Citation
Report upon British North Borneo

Material Information

Title:
Report upon British North Borneo
Creator:
Birch, E. W. (Ernest W.) ( Author, Primary )
British North Borneo Chartered Company ( Author, Secondary )
Place of Publication:
Sandakan
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
29, [8] p. ; 33 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
British North Borneo Chartered Company ( lcnaf )
Sabah (Malaysia) ( lcsh )
Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara British
Serikat Borneo Utara Inggris
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Malaysia -- Sabah -- Sandakan District -- Sandakan
Asia -- British North Borneo -- Sandakan
Asia -- North Borneo -- Sandakan
Asia -- Borneo Utara British -- Sandakan
Asia -- Borneo Utara -- Sandakan
اسيا -- بورنيو اوتارا -- سنداکن
Coordinates:
5.833333 x 118.116667

Notes

General Note:
Responsibility: "by the Chartered Company's Representative, E.W. Birch"
General Note:
"Printed by authority at the Government Printing Office"
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Birch, Ernest : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/28840797
General Note:
DNB (name authority) : Birch, Ernest : URI http://d-nb.info/gnd/105517091X
General Note:
NTA (name authority) : Birch, Ernest : Record 168257238
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : British North Borneo Chartered Company : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/124376039

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
642502612 ( OCLC )
MS 283792, File 23 ( SOAS manuscript number )

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Full Text
A REPORT UPON
BRITISH NORTH BORNEO
BY
The Chartered Company's Representative.
E. W. BIRCH, Esq., C. M. G.
PRINTED BY AUTHORITY
AT THE GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
SANDAKAN.
1903.




A REPORT UPON
BRITISH NORTH BORNEO
BY THE
Chartered Company's Rcprescnlalivc.
E. W. BIRCH, Ew;„ C.M.G.
PRINTED BY AUTHORITY
AT TIIE GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
SAX DA KAN.
1903




CONTENTS
Page.
DESCRIPTION OF NORTH BORNEO - - - 1
FINANCE ------ io
TRADE ------- is
POPULATION ------ is
IMMIGRATION ------ 19
HEALTH ------ ]!)
LEGISLATION - - - - - - 21
JUDICIAL ------ 22
CONSTABULARY AND POLICE - 23
PRISONS ------ 24
PRINTING - - - - - -25
POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS - 25
GOVERNMENT VESSELS ----- 26
PUBLIC WORKS ----- 27
RAIIAVAYS - - - - - - 27
TH E NORTH BORNEO SERVICE - - - 29
J P P P X I) IX.
REVENUE - - - 1883 to 190'2.
EXPENDITURE - - „
IMPORTS - - -
EXPORTS - - -
CENSUS 1901.
JESSELTON-BEAUFORT RAILWAY EXPENDITURE 1902.




jBrifis^ jlorfl) Borneo
1901-1902.
DESCRIPTION OF NORTH BORNEO.
Abbivat. in 1 left London on the 8tli April, 1901, readied Singapore on the 9th
Labtan. May, and on the 19th was conveyed in 11. M. S. Rosario (Commander
Claude Hamilton) to Labuan where I arrived on the 23rd May in time to
observe Victoria Day.
I was glad to find II. M. S. Waterudtch in the harbour engaged in a
survey of our waters. It is imperative that another surveying ship should
be sent to survey Gaya harbour and some other localities and I trust that
the Admiralty will be persuaded to spare such a vessel.
Mount Kinabalu. At 5-35 a.m. on the morning of our arrival I went on the bridge of
the Rosario and observed very high land on the horizon. It was Mt,
Kinabalu (13,700 feet) which, 120 miles away, was showing up as a kind of
welcome to Borneo. At first it seemed a black cloud-mass but, as I watched,
it’s edges gradually defined themselves against a brightening sky. The
mountain was due east so the sun had a long way to climb before
we saw its orb. At 10 minutes to 0 it rose and the mountain became
black under it and quickly faded out of sight. Since then I have
seen Kinabalu many times, at varying distances, from every point of view, but
it never fails to attract and animate one for surely it must be one of the most
wonderful mountains in the world in appearance. It rises so suddenly,
stands in such giant comparison to its neighbours of from 4,000' to 7000',
is so rugged, exhibits such clean-cut pinnacle points, such multi-colored
tints and so many magnificent cascades of bounding water, some of which
can be seen from the sea, that, as Calverley puts it:—
They who see thee and whose soul
Melts not at thy eharms are blinder
Than a trebly-bandaged mole.
JEssr;i, ion. On the 27th May, 1901, I visited Jesselton and was charmed with the
place. It is situated in a fine land-locked harbour well protected by Gaya
Island. The south channel is not practicable but the northern entrance will
admit large ships and there is good anchorage. Mr. F. G. Atkinson, the
District Officer, had laid out the town with wide streets, now well planted
with shade trees, and had constructed for about a mile a well graded road
over the hills. The Bail way runs through the town and has somewhat
limited the space required for building purposes but there is a very large
area of easily reclaimable foreshore and the hills which overhang the town
will provide ample soil for reclamation. The water is good but when the
town grows in size a water supply will have to be undertaken. Behind
the hills there are innumerable sites for European residences, as picturesque
and as admirably adapted for the purpose as in any place I have seen.
The town with a moderate outlay can be made to accommodate 10,0
people and can be extended seawards to hold a large population.
I called the shopkeepers together and explained to them that nothing
hut substantial buildings would he permitted and there are now at least fifty
well-built plank-walled and iron-roofed shops doing a brisk trade. All
sanitary arrangements are simple and tlie town site appeals to tlie Chinese
mind. A steel-pier 200 feet in length running out to 23' 6" at low water is
under construction. The Farmers are building premises of brick and
masonry walls with tiled-roof. Within one and a. half miles from the town an
enterprising Malacca Chinaman, Mr. Chee Swee Cheng, the Farm Manager,
has started brickfields on land with abundance of good brick clay.
About two and half a miles from the town the Government has
recently erected a complete plant of Saw-mill machinery which will be kept
fully supplied with the finest hardwoods from the forests along the Railway
and with house-building timber from Gaya Island.
A scarcity of labour lias retarded progress but when the Railway is in
better running order and the population has increased all these grievances


2
tliat vex the impatient souls of Government Officers, who like to see their
work grow clay by day, and of Traders, who are anxious to turn over money
rapidly, will disappear.
In three years' time Jesselton will be a very busy little place. Lt is of
the utmost importance that the Government should only erect buildings of
a durable form of construction. It is unfair to the people to require them to
build to an approved standard if the Government does not keep to a high
standard itself. It is impolitic not to show that the Government has entire
confidence in the future of a town for it is to the Government view that
the people look for guidance as to the investment of their own capital. Some
persons who have vested interests in Sandakan look upon the growth of
Jesselton as likely to injure their interests. It is a mistaken idea for the
trade of the two ports is quite distinct and the history of all countries of any
value surely teaches us that they can possess at least two important towns.
The Revenue for Province Keppel for 1900 was $33,148, for 1901
$53,274 and for 190.2 $73,000. I have every hope that it will continue to
progress at that rate, for the West Coast lias been utterly neglected in the
past and there is a great deal yet to be done.
Mr. .Routledge, the acting District Officer, writes in his report for
1902
AH has been eery quiet in the district during the past year, those who
were the disturbing influence haring either surrendered or been captured reccir-
ing that punishment which was their due and which doubtless has had a deter-
rent effect. The natires throughout the district appear to be happy and
contented and Imre accepted the new taxation quietly and with eery little
grumbling. Traders and produce collectors took out licenses and passes am!
boat-owners registered their boats. The fails hare been we// attended and
successful. The trains are taken great adrantagc of by the notices moring
from place to place—they seem to fully realise the importance of the railway am!
there will be no difficulty wlmterer in inducing them to send all produce orer/aml
to Jesselton.
When the new shops are finished at Putatan and Papar these places
â– will rapidly extend: the latter especially is a beautiful place and must become, in
the near future, owing to its natural adrantages the centre of a large and
thricing population.
The town has progressed rapidly and is clean am/ orderly. During the
year 51 ! Chinese Immigrants arrired at the Port, which is the sea terminus of
the Bailway am! from which produce can be shipped to Singapore in fire days
without transhipment.
The padi crop reaped in January was a good one throughout the
district but, [much regret that owing to drought, that planted this year is a failure.
Province Dent. On the 31st of May, 1901, I visited Mempakul and Menumbuk on
the mainland opposite to Labuan and at once decided to relieve the
Treasury <>f the cost of their administration. The North Borneo (’able is
landed there but the telegraph can be and is now worked direct to
Beaufort. The District Officer of that place keeps a clerk at Mempakul
and occasionally visits both places. The mouth of the Kolias river is at
Menumbuk and a quantity of sago is washed there.
Beaufort. Cn the 3rd of June, 1901, I went over to Weston in Brunei Bay and
thence by train to Beaufort. The distance is 20 miles and the journey
occupies an hour and a quarter. Between Weston and Bukau, 8 miles, the
whole of the land on both sides of the railway has been taken up by
Kedavans who grow a considerable quantity of rice. The obi village of
Beaufort into which this line of railway takes you is on the true left bank
of the Padas. The river is navigable, except after a long period of drought,
for launches and big boats as far as Gadong. At present the Padas is
crossed in native boats and at the ferry is about 150 yards wide. A
wire cable of the Bullivant pattern which will hear a weight of one ton is
in course of erection.
I was pleased to find that under the supervision of Dr. Gomes
an excellent hospital, in every way a credit to the State, had just been
completed at Beaufort. The new town on the right bank of the Padas was
laid out by Mr. Walker, the Commissioner of Lands. The railway from
Jesselton to Beaufort and thence to the Interior runs through the town but
so close to the river bank that the town is kept to the left of it. A great deal of
reclamation and more especially of drainage will have to he undertaken and


it will always be somewhat costly to keep Beaufort free from the rank growth
common to the alluvial banks of tropical rivers : but it is essential, for the
sanitary conditions of the town, that it should be kept always clear and well
drained.
About a mile from the town Mr. Chee Swee Cheng has laid down
machinery for the preparation of tapioca and sago and lias commenced
to open a tapioca estate -which will ultimately extend to 5,000 acres.
The Court of Directors sanctioned my proposal to construct a siding
of about 3| miles from Limbawang on the Padas river to a point on the
railway near this Estate. The sago district of Limbawang is thus tapped
and the Chinaman's mill will be fed, he will also bring sago from all
districts as far as Papar and will I hope in time do a large export business,
the prepared Hour being shipped from Jesselton.
This Estate known as the Woodford Estate at the end of the year
contained 170 acres of tapioca, many fruit trees, about 5,000 pine-apples and
some 3,000 coconuts. There is a substantial set of buildings with a railway
siding ' mile in length running to the machinery for crushing and cleaning
tapioca and for working a saw bench.
Before I returned to Labuan 1 visited Mr. West’s railway construc-
tion as far as Jempanga about a mile and a half.
Since my first visit to Beaufort vegetable gardens in all directions
have been opened by Chinese Immigrants and the agricultural Chinese
population now exceeds one thousand.
The district of Province Dent has been extended in two directions.
In April, 1902, I arranged with Pangiran Pemanclia of Brunei for the
cession of Membakut for a payment of $2,400 per annum a sum which was
more than covered by the receipts of the year from that river. The Mem-
bakut district is a fine stretch of padi and sago and the Railway runs
through it for about four miles.
In December Sungei Ray oh was transferred from the jurisdiction of
the District Officer, Port Birch to that of the District Officer, Beaufort.
The Railway extension to Port Birch has now reached Sungei Rayoh and
when it is completed it will be wise to place an English Officer at Sungei
Rayoh. It is in the centre of an extensive timber country.
The District Officer reports that the revenue has increased from
$53,788 in 1901 to $82,817 in 1902: that the land revenue has been
doubled: that 25 permanent shops have been built since the town site was
changed to the true right 1 ank of the Padas river : that the health of the
district was good : and that the Trade has increased by over $150,000.
rppe The railway line from Weston to Beaufort was constructed by
Weston-Beau- West at the remarkably cheap rate of £1,500 per mile. It runs
fort Railway. very smoothly and reflects considerable credit upon him. No engineering
difficulties are encountered.
Besides opening up the country, through which it passes between
Weston and Bukau, it has been of immense use to the Government for
without it Beanfort could not have been created and the extension of the
Jesselton line to the Interior could not have been commenced. It is very
regrettable that it arrives at a port which cannot be approached by ships
drawing more than 8' of water for it will never of course carry any
considerable trade: but when Province Clarke is opened up and Chinese
are settled upon the splendid soil to be found in that district a great
deal of their food stuffs and an appreciable amount of jungle produce
will be carried over this line. In fact it is a question for consideration
whether it may not be worth while to construct a branch line from it to
some central point on the Mengalong river in a few years’ time. The
existing line earns about $500 a month, it will always be useful and
amongst other things it may be mentioned that Beaufort is thereby supplied
with fresh fish.
On the 8th of June, 1901. I visited Ambong where I found a District
Officer stationed. The place is so situated that it could never under any
conceivable circumstances be of use to Government and it has now been
abandoned.
The next day 1 reached Kudat which I will describe elsewhere and
on the 10th of June made Sandakan at night.


4
Saxdakan. The Bay is magnificent: it would take three days in a steam launch to
cruise round it if one wished to see it all: there is splendid anchorage and
it is very sheltered : the possession of such a harbour is the justification for
the original settlement but as a town site there is little to recommend it.
The town itself is built upon piles over the sea—many of the roadways are
of timber and their upkeep is costly while their appearance is far from being
reputable. The houses of the European residents are situated upon
numerous hills and almost all of them command beautiful views of the Bay
—the country roads have bad gradients while the town roads had never been
consolidated: there is still no carriage road to Government House. The
town was dirty and the appearance of the place unkempt. There is a, first-
rate Club, good Tennis lawns and a passable Race course.
I feel sure that the general consensus of opinion is that tin1 condition
of Sandakan has been greatly improved. It will not therefore be uninterest-
ing to record in this my first report what has already been done to better the
appearance of the town.
There was an unsightly swamp of some seven acres between the ('linrdi
hill and the Club. It teas a desert of brushwood full of buffalo wallows, a
dumping ground for all kinds of filth and a breeding ground for mosquitoes.
Through its centre there was a winding drain in which clothes were washed.
Beyond it a road led to the hospital and each side of the road was fringed
with tumble-down houses in which the poorest Chinese lived. The swamp
has been reclaimed, carefully levelled, stone-drained all round and transferred
into a Cricket and Football field ; round it half-acre lots have been sold on.
which Clerks have built respectable semi-detached houses. The Hospital
road has been straightened and all the houses have disappeared three or
four semi-detached houses having taken their place. The winding stream
which went by the name of the Sandakan river is now taken direct to the sea,
by a stone-walled and stone-pared conduit.
Below the Club a shapeless mound of earth has been terraced, turfed
and converted into a Bandstand and on it a shelter for the Band has been
erected as a memorial of the Coronation while its face will bristle with
brass Ida or cannon taken at different times during expeditions against the
Natives.
Along the Leila road, about a mile and three quarters from Govern-
ment House, there is a hill with an inexhaustible supply of hard stone. A
quarry was started and Chinese—men, women and children—may be seen
daily breaking stone for road metal. From this point into tow n and thence
up the hill on the road to the Race course for about a mile the unconsoli-
dated roads have been properly metalled and present a carefully packed and
rolled surface quite new to Borneo.
The hills in the European quarter are being gradually denuded of
scrub and turned into grass : the foreshore in the town has been cleared
of driftwood and the general appearance of the streets and verandahs is
altered. Four residential sites have been purchased from private owners for
a mere song and Government property and buildings have been kept in good
repair : a shingle roof with a well-constructed arcli ceiling to the drawing-
room has replaced the atap (palm-leaf) roof of Government House : the truly
disreputable native wards of the Hospital have been demolished and replaced
by three masonry buildings with tile-roofing. A spring of clear water dis-
covered in the liecreation ground when it was being reclaimed has been
collected in a brick well and carried down by iron piping to the native,
quarter in Kampong Bahru : the wharf has been entirely renewed and a fine
decking of hard timber laid diagonally has much improved it: and on the
wharf there is now a commodious Government Bonded Store which is a, great
convenience to traders ami to the ( 'ustoms authorities.
In many of these works Prison labour is freely utilised.
In respect of most of them the Government is indebted to Mr. Theodore
R. Hubback who, during the fifteen months in which he was Director of
Public Works, toiled with untiring energy ami left behind him much
evidence of his professional ability.
Mission Wokk. I cannot end this description of Sandakan without a reference to the
beautiful Stone Church which the Rev. W. II. Elton has made the work of
ten years of his life. The building from an architectural point of view
is a triumph for Mr. Elton and is facile princeps the best building in the


country. I appeal earnestly to the Court of Directorsand to the Shareholders
to help him to the means to push on the work to a (prick completion. A.
further sum of £1,500 is urgently required.
Mr. Elton has written at my request a short account of the mission
work of the Church of England in North Borneo and it is so interesting
that I give it in his own words, lie writes :—
I left home in 1S8S my commission was to go as pioneer chaplain to the
Officers of the British North Borneo Ser rice, and other Europeans in the State and to do
what Mission work was possible besides among the Natives of the country.
On my arrival 1 made Sandakan, the capital, the head quarters of the Mission and
made up my mind to occupy in the first instance, the three chief seaport towns viz. Sandakan,
Kudat, and Labuan. The first year was spent in building a Vicarage, a temporary School-
Church in Sandakan, in visiting the other stations on the Coast and in travelling up all the
rivers to see the Planters and christen their children. At the close of the first year Mr.
Richards arrived from home. He was the first Missionary to follow me to North Borneo.
By this time there was a considerable numbei of Chinese Christians in the Territory
most of whom were located at Kudat, and it was arranged for Mr. Richards to take up
work among these Chinese, and with this view he went to China for eight months to study
the language. During his absence I went to Kudat and built a School-Church and two
rooms of a Vicarage having promised him to have them ready for him on his return. It is
interesting to note that it was the officers and men of th ? Nary who started these buildings
in Kudat with a donation of $100.
While the buildings at Kudat were in course of erection the pretty little Church
at Labuan, which had been built during Bishop McDougall's episcopate'was burnt
down in a jungle fire. As soon as I heard, of it I went to Labuan and built a School-
Church in which the services have since been held.
During the year 1892 another worker arrived, Mr. Patrick, who was appointed,
English Master of the Sandakan Boys' School, which by that time numbered fifty
scholars of various nationalities, twenty-five of whom were boarders and formed the
surpliced choir in Sandakan Church.
On the 29th September, 1893, an important step was taken in the laying of the
foundation stone of the permanent Church in Sandakan by Governor Creagh, Five
years had been spent in cutting down an immense bill at the back of the Vicarage,
in order to obtain sufficient ayea for the Church. During those five years the late,
Rev. Brynne Belcher had been collecting funds in England for a permanent Church
in Sandakan and had remitted £50 a. year for the purpose. I was about to begin a
brick church when we discovered excellent stone within two miles of Sandakan, so we
at once opened a quarry and determined to build in stone. Having obtained plans of
a Gothic Church from a first-rate architect I began to instruct the Chinese in the art
of building and by Easter Day 1898, just ten years after my arrival in the country,
the Chancel, Vestries and Organ Chamber were completed at a cost of $16,822. It is
interesting to note that this is the first stone building in Borneo, After ten years of
incessant work without a change mg health began to suffer, so after the consecration
of the Chancel, I suspended bu ilding operations and went to England for a cooling.
While I was at home I collected some money for the Nave and Transepts of the
Church and these have now been in course of erection for four years and are about
half finished.
Since my return from home ice have also been collecting money for a permanent
G irls School and, than ks to the exert ions of Mrs. Bircli, the handsome new building
will be opened free of debt in about a month. So we now have three Boys' Schools and
one Girls' School. All the education of the country is being carried on by the Church
of England and the Church of Rome, the Chartered Company having not, as yet,
opened any Schools.
The money for all these bu ildings viz. four in Sandaka/n, four in Kudat and
one in Labuan has been raised by voluntary subscriptions amounting in all to $40,000.
The Homan Catholic Missions have established themselves in many
parts of North Borneo and their work in civilising and educating the natives
of the country is deserving of the greatest praise and respect. It is only
necessary for Government Officers to come more into touch with the Priests,
who devote their lives to their Missions, in order to obtain a great deal of
co-operation from them.
The East ( 'o ast. On the 15th July, 1901,1 visited the East Coast and again in November,
1902, I paid a long visit lasting almost a fortnight. The tobacco estates of the
Nev Darvel Bay (Borneo) Tobacco Co. on the Segama river are approached from
The Senama Lahat I)ato where the Manager Mr. Arensma lives. It is a well conducted
Estate. ailJ inost flourishing estate and upon it the prosperous little town of 500
inhabitants is almost dependent. The estates extend up the Segama river
for many miles and an arrangement has been come to by which this
Company is in five years to select all the land it requires in the river
and hand a surveyed plan of it to the Government. The estate is well
roaded and nothing is left undone to make the venture a success. The
coolies are well treated and the 1 hospital management under Dr. Pagel
is quite perfect. On my first visit I saw 450 fields of tobacco at various
stages of growth and was much impressed. The Resident, Mr. E. H. Barraut,
lives here with a District Treasurer and there is a District Officer at
Tawao. Tawao is not as flourishing as it was, for the Arendsberg Co.’s


6
Tobacco Estate is closed but it is a charming- place with extraordinarily rich
alluvial soil—flat for some miles back to the hills—and there is a large
settlement of industrious native agriculturists. I have great confidence
in its future. A very substantial wharf with iron godowns was erected
in 1902.
Semporna. The East Coast possesses many islands and on one of them, Semporna,
there is now a considerable settlement. The Bajaus of the East ('oast are
mostly sea-rovers. They live in boats which may be seen in hundreds lying
off the coral shoals of the various islands: they have always been pirates and
evil-doers. In 1902 they received a very severe lesson at the hands of
Messrs. Molyneux and Rough and many of them were lodged in the
Sandakan Graol where four died of beri-beri, a circumstance which enabled
me to preach to these superstitious followers of the Prophet how
divine punishment had overtaken them before the sentence of man laid been
carried out. There is a different state of affairs now but the transition
from evil to good is not yet complete and but for the presence of a fast
steam launch and of two determined officers there would still be trouble.
On the occasion of my first visit I importuned the Court of Directors
to allow me to procru’e a good launch for this Coast for without it adminis-
tration was obviously a farce and it is not possible to exaggerate the good
which that launch has already done towards civilising the nomad Bajau.
In my report to the Court of Directors of a meeting with the Bajau
headmen and their followers during my visit in 1901 I wrote as follows :—
I told them in homely language that their day was over and that from now
they would learn that the Government war the Raja of Borneo and that they mart
keep their promises so often broken in the past and obey the Raja's rule. I would
not ark them to pay Poll-taw but every boat must be licensed, and carry a number
for which a differentiated fee according to the size of the boat would be levied.
Every boat with a number would be regarded as the boat of a friend and everyone
without a number as that of an enemy. In future they could carry on their trade
as of old but for every branch of that trade either by way of jungle or sea produce
each man must pay a monthly fee and take out a pass : henceforth no one in
Borneo would he permitted to buy their goods unless he was a licensed buyer am!
the condition of his license would be that he bought nothing which was not collected
. under a pass. They listened very attentively and respectfully, often asking
guestions, and, when I showed how their livelihood would he lost to them if they
di/l not take passes, a ray of light was borne into their minds and they began to
understand that the old days were passing away.
These rules are now in force and though the Bajau is not yet ent inly
trustworthy there is a visible improvement in his deportment.
In my first report I wrote The East Coast now contributes $7 J/,000 a
year to the Revenue and it is a matter of the greatest certainty that, with proper
administration, if should in two or three years yield double that sum.
A year later I was able to show that the Revenue of this Coast
exceeded 5100,000.
Rabat Date. The trade of Laliat Date increased from about 5020,000 in 1901
to about one million dollars in 1902. The export trade of the East Coast
is double the import trade and the value of the following articles in 1902 is
worthy of separate statement:—
Tobacco . . ... . . 5 622,-57-5
Grutta percha and rubber .. .. 99,000
Timber . . . . . . 77,102
Rattans . . . . . . 69,861
Birds nests . . . . . . 34,733
The New Darvel Bay Co., shipped 4,39-5 bales of tobacco as compared
with 3,064 in 1901 and obained excellent prices. The number of laborers
registered for service on the Estates was 1017.
It is essential that Lahat Date and Tawao should both be provided
with a supply of potable water.
A new settlement has been opened at Tambisan and if a wealthy
syndicate could be induced to start a coconut estate here their profits would
be very substantial. The land is of coral growth with a thick layer of most
fertile soil and there is deep water up to the shore. There is an unlimited
demand for coconuts in China. Two ocean going vessels call each month from
Hongkong. It is a great opportunity and the fortunate people who some
day seize it will reap the reward of their enterprise.


7
The settlement at Semporna is being- placed on a sound basis and
I hope to see renewed vigour in sea and jungle produce from that port.
Lahat Dato was connected by telegraph with Sandakan rid the
Kinabatangan and this service is very useful to the planters and to the
Government.
Tawao. Mr. Molyneux has sent me a cheerfid report on Tawao. The revenue
is almost $45,000. The value of the trade has increased from $374,000 in
1001 to $529,000 in 1902 and the increase is evenly distributed, imports
yielding $72,000 and exports $83,000 in excess of the previous year.
Over 173,000 cubic feet of timber were exported and duty to the
sum of $7,000 was paid thereon. Nine visits were paid by Hongkong
steamers to take the timber. Mr. Molyneux has greatly improved the
appearance of the town and keeps in good repair the cart road along the sea
front by which the old and new villages are joined.
The methods of cultivation are good and include rice, coconuts and
pine-apple. The Land Office administration is' in very creditable order.
The native population is increasing. The health of the settlement Zw.s- always
been extremely good and in 1902 if pissed scatheless through two scares of
cholera and there has been no epidemic of any kind.
The death of Penghulu Puaclo, the native headman, was a great loss
to Government for he was a very influential man and faithful withal.
1 gladly quote the following passages from Mr. Molyneux’ report:—
Tawao consists principally of one distorted stretch of street, di riding two-
rows of irregular and irregularly-built houses. The policy throughout the year
has been to correct this: consequently no improvements hare been allowed to lu
made to houses on the foreshore, all of which, with two or three exceptions, will be
pulled down, when dilapidated, in order to 'improve the appearance of the sea
frontage. Similarly no improvements hare been allowed to be made to those houses
wrongly situated on the shore side, lmt these, as they decay, will gradually be
rebuilt on their proper sites and according to one uniform type. The town could
not stand a sudden and peremptory change but, if the above methods are continued,
it will be gradually remodelled on set lines and principles. Ten houses hare
already been, pulled down in the vicinity of the wharf, and this has enabled the
road to be extended and straightened and has greatly improved the appearance of
the place on landing.
The Bajaus hare been encouraged in their jungle produce hunting and
frets of d) boats bound for Sebatik often arrive at once in the harbour.
The introduction of the new regulations such as jungle produce passes^
money lenders’ licenses and boat licenses has been crowned with entire success.
In the annals of Tawao there Imre never been known to be more jungle produce
hunters than at the present time.
The seas of the East Coast teem with fish and there is a considerable
salting industry in the hands of Sandakan Chinese who export some 30.000-
pikuls a year to Hongkong.
Serudong Coal At Serudong beyond Tawao a seam of good coal 3' 4" thick has been
Deposit. exposed and Mr. Phillips, who found it and has worked at it for two years,
is 1 believe entirely satisfied with the prospects. For the sake of the country
I trust that the seam will he thoroughly explored so that it may be definitely
known whether or not it is a payable deposit: the quality of coal is un-
doubtedly good and it could be easily transported to Sandakan to find a
ready sale there. Recently a thicker seam of 6Z 10" has been discovered
in the Salimpopon river to the north of Serudong ; the coal is of good
quality and Mr. Phillips is very enthusiastic about it.
The West On the 14th August, 1901, I left Sandakan for Jesselton on a visit
Coast. that lasted until the 1st of September. During- this visit I explored Gaya
island and found that it contained a considerable quantity of good timber :
on different days I visited the Inanam and Menggatal rivers in North
Keppel above Jesselton : rice is cultivated in fair quantity : 1 spent two days
at Putatan, seven miles along the Railway, where cultivation of rice is exceed-
ingly extensive and is carried out on the best lines. At Ulu Putatan I
attended the first Tenni or native fair I had seen in Borneo. Some 500 up-
country Dusuns came down with heavy loads of native-grown tobacco and
jungle produce ami bartered their goods for cloth, salt, iron, and dried fish to
(Chinese and coast natives. 1 luring this visit Mr. Dunlop was in the Interior
clearing- the country of the Outlaws and one day a party of Ifyaks came
down from the ITlu Tuaran and reported to me that they had had a hand to
hand fight with Langkap, one of the disaffected leaders, who hail escaped


8
but whose hat one of them had secured. On another day the Chief of Inanani
came in with some Dusun chiefs whose villages had been burned because they
had given help and food to the Outlaws and, after a long palaver in which
I made it very clear that Mr. Dunlop’s orders to them to come down from the
lulls into the rich plains of Inanam and Menggatal would not be modified,
they left to make the move which has now peopled these plainsand increased
the cultivation of rice. I spent two days at Papar 24 miles along the llail-
way. This is a fine open tract of country crying out for population. I
walked through the rice fields in several directions: the people were busy
transplanting the young shoots from the nurseries and I was pleased to see
that the plough was extensively used : in some cases â– with teams of six
buffaloes.
On the 1st of September, 1901, I went to Labuan and was taken
through the Coal mines. I also interviewed many of the Kedayans who
cultivate patches of land on the island with fruit trees, coconuts and rice.
Bri nei. On the 6th of September, 1901,1 visited Brunei Bay, called in at the
Lawas river for some Brunei Malays whom I had promised to pickup and in
the evening landed at Punang on the coast. The next day rowed along the
shore as far as Bumbun, a tidal creek near the Trusan, which is now our
boundary with Sarawak. Thence I went on to Brunei. The entrance to the
river is very picturesque and suddenly, round a bend, the ancient dilapidated
atap-roofed city comes into view. There are no thoroughfares and every one
paddles about in boats from the diminutive dug-out to the large boats in
which Pangirans visit you in semi-State. The city is said to contain 10,090
inhabitants whose chief characteristics are laziness, squalor and poverty.
AVe anchored at 1 p.m. opposite the Sultan’s Astana and I sent off
a messenger to know when lie would see me. He returned immediately
accompanied by a messenger sent by the Sultan to thank me for coming ami
to say that he would be very glad to receive me at 3.30 p.m.
The Petrel was instantly surrounded by boats the owners of which
were anxious to trade with us in brass gongs, weapons, old brass ware, (a
great deal of which was quite new), palm-leaf baskets, sarongs and fruit.
I went about the town for an hour in a boat and at the appointed
time made my call. Having been for over eight years in intimate relations
with Malay Sultans I was not prepared for the appearance of utter neglect
and disrepair into which the Sultan of Brunei’s surroundings had fallen. I
knew of his poverty and awful extravagance but I also knew that he had
thousands of subjects who might well have been required to keep his landing
stage and balei if not his entire Astana in repair. 1 climbed a rickety
ladder with the utmost care—for the filthy black water under it compelled,
one to extreme caution. As I did so a salute from brass cannon
thundered forth at very close quarters. I then walked along an insecure
staging to the balei and a dozen Pangirans and two Chinese shopkeepers, who
are permitted to attend the Sultan on State occasions and who have
preyed upon him for years, met me. The aged Sultan came forward
at once, a large man Avith a massive but not unpleasant face and with a
distinctly reserved and courteous manner. He guided me to a chair: then
huge candles Avith giant cigars covered Avitli the shoot of the nipah palm and
small cups of black coffee Avere placed before us. A solemn silence prevailed
till the salute was finished. When the echo of the last gun had died away
Ave began to talk and talked for an hour and a half. It Avas not a pleasant
conversation for I had to listen to a recital of all his grievances and Avas
obliged to impress upon him and reiterate my statement that it Avas impossible
for me to discuss anything that belonged to the past. Finally I explained
the object of my visit and quickly concluded the cession of his sovereign
rights over the territory uoav knoAvn as Province Clarke. At o p,m. I
returned to the Petrel after promising to send a supply of gunpowder to
replace that Avhich had just been expended in my honour and to (‘liable him
to fittingly herald the approaching marriage of his grandson to the daughter
of his Prime Minister, the Pangiran Bendahara. Till dinnertime I received
a stream of visitors and watched Avith much interest the Avater-market Avhich
is attended almost entirely by Avomen in enormous palm leaf hats like large
round dishcovers. It is weird to see them bob in and out silently in their
boats and no other Malay country of my acquaintance can sIioav so strange-
a spectacle.


9
Province The next morning1 at daylight I steamed back to the Lawas river and
Clarke. finding the Government launch there ascended the river in it passing-
through well timbered country til] Merapok was reached. There 1 landed
and walked across the district to the Mengalong river. I saw for the first
time the long nosed monkey of Borneo a strange, beast partly red and partly
light grey. I shall often think with amusement of one old lady cuddling
her young as she sat silhouetted against the sky.
That night I returned to Labuan and on the 11th of September went
to Weston and visited Beaufort for the day getting hack to the Petre/ at
night. The next day I picked up the owner of the tulin rights in the
Merentaman and Mengalong rivers and concluded their cession.
Province (’larke extends from the Sepitong river in Brunei Bay
to the Trusan (the Sarawak boundary.) The actual limit is Kwala
Bumbun near the Trusan. I visited all the districts comprised in
this Coastline and before the end of the year had concluded negotiations
with most of the Pangirans (chiefs) concerned to take over their rights
in the various rivers. The old Pangiran of Lawas alone declined to
treat with me and laid claim to the district of Merapok, a claim
which has the right of 1 the Sultan and his Wazir (Ministers of State) refuse to recognise. The
matter is not of importance for there is a great deal to be done to open up
the rivers already taken over and everything comes to those who can afford
to wait. The remainder of this country will pay, for its administration in
1904. A District Officer is now stationed in it: bridle paths are being made
and I hope to give it in the future a great deal more attention than was
possible in 1902. The Coast is badly sheltered so road communications will
be very necessary. There is a great extent of valuable land in the District
and a good deal of talk of minerals. Messrs. Dunlop and Fraser made a
journey up the Mengalong to the Padas and there is every prospect of a
considerable jungle produce trade. Native Chiefs have been nominated
and a rough census shows a population exceeding 2,000 souls. The up
country people are Muruts whose village feuds and drunken habits can only
Be overcome by intercourse with European Officers. In the hinterland are
the Tagals who are really people of the Padas Valley.
The Tempasik. On the 15th September I visited Kuala Abai and rowed up to the
station at Abai since abandoned. It took us an hour and a half and when
we landed I found myself on a plain surrounded by a semicircle of grass
covered hills. A number of up country natives met me and I lectured them
upon the folly of giving help to tlie Outlaws instead of securing them and
J landing them over to the Government. We theii mounted our ponies and
rode 3| miles to Kotabelud. We crossed over the range of hills and dropped
into the valley of the Tempasuk which is of surpassing beauty. It is well
peopled, plentifully watered, fairly well cultivated and contains herds of
cattle and many ponies. The next morning at daybreak we rode to a
Temu which was crowded, many Illanuns having come there on buffaloes.
Thence we rode on to Abai and went down in a ship’s boat to the Petrel.
The monsoon was blowing hard and it was a bad run to Kudat: we stayed
fhe night there and steamed away early the next day for Sandakan.
On the 1st July, 1001, an expedition under Mr. Dunlop and Captain
llarington was directed against the Outlaws and though they were not
captured it was a result of these operations that Kotabelud was established
as a Government station. A block-house somewhat on the South African
pattern was constructed on the top of tlie liill and from it there is an
uninterrupted view of about twenty miles of coast line and a grand view
of Kinabalu which towers above some high mountains up the Ulu Tempa-
suk. Between these mountains and Kotabelud and round the hill seaward
there is a fine panorama of hills and plain. It is truly a vast plain: on
it are dotted a great number of native houses, mostly Bajau, and ponies
cattle and buffaloes may be seen grazing.
When Kotabelud is joined up by bridle path to Miunus and Timbang
Batu (the Government station on the Marudu Bay Estates) I anticipate
that it will be a considerable centre of trade for there is a great area of
agricultural land available : even now it has fully justified my expectations
for its establishment has greatly assisted in quieting the country. It is a tele-
graph station on the main line'between Jesselton and Kudat. I held a largely
attended meeting of the Dusun ( Chiefs of the Interior on Victoria
Day, 1902. As was shewn afterwards our palaver was productive of good.


10
A system of mounted police was tried for patrol work but'did not
succeed for tlie Sikh Police abused it. I have now removed all Sikhs,
from the interior stations and have expelled therefrom all Sikh traders for
their’s is the worst form of usury and they were gradually impoverishing-
the natives. The mounted patrol is being revived with Dyak Police.
Mr. A. P. Martin, the District Officer, has worked with an energy
that has impaired his health. 1 have moved him to give him rest and change
of work. Now that the Outlaws have been dealt with he says that there is
very little crime in the district excepting buffalo-theft. In 1903 I hope to
establish a system of branding and registration of cattle in North Keppel
which, if successful, can be applied to the whole State. The Natives will
welcome it and will, 1 believe, gladly pay a small fee for each animal to
cover the cost to Government.
The Tempasuk Chinese have all moved their shops to the fool of
Kotabelud hill, they report a good year of trade but are, I fear, an useless
lot being without capital and given to cheat the natives. I hope soon to
place some Chinese immigrants in the valley who will cultivate rice and
sugarcane on condition that the surplus supply shall be brought to Jesselton.
They should quickly show the Natives some primitive system of irrigation
which the lesson taught by this season’s drought should encourage them to
adopt. I have attached a Dresser and given a small supply of drugs to
this station : the rainfall was registered from August, 1902, and in the last
five months of the year amounted to 17’65 inches. The revenue of the
Tempasuk was $2,550 only but it will improve.
There is an upcountry station at Kaung where a body of Dyak
Police are placed and it is part of my policy to establish two more tip
country stations with another English Officer, so as to connect North
Keppel with Tambunan on one side and the Labuk district on the other.
It should be of immense benefit if the Directors could find the funds to
carry out a system of irrigation on the Tempasuk and Tuaran rivers so as
to bring two vast areas under the cultivation of rice and secure the
people from loss of crop in seasons of drought.
The Tuaran. The other district of North Keppel is Tuaran. It lies between the
Tempasuk or Kotabelud district and Jesselton.
As every person of my acquaintance who had visited the Tuaran
came back impressed with its great agricultural possibilities 1 have devoted
considerable attention to it. As it had earned the reputation of being the
happy hunting ground of evil doers-I determined to place an English
Officer in the middle of the district and selected Mr. T. N. Kougli, a young-
official who had shewn much determination and business-like qualities, on
the East Coast. He, like Messrs. Dunlop and Martin, has followed up many
notorious criminals and Outlaws so untiringly that they have been captured,
given themselves up or abandoned their haunts. He has shewn much
conciliation towards those who desire to settle down to the tilling of the soil.
The new site for a Government station is two miles further up river
as the crow flies, above the Sulaman inlet, and is most picturesque for it
commands a Hew of part of the great Tuaran plains, of a stretch of the
river and of Kinabalu. There I hope soon to see a busy and flourishing-
village.
During the great floods in the opening months of 1902 the Tuaran
did not overflow its bunks. The land in the valley is most fertile and now
that the Coiu-t of Directors have sanctioned my proposal to extend the
llailway from Jesselton to Tuaran applications are coming in for the land
and I have arranged to settle Chinese Immigrants in the valley.
A considerable quantity of tree cotton (kapok) exists in the valley
and as this product is safe ami its cultivation easy I desire to encourage it.
There is, speaking generally, no useful form olj agriculture which
would not thrive in Tuaran soil.
Tuaran is being connected with Mengkabong, Menggatal ami Inanam
by bridle path. These rivers are all under the District Officer and much
rice is produced in them. Inanam is only five miles from Jesselton so the
bridl'e path has been continued to that town across the Likas plain. It will
he a great boon to Europeans who will then have some means of equestrian
exercise.
Tuaran has been joined up by telephone with Jesselton and Kota-
belud. The health of the district in 1902 was good. The revenue
amounted to $4,130.


11
Tile
KINABATANG \.\.
Pile Labuk \m>
Sugvt.
Ambong the port of the district has been practically abandoned. It
was always an unsuitable place and when the railway is completed Jesselton
will be the natural Port.
On the 13th of November I visited the Kinabatangan River. After-
13 hours’ steaming in the Petrel, against a strong current with the river in
flood, we reached Koyah and were the guests of Mr. F. E. Lease, the
Manager of the Borneo Tobacco Estates, Ltd.
The next morning I looked over his very fine fermenting shed and
hospital and at 10 a.m. went on to the Batu Puteh Estate of a Butch Company
of which Mr. Breitag, a German, is the Manager. We made but a short
stay there and proceeded in the Petrel to Lamag where there was another
estate in the same ownership as Koyah. We stayed the night and
in the morning I went further up river in a launch kindly placed at
my disposal. After inspecting the Telegraph station on the opposite side
of the river I steamed on to Pintasan, a flourishing village with some
Chinese shops. In the afternoon 1 rejoined the Petrel at Lamag and
returned to Batu Puteh where we spent the night enjoying Mr. Breitag’s
hospitality. After looking over his estate and inspecting some first class
coolie lines we said goodbye, called in at Koyah to thank Mr. Lease and
then went down river to Bilit a village from which the glory has departed
and which is inhabited by an exceedingly lazy lot of people.
Wo reached Sandakan at 11 p.m. on the 16th having done the-
return journey in ten hours. The navigation of the Petre! on a dark night
down the flooded river was a fine piece of work on the part of the veteran
master of the vessel—Boraman, a Brunei Malay, who is one of the best
servants of the Chartered (Company.
There was no tobacco in the fields when I paid this visit to the River
and I regret to say that the estates were not doing well financially. The
Borneo Tobacco Estates, Ltd. have now closed down both their estates and
have moved to the Padas.
Mr. Breitag is however carrying on his operations and I hope and
believe that he is about to extend them.
Towards the end of J 902 I was able to carry out my long formed
intention of placing a District Officer up the Kinabatangan. A very young-
officer, Mr. J. T. Richardson, was selected but he has more than justified the
choice.
The Kinabatangan natives left to themselves for many years are the
laziest people in Borneo, Bruneis only excepted, but Mr. Richardson has got
rid of many useless Chiefs whose last thought was for Government and has
succeeded in waking up the people to such an extent that there is a future
opening for them which will T feel sure be bright.-
The District Officer has made his headquarters at Tangkulap mid-
way between the Estates and Penungah and about one week’s journey
from Sandakan by launch and boat. It is a telegraph station. lie
has a few Police with him and there is a small detachment at Penungah.
The celebrated Gomanton Caves are situated upon the Menungal
river -which flows into the lower reaches of the Kinabatangan. The
Government revenue from these Birds Nests in 1902 amounted to over
$10,000.
Of the general revenue wdiich this policy is producing it is too early
to speak, but I look forward to good returns in 1903.
On the 24th of November I left in the Petrel for the Sngut river,
went into the Trusan and stayed with Mr. Pyke. I visited the little
settlement at Sisip and the next morning steamed to Jembongan off which
wo anchored for the night. There is some little trade here. At 5 a.m.
the next morning we left for the Labuk and at 11 a.m. reached the point
where the Keiagan river empties itself into the Labuk. I immediately made
up my mind to change the headquarters of the district. Why Sugut
was fixed upon is one of those mysteries into which it is profitless to enquire.
The Labuk is a fine wide river with fertile alluvial land on both banks.
There is extensive padi cultivation along it and the inhabitants are Tidongs
who came over some years ago from Dutch Borneo : they seem to be more
industrious than many other natives and have an intelligent chief in Aji
Patih, a trader.


12
A site was selected for the township, and Mr. Pyke deserves infinite
credit for the way in which he has since laid it out and has induced all the
shopkeepers to take up lots and make quite a show village.
His own house is of an improved pattern and substantial.
The next day 1 visited Libaran island which is being extensively
planted with coconuts and has now been surveyed.
The District Officer has an Assistant on the Sugut. The financial
result of the administration is an increase of revenue from $5,700 in 1901 to
$10,400 in 1902.
These figures comprise the revenue actually collected in the District.
The larger proportion consisting of Timber Royalty, Customs Duty and
Share of Excise Farm Rents are paid m Sandakan.
Mr. C. C. Pyke, the District Officer, has worked with zeal to open up the
Interior which has great potentialities. It is full of jungle produce, all the
best native tobacco is grown there and agriculture, especially in the matter
of rice, is likely to be largely increased.
I am greatly impressed with the necessity for establishing another
Assistant to the District Officer in the Interior, either at Ranau or Bundu
Tuan who will be in touch with the Officers in North Keppel. It will put
the seal of success upon the administration of that portion of the country
and the project is only delayed on account of the dearth of Officers.
Meanwhile Mr. Pyke has connected up the various centres in the Interior
by appointing native agents to carry out his orders.
He w rites :—The natires at the I'lu Labuk hare been left to themselres
â– so long that without actually defying the Government some of the Chiefs hare
decidedly strong opinions of their own, opinions which are not good in a natirc
chief when out of touch with the District Officer It is with a station at the Pin
that I hope to keep more in touch with the natives as messages and letters can
always be sent by the Police.
There is only one remedy for this state of affairs and that is the
presence on the spot always of an English Officer to whom appeal can be
made and who will enforce order and carry out the due collection of Govern-
ment revenue. There is a Dyak headman at Ranau who is well spoken of
but I share the views of those officers of the Raja of Sarawak's Government,
whom I have had the pleasure of meeting, that the influence of a Dyak, if
left to himself, is more often for bad than for good. The distances are so
great before the people of the Interior can get to Mr. Pyke on the Labuk,
to his assistant on the Sugut or to one of the North Keppel Officers that it
is essential to place another Englishman up-country.
There are useful centres of native trade at Sungei Sungei in the
upper reaches of the Sugut and at Tetabuan (salt fish and seed pearls) on
the Coast.
The trade of the district in 1902, the first year in which a register
was kept, was about a quarter of a, million of dollars, exclusive of the
timber exported.
Kcdat. On the 7th of December we travelled to Kudat from Sandakan in
the Petrel, but met with very bad weather and after a voyage of ten hours
of not inconsiderable danger were driven to take shelter in Jembongan.
The next morning we reached Banguoy Island with fair weather but
from that point to Kudat the passage was distinctly uncomfortable. On the
9th I went over with the Resident (then Mr. Barraut) to the Tobacco
The Tobacco Estates in Marudu Bay on a. three days’ visit. An enormous alluvia1, plain
Estates. contains the Ranau, Bongon and Bandau Estates of the New London Borneo
Tobacco Co. Mr. K. F. Dieudonne, the Chief Manager, supervises the first
named while the others are superintended respectively by Messrs. Bekkering
and De Ruyter. The tobacco was in the fermenting sheds and 7,930 pikuls
(one pikul=133 lb.) had been gathered from 810 fields. It was exceedingly
interesting to watch the careful methods of sorting the leaves and to see
them pressed and packed into bales ready for shipment.
The same plain holds the Langkom Estate of the New London and
Amsterdam Co. of which Mr. Van Leeuwen is the Manager. He has not
obtained such satisfactory results as his neighbours but it is difficult for
the non-planter to discover why it should be so as his estate appears to
enjoy the same advantages of climate and soil. On the 12th December I
endeavoured to visit the Bcnkoka river where Mr. Larsen is managing the
Titas Estate of the German Borneo Co. but the surf on the bar was so


13
boisterous that after a perilous passage in the launch Scott we were obliged
to put back into Kudat. On the loth December I crossed the Bay and
walked to Taritipan, the coffee, coconut and nutmeg estate of the Borneo
Coffee Co. of which Mr. Carnarvon is the Manager. It is a vast pity that
the price of coffee has so militated against the success of this venture which
the Chartered Co. is fostering by every means in its power.
The Revenue of Kudat in 1901 was $125,463 and in 1902 it exceeded
$150,000. The Resident Mr. Little, one of the oldest and most experienced
officers of the Government, writes that this development is undoubtedly due to
the persevering cultivation of tobacco for cigar wrapper on the Estates in spite, of
many vicissitudes in price and weather—to the wider area under cultivation by
Chinese settlers in the vicinity of Kudat—to more attention being paid to the
collection of land revenue and to the fees for registration of boats—and finally
to the higher rental obtained for the Opium anil Spirit Farms, which are now
held by Chinese merchants introduced from the Straits Settlements by II. E,
the Governor.
He goes on to say, and T quote Inin for I entirely agree with the
principle he advocates :—It is absolutely necessary to open more stations in the
Province and I trust that the financial and judicial success attending the placing of
a District Officer at the head of Alar uda Bay will be an inducement to continue the
experiment at Benkoka where the Borneo 'Hardwood Co. and the German Borneo
Syndicate have their headquarters, and on Banguey Island, rich in jungle pro-
duce, which invites by its position the trade of Pahluwan and Balabac.
Mr. Little further reports that there is not a vacant shop in Kudat,
that trade prospects are reviving, that the Chinese who left the district are
returning and extending their areas of cultivation.
Very commodious and substantial Police barracks have been built and
many unsightly swamps on the plain have been filled in. I hope in 1904
that the Directors will sanction a new and up-to-date Hospital. It is also
very necessary that the road to the Chinese settlement at the Happy Valley
should be metalled and that a good supply of potable water should be
brought to the town.
A District Officer has been stationed at TimbangBatu near the Tobacco
Estates and the results of carrying our administration further into the country
have been excellent. A road has been traced to Mumus and on the way the
plains of Marak Parak arc tapped. They will soon, I trust, be converted
into a tobacco estate of some 3,500 acres. Kudat depends largely on the
cultivation of tobacco which gives employment to 2,000 people. In 1902
the shipment amounted to 7,314 bales from Marudu Bay.
Two large consignments of pepper cuttings were distributed, but our
efforts were badly handicapped by the difficulty of bringing down cuttings
in good condition from Singapore owing to inattention on the voyage and to
the drought which lasted for four months and killed most of the plants that
survived the journey.
Telegraphic communication was established between Jesselton and
Kudat tapping the Tobacco Estates en route and is a great boon.
The trade exceeds one and a half million dollars.
Tin-' l\ i i nion Tt was not until the 26th July, 1902, that I was able to make
start for the Interior to inspect the District Offices of Fort Birch (Tenom)
on the Padas and Kaningau and Tambunan on the Pegalan.
Leaving Jesselton by train we slept at Kimanis (33 miles) and the
next day commenced our walk to Kaningau. We camped out two nights on
the way and crossed the Crocker range at an elevation of say 4,200' obtaining
a grand view of the country stretching down to the Coast.
Kaningau. We reached Kaningau in the afternoon of the 28th having walked
38 miles over very steep country with innumerable river crossings. Before
long the traveller will take the train to Tenom and ride 26 miles intoKaningau.
The opening of the Interior began in 1893 when Mr. Edward
Wheatley (now dead) took charge of Kaningau. In 1895 Mr. Henry
Walker cut the road up the Penotal Gorge and in the same year experi-
mental gardens were commenced at Sapong. In 1896 Mr. C. 11. Keasberry
commenced the successful cultivation of tea and coffee at Tenom. 'The
telegraph line was made to Kaningau in 1896 and proved of the greatest
use during the Mat Saleh troubles. In 1899 Mr. F. W. Fraser, then
District Officer of Kaningau and an exceedingly valuable officer, took
Tambunan under his wing. On the 31st January, 1900, Mat Saleh was
killed at Tambunan in the operations conducted by Major Harington.


14
Kaningau is situated in the midst of vast plains that stretch 15 miles
to Tambunan on the north and about 10 miles southwards towards Tenom.
The Pegalan river flows through Tambunan and Kaningau and
empties itself into the Padas just above Tenom. It is certain that from it
and many other rivers which cross the plains a system of irrigation could
easily be established which woidd bring this vast and extraordinarily fertile
land into cultivation.
The three centres are now connected by a good bridle path and the
distances are as follows :—Tambunan to Kaningau 371 miles, Kaningau to
Tenom 26 miles. The population of Kaningau is small and consists of a
village of a dozen shops with Chinese and Brunei traders and a few clusters
of Murut houses—the owners of which plant padi. But away in the hills
there is a large Kwijau and Murut population in 32 villages. They are
very friendly and make the best transport coolies I have met carrying-
from 60 or 70 lb. on the broad of their backs for long distances at an
average rate of not less than 21 miles an hour and being so conspicuously
honest that no case of theft by a Murut entrusted with goods has ever been
known. They came in to see me in considerable numbers and the Dalit
people who live 25 miles away were exceedingly pleased to hear of the
cancellation of the order of 1898 which forbade trade with them.
The situation of the Government Station at Kaningau is charming
and the climate delightfully cool. Very good potatoes are grown here and
this might with a little trouble be developed into a great industry. A fine
view is obtained of Trusmadi, a giant mountain of 9,000', which stands out
massive and black and is densely covered with forest.
Tambunan On the 31st we started, a party of five on Borneo ponies, for Tam-
bunan and after doing about 15 miles across the plains we rode over the
first range of hills. Sending back the ponies we walked over the Kepayan
range 3,000' to our first halting camp having covered about 22 miles. The
next morning we moved on early. Before leaving the hills the Tambunan
valley came into view :—it was a very hot morning, the air was clear and
the sky cloudless : spread out below us was a parallelogram of plain with
villages dotted all over it and stretches of the Pegalan river at the foot of
the hills to our right; the plain is about nine miles long and a mile or two
broad surrounded by hills outlined in light green grass with tufts of dark
green jungle. Behind the hills to the right, away towards Ulu Labuk, was
Trusmadi a black unbroken mass -while straight ahead, to the north in the
Ulu Tempasuk, Kinabalu stood out, its numerous spires and pinnacles shin-
, ing in the sun.
At noon I reached the District Officer’s station at Tambunan and
that afternoon went up to the head of the valley with Mr. J. B. Douglas
who, as he was a member of the last expedition against Mat Saleh, was
able to shew me many points of interest. Stones and a trench mark the
fort in which Mat Saleh made his last stand till a lucky shot from the maxim
struck him in the forehead.
In the valley lives one of the best Chiefs we have, Nakodali Nyam-
bong, a Dyak, and I visited his house.
The next day 34 headmen of llusun villages came to meet me and
we discussed many matters of administration.
Year by year these people, who are still timid and not quite accustom-
ed to our rule, will come more into line. The valley is a great rice granary
and when the plains of Kaningau are occupied it will command a good price.
On the 3rd August we returned to Kaningau doing the journey in
one day, i.e. from 5 a.m. to 5.25 p.m. On the 6th August we left for Tenom
at 7.25 a.m. riding for 14 miles and then walked to Sawang on the Pegalan
(6 miles) whence we boated down the Pegalan for three hours shooting many
rapids and entering the Padas just above Tenom. The entire journey
occupied 11 hours. The bridle path to Sawang is now’ finished and one can
ride the -whole way. On both banks of the Pegalan there is excellent land
for tobacco and that on the right bank has already been taken up. When
the Bailway is at Tenom the Padas and Pegalan estates will have as easy
communication as any in the country.
Tenom. The ncxt morning I explored Tenom. I had heard so much of it
that I was curious to see it. The facts about Tenom are that it is at the head
of the Penotal Gorge a grandly picturesque stretch of 13 miles of the Padas-


15
river: it is /25' above the level of the sea and has a good climate: the-
Experimental Gardens are nicely laid out and well kept and Mr. Keasberry
the District Officer has a delightful house : there is plenty of good boating
and some deer shooting and when the tobacco estates are in full swing there
will be some society.
Buttlie site is ill chosen and unsuitable for a township. Down
river there is not a single site available for building: up river the only sites
are on the opposite bank. Below the village all is swamp. Therefore, I
had no hesitation in telegraphing to the Court of the Directors, after I had
seen Tenom, the answer which I was inclined to give before I had been a
month in the country, that the only possible capital for the West Coast is
Jesselton. There is nothing lacking in the way of natural advantages at
Jesselton.
The harbour of Gaya cannot it is true be compared with the magni-
ficent bay of Sandakan and it will be of little use until it is surveyed by the
Admiralty and properly buoyed and beaconed, but from Jesselton there are
outlets in many directions to splendid country at the back and in this respect
it has a great advantage over Sandakan.
Tenom now is a delightful little spot and when the railway is there
it will be a good place for convalescents hut the Court of Directors will,
I trust, push on the railway, as funds permit, further into the heart of the
country for, if it were possible to reach Kaningau, a land of much greater
potentialities is there laid out before us.
It is very necessary to establish District Officers without delay in the
interior beyond Tenom, in the Temani and llundom districts, and bridle
paths are being constructed in that direction. The object of Government is
to create trade routes with Tenom to feed the Railway, and that cannot
be done until these districts are opened. If they are left as they are our
jungle produce will be smuggled out into Dutch territory and will be waste-
fully destroyed. I made the journey from Tenom to Beaufort walking
about 20 miles and trolleying the other 14 or so in one day. In the whole
round trip we covered, at an approximate calculation, 170 miles.
The I nteuiok. The following statistics for these three districts are taken from the
reports of the District Officers for 1902 :—
Tambunan—was without an English Officer for the first half of the
year. Mr. G. C. Irving then went there and did good work. A telephone
line to Kaningau was completed and has always worked well. The bridle
road was then taken in hand and all but 41 miles were finished by the
end of the year. The average cost was $132 per mile. The padi crop was
a great success. The produce taken down to the Country Fairs near the
Coast has not been checked by the Government hitherto but that will be
done later on. There is no crime in the district except buffalo thefts, and
they will not be stopped until cattle are branded.
There was some trouble with the people of Mensangong and Libang
which lie between Tambunan and Tuaran for harbouring Outlaws but it was
soon quieted. However, as I have said, a District Officer in the Ulu Labuk
is the only remedy for this. The actual collection in the district amounted to
$1,200.
Kaningau—was under the charge of Mr. J. B. Douglas, an experienced
officer. The revenue was $5,000 not including export duty (about $2,400)
collected at the Coast during the latter part of the year. The bridle path to
Senagang on the way to Tenom (14 miles) was completed at a cost of
$109 per mile. The native chief Gansanad, a Kwijau, proved very loyal
to Government. The healtl 1 of the district was good. The trade is increasing.
Tenom—is under the charge of Mr. C. H. Keasberry, a very valuable
officer with natives, and with the exception of a few tribal feuds in the
Ulu Radas was exceptionally quiet. A mass meeting of Muruts was held at
Sapong-at which Mr. A. lb Dunlop, attended by four European Officers,
presided. lie explained the new policy to them by which the onus of
arresting Outlaws and putting down crime is laid upon the natives of the
country, the punishment for non-observance of this duty being destruction
of the villages which harbour Outlaws or raid their neighbours. The Muruts
expressed their willingness to obey these orders and I am satisfied that the
outcome of the meeting will be beneficial. The bridle path to Temani is
being pushed on while that to Sawang up the Pegalan is completed. The
Pegalan natives have been induced to take up atap-making (thatch) for the


16
Estates and a great deal of employment lias of course been given to transport
coolies from Sungei Rayoh to Tenom.
As regards the Sapong Estate Mr. Keasberry writes :—
The Borneo Tobacco Estates, Limited, commenced operations on their
land at the Biah river in October, 41 miles from Tenom, and hare about 120 to
130 men working including Chinese, Malays and Murats. The work has gradu-
ally advanced and a large tract of jungle has been felled for their fields. They
are also cleaning jungle jor a very good cart road to their estate from Tenom.
The health on the estate on the whole has been very good. Having men who
have been with them for many years has proved of great advantage to them as
regards sickness.
A great effort was made to introduce the cultivation of the Chinese
poppy (opium) into North Borneo by importing trained planters ami
sending them to Tenom but the plan failed and they have gone back to
their country. In the experimental gardens, potatoes, bush cotton and the.
avocado pear have been added to the cultivation of various products. They
are doing well, and coconuts planted in 1899 are now bearing fruit.
The trade of the Padas is increasing and the gutta and rattan sold in
Tenom itself in 1902 realised $5,374.
The Year 1902 In 1902 my time was occupied as follows :—
I spent 15 weeks in Sandakan, 12 in Labuan, 8 in .Tesselton, 3 in
Kudat, 2 in Beaufort and during 12 weeks I was travelling.
On the 11th March I visited the Sultan of Brunei.
On the 10th April 1 went to Brunei ami concluded the Cession of
Membakut with Pangiran Pemancha.
On the 2nd July I left for Sulu ami Zamboanga to observe the
Anniversary of American Independence as the guest of General Davies.
On the 17th August I visited the Baja of Sarawak at Brooketon.
On the 6th December I went specially to Labuan to bury Air.
F. G. Atkinson.
The The Coronation of His Majesty King Edward the Seventh and of
Cokox vriox Queen Alexandra was celebrated throughout North Borneo. At Sandakan
.. there was an imposing Ceremonial Parade in which the Officers and men
i.siixniEs. H.M.S. Rinaldo, (Commander Drury Wake) took part with our Armed
Constabidary. The Commander-in-Chief in China (Sir Cyprian Bridge,
k.( ,b.,) very kindly responded to my request by detailing the Rinaldo for this
duty. Our American neighbours sent over two Ships of War, one of which
was the U.S.S. Princeton (Captain Selfridge), and the daughters of General
Davies, the Military Governor of Mindanao and other American Visitors came
over. The festivities extended over a week.
The Court of Directors ordered a Dyak ami Dusun Contingent of
the native Constabulary to be sent home and under Major Harington and
Lieut. Wardrop they attracted considerable notice in London and were
commended for their smartness and orderly behaviour by the General ()ffirer
Commanding at Alexandra Park.
So far I have endeavoured to show in chronological order how my
time has been occupied in travelling over this huge territory and the
opportunity lias been taken en passant to record those facts and statistics
respecting the various portions of the Chartered Company’s dominions which
ought I think to be made known to the Court of Directors and to the
Shareholders.
I now propose to deal seriatim with the different Departments that
are carrying on the Administration of the countrv.
FINANCF. „ I append a tabulated statement of the Revenue and Expenditure
from 1883 to 1902 inclusive. It is interesting to examine it.
The Revenue began with a sum of $50,000 and after three years
administration was more than doubled. After four years more it reached a,
sum of a quarter of a million. In 1891 it realised $417,000 but then fell ami
it was not till 1896 that it rose again. In 1898 half a million dollars were
collected and the rise since then has been steady and satisfactory. In 1899
the increase was $40,000 and in 1900 $45,000, the sum total being $588,000,
including land sales.
That was the position in which I found it and it is very gratifying to
record that the revenue for 190] was $659,500 ami that the receipts for 1902,
very carefully estimated at $831,900, reached a sum of $834,332 shewing
an increase during the two years under review of no less than a quarter of a
million of dollars.


17
This extraordinary increase is made up as follows: —
(i) the reletting of the Excise Farms lias yielded an addition of
$136,000.
(ii) the Customs duties give an increase of $46,000.
(iii) the minor increases are :—
Reimbursements ... $15,000
Port and Harbour Dues ... ... 10,500
Fines and Fees 10,000
Land Sales ... 9,000
Land Revenue 7,000
Telegraph 1 Receipts 7,000
Rates and Taxes 4,000
Interest and Commission... 2,500
Poll Tax 2,000
$67,000
The expenditure chargeable to revenue was $402,858 in 1900. If
has risen under my administration to $540,179. It is a considerable
increase hut it has justified itself for the figures are :—
Increase of Revenue ... ... $246,30(5
„ of Expenditure ... ... 137,321
Balance in favour of Revenue say ... 109,000
The progress and prosperity of Sarawak is well known and as that
very distinguished Englishman (Sir Charles Brooke, g.c.m.g.,) the Raja of
Sarawak is the next door neighbour of the Chartered Company it will not
be out of place if 1 compare the two countries for a moment. The Govern-
ment of Sarawak is sixty years old and that of North Borneo twenty : the
revenue of Sarawak is $1,209,000 and that of North Borneo $840,000. At
a, third of her age we collect seven-tenths of her revenue. These are hard
facts yet they supply palateable food for reflection.
Mr. A. Cook, the Finance Commissioner, has served the Chartered
Company from the beginning and he wrote the financial report for 190’2
before he proceeded on leave. Ender him in the Treasury there is Mr.
B. McEnroe who is a trained Accountant and most helpful. The various-
Treasuries (Sandakan, Lahat Dato, Kudat, Jesselton, Beaufort and Labuan)
are now placed with two exceptions under trained men who have no other
work to distract them and the Directors will reap the reward of their policy
in this direction. After much discussion in 1902 a scheme was formulated
for writing off depreciation in payments fixed for terms of five years and for
excluding such items as Railways, Telegraphs and Roads which are always
up-kept and which became consolidated by constant attention and are
therefore annually appreciated.
This proposal will I hope meet with favour at the hands of the
Auditors for it will save those queries which have cropped up at all General
Meetings. Other vexed questions of Finance have been settled and the new
form of Estimates is both comprehensive and explanatory.
The Government Note Issue exceeds $350,000 and the Chartered
Company has a copper and a nickel coinage of its own. The silver
currency is the British, and Mexican dollar with the subsidiary silver coins
of the Straits Settlements. Every one in North Borneo is now hoping that
the (lourt of Directors will arrange for the adoption of fixity of exchange,
for this State depends commercially on Singapore and must be placed on
an equality with that Colony in its currency.
1,1’• I strengthened the Audit Department on my arrival by obtaining
for the Auditor the services of a trained clerk from the Federated Malay
State, but 1 take the opportunity here afforded to me of impressing upon
all Officers that the Government is not, desirous of spending money on an
exhaustive system of audit, that they must not lean on that Department
to protect them from embezzlement or leakage of revenue or from the undue
expenditure of public money. The Government relies upon them to con-
tinually check all receipts and expenditure and by careful personal scrutiny
to see that no money spent is wasted or misappropriated and that no
revenue is allowed to escape.
The Auditor, Mr. J. Wilson, is an experienced and conscientious (tffiuer
who keeps his work well up to date and who will see that the system of
Administration in all districts is assimilated and his advice will he of the-


IS
TRADE.
greatest assistance to younger Officers, but the goal at which all Officers,
should aim is that they shall so minutely look into all details that there will
be very little for the Auditor to do.
On the whole Mr. Wilson’s report for 1902 is satisfactory. As adminis-
tration improves those matters of which he has to complain will be remedied
and I believe that the time will not be long before they are remedied. The
Serviceisa very young one ami its members show not unnaturally an inclination
to neglect details of routine while they exhibit a quite remarkable aptitude
for tackling those questions that take them out of doors; questions which are
of course quite strange to many of them and which require much physical
exertion and the assumption of considerable responsibility. There are some
fifty-five Officers in the Service of whom thirty-one are under thirty years of
age and only ten over forty. Personally, I rejoice that it is a young Service
and have every belief that time will make it as methodical as if is certainly
zealous.
Over twenty Officers joined the Service during the two years under
review and five voluntarily resigned (two on account of ill health) while one
Officer, Mr. F. G. Atkinson, died on the 6th December, 1902, to the infinite
regret of myself and of all his brother officials.
Officers are liberally treated in the matter of leave for they an*
allowed furlough after five years service and draw pay at the rate of three
shillings to the dollar. They are given fifty pounds sterling for passage
monhy home and the same sum for the return voyage.
I append tables of Imports and Exports from 1883 to 1902
inclusive.
The imports rose from $429,000 to one and a quarter millions in
six years. In 1890 they exceeded two million dollars in value but did
not again reach that sum till 1898 when they rose to $2,400,000. In
1900 they exceeded three millions and last year rose to $3,807,622.
From this total we may deduct Treasure—$476,725 and those
articles which are transhipment cargo only and are included in our export
returns: The value of external produce consumed in the country is
therefore $3,225,000.
The exports beginning at a quarter of a million in 1884, rose to
half a million in 1886, but did not reach a million till 1890. Their
value in 1896 was $2,400,000 and another million was added in 1899.
The figures for 1902 give a, total of $3,382,387, but to arrive at a more or
less accurate estimate of the stability of the country’s trade it is right to
deduct a sum of $167,053 for articles that are not the produce of the
country. This calculation puts the export trade at $3,215,000: which
shews that the Territory just pays its way.
The total volume of trade is over seven millions of dollars.
The produce of the country is chiefly represented by :—
Tobacco wrapper Jungle Produce $1,710,630 470,905
(including guttapercha, rubber, rattans, da mar, camphor ami beeswax.) Timber 291,780
Agricultural Produce... 210,420
(including sago, rice, coconuts, copra, gam- bier, pepper, and native tobacco.) Cutch ... 103,613
Sea Produce 93,440
(including dried Jish, sharks Jins, beche-de- mer, tortoise and. other shells, and seed pearls.) Birds Nests 74,335
id under these headings the State produces three million dollars worth of
trade for which there is considerable demand and which admits of expansion.
POPULATION. In 1901 a Census was taken and I append the tables of localities and
nationalities. The total population is put at 104,527. It is foolish to make
exaggerated estimates but the facts in regard to this census are :—
(i) that it is admittedly incomplete,
(ii) that my own explorations of the country shew it to be so.
At a moderate computation another 30,000 people can be added to
it. One example will suffice :—the return of Dusuns in Tambunan district
is put down at under 5,000 : I am assured that it is 8,000.


19
It will be observed that there are 36,000 children in North Borneo
and that we are doing nothing to rescue them from the semi-barbarism of
their surroundings and to educate them to be good citizens. There is no
surer way of coming into touch with the people than by caring for their
children.
The percentage of women to men is distinctly good. The two most
desirable Asiatic nationalities are the Chinese and Dnsuns and they
represent about 44 °/0 of the population.
It is very necessary to establish a reliable system of registering
Births and Deaths. Apart from obvious statistical advantages it will bring
the people into closer relation with the Government. It will shew the
Government where epidemics have occurred and enable them to take
preventive measures.
IMMIGRATION. B efore I left England the Court of Directors impressed upon me the
desirability of introducing Chinese to settle as labourers and agriculturists
along the Railway. No one who knows the Chinese can fail to recognise
the value of a settled population of them in countries where European labour
is out of the question. They are industrious in a high degree, they cultivate
every corner of their land, their wants are few and they are law-abiding.
But it is a difficult matter to organise an immigration that will continue
to flow for it is inexpedient that the Government should always bear the
whole cost of introducing these people at say £3 per head. Care has to be
taken to bring in the right tribes, to see that they are given the necessaries
of life on arrival, to construct houses for their reception, to contract for their
food, to deal with the outbreaks of sickness which must occur on sudden
removal to a foreign climate and above all to afford every facility for constant
communication with their friends and relatives in China.
There will therefore always be many delays and disappointments which
are increased when Government Officials are impatient and inconsiderate
in dealing with newcomers who are naturally stupid at first and whose,
language is very imperfectly translated.
Thus it is useless to hurry such an immigration and worse than useless
to bring people into a country until every arrangement has been made to
receive them.
I applied myself at once to the task and after two or three small
drafts had been brought down to Beaufort I obtained a batch of 170 men
from Foochow for the Railway construction from Beaufort to the Interior.
They gave trouble and spoke a strange dialect and were consequently treated
with scant consideration. My instructions as to their being housed on high
land and as to the construction of Field Hospitals were disregarded.
Beri-beri of a virulent type broke out and 103 men died. This caused
consternation in Foochow and the offices of our Agents were literally
besieged, the Police having to be called in : but matters quieted down on my
sending a full and frank explanation and, owing to the kind offices of
H.B.M. Consul there and the exceeding trouble taken by our Agents, con-
fidence has been completely restored ami there is every prospect of a constant
stream of immigration.
At the end of January, 1903, a census of Chinese settled on the
Bailway was completed and the figures are as follows :—
There are 2,138 persons of whom 1,956 are males 152 femalesand
30 children.
Of these 1,448 are of less than a year’s standing and 690 have been
there over a year.
Their Tribes are :— Their Avocations are :—
Khehs .1,570 Labourers ... 1.222
Ilokiens 399 Shopkeepers & Assistants ... 302
Cantonese . . 13!) Market gardeners ... 272
Hailams 22 Sawyers and carpenters . . 215
Teocliews ... 8 Other artisans 127
Since this Census about sixteen hundred more Chinese have arrived.
HEALTH. T1 iere are Government I lospitals at Sandakan, Tawao, Kudat,
Jesselton and Beaufort, while within the last year I have stationed Dressers
at Lahat Dato, Kotabelud, Tuaran, Fort Birch and Kaningau.
The Medical Officers have done their best. The thanks of Govern-
ment are due to Dr. H. M. Harrison, the late P. M. O. at Sandakan, and to
Dr. S. E. Gomes on the West Coast for their unremitting attention to duty.


20
Some of the Subordinate Staff too have worked with zeal and
efficiency, but the Department is far from being on a satisfactory footing.
The Medical Officers are not paid so well as in the Straits or Malay
States while they are required to do more for their pay and have less
opportunity of augmenting it by private practice.
The Beaufort Hospital has been the only fitting building in the
State though that at Sandakan is now very creditable and the new buildings
at Jesselton will be up to date.
Dr. Gomes has far more work than he can overtake and if is not
right that TCudat should be left without a qualified man.
The Apothecary and Dresser class should be materially bettered and
the Service should be made sufficiently attractive to enlist and retain
good men.
It is a sad mistake in administration to neglect the provision of
proper medical aid to Officers working in a tropical climate. No one except
the Man on the Spot knows of the terrible waste of time and money incurred
when Officers have to leave their districts for weeks together to repair
to some distant place because there is no qualified Doctor at hand.
This has occurred in half a dozen eases since I came to Borneo.
Officers are disinclined to take leave except on a medical certificate
because it interferes with their full pay leave: so, unable to consult a Doctor,
they hang on until they collapse.
As there are only three Doctors in Government employ in the whole
Territory including Labuan it is not possible to take medical men away
from centres, where they have many patients on their hands, to send them
long journeys into the Interior to attend such a case as that described. In
some cases I have suffered considerable anxiety because officers at distant
stations have reported themselves by telegraph as unfit for work and unable
to move down to the (’oast while I have been powerless to send a Medical
Officer to them.
While a great meed of praise is due to the many friends who are
always willing in a new country to tend and nurse their fellows in such
straits, this system of amateur medical aid is not good for the sick or
creditable to the Government.
Apart from this point of view it should never be forgotten that
many and great difficulties are placed in the way of an Administrator who
is endeavouring to open a country if he cannot freely offer medical aid to the
people and if he has not at hand that reserve of assistance upon which it is
necessary to draw in times of epidemic.
The natives of North Borneo are ever ready to come to Hospital and
to ask for English medicines as out-door patients. In this respect this
Government is far more fortunate than that of the Malay States. It is the
plain duty of Government to encourage them to come.
There is a very serious mortality amongst children in Borneo and
a travelling Medical Officer could save many lives annually by inducing
the people (i) to avoid the custom of over-crowding under one roof (ii) to
cultivate habits of cleanliness and (iii) to have recourse to medicines which
should be kept by the Police and bv native clerks.
The advisability of taking measures for the obvious good of the
people and the Government is patent to all but it is impossible to take
them when the Department is undermanned and overworked.
I have at hand the Hospital Statistics for Sandakan and Beaufort
for 1901 and 1902 but it is of no value to insert them here. Fragmentary
statistics arc useless: and it is much to be regretted that, in a country which
has on the whole a good climate, which is healthy for Europeans and which
the Court, of Directors desire to make known to the outside world, we should
be unable to publish these vital statistics which in this case would be so
excellent an advertisement.
As it is 1 can only generalise: the temperature ranges on the plains
from 71" to 99". Except in the months from -June to October it rarely rises
above 86". In the hill stations it is perceptibly cooler. The nights are
almost invariably cool, in many places cold, and the wear and tear on the
svsfem is therefore much less than in other tropical countries.
The rainfall averages about LI" a month and the wettest months are
from October to January. Potable water is obtainable everywhere.


21
Natives suffer most from beri-beri and diseases of the lung- while
Europeans have to guard against malaria and diseases of the bowels. The-
fever prevalent in North Borneo is of a bilious type and in most cases can
Be avoided by care.
Out-door relief and Vaccination are being offered to the people more
freely and it gives me great pleasure to place on record that our Medical
Officers have nothing- but praise to bestow upon the work of the recently
established Sanitary Boards. T therefore take this opportunity of thanking-
the many officials and more especially the unofficials who have given their
time to the duty of teaching the people of our towns to make their
surroundings sanitary.
LEGISLATION. Both 1901 and 1902 were naturally busy years in the matter of
Legislation. It is not proposed to recapitulate all the enactments passed
so I will only refer to the most important.
At the end of 1901 the Excise Farms were let to a Firm of Singapore
and Malacca Chinese, whom Messrs. Guthrie and Co. of Singapore
introduced, for three years on a rental of $342,000 per annum or an
increase of $93,000 over previous years. To facilitate their operations the
Opium, Spirit and Pawnbrokiug Laws of the Straits Settlements were
introduced.
The Malay States Laws relating to the control of Telegraphs and
to the custody of Prisoners were brought in and their Railway Law was
adopted and a hand-book prepared of Rules thereunder with a classification
of goods and a table of rates for goods and passengers between all stations
on the Jesselton-Beaufort line.
The Sanitary Board Law of the Malay States was also passed and the
various Boards have already done excellent work. Sanitary measures can
only be enforced slowly for though the ordinary Chinaman will take as
many baths as any other man in the world he cannot be weaned from dirty
surroundings. It may be confidently expected that in after years the
efforts of these Boards will keep down the death rate while they will tend
to cleanse and beautify the towns and villages of North Borneo.
As Land Administration has been my hobby for many years a
great deal of attention has been given to it in North Borneo where the
Land system is not up to date. While on the one hand hundreds of
thousands of acres have been alienated without rent and are mostly in the
bands of absentee Europeans the natives have been allowed ever since the
(â– barter to occupy as much land as they require without the payment of
any rent or tax whatever.
The Chartered Company has been continually attacked for imposing
import duties and I listened to a conversation the other day when one
European whose Company owns 100,000 acres of land was present. My
remark was that if every one who owned land in British North Borneo
contributed by way of quit rent 75 cents per acre—that is to say one shilling
and four pence—I should be at once prepared to recommend the abolition
of all import duties. That is an all-sufficient answer to anything any
European may say.
The Chartered Company has been often told that the taxation of the
country falls almost entirely upon the aliens—upon the Europeans,
Eurasians, and Chinese,—and that the natives contribute infinitesimally
towards it. That is partly true. I will shew later how I have endeavoured
to remedy that condition but here I would urge with much emphasis that,,
if the mistake has been made in the past of neglecting the building up of a
rent roll, there should be no such neglect in the future. Every person
should pay rent for his land and should be tied down by strict clauses to
keep it in cultivation.
With the approval of the Court of Directors a Proclamation was
introduced to gradually abolish the Poll Tax and in lieu of it to substitute
a system of land tenure with an annual quit rent. In time and with
patience and coaxing the natives will take to the tenure.
The other Land Laws introduced so far arc as follows :—
All real estate when under $500 in value is to be administered in
future by the Land Officers instead of by the Court at a cost of two dollars.
All Land Revenue is to be collected by the Land Officers by a
simple procedure of distress and sale and without having recourse to Courts
of Law. All jungle produce must be collected under a monthly license and



every purchaser of such produce must also be furnished with an annual
license.
The Timber Laws have been consolidated and amended.
I now come to the Boats and Fisheries Proclamation under which
all boats above 18' in length have to be numbered and registered on
payment of a fee ranging from one dollar to five dollars per annum while
all fishing stakes have to be licensed. With a sea-roving population of
piratical habits this system of numbering boats has proved invaluable quite
apart from the fact that it imposes upon the native of Borneo the duty of
contributing towards the Government of the State.
It is not out of place to record that the Revenue has by the Proclama-
tions relating to Jungle Produce and Boats been increased by over $22,000.
The Small Offences Proclamation adopted from the Malay States is
an useful supplement to the Penal Code and an assistance to the Police.
The Muhammadan Customs Proclamation makes the registration of
Marriage and Divorce compulsory, the fees being payable to the Imam or
Priest, and fixes the Marriage Dowry at a maximum of $80. Natives,
especially the more uncivilised tribes of the Interior, have required such
high dowries that a hindrance has been placed upon marriage and a drag
upon the growth of population.
To better the condition of natives and to restrict the borrowing
powers of the subordinate staff a Money Lenders Proclamation was enacted
with beneficial results.
Finally with the ready approval of the Court of Directors the system
of Slavery both hereditary and by purchase which had been controlled so
far back as 1883 when the Chartered Company first came into North Borneo
has been abolished. It is a penal offence for any person to possess a
slave.
JUDICIAL. On my arrival in Borneo I found that the Sessions Court was presided
over in Sandakan by the Sessions Judge and in other districts by the
Residents. In August, 1901, I appointed the Sessions Judge, Mr. E. P.
Gueritz, to be Judicial Commissioner for the whole State and abolished
the judicial powers of Residents.
In 1902 one hundred criminal cases were tried by the Judicial
Commissioner* of which thirty-eight were murder cases and eight abetment
of murder. These figures require explanation: they do not point to an
increase of serious crime but to the capture of a large number of Outlaws
who had added murder to their other misdeeds.
The Judicial Commissioner dealt with one hundred and three civil
cases in which sums aggregating over $49,000 were involved.
Criminal trials in the Higher Court are held by the Judicial Commis-
sioner assisted by two Assessors—a system which in my opinion is preferable
to trial by jury.
The Sessions Judge may pass any sentence up to ten years but all
terms of imprisonment in excess of ten years and all death sentences must
be revised by the Governor. The Indian Penal Code has been amended
by omitting from its punishments the sentence of transportation for life
when that is an alternative sentence and by substituting a sentence of
fourteen years rigorous imprisonment when transportation is the only
sentence provided by the Code.
The Jurisdiction of Magistrates has been more clearly laid down and,
as the Sessions Judge now goes on quarterly circuit; periodical inspection of
the work of magistrates is ensured: I am glad to say that Mr. Gneritz
speaking generally is able to report well of their work.
An Official Receiver has been appointed in every district to take
charge of the estates of deceased persons and regular reports have to be
made to the Sessions Court. There should, therefore, be no longer cause for
complaint of delay in administering such estates.
The Law Library of Government has been largely increased.
Mr. Gueritz brought out a most useful publication giving all the
Laws and Notifications of North Borneo up to date in one volume arranged
alphabetically. The compilation enables all officers and the outside public
to easily refer to any law whereas in the state of chaos that formerly existed
such reference was a very tedious business.


CONSTABULARY. s^’engUi of the Constabulary is five officers, one native officer,
95 N. C. O’s. and 495 privates.
The Force is now divided into Military Police (Sikhs and Pathans)
Civil Police in the larger towns and District Police in Outstations. The
nationalities represented in the Force are Europeans 5, Chinese 10, Natives
of India 385 and Dyaks, Dusuns, Malays and Filippinos 200.
The Commandant of the Force, Major C. II. Harington, is a capable
officer with considerable administrative ability. I quote the following
passages from his annual report for 1902: —
The system of having two Wing Officers stationed on the ltV.s7 Coast
permanently has acted extremely well. The District Officers ha/ve benefited, by tlieir
assistance and personal supervision over the police, the rank and file have benefited
by having one of their own officers directly over them to instruct them as well as to
look after their comforts and the Head Quarters Staff have benefited as the Wing
' Officers have been able to settle many questions and cases which, were formally sent to
Head, Quarters entailing much correspondence and delay.
During the latter part of the year the new Infantry Training of 1902
was adopted. The rifle exercise fin parts') and the musketry cannot be adopted,
until the force is re-armed with the new rifle.
Note.— The new rifle has since been received.
Mr. W. liaffies Flint, Sub-Commandant was appointed Acting Commandant
during my absence on leave. The nominal rani: of Sub-Commandant was
re-established on 1st June, 1902, and Mr. Flint has been granted the local rank of
Captain. Mr. A. Tucker Wardrop was appointed to the British North Borneo
Constabulary in England in June, 1902, to assist in the supervision of the Coronation
Contingent and his services were very valuable on this occasion. He took charge of
the Contingent on the voyage out again and on li,is arrival was appointed Superin-
tendent of the Civil Police and already vast improvements in efficiency, smartness and
general work are noticeable.
Mr. H. S. Bond was appointed Wing Officer from January 1st, 1902, amt
lias done some excellent worl: on the West Coast where he has been stationed for
the greater part of the year. Mr. A. B. C. Francis was attached to the force on 1st
January, 1902 and appointed Wing Officer on August 22nd. Both at Head Quarters
and in jungle work Mr. Francis has shewn great zeal and interest in his worl: and
conducted successfully the small punitive expedition to th? Mumus country in November
Mr. TK W. Smith was appointed acting Superintendent on April 7th and did,
extremely well considering that the work was quite new to him. Appointed
Supernumerary Wing Officer Province Dent, October 6tli, where he combines Military
and Civil Police duties.
Lieut. Bond, late of the C. I. V.’s, the Wing Officer at Jesselton has
taken a keen interest in his work and has acquired a good knowledge of
natives. He is exactly the stamp of officer for the Force and his service in
South Africa has given him experience. I quote some remarks from his report:—
Chief Events.—In January Dyak Police were engaged in harassing the rebels
under Kamunta in North Keppel and, whenever news of these -men reached a post, a
patrol immediately went out in pursu it.
Eleven rebels surrendered at Kotabelud and five at Inanam. In April I
accompanied the Resident to Pindasanin North, Keppel and with, Police captured,
twelve rebels, followers of Kamunta.
In May, Kamunta and Sidik surrendered and were shot in July near Abai.
In June the District Officer of Tuaran and Dyal: Police visited, the country
north of Ambong and punished the villages for harbouring rebels. Some fighting
took place bu t there were no casualties among the Police.
In August a demonstration of police took place at Sapong: 65 Indians under
my command with Wing Officer Francis attended a meeting of 1,000 Maruts held
by the Resident Mr. Dunlop. In October, with the late Mr. F. Atkinson and the
District Officer, Tuaran, I took a party of Indian and Native police on a punitive
expedition to the Ulu Tuaran and punished a large village for harbouring rebels.
In November Mr. Francis with Dyak Police from Head Quarters visited, North
Keppel and attacked and destroyed, Si (hunting's village. A few days later Si,
Langkap a well known rebel leader surrendered.
The result of these small Expeditions has proved the success of the system
adopted for dealing with the last of the rebel bands. By this system of patrols and.
of harassing rebels no time is given them to collect a following and they are driven
at last to surrender. The West Coast is free from the bands of rebels that for so
long had overrun the country, a few outlaws only remaining: their capture is only a
question of time.
The Block-house at Kotabelud was completed. The building is in a splendid
position commanding a view of the Tempasuk and Pindasan valleys. It is a solid,
building and provides very suitable quarters for the police.
The introduction of natives into the force has worked satisfactorily. , The
Dusuns enlisted have done well.
Capt. Flint was in charge of the Constabulary during Major
Harington’s absence in England. He is a loyal officer of the Chartered
Company taking great interest in the country.
Lieut. Francis was one of the batch of Cadets who arrived in the
State on New Year’s Day, 1902, and is a very promising and intelligent
officer.


24
Lieut. Wardrop is an old inhabitant of the State who has returned
to it after serving with the Scottish House in South Africa.
He is in command of the Civil Police in Sandakan and is Public
Prosecutor. The interest he has shewn in Municipal work has greatly
improved the town and his knowledge of natives and smartness make him
a valuable officer. The Revenue collected by the Police is improving
under his supervision.
T took up the question of the r>and attached to the Constabulary
and, with the approval of the Court of Directors, it was placed upon a new
footing, all the men being compelled to reside in houses together instead of
living wherever they chose and all being under the control of the Regimental
Officers instead of under a mixed Band committee of officials and unofficials.
There is a marked improvement both in their discipline and in their musical
performances. The Band gives great pleasure in a town where amusement is
not plentiful and the inhabitants are duly grateful to the Directors for
allowing it.
I have elsewhere referred to the contingent of the Force sent Home
for the Coronation and to their creditable behaviour.
PRISONS. The Gaol at Sandakan is one of the best public buildings in North
Borneo : it does not provide separate cells for all the prisoners but there are
sufficient cells for the worst characters and all the accommodation is
airy and sanitary. The management of the Prison by Mr. IT. A. Frere is
quite up to date.
There is, however, one great defect and that is that so far we have
been quite unable to obtain a good class of trained native warders. I hope
however that with increased inducements they will come, and, meanwhile, fair
results have accrued from picking out the best behaved prisoners of the
“ star class ” and entrusting them with the care of their fellow convicts
while at work.
Almost all the labour is extra-mural and includes many useful public
works.
The daily average number of prisoners in Sandakan in 1901 was 168
and in 1902 it was 195 : the increase is due partly to the fact that there
has been a reduction of the numbers in all outstation lock-ups except
Jesselton where about 65 arc kept and also to the surrender and capture of
many outlaws. The total daily average number of prisoners in the State
in 1902 was 292.
The total cost of' the prisons to Government is about $20,000, but it
is estimated that by their labour the prisoners save the Government about
§8,500.
The health in all districts is good : there was an outbreak of beri-
beri in the Sandakan Prison and the death rate was about 9 °/o but the
epidemic disappeared and there is as a rule very little sickness.
The Governor of Singapore has been kind enough to accede to almost
every application made for the transfer of prisoners to the Criminal Prison
in Singapore.
In 1902 there were five escapes owing to the carelessness of native
warders but four of the runaways were recaptured.
The prison law of the Malay States is in force and each
prisoner has a sheet which contains his photograph, impressions of his
fingers, a record of the marks he has earned and of the offences he has
committed.
Nowhere have I seen better results obtained than in North Borneo
in the education of prisoners. They arrive in a semi-civilised state, wild
upcountry Dusuns or Muruts, incorrigible Illanuns or Bajaus and desperate
Chinese. Hitherto they have known no law except that of retaliation.
They are well housed, well fed, attended to if sick, taught to carry out
works in which they become interested, and learn trades in which they can
earn money. They become docile, respectful and law-abiding. In many
countries a man will hide from you the fact that he has been in prison : in
North Borneo he not only has no desire to conceal it but he puts it forward
as a recommendation for employment. Naturally I constantly visit the
prisons and lock-ups and also very frequently watch prisoners at their work.
They never hesitate to come up to urge any circumstances which they
consider to be extenuating. 1 have heard many strange arguments and
it. has on more than one occasion been represented to me by a prisoner that.


25
bis “ agreement with the Government ” was say for 5 years and that, as he
has served 3 years without any fault finding, lie would like to go back and
see his family : that formerly he was stupid and did not know the customs
of Government but that now he knows and can be trusted.
I have exercised considerable clemency in the remission of sentences
and my confidence has never been abused.
Feeling satisfied that the effect of prison discipline is good in North
Borneo I instituted a. ticket-of-leave system under which good conduct
prisoners recommended bv the Inspector of Prisons were allowed to go out
to work for Government on condition that they wore prison clothes marked
T. L. and reported themselves every Saturday to the Gaoler. Mr. Frere
writes of the system as follows :—
Perhaps no privilege lias had a greater tendency to raise the moral tone of the
prison than that extended by the ticket-of-leave system inaugurated at the beginning
of the year.
I could scarcely have hoped for better results from this appeal to the good sense
and reliability of conduct of the better class of misdemeanant- than those that, hare
accrued therefrom. There are at present 28 convicts on their parole and not. one has
taken advantage to abscond, not one has had his license revolted for misconducting
himself. The general good conduct of these ticket-of-leave men has created quite a.
demand for more as by means of the system the employment of a, well-conducted coolie
may be cheaply obtained for the sum of §7.50 per month, all found. Employers of
this class of labour spealc very well of it.
On the long-sentence prisoners the chance of being granted a, ticket, provided,
their conduct has been satisfactory, has had a very marked' effect for good and holds
out an oqyportunity for reform that was never dreamt of before.
PRINTING. The p rioting Department at Sandakan is well managed by .Mr.
Frere. From it there is issued a fortnightly Herald and separate
monthly Government Gazettes for North Borneo and Labuan.
The cost of the Department to Government is about $11,500. It
is estimated that the work done in 1902 was worth $12,830.
The Herald costs $1,800 and the Gazettes about $500.
The actual revenue from subscriptions, advertisements and private
jobs rose from $1,005 in 1901 to $2,386 and the work done for Government
in 1902 was double that of the previous year and included the binding of
3,000 volumes and the issue of over 290,000 printed forms. Sixteen good
conduct prisoners are employed and I was glad to be able to give paid
employment on the Printing Office staff to some prisoners on the expiration
of their sentences. In this connection Mr. Frere writes:—
77re lb convicts who help hi. book-binding, cutting, folding and posting all publica-
tions, locking up, chase-handling, envelope making, riding, mixing and moulding the roller
composition, and taking to pieces, cleaning and turning the Press hare been most useful and
though some of them are natives of the Interior, the very men who raided Kudat, I hare
nerer had a single complaint during the year lodged against them. >1 study in anthropology
is furnished by a Bajail convict from the wilds of Tempasuk, once the home of the most
savage and lawless tribe hi the Territory, who handles with considerable skill a Platen
hand ma eh in”, anil turns out some very fair work.
A Malay compositor has been engaged and founts of Arabic type
have been purchased in order that the Proclamations and Notifications issued
by Government may be supplied to the Natives in their own language.
A superintendent, Mr. L. II. Woods, has been appointed to assist
Mr. F rere and is most useful.
POST AND A great deal has been done for the Post and Telegraph Department
TELEGRAPHS L,ut Present condition is far from satisfactory. I found it under two
different Heads, but it is now united unde) Air. R. Scott-Atkinson. 'The
Sandakan Post Office was a den of thieves and so disgraceful were the
continual robberies of registered articles that the whole staff was sent away.
There is now a. Postmaster transferred from Ceylon and matters are
improving.
There are two essentials in postal work which are not attended to in
North Borneo but they must be attained. At every town the Post Office
must be a separate building. On mail days the Postal clerk must have
nothing else but Postal work to do.
The revenue for 1901 was $14,800 for 1902 it exceeded $30,000.
Stamps to that value were sold for Postal business and in addition
the stamps used in Judicial business and in the issue of licenses exceeded
$40,000 in value. The Mouey Order business was under $18,000 and the
small amount is attributable to a low rate of exchange. The total number
of articles dealt with by the Sandakan Office in 1902 was 118,000, but here
again no statistics for the whole State arc available.


26
The Norddeutscher Lloyd ran their fortnightly steamers from Singa-
pore with great punctuality and the two Hongkong steamers made regular
voyages. Several steamers running to the Phillipines called in and the
coastal service of the Sabah Steamship Co. was maintained.
There are now fourteeen telegraph offices in North Borneo. The
length of the Telegraph lines, exclusive of Telephone lines, is 565 miles.
The cable from Labuan lands at Menumbok and runs 38 miles to
Beaufort, thence via the Padas river to Tenom (a telephone station)
and on to Kaningau 53 miles. From Kaningau to Penungah the
distance is 75 miles and 50 miles further Tangkulap, the residence of the
District Officer, Kinabatangan, is reached. Down river 54 miles there is
Lamag and the distance from there to Sandakan is 45 miles. This line is
therefore 315 miles.
A branch line runs from Lamag 80 miles toLahat Datuin Darvel Bay.
The third line follows the Railway from Beaufort to Jesselton 57
miles, thence to Kotabelud 30 miles, from there to Langkora in the
Marudu Bay Tobacco Estates 51 miles and finally to Kudat 32 miles
making a total length of 170 miles.
The various telephone lines are from Weston to Beaufort
20 miles, from Kaningau to Tambunan 371 miles and from Jesselton
to Tuaran about 18 miles. All important stations on the Railway
are also connected by telephone. A telephone line is being con-
structed from Weston to the Mengalong river in Province Clarke.
The routes which the Telegraph lines traverse have been systematically
widened but interruptions are still frequent and often prolonged. The
causes are sudden floods, falling trees, laziness on the part of the upkeep
gangs and neglect, often wilful, on the part of the Operators. It has now
been decided to engage an European to be stationed on the Kinabatangan.
Inspectors have been appointed and every endeavour has been made with
but little success to obtain a better class of Operators.
With all these difficulties to be encountered it is pleasant to prove
that headway is being made and the statement of Receipts for Telegrams
affords conclusive evidence. In 1900 the Revenue was $562: in 1901
$1,015 and in 1902 almost $3,000. The charge is ten cents per word but
if interruptions coidd be avoided or even materially lessened the Public
would gladly submit to the charge being doubled. The service messages
brought in a paper revenue of over $5,500. The Telephone service at
Sandakan is in excellent working order and the takings amounted to
$1,900.
GOVERNMENT The Government now possesses three useful vessels but it is sadly in
VESSELS need ^' ° raore- i8 an absolute necessity to keep a good sea-going
launch at JSandakan for work in the Bay, for trips to the Kinabatangan and
for running to the various places in the Labuk—Sugut district with it’s
very extensive coast line. Such a boat would be an excellent investment
for Government.
It is also most necessary to keep another launch at Kudat, for the
very large islands of Banguey and Balambangan and the many smaller
islands in the Malawali Channel are never visited and the launch would
save a considerable sum in transport of stores and men to the estates in
Marudu Bay where there is now a Government station and whence a good
road to North Keppel is under construction.
I urge upon the Court of Directors the great necessity for setting
aside £2,500 to procure these two boats.
The existing vessels are the Government Steam Yacht Petrel built
and engined by the Whampoa Dock Co., Hongkong, about 13 years ago and
the launches Chantek and Molek built and engined by Messrs. Bailey &
Co. of Hongkong, early in 1902.
Mr. A. Johnston is the Engineer in charge of Government vessels
and takes a very keen interest in them. He writes of the Petrel: — She has
triple e.vpansion engines and is surface condensing with a steam pressure.of 150 lit.
to the square inch. She has been of great service during the gear. More use
has been made of her this last gear than for gears b.tck: it having been usual
to lag her up in Sandakan for three or four months at a time. She is not in
the best of condition.
After enumerating several defects and remarking that her engines
are in good condition he suggests that she bo dry-docked or put on a slip in


27
order to be thoroughly examined and renewed. He values her at $30,000
now but considers that if she were so repaired her value would be
not less than $40,000. She lias been re-ballasted, being now on a more even
keel, and her sea behaviour has greatly improved. I have been out in her in
all weathers and though she is uncomfortable in heavy weather, especially
if the sea is on her beam, she has proved that she is seaworthy and fast, for
her regular speed is 10 knots. Her length between perpendiculars is
102', extreme breadth 17', moulded depth 9' 6".
The s.l. Chantel- has high pressure compound surface-condensing
engines and boiler with a pressure of 120 /6. to the square inch, a draft of
4' and a speed of 9 knots. She runs on the East Coast, is in first class
condition and, as I have explained elsewhere, of the utmost value to Govern-
ment. Her length is 07/ with 12' beam.
The s.l. Hoick has high presure compound engines with non-con-
densing boiler. Her pressure is 120 /Z». to the square inch, draft 4', length 50',
beam 9' 6" and speed 8 knots. She is kept on the West Coast and in
Brunei Bay and is in first class condition.
These two launches are worth over $20,000.
PUBLIC WORKS. ... 1,1 the first part of this report I have'in various places dealt with
public works: little remains therefore to be said.
Prior to the arrival of Mr. Hubback in the State there was no
regular P. W. D. He organised a Department and drew up proper
rules for its administration. A fair staff has been gathered together
of whom Mr. Broadley of the Government Timber Works, Mr. Allen,
Assist. Engineer Bailway and P. W. I)., and Overseer Kanapathy Pillay
are Officials who have given great satisfaction. There is but little
local skilled labour in the country and the contractors who are of'
any use can be numbered on the fingers of one hand. Works have
therefore dragged and, where constant supervision was not given to
them, have been badly executed. The total expenditure on roads, streets and
bridges in 1902 in maintenance, repairs and metalling came to $15,700.
The construction of bridle-paths cost $14,600. These paths go through
good grain districts, connect important centres and when they are all linked
together will be of the greatest boon to cultivators and traders and will
cheapen and expedite administration. Large reclamation works in Sandakan
and Jesselton cost $4,600.
The most important new buildings in the State have been
(m) the iron godowns at the entrance to the Jesselton steel pier
built on concrete foundations in the sea.
(/>.) a commodious Public Works Office at Jesselton—brick aud tile,
(c.) three Hospital wards at Sandakan—brick and tile.
(<7.) clerks quarters to accommodate five clerks at Jesselton—brick
and tile.
(c.) the new barracks at Ivudat, a wooden building of good timber
with brick foundations, cement floor and corrugated iron roof.
(d.) new roof to < ifovernment House at Sandakan—shingles.
These works are finished as I write and so is tiie admirable Steel Pier
at Jesselton on screw piles each of which is tested to carry fifteen tons,
the pier being defended by spring piles.
It is 200' long and has 23' 6" of water at the head.
All building is of a more permanent type than formerly ami though
more costly will.last for years and save the heavy bills for repairs that have
now to be met.
RAILWAYS. There are several sections of Bailway in North Borneo and to make
myself perfectly clear it is well to enumerate them:—
(i.) from Weston, in Brunei Bay, to Beaufort on the true left bank
of the Padas river, 20 miles open.
(ii.) from Jesselton, in Gaya Bay, to Beaufort on the true right
bank of the Padas, 57 miles open.
(iii.) from Beaufort, right bank of the Padas, to Fort Birch, keeping
to the Padas river all the way, say 32 miles—under construction.
(iv.) from Beaufort (at a point on the Jesselton—Beaufort railway)
to Limbawang, 3.1, miles—under construction (vide page 3.)
(v.) from jesselton to Tuaran inland—say 17 miles—being surveyed.


28
The Jesselton—Beaufort Railway has been under my care and
must receive therefore more lengthy notice.
It was built bv Messrs. Pauling & Co., Ltd. of 26, Victoria Street,
Westminster at a cost of £170,000, say £3,000 per mile, of which £60,000
were paid in shares in the ('bartered Company.
It skirts the Coast for 45 miles to Membakut and then turns inland
12 miles to Beaufort. The stations, reckoning from Jesselton, are Putatan
7 miles, Ivinarut 13, Kawang 17, Papar 24, Kimanis 33, Bongawan 39,
Membakut 45 and Beaufort.
It crosses a dozen rivers of considerable width : the bridges are
chiefly of timber and, where steel girders have been put in, they do not span
the river but are supplemented by timber approaches.
There are a great number of bad curves that could easily have been
avoided; it is carried through some swamps, two of which are conspicuously
bad swamps, and suffers From want of proper drainage.
The big cutting at Pengalat slipped three times before the eml of
1902 causing serious interruption on each occasion.
The last section between Membakut and Beaufort was taken over from
the Contractors before it was completed, has been a source of great trouble
and great expense ever since and is not yet in running order. My advice
to the Court of Directors is to send out a 40 h.p. engine to the Crovernment
Sawmill to enable us to cut our own sleepers at an enormous saving of cost,
to supply more steel spans so as to build the bridges permanently once For
all and so avoid costly upkeep and interruption of traffic, and to place at our
disposal another locomotive and ten ballast wagons in order that the line
may be properly raised and ballasted in all low-lying places, the banks being-
widened. Many of the curves are being taken out ami this work lias been
a means of giving employment and wages to the Chinese Immigrants who,
when they have earned enough, have drifted away to make gardens for
themselves. Stone has been broken in large quantity for future ballasting.
Mr. Allen has been placed in charge of the Membakut to Beaufort
section to raise it and try to put it into running order. Mr. Conn lias been
placed in charge of all Bridgework.
The line was taken over by Mr. A. J. West from the Contractors in
March or April, 1902. It was handed over to me on the 15th of May. 1
undertook to consolidate it in three years and had my requests been met if
is certain that the undertaking would have been fulfilled. It will still lie
fulfilled if the articles, for which I have requisitioned, and which are
enumerated above, are supplied.
Mr. Clarke, the District Railway Engineer in charge, is capable, with
the help of his Assistants, of making this very unsatisfactory line serviceable,
but he must have the materials necessary to carry out the work.
A statement of the cost of the line from the middle of May to the
end of December, 1902, is given in the Appendix.
The traffic receipts for the same period amounted to $4,560 a,nd
but for frequent interruptions ami the inability to take trains to Beaufort,
would have been considerably greater. There is little doubt that when the
line has been consolidated it will pay expenses. It runs through splendid
country and taps considerable trade centres. Some day all the land will be
taken up except in the larger swamps. There are immense firewood supplies
along it and miles of good timber are rendered accessible by it, the natives
show every desire to use the Railway and so extraordinary has been the
development of the West Coast in 1902, a development which cannot lie
realised except by those who knew the Coast in 190], that there can be no
question that the Railway policy of the Directors will he crowned with success
if only they will grasp the nettle now and put the finishing touch to their
policy by making the line as quickly as possible one that can be used without
fear and without reproach.
The Government workshops are fitted with first-class machinery.
The extension to Fort Birch is under the charge of Mr. A. J. West
who constructed the Weston line and is a work bristling with engineering
difficulties. The progress made by Mr. West is remarkable when it. is
realised that he has had to surmount very serious obstacles, working in many
places where there was hardly foot-hold, contending with numerous slips
on the steep hanks of the Padas and meeting with much rock-work. If. is
too early, and I am notin a position, to say much of the work but, if a.


29
really substantial and consolidated railway is built to Fort llircli, it will serve
a large timber area, two tobacco estates and no doubt lead to the working of
jungle produce. My own hope is, however, that the Court of Directors Will
not stop at Tenom but go on further into the Interior to reach the splendid
country that lies beyond.
The Tuaran extension will be reported upon when the survey and
estimates, now being prepared by Mr. AV. -J. Frend, are in my hands.
THE 1 cannot close this review of two years work without giving cxpres-
NORTH BORNEO s*on ^ie high opinion I hold of most of the Officers of the State. They are
ornwinr a gentlemanly, intelligent and hardworking body of men who, with very few
otnVIUt. exceptions, work more from a sense of keen interest than of duty and there is
a visible improvement in administration.
The Residencies of Province Alcock and of the AVest and East Coasts
are in the very capable and experienced hands of Messrs. Little, Dunlop
and Barraut, men in whom the natives have great confidence and who can
be trusted to he as firm as they are conciliatory.
The Districts of Province Clarke (Air. Fraser) Tenom (Air. Keasberry)
Beaufort (Air. Pearson) Labuk (Air. Pyke) arc being run by men of
considerable experience in whom 1 have implicit confidence as being capable
of dealing with any emergencies that may arise.
The younger District Officers shew how young men of education
and gentlemanly instincts at once fit themselves to new circumstances
entailing great responsibility, constant exposure and the minimum of
comfort, and entirely devote themselves to their duty.
Air. AVoolloy lias shewn himself to be a capable official and has a sound
knowledge of land work.
Aly Secretary (Air. Aloysev) is an able young officer with a good
grasp of the routine of administration.
Feeling as 1 do that the Chartered Company has a valuable service
I should fail in my duty if I did not urge that the condition of the officers
should be bettered as regards Pay and. in the Outstations, as regards Housing.
Alen in a tropical country must be able to join in the amusements of their
fellows, to take leave for short periods occasionally, to live in a manner
fitting their position and calculated to command the respect of natives, and
must be able to make a regular monthly provision in order to pay life
insurances, to meet the demands created by ill-health and to allow them to
enjoy their furlough when the time conics.
The Government of India has always recognised these axiomsand tin'
Colonial Governments of the Straits Settlements and Hongkong—the
immediate neighbours of North Borneo—have adopted a proper scale of pay
for their public servants. The Directors will serve their own interests if
they study the welfare of their officers and while recent acts of liberality
have been warmly appreciated 1 would remind the Court that there is still
room for greater generosity of treatment.
1 am never unmindful of the work done by the Clerical and
Subordinate service, and it is a pleasure to record that I have been able to
recruit several valuable men trained in administration and that the prospects
of the whole subordinate service have been greatly improved.
The thanks of the Government are due to their Agents Messrs.
Guthrie Ac Co. in Singapore, Messrs. Gibb, Livingston Ac Co. in Hongkong,
and Air. AV. D. Gibbon in Ceylon, who, during the period under review,
have been put to a vast amount of trouble and have rendered me very
aeceptable assistance.
E. AV. BIRCH.
Government 1 Lot se,
Suudakuu, Sth August, lAJO-j.


................................-................................................. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................- â– 


REVENUE OF BRITISH NORTH BORNEO.
I mis. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1880. 1887. 1.888. 1889. 1890. 1891,
$ c. S r. t c. $ c. s c. S c. $ c. $ c. $ c.
Licenses 44,455 02 42.304 02 39,553 36 42,019 23 59.882 43 133,312 72 190.163 07
Customs 20.130 76 23,758 74 26,643 97 35,381 46 51.936 87 63,212 16 64.266 97
Local Rates 1,359 60 1,854 22 2,226 68 2,628 11 3.736 02 6,684 93 9,167 13
Fines and Fees 4,779 82 5,515 47 6.625 23 5,833 00 8,506 54 18,597 46 30,843 48
Poll Tax 6.094 95 8,037 68 9,976 20 9,642 03 10.231 28 16,780 58 13,317 22
Harbour Dues... 380 00 235 16 491 44 1.115 01 1,992 93 1.761 91 3,198 21
Rents exclusive of Land 10.086 53 12.202 66 14.234 73 13,914 09 15,531 81 17,424 40 19,273 18
Land Revenue 1.801 40 1,804 92 3,304 82 5,287 72 46,717 00 19,895 00 14.511 98
Interest and Commission 6.103 66 8,824 11 3.68;; 56 9.305 88 5,730 83 7.132 04 5,784 71
Profit on Copper Coin 13,726 28 19.936 75 32,297 32 17,820 95 33,863 07 26,359 97 12,857 89
Postal Revenue 901 13 1,136 38 3,008 24 4,915 87 7.746 61 4.571 28 9.746 06
Fees of Office 2,333 50 1,289 25
Miscellaneous 583 79 2,121 12 64.1 65 69 25 225 14 139 11 5.412 17
Reimbursements 354 13 5,501 52 40,256 46 37,196 83
Total ... $50,669 35 82,267 96 110,402 94 127.731 23 142.687 20 148.286 73 251,602 05 358.461 52 417,028 15
Land Sales 2,862 67 12,034 68 14,505 00 246.457 19 256,183 12 219,651 52 5.639 61
For 1890 and subsequent years the revenue of Labuan is included.


11 EHS. 1892. 1893. 1894. 189>. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902.
£ c. $ c. ♦ c. s c. ft HP r. .$ e. $ r. $ c. $ c. $ c. s c.
Licenses ... 166,913 35 128,453 71 127,295 95 135,234 73 150,462 06 160.400 82 180.255 71 201.967 30 230.345 8;; 263.572 35 366.285 95
Customs ... 58,604 11 65,466 62 77.449 85 93.687 75 139,565 55 151.144 86 184,068 97 199.254 21 209.183 49 231,888 7^ 255,045 89
Local Rates 9,070 33 6,880 32 5.351 51 5,297 5;; 6.891 42 6,944 96 7.861 49 8.701 56 9.142 64 10.276 81 13.041 54
Fines and Fees ... 21,393 19 18.148 33 17.797 27 16,561 52 19.522 80 17.070 06 20,748 93 18.751 14 19.867 62 20.966 52 29.982 30
Poll Tax 14,283 56 19,064 03 19.882 20 16.988 79 16.300 41 14.321 12 14,154 05 15,084 67 18,261 12 15,035 34 20.125 00
Harbour Dues 4.070 74 4.389 29 4,819 85 1 5.050 49 6,679 32 7.293 34 8.026 50 6.824 78 7.462 43 9.918 77 18.092 34
Rents exclusive of Land 21.893 75 19,849 92 19.762 17 21,211 10 23.769 90 24.961 58 25.108 61 27.211 34 29.555 15 31.042 70 29,176 90
Land Revenue 14.792 84 9.584 83 9,356 13 11,417 39 12,672 19 13,465 21 24.081 11 26.410 82 24.717 36 32.603 93 31.633 78
Interest and Commission 4.818 88 3.258 36 4,443 45 5,592 54 4,952 58 7.162 38 7,400 68 7,550 27 9.218 73) 9,932 43 11.716 48
Profit on Copper Coin ... 10.725 15 12 43 7 9A7 1 300 76 199 36 897 67 43 20 1.189 93 214 2;; 510 04
Postal Revenue ... 5.668 56 3.478 04 12.879 86 21.216 25 14.384 59 18,343 74 16,534 79 1 1.755 63 12.251 46 14.794 54 10.759 17
Fees of Office 807 50 1.027 70 2.310 27 2,737 65 1,083 95 1,572 57 1,353 69 1,853 09 2.053 16 1.449 20 1,480 11
Miscellaneous 2,947 44 3.809 86 74 64 65 69 96 45 299 18 87 82 511 70 1.163 57 1.294 31 30 63
Reimbursements 21,833 90 5.797 09 6.901 17 12.585 72 10,626 97 11,183 15 11,594 51 1.3,676 05 11.526 65 9,510 20 26,809 32
Telegraph Revenue 1,002 26 1,987 81 2,176 89 2,26;; 37 1 3,283 14 9.157 01
T OTAL ... $357,823 30 289,220 53 315,591 37 348,947 91 407,207 55 436,062 90 503,307 87 542,919 3 b 587,226 81 655,569 02 824.146 46
Land -Sales $34,701 59 818 00 478 00 466 13 4.492 09 964 88 2.061 75 3,210 00 799 50 3.919 32 10.179 81


EXPENDITURE OF BRITISH NORTH BORNEO.
ITEMS. 1SS3. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891.
# # e. # c. r. # c. # $ c. $ c. $
Governor and Staff 17 ogi 09 16,618 70 16,386 17 14,579 56 19,004 39 19 680 34 91 9ae oi
Treasury and Customs i I 1 ? oqq 82 20,181 96 19,474 09 21,052 14 18.540 63 94A5Q 9’i qj 1A\ .-n
Judicial i 16 14,935 73 14,502 83 15,012 26 17.342 21 9.1 15ft 5ft 91 ftQQ /:q
Medical ::: ::: ; 16 2,795 21 2,904 00 2,912 1 -11,100 'JO 411,000 DO 50 3.711 90 9 406 30 10Q09 at
Harbour .. . 31 7.475 28 7,320 91 7.621 00 13,840 95 16 913 64 9A ftfti ip
Public Works ... 12 5.421 99 4,342 82 4,267 87 4,933 63 6 448 86 8 099 76
97 7,550 79 10,857 07 11,440 91 12.339 55 21 504 v7 9^997 a a
Police and Gaols 1 <â–  nm 92 7,966 76 6,189 88 6.414 51 34.672 37 30 307 n*~ tift pi 1 q.x
Constabulary ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 ° ’ 80 33,817 04 36.217 39 36,088 18 67,636 44
Gaols G, 165 72,311 36 87,005 84 89 11.464 61 1 it ftftA ftA on " p«
50 6.409 14 5,944 00 6.707 00 7.146 00 ft03O m 7<1O1 nn
Prospectin'* 1 ,’229 03 8,634 64 7,633 99 11,348 68 10.769 98 90971 u q9 1ki 77
\ i 1 1 1,862 88 4.691 91 1.753 10 1.198
Transport ’’(i,i9 28 1.561 98 902 52 1,279 45 842 81 1 069 94 1 970 a a
24 17,042 70 14,797 73 14,916 58 16,423 27 12,477 67 14,368 94
Allowances _ Postal . 5’?99 46 8,418 06 5,443 89 5,543 7,35b 02 4,369 32 06 7,51 G 31 8 372 34 11 069 is
Printing 197 53 1,768 04 2,338 92 2,873 28 2 904 40 5 661 50
Stationery 89 3,015 05 2,243 77 2.004 04 4,482 22 5 440 90 5 8^5 9A
65 3,234 13 3,022 71 2,850 00 5,289 24 3 730 50 4 971 07
72 516 19 478 40 479 50 518 04
91 2,256 44 2,256 08 2,377 22 3,745 55 3 106 71 4 400 G1
45 18,850 00 18,200 00 13,700 66 18.083 50 19 565 00 iQftAft no
Immigration ... ... ... ... .. "' 8,11b Berhala Coolie Depot 00 4,410 15 4,000 25 5.213 20 8,005 53 8,016 39 8,205 43 956 86 4,316 11 8,134 44 29,014 65 9,485 81
Total ... §277,886 11 196,059 00 208,268 89 195,803 85 186,639 64 195,511 17 290.189 27 373,139 57 431,244 83
On Capital Account—Public Works and Buildings, Government Vessels, Guns, Arms, Instruments, &c. 24,173 17 17,703 80 1 20,310 96 87,289 50 144,100 96+ 78,291 32
+ LeSS Labuau l”°Perty taken over on January 1, 1890, #47,590. For this year and subsequent years the expenditure of Labuan is included.
181)2. 1803. 1804. 1895. 1896. —--• 1 - 1 181)7 . 181)8. 1809.* 1990. 1901. 190’.
§ <’• $ e- $ c. s c. § c. ,8 c. $ c. $ c. s 8 r. S r.
Governor and Staff ... 19,756 61 17,631 01 15,452 72 19,610 66 15,113 Residents and District Officers ... 33 777 aa 9QA«r n »•>/»<<. <>< -Y AY’JY 03 17,241 50 22,956 18 26.636 67 25,836 88 28 069 76 10 ««n 7«
m i r- 4. ' 1 00 ^’>,080 11 23,048 91 27,o09 52 35.315 treasury and Customs ... 21 079 7ft 91 9«i ia di me .».» .*.» YY’YAY 44 36,233 34 34,444 17 37.459 43 36,181 83 36 526 71 fib 191 61
• f A’Y 14 21,196 22 23,282 62 21,927 Judicial ... ... ... ... ... 9271 1^ lAQftQ I A inppn i .> -f/v’i.i- i-izx 78 24,625 81 27,923 81 26.084 86 27.363 71 26.828 99 99 966 7U
at t i i.) iu,om/ 14 10,669 12 10,84a 80 11,446 13 7.817 59 9,253 72 5,951 40 8.339 17 9 056 79, 17ft19 9A
Tr ! .)( io,o/u o.) 1/.236 92 22,oll 13 21.627 Harbour 6 167 99 3 469 ftp m <-AA 7n /YA 72 21,924 01 25,024 22 24.544 76 27,046 10 31465 94 49 146 S6
T> i i- irr i 0,10/ .),4b9 8o 3,13;> 21 4,ol7 49 , 4.474 Public Works ... ... ... . 94 990 id iqwi an .»,> -J? „ 34 4,835 12 4,703 17 6.619 44 6.306 42 6 529 A3 5 Qftl 17
T -] n c 12 13,024 ()/ 14.341 28 2 ,751 67 19,379 Gand and Survey ... 12038 99 ii aqq ;i in'nor m - A™ YA ' X’YAY 32 19,800 75 20,223 79 30.935 07 33,402 52 35.798 22 AGO OA
z, , , , 17 az ii,i>bb 41 i 10 925 16 5,696 99 9,05 57 14,015 39 14,572 28 14.772 77 13,123 80 11 196 85 6 895 8(1
rrnn1o 4 ?b’.„ “ 54,2o2 26 53,718 32 60,038 21 67,408 13 80.270 64 81,325 18 89,983 94 89 779 39 107 468 09
•xr-i- rn.-”i 2b 16,o01 07 17,867 89 15.801 54 16,021 60 17,439 17 15,223 15 15,080 26 18 910 31 21 039 39
fi ,\r ’**, /,/uz zo 8,0/6 00 , 7,1)52 97 7,329 00 8,022 Government Vessels ... ... 13 97/1 in«U7 77 m/ji 25 8,142 77 8.871 90 10,654 23 11.842 50 10 587 69. 11 169 on
a • 1, 1 ••• io,j/i) oo 10,60/ // 10,241 30 9,438 09 7 227 Agricultural ... ... ... . 930 7 a 34n no k)in 42 7.920 41 11,252 36 12,642 42 10,271 81 15.975 94 13 547 01
,n . ‘b bill uy 219 bo 3 92 887 49 1,077 11 35 85 81 05 10 52 190 70 358 88
tv/ I 14,19d Jb 11,1.)/ /y r 15,037 04 16,546 27 22,596 27 29,454 56 29,187 85 30,614 30 17,747 27 19 548 34 .3.5 469 31
■ *n »,^/ o« 0,04/ 31 (),:)4/ 03 9,052 74 9.835 Allowances ... ... .. in 908 m qqia no n in/y t>- A. 15 11.200 60 11.349 40 11.196 74 11.085 01 10 621 34 10621 “>•>
o , iu,juo io 4,310 9/ 11,190 8/ 12,239 84 12.563 17 11,097 17 13,647 16 21,394 57 13,013 95 14,537 96 17966 9g
t>. a- u,iui oz 4,4/y 5,878 37 8,042 09 6.755 22 6.420 74 9,424 70 8,572 23 7.715 42 7 675 45 6 197 35
.. n UJ 4,106 61 5,853 62 3,187 35 4,157 63 4,282 29 4,277 44 4,023 61 2.480 27 4 168 40 4 495 18
H4-. ,, ■’ b’Ob' «>,1M. /4 , 3,057 30 2,724 25 1,882 Miscellaneous ... ... 9 ftJQ on 1 j«.p) ztr. i << - A«,. A’J_7 09 5.132 34 2,278 93 4,589 94 6.127 54 7 449 20 9 504 ftn
„ . ° z,04.> no 1,432 bo 1,551 11 5,396 10 2,274 92 3,024 99 2,165 46 3,113 70 2,278 83 3.036 47 1 1 396 39
. /nl • 1 •/4,J ”O J.b,/4o 00 18,745 00 18,587 00 19,187 Agency Charges ... ... .. 6 067 "p. -'tvi -/jo., to , V >r- /^YA 00 18,428 00 22,149 08 23,518 00 23,518 00 23.071 00 96 360 00
Q? • 1 r> L 0,00/ .)» .),/It) 66 0,683 58 4.727 30 4,243 special Payments 1880 90 -5 009 <: 974 i\~ - r-r-., 60 5,020 54 5,045 70 4,472 05 4.124 74 4.285 76 4 70,3 19
p . .) ... j ,oou ,»u o,uu.) 6,2/4 On 5.772 59 Immigration 6 625 52 313 1‘i ■ > U5O7 "7 o 7->e 70 1 310 84 417 24 272 26 25 00 20 00
Telegraphs . oz 2’738 '2 12 00
Cadets Audit Office Municipal... ... . , . , 5,000 00 5,536 00 9,705 88 5,000 00 , 17,090 66 8,718 70 5,035 46 6.094 29 9,155 80
lotal ...'#349,398 81 280,050 25 288,188 13 • 313,097 35 313,807 29 341,124 76 381,807 82 369,351 78 402,858 63 425,371 36 540,179 39
Oil Capital Account—Public Works ) : and Buildings Government Vessels, $ 5,042 58 2,065 88 41,339 88 84,087 11 182 208 Guns, Arms, Instruments, &c. ) | | ’ 51 135,365 30 251,243 23 198,996 68 983,196 13 1,686,367 33 1,152,957 68
on Capital ACTeoun“°Unt °P1’°SitC C°1U“W * 10 % 1688 ° 11 tl,e total of thc actual fiSures in the col«]lln- Thi« *<->% was deducted from the total of the annual expenditure and added to the payments


BRITISH NORTH BORNEO.
IMPORTS.
WITH LES. 1883. 1884 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1899. 1891.
$ c. $ c- $ c- $ c- s c. $ c. s c- 8 c- $
Arms and Ammunition 509 10 2,298 00 758 00 822 50 2,853 90 4,588 29 2,703
Brassware 19,417 54 21,993 10 25.121 05 21,960 04 22,894 18 18,981 71 20,698
Bricks and Tiles 2,480 00 3,237 00 466 00 6,025 00 411
Building Material . . 2,606 10 4,581 55 12,695 26 8,902 46 27,484 35 21,284 64 3.192
Cloth ... 142,160 6 2 147,341 42 190,452 01 188,519 13 186,354 06 1 30,659 44 218J90
Coal ... 1,289 00 • 3,508 00 2,875 50 2.995 00 6,84 5 50 12,216 40 10,309
Damar... 5,851 40 6,677 32 8,444 40 5,263 90 9.525 05 12,027 95 18,929
Dried Fish 422 60 737 00 2,767 2o 7,264 4 / 7,869 91 13,134 04 11,467
Earthenware ... 9,821 26 9,203 52 13,07 3 92 12,493 12 18,213 00 14,009 91 9,624
Fruits ... • 3,430 57 5,053 ? 3 4.61 4 65 26,657 16 36,688
Furniture 5,531 00 5,968 15 4,200 75 6,402 13 29,748 62 25,561 54 21,779
Ironware 8,714 91 10,093 4G 1 •>, 3 < ■> 95 19,2 34 74 35,296 03 52,620 54 38,586
Kerosine Oil ... 4,643 90 — o n.» 13 16,526 26 20,657 14 1 7.7 51 80 21,691 61 26,801
Live Stock 4,329 OO 3,098 25 4,265 50 4.432 7 5 15,967 70 43,284 02 50,964
Machinery 325 00 6,591 00 3,121 00 107,263 50 79.620 00 85,387 00 18,528
Matches 1,369 99 1,778 27 2,117 82 2,529 45 3,462 12 6,090 17 5,048
Oil 7,035 05 10,339 57 11,905 60 11,825 39 22,866 89 41,388 07 44,351
Opium 1 9,289 00 26,553 OO 33,61 < 70 23,508 00 u / , *) 4 o 39 61,293 54 61,511
Fadi 712 U"> 1,149 50 535 60 802 65 1,271 40 2,143 35 3,851
Provisions 45,553 67 4 9,401 71 68,238 08 87,833 29 153,284 60 182,726 / 3 111,449
Rattans 32,773 29 11,188 81 7,438 43 3.952 75 8,389 38 3,961 71 10,791
Rice 78,039 42 104,429 17 147,458 / () 185,039 10 216,437 13 302,531 92 319.729
Salt *) j 4: t) G 52 ’ 4,314 98 4,508 84 2,917 45 <),66 1 11 6,046 89 5,140
Spirits... 14,478 60 19,765 88 19,346 24 23,398 95 48,062 03 100,436 67 97,694
Stationery 1.983 18 2,632 10 1,952 3 ’) 4,879 40 4,33.) 32 6,107 47 12,05.2
Sugar ... 8,109 21 14,053 00 1 3,143 47 1 6.352 1 1 29,477 27 33,275 15 35,344
Sundries 94,974 27 102,011 83 126,279 3 / 119,125 38 256,117 30 394,158 03 324,668
Timber 94 00 71 OO (155 00 3,293 40 1,351 00 2,418
Tobacco 12.628 07 22,116 35 26,450 93 27,212 61 O 4 09 57,193 66 65.934
Treasure 116,007 90 241,349 57 190,392 62 10 508,636 15 330,869 55 345,819
Wax 281 80 314 27 368 50 110 05 1 2,725 75 381 30 1,262
Total ... 8428,919 48 481,413 67 648,318 52 849,115 64 958,642 76 1,261,997 56 1,799,620 43 2,018,089 46 1,936,547


BRITISH NORTH BORNEO.
IMPORTS.
ARTICLES. 1883. 1884 1885. 1880. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891.
$ c- s c. $ o. S c- s c. $ c- $ c. 8 c- $ c.
Arms and Ammunition 509 10 2,298 00 758 00 822 50 2,853 90 4,588 29 2,703 14
Brassware 19,417 54 21,993 10 25,121 05 21,960 04 22,894 18 18,981 71 20,698 00
Bricks and Tiles 2,480 00 3,237 00 466 oo 6,025 00 411 00
Building Material . . 2,606 10 4,58 1 55 12,695 26 8,902 46 27,484 35 21,284 64 3,192 40
Cloth ... 142,160 6 2 147,341 42 190,452 01 188,519 13 186,354 06 130,659 44 218,790 97
Coal ... 1,289 00 * 3,508 00 2,875 50 2,995 00 6,845 50 12,216 40 10,309 25
Damar... 5,851 40 6,677 32 8,444 40 5,263 90 9.525 05 12,027 95 18,929 96
Dried Fish 422 60 737 00 2,767 2o 7,264 47 7,869 91 13,134 04 11,467 83
Earthenware ... 9,821. 26 9,203 52 13,073 92 12,493 12 18,213 00 14,009 91 9,624 32
Fruits ... • 3.430 57 5,053 7 3 -1,61 4 65 26,657 16 36,688 76
Furniture 5,531 00 5,968 15 4,200 75 6,402 13 29,748 62 25,561 54 21,779 25
Ironware 8,714 91 10,093 46 15,375 95 19,2 34 74 35,296 03 52,620 54 38,586 29
Kerosine Oil ... 4,643 90 / ,3 b 3 13 16,526 26 20,657 14 17.751 80 21,691 61 26,804 68
Live Stock 4,329 00 3,098 25 4,265 50 4.432 75 .15,967 70 43,284 02 50,964 66
Machinery 325 00 6,591 00 3,121 OO 107,263 50 79,620 00 85,387 00 18,528 40
Matches ... 1,369 99 1,778 27 2,117 82 2,529 45 3,462 12 6,090 17 5,048 05
Oil 7,035 05 10,339 57 11,905 GO 11,825 39 22,866 89 41,388 07 44,351 18
Opium 1 9,289 00 26,553 OO 33,61 < 70 23,508 00 3<,343 39 61,293 54 61,511 99
Padi 712 55 1,149 50 535 60 802 65 1,271 40 2,143 35 3,851 14
Provisions 45,553 67 49,401 71 68.238 08 8 /, 8 3 3 29 153,284 60 182,726 4 3 111,449 00
Rattans 32,773 29 11,188 81 7,438 43 3,952 75 8,389 38 3,961 71 10,791 60
Rice 78,039 42 104,429 17 147,458 76 185,039 10 216,437 13 302,531 92 319.729 69
Sal t O , 4t) G 52 ' 4,314 98 4,508 84 2,917 45 a,661 11 6,046 89 5,140 94
Spirits... 14,478 60 19,765 88 19,346 24 23,398 95 48,062 03 100,436 67 97,694 25
Stationery 1.983 18 2.632 10 1,952 35 4,879 40 4,335 32 6,107 47 12,05.2 f O 4 O
Sugar ... 8,109 21 14,053 00 13,143 47 1 6.352 11 29,477 27 33,275 15 35,344 60
Sundries 94,974 27 102,011 83 126,279 37 119,125 38 256,117 30 394,158 03 324,668 77
Timber 94 00 71 00 655 00 3,293 40 1,351 00 2,418 27
Tobacco 12.628 07 22,116 35 26,450 93 27,212 61 0 4 ,8bo 09 57,193 66 65.934 11
Treasure 116,007 90 241,349 57 190,392 62 34.»,64.> 10 508,636 15 330,869 55 345,819 28
Wax ... 281 80 314 27 368 - 50 110 05 2,725 75 387 30 1,262 78
Total $428,919 48 1 481,413 67 648,318 52 849,115 64 1 ; 958,642 7 6 1,261,997 56 1,799,620 43 2,018,089 46 1,936,547 29
ARTICLES. 1 $ c. $ c. $ c- $ c- $ c- $ c. c. $ c. $ c- $ c- $ c.
Arms and Ammunition 50 436 85 1.170 30 11,656 25 2,453 61 5 ,348 93 3,689 30 18.476 44 13,270 18 3,696 09 2,038 98
Brassware ... §6.556 88 18,138 93 20,049 70 24,853 53 25,911 96 24 ,367 94 29,304 07 21,324 44 I 28,148 80 23,298 75 6,888 97
Building’ Material ... 1,488 128,994 06 748 00 1,457 00 1.011 00 2,430 50 6,619 95 22,146 60 19,027 55 15.261 72 32,808 97 40,665 34
Cloth 09 160,077 54 214,007 76 272,690 91 281,154 93 254 ,905 38 343,539 11 322.793 85 359,217 01 401,984 04 426,854 28
Coal 6,141 20 1,685 00 1,548 00 2,162 50 2,562 40 1 ,050 50 2,823 00 6,611 60 b, / Ob 00 5,967 26 3,533 56
Copra Damar 1,675 00 3,863 00 5.099 00
718 00 1,683 00 358 20 21,839 25 6,109 34 1 1 ,<802 49 14,475 91 22,347 I 1 1 9,248 6 J 7.215 19 5,957 54
Dried fish. , . 6,160 76 3,661 88 7,085 71 6,993 28 7.489 5,8 10,014 58 10,771 23 25,145 66 13,282 58 14,323 48 31,464 70
Earthenware ... 7,099 10 8,235 71 11,666 13 14,320 24 14,975 19 13 ,3;> / 36 15,256 11 12,419 33 19,382 64 19,917 41 14,130 91
Fruits and Vegetables 14,367 45 9,774 12 13.227 90 22,308 65 41,031 98 21 ,379 45 29,876 57 39,695 15 31,051 75 32,127 70 63,313 60
Furniture 2.426 67 654 75 1,704 48 10,499 80 12,011 62 9,638 90 24,702 06 19,129 <87 32,297 12 34.420 02 34,938 34
Glassware ... 4,569 0 »•> 00 5,851 27
Gutta Percha 1-19 12 190 00 862 CO 969 75 88 00 1,212 60 26,538 30 11,869 65
Hemp India Rubber 42,460 00 2,584 00 1,0/3 93
50 00 134 90 127 50 2.966 00 6,53/ 70 40 00 125 10 1,574 68
Ironware 10,157 01 13,107 94 2 1,906 58 45.312 79 -16, / 54 19 34 .059 02 48,656 74 34,286 80 51,233 86 52.750 32 5 b, O — b 51
Kerosine Oil 32,908 69 20.347 74 22,554 88 31,61 < 52 37,173 90 3G ,564 85 41,933 42 41,501 90 55,710 64 51,852 62 73,995 70
Dive stock ... 14,064 22 10,921 92 11,825 / 5 18,297 81 22,196 10 15 ,336 50 11,101 90 1 7,53 7 12 23,865 72 17,702 I i 26,937 44
Machinery 101 00 1,130 00 8,956 00 17,412 00 47,7 56 00 35 ,4 69 7 3 156,288 60 55.020 30 68,478 74 94,410 60 133,. >38 95
Matches 6.283 83 6,000 41 9,610 60 7,964 41 8,712 08 ,298 16 9,990 20 9,529 05 10,260 12 11,153 69 17,405 27
Oil .. 34,113 50 30.395 89 34.341 24 40,315 87 52,764 54 57 ,079 3 <8 74, / <6 95 69,507 45 83,925 63 96,114 02 91,790 o7
Opium Padi 44,477 24 41,998 98 50.956 03 i 1.53 / 01 85.438 97 801853 68 96,358 05 133,158 72 150.762 61 166,221 59 230,708 98
2,153 71 1,109 60 1.395 89 2.997 34 2,513 85 2 ,963 10 2,981 06 9,935 30 12.048 51 88,31 98 8.436 07
Pearls and Mixed Shells .399 3,767 60 1,382 40
Perfumery ... /Provisions ... Bly, & Telegraph Material... Rattans 2,823 / / 3 / 1 6,519 20 9,585 48 8,813 95 10,932 98 13,339 31
103,844 50 81,686 13 115 782 81 97,666 61 97,268 16 96 ,34 ;5 81 113,175 82 146,169 85 134,477 18 132,079 75 198.665 17
11,058 00 9,300 00 27,340 00 1280 <10 * * o b 0, — <) / 70 442,447 00 51,128 64
1,000 00 4,742 00 1,142 54 8,587 50 7,392 91 5 JO8o 00 1 9,863 60 10,844 31 8,973 10 (>,003 7 5 21,512 17
Rice, flour, and grain 293,920 01 237.955 86 266,338 54 324,576 71 389,454 4 3 463 ,357 27 524,995 43 DO / / 4 b (•7 674,7 83 59 689,191 96 938,428 58
Salt ... 6,412 97 5,237 20 7,148 36 7,298 73 8,781 88 \ 7 .507 49 10,166 37 16,278 12 11,965 31 13.83? 46 18,753 67
Spirits and Wines .. Stationery ... 67,546 26 49,236 77 65.830 24 84,077 31 72,719 33 87 ,447 38 123,048 8 • > 1 t 6,46/ 05 176,352 30 152,125 87 164,562 To
7,502 25,728 94 81 3,316 24,224 88 75 17,273 33,818 71 22 9,644 34,788 bb 61 5,724 48,38 7 60 05 10,208 50,564 24 02 13,866 56,657 93 93 9,670 0 / j oOl 55 7 7 15,287 74,836 70 90 18,997 80,330 28 41 41,291 98,351 39 79
Sundries 207,986 90 124,060 32 145,170 67 174,547 86 144.525 66 137 ,245 61 1 54,956 12 237,879 42 217,861 32 221,931 88 146,825 55
Timber 319 10 161 00 2,405 53 2,952 45 6,174 06 7 ,034 -13 175 30 1 6,504 90 1,416 60 1,723 97
Tobacco 56,502 42 51,406 3 6 59,844 44 68.820 56 72,589 64 , 152 70 100,512 44 71,865 55 11 9,305 oo 104,991 62 154,598 64
Tresisnre 250,180 90 204.550 10 167,564 89 212.508 Go 293,585 -11 257 ,543 30 338,559 • 85 252,610 81 320,291 05 254.640 66 47 6,7 2.5 32
Threads and Yarn ... 1,782 8 6 5,108 0 1 5. 1 17 3») j ,630 59 1 3,692 50 28,638 19 12,638 40 14.922 06 69.300 38
Wax 185 -10 30 00 84 oo 40 (10 208 05 602 00 219 00 1,36 a 86 8,0-10 00 3,-153 99 4,131 18
Additional Headings 190
Aerated wc tors 40,097 00
Coffee .. 2,363 91
Cotton .. 7 38 98
I Hides and Leather 7,902 07
Musical Instrument? 2.457 34
Paint and Paint oil 22,719 92
Rope and Cordage 1 1,579 37
1 Tea i 18,900 55
1 .Jewellery 10,175 74
Total 1,355,864 12 1,116,714 63 1,329,066 86 1,663,906 64 1,882,188 G4 1.8S- ’,498 01 2,419,087 k 95 2,456,998 96 3,178,929 29 3,262,763 70 1 3,807,621 84
1 '
In 1898 and 1899 the - Railway and Telegraph Material” jg included under " Machinery."


EXPORTS.
ARTICLE. 1884. 1885. . 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892.
$ cfs. $ i cfs. $ els. $ c/a’. $ VP c Is. $ e/.s. $ cfs. $ cfs. $ cfs.
1,364 22 1,470 83 1,183 72 602 00 704 59 414 60 1,718 90
\ t*m • • • • • 767 33 460 60 1,87 5 92 685 13
-VUIP • • • ~. J lipOQ-WflX . ••• /•O*4“X 23 8,957 61 5,746 99 1,426 95 3,835 42 2,488 79 2,134 13 7,57 4 10 4,016 92
Rirrls’ Nests ••• 21,445 22 27,952 88 40,234 10 36,908 25 42,274 / 7 56,098 88 44,864 00 51,879 50 56,143 46
Blaclian • • • * • • • 2,926 05 9,546 00
( Si in iaIi nr • • • S,’.) i 4 24 8,711 27 10,975 80 12,842 7 5 14.346 18 11,873 81 14,193 69 10,010 13 16,272 21
( ’nnnnn1111 (1 I" 1*1111 S • • • d'N / 06 — ») 4 U 90 690 11 932 78? 4,964 30 942 71 5,505 84 1,629 i i 1,469 59
(loffee • • • • • • 200 00 429 06 314 68 446 01 1,531 00 1,345 00
■( utch • • • ■ ■ ■ • • 17,997 00
Damar’ ••• 4,120 22 1 1,365 54 8,353 37 8,252 54 6,528 22 3.591 75 o,287 09 6,700 74 7,193 83
I ll'lOcl Fisll • • • ' . 24:(S 22 1,270 67 8,836 06 6,981 60 464 90 5,427 50 1,113 51 2,673 69 3,130 30
GuttaPerclia ... ••• 34,897 71 34,747 85 25,442 88 26,902 10 28,929 06 24,906 40 54,448 89 44,765 49 59,253 36
Hemp ... T-Trvrns mi fl Hi fl OS .. ••• vO 00 30 95 2,621 59 2,934 43 4,503 45 3,422 74 2,997 48 4,812 22 4,895 75
Tnrli-i 11 ubber ••• 22.924 00 8,535 34 23,417 13 26,418 61] 18,698 86 21,581 54 21,530 10 26,719 95 17,641 69
I\ oiy ••• • • • 219 00 190 00 318 7 51 261 00 546 00 294 30 407 59 551 20
1,662 00 3,1 79 54 1,792 20 1,394 70 3,569 40 1,612 85 6,334 59 5,51 7 17
JLjJLi C DlUvlt • • • 326 00 1,563 00 379 00 960 50 250 00 623 00 1,087 00
V/ICL U ell o • • • 00 1,965 00 2,196 oo| 672 00 600 00 570 00 1.191 00
IjllllLL • • • 2,608 00 3,840 00 8,429 00 70 2,283 85 1,821 26
lepper ... — 32 67,100 86 46,971 50 54,029 48 92,555 94 102,363 50 64,961 05 81,238 38 55,690 17
ltdlldllb AllCC tlllvL X cllLL • - • I*11 mi r * * * / . 2 4 •) 35 53,41 < 16 61,511 45 41,922 90 32,832 08 22,911 46 26,400 30 34,836 95 101,331 06
0U12U A JLUUI. • • • r? 1>*1 \V • • • • • 25,913 24 34,395 34 18,192 80 16,607 22 10,350 32 12,514 22 44,177 59
j. At cl» • • • Sspof] "Peurls . • ••• 2,4*)1. 36 3,451 15 5.925 31 1,091 501 16,464 58 30,113 20 20,899 7 7 15,515 81 18,440 32
OUvvL X veil lo • • • S41i"Fins . 2,1/1) 30 1,897 44 5,958 13 6,430 40 5,976 67 3,246 07 1,375 60 1,941 49 2,490 65
Dlldl Kb A 1110 • • • mixed • • • * * * O.SS*.) 69 7,602 19 2,297 45 1,194 37 1,174 24 602 32 1,148 67 1,114 65 3,054 30
26 68,658 43 54,416 93 64,995 41 [ 67,840 14 65,973 50 59,498 83 120,822 19 103,627 94
DllILul lvo • • • Timber ••• 10,153 95 27,626 29 4/,370 39 42,462 58 37,534 28 54,714 50 44,584 03 26,660 04 70,423 03
A 11L1 Utl • • • TnLnren ••• 2,112 97 1,618 90 39,775 25 18,879 30 20,842 30 129,482 81 396,314 17 677,473 40 1,040,674 20
A Alt do ll 1 V 17 11,060 84 11,466 67 7,795 421 8t7 66 23 3,46 7 04 4,327 08 12,306 50 10,865 70
Tortoise Shell ... ••• 6,/36 Total ... ••• 262,759 50 58 9,534 401,601 30 47 4,624 522,765 61 44 3,209 535,195 70 00 5,87 6 525,784 15 35 6,847 701,433 98 90 4,206 1,391,260 49 35 7,441 1,238,168 67 56 6,232 1,762,164 89 33
ARTICLE. 1893. $ cfs. 70 1894. $ 2,0 Ki cfs. 68 1895. $ 1,988 C'S. 25 1896. $ 1,968 cfs. 77 1897. $ 2,143 cfs. 81 1898. $ 1,359 cfs. 27 1899. $ 1,843 cfs. 57 1900. $ 1,362 cfs. 67 1901. $ 766 cfs. 42
A tan • • • • • 954 i 3 1,345 23 J ,562 63 1,446 00 1,068 23 1,391 45 2.257 38 2,504 / / 2,371 44
21. Ld 1J • 79 2,744 29 8,586 16 10,973 66 5,971 38 3,269 37 3,994 60 14,013 57 10,058 97
AJt Lb’ u-v • • ' Ifirrls’ Nests ... 44,46/ 91 45,264 7 5 45,446 18 45,932 50 57,141 40 47,160 33 47,465 17 81,041 84 74,335 37
Blnidmn • • • • • 00 1,493 74 583 73 866 16 ... 902 65 1,581 21 577 41
11 25,355 33 33,979 39 23,265 87 30,913 97 37,047 53 39,084 84 25,549 93 35,696 95
dnnnnnts find T I’ll it S • • / 3 Coffee ••• •• T386 ( ■nni’ii • • • • • • • 67 1,559 04 14,854 17 26,149 41 29,278 67 28,620 85 30,185 16 18,543 06 26,415 00
4,765 00 6,265 00 9,728 00 2,145 00 12,840 00 19,161 10 21,250 00 11,131 00
(-niton • • ••• 3()G 00 126 00 136 00 522 90 1,264 90 693 08 888 80 618 61 504 02
Cutch • • • • • 37,841 05 96,350 00 114,060 co 142,721 45 232,460 00 267,536 57 146,690 00 81,063 90 103,613 00
Damar ... ••• ! 21,920 80 17,713 14 43,829 63 20,733 54 18,521 10 25,590 44 27,788 70 23,249 87 13,823 41
Dried Fish • ■ • • 4,189 39 1,926 74 7,108 07 16,802 32 7,832 09 28,438 50 20,978 26 34,458 68 46,809 81
(fambier • • ... 120 00 9fi6 ' 60 3,575 00 5,152 60 7,016 00 6,344 71 13,711 43 14,759 44
(-rllflfl . • ••• 3/,lo2 63 30,692 03 46,880 05 58,336 66 93,639 85 125,280 27 122.588 61 202,957 60 225,428 98
I Temp • • • * * * • • • 300 00 20 00 24,590 00 61.80:; <0 40,322 00 1,945 30
Horns and Hides ... ••• o,G-2(> 19 3,745 53 5,008 17 6,483 48 7,352 66 7,642 97 8,988 89 10,556 94 9,529 11
India Rubber ... ••• 33,206 54 35,398 10 49,068 24 47,259 16 49,513 86 79,600 29 69,771 52 73,450 19 59,345 14
[vorv ... •• 840 00 740 85 1,050 50 1,123 40 1,477 O0 1,479 50 7 56 07 1,026 60 813 00
I livestock • • • • • 0,1 / / 51 8,130 45 8,050 39 12,767 10 11,664 85 18,221 39 20,024 24 33,309 30 28,043 93
()ld Jars • • • • 3,906 00 1,903 00 2,752 00 8,291 00 1,401 00 1,465 00 759 50 320 50 1,87 6 30
Opium ••• • • • • • • Pepper ... ••• 1,188 1 lovisioiis • • 70 8,420 451 00 50 3,440 149 00 40 1,088 414 00 50, f 1,089 895 00 00 7,7 39 1,760 00 00 16,667 3 7 1 1 00 00 i, i 68 85 00 23,336 10 50
77,724 40 176,399 91 66,771 84 41,058 60
■RqffHns . . • • • 1 18,106 99 97,588 39 85,453 10 169,305 10 127,332 59 80,315 09 126,755 92 141,104 73 108,714 63
J Ld I Ld Li 0 Pico -'nd Fadi • • • 12,043 60 8,96 s 10 15,233 30 18,206 32 16,726 30 14,248 20 4,308 62 32,201 27 38,419 17
Sio-o Flour 110,092 70 122,111 87 121,323 02 127,344 97 121,765 02 10 / ,78 / 09 88,181 21 106,989 84 80,964 79
Raw ••• 42>278 24 47,493 82 36,014 75 21,613 15 23,905 78 10,815 73 14,223 87 11,251 39 16,054 92
78 3,244 80 1,995 60 2,812 02 1 1,877 00 23,795 07 12,802 35 2,606 85 236 60
DUCLl A Cell 10 • • • ’ ~ 28 3,031 80 3,144 32 4,070 26 5,601 86 3,643 10 18,675 ■77 27,865 43 9,353 13
Ollcll Ab A 1110 • • • 7 w 60 1,705 68 784 3 / 7,748 92 4,734 59 15,633 9 1 9,491 ■75 11,259 68 8,016 78
KjLlCllo IU1ALU • • 799 7 5 1,437 19 656 35 164 50 168 27 2,422 71 2,1 10 23
iSUgell 52 66,513 51 102,963 36 82,160 84 109,394 09 69,692 27 1 123,289 84 113,387 43 143,545 24
kjLillll1 lib • • Timber ••• 80,866 40 71,630 98 79,148 92 99,768 95 117,916 22 214,343 34 189,027 03 261,673 42 291,779 63
Tebneen ... 973,220 55 875,082 70 1,007,749 70 1,318, 7 58 21 1,686,173 30 1,358,666 77 1,862,454 51 1,679,550 66 1,710,630 41
AUUelCvV • • • TrnnqnrP . . 95,642 50 88,730 25 95,924 80 100,084 61 120,510 64 136,280 50 107,852 52 135,984 40 137,549 26
AlldblllL • • 49 14,055 53 7,374 11 16,680 98 21,442 88 26,043 25 21,441 46 23,144 25 19,731 00
AlCpdll^ ^ULVllVUL intiy ••• 91 7,046 31 7,981 17 9,253 50 11,858 80 8,473 56 7,650 72 8,417 90 8,715 74
A VI LU lot/ KJllvll • • • • • / Vessels and Machinery •.. 18,338 50 7,831 80 35,645 00
GharuAVood, Barks and Roots. . 1 20,827 04
Toi at. ... 1,771,590 27 1,698,375 80 1,962,350 19 2,420,234 39 2,942,293 29 2,881,791 51 3,439,560 QQ OO 3,336,621 39 3,382,387 64




CENSUS Ob' BRITISH
NORTH BORNEO EOR 1901.
Age. Sex.
Locality. Adults. Children 15 "S'ears and under. Males. Females. Iota j..
Sandakan ... . 7,124 2,417 6,131 3,410 9,541
Kinabatangan 5,720 1,842 4,703 2,859 7,562
East Coast 4,612 1,582 3,804 2,390 6,194
Labuk and Sugut ... ... 7,605 5,165 7,605 5,165 12,770
Kudat 11,355 4,961 9,796 6,520 16,316
West Coast 21,906 13,905 19.284 16,527 35,811
ICaningau and Tainbunan 10,085 6,248 8,613 7,720 16,333
Total ... 68,407 36,120 59,936 44,591 104,527
Nationality. 49 X f. t£ 40 o pq - . $ f 4-L — &c ~ . x Z 3 -z c kJ £ Si >. X —■ X 2- tc £
Europeans 9 24 101 40 18. o 0
Eurasians 2 1 32 1 4
Chinese 1,364 1,198 3,879 309 3,584 1.864 24
Japanese ... ... ... : 11 11 82 3 38 o 0 1
Siamese ... ... ... 1 2 4 •) 2 . . •
Arabs ... ... ... 1 2 11 11 3 2
Malays 93 252 492 85 07 7 6 6
Natives of India 18 28 245 To 5.8- 18
Natives of Netherlands India ... 1.101 509 340 1.108 714 186 2
Natives of Sulu Archipelago ... 1,704 340 2,564 1,296 395 ~o 1 0 1
Natives of Borneo :—
Bajau 290 5 907 903 2,958 5,822
Brunei 85 50 543 76 68 5,926 19
Dusun 315 6 45 8.569 8,241 11.431 4,819
1 )yak 45 52 5 315 27 27 71
Idahan 862 . . .
Illanun 210 41 47 22
Kedayan 61 28 18 2,505
Mnrut 11 11 869 11,339
Orang Padas ... 20 , , . 2 7 6,755
♦ )rang Sungei ... 4,603 174 i
Sarawak Malays ... ... 00 1 33
Tangaras 474 ... • • •
Tutong ... ... 5 41 9 135
Total ... ... 6,194 7,562 9,541 12,770 ' 16,316 35,811 16,333
Total
104,527




CENSUS OF BRITISH NORTH BORNEO FOR 1901.
Age. Sex.
LOCALITY. Adults. Children 15 Years and under. Males. Females. Total.
Sandakan 7,124 5,720 2,417 6,131 3,410 9,541
Kinabatangan 1,842 4,703 2,859 7,562
East Coast 4,012 1,582 3,804 2,390 6,194
Labuk and Sugut 7,605 5.165 7,605 5,165 12,770
Kudat 11,355 4,961 9,796 6,520 16,316
West Coast 21.906 13,905 19,284 16,527 35,811
Kaningau and Tambunan 10,085 6,248 8,613 7,720 16,333
Tot a l 68,407 36,120 59,936 44,591 104,527
Nationality. â– f. â– f. - J J r. j: Ec s Sc g â– /. JD >- & ~
Europeans 9 24 101 10 18 3
Eurasians 2 1 32 1 4
Chinese 1,364 1.198 3,879 369 3,584 1,864 24
-Japanese 11 11 82 3 38 o 1
Siamese 2 4 5 ‘) • . •
Arabs ... ... ... j o 11 11 o 2 • • •
Malays 93 252 492 85 67 7 6 6
Natives of India 18 28 245 75 58 18
Natives of Netherlands India ... 1,101 509 340 1.108 714 186 •)
Natives of Sulu Archipelago ... Natives of Borneo:— 1.704 340 2,564 1,296 395 1
Bajau ... ... ..." 290 5 907 903 2,958 5,822
Brunei 85 50 543 76 68 5,926 19
Dusun 315 6 45 8,569 8,241 11,431 1,819
Dyak 45 52 5 315 27 27 7L
Idahan 862 . . . . . .
Ilianun 210 41 47 22
Kedavan (if • . » 28 .18 2,505
Mnrut II 11 869 11,339
Orang Padas ... 20 ... 2 7 6,755
♦ >rang Sungei ... 4,603 .174 /
Sarawak Malays Up 1 33
Tangaras 474 ...
Tutong 5 41 ••• 9 135
Total 6,194 7,562 9,541 12,770 ' 16,316 35,811 16,333
Total
104,527


JESSELTON-BEAUi’OUT KAILWAY EXPENDITURE 1902.
Railway Expenditure loth May to 31st December 1902.—Jesselton
Beaufort Liue.
Maintenance ... ... $30,620
Working Expenses ... 20,466
Capital Expenditure . . 10,833
$61,919
The Maintenance vote was chiefly expended as follows:—
Up-keep of Permanent Way ... $14,763
Repairing the slips at Pengalat 3,265
Purchase of Sleepers . . 6,340
,. Timber . . 1,028
Stores ... 850
The vote for Working expenses included :— .Pay of the Stall' ... Firewood for Fuel . . Locomotive Oils and Stores $15,768 1,538 1,687
The expenditure under Capital account covered:—
Erection of buildings Ballasting Jesselton Stone Mole Rolling Stock Drainage $2,478 2,255 1,393 1,895 838