Citation
Ahom-buranji

Material Information

Title:
Ahom-buranji from the earliest time to the end of Ahom rule
Creator:
Barua, Golap Chandra ( Translator, Editor )
Place of Publication:
Calcutta
Publisher:
Assam Government
Manufacturer:
Baptist Mission Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Tai (Other)
Physical Description:
vi, 388p

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buranji
বুৰঞ্জী
বুরঞ্জী
बुरंजी
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Assam
एशिया -- भारत -- असम
এশিয়া -- ভারত -- আসাম
এছিয়া -- ভাৰত -- অসম
Coordinates:
26.14 x 91.77

Notes

General Note:
Ahom text with parallel English translation
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Barua, Golap Chandra : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/43261840
General Note:
Translated and edited by Rai Sahib Golap Chandra Barua, Ahom scholar and compiler of Ahom-Assamese English dictionary
General Note:
Buranjis are a class of historical chronicles, written initially in the Ahom and afterwards in Assamese language
General Note:
"Published under the authority of the Assam Administration. Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta." -- Title page

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This title is believed to be in the public domain under the laws of India at the time of publication.
Resource Identifier:
470896 ( ALEPH )
GQE Ahom 398 /29386 ( SOAS classmark )

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Full Text
AlIOM-BURANJT
(With parallel English translation)
FROM THE EARLIEST TIME TO THE
END OF AHOM RULE
Translated and Edited by
RAI SAHIB GOLAP CHANDRA BARUA,
Ahom Scholar and Compiler of Ahom-Assamese-English Dictionary
Published under the Authority of the Assam Administration
Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta
1930




PREFACE
The manuscript Ahom Buranji, in Ahom, was found in the possession of a
Deodhai Pandit of Khalaighogra Mauza in the Sibsagar Subdivision in 1894, when
I worked as Ahom Translator to the Assam Government under Mr. Gait (now Sir
Edward Gait), the then Honorary Director of Ethnography in Assam. The Buranji
was written on well-prepared oblong strips of Sachi bark. It was copied and trans-
lated with the help of some Deodhai Pandits appointed by Government to teach me
Ahom and to assist me in translating the Ahom manuscripts. The English transla-
tion is mine.
The Buranji deals with events concerning the Ahoms only, from the earliest
times to the end of their rule. This Buranji is almost complete but it gives a very
meagre account of the reign of the great Ahom King, Rudra Simha—only the dates
of his enthronement and death being given. This was perhaps due to the fact that
the charge of writing Buranji changed hands. There is another Buranji in Ahom from
the death of Gadadhar Simha to the reign of La.khmi Simha wherein a full account
of the reign of Rudra Simha is given. If the portion containing Rudra Simha’s reign
should have been incorporated in this Buranji, the record of Ahom reign would have
been very complete.
The Buranji is divided into two parts. The first part which begins with and
ends in first chapter, is called “Deo-Buranji” (History of heavenly bodies ; Deo = a
God). The second part containing the remaining chapters is termed “Din-Buranji”
(History of the earth ; Din=the earth). The Deo-Buranji gives an account of the
state of the world before creation and also of creation, down to the descent of
Khunlung and Khunlai from heaven to Mungrimungram with a host of heavenly
beings called Tais. The Din-Buranji deals with the extension of the rule of the Tais
and migration of Shukapha from his original home at Maulung to Mungdunshunkham
(Assam—mung = country, dun=full, shun=garden, kham=gold, i.e., a country full of
gardens of gold), where his descendants gradually extended their rule all over the
country now called Assam, excluding Surma Valley. The rise and fall of Ahom rule
and the advent of the British in Assam are also dealt with in the second part.
The original Buranji was divided by the writer into six chapters only without
any divisions or paragraphs. Each chapter was written in continuity from the
beginning to the end with indiscriminate full stop sign “1”. To bring it to the
modern line, as advised by the Director of Public Instruction in Assam, Mr. Cunning-
ham, I have separated the rule of each king with the rest by putting a heading over
each reign, and marked paragraphs according to my discretion.
The account of events given in this Buranji tally with those given in other Ahom
Buranjis as well as with the records left by Mahammadan writers. Sir Edward Gait
got sufficient materials of Ahom rule from this Buranji for his “ History of Assam ”.
This Buranji as well as other Ahom Buranjis (both in Ahom and in Assamese)
which I have come across up till now supply very little information on many very
important points regarding great personages, such as (1) Lachit Barphukan, (2)
Ramani Gabharu, (3) Khampeng Gabharu, (4) Joymati-Kuari and others ; and also
relating to religious reformers and poets, such as, (1) Sankardev, (2) Madhadev,
(3) Damodar Dev, (4) Aniruddhva, (5) Madhab Kandali, (6) Ram Saraswati,
(7) Ananta Kandali, and many others. Nowhere in any of the Buranjis, can we get
accounts of the establishment of various Satras (religious institutes), such as (1)
Auniati, (2) Dakhinpat, (3) Garamur, (4) Kuruabahi, etc. In order to compile a
complete Assam Buranji, a writer will have to collect informations on all the above
points from Bangsabalis (family histories) and other records, of which many have not
been found out as yet.
This Buranji would not have come to light, had not the Director of Public
Instruction, Assam, J. R. Cunningham, Esqr., M.A., C.T.E., taken the trouble of mov-
ing the Assam Government to sanction certain amount for the preparation and
printing of it. My sincere thankfulness is due to the Director, as well as to the Assam
Government for their interest on ancient historical works and for their benign contri-
bution for the preservation of a Buranji, of a race that ruled Assam for a period of
600 years.
JoRHAT,
The 15th September, 1930
Golap Chandra Barua




CONTENTS
Page
Chapter I.—The Creation .. .. .. .. 1-4
The state of the world before Creation—how God assumed a shape and
created the world.
Chapter II.—An account of Khunlung and Khunlai’s descent to
Mungrimungram. .. . . . . .. . . 5-23
Consultation of Lengdon, the Lord of heaven with other gods to send
down his grandsons, Khunlung and Khunlai, the sons of Thenkkam—
Lengdon and Jasingpha’s advices to the princes—Khunlung and
Khunlai’s descent to the earth—establishment of a kingdom in
Mungrimungram—quarrel between Khunlung and Khunlai.
Chapter III.—Miscellaneous Accounts .. .. .. 24-28
The names of the persons and families coming down with Khunlung
and Khunlai to Mungrimungram—genealogy of Shukapha—Migration
of Shukapha to Mungdunshunkham—short sketches of a few Ahom
Kings after Shukapha the Great.
Chapter IV.—Miscellaneous .. .. . . 29-33
Short account of a few Ahom Kings from Shurampha to Shukhrungpha
—origin of some Ahom families.
Chapter V.—Shukapha .. .. : .. 34-38
Miscellaneous accounts of Shukapha, Shuhumpha, Shuhanpha, Shu-
pempha, Shudangpha and Shushenpha—origin of some Ahom families.
Chapter VI.—Khunlung and Khunlai—
Short account of the deluge .. .. . . .. 39
Descent of Khunlung and Khunlai and their descendants . . 39-43
Shukapha .. .. .. .. .. .. 44-47
Chaolung Shuteupha .. . . . . . . .. 47
Chaolung Shubinpha . . .. .. .. . . 47
Chaolung Shukhangpha . . . . . . . . 47-48
Chaolungtao Shukhrangpha . . . . . . . . 48
Chaolungtao Shutupha . . . . .. . . 48-49
Chaolung-Tao-Khamthi . . .. .. . . 49
Chaopha Shudang . . .. .. .. . . 49-51
Chaopha Shujang . . . . . . .. . . 51-52
Chaopha Shuphakpha . . . . . . . . .. 52
Chaopha Shushen .. .. .. .. .. 52
Chaopha Shuhan .. . . .. .. .. 52-53
Chaopha Shupim .. .. .. .. .. 53-54
Chaopha Shuhummung (Dehingia Raja) .. . . .. 54-78
Chaopha Shuklenmung alias Gurhgayan Raja .. .. .. 79-82
Chaopha Shukham alias Khora Raja .. . . . . 82-95
Chaopha Shushengpha alias Buddhiswarga narayan alias Pratap Simha 95-127
Shurampha alias Bhaga Raja . . . . . . . . 127-129
Shuchingpha alias Naria Raja . . . . . . . . 129-142
Shutamla alias Jayaddhvaj Simha alias Bhagania Raja . . .. 142-185
Shupangmung alias Chakraddhvaj Simha .. .. .. 186-212
Shunyatpha alias Udayaditya .. .. .. .. 212-229


vi
CONTENTS
Chaopha Shuklanpiia alias Ramddhvaj Chao-Khamjang Gobar .. 229-236 .. 236-237 .. 238-242
Chaopha Shujinpha .. 242-258
Chaopha Shulik alias Lara Raja .. 258-262
Chaopha Shupatpha .. 262-272
Chao Shukhrungpha alias Rudra Simha 273
Chao Sutanpha alias Siva Simha .. 273-277
Chao Shunenpha alias Pramatha Simha .. 277-292
Chao Shunyeupha alias Lakshmi Simha .. 292-335
Chaopha Shuhitpungngammung alias Gaurinath Simha .. 335-357
Shuhenpha alias Kamaleswar Simha .. 357-374
Shudenpha alias Chandra Kanta Simha 374
Purandar Simha .. 382-388


ERRATA
Page 37, para. 8, line 6, “Grandson of Kheorat Patar ”—“ of ” should be omitted.
„ 277, Heading to para. 258—“ Simba ” should be read “ Simha ”.
,, 355, para. 342, line 2—“ Silanrako ” should be read “ Silarsako ”,




AHGM BURANJI.
CHAPTER I.
THE CREATION.
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1. In the beginning there were no
gods and men. The world was void and
was surrounded by the water of the
ocean. There were no air, no animals, no
land, no rulers, no countries and no
living beings. Also the sun, the moon
and the stars did not exist. There
was neither the earth nor the heaven.
2. There was only one omnipotent-
being, the Great God. He remained
suspended in the sky like a swarm of
bees in a hive. He had no head and no
legs to walk. He had no mouth to
speak. He resembled a lump of flesh
hanging in the sky.
3. Then God thought of changing His
shape, otherwise no one would praise His
name. Thus a long time passed.
4. God suddenly opened His eyes and
could see nothing attractive and charm-
ing. He created a deity, known as
Khuntheukham, from His breast. Then
Khuntheukham knelt down before Him
and waited with joined palms for His
orders. He (Khuntheukham) found no
prop to lean on nor a seat to sit on.
He could not see the sun rising nor day
light. Both the Great beings talked
together and Khuntheukham extended his
body and dived down below the seven
world. He remained there floating on
water with his face;upward.
5. A lotus plant issued forth from
His (Khuntheukham’s) navel. Then a
crab was created. After this, a tortoise
was created. He also created a large
serpent which encircled the tortoise.
The serpent had eight hoods which he
spread to eight directions. Then he made
a large white elephant with long tusks.


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A white mountain was made in the north.
Another mountain was created in the
south. Then pillars were placed on the
tops of the mountains. A rope was
made, which was bound fast to the
pillars on the mountains (the Merus).
Then a pair of large gold-tinted spiders
was created. The spiders as they float-
ed in the sky, let fall their excrements, out
of which the earth arose. The earth
became nearly one thousand bighat thick.
The spiders put eight pillars in eight
corners of the earth. They, then, thought
of creating the heaven. They went
quickly backwards and forwards, like a
woman in her looms and joined their
webs to the highest summits of the
mountains. They finished making of
the heaven in the shape of a gold throne.
6. Then God created a Goddess for
His wife and gave her female organ.
They copulated. The Goddess laid down
four eggs. God ordered one Thaolung
to give warmth to the eggs. He gave
warmth to the eggs for years and months
together but the eggs would not burst.
He, then, thought of finding out some
means to break the eggs. He brought a
quantity of ambrosia and sprinkled it
over them. The eggs burst. Then God
gave necessary instructions to the beings.
He said to His eldest son, “ I name you
Phashangdinkhunnyeu and give you the
sovereignty of the earth.” To his second
son, He said, “I name youShengchapha-
phakam and make you the chief of eight
lakhs (one hundred thousands) of ser-
pents living in water.” Then God named
His third son Shengkampha and said to
him, “ I put you in charge of eight
millions of thunder.” God said to His
youngest son, “I name you Ngingaokham.
You will have to remain with me to help
me in the creation of the world destroyed.
You will also be called Phura.” Having
thus instructed His sons, God rose up.
7. In course of time, Shengkampha
mistakenly acted against the will of God.
He met death and became an evil spirit
for his fault. His son Shengkapha
became king. He died and became a
household deity, who is to look to the
welfare of a household.


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8. Then God, the Almighty, looked
down from His abode in the highest
heaven and saw that the affairs of the
world was not going on properly. He
said to himself, I sent them all but not a
wise and learned being to guide them.
One must now be procured. One learned
being, named Hunkhamngam was
directed to go to the foggy part of the
heaven and remain there. He was also
entrusted with the writing of “ Rules and
rites ” (vedas as the Ahomsnow say so).
Another learned being was made. He
had wings and his name was Phukao.
One Ngaokham was in the north. Like
a piece of cloud he slept on the northern
Meru with the lustre of a king. His
body emitted brilliant light which shone
all around. He was in deep meditation.
9. A long time after, one Puphishu
who was living at Rungrai with nine
thousand attendants came down and
beheld the Meru covered with snow.
There he saw Ngaokham in deep medi-
tation. Then Puphishu caught hold of
him and made him king of Mungkling-
khru. Ngaokham was also named
Phabutrungshangdam. His younger
son Phashi-ip-Shangdin migrated to
the country “ Phakaokhru ” and made
himself king there. He had four sons.
The eldest son was named Inging and
made king of the fairy land. He sat
exalted on the gold throne. The young-
est son, Chaodakham was sent down
to Munglai where he became king.
Dakham married a princess named
Nangshengdao. He came down flying
northward and arrived in “Umung,”
a hilly country. He made himself king
there and ascended a throne made out
of stone. He had four sons. One of
them was called Phdshangpau. One
three-headed son drowned in water.
The youngest one, who was called Ngir-
ingkham, was also named Lengdon.
Lengdon had another name called
Sairepha as he incarnated from the
placenta of Shangdam. Lengdon had
a beautiful sister named Shangshengdao.
He gave her in marriage to Dakham.
Dakham had a grown up sister. She
was given in marriage to Kanjanphd.
The latter ruled the countries, “Mung-
nakpha ” and “ Mungklingkhru.”


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10. Ngiringkham came down to the
country of the gods and became king
there. “Nyapulak” (ambrosia) was
sent down there for which it is called
“Jadip” (a land of immortals). He
was made lord of eight lakhs of thunders
and lightnings. Chao Dakham had a son,
called Shengtaonyenkaipha Thenkham.
He came down and became king in Mung-
thila. His (Chao-Dakham’s) grandsons
were Khunlung and Khunlai. They
descended to the earth by means of an
iron ladder and arrived at Mungrimung-
ram, where they became kings.
11. Khunlai’s son was Chao-Chang-
bun. His son was Chao-Changnyeu.
Chao-Taipha was brother of Chao-
Changnyeu. Chao-Changnyeu’s son was
Chaopha-phanklang j engklangrai. His
youngest son was Taoshennga. One of
Khunlung’s son’s grandson was Taoleng-
pha. His son was Taongaklem. His
son Chao-Changnyeu. The grandson of
Chao-Changnyeu was Shukapha, Shu-
kapha was succeeded by his son Shuteu-
pha. His son was Shubinpha. His son
Shukhrangpha succeeded him. Shukh-
rangpha’s son was Tao-Shukhrampha.
12. In lakni Kasheu, Khunlung and
Khunlai came down and arrived in
Mungrimungram. Khunlung’s son
Taolulu made himself king of the country
called Khenammung where cowries were
available.
13. Taokhunkum, the son of Taolulu
became king of Mungrimungram.
Chaotaipha ruled the country Maolung.
Pameuplung was king of the country
called Bithila. Phuchangkhang reigned
in the country Kingdao.


CHAPTER II.
AN ACCOUNT OF KHUNLUNG AND KHUNLAI’S DESCENT TO
MUNGRIMUNGRAM.
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wi M? M/t^ MR a/ 101 11 Yv/ v $11 ^r m4$ 1. Now, Lengdon (Indra) was ruling
in the wide country of gods. There
eight lakhs (one hundred thousands) of
gods paid him homage and his country
was full of riches. All the countries in
heaven were under his rule. But no one
of his family was ruling on the earth.
Lengdon then, thought the matter deeply
in his mind and said to himself, “ the
countries on the earth are not in order.
I should make a proper arrangement.
There is no king of my family on the
earth, so I should send down some one
of my family to be king there.” Next
morning, Lengdon summoned one Chao
Shaiphunnyainyai (the lord of mist) and
ordered him to call in Jashingpha, the
Goddess of learning. He prepared to go
and rode off exaltingly to the abode of
Jashingpha. The horse proceeded on
swiftly. He arrived at the house of
Jashingpha. He alighted from his
horse and saw that Jashingpha was busy
in winding thread with three hundred
female servants. Jashingpha looked up
to his face, and asked him the cause of
his coming. She further said. “I think
you have been sent to me by Lengdon.”
She then ordered her maid servant to
give him a seat to sit on. An embroidered
soft mat was spread down, upon which
the messenger took his seat. Then
Jashingpha began to say, i( I think, as
Lengdon has none of his family on earth
to rule it and offer sacrifices to him,
he is, now, thinking of sending down
some one of his family to the earth. On
this account I believe, he is calling me to
his abode to take my advice.” The
messenger replied. “ Yes, it is true. You
should go now. Your wise advice will be
most valuable, hence Lengdon has sent
for you.”
2. Jashingpha made no delay. She
dressed her body with a fine cloth deco-
rated with gold stars. She then put
on a gold necklace. She put a dia-
mond flower on her hair. Her brilliant
dress would dazzle the eyes of any one,
when she would pass by. Thus being


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and on in the burning rays of the sun.
Then she approached the beautiful royal
palace of Lengdon dazzling in the sky.
She entered into the council hall and
kneeling down before the throne of
Lengdon bowed down her head. A soft
mat was spread down and she sat on it.
She then addressed Lengdon thus:—“ 0 !
Lengdon! Lord of eight hundred thou-
sand thunders, be pleased, to tell me soon
the cause of your inviting me.” Leng-
don replied gravely, “ there is no king of
my family on the earth. The wide earth
is in disorder. None of our descendants
are there. I have called you in to help
me in selecting some one of my family,
whom I may send down to the earth.
I also want help from Laokhri, the holy
heavenly 'poet.” Laokhri heard what
Lengdon said.
3. Then Jashingpha said to Lengdon,
“I think some one of the young princes
of our family should be sent down from
heaven to rule the earth. It would be
better for you, if you send words to
the great powerful king, Thenkham and
take his advice in the matter.”
4. Then Lengdon wrote a letter to
Thenkham and ordered Lengsheng, the
lord of light, to go to him. Lengdon hand-
ed over the letter to Lengsheng. The
latter bowed down his head with great
respect and made preparation to start.
He rode on a horse and proceeded swift-
ly with the motion of wind. He advanc-
ed on day and night without a halt in
obedience to the word of the most power-
ful Lengdon. He arrived at a place
adjacent to the country of Thenkham.
The sun set in the west. The tigers and
the bears came out from their places of
retreat. Lengsheng entered in a village.
The inhabitants of the place welcomed
him and offered him rice and eggs in
abundance with great esteem, as he was
a messenger from Lengdon. He alighted
from his horse. The villagers enquired
of him the cause of his coming to Then-
kham. They addressed him thus :—“ we
know that both the kings (Lengdon and
Thenkham) are in good terms. They
sit on the same throne. Neither Then-


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kham nor Lengdon has ever tresspassed
on each other’s territories. There is no
quarrel between them.”
5. Then Lengsheng turned to them
and said “ both the kings are ruling wide
countries with great fame. All the
countries are progressing well under
their rule. They are of equal power and
never in war with each other. Both the
kings punish the offenders only. Then-
kham, the handsome, is a descendant of
the All-powerful and is a great king.
Each year, Lengdon consults Thenkham
in the affairs of their countries. Both
the kings are in very friendly terms.
Both of them sit on the same throne.
They eat and drink together and con-
verse on the affairs of their States. Now,
Lengdon (being willing to send some one
to the earth) has not been in a position
to decide whom he should send. He has
therefore, sent me to the great king,
Thenkham, for his advice. There are
no kings in the wide«earth in the north.”
When Lengsheng finished his tale, it
then dawned.
6. Lengsheng, then, washed his body
and had his meal quick. He got on the
gold saddle on the back of the horse and
proceeded on. He advanced straight to
Thenkham’s country. He got the sight
of the city of the great king. The city
shone so brilliantly, as if, it emitted gold.
The royal palace was of gold. It dazz-
led in the sky. He observed that the
rafters of the ceiling of the palace were
decorated with jewels and its roof was
guilted and made polished. Then Leng-
sheng entered into the city of Then-
kham and alighted from his horse.
7. The news of the arrival of Leng-
sheng reached Thenkham. Thenkham
ordered (an attendant) to welcome Leng-
sheng and bring him into the council
hall, which was beautifully decorated,
Thenkham was sitting on an eight grad-
ed throne. Pictures of elephants, trees
and serpents were engraved on it. Beau-
tiful tapestries, embroidered with gold
were hung over the head of the great king.
8. Lengsheng greeted Thenkham ten
times by falling prostate at his feet. He,


8
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then, knelt down before the shining
throne of Thenkham. Thenkham asked
him the news of his uncle king. Leng-
sheng replied with humility, “ Your
uncle king, the Lord of thunder is alright.
He has sent me with a letter to make it
over to you, his nephew.” Then Then-
kham said, {{in ancient time, one ‘ Shang-
deng ’, was sent down to the earth. He
arrived at Mungchai where he built a
city and made himself a supreme ruler.
He extorted homage from all the coun-
tries. He was a great king.”
9. Then Lengsheng had a look at the
image of Chumseng (Somden) offered by
Lengdon. The image was known to be
of pure gold. The great king Thenkham
offered prayer to the idol. It was in a
small box placed on a gold seat. It was
an image of God. After this, Thenkham
said, i( now there is no ruler on the earth.
No one of our family is now, ruling on
the earth, so my uncle king, the Lord
of thunder is willing to send down some
one of our family to the earth to be king
there. There is no king in Mungkhang
(central country), so it is not in order.
0, Lengsheng, if it be the will of God,
the matter may be easily settled. 0,
Lengsheng, the Lord of clouds, tell my
uncle king to get an iron ladder ready
to send down his grandsons, the princes
Khunlung and Kbunlai.
10. Then Lengsheng paid respect to
Thenkham by falling prostrate at his
feet. He started from the Thenkham’s
country and arrived at the bank of a
wide river with transparent water. A
large guilted boat was at anchor. He
got into the boat and landed on the
opposite bank. He proceeded on and on
without a halt, as the word of Lengdon
was as weighty as a thousand ele-
phants. The city of Lengdon was in the
highest part of heaven. It emitted so
brilliant a lustre that one’s eyes would
dazzle to look at. The pictures of ele-


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phants bordered with polished gold, cut
on the walls of the city, shone exaltingly.
The houses in the city were all of gold.
One’s eyes would dazzle to look at the
palace of Lengdon. The roof of the
palace was of polished gold. The rafters
were of gold, which being decorated
with precious stones shone brilliantly.
Lengsheng reached the city of Lengdon
and alighted from his horse. He enter-
ed into the palace of Lengdon. There
he saw that Lengdon was sitting on a
throne of nine grades and emitting
lustre from his body. Lengsheng, then,
greeted Lengdon falling prostrate before
him. Lengsheng, then, began to speak,
“ 0, Lord!” your nephew, Thenkham,
spoke to you thus:—“Tell my uncle
king, the Lord of thunder, that I have
carefully considered what he has said. I
agree to his proposal. I am, however,
afraid to send down an incompetent
being from heaven for he may not be
able to rule the earth properly. I fear,
Lengdon may make war. There being
none on the earth, of the family of the
Lord of thunder, the wide earth is in
disorder. I, therefore, think of sending
down his grandsons to the wide earth.”
0 ! Lengdon, the Lord of heaven these
were the words sent to you by Then-
kham, the great monarch.
11. Thus spoken the words of Then-
kham, Lengdon convened a meeting of
his councillors to have a consultation
with them. Jashingpha, who knows all
things, was called in. The good politi-
cian, Laokhri, the oldest of the gods, was
also summoned. They then began to
discuss on the subject. Lengdon said,
“I intend sending down ray grandsons
to the earth. They will be able to rule
the earth and get homage from all.
They will be masters of wealth, since
they have descended from God, the
Almighty.” Lengdon also repeated the
words of Thenkham which he heard from
Lengsheng. Then Laokhri agreed to
the proposal. Jashingpha too express-
ed her favourable opinion. They also
promised their help. Then Lengdon
asked all the gods their opinion and
explained the matter to them. Lengdon
was sitting on the gold throne and


10
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emitted lustre from his body. He spoke
again, “ there is no ruler on the earth. I
think, there, the wife of one is forcibly
taken by another. There are no kings in
the countries under the sky. Large
fields are lying fallow. These may be
well cultivated. The people of up and
down countries are in constant warfare
with each other and whoever may get
victory rules the countries for the time.
They are the people who came out of a
pumpkin. Their forefathers used to
rule the countries. They could not dis-
tinguish right from wrong. At the
beginning the wide country Mungshang
was in disorder, though it was ruled by
Shangdeng, Shangdeng called in the
poet Shangsheng. He also summoned
the wise councillors to ask their advice.
All of them assembled in the royal
palace of Shangdeng. Shangbun (the
forefather of the Deadhais) consulting
with the king did his best to bring the
country into order. In this way kings
were also sent down to the earth in
ancient times. They paid homage to
Lengdon.”
12. Lengdon spoke again, “ if an ordi-
nary being be sent down to the earth, he
will not be able to be a worthy ruler.
He whose forefathers were never rulers,
can hardly be expected to be a king,
He can never get homage from others.
Annual tributes will not be regularly
paid to him. You must not, therefore,
forget my advice. I have explained
the matter to you with reasons. The
Goddess Khankhamphapha (Adya-
Sakti) gave me a Hengdang (sword).
I shall give the sword and a royal um-
brella to him who will be sent down. I
shall also give him necessary instruc-
tions.”
13. Jashingpha rose up and said “ if
an ordinary being be sent, he will not
be able to rule the earth. You should,
therefore, send your grandsons to rule
the wide earth.”
14. Lengdon said to Khunlung and
Khunlai, the two brothers, “ I advise you
to act wisely. You are descended from
Thenkham, the Great. I wish to send you


11
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down. You must pass the morning with
religious conversation. You should try to
get the hearts of people with sweet
words. You must always follow the
right path and rule the country well.
I name the elder one of you Aikhunlung
(the great elder prince). I send down
Puphishu also there. He is directed to
dwell in a large tree and reign in the
forest. The tree is known as Tunrung-
rai (peepul tree) and he will be lord
of it. When the month of Dinpet (Ahar)
comes and the lakes and rivers be full
of water, Puphishu should be adored by
all the people by sacrificing buffaloes.
Thus propitiated, he will keep you all
safe and sound.” Then addressing the
younger brother Lengdon said, “I name
you Khunlai (prince-younger). I give
you a box containing an image of the
great Goddess. You must be always care-
ful of you charge.” Hej then spoke to
both the brothers. “I give you all re-
quired advices. I give you a tusked
elephant. I give you a pair of Kaisheng-
mung (fowl of holy country) to take
with you. You will calculate future
events with their beaks, entrails, and legs.
I give you an embroidered cloth. I
give you a pair of drums. When you
may be in war with a neighbouring tribe
you must inform me by beating the
drums or if any tribe seek war with you,
do the same thing, then you are sure to
get victory over the enemies. When
there will be no rain, if you inform me
by beating the drums there will be rain.
If the sun does not shine, beat the drums,
there will be sunshine. When there
will be no light, inform me, I shall
send down the light god, to give you
light. If there will be a battle, inform
me, I shall send down eight lakhs of
gods who will cut down all the enemies
to pieces as cloths are torn to pieces
by a storm. The Tais (Ahoms) should
eat the flesh of the heavenly fowls.
You will, then be in possession of
stores of wealth. I give you a sword.
All the people of the country will pay
you homage. You must always be in
alert in carrying out State affairs. At
the end of a year, you must wash and
sharpen the sword. I give you the rule
of a wide country. You will never be


12
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overcome or defeated by others. 0,
grandsons you will rule all the countries
with a firm hand. When the people of
the earth pay you their annual tri-
butes, you must partake them equally.
The countries, Mungteu and Mungtam
will never be lost by you. You will drain
tributes from them. I give you ‘ Chum-
phrarungshengmung (Somdeo). You will
never leave the idol. The idol is put in
a box. You will open the box at the
end of each year. You must be careful
not to let the idol fall to the ground.
You will then be endowed with long life.
No king will disobey you. I, Lengdon, the
Lord of thunder, send down you both.
We all the gods, bless you. Jashingpha
and Laokhri will help you. Both of you
must partake a piece of nut equally.
Khunlai! you must not forget this.”
15. Next day, Lengdon sent for Khun-
lung and Khunlai. They made pre-
paration to come. They put on embroid-
ered coats and cloths on their bodies.
The messenger escorted them. They
advanced slowly and came to the palace
of Lengdon. They saw Lengdon sitting
on his ten graded throne. They saw
Laokhri and eight lakhs of gods there.
All the gods were sitting encircling
Lengdon. Then Khunlung and Khunlai
knelt down before the throne of Lengdon
and greeted him. Lengdon, then said
“ There is no one of my family to rule
the countries Mungteu and Mungtam
The countries are not properly ruled.
The strong oppress the weak. They
live on cultivation. They are unable to
distinguish right from wrong. I there-
fore, give you the rule of the countries.
Both of you must rule the wide countries
peacefully. You will take tributes from
the people, your grandfather named the
elder of you Khunglung and the younger
Khunlai. Both of you must rule the
countries without quarrel, O, grand-
sons ! I give you the necessary things.


13
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Wherever you may rule you should follow
moral rules. I give you ‘ Chumpharung-
mungshengmung,’ (an image or idol
of God). In the days of yore, Phalaibet
(God) sent down the idol with Phabut-
rung-shangdam ” (a deity). With the
power of the idol, Shangdam proved a
successful ruler. He worshipped the idol
according to rules. Now, I give you
again the idol, you will be able to rule
the countries well by worshipping the
deity. You should see * Chumpharung-
mung, once a year being attired in godly
dress. I give you Thaomung and Khru-
mungnyeu with you, whom you must
never disregard. When the month Din-
sham (magh) comes, you should select
an auspicious day and wash your bodies.
You, then, attire yourself with pure
dresses and taking water purified by
incantations, proceed to the temple of
‘ Chumpharungmung ’ without having
had your meal in the morning. When you
reach the temple, you must kneel down
before the altar of the God and pay
your homage. Then open the covering
of the box and have a look at Chum-
pharungmung. After taking out the
idol, wash it with holy water. You
should drink a quantity of the water.
After this, you better keep the idol in
the box shutting the covering. Never
allow any body else to have a look at the
idol. I give you this advice and you
must never disobey my instructions.”
Thus Lengdon finished his speech.
16. Jashingpha then rose up and
said to them.” Ci Your grandfather, the
Lord of Heaven is going to send you
down to the earth to rule over it. In
the olden time, Shengngaokham was
sent down to be ruler of the wide country.
This prince did not like to be king.
The country fell in great disorder. In-
numerable number of persons met death
fighting with each other. In the olden
time Phalaibet (God) created the whole
world. He made three beings, who
came out of the eggs, the Lords of
the great world ; and gave them
necessary instructions. These three


14
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beings became Lords of the seven
worlds. In course of time they lost
their names. We, now, wish to send you
down. We all bless you. At the end of
a year, you worship us by sacrificing an
elephant. Next year worship us by
killing a cow and a buffalo. We bless
you to be undisputed kings. Your
grandfather, the Lord of Thunder, desires
to send you down to rule the earth. We
wish you to govern the earth with pru-
dence. We wish, you will not forget our
advice. When the month Dinha (Chaitra)
comes and all sorts of flowers, the wild
orchids and Shengpha (now known as
Singkara) flowers begin to blow you
must select a day and offer annual sacri-
fices to the gods and worship them.
Lengdon with all the eight hundred
thousands gods will descend to the
earth and take your offer of annual
sacrifices with them. Then your king-
dom will remain safe. All of us send
you to the earth, where there is no king.
Once the wide country of Khunkum was
in disorder. Then Lengdon, the Lord of
heaven, sent down Shengngaokham to
be king there. He could not rule the
country well. He did not care to follow
the instructions given by the great Lord
Lengdon. The country was, therefore,
in great disorder. Khraikham (a spirit)
ruined the country Mungklang. There
is no descendant of God in Mungklang.
Now your grandfather, Lengdon, wishes
to send you down to Mungklang. You
should never forget the instructions now
given.”
17. Lengdon said thus again, “ j
give you this sword which you must


15
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place in the middle of your Council
hall. You should, then, see to what
direction the sharp edge of the sword
remains. You must greet the sword seven
times kneeling before it as homage to
Lengdon. Both of you should join in
the ceremony. I send down the sword
which will destroy your enemies. I give
you ‘ Chumshengrung ’ (Somden and
Sengden). You should greet the gods
touching the ground with your head. The
image of Chumpharungmung is in the
shape of a heron. I, your grandfather,
wish to see you become king. There
are innumerable number of people in the
country. The country is full of Tais
and slaves. They can not distinguish
right from wrong. There they are in the
habit of taking other’s property and
wives by force. They steal each other’s
property. No one is punished for his
crime. The males and females are not
beautiful to look at. No one takes any
notice of the origin of a girl whom he
may take as his wife. They speak an
unintelligible tongue. You must be
careful to pay attention to my words
and never act contrary to them. If a
person commits a crime, don’t kill him
at once without fair trial. Cleanse him
if he offers a feast by killing a cow.
You must confiscate all his properties.
A Bailung Pandit will sprinkle incantat-
ed water on him with Durba-grass. All
of you, then, bless him. If you find a
person, having unlawful intercourse with
the sister of his mother or of his father,
or one depriving his father of his pro-
perty by force, you must drive him
away from the country. If you do not
punish such a person, others will be
demoralized by his example. If that man
comes back again to his village, force
him to offer a feast by killing a cow.
His all things, even including cows,
should be taken from him. Then he
will be cleansed off of his sin. There
are peoples of various communities on
the Earth. It is very thickly populated.
You must rule with a firm hand. I advise
you to do justice. If any person comes
to you, you must converse with him and
feast him. I send you down with these
essential advices. The Tais are dwelling
there. The country is not good. If


16
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â– vo^ kZ any of them lives by oppressing others,
he should be sent to exile. If he
wants to clear himself of the sin, he
should sacrifice three white buffaloes,
four white oxen and some hogs to gods.
He should also give a feast by killing
cows and buffaloes. He should make
offer of gold and silver to the Deodhai
Pundits. He must ask pardon from all,
kneeling down. All his properties are to
be confiscated. He should also greet
you. He will, then, be cleared of his
sin. In Munglung (now Assam) there
are no pure things. If any body robs
his mother or if an elder brother takes
his younger’s wife as his, none should
have a look at him. If it happens to
any body to come across such a culprit
he should cast his eyes to the sky. If
any body commits rape on his daughter-
in-law or on his brother’s wife, his heart
should be pierced with the point of a
knife. Such sinners are not to be looked
at. If they are not put to death, they
should be driven to a jungle which is
frequented by tigers and bears. If you
wish to purify such persons, you must
collect all the people and inform Leng-
don by sacrificing ten cows. All the
holy things are to be collected there and
t( Shengdeo ” too. The culprits should
kneel down before the heavenly king.
A feast should be given by killing cows
and buffaloes. Gifts should be offered
to all. The culprits should be allowed
to drink a quantity of the water with
which Shengdeo be washed. Then he
should perform ‘ Rikkhvan’ ceremony (a
religious ceremony performed to get a
new life). After this, he should be
stripped off of his garments and allowed
to go naked. If a person weds a girl of
his own family, he should not be allowed
to go with impunity. In order to
cleanse off such a man of his crime, gods
should be worshipped by sacrificing
three cows and some buffaloes. After
this, the Deodhai Pundits will bring
holy water and offer nine meh eng as
(stands full of offerings) to the gods.
The Pundits in order to purify the
culprit, should sprinkle holy water on
his body. His whole garment should
be taken off and he should be allowed
to go away naked. He should relate


17
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the story of his crime to the people
at large. Any body mixing with a
sinner, may be cleared of his sin, if he
offers a feast by killing cows and
buffaloes. But those persons who kid-
nap women and usurp other’s property,
should be put to death. Those who com-
mit rape on their mothers, their brother’s
wives and daughters-in-law, should be
put to death also. The females should
not be allowed to be united with other
male persons. The hands of the females
should be bound together towards the
back, and they should be made to pay
homage to the gods by falling prostrate
on the ground. After this, they are to
be cleansed by making them wash their
bodies with water purified with holy
plants. I send you down to the earth.
The people of Mungdun (Assam) will
pay you tributes. You must not forget
my instructions, when you will be the
rulers of a wide country. Lengdon
wishes you to be great kings and take
tributes from all.”
18. Then the two princes (Khunlung
and Khunlai) greeted Lengdon ten times
kneeling before him. They saluted
heavenly Laokhri and Jashingpha, the
goddess of learning. Both of them
knelt down before Chumpharungmung,
and placed the gold idol in the box.


18
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They took leave of Lengdon and left
the palace of Lengdon. They put on
shining coats adorned with stars, bril-
liant clothes and gold caps. As they
began to proceed down, bevies of hea-
venly ladies assembled there to see
them. They saw them glitter in the
sun-shine. They bade farewell with
great affection. They saw the iron
ladder. Both the princes Khunlung and
Khunlai came to the ladder and looked
down. They shed tears and wept bitter-
ly. Khuntun (a descendant of the
moon) and Khunban (a descendant of
the sun) accompanied them. A great
number of Tais (heaven born persons)
proceeded before the kings. Both the
kings came down with the motion of
wind. They descended holding the iron
ladder. They came down by means of
the ladder. They found the ladder too
long. The kings arrived in the middle
of the country Mungri (an uninhabited
and deserted place.) They hesitated to
leave the ladder soon. As they came
down from above the burning rays of
the sun was falling on them. They took
down all the things with them. A gold
throne was placed. It shone brilliantly.
They took their seat on the throne. A
royal umbrella was spread over them.
They stepped there. The Tais collected
wild fruits for their repast. They arrived
in an uninhabited place. They made an
enquiry about the heavenly fowls but
the fowls could not be found. Both the
kings said that the fowls were mistaken-
ly left behind and according to Leng-
don’s order they were to eat the fowls at
the end of a year. Then the kings asked
the persons assembled there if anybody
would be able to ascend the ladder and
bring down the heavenly fowls from the
heaven.
19. Khuntun aud Khunban, being
afraid to ascend the ladder, fell back.
No one in the assembly consented to


19
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climb up the ladder. All the Tais were
sitting in a circle around the kings.
Both of them shone like two planets.
One Langu a man of the wilderness was
there. He observed that none of that
vast assembly consented to go up to the
heaven, as desired by the kings. He
came up and said with humility, “ I
wish to ascend the ladder and bring down
the heavenly fowls. I, alone, shall climb
the ladder. O ! Kings of the Tais, I shall
fetch the holy cocks, provided, you make
me king of the ‘ Khe ’ (China) country.”
Both the kings then promised him the
rule of “ Khe ” country. Langu asked
them to wait there till his return. He
then, greeted the kings and prepared to
go up. He came to the ladder and began
to ascend. He reached the middle of the
ladder and proceeded on and on. He
looked down from above and saw the
whole wide world resembling a flower.
He reached the abode of the gods and
entered into the palace of Jashingpha.
He knelt down before the goddess and
greeted her. Jashingpha then asked
him the reason of his coming there. He
explained to her the cause of his coming
to her. Jashingpha, then spoke, “you
have been sent here to take down the holy
fowls, the sword and the drums which
the two princes left behind through mis-
take. You have come here to take
these things in obedience to their order.
0, Langu ’. tell them not to take the
thigh bones of the holy fowls. The
sword is to be placed in the middle of
the house attached to a post by the side
of which the kings may sit. They must
not beat the drums at any time. Leng-
don does not wish so. When a nation
wages war against them or when they
worship the gods by sacrificing a cow,
the drums should be beaten then with
reverence. You must remember these
words. When you go back to the earth,
you must tell all these things to both
the kings. You must not forget to deli-
ver the instructions to the kings. You
must give the things to the kings.
Lengdon has given these things to them.
0, Langu ! Know it for certain that the
kings should follow these holy instruc-
tions.”


20
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20. Then Langu came down after
greeting Jashingpha with reverence.
Other people beheld him nearing the
ladder. Keeping the heavenly fowls on
the shoulder he descended from the
heaven. He cast a look to the earth
stooping down. He did see that the
kings were sitting in the middle of their
men and the royal umbrella was over
their heads. He reached Mungri. He
made up his mind not to tell the kings
the true things. He knelt down before
the kings and humbly said,“ I wish to tell
you what Jashingpha said.” These
were the words spoken by Jashinpha ;
“ the princes might not remember what
Lengdon said to them. Let no other
person know the secret. The rule of the
Khe country may be given to you. The
princes should eat the flesh and liver of
the fowls of the holy country. The
heads and wings are to be taken by you,
Langu. The princes should not take the
legs of the fowls as they scatter about
dung with their legs when they go out
in search of food in the morning. They
(the princes) are prohibited from taking
the heads and legs of the fowls. If they
follow the advice they will be able to
rule the earth.” Langu further said,
“Jashingpha has ordered you offer me
the sword and directed you, O ! Kings,
to rule the countries in the north.”
21. The princes acted accordingly.
They took the heavenly fowls and got a
Holung (a large palace) ready. They
took out the thigh bones of the holy
fowls and cleared them with a knife.
They made the bones polished and show-
ed them to Khuntun. Then prepared
the bones properly and began to cal-
culate future events by examining them.
First time they found advancement on
the side of the princes and destruction
on the side of his opponents. Second time
it appeared that Khunlung was to be
a supreme ruler, being a master of ele-
phants and treasures. Third time it
was indicated that Khunlung would be
the ruler of a wide country but his


21
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opponents would also have firm domin-
ions. Fourth time, successful rule on
the side of the prince. From this time
the legs of fowls are examined on the
earth. Another calculation was in
favour of the envoy (Langu). It showed
that he (Langu) was destined to be ruler
of a wide country stretching up to the
ocean.
22. The princes were pleased to find
the calculation favourable. They paid
homage to the heaven several times.
They washed their faces with warm
water and wiped their palms. They
touched the image of “ Chumkhunmung”
(Somdeu) with their hands. Now the
Tais (Ahoms) employed themselves in
the preparation of a Halung (royal palace)
there. They collected materials from
all sides and were very busy. Only the
old persons were exempted. A city was
made there with ditches around. The
news spread far and wide. People from
different parts of the earth came in
crowds and flocked around them. These
people were treated kindly and allowed
to remain in the city. In the meantime
Lengdon, the Lord of thunder, sent
down a messenger with these words :—
“ You will be rulers of the earth and will
be paid tributes by all. You are now
the masters of a big town and the boun-
daries of your kingdom will be extended
wide. You must not disobey my ins-
tructions. Next year you should make
offer of sacrifices to me.”
23. Next morning, the kings planted
a banian tree in the name of the eldest
brother. They offered salt to the people
and came back to their palace. Then
Khunlai plotted against his brother and
wished to make himself a real king. He
proceeded to the banian tree without
his brother’s knowledge and attached
some gold strings to the root of the tree,
One day Khunlai asked his brother if he
had attached anything to the root of the
banian tree. Khunlung replied in the
negative. Then Khunlai said, “ I am the
real king of the country. I planted the
tree and attached gold strings to its
root. O, brother! You may examine
it.” Thus spoken Khunlung proceeded


22
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to the tree with his brother. The root
of the tree was dug out and in examin-
ing it some gold strings were found
attached to it. When Khunlung saw
this, he became overcome with grief. He
knew that he was defeated. Then Khun-
lai took the banian tree and placed it in
its place. He quarrelled with Khunlung
and took possession of all the things and
the royal umbrella given by Lengdon.
24. Khunlung did not wait there any
longer. He proceeded direct to heaven
and informed the matter to Lengdon.
Hearing the news, Lengdon was fired up
with rage. He cursed Khunlai in the
following way “ He will not be able to
reign long and come back to heaven.
Know it for certain that his family will
not reign for a long period.” Lengdon
then advised Khunlung to go back and
make himself king of Mungkhrumungja.
Khunlung accordingly returned to the
earth and became king of the country
Mungkhrumungja. He ruled the country
well, and was liked by all. He reigned
with the Tais. He ruled there with great
fame. His fame spread to all quarters.
He, then, divided his countries amongst
his sons. He gave his eldest son the
rule of the country, Taitamkang where
the prince established himself firmly.
He made Khunpha king, of Mungteu
(lower countries) where there was no
ruler and ordered him to supply him
(Khunlung) with ten laks of horses each
year. The prince proceeded there and
having constructed a city became king.
There was no king in the country La-
mungtai. The news came to the king,
Khunlung. He made Khunju, his 3rd
son, king of that country and ordered
him to pay tributes of elephants. Khun-
lung then made Khunkakpha, the ruler
of a wide country and ordered him to
pay one lakh seers of gold annually. He
made Khunla, one of his sons, the ruler
of the country, Mungkula and directed
him to supply horses. Khunla (an-
other son of Khunlung) was placed
at Ava as ruler of Burma with an order
to pay Khunlung annually precious


23
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stones and elephants. He (Khunlung)
kept Khunju (one of Khunlung’s sons)
with him to succeed him. He gave good
instructions to him and made over the
sword and the drums given him by
Lengdon. He related the story of his
quarrel with his brother and how the
news was given to Lengdon who was
pleased to provide him (Khunlung) with
a gold throne upon which he was now7
sitting. He directed his son not to dis-
honour the throne and disobey the word
of Lengdon.


24
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CHAPTER III.
MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.
1.
vt$ To R
YRR P, 1
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RW 1 TOR WP W r>vW & 1
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VU wf yovr yvi^ mw yovR y w9 w vujyi
vu w S M? VY ytor VtS y w 1
1. In the olden time Khunlung and
Khunlai were sent down by the Lord of
thunder from heaven to the earth. They
arrived in Mungrimungram with the
following persons and families :—Khun-
lai, Khunlaiching, Khunlatao, Khun-
sheng, Khunehipchi, Khunkhrungpha-
chanmak, Khunkhvakphachaolangdin,
Khunphram, Khuntengarachaophaban,
Khunthao-Laokhri, Khun Pujakji,
Khunklang Phukenmungkhrupha, Khun-
tvang, Phukenmung Khamungpum,
Kang-Khumung Phukinmungjunang and
Kvanngan Phukinmungmungli. They
brought down the following animals—
alligators, bears, tigers, serpents, mon-
keys, seven millions wild cats, eight
ottars, seven crows, nine hogs and ten
lizards.
Long after, one Khunkum was hunting
buffaloes. He found a Naga slave named
Khunchu. This slave was handed over
to the King, Chaotaipha, who took him
into favour.
/ 2. Taolplu, the eldest son of Khun-
lung, became king of Mungrimungram.
There he reigned till his death. His
son, Chao-Changbun succeeded him. When
Chao-Changbun died, his son, Chao-Chang-
nyeu became king of Mungrimungram.
His brother, Chaotaipha, succeeded him.
When be died, his son, Phanlangjeng-
Klangrai became king. After his death,
his brother, Taongaklem got the throne.
Taongaklem was succeeded by his son,
Taokhunming. When the latter died,
his son, Taokhunkum succeeded him. He
was inherited by his son, Chao-Taihung.
His eldest son was Chao-Tailung and the
youngest, Pameoplung. Phuchangkhang,
the third, succeeded him. Phuchang-
khang had three sons, two of them be-
came kings of some better neighbouring
countries, and Shukapha, the third, suc-
ceeded him. Shukapha, being unwilling


25
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4
to rule there left the country and migra-
ted westward. He arrived in the coun-
try Mungdunshunkham (a country full of
gardens of gold). The names of the
families and persons who accompanied,
Shukapha to Mungdun (now Assam)
were:—one Khunlak family, one Khun-
tang family, one Klangkhru family, one
Klangsham family, one Shukhen Thaom-
ung (Gohain) one Manykhum Thaomung,
one Khenlung Rupak (Saikia), one Thao
Masham (the forefather of the Deodhais)
of the family of Laokhri (the heavenly
artist), and one Thaomung Mashai (the
forefather of the Mahans) of Masham fa-
mily.
3. The great King Shukapha, marched
down to Mungdun and reached the coun-
try. He took with him Chumpha-rung-
shengmung (Somdeo-Sengdeo). He had
to fight out his way by giving battles to
the inhabitants of different places. Shu-
kapha, the great, with the help of one
Khunklang, one Khuntang, one Kang-
khrumung, one Kangugan, one Thaokhen-
lung, one Thaomungmangkham, one
Thaomung Masham, one Thaomung
Mashai, and one Thaokeobang advanced
on fighting with and conquering the
various tribes on his way. Half of the
people submitted to the King and paid
him homage by offering tributes. The
King allowed these people to remain
peacefully in their respective places. A
number of these men also accompanied
the King. After great struggles, the
great King, Shukapha arrived at Mung-
dunshunkham and made himself King
there. He had three sons, of whom Shu-
teupha succeeded him. Shuteupha had
four sons and of these Chao-Shubinpha got
the throne. He had two sons, of whom,
Chao-Shukhrangpha succeeded him.
His son, Taoshukhampha became King
after his death. Tao-Shulai, the brother
of Shukhampha was made Saring Raja.
Chao-Shukham’s brother, Shutupha
alias Taphikhen (Devaraj) got the throne.
His brother, Tao-Khamthi became
King after his death. Tachanbing was
then, Thaomung (Bargohain). Tao-Kham-
thi’s son, Shudangpha got the throne.


26
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He had three sons, of whom Chao-Shuj-
angpha succeeded him. He had four sons
and of these, Shupakpha got the throne.
He had two sons, of whom, Shupimpha
inherited the throne, and Chao-Shubai
was made Dihingia Raja. Chao-Shubai
organised the country well. Shupimpha’s
son, Shuhumpha who was also called
Dihingia Raja, succeeded him. He had
four sons and of them Shureng was made
Saring Raja. The Hindus named him Deo-
raja and the Deadhais Phichao (Deoraja).
Another of his (Shuhummung’s) son, Shu-
khring was made Tipan Raja. The Hin-
dus termed him Dopraja. One Klang-
sheng (the forefather of the Naga Bar-
patra family) was created Chao-Sheng-
leng (Barpatra Gohain).
4. Shuklengmung, the eldest son of
Shuhumpha made himself King. He
had two sons. Shurampba succeeded
him. He was also called Bhaga Bijaya-
dit Simha by the Hindus. His brother,
Shuchingpha made himself King. The
Hindus termed him Khora Kekora Jaya-
ditya Simha. The queen had no sons.
She brought up two boys. The elder
died of illness. The younger was taken
care of by the King. He had two sons,
Shureng and Shukhreng. Sometime after,
one Phutunpha, a son of Shuchingpha was
made King under the name, Shutamla.
The Hindus called him Bhagania Jayadh-
vaj Simha. His brother, Shupangmung
succeeded him. The Hindus named him
Barjana Makaradhvaj Simha. His son
Shukanpha came after him. The Hindus
called him Haru Saringia Ramdhvaj
Simha. He had two brothers. Shu-
hungpha succeeded him. The Hindus
named him Parbatia Raja. The other
Shujinpha came after him (Shuhungpha).
The Hindus termed him Haru Dihingia.
Shulikpha succeeded him. The Hindus
called him Lara Raja alias Ratnadhvaj


27
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Simha. Chao-Shulung who was fleeing
from place to place and from village to
village for fear of Lara Raja of Dihingia
family became King. He was named
Shupatpha (Gadadhar Simha.) He had
two sons. The elder, Shukhrungpha
succeeded him. The Hindus named him
Rudra Simha. His brother was sent in
exile to Namruk where his eyes were put
out. The Hindus called him Namrupia
Kana Raja.
5. Shukhrungpha was a son of Chao-
Shupatpha. He had four sons, namely,
Shutanpha, Shunenpha, Shurempha and
Shunyeupha. The eldest Shutanpha suc-
ceeded his father. The Hindus called
him Siva Simha. His brother, Shunen-
pha ascended the throne after him.
The Hindus termed him Pramatta Simha.
His brother, Shurempha succeeded him.
He was called Rajeswar Simha by the
Hindus. Shunyeupha, his brother, as-
cended the throne after him. The Hin-
dus named him Lakshmi Simha. His
son, Shuhitpungpha succeeded him.
He was called Gaurinath Simha by the
Hindus. In the reign of this King, the
country was in great disorder.
6. In the reign of Shuhumpha, the
following persons were principal officers.
Thaomung Nangrak (Jathipatia Gohain),
Khenmung Lashaifcai, Phashengmung
Thaomunglung (Bargohain), Alan Chao-
Shenglung (Barpatra Gohain), Thaomung
Nangsheng, Thaomung Shenba (Mahan-
gia Gohain) Thaomung Klukhen (Barha-
tiapungia Gohain), Klangsheng Chao-
Shenglung (Barpatra Gohain), Thaomung
Klingkham (Sonoal Gohain), Ikhring
Rupak Nyeushang (Himaluguria Saikia),
Shengnang Neomung (Neog), Thaomung
Bailung (Bailung Bargohain), Thao-
mung Banmarinphakrinsheng (Silakatia
Gohain), Langicham, Lashamrak, Lash-


28
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amshang, Chao-pet-Kham, Shengpim,
Shenghanan, Thaomungkatkham (Sonari-
hatar Gohain), Thaomung Blaksheng
(Chapagunia Gohain), Thaomung Khen-
nang, Thaomung Chaokham, Thaomung-
khenteuLangidamkukai (Langidam Bha-
tialia Gohain of Guimela family), Neo-
mung Tithao-Banlung (Banlungia Neog)
Thaomung Namdang (Namdangia Go-
hain), Thaomung Nabing (Nagarial Go-
hain), Thaomung Saring (Saringia Go-
hain), Chao Shamkhring and Chao Ring
Pensha.
7. Shuklenmung made a Ganak, a
Neog ; one Taimungia, a Gohain; and one
Dhanudharia, Bargohain. Shukhrampha
created one Lefera, a son of a maidser-
vant, a Neog. Shushenpha made one Mo-
maitamuli, Barbarua.
8. In lakni Daprao (i.e. in 1611 A.D.)
Shushenpha made a town at Pachnai.
In lakni Raimit (i.e. in 1612 A.D.) a fort
was constructed at Suffry. In lakni
Rungmao, (i.e. in 1617 A.D.) he built a
town at Kathalbari. In lakni Kasheu (i.e.
in 1619 A.D.), the King threw up a fort
at Tulasijan. In lakni Raishan, he made
a town at Tengabari. In lakni, Bung-
plao (i.e. in 1624 A.D.), a town was made
at Marangi. In lakni, Dapcheu (i.e. in
1628 A.D.) a fort was constructed at
Lakhai.
Chao-Shurampha made one Lahu, Bar-
barua. In lakni Raingi (i.e. in 1652
A.D.), a fort was erected at Difalumukh.
In lakni, Khutshi (i.e. in 1666 A.D.), a
fort was made at Tolothapata and another
at Kathalbari at the mouth of the Kau-
harini. In lakni, Taoshinga (i.e. in 1668
A.D.) a fort was constructed at Pandu
Haraighat.


29
CHAPTER IV.
MISCELLANEOUS.
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1. In the reign of Shurampha one
Tangsual of Maupia family was made
Neogphukan. Shutamla the Bhagania
Raja made Ladut Bengkhowa Bar-
barua. The king, Shupangmung, put in
order the exiled princes. Chao-Shu-
chingpha, called Kekora Raja by the
Hindus, made one of Dihingia family
Barbarua. In the reign of Shunyatpha,
Mechakirkiria was Barbarua. One
Devera of Patar family was made Bar-
barua by Shuklanpha. Shuhungpha re-
tained Devera as Barbarua. Shujinpha
made Lanchangklang Neogphukan.
Shulikpha also retained him as so. In
the reign of Shudangpha, Tachanbing
was Bargohain.
2. In the reign of Shushenpha, a war
with the Tangshu Nagas brohe out. The
king advanced with his army to fight
with them. He could not defeat the
Nagas but had to retreat. The king
had his clubmen with him and with
them he arrived at Banruk, a village on
the hill and stopped there. The king
was sitting on a sedan. He ordered all
his men to assemble at Banruk. The
king selected out good and robust men
of the Rangkham village. He advanced
on a sedan with his men against the
Tangshual Nagas from Banruk. A
bloody battle was fought in which the
Nagas were completely defeated. A
large number of the Nagas was made
captives and produced before the king.
The Banrukia Hazarika of Chutia origin
died in the battle. The Banrukia Go-
hain, a son of the Banrukia Hazarika
had seven sons, namely, Lainangrak,
Langi Khentao, Lasham-Phashenmung,
Chaodangkhat, Nangri and two others.


30
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WL w VLor t?R wi w yAor yooa r 3. In the reign of Shuhanpha Kham-
peng was the Prime Minister. In Chao-
Shukhampha’s reign the following were
the chief officers ;—Lapet Bargohain,
Langidam’s son, Phrakham ; Lashailun ;
Langikhen ; Lashaikhring; Lukmung of
Buragohain family,Itan Barpatra Gohain;
Chao-Chansheng; Lamu Gohain; Ahu
Barpatra Gohain ; Chao-Kankham and
Chao-Aiba-kham of Barpatra family ;
Khamlung’s two brothers, Phunka and
Udutlung; Langu Gohain; Lasham’s
grandson Lankhreorat; Langi Neog of
Phicipha family; one Nareo Kuchari
who was brought in by the Bargohain;
Nareo’s three sons, Lahan, Langu and
Kan tarn Parbatia Barua; Lasham
Gohain ; Lanbakal Neog ; Mingsha, a war
captive ; Panikhocha ; Shamching-ring
Laman Barua ; Shepeta Barua; Langu-
dam Barua; the son of Langidam;
Landaobi; Langi Lanrankap ; one of
Ladam family of Simaluguri; Chao-Shai-
kham ; Chaongudam’s two brothers, one
Lukcheu and the other Nangramkap;
Nangramkap’s son, Maphang, who died
of hunger; Ikhek Buragohain ; Shu-
khamsheng, a son of a female slave,
Chaoring Aokhring of Banruk ; Ladam’s
son Phrangkhan; Langiden of Leshai
family and Sham-Chao-Kham.
4, Shupatpha alias Gadadhar Sirnha.
—In lakni Raishan (i.e. in 1681 A.D.)
in the month of Fagun, Shupatpha, the
great, became king. In lakni Mungrao


31
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(i.e. in 1683 A.D), in the month of Puh,
he excavated the Rahdai tank. Inlakni
Kamao (i.e. in 1688 A.D.), in the month
of Aghon, the king ascended the Hin-
garighar at Garhgaon and named the
city as Barkulanagar. In lakni, Dapsheu
(i.e. in 1690 A.D.) a war with the Nagas
broke out. In lakni Raishinga (i.e. in
1691 A.D.) in the month of Ahar, the
king ascended the Damren (a house
where offerings to the dead were made).
In lakni Mungmut (i.e. 1692 A.D.)
a tank at Charaideu was dug out and
a town was made there. In lakni,
Khutmit (i.e. in 1695 A.D.) in the month
of Fagun, the king, Shupatpha fell ill and
died on the day Raicheu.
5. Shukhrungpha alias Rudra Simha.
—His (Shupatpha’s) son Shukrungpha
succeeded him. In lakni Rungkeu ( in 1696 A.D.) in the month of Ahin,
Shukhrungpha ascended the Hingarighar.
In lakni Tao-cheu (i.e. in 1697 A.D.)
he excavated the Jaysagar tank. In
lakni Katmit (i.e. in 1704 A.D.) the king
removed his capital to Chemun which is
called Rangpur by the Hindus. The
following persons were chief officers :—
Khuntalak of Chapaguria Bailung family,
Khunklang, Khuntang, Kangkhrumung-
kangugan alias Melamua of Dhanudharia
family, Thaomungkeokham of Dihingia
Bargohain family, Thaomung Mangkhan,
Khenmung Rupak (Saikia), Thaomung
Kenshu of Handikai family, Thaomung
Lanchangkang of Dihingia Barbarua fam-
ily. Thaomung Tima alias Lantaimung
alias Thakumtha of Barahi origin, Thao-
Kamlung of Garhgaya Handikai family,
Thaomung Katak who was a son of a
female slave of the king, Thaomung
Bailung of Chao-Huibang family, Thao-
mung Tachanbing alias Lathaorimkeo
alias Changbing, Chao-Thumlung (Bar-
Gohain) a descendant of Kachari, Chao-
phrang (Buragohain) of Matak origin,
Chaoshenglung (Barpatragohain,) Matak
of Jakhalanburiwa matak family, Thao-
mung Banlung of Kachari origin, Las-
haikhampengChaophrang (Buragohain) a
son of a female slave, Lashai alias
Maupia of Naga origin, Dada Phukan of
Huibang family, Tangsual of Naga origin,


32
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Kalangshu Phukan son of a female slave,
Lansheoma (Ghoradhara) of Barahi fami-
ly, Lanshengmai of Barahi origin, Lan-
makkhru of Barahi origin—a member of
a Barahi family used to offer brinjal to
the king so the family got the name Lan-
makkhru and Okanimaria of Barahi
origin.
6. Rupchand Barbarua of Bakatial
Ahom was a son of a rope maker in the
employ of a Musalman. Shupatpha the
great emancipated his father from the
servitude of the Musalman. He was of
the family of Buruk Chutia. Laoma was
of Lao-Bailung family. Jaymungkham
belonged to Mathadangia Bailung. Kan-
nyeu was the son of an elephant keeper.
Mingten was a domestic of Jakhalau-
buriiwa Matak. Pukhui was a domestic.
Pikshai was a matak. Phrangmungkhen
descended from a Bailung. Laleo was of
Taikalangia Ahom family. Manyeudeng
was of an Ahom family. Laben was of
Choladhara family. Patar was of Chaul-
basha family. Ladui was of Shengdhara
family. Khrurat was of Cholasia family.
Lapha was a son of a female slave.
Kandai Patar was of Silakutia family.
Lahan and Langu were of Kachari ori-
gin. Lahan and Langu were brothers.
Thakumtha was created Lukhurakhun.
Railung of a Barahi family as he came
to pay his annual tribute, was establish-
ed in a place which was named after
him. Lanphima was made Tamuli and
afterwards Barua. Momai Tamuli wras
of Lukhurakhun family. Khuntai was of
Bailung origin. Mangu descended from
Shangbun, a descendant of Laokhri,


33
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Mashai descended from Mahung, a des-
cendant of Pujakji. Siring Phukan was
a conveyor of Sheng (Somden) .
5


34
CHAPTER V.
SHUKAPHA, &c.
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idi \aoa dGvri win -JtS vfT id^ oa§ 1. In laknis, Katrao, Khutmit, Rung-
keu and Taocheu, Shukapha, the great,
came down with the following persons
and families :—Thaomunglungkang;
Thaokhenlung; Thaomung-Banrai;
Chaophrang; Thaomung Masham, who
descended from Shangbun, a descendant
of Laokhri; Thaomung Mashai who des-
cended from Mamung ; Thaomungkang ;
Khrumung and Lantaimung. He arriv-
ed in Khamjang. As he proceeded down
from Khamjang, the following persons
and families accompanied him :—Thao-
mung Khunlang, Thaomung Kekham,
Thaomung Khuntala, Thaomung Khun-
tai family, five Kalangshu families,
Lantaimung and Lukphima~~ families.
There were seven families descended
from a female slave who were called
Duaras, Phrangpim family descended
from a female slave or maidservant of
the king. The family separated into
two. The king named the families as
Lukkhakhun. The king took them with
him and put one of them to death by
pressing his feet. Then the king station-
ed the Lukkhakhun families at a place
behind the Dam house. They had to
offer sacrifices to Indra by killing a
buffalo and a cow. They also offered a
feast to all by killing a cow. They were
purified by pouring down incantated
water on their bodies. This was the old
account of the origin of the Lukkhakhun
family.
2. In the ancient time when Shuka-
pha, the king, came down, he brought
with him the following persons of seven
Barahi families :—One Gam, one Lakhai,
one Mungpeng, one Rabbi, one Hatai
Thakur, one Ragam and one Barkumar.
The king took them into favour and
engaged them as potters, water-drawers,
bowl-keepers, physicians and store-keep-
ers. All the Barahi families were sta-
tioned at Chilanimaria village.


35
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3. The king Shuhumpha made one
Kansheng, Barpatra Gohain, bringing
him from the hill Daichila. He also
gave the Barpatra ten Hatimurias from
the Lukkhakhun family. The king also
made two persons of the Taikalangia
Ahom families Hatimurias.
4. The king, Shuhanpha, took with
him a man who was of Naga origin. He
was established at a place near the Sessa
river. The king named him Garu. One
Lapeti Phukan engaged one Lantuban
and two Khuntai Ahoms to polish the
bamboo pieces of the raised floor of the
king’s granary. They stole paddy from
the granary. The king arrested the
thieves in the month of Falgun. One of
them became very angry and pierced the
king to death with a piece of pointed
bamboo.
5. Shuhanpha’s son, Shupempha suc-
ceeded the throne. He put to death the
whole family of Latuban at Handurijan.
The following members of this clan were
driven to different parts of the country:—
One Chiringdam, one Ladut, the family
of Shengdhara Barbarua, one Kandai
Patat, one Kanmung, one Laiteu, one
Khanmung, one Khuntai, one Lamak, one
Shangkhun, one Talung, one Khanlung
one Dahak, one Kantreng, one Shengta,
one Kenshang, one Laring, one Nario,
one Tamai, one Majang, one Nemung,
one Maring, one Makhen, and one Ma-
sheng. There were altogether nine fami-
lies. Three of these families were estab-
lished at Daria, one near a hill, one in a
village, one at Banruk and three others
in a village called Jankinchao.


36
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6. In the reign of Shuhumpha, eighteen
kowars (princes) offended the king. The
king passed death orders upon them.
Three of the families fled away and con-
cealed themselves amongst the Luktais
(Taikalangia Ahoms). The King Shu-
kapha, on his way of migration, took
with him all the Luktai Ahoms and made
them Kukurachowas. The Ahoms of
good origin would not allow the Kukura-
chowas to dine with them. One of them
(the Kukurachowas) had eight sons,
namely, Barpani, Sarupani, Phishi, Ning-
kas, Tamai, Nirmal, Sheng and Malak.
Formerly they were to collect flowers for
the king. Then Ningkao was appointed
a porter to the king’s mother’s residence
for which the family got the name Duara.
The king made over one family to the
Buragohain as Hatimuria. The name of
the man was Kapshan. His mother
descended from a female slave of the
king, whose mother came down from a
Lukkhakhun family. He was after-
wards included among the Lukkhakhuns.
Eight men of the Luktai family did not
favour this inclusion.
7. In the reign of Shudangpha, one
Aka ran away from his home. The king
brought in the family and named it
Rangachila Duara.
In the ancient time, when the king,
Shukapha devastated the province of the
Chutias, he took with him a Kachari and
put him in charge of the house of Somdeo
(the house where Somdeo was kept). He
was named Somchiri. He had eight
sons, namely, Khatmung, Paomung,
Shaimung, Taphaimung, Nagio, Lukshai
and Lukbak. The youngest of them
raped his sister. The other seven brothers
lanced him to death. They, then, fled
away to Banrukia Gohain and entreated
him for giving them shelter under his
protection. The Gohain had compassion
on them and promised them safety. They


37
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were named Bai-Lahan and afterwards
Ishiri. Then they were made Khatowals,
and termed Chetias.
8. When the King Shukapha was
stopping in Tipam, he found a family of
Tula-Chalanidhara. The name of the man
was Maimai Khiarat. He used to pre-
pare royal robes. The King Shukhampha
made the grandson of Khriorat, Patar.
One family of Khriorat was taken to
Tingkhang as Hatimuria by the Bargo-
hain. In the reign of Shukhampha, the
Banrukia Bargohain having killed the
father of a Kachari family, offered the
king a man of that family. He was
called Gam. He was very beautiful to
look at, so he was named Garpatar by
the king. In the reign of Shuhumpha
a war with Turbak broke out. A very
good looking person was made a captive.
The King named him “ Nukturdang.”
The family of the man was again termed
by the King Shukhampha as “ Katidang
Duara.”
9. In the reign of Shushengpha, the
grandson of Katidang Duara was made
Tamuli Duari. Then he was again made
Tamuli. His son was established in
Kaliabar. He was made Hilaidari Barua
and named Mairankvap. In this reign,
a war with the Laphangs (Musalmans)
broke out. The King made one Langi,
Barphukan. This Langi descended from
a captive Kuchari family. The King
Shukapha brought with him a Matak


38
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family from Tipam. This family for-
merly used to supply the king with
brinjal. With the help of the headman
of the Matak family, the king’s soldiers,
advanced on conquering the Nag as. The
Matak was liked very much. Afterwards,
Kang-gnan Bargohain named him, Lan-
makkhru. The Matak descended from
Phukhao family (a family originated from
seeds sewn). In the ancient time, the
heavenly King Shukapha conquered the
Chutias, the Kucharis, the Mataks, the
Barahis, the Nagas and one KamatJkswar.
They were allowed to remain as they
were on the condition of offering tributes.
Then the king appointed three Katakis,
one Kamataswar, one Chutia of Matak
origin, and one Kuchari of Naga
origin. These Katakis had to realize
tributes from the above mentioned
people. After this, the King Shukapha
arrived in this country. He got homage
and tributes from all. One Mimun Ma-
tak came to offer tributes and expressed
his willingness to remain with the king.
The heavenly king favoured the man and
made him Mimun Patar. The king got
a Tai family and named it Matak Patar.
Shukapha, the great, found an old man
and named him Thaomung Tima. He
was given to the charge of the Bargohain.
He belonged to the mau clan of the Tai-
kalangia Ahoms. When the King Shu-
kapha came down from the hill, he
brought with him a Taikalangia Ahom
family.


39
CHAPTER VI.
KHUNLUNG AND KHUNLAI,
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1. In Lakni, Taoshinga, the earth was
overflooded with the water of deluge.
In Lakni, Kamut, the surface of the earth
was made hard by burning. In Lakni,
Kapshan, a pumpkin seed was sewn on
a high place. Next year, a pumpkin
fruit burst out and men came out of it.
In Lakni, Daprao, seeds of men were
sewn. Next year, the seeds burst and
men came out of them. But the earth
was not yet thickly populated. In lakni,
Raimit, the eldest son of the Lord of
heaven, came down and created a num-
ber of men. Next year, one Thaolipling
and one Thaobanshing were sent down to
teach the men of the earth the rites and
principles. There were no kings from
Lakni, Raimit to Lakni Taoshi (z.e., for 6
years). Lengdon, the Lord of thunder,
asked Thenkham to go to the earth and
rule over it. Thenkham was not willing
to go to the earth. Having collected
his ministers, he said: “ we have a great
number of sons and grandsons in heaven
but no one of our family is ruling on the
earth, we should, therefore, send down
some one of our family to rule the earth.”
In Lakni, Kasheu, they sent down Khun-
lung and Khunlai to the earth to be-
come kings there. They descended from
heaven and arrived in Mungrimungram
with eighty lakhs of Khuns (great per-
sons) . They were supplied with a sword,
a drum and a royal umbrella. The elder
was called Khunlung and the younger,
Khunlai. Before they were sent down,
they were taught to rule in harmony.
'They were further said, “ as a man quar-
relling with his father-in-law, may incur
the loss of his wife, so if you quarrel
amongst yourself, you are sure to lose
your royal power.”
2. Khunlung and Khunlai were
ordered to come down to the earth by
means of a ladder which was prepared
for their use. All the great chiefs made
themselves ready to follow the princes.
Khurilung and Khunlai were supplied
with all the necessary things. A royal


40
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VJM > umbrella was given to them. The idol
of Shengdeu was made over to them.
They were supplied with heavenly fowls.
They took the fowls with them. They
were told that they would be able to
know the good or the evil by examining
the legs of the fowls. All the Tais came
down by means of the ladder. They
reached the earth and trod upon a grassy
plot. The people of the neighbouring
places assembled there and welcomed
them. They spread cloths over mats
and put a gold chair there. The royal
umbrella was spread over them to keep
them safe from the rays of the sun.
Khuntun, Khunban and the whole body
of the Tais sat there surrounding the
kings. They brought three thousand
cooking vessels with them. Three per-
sons could eat out of each vessel. They
came down and remained in the middle
of Mungrimungrarn. Lakhs of people
joined with them and prepared a large
building for the kings. They made
villages in a valley near a hill. They
supplied the kings with provisions and
made a royal town there. The great
royal umbrella was spread over them
both. The princes ruled the country
well. They ruled harmoniously. They
then built a Halung (a royal houso).
They made themselves ready to have a
look at the country. Khunlung and
Khunlai took a view of the country by
mounting on an elephant. They divided
the lands between their subjects and
returned to the capital. All of them
remained thus in Mungrimungram by
living on the produce of the large fields.
3. Khunlung and Khunlai forgot to
bring with them the sword and the drum
from the heaven. They sent a great
man, a native of the place, to fetch those
things. The man went up to heaven and
brought down the things left. The names
of the chief families, out of eighty lakhs
of Khuns (great men), who came down
in the company of Khunlung and Khun-
lai by order of Indra, were as follows :—
Khuntai family, Khunlaiching family,
Khunlatao family, Khunsheng family,
Khunchipchi family, Khunkhrung Chao-
blak family Khuncham family and one
Khunbanigrai. The latter brought down


41
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6
the silver vessels with which Khunlung
and Khunlai used to drink liquor. The
descendants of Laokhri and Pujakji were
sent in their company. The following
animals were also supplied :—a deer,
an alligator, three bears, a tiger, a
snake, a monkey, a wildcat, seven otters,
eight hogs, and a cat. Altogether ten
different kinds of animals were sent
down from heaven with Khunlung and
Khunlai. They remained thus in Mun-
grimungram as undisputed rulers. Then
they came to the country, Laidai. This
country was very thickly populated, so
they built there a city and a fort with
ditches around and lived in.
4. Formerly, Khunkum was king of
Khraikham. When he died his three
sons could not succeed him. The country
being in great disorder, the inhabitants
entered into the country, Puphangpau.
The people of both the countries
quarrelled and fought with each other.
A certain Naga slave made himself king.
In the reign of this king, the country
was full of misdeeds and was in constant
disorder. All the great men of the
country being unable to endure the
oppressions of the king, wished to have
a king of the family of Khunlung and
Khunlai. Khunlung and Khunlai sent
Chao-Taipha to be king of the place.
Then both the brothers, Khunlung and
Khunlai, quarrelled about a banian tree.
Khunlung went to heaven leaving his son,
Taolulu as king of Mungrimungram.
Khunlai died ruling the country, Ladai.
His son, Chao-Changbun succeeded him.
When Chao-Changbun died, his son Chao-
Khunnyeu was at Mungrimungram.
His brother, Chao-Taipha became king.
At the death of Chao-Taipha, his son,
Jingklangrai, could not succeed him but
his younger son, Taoshinga made him-
self king. He died ruling the country.
Then, Taolulu became king. When Tao-
lulu died, Taongaklem succeeded him.
After the death of Taongaklem, his son,
Taokhunbing became king. When Tao-
khunbing died, his son, Taokhunkum
succeeded him. He also ruled the


42
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grandson of Khunlu, called Khunlucheo,
migrated from Mungrimungram and
reigned in the country, Mungkhamungja.
Therefrom he came down to the country,
Maolung. Then he took the countries,
Khamnamkeo and Kankula.
5. Thao-Khunra was, then, the ruler
of Maolung. Khunkum asked Thao-
khunra to leave Maolung and go to and
remain in Munglumlungkaoklang. Unless
the latter would act according to his
advice, he would invade his country and
destroy it. Thao-Khunra being afraid,
left Maolung. He migrated to and re-
mained in the country, Munglumlung-
kaoklang. Khunkum gave his son
Chao-Taiplung, the rule of the country,
Maolung. Chao-Taiplung had three sons.
The eldest was Tailung, the youngest
Pameoplung and the second Lengsham
Phuchangkhang. The latter was an
adopted one. They were in all three
brothers. Then Chao-Taiplung divided
his countries between his sons. He gave
Tailung, the eldest, the rule of Mungjin,
Pameoplung, the youngest, the rule of
the country, Maolung and Phuchang-
khang, the rule of the country, Kupkling-
dao. Khunkum, the father, was to rule
in Mungkhan. Thao-Khunra, when he
saw that the family of Khunkum was
spreading over all countries, not being
able to remain in Munglumlungkao-
klang, migrated to Mungjakali and re-
mained there.
6. Then, the father (Chao-Taiphung)
of all the brothers called them in and
advised them not to quarrel amongst
themselves. He asked them to remem-
ber the advice in future. He further
said to them, <(I, your father, wish you
to be always in friendly terms and eat
together by killing cows and buffaloes.”
Having thus advised his sons, the old


43
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king died. Chao-Changbun was father
of Chao-Changnyeu. In lakni, Raimit,
Chao-Changnyeu, leaving Mungrimung-
ram, advanced quickly with his followers
and arrived at Mungkhamungja. Thence
he proceeded to Mungpamungkhan and
at last to Maolung.
7. Pameoplung sent words to Chao-
Changnyeu, f,you should never cross
Namkeo. We were sent down at the
same time. We were born at the same
time. We tied up our hairs together.
We killed cows and buffaloes and ate the
flesh together. We are in peace up to
this time, so we must always be in
friendly terms.” Pameoplung offered
his sister, Nangmungblak-Khamsheng in
marriage to Chao-Changnyeu. Then the
king, Shukapha was born, when the
queen Blakkhamsheng was at her father
with her brother Pameoplung. He was
a son of Chao-Taiplung. Cliao-Taiplung
named the child, Shukapha. The king,
Pameoplung had no son. The grandson
was brought up by his grand-mother and
was named Chaolung Shukapha. For
the Laknis, Mungkeu, Plekcheu, Katplao,
Khutngi, Rungplao, Taoshi, Kasheu,
Kapshinga, Dapmut, Raishan, Mungrao,
Plekmit, Katkeu, Khutcheu, Rungplao,
Taongi, Kamao, Kapshi, and Dapsheu
(i.e., for 19 years) Chaolung Shukapha
was at Maolung. He was nominated to
be king there? In Lakni, Raishinga,
Blakkhamdeng, the grandson of the Lord
of heaven (Indra) came down to have a
bath in a river and the queen of Pameo-
plung also went there. There Blak-
khamdeng had an intercourse with her
and she became pregnant. She was put-
ting up with her father, Thaokhenlung.
In Lakni, Mungmut Shukhanpha the great
was born. Shukhanpha remained with
Thaokhenlung. Then the king, Chao-
Changnyeu died. Pameoplung, also
committed suicide by cutting his throat
with a knife, In Lakni, Katrao, Shuk-
hampha became king.


44
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VOo' r Ynor oa ' v§ v? w i wvnq c&fe dg 8. In the same year, Shukapha, the
great, having had a consultation with
his grandfather, migrated west-ward,
leaving the country to be ruled by his
brother, Shukhanpha. The great men,
he took in his company were one
Khunba, one Khunphrang, one Khun-
ring, one Khunsheng and one Khun-
phuken. He came to his father’s country
Mungkhamungja. He also took with
him the idol of Sheng (Shengden). He
brought with him three thousand Ma-
tangs (cooking pots). Each pot was
sufficient to have three men’s food cooked.
The great king, Shukapha, brought with
him an one tusked elephant, named,
Khamkhamung, a female elephant,
named Chukinkat, an elephant keeper,
named, Phrangpem and three hundred
horses with covered eyes.
9. One Takhunlak, the Phukinmung
(Rajkhowa) of the country, Mungkham ;
one Khunklang, the Phukinmung of
Mungkhrudai; one Phalung Khunlang,
the Phukinmung of Mungkhamungpum:
one Kangkhumung, the Phukinmung of
Mungphu ; one Kangngan, the Phukin-
mung of Mungli; one Thaomungkeokhen
and one Thaomungtishu Bangkham also
accompanied Chaolung Shukapha. In
laknis, Khutmit, Rungkeo and Tao-
Cheu, Shukapha, the great, proceeded
down quickly by trampling down the
ruling Chiefs of the places on his way.
After the lapse of the laknis, Kapplao,
and Kapngi he arrived at Katrungmung-
ban. In laknis, Dapmao and Raishi, he
advanced on and came to Mungnamungti.
After the laknis, Mungshan and P|ek-
shinga, he arrived at Hatikhpkia Naga
village. After the laknis, Rungrao and
Taomit, he entered in the village, Chak-
changkhrai. In lakni, Kakeu, he came


45
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M 1 w$ R dgjvi v i to Shanke. The great king, Shukapha
despatched one Thakhunlak, one Khun-
klang, one Khunlang, one Kangkhumung,
one Kangngan, one Thaomungkiokhen,
one Thaokhenlung and one Thaomung-
bankham to fight with the people of
Mungkang^ They marched, accordingly,
against the country and conquered it.
Then Shukapha proceeded to Langmi-
chekan and thence to Malakphrang.
From Malakphrang, he came to Mung-
khaomungpan, thence to Phakechering.
Shukapha arrived at the principal pass
to Daikham hill. Therefrom he came to
the boundary of the Naga country. He
then came to Namtilikkangtai. He
crossed the river Khamjan and halted
near a lake. Here Shukapha ordered all
his chiefs to fight with the Nagas. The
Nagas of the villages, Kharukhu, Pung-
kang, Tithang, Binglao, Latema, Lan-
pang and Taru acknowledged submission.
The two villages, Luknam and Luka were
destroyed. Then Shukapha conquered
the Nagas of Taputapa. He placed
Kangkhrumjmg in charge of the country
Khamjang. The great King Shukapha
left the place and arrived at Daikaorang
(a collection of nine hills) where he stop-
ped. Here Shukapha ordered his chief
to conquer the Nagas of both up and
down countries. ^FKe Nagas of the vil-
lages, Papuk, Tengkham, Khunkhat,
Khuntung, Tangching and Jakhang gave
battle. A great number of the Nagas
was killed and many were made captives.
Some Nagas were cut to pieces and their
fleshes cooked. Then the king made a
younger brother eat the cooked flesh of
his elder brother and a father of his
son’s. Thus Shukapha destroyed the
Naga villages. The inhabitants of other
villages being very much afraid acknow-
ledged his subjugation. Then Shukapha
expressed his wish to leave Daikaorang.
10. Shukapha, the great marched
down and arrived at Khamnangnangpu.
Therefrom, he came to Namruk. He
ordered his men to prepare rafts. In
lakni, Dapplao, the great king, Shukapha,
with his followers and three hundred
horses with covered eyes left Namruk
and got on the rafts which were on the


46
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VVOAR dS9t?OA w wS Vi MOA ‘VvtZ Dihing river. He offered prayers to the
Dihing river for safety. The great king
Shukapha rowed up the Dihing and
arrived at Munglakkhenteusha. In lakni,
Raingi, the king placed Khuntang in
charge of the country and proceeded
downstream the Dihing river. He arrived
in Tipam and stayed there for the laknis,
Mungmao, Plekshi, and Katsheu. Find-
ing the country to be overflooded by the
water of the Dihing river, the great king
Shukapha put Kanngan in charge of the
country and proceeded downstream the
Dihing river. He arrived in Abhoipur,
and stopped there for the laknis, Khut-
shinga, Rungmut, Taoshan, Karao and
Kapmit (i.e.y for 5 years). As the country
was thinly populated, he did not like to
remain there. So he proceeded down-
stream the river Tilao (Lohit) and arrived
in Habung country. He stopped there,
for the laknis, Dapkeu, Raicheu and
Mungplao. He subsisted on the produce
of three harvests. As the place was very
often flooded by water, he proceeded
downstream the river Tilao (Lohit) and
arrived at Dikhaumukh. He advanced
upstream the Dikhau river and came to
Dilimukh. He touched the water of
the Dilih with his hand and came to
know that the water was flowing from
Tipam. He advanced upstream the
Dikhau river and arrived in a valley,
called Mungrinmungching. He measur-
ed the water of the river there and found
that equal quantity of water of the river
weighed twice that of the Dikhau river,
hence the king named the river as Sang-
tak (two tolas). He remained there two
years for the laknis, Plekngi,and Katmao.
Then Shukapha, the great, leaving Mung-
gruimungching in charge of Takhunlak
proceeded downstream the river, Dikhau,
and arrived at Simaluguri. There he
halted and offered a feast to his nobles
and followers by killing cows. He en-
quired and found that there were
three thousand and three hundred ghats
at the Namdang river, from which the
inhabitants used to draw water. Being
a little afraid, he proceeded to Timan
and stopped there. Finding the coun-
try to be subject to innundation and the
earth full of clay, he left that country
too. He dwelt there six years for the


47
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laknis, Khutshi, Rungsheu, Taoshinga,
Kamut, Kapshan and Daprao. Then
he advanced to Timak. In lakni Raimit,
he made a city at Mungtinamao. He,
with his followers, remained there. That
place was low and subject to innunda-
tion too, so Shukapha collected all his
followers and left the place. In lakni
Mungkeu, he constructed a town at
Charaideu adjacent to a small hill. He,
in order to propitiate the gods, sacri-
ficed a horse in the north and another in
the south. He worshipped the three
spirits, Kamle, Rangle and Rangmlao
near a tree. Clearing off the place at
the foot of the tree, he adored the gods
by offering a vessel full of silver. Then,
they remained there in that city near
the hill. In lakni, Taongi (i.e., in 1268),
the great King Shukapha died. He
reigned full forty-one years.
CHAOLUNG SHUTEUPHA.
11. Shukapha’s son, Chaolung Shu-
teupha succeeded his father in 1268
A.D. He died in lakni Dapmao (&.e., in
1281 A.D.). He reigned for a period of
full thirteen years.
CHAOLUNG SHUBINPHA.
12. Shuteupha’s eldest son, Chao-
lung Shubinpha succeeded the throne.
In lakni Mungmao (i.e., in 1293 A.D.)
Chaolung Shubinpha died. He ruled the
country for full twelve years.
CHAOLUNG SHUKHANGPHA.
13. Shubinpha was succeeded by his
son, Chaolung Shukhangpha in 1293 A.D.
Then a war broke out between Chaopha
Shukhang and Khun Kamta (Kamat-
eswar. It continued for a long time.
Khun Kamta, then, having had a con-
sultation w’ith his councillors sent one
Lahkat to Chaopha Shukhang to ask
for peace. The man came to Chaopha
Shukhang and said thus humbly:—
“ The war between us has been going on
for years and months together without
a stop. A great number of men has
been killed on both sides, so our king


48
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desires to make friendship by offering
his daughter to your Majesty.” Then
the king, Shukhangpha made peace and
brought in Kamata’s sister, Rajani, to
his royal palace, who was escorted by
some faithful servants and attendants.
Chaolung Shukhangpha died in iakni
Raishinga (i.e., in 1332 A.D.). He reign-
ed full thirty-nine years.
CHAOLUNGTAO SHUKHRAMPHA
14. Shukhangpha’s son, Chaolung-
tao-Shukrampha succeeded the throne.
The king, Sukhrampha made Chao-
Pulai, Saring Raja. Chao-Pulai was the
son of Rajani, the daughter of Khun
Kamta. Then Taphikhen Bargohain
conspired with Chao-Pulai against thp
king. They, both, left our country and
went to the king of the Phang country
(the country of Kamateswar). They,
then, advanced with Kamateswar, and
stopped at Athgaon. From Athgaon
they came to Saring and constructed a
fort there. The news reached the king,
Shukhrampha. He sent a messenger to
Khun Kamateswar to ask the reason of
his coming to Saring Namdang. Fur-
ther he instructed the messenger to say
that if Kamateswar was ignorant of the
cause of the quarrel, he should send
Taphikhan Bargohain to the king. Chao-
Pulai, when he was informed of king’s
order, said, “ I shall neither fight with
the king nor go home. If I go there at
the king’s order, I am sure to be put
to death with my followers. Then
Chaopha Shukram ordered to put
Taphikhen to death. Taphikhen con-
cealed himself. Afterwards, they came
to terms. Chaolung-tao Shukhram died
in lakni, Plekngi (i.e., in 1364 A.D.).
He ruled the country for full thirty-
two years.
CHAOLUNG TAO SHUTUPHA.
15. Chaolung-Tao Shutupha was
made king. Chaolung-Tao Shutupha
was putting up at Dahikhor, when the
old king died. The country was with-
out a king for five years. Then the


49
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nobles after having had a consultation
amongst themselves brought in Chao-
lung-Tao Shutupha and made him king.
He was putting up at Chapagurinagar.
One day, the Chutia king asked Shutu-
pha to amuse themselves by rowing in
a boat. They were thus rowing in a
boat, when the Chutia king seized
Shutupha and killed him. In lakni
Khutngi (i.e., in 1376 A.D.) Chaolung
Shutupha was murdered. He ruled the
country for full thirteen years.
CHAOPHA-TAO -KHAMTHI.
16. After the death of Shutupha, the
country was in interregnum for four
years. The nobles and the great men of
the country after having had a consulta-
tion amongst themselves selected Chao-
pha Taokhamthi to be their king. He
was accordingly made king. In lakni
Kamao (i.e., in 1380 A.D.) Chaopha
Taokhamthi died. He ruled the coun-
try for nine years. The councillors
and the nobles could not find a suitable
person among the princes to take him as
their king. The country was without
a king for nine years. The councillors
ruled the country for that period.
CHAOPHA SHUDANG.
17. One Thao Sheokhen had gone to
exchange cows on the other side of the
Lohit river. On his return way, it
chanced him to come across Chaopha
Shudang. From his appearance Chao-
pha Shudang seemed to Thao-Sheakhen
to be of high origin. He enquired into
the matter and came to know that
Shudang descended from the royal
family. He informed the Dangarias
(the Buragohain and Bargohain) of the
matter. The Dangarias held a council
and after proper discussion decided to
bring in Chaopha Shudang to accept
him as their king. They, then, brought
in Chaopha Shudang in lakni Rungkeo
(i.e., in 1397 A.D.) and made him king.
The king brought with him the members
of the Brahmin family in which he was
brought up. After this, the Tipamias
rebelled against Chaopha Shudang.
One Taoblaksheng fled to Chaolung


50
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Shurenpha (Nara Raja) to take shelter
under his protection. The descendants
of the Khilimis privately informed
Chaopha Shudang, that the Tipamias had
formed a plot to seize and kill him.
The king received the Khilimis kindly
and gave them a feast by killing a
buffalo. Then Shudangpha under the
plea of giving a feast called in the Tipa-
mias. A white buffalo was killed and
cooked. When the Tipamias were about
to take their dinner, the king put to
death a large number of their strong and
robust men. Their heads were placed
on a big stone in the form of a garland.
Then Ch^o_ Nangsheng, a daughter
of the TiparniiT Gohain was married to
Chaopha Shudang. One day, as the
king was dining with Chao Tashulai, the
queen cast a glance to Chao Tashulai, Chao
Tashulai after his return to his abode, sent
an enamalled ring to the queen through
a Likchau (an attendant). The Lik-
chau brought the matter to the notice
of the king. Chaopha Shudang suspec-
ted something wrong. Chao Tashulai
became afraid of the king. He with
one Tipamia Kuar and one Temera
formed a plot against the king. Chao
Tashulai fled to the Nara Raja Chao-
Shurunpha and intimated him that there
was no king of his family in Mungdun-
shunkham (Assam). Thus informed,
Shurunpha sent an expedition under
Tashenpau Bargohain to fight with
Shudangpha. He marched down ac-
cordingly and pitched his tent near the
Kuhiarbari at Tipam. When the news
reacEe3 Chaopha Shudang, he marched
on an elephant, Pairin against the
Naras to meet them at Kuhiarbari.
Tachanbing Bargohain on a horse ad-
vanced with his army. A battle was
fought in which Chaopha Shudang got
a slight wound from a spear from a
Nara. Tashenpau, being unable to hold
his ground, retreated. Chao Tashulai
and the Tipamiakuar proceeded down to
Khun Kamateswar and took shelter
under him. At this, Chaopha Shudang
was offended and made preparation to
wage a war against Kamateswar. Hear-
ing the news, Rajani sent a^ messenger
to ask him to make friendship with
Chaopha Shudang. She sent the follow-


51
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Wf 1 WWR <£? wf W WoWl Wlor wS ing words :—“ In the olden time, there
was a constant warfare amongst us but
since the time of my marriage both the
kingdoms have been going on well and
there has been no war.” Khun Kamata
sent one Rupai Lahkat to tell Rajani
that he was unable to act to her wish.
Then Chaopha Shudang sent an expedi-
tion under Tachanbing Bargohain.
Then Raja, Kamateswar, after consulting
his ministers, offered Nangpha Bhajani
to Shudangpha to confirm their former
friendship. Both the parties, instead of
fighting, amused themselves with differ-
ent sorts of play. The following things
were offered as dowries: a tusked
elephant, a female elephant, a big red
horse with a silver saddle to ride on,
twelve ordinary horses, twenty female
slaves, forty seven male slaves and a
quantity of silver and gold.
18. The country was in disorder for
eight years up to lakni, Mungsheu.
The people of the countries, Khamjang,
Iton, and Tipam did noTpay their annual
tributes for these years. Chaopha
Shudang, then, with the advice of his
ministers, sent one Tapangmau with a
letter to Chaopha Banak (Shurunpha).
The letter was put in the handle of
Tapangmau’s spear. The contents of
the letter were as follows :—“ The
people of Iton, Khamjang, and Tipam
have not paid their annual tributes for
eight years. I wish, therefore, to des-
troy these countries which are in a
rebellious spirit.” Then Chaopha Banak
sent Mungkhrunban to Bhai Tipam to
direct him to pay tributes to the king
of Mungdunshunkham. Shurunpha
sent one Chaoluban in the company of
Tapangmau with the following presents
to Chaopha Shudang :—a white horse,
a Tangkak (a Pira), a Tangan (a kind of
stool), an embroidered rein, and an
embroidered saddle. When Tapangmau
and Chaoluban were on their way back,
in lakni, Rungrao (i.e., in 1407 A.D.),
Chaopha Shudang died. He ruled the
country for nine years.
CHAOPHA SHUJANC.
19. Shudangpha’s son Shujang suc-
ceeded the throne. In lakni, Raicheu,


52
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(i.e., in 1422 A.D.) Chaopha Shujang
died. He reigned for a period of fifteen
years.
CHAOPHA SHCPHAKPHA.
20. Chaopha Shuphakpha succeeded
Chaopha Shujang. In lakni, Kasheu
(i.e., in 1439 A.D ), Chaopha Shuphakpha
died. He ruled the country for full
seventeen years.
CHAOPHA SHUSHEN.
21. Chaopha Shushen succeeded
Shuphakpha. A daughter of one Chao-
dangjeklang, a great man of Tipam was
married to Chaopha Shuphak. She was
the mother of Chaopha Shushen. In
lakni, Rungshen (i.e.} in 1487 A.D.) in
the month of Ashar, the day, suddenly,
became as dark as night and boiled
unhusked rice also germinated. The
Nagas of Tangashu village revolted.
The king marcEed with an army against
the Nagas. A battle was fought on
the hill in Banruk. One hundred and
forty men of the side of the king were
killed. The Banrukia Gahain and
Parbatia Hazarika were also killed.
The king and his son returned after
having defeated the Nagas. In lakni
Taoshinga (i.e., in 1488 A.D.) in the
month of Jaistha, Chaopha Shushen
died. He reigned full 49 years.
CHAOPHA SHUHAN,
22. Chaopha Shuhan succeeded the
throne. In lakni Kamut (&.e., in 1489
A.D.) the king sent one Eomung to
construct a fort at the village, Tangshu.
In lakni, Kapshan (i.e., in 1490 A.D.)
in the month of Chaitra, a war with the
Kacharis broke out. Chaopha Shuhan
gave Chaophunlung Khampeng, the
command of the war. He advanced
with his army on an elephant, Pairin.
Khrungnangsheng was made war Neog.
They7~tEen, halted on the other side of
the Dikhau river in a body to meet the
enemies. The Kacharis fell suddenly
upon the king’s army and pressed them
hard. Khrunangsheng, being unable to
hold his ground against the enemies,


53
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retreated. The Kacharis made a hot
pursuit after the king's army which en-
tered into a jungle to protect themselves
from the attack of the enemies. Chao-
phunlung Khampeng fled on the ele-
phant, Pairin, from the field of battle.
One hundred and twenty persons of the
king’s army were killed. The Kacharis
overtook Tangshu Neog and killed him.
Chaopha Shuhan crossed the Dikhau
river and pitched his tent on the side of
the Dikhau. The king offered a girl
named Jekhring to the Kachari Raja
with a male elephant, a female elephant
and twelve female slaves. The Kacharis
returned to their country.
23. In the ancient time, Thaomung-
lung Kangteu accompanied the king
(Shukapha). Chaophunlung Khampeng
descended from him. Chaokangbanruk
was a descendant of Thaomungnangrung.
This family had two men, Phrang-
nungban and Tekchangnyeu. In lakni,
Daprao (i.e., in 1491 A.D.) Chaopha
Shuhan made Chaokangbanruk, Bar-
gohain and Phunlung Khampeng Raj-
mantri Buragohain.
24. It happened that the Tairubans
(a class of Ahom) stole king’s paddy.
Chaopha Shuhan arrested them and
made them pay one hundred rupees.
Sometimes after, the king, one day
ordered the Tairubans to repair kings
meshang (raised bamboo floor). They
lay concealed twenty pointed bamboo
pieces among other bamboos. Chaopha
Shuhan, when he was sitting in the
projecting part of the meshang (tup of
the house) was pierced to death with
those pointed bamboo pieces by the
Tairubans. The king was murdered in
lakni Mungkeu (&.e., in 1493 A D.). He
ruled the country for full five years.
CHAOPHA SHUP1M.
25. Shuhan’s son, Chaopha, Shupim,
succeeded him. In lakni, Katplao (i.e.9
in 1495 A.D.), the Buragohain rebelled


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against the king. In lakni Rungmao
{i.e., in 1497 A.D.), Chaopha Shupim
died. He ruled the country for full foui
years.
CHAOPHA SHUHUMMUNG
(DIHINGIA RAJA).
26. Chaopha Shuhummung succeeded
Chaopha Shupim. In lakni, Plekmit
{i.e., in 1504 A.D.), the Itania Nagas
revolted. Nangrang Bargohain and
Khampeng Buragohain marched with
an army against the Ifcania Nagas. The
Itanias being defeated made peace and
offered four elephants and a girl. In
lakni, Kapshi (i.e., in 1510 A.D.), the
Gohains returned with the offers. In
lakni, Raishinga, (i.e., in 1512 A.D.),
Chaopha Shuhum came to Habung with
his followers. Therefrom he proceeded
to Panbari.
27. -- War with the Chutias.—In lakni,
Mungmut {i.e., in 1513 A.D.), the Chutia
king, Dhitnarayan made a hostile march
against our king and took his station at
Dikhaumukh. A selected body of the
Chutias was stationed at a place near a
Bheel (a lake). Another body was des-
patched with the navy to Shiraati.
Chaopha Shuhum put Chao Shukhring
and two Railungia Gohains in charge of
the navy and ordered them to proceed
against the enemies. The armies of our
king, Shuhumpha marched by land and
by water. A pitched battle was fought
in which a large number of the enemies
were killed. Chaopha Shuhum came
back and halted in a country house.
In lakni, Kapngi {i.e., in 1520 A.D.) the
Chutias again entered into our country
and plundered the inhabitants. Khen-
mung rushed out of his fort and attack-
ed them with his force. Khenmung fell
dead in the struggle and his army re-
treated. In lakni, Raishi {i.e., in 1522
A.D.) Chaopha Shuhum proceeded to
Nangkamung and stopped there. Then
the Bargohain sent one Lashaitai to
inform Chaopha Shuhum at Nangka-
mung that the Chutias had invaded our
country and pitched their tent at the
mouth of the Sessa river. Chaopha
Shuhum got all information from Las-


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haitai and collected a great army at
the mouth of the Tiphau river. In the
month of Kartik, Phrashenmung Bargo-
hain and Klinglun Rajmantri, (prime-
minister) with their whole force, pro-
ceeded to the mouth of the Tiphau river
and constructed a fort there. Chaopha
Shuhum came to Charaideu and offered
sacrifices to the gods. In lakni, Mung-
sheu (i.e., in 1523 A.D.) in the month of
Aghon, Chaopha Shuhum proceeded to
and halted at the mouth of the Sessa
river. Our army proceeded onward. The
Chutia king advanced and encamped at
Rupa. He laid a seize on our fort at
the mouth of the Tiphau. Phrasenmung
Bargohain and Klinglun Rajmantri with
all other great men fought on land
with the Chutias and killed a great
many of them. Kaitara, Alangki Chetia,
and Patatlung fought naval battle with
the enemies. In the next morning
Chaopha Shuhum, taking with him all
his force living in the fort and working
in the navy reached Sonari. Then the
Chutia king sent to our king Katakis
with the following things to sue for.
peace—a gold pira (a seat), two pairs of
blankets and a beautiful stool. He also
sent a gold pira, and a blanket to each
of the Bargohain and the Rajmantri.
The Chutia Katakis delivered the things
to our king, Chaopha Shuhum and said
humbly that his king had sent him to
ask the all powerful king to make peace
and took him in favour. In reply,
Chaopha Shuhum demanded the follow-
ing :—one polished wooden stool one
gold umbrella, one silver umbrella, a pair
of Khamkapor (embroidered cloth), a pair
of silver bracelets, a pair of gold brace-
lets, a pair of silver gilted bracelets, a
girl, a female elephant and ten fat male
elephants.
28. VLor wr OAor Vwri 28. The Chutia Katakis returned to
their king and intimated him what
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Chutia king said : I may give a girl but
I cannot give the gold umbrella, the
gold bracelets and the silver umbrella
which belong to my ancestors. I have
already given the silver box to my son.”
Then the Chutia king desired to send
one silver lipped umbrella (Japi), silver
and gold bracelets, a gold pira, an
elephant, and two Aroans to the Ahom
king, a pair of gold bracelets, an Aroan
and a horse to the Bargohain and a pair
of gold bracelets, an Aroan and a horse
to the Buragohain. The Chutias, in the
meantime, raised a fort at the mouth of
the river and assembled there.
29. Chaopha Shuhum, Thaomung-
lung Nangshung, Chao Shenglung klang-
sheng, the Sadiyakhowa Gohain and
Thaomung Klingkhen consulted together
and decided to attack the enemies in the
fort. They made a bridge of boats,
came to the other side of the river and
landed on a dry piece of land. Chaopha,
Shuhum, advanced on a horse named,
Kansheomlan, with his army and
attacked the enemies in the fort. The
Chutia king fled away, our king took
the fort and remained in it for the day.
Then our whole force made a hot pursuit
after the Chutia king and arrived at the
side of the hill, Kaitara. Our army
could not overtake the Chutia king.
The Chutias ascended the hill, Chantan
(Chandangiri). Our army began to
climb up the hill, Chantan. The Chutias
rolled down blocks of big stones. Our
army retreated taking with them a man
as prisoner. Then our Dangarias held a
council and decided what to do. Thao-
munglung Nangshung Thaomung Kling-
kham and Thaomung Shenba (Sadiya-
khowa Gohain) proceeded on the right
hand side. Chao Rupak, taking two
elephants with him, set out on the
left side to find out some Ghila-plants.
Mounting on the elephant, Ikhring,
he climbed up a Ghila creeper with
a body of his men and arrived at the
top of the hill but he could not see any
person there. Chao Rupak, with his
two elephants advanced up making a


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way and arrived in a village. The ene-
mies could see our force. They were
very much frightened. They pelted
down stones which struck to death some
of our men. Our army attacked the
Chutia king. The battle was fought on
the hill at a place called Jangmungkham.
Our army fought with bows and arrows.
The Chutia king was struck with an
arrow and he fell dead. His beloved
son rushed out of the fort, and was killed
by our men. In the next morning the
heads of the Chutia king and his son
were conveyed from Jangmungkham
and produced before the Dangarias and
all others.
30. In the morning, the Dangarias
plundered the family of the Chutia king
of their gold and silver umbrellas, gold
and silver piras (stools) and gold and
silver bracelets. The princes and the
princesses were made captives. The
Dangarias made over all the spoils to the
king at Barnagar. Then the Dhanu-
dharias conveyed the heads of the Chutia
king and his son from the hill Kaitara
and produced them before the king.
The king offered presents to Thaomung-
lung Nangshung, Chaoshenglung Klinglun
and all others. The king wished to
arrange the affairs of the Chutia territory
in a proper way. He did not like to
allow any descendants of the Chutia
king to govern their country. He then
sent Thaomung Nangshung and Thao-
munglung Phrashenmung to put the
Chutia country in order. The above
two officers were provided with three
hundred and three men. Then the king
came back to the capital with all his
men. The heads of the Chutia king and
his son were buried at the base of the
stairs attached to the Deoghars at
8


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Charaideu. After this, the king per-
formed Rikkhvan ceremony (a religious
ceremony performed for longevity of
life).
31. War with the Kacharis.—In lakni
Plekshinga (i.e., in 1524 A.D.), Phukloi-
mung, the Kachari king, entered into
Bar-Deyaliagaon and plundered our
people. They killed our three men and
took away with them an elephant named
Pailum. Thaomunglung Phrashenmung
sent the news of the Kachari inroad to
the king. Hearing the news, the king
offered sacrifices to the gods for the
outrage done to the holy place. In the
month of Dinpet (Ahar), the king, sent
Thaomung Shenba and one Sheng with
one thousand men to meet the enemies.
The heavenly king also marched after
them and joined with them at Ruram.
Phukloimung attacked our army by
mounting on an elephant. Thaomung
Khamjang (Khamjangia Gohain) and
Phaluruhaktengkhan (Tengkham Bardu-
ari Saikia) confronted him. One Laka-
shung came up and flung a spear to Phuk-
loimung, which wounded his thigh but
Lakashung was killed. One Chaongichum,
one Lasham and one Joypati met Phukloi-
mung and speared his horse to death.
At this Phukloimung gave up battle and
sent one Phushen Kataki to Shuhumpha
with these words :—“ I wish to offer my
sister and two best horses to the heaven-
ly king, who may graciously be pleased
to make peace with me.” At this,
Chaopha Shuhum gave up the battle and
returned to his capital. Phushencheu,
a Kachari Kataki, came to and offered
Chaopha Shuhum, the princess Nang-
khamdeng and two best horses with
great esteem. In lakni Katmut (i.e., in
1525 A.D.), Phushencheu had been to
the heavenly king. Chaopha Shuhum
also offered a girl named Nangkhampai,
a tusked elephant and twenty Japis
(hats) with silver tips on to the Kachari
king.
32. In lakni, Katmut (i.e., in 1525
A.D.), in the month of Dinpet (Ahar)
Chaopha Shuhum was ruling the country
in peace. In lakni Khutshan (i.e., in
1526 A.D.), the heavenly king created


59
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Klangsheng of Dlianudharia family,
Bhatialia Gohain and stationed him at
Habung. Kheokhen Banlungia Gohain
was made Dihingia Gohain. Shengpem
was made Dhanudharia Gohain and
Chaopet Khamkling, Banlungia Gohain.
In the middle of the month. Aghon, the
Kacharis made inroads in our country.
The heavenly king and his son made
preparations to march against the ene-
mies. The Sadiyakhowa Gohain and
Klingkham Bargohain were ordered to
proceed before the king with their men.
Then both the king and his son followed
them and by going upstream the river
Tima, arrived at the principal gate of
the city of the Kachari king. The
Bhatialia and the Dihingia Gohains were
ordered to repair the path to the river
to enable the army to fetch water.
They did as the king desired. They,
then, constructed a brick fort in front of
the principal gate of the Kachari city.
Having completed their work, they
welcomed in the heavenly king and his
son. The king with his son, then, pro-
ceeded to the town Marangki (Marangi)
and passed four or five nights there.
Chaolung Saring, Chao Shukring and
Klinglum Shenglung advanced in a body
from Patkata and arrived at Dergaon.
From Marangki, the king proceeded
downstream the river Tima. He then
advanced upstream the Barnadi and
arrived at Dergaon. Chaolung Saring,
Chao-Shukring and his son Chao-Shaorai
advanced onward. The heavenly king
left his navy and marched on land to
the Kachari country. The Dihingia
Gohain advanced in the front on an
elephant, Paikhrang. The Sadiyakhowa
Gohain proceeded on a she elephant.
Thaomung Khenteu and Thaomung
Mungteu took their march on two ele-
phants, Pailik and Paikeo respectively.
Chao-Shenglung Klinglun marched on an
elephant with his men. Chaopha Shuk-
lenmung and Chaopha Shulhum advanced
too and entered in the field called
Tengabari. At the dawn of the day,
they began to march and arrived in the
Angkara field. When the sun appeared
in the sky, they entered in the Kathkatia
village. Then the Kacharis rushed out
in a body and attacked our force. The


60
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vTL'vS vltf 1 vor OA son of Khun tai, one Lansheu and forty
soldiers were killed by the enemies.
Thaomungklingkham, in fear of being
seen by the enemies, dismounted from
his elephant, Pailik and retreated. A
body of the Kacharis came to the vil-
lage, Kathkatia and stopped there.
33. Thaomungmungklang, Thaomung-
Shenba and Thaomungklingkham deli-
vered a united attack on the Kacharis.
The Kacharis let fly a great number of
arrows, many of which struck the legs
of the elephant, Paikhrang. Thaomung
Mungteu, with his army, came up on a
female elephant and surrounded the
enemies from left hand side. A great
number of Kacharis fell dead on the field
of battle and others took to their heels,
Chaopha Shuhum came back to Dergaon
on the elephant, Pairin, leaving behind
him half of his army. Thaomung Shu-
lung, Thaomung Shenba, Thaomung-
Mungteu, Thaomung Mungklang and
Thaomungklingkham, coming upstream
the Barnadi, joined with the king
and his son. The king, with all his
men, passed a night at Dergaon. In
the next morning, all of them got into
their ships and steered downward in
pursuit of the enemies, Shenglung re-
mained in charge of the fleet. Thao-
mungmungteu and Thaomung Shenba
were despatched on the right hand side
and Thaomung-Mungklang on the left.
All of them advancing by two directions
pressed the enemies hard at Deoghar.
Shenglung too, leaving the fleet, pro-
ceeded by land and charged the enemies.
The Kachari Khunbao (Deka Raja) fled
away on a horse. One thousand and
seven hundred Kacharis were killed.
The Kacharis were completely defeated.
Then our armies, with the king and his
son, rowed upstream the Tilao (Lohit
river) and arrived at the capital. The
king called in all the officers, high and
low, and performed Rikkhvan ceremony
34. Chutia’s inroad, etc.—In the
month of Palgun, the Chutias revolted.
The Dihingia Gohain was sent to re-
inforce Phrashenmung Bargohain. The


61
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Chutias advanced and surrounded our
fort. The Dihingia Gohain and Paipam,
the elephant, belonging to Plirashen-
mung Bargahain were killed in the
struggle. In the month of Jaistha,
Chaolung Shulung was sent to govern
the country, Tiphau (Dibrugarh). In
lakni Rungrao (i.e. in JSgj A.D.) Chao-
Shenglung Klingkham war made Thao-
mung Bangen (Sadiyakhowa Gohain),
and offered the rule of the country from
Kangkham to the source of the river
Tilao (Lohit). Thaomung Mungteu was
made Shenglung.
35. The invasion of the great Ujir.—
The great Ujir of the down country
entered into and invaded our country.
Chao Shenglung (the Rajmantri) was sent
direct to meet the enemy. Hananik
Shenba was despatched on the right
hand side and Shengkungren on the
left to assist Shenglung. The whole
force of our king made a combined
attack upon the armies of the great
Ujir. The Ujir being unable to stand
our attack, retreated. Then our army
advanced to Burai. In the battle, our
army killed twenty horses with spear
thrust and obtained possession of forty
horses and twenty cannon. Shenglung
Hanan and Kungren offered the spoils
to the king at the capital. The king
said to Shenglung, “ I am very much
pleased to find that I made you, a des-
erving man, Shenglung (Raj man tri).”
The king, then, named Thaomung Kun-
gren as Thaomung Katak and ordered
him to remain in the Phulbari at Katak.
36. The heavenly king proceeded to
Aola (Biswanath). He ordered Sheng-
lung, Thaomung Shenba and some others
to go to and remain at Teomeni. They
did accordingly, proceeded to the place
and stopped there. The heavenly king
came back to the mouth of the Burai
river and erected a fort there. The
king stationed Thaomung Saring with
one thousand men in the fort. Thao-
mung Katak was ordered to remain in
Phulbari. The king came back to the
capital with all his men. The king
passed the lakni Taomit (i.e. the year
~1528- A.D.) in peace. In lakni Kaken


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(i.e. in 15L29 A.D.), the king, with his
son, the Dangarias and followers pro-
ceeded to Shaola (Saia). The heavenly
king sent a messanger to Shenglung and
others directing them to return from
Teomena. The king then ordered Thao-
mung Katak and Thaomungklang to
cross the Bharali river and plunder the
wide country on the other side. Both
of them acted as desired and returned
with some captives who were produced
before the king. Thaomung Katak was
placed at Narayanpur. The king with
his son and other officers left the place.
Chaopha Shuklenmung and Chao Shen-
lung, coming upstream the Dikhau river,
arrived at Majgaon and therefrom they
came to Dihing and stopped there.
37. In the month of Puh, the Chutias
rose against Thaomunglung Phrashen-
mung and Thaomung Bangen. The
heavenly king ordered Chao Shuklan
(Tipam Raja) to go to and remain with
Phrashenmung in the fort carefully.
Chao Shuleng was sent to strengthen the
force of Thaomung Bangen at Kangkham.
Thaomung Phrashenmung, then, march-
ed to attack the Chutias at Chandangiri
hill. Thaomung Bangen advanced to
fight with the enemies on the side of the
Titao (Lohit river). Thaomunglung
Phrashenmung halted on the way and
sent words to Thaomung Bangen to join
with him. Thaomung Bangen marched
accordingly and joined with Thaomung
Phrashenmung. They advanced on and
halted in the town Nangkao. Chaopha
Shuklengmung was put in charge of the
capital. Then Chaopha Shuhummung,
with Chao-Shenglung and all other great
officers proceeded to the country of the
Chutias and arrived in Kangkham.
Thaomung Bangen, Chao-Shenglung and
Shengshanan were despatched against
the Chutias remaining on the side of the
Debong river. The heavenly king en-
tered into the capital of the Chutia king
and stopped there. Chaolung Shuklan,
Thaomunglung Shenba, and Klingkham


63
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were sent to fight with the Chutias on
the hill Doithang Chaolung Shulung
was ordered to go to and remain in the
temple at Sadiya near the Kiuxdil river.
Those who fought with the Chutias on
the Doithang vanquished the enemies.
They returned and joined with the king.
The king ordered Chaolung Shulung and
the high officers who fought on the hill
Doithang to proceed to Marankao to
fight with the Chutias there. Accordingly
they took their march, fell upon the
enemies and got a complete victory.
The king, again, ordered his armies to
attack the enemies at Chandangiri.
The Bargohain Dangaria proceeded to
Chandangiri and commenced fighting.
The Chutias rolled down large blocks of
stones. Our army threw aside their
spears and other weapons and retreated.
Then the two prince-brothers, the
Bargohain and all others asked the
Deodhais, to examine the legs of fowls.
The calculation appeared favourable.
The king ordered Thaomung Shenba, and
Thaomung Klingkham to climb up the
hill Chandangiri and surround the ene-
mies. They ascended the hill and
arrived at the city on the hill Chandan-
giri but they could not make their way
further. They came down bringing with
them some boys and old men whom
they could get hold of. Chaolung Shu-
lung stopped at Banphi (Deyaliagaon).
Chaolung Shuklan, the Bargohain,
Thaomung Shenba, and Thaomung
Klingkham came back and joined with
the king. The king left Barnagar for
Kangkham and halted there. He then
proceeded upstream the Tilao and
stopped near a high bank wherefrom he
could have a view of the Chutia town.
Chaolung Shulung left Banphi. The
heavenly king, coming upstream the
Tilao, stopped at the mouth of the
Tikali river. Chaolung Shulung as he
proceeded to meet the king who was at
Tikalimunkh, was attacked by a body of
the Chutias near the Tilao. The king
rowed back to Kangkham and remained
there. Tbaomung Bangen, Chao Sheng-
lung and Chaolung Hanan, going down-
stream the Dibong, defeated the ene-
mies and liberated Chaolung Shulung.
They came back and offered the king


64
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oa v' 0/$, 4 the spoils of the battle. Thaomunglung
Phrashenmung came out of his town and
met the heavenly king. Then the king,
Shuhummung left Thaomunglung Phra-
shenmung and Thaomung Bangen in
charge of Sadiya giving them necessary
instructions, and returned to his capital.
In lakni Kapcheu (i.e. in 1530 A.D.),
the heavenly king sent Chao Shuken,
Chaolung Shuleng and Sheng Hanan to
bring in Thaomunglung Phrashenmung
from Sadiya. They arrived at Kang-
kham. Thaomung Bangen joined with
the two prince-brothers on the way.
They, with Thaomung Bangen, advanced
on and arrived at the gate of the city.
They informed Thaomunglung Phrash-
enmung of their arrival. Thaomunglung
Phrashenmung came out of the city and
greeted the princes. Then Sheng Hanan
intimated Thaomunglung Phrashenmung
the order of the king and directed him
to proceed at once to see his Majesty,
At this, Thaomung Phrashenmung
ordered his attendants and followers to
make necessary preparations. Thao-
munglung and Thaomung Bangen pro-
ceeded down to meet the king. Chao
Shuklengmung received Phrashenmung
kindly and produced him before the
king.
38. In lakni Dapplao (i.e. in 1531^
AD.), the heavenly king, Shuhum, des-
patched Chaolung, Shuklenmung, Chao-
lung Saring, Chao Shukhring, Thao-
munglung Phrashenlung and Chao-
Shenglung Klangsheng to construct a
fort at Marangki (Marangi). They then
proceeded there, threw up a fort and
put up in it. The Kachari king sent his
brother, Detcha to attack our men in
the fort at Marangki. Chaopha Shuklen-
mung and Chaolung Saring rushed out of
the fort with all other great men and fell
upon the enemies. The Kacharis were
defeated, Chaolung Saring killed Detcha,
the brother of the Kachari Raja and
took possession of some swords, brazen
pots and cloths. The news reached the
king, Chaopha Shuhum, who despatched
Thaomung Katak to reinforce the fort at
Marangki. Then the heavenly king and
his son, rowing upstream the river
Namtima (Dhansiri), arrived at the


65
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mouth of the Jangtima (Dayang) river
and assembled all his force there. A
fort was constructed there. They then
advanced upstream the river and halted
on a high sand bank. In the dead of
night, a body of our men advanced from
the sand bank and set fire to a town of
the Kacharis. In the next morning,
the heavenly king having left his ships
behind, advanced with his armies and
arrived at a place called Denggnut.
The Kachari Khunbao (Deka Raja) was
putting up in the town. Chaopha
Shuhuin remained in the rear and sent
Chaopha Shukenmung, Chalung Saring,
Chao Shukhring, Chaolung Shuklan,
Chaolung Shuteng and all the high
officers to fight with the Kacharis.
Thaomung Klingkham, Sheng Hanan
and Shegkungren were despatched on
the right hand side to attack the ene-
mies near the Khamnamtima (Soban-
siri). All of them marched off quickly
and delivered an attack on the enemies.
They captured Mentarilung (Barmajin-
dar). The Bao (Deka Raja) of the
Kacharis fled away on the back of a
horse. Our men chased after him up to
the brick town (Itanagar). The Kachari
king, and his brother, the Khunbao fled
to Kakat. The heavenly king, leaving
the brick town, came to and halted at
Malipathar. Chaolung Shulung, Thao-
mung Shenba and Thaomungbanbalam
joined with the king. Then the heaven-
ly king ordered his ministers, attendants,
soldiers and labourers to assemble to-
gether. After this he removed his camp
to Lengngut. The Kachari Raia Det^
sheng sent his brother with an offer of
two hundred rupees to the heavenly
king to pray the latter to help the for-
mer in regaining his father’s dominion
which was arrested from him by force by
Khuntara. Detsheng’s brother accord-
ingly came to the heavenly king and
said, “my brother wishes to offer our
sister to your Majesty and come to pay
his respect to you if your Majesty be
pleased to re-instal him to our ances-
tral kingdom.” At this, the heavenly
king sent a Kataki in the company of
the brother of the Kachari Raja with
the message that if the Kachari Raja
would give him his sister, one thousand
9


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rupees and an elephant, he might then
come to terms.
39. Three or four days after the
Kachari Raja with his brother came to
the heavenly king taking with them
their sister, the sum of rupees demanded
and an elephant besides five hundred
swords, five hundred cloths, one thou-
sand napkins and one hundred Doolies
(Sedans). With these offers, both the
brothers greeted the king and said,
££ We your Majesty’s subjects salute
thee.” Then the heavenly king, putting
off a gold ring from his finger, presented
it to the Kachari Raja and said, ££ We
are now friends. You must not quarrel
with us any longer and should be straight-
forward in your action.” The heavenly
king presented the Kachari Raja, an
elephant named Ploikan, a royal um-
brella, a cup, a sword and a saddled
horse. The Kachari Raja was directed
to surrender to the heavenly king all the
silver daggers, large cannon, gold um-
brellas, gold sofas, gold jars, large gold
plates, a gold cooking vessel and three
of the queens. The Chief queen was to
be kept for the Kachari Raja. The
Kachari Raja promised to make over the
things and the queens to the heavenly
king. The Kungaris (queens) were sta-
tioned in the brick town (Itanagar).
After this Rikkhvan ceremony was per-
formed.
40. War with the Musalmans. One
Luipat, a man of the great Ujir, entered
the Tilao. The news reached the
heavenly king who immediately des-
patched Shenglung, Thaomung Shenba
and Khunkhara against the enemies.
Sheng Hanan was sent to Lakat with
necessary things and money. Thao-
mung Katak was sent to Burai. All of
them took their march accordingly.
Both the king and his son with Chao-
lung Saring, Thaomunglung Phrashen-
mung and all others came back to the
capital.


67
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voLr v', 41. Chao Shengjung and Thaomung
Shenba met the Ujit (the great Ujir) at
Temeni. A great battle was fought in
which Thaomung Banba (Bandungia
Gohain) was killed. Our men got a
complete victory. The Ujit left his fleet
and fled away on land on a horse. Chao
Shenlung advanced forward and con-
structed a fort at Kangaripara, Thao-
mung Shenba came baclTlo the Capital.
Sheng Hanan brought with him a gold
umbrella, a silver umbrella, all the
guilted articles dedicated to a temple,
a silver stool, a gold stool belonging to
a Deoghar and the elephant formerly
given by the Koch king. He made over
all the spoils to the heavenly king at
Dihing. Then the heavenly king ordered
Thaomung Klengkham to proceed to
and stop at Shaola (Saia). Sheng
Hanan was stationed at Bnarali. The
king instructed them all to help each
other on the event of any one of
them being attacked by the enemies.
When the Musalmans advanced forward
to attack our armies, they joined to-
gether as instructed by the heavenly
king, for united action. The Musalman
Nawab Bitmalik and the great Ujir
advanced on and got all the^and and
naval forces (consisting of one thousand
horse and one million men) in order of
battle. Our armies, too, kept themselves
ready to meet the enemies. The great
Ujir and Bitmalik marched on horseback
and laid seige on the fort guarded by
Shenglung (the Barpatra Gohain).
Shenglung sallied out on an elephant
named Pairin and fell upon the enemies.
A hot battle was fought in which the
tail and the lower part of a leg of the
elephant Pairin were cut off. Thao-
mungklingkham and Thaoshangmung-
bing attacked the enemies by mounting
on the elephants, Pairak and Paikai
respectively. Shenglung Klangsheng
severed Bitmalik with his sword. The
other Musalmans fled away. Our armies
pursued them up to Khagarijan. The
elephant Pairin being dis^EIed to pro-
ceed forward for his sores, was sent back.
Shenlung (the Barpatra) killed great
many horses and captured one hundred
alive. The king called back Shenglung,
Thaomung Klingkham and Thaomung-


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bing. They came back accordingly and
offered the king fifty horses, many guns
and cannon and other articles which
they got possession of by defeating
Bitmalik. The heavenly king offered a
girl to Shenglung and rewards to the
rest according to their services. The
king took back the men put under Sheng
Hanan for his not offering the king the
spoils which he obtained in the war with
the Musalmans. In Lakni Raingi (i.e.,
in 1532 A.D.), the heavenly king sent
many high officers with Shenglung to
construct a fort at Teomeni. They
proceeded accordingly to Teomeni and
erected a fort there.
42. In the month of Dinruk (Bahag),
the king of Bengal (the Musalman
Nawab of Bengal) sent an expedition
under a General called Turubak (Turbak).
Turubak, with thirty elephants, one
thousand horses, many guns and cannon
and other war weapons took his march
and entered in our territory. They
made a fort and lived in. Then the
heavenly king sent for Chaolung Shu-
lung, Thaomung Klingkham and Thao-
mung Blaksheng. All of them came to
the king at his call. The king ordered
them to go to and reinforce Shenglung.
They, then, marched off and joined with
Shenglung (Barpatra Rajmantri). The
king, again, despatched Chaopha Shuk-
len, Chao Saring, Chao Shukhring and
Thaomung Phrashenmung. All the great
men of our king assembled in the fort of
Shenglung. The king ordered one Baola,
a Deodhai Pundit, to examine the legs of
fowls. He found in the calculation as
follows : “ if the enemies are to attack
us by crossing the river, our army is to
get victory but on the other hand, if our
army is to attack the enemies by crossing
the river, we are sure to sustain defeat.”
43. Now and then, bodies of Musal-
mans on horse unexpectedly approached
our camp and killed a man or two
in each attempt with arrows or by
gun-shots. In spite ofthe prediction of
the Deodhai Pundit, Chaopha Shuklen-
mung rushed out of the camp and


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attacked the enemies by crossing the
river. The Musalmans were so hard
pressed that they ran into the water
of the Kapiliganga. Then .Turbak
sallied out of the fort and attacked our
armies with elephants, cavalry, large
and splint guns. Our armies being un-
able to resist the onset, fell back into
the river Kapiliganga. Chaopha Shuk-
lengmung made a hair-breadth escape
being wounded by the enemies. Thao-
mung Phrashenmung, Shengkungren,
Thaobingshang, Thaomung Katkham,
Chaoring Shengkan, and Chaoring
Kangmusha were killed in the field of
battle. Altogether, eight Generals of
eight Hengdangs (swords) fell dead.
Then our army retreated and took
shelter under Chaopha Shuhummung in
the fort at Shaola (Saia). Chaopha
Shuklengmung had to go to the capital
to recruit his health. The heavenly
king called in Thaomung Katak and
stationed him at Shengmari. Thaomung
Hanan was placed at Shaola. The king
made Chao-Shenglung (the Naga Bar-
patra) the Commander-in-Chief of the
war, and directed him to repair the
walls of the forts. Chaopha Shuhum-
mung, and Chaolung Shairing returned
to the capital. Chaolung Shuteng and
Chaolung Shuleng were stationed at
Barnadi. The Kacharis were given with
them to assist them. The Musalmans
advanced and encamped at Kaliabar.
44. In the month of Dinpet (Ahar)
our men pulled down the ships from
land to the river Tilao, fastened them
together and proceeded to the river
Brahmaputra. There were seven hun-
dred ships on our side. In the month of
Dinship (Kati), the Musalmans advanced
to Ghiladhari and halted there.
45. In Lakni Mungmao (/.e., in 1533
A.D.), in the month of Dinching (Aghon)
Chaopha Shuklengmung came to Shaola,
Chaolung Shuklen was ordered to go to
the mouth of the Burai river, with
Chaolung Shuteng and Chaolung Shuleng.
They, did accordingly proceed to their
destination and encamped there. The
Musalmans advanced and pitched their
tent near Shaola. One day, they came


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out of their stockade, surrounded Shaola
and set fire to the houses. Three lines
of houses were reduced to ashes. Our
men poured down hot water on the
Musalmans which scorched their bodies
and caused sores. The enemies, then,
shot guns to our armies. Our men took
shelter in the fort. In the month of
Dinsham (Magh) Thaomung Kelak and
Thaomung Hanan rushed out of the fort
and attacked the enemies on a sand
bank. A large body of Musalman
cavalry charged our army. Our men
fought mounting on elephants and could
not kill many of the enemies. The ene-
mies opened fire from their large guns
and flint guns. Four hundred elephants
were on our side. A body of Musalman
cavalry chased after Thaomung Katak,
who, in order to save his life, plunged
into the deep water of the river. A few
great men and one Lalara of our side,
were killed. Hanak Hujainka, as he
came back, was attacked by a Musalman
soldier. Hanan shot an arrow which
struck the head of the soldier. Taking
this opportunity Hanan fled away. The
Musalmans made a hot pursuit after our
army. Our men retreated and took
shelter in the fort Shaola.
46. In the month of Dinshi (Falgun),
the heavenly king sent Chaolung Saring
to fight with the enemies. The three
prince brothers assembled at Burai. In
the month of Dinha (Chaitra), the
Musalmans advanced both by land and
water, surrounded the fort at Shaola and
besieged it for three nights and three
days. Two Musalmans, Natlung and
Taju were in charge of the' enemies’
ships. One Shangatnat of the Musal-
man navy, getting on "board a ship,
proceeded to the river Tilao (Lohit) to
attack Chaolung Saring who was in
charge of the Burai fort. Chaolung
Shuklan, Chaolung Shuteng and Chao
Shuleng had four ships with them.
Chaolung Shuklen with two ships, pro-
ceeded to attack the enemies on the
left flank. Chaolung Shuteng advanced
with two ships to charge the enemies
from the right hand side. Chaolung
Shulung proceeded with fourteen ships
to fall upon the enemies in the front.


71
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voq wlS vtfS wf VIS wt§ rt/ VIS The three prince brothers marched
against the Musalmans. The Musal-
mans retreated in two ships. Our
ships followed them. Our men had with
them bows and arrows. The Musal-
mans assembled together to arrest the
progress of our ships. But their efforts
were of no avail as our ships were
sailed beyond their gun-shot. Our
armies entered into the enemies’ fort
and took possession of a ship and twelve
men. The enemies could not be over-
taken even with boats. When the
Musalmans sailed away beyond our
reach, our men came back to Shaola.
A Musalman named Taju laid siege on
the fort at Shaola with a number of
ships. Chaopha Shuklenmung and Chao-
Shenglung with some high officers were
sent by water in ships to re-inforce the
three prince brothers. All of them
attacked the Musalmans at Duimunihila
and took possession of a large ship and
a gun. The Musalman general, Shangat,
was killed. Two thousand and five
hundred Musalman soldiers fell dead in
the field of battle. Chao Shuklenmung,
Thaomung Katak and Sheng Hanan
with other high officers marched in ships
to surround the enemies. They over-
took the enemies and attacked them.
Our army defeated the enemies and ob-
tained possession of twenty small ships
and a horse.
47. In the next morning, one Hash-
ankha with a body of Musalmans arrived.
He had six elephants, one hundred
horses and a thousand soldiers with him.
He reinforced Turbak. In the month of
Cinchit (Jaistha), the Musalmans pro-
ceeded downward and stopped at the
mouth of the Dikrai river. Then our
armies assembled together. A body of
our men pursued the enemies and sur-
rounded them at the mouth of the Dik-
rai. Chaopha Shuhum, marched down
and halted at Duimunihila. The king
sent Shenglung (Barpatra) to fight with
the Musalmans. Our army remained at
Dikraimukh for two months and a half.
They, then, left the place and joined
with the king by coming on land. The
whole body of our men-at-arms put up
in the fort. In the next morning, the


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W% OAYR M? Wfl W heavenly king ordered Chao-Shenglung,
Thaomung Shenba, Thaomung Katak,
Chaopha Shuklenmung and Chaolung
Saring to erect a fort adjacent to that
of the Musalmans. They, accordingly,
proceeded to the place and constructed
a fort. The Musalmans left their fort.
A body of Musalman cavalry attacked
our army with guns. Our army re-
treated. Chao Shenglung retreated on
the elephant, Paikhrang, Thaomung
Shenba on Paikalik and Chaoring
Bunlai on Paishu. Chaopha Shuk-
len, Chaolung Shuteng and Chalung
Shuleng rushed out of the fort
but being overtaken by fear, they
re-entered it. One Bharat Sirnha on a
female elephant and a Koch Katoal on a
she-buffalo rushed to falTupon our army.
Three of our Saikias, seeing them ap-
proach, mounted on elephants and
commanded, with open sword, our men
to halt. Thaomung Katak and Taimung-
klang surrounded the enemies from right
hand. The Musalmans got into their
ships and retreated. Our men made a
hot pursuit after them. Sheng Hanan,
Thaomung Daopimren and one Jaypat
chased after the enemies up to the
Dikrai river. The whole body of our
men arrived at the side of the Tikarai
river (Dikrai river). Chaopha with
Chaolung Shuteng, Chaolung Shuleng
and the whole body of men-at-arms
halted for the night in the fort there.
48. In the next morning, the heaven-
ly king despatched Taimunglung to
surround the enemies from the rear.
Taimungklang was sent to charge the
enemies in the front. Seeing this, the
Musalmans left the fort. Our army pur-
sued the enemies, making a general massa-
cre. When the Musalmans saw that their
soldiers had been killed in great number,
they halted near a boggy place. The
Musalmans retreated again on elephants.
Our Chaoringbun mounting on an
elephant, Paishu, attacked the enemies.
The Musalmans were routed. Many of
the Musalmans plunged into the bog and
the rest fled away. Then our men came
to a field and killed some elephants
which were in a lake or bheel called


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10
Pantua. The elephant keepers were
speared to death. Chaolung Shuleng,
Chaorupakrak and Atikungat surround-
ed the enemies with elephants. Then
Turbak and Tashunban attacked our
forces with a body of horse. Our soldiers
killed a great many horses by shoot-
ing arrows. The Musalmans fled away
and arrived at the side of the Bharali
river. Our soldiers seized Hushankhang
and killed him with a stroke ol a
dagger. The following things were ob-
tained from the Musalmans as spoils
of war: twenty-eight elephants, eight
hundred and fifty horses, a great num-
ber of big and small guns and cannon,
a box full of gold and eighty bags
of silver coins. Chaopha Shuklenmung,
Chaolung Saring and all others came
back and offered the spoils to Chaopha
Shuhum at Duimunihila. The king
divided the elephants and the horses
amongst his nobles according to their
positions. The heavenly king returned
in an auspicious day to his capital at
Dihing. There the king performed the
ceremony, called Rik-Khanm ungkhanban
(a ceremony in which, Lengdan, the
Lord of heaven is worshipped by offering
sacrifices to grant long life and pros-
perity to the king and the country).
49. In the month of Dinshipshang
(Kartik) the king proceeded to Garhgaon
and offered oblations to the dead and
sacrifices to the gods. The heads of_
Turubak and Jnshankbang—were en-
tombed on the hill (Charaideu). In Lakni
Plekshi (i.e., in 1534 A.D.), in the
month of Dinching (Aghon) Chaopha
Shuhum sent Chaolung Shuleng, Thao-
mungshenba and Thaomung Blaksheng-
mung to remain in Namruk. In the
meantime, a pestilence broke out among
the cattles, which took away a great
number from the month of Dinha
(Chaitra), to the month of Dinchit
(Jaistha).
50. In Lakni Katsheu in 1535
A.D.), the Khanjangia Gohain sent a
letter to the heavenly king, Chaopha
Shuhum, stating that the Nagas of the
villages, Malan, Pangkha, Khaokha,
Lukna and Taru of lower regions and of


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the villages, Pahuk, Khamteng, Shiteng
and Shireng of the higher regions were
joining together to attack him, and that
he would not be in a position to remain
there and most probably he would be
compelled to leave the place. Thus in-
formed, Chaopha Shuhum sent Chaolung
Shuteng, Thaomungkhru and Shang-
kungren in the company of Chaolung
Shuleng against the Nagas of Jakhang.
Shenglung was directed to proceed
against the Nagas of the villages, Phakai,
Tashiteng, and Shireng. Chaolung
Shuteng arrived in Namruk. Chaolung
Shuleng, Thaomungshenba and Thao-
blankshenmung with all others encamped
in Namruk. Our men fought with the
Nagas of Jakhang and defeated them.
Chaolung Shuteng being ill came back.
The king despatched Chaolung Shuleng
with other high officers against the
Nagas of the villages, Lukna, Taru,
P&ngka, Malan and Pangpangta. Ac-
cordingly, they entered into the above
mentioned Naga villages and routed the
Nagas. The Khanjangia Gohain offered
a princely elephant to Chaolung Shuk-
lenmung. Chaolung Shuleng was in the
village Pangka. Therefrom he came to
Khanjang. The Khanjangia Gohain
brought eight horses and some gauze
cloth and offered them to Chaopha
Shuhum. Chaopha Shuhum proceeded
to Mungjang from Charaideu. The
Mungjangias fled to Mungpha whence
they entered into an unsurmountable
part of the hill. Then Chaolung Shuleng
and other officers sent a Kataki to
induce the Mungjangias to come to them.
The Kataki induced them to come to
Khamjang and submit to the king.
After this, Shuleng with the officers left
Khamjang and paid homage to Chao-
pha Shuhummung by offering one hun-
dred methons (a species of wild cows).
51. In Lakni Khutshinga (i.e., in
1536 A.D.) the heavenly king despatch-
ed an army against the Tablungia Nagas.
Chaopha Shuklenmung, Chaolung Shul-
eng, Thaomunglungchankham and Thao-


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mung Shenba were sent to Jaktq.ng.
Chaopha Shuhum and Thaomung Katak
stopped at Khangja. Chaolung Saring
and Chao Shukring were sent to remain
in the Namchangia Naga village. The
Nagas of the villages, Jakteng, Shangnan,
Jenphan and Shancfyai joined together
and in a body, entered the village of the
Tablungia Nagas. Chao Shuklenmung
retreated with his force in the night
time leaving four large gujps there.
Chaopha Shuhum, Chaolung Saring, and
Chao Shukhring also came back. Chao-
pha Shuhum came to and halted at
Barnagar. The Nagas made peace by
offering the large guns.
52. The heavenly king came to
Mungklang (Dihing). There he heard of
Kachari rising. He made Chaolung
Shuleng the Commander-in-Chief of the
army. Chaolung Shuleng, Thaomung-
katak, Sheng Hanan; Shengkungren and
Tairaungklang were sent with an army
against Khun^et, the Kachari Raja.
They marched accordingly and arrived
at Ma^ngki. From Marangki proceed-
ed to and stopped at Harndoi. Chaopha
Shuhum came to and halted at Marangki.
Chaopha Shuklenmung, Thaomunglung
Chankham and Taimunglung advanced
on and joined with the king. Chao-
Shenglung left Na_ga’s war and joined
with the king. Chao-Shenglung and
Thaomunglung were sent to assist Chao-
Shuteng and Chaolung Shuleng in the
war. Both the prince brothers and
Shenglung proceeded on and halted in
the fort in the village Banphu. Thao-
munglung Chankham, Thaomung Katak,
and Shengdang Mungklang were sent by
the Daiyang river on the right hand side.
Sheng Hanan, Klanggnat, Joypati, Las-
hai Tamuli and Chao-Shangrai were sent
on the left hand side. They advanced
upstream the river. Thaomung Nanglao
and Klangrat advanced in ships and
besieged the Kachari garrison in the fort.
As our army approached, three of the
Kacharis came out of their fort on horse


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and shouted to our men to go near to
the sand bank to take four horses and
two thousand rupees which they had
brought to offer to the king. After this
when the Kacharis observed that our
ships were not coming to the shore, they
commenced firing large guns. At this
our army got in order of battle. The
Kachari Raja retreated. Three of our
men were killed. Thaomunglung
Chankham and Thaomung Katak, with
their army, attacked the enemies and
took their station in the village, Ban-
phu. Some of our soldiers, being wound-
ed, came to and informed both the
prince brothers and Shenglung of the
matter. Having heard the news, Chao-
lung Shuteng, Chaolung Shuleng and
Shenglung marched against the Kacharis
and joined with our army there. When
Shuleng and others arrived in the field
of battle, the Kacharis took to their
heels. Our men pursued the enemies
and killed a great number of them. As
our army returned to Langtap leaving
the pursuit, they captured a Kachari
named Tirat and asked him where the
Kachari Raja was then. He replied
that the Kachari Raja was in the fort
on the hill Daimari and there he was
fastening together the ships in the water
of the Khamdam river and was making
arrangement to come across. Then our
army proceeded upstream the river
Namtima and came almost to the proxi-
mity of the place. The Kachari Raja left
the fort and came to Lengngut. From
Lengngut he returned to his capital.
Our army chased after the enemies and
came to the town, Dinchi (Itanagar).
53. Khundet left the town, came to
and halted at Jangmara. Chaopha
Shuklenmung arrived. All the prince
brothers and the high officers advanced
and came to the town, Jangmara. They
found the town deserted. They could
only find there the three Kuaris (queens)
and the mother of the Kachari king.
They examined the city very carefully
but no other person could be seen. The
mother of the Kachari Raja was speared
to death. Then our men found out
the Kachari Raja and cut his head.
After this, the officers came back with


77
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their army and made over to the heaven-
ly king, a gold umbrella, a silver
umbrella, a gold sofa, a silver sofa
and a considerable quantity of silver
and gold at Kuhiarbari. The heavenly
king returned to the capital with his
sons and all other officers and men. He
performed the ceremony, Medam Mephi
(a ceremony in which oblations are
offered to the dead and sacrifices to the
gods). In the month of Dinchit
(Jaistha), the head of Detchung was put
into grave on Charaideu by the side of
Turbak’s tomb.
54. In Lakni Rungmut (i.e., in JJL37
A.D.), in the month of Dinching
(Aghon), Shishu and coming
from the hill, Shikana, offered Chaopha
Shuhummung two horses, one white and
the other gray, a pictured girdle, a large
spotted fly-brush, twenty white fly-
brushes, a long set of pearl and a bead
of coral. Making offer of these things,
they humbly spoke the following to the
heavenly king : “we, your slaves, pray
your Majesty to help us in time of
difficulty. If you assist us when we are
pressed hard, we your slaves, promise
to pay you annual tributes.” Chaopha
Shuhummung offered them some cows
and buffaloes and ordered some men to
accompany them. ✓ Chaopha Shuhum
sent Shenglung to govern the Kachari
country. Thaomung Katak, Thaomung
Mungkhru, Thaomung Shenba, Chao-
lung Shuleng and Chaolung Shukhan
were given in the company of Sheng-
lung.
55. Chaopha Shuhum offered a girl
of Lanmakhru family, named Khukdang
to the Raja of Keshe (Manipur). The
Raja Chaomen; sent thb' Katakis
Khrungdengkang and Nanangpalam
with a princess as a return offer to the
king, Sbuhumpha. Chaopha Shuhum
informed his three queens of the matter.
They did not like it. The princess was
received with honour. One thousand


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elephants with howdas on, a large quan-
tity of silver and gold and many other
things were sent with the princess. On
their return, the Katakis were given
fifteen horses, two elephant pads, a
quantity of gold and a letter.
56. In the month of Dinruk(Baisakh),
the king and the Jubaraj (Shuklen-
mung) amused themselves in cock-fight-
ing. In the month of Dinchit (Jaistha),
the heavenly king had high words with
his son, the Jubaraj. Shuklenmung pro-
ceeded to Garhgaon. In Lakni Taoshan
(i.e., in 1538 A.D.), Chaopha Shuhum-
mung called in Chao-Shukhring and
after having had a consultation, sent
him to bring back Chaopha Shuklenmung
and Thaomunglung (Bargohain). Chao-
pha Shuklenmung said that Chaolung
Shuleng should come to take him. Then
Chao Shuhumpha sent Chaolung Shuleng.
Chaolung Shuleng met Thaomunglung.
After having had a talk with Thaomung-
lung, Chaolung Shuleng came back. In
the month of Dinsham (Magh), the
heavenly king proceeded to Bakatha and
sent one Deogharia Deodhai Pandit to
bring in the mother of Shuklen. When
the queen arrived, the king made her take
an oath of fidelity in the name of the
gods by plunging her hand in holy
water. Chaopha Shuhummung returned
to Dihing. The mother of Garhgayan
Raja (Shuklenmung) came back to
Charaideu. Shuklenmung being infuriat-
ed with rage, formed a plot to kill the
king in the night time. He bribed
money and horses to some of the cons-
pirators. They came to the gate of the
city but being afraid had to return. A
Kachari, in disguise, could manage to
enter into the city. He kept a knife
concealed in his body and stealthily
entering into the king’s sleeping room in
the dead of night plunged it into the
heart of the king. Chaopha Shuhum
expired. The Kachari was caught and
executed. In Lakni Karao in 1539
A.D.), in the month of Dinsham (Magh)
Chaopha Sbuhum met his death. He
ruled the country for forty-three years.


79
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GURHGAYAN RAJA.
57. Chaopha Shuklenmung made
himself king. In Lakni Kapmit (i.e., in
1540 A.D.) Chaopha Shuklenmung fell
ill. He proceeded to Taimung and
stopped there. In Lakni Dapkeu (i.e.,
in 1541 A.D.) Chaopha Shuklenmung
proceeded to the Kachari country. On
his return, he named Chaolung Shutama
as Chaolung Tama. In Lakni Raicheu
(i.e., in 1542 A.D.), the heavenly king
sent Chao Shukhring to Saring to replace
Chaolung Saring and named him Chao-
lung Lanchang. The heavenly king
made Saring Raja, Tipam Raja, Namru-
pia Raja Saring Raja and Tipam Raja
Namrupia Raja. The heavenly king
proceeded towards the Kachari country.
When he arrived at Dauka, he heard
the news of the death of his mother.
He then returned to the capital. Chao-
lung Shuleng was sent to the Kachari
country. Chaolung Shuleng proceeded
to and arrived in the Kachari country.
He erected a fort near the river Tilao
(Lohit). The Bara Bhuiyas paid their
homage to the heavenly king on the side
of the Kapili river. Then the king
came to the Kachari country and there-
from he made a land march. He
arrived in Saring where the people at
large welcomed him with great rejoic-
ings. From Saring, the king came to
the capital.
58. In the month of Dinuk (Baisakh)
the Chutias fell upon Hanan near the
Desang river and killed him. They carried
away his wife and son. Chaolung Tima
devastated the Chutia territory as a
reprisal for the Laknis, Mungplao and
Plekngi (i.e., from 1543 to 1544 A.D).
The heavenly king, then, called back
Chaolung Tima. Chaolung Shuleng was
made governor of Kachari country. In
Lakni Katmao (Le.,in 1545 A.D.) Chaopha
Shuklenmung showered great favour up-
on Chaolung Shuleng.
59. In Lakni Khutshi (i.e., in 1546
A.D.) the Koches invaded our country.
Thaomunglung (the Bargohain) was not


80
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in favour of fighting with the Koches.
Thaomung Banlung Daopem (Daopem
Banlungia Gohain) paying no heed to
the word of the Bargohain marched to
the Tikarai (Dikrai) river to fight with
the enemies. 6ur men crossed the
Tikarai twice and attacked the enemies
but were repulsed. The Bargohain
joined with our force. The Koches
landed from their ships and discharged
a great many arrows, some of which
struck Thaomung Nanglao and his
elephant. Thaomung Nanglao tumbled
down. Thaomung Khenteu (Bhatialia
Gohain) mounting on an elephant reached
the place and picked up his brother
Thaomung Nanglao. The enemies in a
body attacked our army and cut a great
many persons. Our men being unable
to resist the attack took to their heels.
Thaomung Banlung’s elephant, Pairin
and Shengkungren with his elephant
were killed. Luk Hanan died fighting on
his horse. Thaomungdoi (Parbatia
Gohain) fled on an elephant leaving the
fort, and entered into a forest. One
Daikhru fled away from the field of
battle, leaving his horse. Our armies
were dispersed. They retreated to Kar-
anga whence they proceeded by the Tilao
and halted at Kaliabar. Langidam Neog
of Guimela family Imd Thaomung Ban-
lung shot arrows to the enemies from
ships. But our bow-men left the place
and fled away being pursued by the
enemies. In the next morning our armies
reached Shaola. The enemies advanced
and overtook our armies at Shaola. A
great battle was fought there. Thao-
mung Khenteu, Thaomung Shenba,
Thaomung Blak-Shengmung, Thaomung
Nangnao, Thaomung Nabin, Thaomung
Nanglao, Thaomung Saring, Chaosham-
khring, Chaoring, Pensharing, Shang-
kham, Pailang Chaoring and the Phukin-
mungs (Rajkhowas), altogether the chiefs
of twenty swords joined in the battle.
Thaomung could not get better with the
enemies. The Koches, however, began
to waver, being attacked with elephants.
Some of them entered into forest, some
into ships and nine fell dead in the field.
The Koches proceeded to the Tilao.
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of Khamrap. Chaolung Shuleng riding
on a horse remained at Namklang in
order of battle. Thaomunglung, Chao
Shenlung Klangsheng stopped atJabaka.
The king ordered all to assemble at the
place.
60. In Lakni Rungsheu (i.e., in 1547
A.D.) the Koches erected a fort at
Naranpur and stopped therein. Chaopha
Shuklenmung ordered all to leave the
fort and march against the enemies.
Chaolung Shuleng and Chaoringlung was
directed to proceed straight, Chao-
Shenglung to the right hand side and
Chaolung Shuteng and Thaomunglung
to the left. The heavenly king with
Chaophrangmung (Buragohain) wished to
follow them in the centre. Chaolung
Lanchang was placed in charge of the
ships. The King, then marched on with
his officers and men and arrived at the
fort Pichala. The Koches made an
attack on our force. Our men remained
firm and made a counter-attack. The
Koches could not resist our onslaught
and retreated. The king despatched
Shuleng, Chao-Shenglung and all others
to surround the enemies. Our men
accordingly advanced and surrounded
the Koches. The enemies were pressed
hard to the middle of the water of the
river. Both the brothers of the king
and Chao-Shenglung surrounded the ene-
mies and massacred them. Our men
obtained possession of two horses. The
heavenly king with his whole force came
back. He performed the Rikkhan cere-
mony.
61. In Lakni Tao-Shinga (i.e., in 1548
A.D.) a violent earth-quake took place.
Pebbles, sand and ashes came out burst-
ing the surface of the earth. In Lakni
Kamut (i.e., in 1549 A.D.) the king fell ill


82
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in the capital. The Nagas of the village,
Banchang attacked the Nagas of Banpha.
The Nagas of Banpha being unable to
hold their ground sent Katakis to the
heavenly king with an offer of some
methons, buffaloes and hunting dogs to
request his help. The heavenly king, then,
ordered Chao-Phuphrang (Buragohain) to
march against the Nagas of Banchang.
The king proceeded to the village Ban-
rui. Chaolangchang was ordered to go
to and remain in charge of Mahang.
Chao-Phuphrang fought with the Nagas
of Banchang and defeated them. He
captured and brought with him the Naga
Khunbao, Chaokingpung. He got twenty
buffaloes, nine methons and a large coral
bead as spoils of war and produced the
Naga Khunbao and the spoils before the
king.
62. In Lakni Kapshan (z.e., in 1550
A.D.) in the month of Dinkam (Puh)
Chao-Lang-Chang died. In the month
of Dinship (Bhadra) Chaolung Shuleng
breathed his last. In the same year,
Chaolung Tima, Chaoshaiham and Mai-
ban died. In Lakni Daprao (i.e., in 1551
A.D.) Chaopha Shuklenmung fell seri-
ously ill. In Lakni Raimit (i.e., in 1552
A.D.) Chaopha Shuklenmung died. He
ruled the country for full fourteen years.
CHAOPHA SHUKHAM ALIAS
KHORA RAJA.
63. Chaopha Shukham succeeded the
throne. In Lakni Mungkeu(i.e , in 1553
A.D.) the princes, Chao-Shupan, Chao-
Shamchu, Chao-Lukchai, Chao-Chip,
Chao-Shamlao, Chao Ngipam and Chao-
U, and Lapet, son of Shenglung and
Lashampeng, son of Shenba rebelled
against the king. They were captured
and confined. Thaomung Chankham
prayed the king to show them mercy.
The king accordingly pardoned them.
64. In Lakni Katplao (i.e., in 1555
A.D.) the heavenly king sent Chaolung
Saring, Thaomunglung and Chao-Phup-
hrang with an army against the Nagas
of IJatikliok. They marched accordingly
and stopped on the right side of Namtit.


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Chao-Phuphrang (Buragohain) advanced
on a female elephant called Paikhrai.
The king called back Chaongudam, Chao-
Kankham and the two brothers of the
king. Then Chaolung Saring (Saring
Raja), Thaomunglung (Bargohain) and
other high officers advanced with their
forces towards Iton. The Hatikhokia
Nagas fled awayTeaving their wives and
children behind. They retreated by the
Tilao (Lohit river). The Itonias left
their village and entered into Papuk.
Chaolung Saring, Thaomunglung and all
others advanced on and approached
Papuk. The Papukias also left their
abode and entered into Khamteng. Our
army chased after them and arrived at
Khamteng. The Khamtengias fled away
at the approach of our army. Our men
got one hundred methons (wild cows)
there. Thaomunglung, being ill, came
back from Khamteng, The Nagas of
Iton, Papuk and Khamteng joined to-
gether and assaulted Thaomunglung on
the hill Tadaibungmung and killed the
men who carried Thaomunglung. Thao-
munglung was made a captive. Chao
Shuban and Chao-Shamchu, the two
princes, advanced with their armies and
fought with the Nagas on Tadaibung-
mung hill. The Nagas of Iton, Papuk
and Khamteng were completely routed.
They took to their heels. Thaomung-
lung was made free and conveyed on an
elephant.
65. In Lakni Rungmao (i.e., in 1557
A.D.) Chao-Shenglung Klangsheng and
Chao-Phuphrang (the Barpatra Gohain
and the Buragohain) died. In Lakni
Taoshi (i.e., in 1558 A.D.) Chao-Shang-
drai (Bahbaria Gohain) was made Chao-
Phuphrang (Buragohain) in place of the
deceased one. He was named Chao-Khek.
Chaopha Shukham desired to make Chao-
Kankham, Chao-Shangrai. But Chao-
Kankham expressed his unwillingness
to accept the offer. The king made his
(Chao-Kankham’s) brother Chao-Shan-
grai.
66. In Lakni Kasheu (i.e., in 1559
A.D.) seven Kuars (princes) with all
other members in their family rebelled
against the king. Lashampeng, the son


84
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of Shenba and Lapet, the son of Sheng-
lung also joined with them. They were
put to death by order of the heavenly
king.
67. In Lakni Kahshinga (i.e., in 1560
A.D.) the grandson of Pratap Rai inva-
ded our country. One Shalu Bhuiyan
joined with him. Both of them coming
upstream the Brahmaputra, halted at
the mouth of the Dikhau river. Hearing
this, the king sent Thaomunglung Chan-
kham, Chao-Phuphrang and Chao-Sheng-
lung with an army against the enemies.
They marched accordingly and attacked
the enemies at Dikhaumukh. Our
army defeated and vanquished them.
One Taokan and one Chaonangkap, a son
of a Deodhai Pandit were put to death
for their letting fall the long cloak of
the king on the way. In the month
of Dincipit (Ahin), the king despatched
Chaomankham and Shengdang with a
large number of persons to construct a
fort at Buka and stop there. In Lakni
Dapmut (i.e., in 1561 A.D.) Chaopha
Shukham directed Chao-Phuphrang to
proceed to Buka and remain in the fort
there. In the same year, the king
transferred all who were at Buka to
Shaola. In the month of Dinsham
(Magh), the king ordered prince Chaotu to
go to and remain at Shaola. Thaomung-
lung and other officers were also allowed
to stay there. The heavenly king sent
an elephant, an umbrella, a ban (a cup),
a sword, a gun, a silver stand and a Bela
(a water pot) to Chaotu with other things.
The heavenly king ordered Chao-Shang-
rai to proceed to Shaola at the head
of a body of men including Marintan
Hatimuria. Chao Phuphrang (the Bura-
gohain) proceeded to Shaola, taking with
him an elephant, an umbrella, a cup, a
sword, a gun, a silver stand and a silver
water pot. Bakatial Hatimurias and
Mariatan Hatimuria were given in his
company.
68. In Lakni Raishan (i.e., in 1562
A.D.), Bukutumlung and Tipu entered


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into our country and arrived at Shaola.
Thence they came to Makalang. They
then, proceeded upstream the river Tilao
and arrived at Dikhaumukh. Chaopha
Shukham, Chaolung Saring, Thaomung-
lung Chankham, Chao Phuphrang, Chao-
Shenglung Klangjan, and others assem-
bled together and proceeded to Dikhau-
mukh to meet the enemies. Our army
marched downwards in ships. The
enemies advanced upstream the Tilao and
coming down in the night time, fired guns
to our men. Some of our men were shot
dead. They (the enemies), then, pro-
ceeded down and halted at the mouth
of the river, Handia. Chaolung Saring,
Thaomunglung Chankham, Chao-Phuph-
rang, Chao-Sheng Klangjan, Thaomung
Chao-Sheng and all others advanced for-
ward and. fought with the enemies at
the mouth of the river Handia. Chaongu-
shang, Chao-Khampat, Chaoring Pikshai
and Lapet Thaomung fell dead in the
field of battle. Lanshenkham was cap-
tured alive.
69. In Lakni Mungrao (z.e., in 1563
A.D.) in the month of Dinsham (Magh),
the Koch king invaded our country and
coming upstream the river Tilao, pre-
pared a fort in front of the Dikhau river
on the other side of the Tilao. Chaolung
Saring, Chao Phuphrang Ikhek, Chaotu,
Chao-Shenglung Klangjan and Shengdang
Khamshen with many others marched
against the Koches and constructed a
fort in front of the enemies’ one on the
opposite side. The king made Chaoring
Ikhring, the commander-in-chief of the
war and ordered him to remain in the fort
at the mouth of the river Namjin (Sessa).
Chaolung Tipam (Tipam Raja) was also
ordered to remain in the fort at the
mouth of the Sessa with Chaoring Ikhr-
ing. Then in the month of Dinruk
(Baisakh), the enemies devastated the
province Marangki. Chaolung Saring,
Chao-Phuphrang, Chao-Shenglung Klang-
jan, Shengdang Khamshen and others
consulted together and sent Phrangkhan,
son of Langidam, Lashailun and Langi-
khen, these three persons, as Katakis to
the Koch king to sue for peace and
friendship. The Koch king sent Rati-


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kant, a good man, with our Katakis with
the following words to the heavenly
king:—“ We are in friendly terms from a
long time. We are descendants of gods
as our forefathers were sons of gods.
We are living as brothers. In the an-
cient time, a girl was offered to us by
the king of Assam. Our this friendship
should exist to our descendants. It is
not proper to be in hostility. So the
king of the east should arrange to settle
the affairs in such a way so that both
the countries may enjoy peace and pros-
perity.” The Koch Kataki delivered
the words of the Koch king to our
heavenly king. Chaopha Shukham sent
two elephants to the Koch king, one of
which was harnessed with a howdah.
The Koch king offered in return, an
elephant, four horses and a gold howdah.
The peace was confirmed and the coun-
tries remain in friendship. Our army
left the place. The Koch king proceeded
down by the river Tilao. The heavenly
king came back to the capital and offered
sacrifices to the gods and the dead.
1^3
70. In the month of Dinchit (Jaistha),
the Koch king sent an expedition under
one Tipu Eo invade our country. Tipu
advanced accordingly and arrived in
Dihing. There he made a, stockade and
halted with his men. The country was
devastated. The news reached our
garrison stationed in the fort at Dihing.
They deserted the fort and entered in
Abhoipur. Chao-Shenglung Klangjan
and Chaokham also retreated on the
very day. The Koches assembled to-
gether and advanced in ships. Chaolung
Saring, Chao Phuphrang lkhek, Chaotu,
Chao-Shenglung Klangjan, Shengdang
and Khamshen, consulting together sent
one Lashaikhring, the son of Mungkhru
to the Koch king with an elephant, a
sword and a gun. Chaopha Shukham
wished to leave the city with all the
officers and men and consulted the
Dangarias. Then necessary preparations
were made to desert the city. The


87
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Ghora-Chowas advised our men not to
go away. The enemies made efforts to
enter into the fort. The news reached
our men. Then our army left the fort
in the dead of night and entered into
the interior part of the country. Chao-
pha Shukham with all his officers and
men retreated to Namchin where he
stopped a night. He ordered his men to
take their meal.
71. The heavenly king, then, entered
into Naga hill and remained at Klangdoi
hill for three months. The Koch king
entered into our country and stopped in
Majuli. Chaopha Shukham ordered Chao-
Phuphrang Ikhek to go to the Koch king
to negotiate peace with an offer of two
gold vessels, two silver vessels and a
large silver jar. Chao Ikhek came to
the Koch king who was in Majuli and
offered him those things. The Koch
king said to Chaophrang Ikhak, “you
better tell the king of the east that he
must send me your son, the son of
Thaomunglung, the son of Shengdang
and the son of Khamsheng to me and I
shall go back to my country leaving all
here.” In the month of Dinkao (Sravan),
the Koch king proceeded downstream the
Tilao and encamped on a high piece of
land near the river. The heavenly
king gave one Ahu, a son of Nanglao;
one Chit, a son of Chaophrang; one
Lashamshu, a son of Shenglung; one
Laku, a son of Khreorat and a son of
Khamshen in charge of Chao-Phuplirang
to offer them to the Koch king. They
were collected together and sent in ships
downstream the river Tilao. The son of
Khamshen being young, was sent back.
Then Chaopet, the son of Thaomunglung
went to and halted at Tiru.
72. Chaoshao Nangbu, the wife of
Thaomunglung said to Thaomunglung,
“I won’t allow my son to be sent to
Koch country. Tell the king what he


88
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a/? v? wf 1 Wor v>V § and the ministers are when they have
yielded to the enemies. Why should he
reign when he is unable to save his
subjects from the enemies.” Further
she said to the Thaomunglung, “let me
have your head dress, girdle, belt and
sword. Though I am a female, I shall
fight with the Koch king and let him
know how a female can fight with the
male.” Thaomunglung said to the king
that he would give his son for the
welfare of our country. At this, the
wife of Thaomunglung exclaimed, “ Who
can give my son. If the course of
the Dikhau river can be diverted up-
wards to the hill by putting a dam
across, then my son may be given.”
Chaopha Shukham was very much dis-
pleased to hear of this. He gave up
the idea of sending Thaomunglung’s son.
He wished to send Chao Shungam.
Chaopha Shungam was sent for. The
heavenly king sent Chaoklangkham to
inform the matter to Chao Shungam.
He went there and saidtoChao-Shungam,
“ you are to go in place of other. You
should come and go for the welfare of
your country.” In that year, all the
tributes were offered to the Koch king.
In the month of Dinkao (Sravan), the
Koch king returned to his country. Then
Chaolung Saring and Chaophrang Ikhek
came back giving Chao Shungam in charge
of one Jusannat Khany<
73. Bamun Ujutlung, Tapashi Lahkat
and Malamui Lahkat were sent to govern
the provinces near the river Tilao.
Chaopha Shukham came back to the
capital and put the country in order.
In Lakni, Plekmit (i.e., in 1564 _A T) )
in the month of Dinching (Aghon), the
king put to death Chaolung Pangrao.
In the same year, the Koch king sent
back Chao Shungam with many other
persons. In the very year, Chao-Khan-
kham and Chaotu were sent to seize
the body of a Naka Chief named Lashaw.


89
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12
Chao Ibakham and Chaongiplung, the
two princes offended the king and took
shelter under the protection of Bamun
Ujutlung. Chaopha Shukham gave Chao-
Kankham the rule of the upper part of
the country. Thaomung Bangen was
ordered to remain at Tiphu. Then Chao-
Phrangmung Ikhek offended the king.
The heavenly king, Chaopha Shukham
said to Ikhek in presence of all that
he should give up his office and that
the king would not allow him to continue
in his post any longer. The king called
in Chao-Kankham to the capital and
spoke to him thus, “I, the king, would
not allow Ikhek in his office. Come
Kankham, I wish to install you to the
post occupied by your father and grand-
father.” Kankham approached the king
and paid his homage. He was then
made Chaophrang (Buragohain). Kan-
kham was offered guns, bows and
Government of the provinces which his
forefathers governed. In Lakni Katkeu
(i.e. in lj5££ A.D.) in the month of
Dinshipshang (Kati), Malamui Lahkat
plotted against Chaopha Shukham. The
heavenly king directed Bamunlung, Tap-
ashi Lahkat and Laishek, a son of one
Chang to capture Malamui. In the
month of Dinching (Aghon) Chaopha
Shukham sent Thaomunglung (Bar-
gohain), Chao Phrangmung (Buragohain),
Chao-Sheglung (the Barpatra Gohain)
and some other officers to construct a
bund afc Sina. One Langu Gohain was
made Neogphukan over all.
74. In the month of Dinsham (Magh),
the Chutias entering into Namruk and
KheranT^plundered the people of the
places. Chaolung Tipam was sent
against them. Chaolung Tipam, with
his men, met the enemies. A struggle
ensued. Three of the arrows discharged
by the enemies, struck the elephant of
Chaolung Tipam. Chaolung Tipam
retreated crossing the Sessa river. In


90
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the month of Dinsham (Magh), the
Dhekeri Raja, Paman, invaded our
country. Chao-Shukham sent Chaolung
Shuleng and Thaomung Chankham to
remain at. Dikhaumukh. Chao-Phrang-
mung, Chaotu, Chao-Shenglung, Thao-
mung Bangen and many other officers
with their army attacked the enemies
at Murabhaga, crossing the river, Tilao.
A great number of the enemies fell dead
in the battle and many ran away. The
Dhekeri Raja left the fort on an elephant
and afterwards fled away leaving the
elephant. Our men obtained possession
of eighty umbrellas, a howdah, two
gilted swords, a knife with gilted
handles, a silver stand, a silver jar,
and a silver box on the back of an
elephant. Then our men chased after
the Dhekeri Raja. The Dhekeri Raja
fled away on a horse in order to reach
his ship. He left the horse, got in his
ship and steered downward. Our men
obtained possession of a large number
of elephants, horses and guns of the
enemies, which they left behind when
they fled away.
75. In the month of Dinshi (Magh), the
heavenly king despatched Thaomunglung,
Chaophrangmung, Chaotu, Chao-Sheng-
lung, Thaomung Bangen and many others
with an army against Bhela Raja. They
proceeded accordingly, fouglit with Bhela
Raja and captured him. In the month
of Dinkao (Sravan), one Tipu invaded
our country. In the month of Dinshi-
pit (Ahin), he advanced upstream the
river Tilao and halted on its bank. In
Lakni, Khutcheu (i.e., in 1566 A.D.) in
the month of Dinshipshang (Kati) Chao-
pha Shukham with the high officers
marched against Tigu and attacked him
near the river Tilao. A great number
of men on the side of Tipii- killed
and many fled away. Tipu also left the
field of battle. One Mahan was captured
alive. Our men obtained many ships,
guns and other things as spoils of war.
76. Lakni Rungplao and Taongi
(1567-1568 A.D.) passed without any
important event. In Lakni, Kamao (i.e.,
in 1569 A.D.) the heavenly king sent
Chaophrangmung, Chaotu Chao-Sheng-


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lung, Thaomung Bangen, and others
against one Phushentft. A battle was
fought in which out Ltngenkai was
killed. Phushenta being unable to resist
our attack fled to Papuk (Papuk Naga
villages). Our men oaptured his wives
and returned.
77. In Lakni, Kapshi (i.e., in 1570
A.D.) in the month of Dinhfl, (Chaitra),
the grand-mother of the king died. In
the same year, Thaomung Bangen (the
Sadiyakhowa Gohain) also breathed his
last. In Lakni, Dtpsheu (i.e., in 1571
A.D.) in the month of Dinkftm (Pub),
the heavenly king captured elephants
at the mouth of the river Nammashftng.
Meanwhile, one Bhitaruftl with Tipu
invaded our country. Hearing’"the
news, Chaopha Shukhtm, Chaolung Sat-
ing, Thaomunglung, Ghfto-Phupbrang,
Chao- Shenglung and others hurried down
leaving the capital. They constructed
a fort at Sina, In the month of Dinshtm
(Magh) Chao Shukh&m, Chaolung Sating,
Thaomunglung Chankhtm, Chao-Sheng-
lung, Chaophrang, Kankham and others
proceeding by the river Tilto, attacked
the enemies at the mouth of the river
Ntmtimt. A large number of enemies
fell dead in the field of battle and others
took to their heels, our men got many
large ships and guns left by the enemies,
Bhitarual and Tipu being unable to hold
the ground ran away,
78. In the month of Dinshi (Falgun),
the heavenly king sent Cbtolung String,
Chaophrangmung, Chao-Shenglung and
some others, against the Nagas Fungbtng
and Puijgkhru, They marched accord-
ingly and subjugated the Nagas, In
Lakni, Raishingt (f.e,, in 1572 A.D-) the
king captured elephants at the mouth
of the river Tibang (Dibong). There was
a muttak rising under one Sentpati,
Chaolung String, Chtophranmung, Thao-
mung Bangen and many others were
sent against the rebels. On the approach
of our army, the Sentpati took to his
heels and entered in Kanehai, Chaolung
String, and Chtophrangmnng made a
hot pursuit after the Sentpati and
reached Kanchti, Then ©or men came
to a place called Fokhurikbana, There


92
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they captured the Senapati, the Ranchai
Raja and a great number of Chutias
and produced the captives before the
heavenly king. In the same year,
Bamunlung and Mahun Lahkat were
set at liberty. In Lakni Mungmut (i.e.,
in 1573 A.D.) Thaomunglung (the Bar-
gohain) died. The heavenly king called
in Chao-Chansheng and made him Bar-
gohain.
79. The Itania Nagas revolted. Chao-
pha Shukham, Chaolung Saring, Chao-
Phrangmung, and other officers marched
against the Itania Nagas. They made
captives of the wives and children of
the Itanias. Chaopha Shukham, Chao-
lung Saring and Chaophrangmung entered
in Kheram Naga village and defeated
the Nagas. In Lakni Plekshan (i.e., in
1574 A.D.) there was an outbreak of
small-pox throughout the country and
a large number of persons were swept
away.
80. At the beginning of Lakni, Khut-
mit (i.e., in 1575 A.D.), the king of the
east (Nara Raja) entered in our country
and stopped at Khamjang. Chaopha
Shukham sent Thaomunglung Chankham,
Chao-Phrangmung and Chao-Shenglung
with a body of men to construct a fort at
Pangrao. The heavenly king despatch-
ed Thaomung-Khreng Keoreng, Plekn-
gengringrangmung, Ringshen and Klang-
shamshen Bailang to the Nara Raja with
one thousand gold moher. The heavenly
king’s offer was macTe over to the Nara
Raja at the fort Khanijang. In the
month of Dinpet (Ahar) the Nara Raja
proposed to offer his grown-up sister to
our king. Chaopha Sukham, being in-
formed of this, sent Chaolung Ruram,
Thaomung Neomung, Chiring Seokung
and a few others to go in advance to escort
the princess. They proceeded accordingly
and escorted the princess. The names of
the persons who were sent with the
princess were as follows :—one Shenglung
Lakhiri, one Rushao Daimao, one Thao-
munglang, one Rengmalik and one Chao-
Lutaphuka. The dowries offered to the
princess were a horse, an elephant, one