececeneneertenstoeanemiseteitesttarreteateente NUTTER OMT
; i
i |
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il PART FOURTH.
\ ee h
i PROSODY /
§ 53.
i Prosopy consists:of two parts: the one teaches
| the true pronunciation of words,:comprising accent,
| quantity, emphasis, pause, and tone ; the other the
: laws of versification.
§ 54. OF ACCENT.
i
oy Accent is the laying of a peculiar stiess of voice
| on a certain letter or syllable in a word, that it may
| be better heard than the rest, or distinguished from
| them: word, town. Here the stress is on the latter
Ht syllable, 6; o tuda ne ne: here in the word tuda, the
stress is on the second syllable da.
|
| § 55. OF QUANTITY.
ot 1. The quantity of a syllable is the time occu-
i | pied in pronouncing it. It is long or short.
2. A vowel or syllable is generally long when the
| accent is on it; this causes it to be slowly joined in
pronunciation with the following letter; as, habe:
here a is long.
3. A syllable is short when the accent is on the
a consonant, which occasions the vowel joined with it
i to be pronounced quickly; as, bo ne.



Na SaTETT THEATER Ta ites eset LOE Rha meet tertamatt stipe nb eet yt tet et HOARE GL ALAtal MOMMA ARDS T ators tae ace rata ca ci as
PART IV., $57, OF VERSIFICATION. 59 Ws
4. The sign of a long syllable is, —; as, ba, fa.
The sign of a short syllable is, V; as, bo ne, pé no.
| 5. A long syllable generally requires double the
| time of a short one in pronouncing it. |
| § 56. OF EMPHASIS, ETC. Ti
| 1. Of emphasis.
By emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller
! j, ; eae <
sound of voice, to distinguish some word or words
on which particular stress is laid, and to show how is
they affect the rest of the sentence. Sometimes the
! emphatic words must be distinguished by a partic-
ular tone of voice, as well as by greater stress.
2. Of pauses.
Pauses pr rests in speaking are total cessations
of the voice during a perceptible space of time.
} oil
3. Of tones. |
Tones ave different both from emphasis and
pauses, consisting in the modulations of the voice,
the notes or variations which we employ in the ex-
|
| pression of our sentiments.
| § 57. OF VERSIFICATION.
|
| 1. Versification is the arrangement of a certain |
| number and variety of syllables according to cer-
tain laws.
| 2. Rhyme is the correspondence of the last
, sound of one verse to the last sound of another.
3. A verse is a certain number of accented and
unaccented syllables, arranged in regular order and
| constituting a line of poetry.
; 4. A foot is a portion of verse, consisting of two TH
| | tH
»
y



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SS y
:
i 60 PART IV., §57, OF VERSIFICATION, F
xc
i or more syllables combined according to accent. _
a It is called a foot because by the aid of feet the
, voice vests upon them, or steps along in a measured
AN pace.
on 5. All feet used in poetry consist either of two r
if or three syllables, and are reducible to nine kinds—
M four of two syllables and five of three or four, as
follows : .
DISSYLLABLES.
A trochee,* — ~; as, blablé, habe.
| An iambus, ~ —; as, dida, lida.
a | A spondee, — —; as, gbada, pada.
| A pyrric, ~~; as, sébé.
TRISYLUABLES) <4. 2
| A dactyl, —~~}; as, nowané, hadadé, padadé.
a An amphibrach, ~ —~; as, nénad, boadé.
| An anapaest, ~~—; as, worida.
A tribrach, ~V~; as, worénd.
The choriambus, — ~ ~ —, consisting of a trochee
\ and an iambus, is a ninth foot; as, sidédéda, poplé-
| yino, nowané mo. :
| | 6. Ifa verse is composed principally of iambuses,
ti it is called cambic ; if of trochees, trochaic ; if of ana-
| paests, anapaestic ; if of dactyls, dactylic. Other
| feet are secondary, their chief use being to diversify
the numbers and to improve the verse. |
7. Scanning is the dividing of a verse into the
feet of which it is composed.
AF * — signifies a long accented syllable.
v signifies a short unaccented syllable.



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PART FIFTH. !
|
I
PUNCTUATION. ao
§ 58.
| 1. Punoruation treats of the points and marks
which are used in writing. :
9. These marks are used chiefly to denote
pauses. |
3. The principal marks used in writing are, the
comma, [ 5], the semicolon [3], the colon [:], the pe-
riod [e], the note of interrogation [?], the note of
exclamation [$3], the dash [—], and the parenthesis
4. The comma marks the shortest pause; the i
semicolon a pause double that of a comma; a colon |
double that of a semicolon; and the period the
| longest pause.
§ 59. COMMA. |
| The general rule is, that a comma is used in\. |
those parts of a sentence in which a short pause is
| required.
RULE I. |
|
i In general the cgmma is not used in a simple
sentence; as, o mi T'aa ke. |
RULE II.
The clauses of a compound sentence are gener-
| ally separated by a comma; as, 0 ye 0 mina ne nu- THI
*



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: .
Hl 62 PART. ¥., § 59; COMMA, 4 © -

‘| mo, kre 9 ye ne nu. Hate o ko wuldi, ke 9 nyene
a kpdne.
RULE III.
i Words connected by correlative conjunctions do
: ,

not admit a comma between them; as, Kra ko o

i nyene he,
| RULE Iv.

Words and sentences connected by the conjunc-
i tions ye, yidi, yini, require a comma between them ;
as, bla yini, kyen& yini, né mo wuldi hwe.
RULE V.

: Where emphasis is required, the,comma is re-
| peated between words and phrases ;-as, kano, t6,
i kowa ne e seye he nyebo ku.

RULE VI.
| When three or more words of the same class are
| connected together by conjunctions expressed or

H understood, the comma is used after every one but
| the last; as, o ne gbé, one na, 0 ko wuldi ye.

RULE VII.
| The nominative case independent, the nomina-
| tive absolute, with their adjuncts, should be ‘sepa-

| rated from the rest of the sentence by a comma;
| as, na yu, na pi hwind. A buono, te nee?

| RULE VIII.

A noun in apposition with another, or added by ;
way of explanation, has a comma after it; as, Bwe,
| Bwedewe & beyo, no di. If such nouns are single,

HY or are only a proper name, they are not divided ;

as, Bwe beyo no; blanyo Kwie no.



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| i
“rr Ht
| PART V., § 61, COLON. 63 He
RULE Ix. : i
Words in opposition to each other, or marking :
variety, require a comma between them; as, e nu ,
ri ha de, ke e ne hwano, ye.
RULE X. it
_ When the absence of a word is indicated in oe
| reading or speaking by a pause, its place may be
supplied by a comma; as, Kra-tue ne ye nyenyé,
| nyényé, wé, we, gedu.
|
§ 60. SEMICOLON. |
| RULE I.
When a sentence consists of two parts, the one
containing a complete proposition, and the other
added as an inference or to give some reason or
explanation, the two parts are separated by a semi-
colon ; as, hate, o mi wa gedi nunfo; ke e na be de
| ne.
| RULE II.
: When a sentence consists of several members,
! each constituting a distinct proposition, and having
' a dependence upon each other or upon some com-
| mon clause, they are separated by semicolons ; as,
| Bwedewe muna Taa ke; o dida Waawe; o dada
Sedewe ; nyenaere behébehé o poda bede ;. wa kyi-
7 dida % popleyino weda, ple o dida wa bli.
§ 61. COLON.
| RULE I.
When a sentence consists of two parts, the one
| so complete in itself as to admit a full point, and we
|



64 PART -V.;2§ 63,° THE DASH,ZETC. “4
the other containing an additional remark, depend-
ing upon the former in sense, though not in syntax, —
the connection of the remark with the preceding —
proposition is indicated by a colon; as, Nyesoa &
tedi, e nu h& tedi: nyebo 4 popleyino blede ye, bo
tu ne yiemo.

RULE II.

When a sentence, consisting of an enumeration
of particulars, each separated from the other by a
semicolon, has its sentence suspended till the last
clause, that clause takes before it the colon; as, bo
pono 0 yea yidi; bo po no 0 yea se ni; bo po noo
yea de kuku ni, iruiru: de & hw&nd o pi de?

RULE IIl.

When an example, a quotation, or speech is in-
troduced, the colon is used; as, Nyesoa a& tedi a
popleyino ne neo tedi so ne nede ke: e mo be no-
wane Nyesoa ko ha woro 4 popleyino ke, né be no-
wane bae tene ni dui 4 nowanena.

§ 62. THE PERIOD.
RULE I.

The period is used after every complete sen-

tence; as, A po kai. O gyigye.
RULE II.

The period is used after initials and abbrevia-
tions; as, B. for Bodi; D. for Deyo; Dr. for Doc- |
tor; Greb. for Grebo.

§ 63. THE DASH, ETC,
| 1. The dash is used where there is a break in
the sentence, where a significant pause is required.



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PART V., § 64, CAPITALS. 65 He

or where there is an unexpected turn in the senti-
ment; as, ne o lele mo ne—sebade a nu mona. Ne 3
_yide ni—o kide! ple o pomo pu mo. Ne ibo ne—
sebade—yede ne tode iruiru. : t

2. Interrogation. Hh

The interrogation mark is placed after a sentence
asking a question; as, hyono dio? Hane pee?

3. Haclamation.

The point of exclamation is used after sudden
expressions of emotion ; as, Yi! ne ya m6 ha tibosa.

4, Parenthesis.

The parenthesis is. sometimes used to enclose a
remark or clause not essential to the sentence in
construction, but useful in explaining it or intro-
ducing an important idea; as, Kra ko Dabe hé (0
mo sedi-iru nenao) no dida Bwede timo.

§ 64, CAPITALS, .

It is proper to begin with capital letters,

1. The first word of every book, chapter, letter,
note, or any piece of writing.

2. The first word after_a period, and if the two
sentences are totally independent, after a note of
interrogation and exclamation.

3. The appellations of the Deity; as, Nyesoa,
Koo, Jesu Kristo, Neko Siu, ete.

4. Proper names of places, persons, streets,
mountains, rivers, ships, etc.; as, Bwede, Bodio,
TIdabo-Tide, Pa, Yiru-ke. Kanaan, Mose, Nebo,

Jordan, Jerusalem.

5, Adjectives derived from proper places; as,

Bwedepe, Krabe, Kobota, Dobonyo, ete. oie



06 PART V., § 64, CAPITALS:

6. The first word of a quotation introduced after
a colon, or when it is in a direct form; as, Nwi ne
Jesu Kristo, tu, be nede 4mo kudi, e mo: Be no-
wane bae tene ni dui 4 nowanena.

7. Every substantive and principal word in the
titles of books; as, Grebo Kono A Te. Nyesoa A
Kenede.

8. The first word of every line in poetry.

9. The pronoun Mo sometimes, and the interjec-
tion O! are written with capitals.

10. Other words besides the preceding may
begin with capitals, when they are remarkably em-
phatical.