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Suggestions for a grammar of "Bangala", the "lingua franca" of the Upper Congo, with dictionary

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Title:
Suggestions for a grammar of "Bangala", the "lingua franca" of the Upper Congo, with dictionary
Creator:
Stapleton, Walter Henry
Longland, Frank
Place of Publication:
Bolobo, Congo Belge
Publisher:
Baptist Missionary Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Lingala
Edition:
2nd Edition, Revised and Enlarged
Physical Description:
a-i, 181 p. ; 18 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Lingala language ( lcsh )
Lingala language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Lingala language -- Dictionaries -- English ( lcsh )
English language -- Dictionaries -- Lingala ( lcsh )
Genre:
Grammars
Dictionaries
Temporal Coverage:
- 1914
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Congo (Brazzaville) -- Mai-Ndombe Province -- Plateaux District -- Bolobo Territory -- Bolobo
Afrique -- Congo (Brazzaville) -- Province de Mai-Ndombe -- District des Plateaux -- Territoire de Bolobo -- Bolobo
Coordinates:
-2.166667 x 16.233333

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Stapleton, Walter Henry : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/61370176/
General Note:
2nd Edition, Revised and Enlarged by Frank Longland

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351127 ( ALEPH )
Y Lingala A /149815 ( SOAS classmark )

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SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES
University of London
This book is due for return not later than the last date stamped below.
If an extension of the loan is desired, application should be made,
either in person or in writing, on or shortly before the due date, quoting






>
SUGGESTIONS FOR A
GRAMMAR OF "BANGALA"
The "Lingua Franca" of the Upper Congo
With DICTIONARY
by the late
WALTER H. STAPLETON
2nd EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED
by
FRANK LONGLAND
Baptist Missionary Society
BOLOBO
Congo Bei.ge
1914


"Hannah Wade" Printing Press
Baptist Missionary Society
Bolobo
Congo Bel&e


Preface.
The difficulties met with by the Congo Colonial
officials in their endeavour to open up and admin-
ister the huge territory for which they are respon-
sible can only be appreciated by those who live
in this section of the tropical belt, and by the men
who are engaged in similar work in like regions.
Many of these difficulties have been energetically
attacked and satisfactorily solved, some in quite bril-
liant fashion. The manner in which the transport
difficulty was solved is a striking instance.
The work of bridging the cataracts of the Lower
Congo by a railway, and of placing and maintaining
a regular fleet of steamers on the Upper Congo, has
been carried out with rare skill and enterprise, and
with a measure of success largely exceeding the most
sanguine expectations of those of us who remember
the conditions of travel and transport on the Congo
between ten and twenty years ago.
Many problems, however, yet await solution ; not the
least important of them, perhaps, being that of securing
an efficient means of communication between the white
men and the many Bantu tribes which occupy this
vast region.
A


b
In preparing a "Comparative Handbook of Congo
Languages," which is a comparative study of nine lang-
uages spoken on the Congo from the Atlantic to Stanley
Falls, at Mr. Grenfell's suggestion I wrote a chapter on
the subject of a common language, but, the volume
being already large enough, that chapter is here pre-
sented in the from of a pamphlet for circulation amongst
the white men on the Congo, who may feel that the time
has come for some attempt to be made towards the
solution of the language difficulty.
My thanks are due to the staff of the Printing
Office at Bolobo for printing this book, and to the
Baptist Missionary Society for bearing the cost of its
publication.
Walter H. Stapleton.
July, 1903.


Introduction.
Arising out of the subject of a common language
for the lower section of the Upper Congo River referred
to in the introduction of a Comparative Handbook of
Congo Languages" I have been asked whether the
comparative study of the languages there dealt with
has yielded any results which might be embodied in
"Suggestions for a Grammar of the "Bangala."
This is a subject which I approach with considerable
diffidence, for I am under no delusion as to its thorny
character. I am well aware of the many arguments
which may be at once advanced for leaving the matter
severely alone. It will be said that "the 'Bangala5 is a
grammarless jargon traversing practically every rule of
Bantu word and sentence construction." That "it may
possibly serve as a medium for the purchase of food,
and even for the direction of labour, may be, but only
this on the condition that a considerable amount of
suggestive gesture is used by the speaker, and a large
measure of the responsibility of interpretation is
accepted by the hearer."
"Interchange of thought" it will be said "is by it
a2


d
practically impossible," "as an effective means of
intercommunication it is hopelessly inadequate." "Its
verb has no tenses." "No attempt is made to concord
its parts of speech." "Teaching in such a medium is
out of the question." Again, it may be urged, that
"as missionaries, it is our business to give the natives the
word of God in their beautifully expressive mother
tongues," and so on.
Notwithstanding all this, a little consideration will
shew that there is much to be said on the other side.
A common language is a practical necessity of
the situation. The attempt made by the Belgian
authorities to impose one administration over the whole
area of the Congo basin involves some common efficient
means of intercommunication between the forces of
Government and the many tribes of the Bantu race,
speaking different languages, which occupy this huge
territory
It is quite impossible that the State officials should
learn all the languages spoken in the Congo basin, or
indeed any large number of them ; and no one language
at present serves for a region of even moderate extent.
Thus on the iooo miles of open waterway between
Stanley Pool and Stanley Falls, on the lowest" estimate,
five distinct languages are spoken; not to speak of
several dialects not yet classified. That captains of
steamers should learn all these, or that State officials,
who may be changed from station to station, should
undertake the task of learning a new language with
every removal, or that a commissaire of a district should
speak three or four languages to the peoples he governs,
is utterly impracticable.
Seeing the difficulty the Government decided some
years ago that "Bangala" should be used as the Lingua


e
franca. It is to be regretted that no official gave
the Ngala (i. the language spoken by the tribe of
people living about Nouvelle Anvers) scientific study.
Had a simple Grammar and Vocabulary been drawn
up and published some years ago, we might now have
been in the possession of the common effective means
of intercommunication between white man and black
man, administrator and subject, which is daily becoming
.a more urgent necessity.
As it is, out of this felt necessity has grown up a
jargon called "Bangala" which is spreading rapidly
over the whole of that part of the Congo basin which
has never passed under the domination of the Arabs.
In the Oriental Zone a broken Swahili is, for the
moment, a strong competitor; but even there "Bangala"
is largely spoken by the Free State forces, and is now
more or less spoken from the Atlantic to Lake
Tanganyika, and from the regions of the Upper Kasai
to the Nile.
It is evident, then, that a common language is a felt
necessity, and must certainly come. Is there any
further question as to what that language is to be? Sir
H. Johnston thinks that the only satisfactory solution
of the language difficulty in these great African States
is the introduction of a European language. For the
Congo, administered by Belgians, with French as the
official language, but one European language is possible,
namely, French. But experience has shewn that the
Congo native does not readily acquire French, and we
have not yet arrived at the day of Government schools.
But need a European language be considered?
"Bangala" has come and scorn it as we may, it has
come to stay. It must be plain to all that it would greatly
simplify the outlook for all who are attempting to


/
administer, civilise, and uplift the Congo races, and to
open up the country to the best forces of civilisation, if
a common language were spoken over a wide area.
Will it not be wise for us to consider whether or no
"Bangala" could be used as the basis of an effective
common language? Could not the white men introduce
into this lingua franca those grammatical forms of
expression which would make it such, and without
which it will, and must remain an utterly ineffective
jargon?
I am convinced that "Bangala" has come to stay;
and there are but two courses open to us with regard
to it. We can ignore it, but I think we ought then
to face the issue that it will produce its effects for all
that, and one effect is even now distinctly visible. We
have a people growing up around us who, in spite of all
our educational efforts, are losing grip of their expres-
sive mother tongues, and speaking a jargon which it is
impossible to use in their upliftng. I yield to none in
my desire to give the peoples of the Congo the
Scriptures in their mother tongue (the fact that I have
translated some portions into two languages will shew
this) but I cannot shut my eyes to the fact that already
thousands have been born to the State forces to whom
" Bangala" is the only mother tongue they know; and
that thousands of the workers, drawn from the differ-
ent tribes of the Congo basin, are forgetting their parent
speech, and whilst they speak the "Bangala" with
amazing fluency, their range of thought and idea,
limited enough before, is now confined to the narrow
circle of physical need and supply.
This is a movement I feel we hardly dare ignore, or
in a few years we may be left with translations of the
Scriptures lofty, may be, in their diction, idiomatic in


g
their expression, models of accuracy in their gramma-
tical form, but as antiquated and obsolete as the
translation Elliott gave to the Red Indians.
One other course is open. We can attempt to direct
and control this movement, shaping the "Bangala"
gradually into a language which will serve for State
station, colony, and mission school, for the purposes of the
Government,the commercial houses,and the Missionary
Societies; and as an effective medium of interchange
of thought and idea between the widely scattered
tribes of this region of Darkest Africa.
In this book I venture to make some suggestions
towards a Vocabulary and Grammar of the "Bangala"
or lingua franca.
I take it that, in theory, the only vocabulary which
is at all likely to be accepted as a common one by a
number of different tribes must conform to those rules
of syllabisation and pronunciation which are common
to all the speakers. Peculiar forms of pronunciation
would stand no chance of acceptance.
So with a common Grammar, it must be based on
principles of clearness and simplicity.
And, as a matter of fact, an examination of the
"Bangala" shews that this is exactly what has
happened.
How has "Bangala" grown up? There are three
languages spoken between Stanley Pool and Mobeka;
the language of the Bobangi, that of the Lolo, and that
of the Bangala peoples, and these have very many
features in common, for they belong to the same branch
of the Bantu language family. The dialects spoken in
Lake Ntomba, and in the neighbourhood of Lulanga
are but agglomerates of Bobangi, Lolo, and Ngala. The
so-called Upoto language is but a dialect of Ngala, with


h
some elements both in grammar and vocabulary drawn
from Ngombe and the language of Basoko.
The observation has been advanced that the Bobangi
is the basis of the eclectic language called the "Bangala "
This observation is scarcely borne out by facts. It
would seem to be nearer the truth to say that the features
common to the three languages afore-mentioned, with
their dialects, are the basis of the "Bangala" language;
and none of the three languages has contributed more
than the merest quota of its peculiarities.
Historically, it is easy to see how this has came about.
The workers for the State, traders, missionaries, etc., in
the early days were drawn from the area lying between
Stanley Pool and Mobeka, and a little later from as far
as Upoto. These workers, being brought together on
steamer and station, soon found the common base of
their several languages, and used it as the medium of
intercourse, and the white men picked it up from them.
This point must be remembered when we speak of
the "Bangala" as a grammarless jargon. It can be
readily pointed out that, in many cases where
grammatical rules have been departed from, analagous
methods of construction can be given from the above
three languages. It is by no means the grammarless
jargon of Pidgin English, for it has arisen not from the
endeavour of the black man to speak a language
belonging to a totally different language family, but
from the endeavour of a number of people of one race,
speaking languages of the same family to reach a
common medium of intercourse; though it must be
admitted that the unwillingness shewn by white men
to take the trouble to learn the NgaJa language, and to
speak it at all grammatically, has sadly marred the
product.


i
The lines of a Grammar and Vocabulary, therefore,
would seem to be marked out for us in the process
which has produced the present spoken "Bangala."
What is necessary is to give some form and shape to
modes of expression which are essential, but wofully
lacking, and these must follow the lines of the present
growth of the "Bangala."
I am here making such an attempt. It will be
understood of course that these "Suggestions towards
a Grammar and Vocabulary for the 'Bangala'" are
tentative, put forward principally as a means of calling
attention to a question of increasing gravity, with a
view to provoke thought, and to start other minds upon
a consideration of the problem, in the hope that
something practical may ensue.










PART I.


CHAPTER I.
A. Preliminary Observations,
The "Bangala" is a language of the Bantu Family
and is distinguished from the European languages
mainly by three characteristics.
The first is the division of nouns into Classes. These
Classes have each of them prefixes proper to the Singular
and the Plural Number, and it is by their prefixes that
we distinguish between them, and determine the Classes
to which they belong.
The second is the agreement made between the
noun and all qualifying or dependent words by these
prefixes which vary according to the different Classes
of nouns.*
The third is the absence of gender. To indicate
the sex a noun signifying male or female is used after
the ordinary noun; mobali signifies male and mwasi
female:
* As will be seen, however, later on in these notes "Bangala" is
steadily ridding itself of the principle of Alliterative Concord.
mwana mwasi,
mwana mobali,
ntaba mwasi,
ntaba mobali,
a girl,
a boy.
a female goat,
a male goat.


3
B. The Alphabet.
"Bangala" is written in Roman characters. The
vowels are pronounced generally as in Italian, the
consonants as in English. The following are the letters
with their approximate values.
a is pronounced as the a in father.
b b ,, boat.
ch 3 3 ch church.
d d ,, done.
e e ,, bet.
f f 33 /ate.
g g 33 ^ate.
h h ,, /zat.
i i ,, machzne.
j j 3, joy.
k k 3, ^ey.
1 I ,, let.
m >3 111 ,, man, \&mh.
n n ,, ail, a7zt.
o 33 on ,, b<9Zl!ght.
P P 3, /ay.
r r ,, bury.
s 3 J s jee.
t t ,, ^ake.
u 00 tool.
V V ,, z^ale.
w w ,, walk.
y y : ,3 jet.
z 33 33 * 3 ,, seal.


4
There are four diphthongs:
Ai is pronounced as the ai in azsle mai, water,
an ,, ,, ow ,, now motau, weak.
ei ,, ,, ay ,, pay mokei, egg.
oi ,, ,, uoy,, nkoi, leopard.

AW^. L is a feeble letter and is pronounced as d or
r by numerous speakers. Thus Abili (a man's name,)
is also pronounced Abidi, or Abiri. D and G are rarely
employed alone but are used with the nasal n, thus
ndako, a house (not dako), ngando, a crocodile (not
gando). F and P are used indiscriminately, thus,
mfulu or mpulu, foam, froth. M is re-placed by b in
some districts.
The primary accent falls on the first syllable of the
stem, When the word has more than three syllables
a secondary accent falls on the penult.
C. On Syllables.
Every syllable ends in a vowel.
mo-tu,
ba-tu,
ma-su-a,
mo-nde-le,
a man.
men.
steamer,
a whiteman.
D. On Accents.
li-kondo,
palangana,
a plantain,
to scatter.


5
CHAPTER II.
SUBSTANTIVES.
A. Classification of Nouns.
"Bangala" nouns are made up of a stem and a prefix.
mo-tu, a person.
li-kondo, a plantain,
Mo- and li- are the prefixes, tu and kondo the stems
of the two nouns mo-tu, person, and li-kondo, plantain.
These prefixes which are singular in number are
replaced in the plural number by the prefixes ba- and
ma- respectively.
ba-tu, persons.
ma-kondo, plantains.
Nouns are divided into Classes by these Prefixes,
and are named the Mo-Ba Class, the Li-Ma Class, etc.,
mo being the singular Prefix of Nouns which make
their plural by exchanging mo- for ba,- and li- the
singular Prefix of Nouns which make their plural by
exchanging li- for ma-.
B


6
Bangala has 8 classes of Nouns:
ist Class, - mo-ba.
2nd Class, - mo-mi.
3rd Class, - n-n.
4th Class, - li-ma.
5th Class, - e-bi.
6th Class, - bo-ma.
7th Class, - lo-n.
8th Class, - lo-ma.
ist or Mo-Ba Class.This class comprises those
nouns which have mo- for the Singular Prefix and make
the plural by changing mo- into ba-. Before a vowel
stem the Singular Prefix is mw- (m- before o); the
plural is b-.
mo-til, a person, ba-tu, persons.
mo-tuli, a blacksmith, ba-tuli, blacksmiths.
mw-asi, a wife, b-asi, wives.
mw-ana, a child, b-ana, children.
m-ombo, a slave, b-ombo, slaves.
Some speakers pronounce the m of the singular
prefix as b.
Some Personal Nouns in this class have no prefix
in the singular, but take the prefix ba- in the plural.
sango, a father, ba-sango, fathers.
tata, a father, ba-tata, fathers.
nyango, a mother, ba-nyango, mothers.
mama, a mother, ba-mama, mothers.
Also some introduced words, as yanji, a jigger; ba-
yanji, jiggers; sanduku, a box, basanduku, boxes.
Exception to Mo-Ba class.
mondele, a whiteman, makes, mindele, whitemen.
2nd or Mo-Mi Class.Comprises all those nouns
which have mo- or mu- for the singular prefix, and
make their plural by changing mo- or mu- into mi-.
Before a vowel stem the singular prefix is mw- (before


7
o it is m-); the plural prefix is always mi-.
Some speakers pronounce the initial m in these
prefixes as b, and sometimes (as by Lolo men) the
plural prefix is pronounced as be-.
mo-nkoko, sugar cane, mi-nkoko, sugar canes.
mo-tema, hearty mi-tema, hearts.
mo-noko, mouth, mi-noko, mouths.
mo-tako, a brass rod, mi-tako, brass rods.
mo-nkanda, a book, mi-nkanda, books.
mw-ete (mo-ete), a tree, mi-ete, trees.
m-oto, (mo-oto) a candle, mi-oto, candles.
3rd or N-N Class.This class of nouns comprises
those nouns which do not change their form to make
the plural. They usually have the letter n- or m- as
the initial.
ndako, a house, or houses.
mboka, a town, or towns.
mbwa, a dog, or dogs.
mpota, a sore, or sores.
mbula, rain, or rains.
nsusu, a fowl or fowls.
On the upper reaches of the river there is a tendency
to drop the initial nasal, and one hears susu for chickeny
also koko.
In some cases nouns which formerly belonged to
this class drop the nasal and adopt the prefixes mo-mi,
as ntuku, a ten, now nearly always heard motuku, ten,
mituku, tens.
4th or Li-Ma Class.This class comprises all those
nouns which make the singular with the prefix li-, and
the plural by changing li- into ma-,
li-kei, an egg, ma-kei, eggs.
li-kongo, a spear, ma-kongo, spears,
li-kondo, a banana. ma-kondo, bananas.
Before vowel stems beginning with the i singular
prefix is reduced to 1-, the plural to m-.
1-iso, eye, m-iso, eyes.
b2


8
1-ino, tooth, m-ino, teeth.
Before vowel stems with a or o, the li- becomes z.
z-olo, a nose, ma-olo, noses.
z-amba, a forest, mamba, forests.
5th or E-Bi Class.This class comprises all those
nouns which take e- for the prefix in the singular, and
make their plural by changing e- into b-.
e-loko, a thing, bi-loko, things.
e-lamba, cloth, bi-lamba, cloths.
e-lema, a fool, bi-lema, fools.
e-benga, a pigeon. bi-benga, pigeons.
6th or Bo-Ma Class.Comprises all those nouns
which have the singular prefix bo-, and change bo- into
ma- to mark the plural.
bo-ndoki, a gun, ma-ndoki, guns.
bo-kobo, paint, ma-kobo, paints.
bo-langiti, a blanket, ma-langiti, blankets.
Before vowel stems the singular prefix is bw- (b-
before 0) and the plural is m-.
bw-ato, canoe, m-ato, canoes,
Abstract nouns belong to this class; some have
only a singular number, and others only a plural.
bo-boto, kindliness,
ma-yele, cunning, ma-kasi, strength.
A few other nouns which have no singular appear
as plural nouns of this class.
mai, water, mafuta, oil, butter, grease.
7th or Lo-N Class.Comprises those nouns which
have lo- for the singular prefix, and change lo- into tri-
or n- for the plural.
( plural is formed by changing the lo- into n-.
lo-kele, spoon, n-kele, spoons
lo-seba, a steamer whistle. n-seba, steamer whistles,
(J?) When the stem commences with 1 the plural is


9
formed by changing lo- into n-, and the prefix n then
changes the 1 of the stem into d.
lo-lemo, a tongue, n-demo, tongues.
lo-lenge, a sort, n-denge, sorts, kinds.
(c) When the stem commences with y the plural
takes n-, and the n- changes the y into j or z.
lo-yembo, song, n-jembo, or n-zembo, songs.
(d) When the stem commences with b and p the
plural is formed by changing lo- into m-.
lo-poso, a skin, m-poso, skins.
(e) When the stem commences with n or m the
plural is made by dropping the singular prefix.
lo-meko, a balance, meko, balances.
There is a tendency to drop the nasal prefix in the
plural, and one often hears:
poso, skijis, kele, spoons.
8th or Lo-Ma Class.Contains two nouns.
lo-boko, an arm, ma-boko, arms.
lo-kulu, a leg, ma-kulu, legs.
VARIA.
In the district about Nouvelle An vers there is a
tendency to make a collective noun from nouns
belonging to the Mo-Mi Class by putting them into
the 3rd or N-N Class,mw-ete, a tree; mi-ete, trees;
but speaking of a large or indefinite number, njete,
trees; mu-nkei, an egg; mi-nkei, eggs; but nkei when
speaking of a large or indefinite number.
Many nouns are shifting out of the 3rd or Nasal
class under this rule into the Mo-Mi Class. Thus
instead of ntako, a brass rod, mo-tako, plural, mi-tako,


IO
and so on. Another reason for this is the fact that the
Ngombe, the Basoko, and the Lokele peoples are
steadily ridding their nouns of the nasal which is
difficult for them topronounce. Other speakers, who have
been accustomed to use the nasal as the prefix
characteristic of these nouns, object to using the stem
only, and add the most popular prefix mo- making the
plural in mi-.
The languages of the Balolo, the people of Upoto,
and the Lokele living between the Lomami mouth and
Stanleyville, have a class of nouns with the prefixes
I-To. These nouns are generally diminutive.


11
CHAPTER III.
ADJECTIVES.
The languages from which "Bangala" has drawn
its forms have a few adjectives which according to Bantu
law concord with the nouns they qualify by adopting
a prefix proper to the Class and Number of the Noun.
mo-tu mo-lamu, a good man.
li-kongo li-sanda, a long spear.
"Bangala" however, has attached a definite prefix
to the stems of these concording adjectives and
formed them into indeclinable adjectives.*
The rules for Adjectives in "Bangala" may by given
thus;
(i) Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify.
batu makasi, strong people.
masua monene, a large ship.
makei mabe, bad eggs.
ndako mosanda, a tall house.
* "Bangala" thus breaks away from an important rule in Bantu
structure,the rule that every part of speech dependent on the Noun
should be brought into concord with it by adopting a prefix proper to the
Class and Number of the Noun. Here again, however, it may be pointed
out that "Bangala" has found the common base in the extension of a
principle illustrated in the Upper Congo languages.
In Ngala the Abstract noun can be used after the noun to qualify it,
instead of the adjective, thus, motu mo-nene, motu bo-nene, both
meaning a large man.


12
(2) These Adjectives can be used absolutely, i\e, to
refer to nouns understood or implied, (the verb to be
does not need to be expressed.)
malamu, (they are or it is) good.
makasi, {they a^e or it is) strong.
This is the principle adopted by "Bangala," it has made its adjectives
into nouns of quality which are used as indeclinable adjectives.
But it will be noted that this nounal adjective has not adopted the
prefix bo- which is the common prefix for forming abstract nouns from
Adjective stems, they appear with the prefixes mo-as mo-nene, and ma- as
makasi.
The second rule above serves to explain this. In all the languages
from which "Bangala" has drawn its grammatical forms the Adjectives
can be used absolutely. Thus one can say malamu referring to nouns
understood, provided that these nouns bear the prefix ma-. Thus malamu
may be used referring to ma-nkeke bamboos, ma-nkoko, sugar cartes,
and ma-tu canoes, etc., meaning they are good.
But there is always a difficulty when the adjective is needed to
refer to nouns of different classes, thus if one wishes to lump say e-lamba
cloth, and nsusu, fowls, and makondo, bananas, and say they are
good, what prefix shall one apply to the adjective? Shall one say
bi-lamu or li-lamu or ma-lamu? On this point there is no general
agreement between the rules of the different languages, nor any absolute
rule in any one language, which would be followed by all speakers. In
"Bangala" the general consensus of opinion has decided on a certain
prefix for the several adjectives when used absolutely, and then has
gradually come to use these indeclinable forms to qualify nouns even
when the noun is expressed; so that these absolute forms have now taken
the place of the concording Adjectives.
And this, again, is but the further extension v.,f another mode of
expression which may be illustrated from the Upper River languages.
There are a certain number of nouns denoting a quality which are used
to qualify nouns, and in this construction may be called nounal adjectives.
Thus in Bangi libunu means a curve; libunu can be used after another
noun to denote the possession of that quality; longele libunu,
a cui^ed brass rod. Or, in Ngala, ngombila, is a noun meaning cloud;
this noun may follow another noun, as butu a day, and thus butu
ngombila, a cloudy day.
"Bangala" has thus, by a perfectly legitimate process, formed nouns
of quality from the radicals of the heretofore concording Adjectives, by
giving them a noun prefix, and uses them to qualify nouns after the
model of butu ngombila, hence dispensing with the necessity of concord.


13
The following are the
Adjectives.
monene,
moke,
molai,
mosanda,
mokuse,)
mokwe J
mobesu,
mowindu,
motani,
makasi,
motau,
malamu,
mabe,
bozitu,
motunu,
monzenga,
ngoi-ngoi,
mpembe,
mingi)
be, /
most important of the
large, big.
small,
tall, high,
long.
short.
fresh, green,
black, dark,
light, light coloured,
strong.
weak, tender.
good.
evil, bad.
heavy.
blunt.
beautiful.
cowardly.
white.
many.
(3) Adjectives are intensified in force by the use of
be after the adjective, or by doubling the adjective.
makasi be, very strong.
moke moke, very small.
(4) The diminutive mwa, small, always precedes the
noun, mwa mafuta, a little oil.
A. ADJECTIVAL PHRASES.
Adjectival phrases are formed by the particle na,*
which is invariable for all classes. This particle may
be said to represent the preposition of
motu na makasi, a man of strength a strong man.
* This is another breach of the Rule of Concord, but it must be said
that Bangala" has here solved a difficulty in a very ingenious way.


14
Na also represents to belong to.
bwato na mondele, the canoe belonging to the white man.
bana na mwasi, the children belonging to the woman.
Adjectival phrases are also formed by the verb zala,
to be, and the preposition na, which means in this case,
with.
mai mazali na moto = the water is hot.
The languages which have contributed to the formation of Bangala"
follow mainly two methods of forming Adjectival clauses. Examples
may be taken from Ngala and Bangi.
Ngala has an adjectival particle -a which is brought into concord
with the noun by the use of the adjectival prefix to form Adjectival
clauses, thus,
mw-ete mw-a mondele, the trees of the white man.
mi-tako mi-a mokonji, the brass rods of the chief
Bangi does not possess this particle, but the concording prefix.is
used to introduce the Adjectival clause.
mo-nkoko mo mwana, the sugar cane of the child.
li-kongo li motu, the spear of the man.
Which of these methods should be adopted?' It is evident that it
would not be an easy matter for a people accustomed to one of these
methods to learn to use the other. "Bangala" solved the difficulty
again by extending another method of forming adjectival clauses which
is used in Ngala a proceeding by which both methods of concording
might be dropped. Thus, with a few personal nouns, Ngala uses the
particle na, and or with, to form adjectival phrases.
ndeko na moto, a friend of the man, lit., a friend
with the man.
batu na mokonji, the people of the chief
This is the method adopted in "Bangala."
Here, again, one may grieve to lose the variety and precision given
by the use of concording particle, but it must be agreed that "Bangala" has
found the line of least resistance. We have no right to call these forms
ungrammatical, and we may well remember that experts attribute the
spread of English largely to the facility with which it has dropped and
does still drop its inflexions.


15
B. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES,
THE CARDINAL NUMERALS.
The cardinal Numerals are invariable*.
THE UNITS.
moko,
mibale,
misato,
minei,
mitano,
one,
two,
three,
four,
five,
motoba,
nsambu,
mwambi,
libwa,
zumul
zumi /
Ll I
seven,
eight,
nine.
six.
THE TENS.
The tens are expressed by the noun motuku, pi.
mituku, followed by the multiplying unit.
THE HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS.
The hundreds are expressed by the noun monkama,
pi. minkama, followed by the multiplying unit.
* In Ngala and Bangi the first five numerals are adjectives and
concord with the nouns they qualify as Ngala: batu babale, two people,
rldako ibale, two houses. "Bangala" has seized the form of the
numeral which was generally used when the noun was not expressed or
implied, and uses it as an indeclinable form, really making the first five
numerals into nouns corresponding to the second five, which are nouns
in all the languages.
mituku mibale,
mituku misato,
mituku minei,
twenty,
thirty.
forty, and so on.
monkama moko, one hundred.
minkama mibale, two hundred.
minkama mitano, five hundred.
minkama mwambi, eight hundred.


16
The thousands are expressed by the noun nkoto,
(which does not change to form the plural) followed by
the multiplying unit.
nkoto moko,
nkoto minei,
nkoto mitano,
nkoto libwa,
mokoko,
mikoko mibale,
one thousand,
four thousand,
five thousand,
nine thousand,
ten thousand,
twenty thousand.
MIXED NUMBERS.
zumu na moko, eleven.
zumu na mibale, twelve.
zumu na mitano, fifteen,
zumu na mwambi, eighteen.
mituku mibale na motoba, twenty six.
mituku minei na libwa, forty nine.
monkama moko na mituku nsambu na mitano, one hundred
and seventy five.
minkama mitano na mituku mibale na minei, five hundred and
twenty four.
nkoto motoba, na minkama misato, na mituku motoba na
libwa, six thousand and three hundred and sixty nine.
nkoto zumu na mwambi, na minkama mibale, na mituku mi-
sato na nsambu, eighteen thousand and two hundred and
thirty seven.
mikoko mibale, na nkoto motoba na minkama minei na zumu
na misato, twenty thousand and six thousand, and four
hundred, and thirteen.
{a) Numeral Adjectives follow the nouns they
qualify.
batu zumu na motoba, sixteen people.
mandoki nkoto moko na minkama mitano, One thousandfive
hundred guns.
mitako minkama libwa na mituku libwa na libwa, nine
hundred arid ninety nine brass rods.
(b) The numerals are used absolutely,
mitano, five ; monkama, one hundred.


17
(c) In order to translate, one by one, two by two etc.
or, one each time, two each time, etc. the cardinal
numbers are simply reduplicated:
moko-moko, one by one.
basali bakamati mibale-mibale, the workmen each took two.
(d) "About a" certain number is rendered by "soko."
Batu soko mitanu, about five people.
ORDINAL NUMERALS.
The ordinal Numerals are formed from the Cardinal
Numerals preceded by na,* except the first which is
boso.
motu na boso, the first man.
batu na nsambo, the seventh man.
kiti na motoba, the sixth chair.
kopo na libwa, the ninth glass.
etc. etc.
C. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.
The Possessive Adjectives are:
na ngai, my. na biso, our.
na yo, thy. na bino, your.
na yeye, his. na bango, their.
na yango, its. na yango, their.
These are really the Objective Pronouns preceded
by the possessive particle na+.
* This is in accordance with the method adopted by "Bangala"
in the formation of Adjectival phrases. The River languages concord
these forms:
Ngala: motu wa babale, the second man.
Bangi: moto o nsambo, the seventh man.
t A further extension of the method adopted the "Bangala" of
forming Adjectival phrases by the use of na. Tho Upper River lan-
guages concord these forms. Ngala: batu ba ngai, my people; Bangi:
nkeni e yo, his cup.


i8
Na yango its, na yango theirs, refer to nouns of all
classes.*
(a) Possessive Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify.
mombo na ngai, my slave, batu na biso, out people.
ndako na yo, thy house, mandoki na bino, your guns.
molangi na yeye, his bottle, basi na bango, their wives.
D. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
The Demonstrative Adjectives mark two positions,
ist Position: Near the speaker, 2nd Position: Near the
person spoken to, or some distance away from the speaker,
or previously mentioned.
The Demonstrative Adjective of the ist position is
oyo; which is indeclinable:
motu oyo, this man.
batu oyo, these men.
ndako oyo, this house.
elamba oyo, this cloth.
The Demonstrative Adjective of the 2nd position is
wana, or oyo kuna. Which are the same in the
singular and plural.
mwana oyo kuna, that child.
bana oyo kuna, those children.
biloko wana, those things.
wana, is more generally used than oyo kuna.
* Due doubtless to the necessity of finding the common base of
the River languages. Some of the languages have a special form of the
Possessive Adjective for its, theirs, referring to the nouns of each separate
Class.
Ngala: mwana wa yango, the child of it, referring to ntaba a goat.
Bangi: loposo lo mongo, the bark of it, its bark (referring to mwete,
a tree). Others, such as the language of Basoko have no Possessive
forms outside the ist or Mu-Ba Class, but use the Demonstrative; hence
"Bangala" has dropped all the forms except those above.


19
Greater distance is marked by lengthening the final
vowel of the adjective.
Demonstrative adjectives follow the noun they
qualify.


20
CHAPTER IV,
PRONOUNS.
A. Personal Pronouns.
Singular.
plural.
i st Pers., ngai, me,
2nd Pers., yo, thou, thee.
3rd Pers., yeye, he, him,
biso, we, //j.
bino,
bango, they, them.
yango it (all classes).
These forms are both Nominative and Objective,
and serve to represent the nouns of all Classes.*
They may be called Self-standing Pronouns to
distinguish them from the Pronominal Prefixes which
represent the subject of the verb.
The Possessive Pronouns are identical with the
Possessive Adjestives.
mbele na yo malamu, na ngai mabe, your knife is good, mine is
tika samaki na ngai, kamata na yo, leave my fish alone, take yours.
* Some of the Upper River languages have Pronouns to represent
the nouns of all the Classes. Thus, in Bangi, mongo and mingo are the
sing, and plur. pronouns referring to all nouns of the Mo-Mi Class;
mwango and miango are the corresponding Ngala forms. But some of the
languages have no special Pronouns to represent Nouns outside of the
ist or Mo-Ba Class. True to its central principle of dropping forms
which are not common to all the languages "Bangala" uses yeye and
bango, for it, they, or them, referring to nouns of all Classes.
B. Possessive Pronouns.
bad.


21
C. Demonstrative Pronouns.
The Demonstrative Pronouns are oyo, this, or these,
and yango or kuna, that or those.
sumba makondo oyo, tika yango, buy these plantain, leave those.
kende na motu oyo, moto kuna ake na ngai, go with this man,
that one goes with me.
yaka na mitako oyo, pese basali yango, come with these brass
7 ods, give the workmen those.
D. Interrogative Pronouns.
Who? interrogative is rendered by nani?
nani okofuta basali ? who is paying the workmen ?
motu nani or nani ? who is the man ?
ye akoloba nani? who is it who speaks?
What? interrogative is rendered by nini? or nde?
mpo nini?
nini?
ye alobi nini?
what is the matter?
what is it?
what did he say ?


22
CHAPTER IV.
VERBS.
Verbs are divided into three conjugations. Verbs
ending in a, form the A conjugation, those ending in
e, the E conjugation; those ending in o, the O conjug-
ation ; as loba, to speak; bete, to beat; kombo, to sweep.
Inflexions of the Verb.
Verbs are inflected in relation to Number and Person,
Mood and Tense.
NUMBER AND PERSON.
The relations of Number and Person are shown by
prefixes attached to the verb. These prefixes represent
the Subject of the verb and translate I, thou, he, she,
it, they, before the verb. If the subject is inanimate
the verb takes the class prefix of the subject noun as
its prefix. There is a tendency to drop this, and to
introduce in its place the personal prefixes a and ba
as it, and they.


23
Pronominal Prefixes.
Singular. Plural.
ist Pers. na- /. ist Pers. to- we.
2nd o- thou. 2nd ,, bo- you.
3rd ,, a- he, she. 3rd ba- they.
Class Prefixes.
ist a- he. ba- they.
2nd mo- it. mi- they.
3rd e- it. i- they.
4th li- it. ma- they.
5th e- it. bi- they.
6th bo- it. ma- they.
7th lo- it. i- they.
8th lo- it. ma- they.
These are regular for all tenses.
Emphasis is expressed by placing a Substantive or
Self-standing Pronoun before the verb.
Examples.
nalali na masua,
ye, asali boye,
bino, bokoki kokende,
motu ayibi biloko,
molangi mokwi na nee,
ndako ikangami,
I slept on the steamer.
He (himself) did thus.
You (all of you) ate able to go
A man stole the things.
The bottle fell on the ground.
The houses are locked up.
THE MOODS AND TENSES.
Five Moods are recognised, A the Indicative Mood,
B the Imperative Mood, C the Infinitive Mood, D the
Subjunctive Mood, and E the Participial Mood.
Qz


24
A. The Indicative Mood.
The Indicative Mood has the following tenses:
1. The Present
2. The Past.
3. The Remote Past, or the Past Indefinite.
4. The Customary.
5. Pluperfect.
6. Future.
I. THE PRESENT is formed by adding the
prefix ko- to the root of the verb, and placing before
that the prenominal prefix.
Example, linga, to love. Root, linga. (Throughout
the following tenses "linga" will be taken as a model).
Singular.
ist Pers. na- ko- linga, I am loving.
2nd ,, 0- ko- linga, thou art loving.
3rd a- ko- linga, he is loving.
Plural.
ist Pers. to- ko- linga, we are loving.
2nd ,, bo- ko- linga, you are loving.
3rd ba- ko- linga, they are loving. ;;
Classes, mo-ko- -linga, mi-ko-linga, e-ko-linga, i-ko-linga, ect,
2. THE PAST is formed by striking off the final
a, e, or o, of the root, and replacing it by i. The
prenominal prefixes are added just as in the preceding
case.
Singular. Plural.
1 st Pers. na-ling-i, I loved. to-ling-i, we loved.
2nd ,, o-ling-i, thou lovedsl. bo-ling-i, you loved.
3rd a-ling-i, he loved. ba-ling-i, they loved.


25
Verbs which have w, or y, or i, before the final
vowel make their past in ei.
liya, to eat, makes nalei, 1 ate.
wa, to die, makes awei, he died.
The verb kende, to go, is irregular, and makes, -kei,
in the past, as nakei, I went.
3. THE REMOTE PAST, or THE PAST
INDEFINITE, is formed by adding ki, to the simple
verb as a suffix. The pronominal prefix is added as
before. Thus in the A conjugation, the ist person
singular would be na-linga-ki, in the E conjugation,
(taking as an example, bete, to strike) na-bete-ki, in
the O conjugation, (example, kombo, to sweepJ
na-kombo-ki.
Singular.
1 st Pers. na-linga-ki, I loved, or was loving.
2nd ,, o-linga-ki, thou, etc.
3rd ,, a-linga-ki, he, etc.
Plural.
1 st Pers. to-linga-ki, we, etc., etc.
2nd ,, bo-linga-ki, you, etc.
3rd ,, ba-linga-ki, they, etc., etc.
4. THE CUSTOMARY is formed exactly as the
present, (i. e. by prefixing ko to the simple verb,) and the
addition of ka, ke, or ko, according as the verb is of
the A, E or O conjugation. It is conjugated quite
regularly.
na- kolinga- ka, I am in the habit of liking.
na- ko-bete-ke, I am in the habit of beating.
na- ko-kombo-ko, I am in the habit of sweeping.


26
5. THE PLUPERFECT is formed by adding ka,
to the simple verb of the A conjugation, ke to those
of the E conjugation, ko to those of the O conjugation.
Thus na- linga- ka, I he
na- bete- ke, I had beaten.
na- kombo- ko, I had swept, and so on quite regularly.
By some speakers, the ka, ke, or ko, is omitted, and
the tense becomes nalinga, nabete, nakombo.
6. THE FUTURE has usually the same form as
the present tense, i. e. na-ko-linga, means I am loving,
or I shall love. However there is another form ;
Singular.
ist Pers., nde na-ling-i, I shall love.
2nd ,, nde o-ling-i, thou shalt love.
3rd ,, nde a-ling-i, he shall love.
Plural.
ist Pers., nde to-ling-i, we shall love.
2nd ,, nde bo-ling-i, you shall love.
3rd ,, nde ba-ling-i, they shall love.
On the use of this see "The Use of Tenses."
IDIOMATIC CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.
Two tenses are formed by conjugating the verb
with the verb zala, to be, (zala being conjugated as a
verb of the A conjugation). These may be called 1. The
ACTUAL PRESENT; 2. The IMPERFECT.


27
I. THE ACTUAL PRESENT.
ist Pers., nazali ko-linga,
2nd
3rd
ist Pers.,
2nd ,,
3rd >>
ozali ko-linga,
azali ko-linga,
Sing.
I am loving now, (literally it can be
Compared with the analagous pidgun"
English expression "I live to come").
thou art loving now.
he is loving now.
Plural,
tozali ko-linga,
bozali ko-linga,
bazali ko-linga,
we are loving now.
you are loving now.
they are loving now.
2. THE IMPERFECT.
I st Pers.,
2nd ,,
3rd
ist Pers.,
2nd ,,
3rd
Sing.
nazalaki ko-linga,
ozalaki ko-linga,
azalaki ko-linga,
Plural,
tozalaki ko-linga,
bozalaki ko-linga,
bazalaki ko-linga,
I was coming (then).
thou, etc.
he, etc.
we were loving (then).
you, etc.
they, etc.
A. FORCE OF THE TENSES.
Of the tenses given, the Present (1), the Past (2),
and the Remote Past (3), are those most generally in
use. A great deal of confusion is occasioned by the
use of what is apparently the Past tense for the
Present. Indeed some say there is no Present, or
rather there is no difference in the tense forms of these


28
two tenses, i. e., they both have the i suffix. But the
native is, or was, more logical in his speech than we
are in ours.
For instance, we say in English, "I am sitting on a
chair," using our present form of the verb, and meaning
that we are actually sitting at the time of speaking.
But in Lingala a native would use the past form and
say "nazali na kiti," (literally, I sat) meaning, he is
already seated, and is now sitting on his chair. But if
he were in the act of sitting and not actually seated,
he would say, "nakozala na kiti," i. e. I am (in the act
of) sitting in the chair. Thus, always use the Present
with the sense of "in the act of," otherwise use the
Past form.
Examples:
(a) motu akobambola mwinda, The man is in the act of lighting
the lamp.
(b) motu abamboli mwinda, The man lights the lamp (at
any time).
t
The above sentences may mean (a) the man will
light the lamp, and the man lit the lamp; however no
difficulty will be found in giving either of these forms
its right meaning, if the context in which it occurs is
examined. Again, nalingi bandeko na ngai, means,
I love my friends (or I loved my friends), and, nakolinga
bandeko na ngai, means, / love, my friends (perhaps
for the first time), or, 1 will love my friends. By some
speakers, the Present form is not used at all, its place
being taken by what we have called the actual present
(see Idiomatic Conjugation cf the Verb, a). Thus:
(c) motu azali kobambola mwinda, The man is (actually) lighting
the lamp.
Both forms (a) and (c) are correct.


29
3. The Remote past is brought into requisition when
any act done at any remote, or indefinite time is to be
related.
mwasi akomboki ndako, the woman swept the house (at the indef-
inite time of which the speaker speaks),
nazalaki na Boma, I lived at Boma (once upon a time).
4. The Customary tense needs no explanation, and
a single example will suffice.
mwasi akosukolaka bilamba, the woman washes the clothes regularly
or every day, i. e. it is her custom to
do this.
5. The Pluperfect is used quite regularly.
ayaka na ndako, he had come to the house.
abeteke mbwa, he had beaten the dog.
akomboko ndako, he had swept the house.
6. The Future. The form most generally in use is
identical with that of the present, as already noted.
Its time is indicated by the context in which it occurs.
Thus akoya lobi, means he will come to-morrow. But
in the resulting clause of a sentence, if the result is
regarded as certain, then the second form seems to be
used.
Example, soko masua makoya lobi, mondele nde akamati nkuni,
if the steamer comes to-morrow, the whiteman will take firewood.
There only remains one other tense to be noted, the
Imperfect, which is derived from the idiomatic conju-
gation of the verb. It is used quite regularly.
nazalaki kolala,
azalaki koloba,
I was sleeping.
He was speaking.


30
B. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
The simple form of the verb is used, ko- is also
often prefixed, but it is not necessary. Example,
sumba, to buy.
Singular. Plural,
sumba, or kosumba, buy (thou); bo-sumba, buy (you).
The Emphatic Imperative is formed by adding -ka,
to the A conjugation -ke to the E conjugation, -ko to
the O conjugation.
sumba-ka, buy (at once). bosumba-ka, buy (all of you at once)
teke-ke, sell ( ) boteke-ke, sell ( ,, ,, )
kombo-ko, sweep ( ,, ) bokombo-ko, sweep ( ,, ,, )
Often the plural is formed by adding -ni to the stem.
Sing: loba, speak. Plur: lobani, speak.
Ya, to come, always takes the Emphatic Imperative.
Sing: yaka, come. Plur: boyaka, or yakani, come.
C. INFINITIVE MOOD.
The infinitive is formed by prefixing ko- to the
simple verb.
ko-linga, to love, ko-bete, to beat, ko-kombo, to sweep.
Example: ayi ko-kanga ntaba, he came to tie up his goat.
Note this sentence. It means, he came in order to
tie up his goat, but if the sentence stood, he came that


3i
he might tie up his goat, i. e. if it were a hypothetical
sentence, then the subjunctive would be used in place of
the infinitive (See Subjunctive Mood).
D. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
The Subjunctive Mood has one Tense. It consists
of the simple verb, with the prenominal prefixes.
pese ye nsusu alamba na mai, give him a fowl that he may cook it
with water.
The Subjunctive is used after verbs expressing
entreaty, purpose, desire, etc., and after hypothetical
adverbs, conjunctions, and phrases.
alingi ake, he wants to go (he wishes that he may go).
yaka tokende, come let us go.
tika ye alongola biloko, let him. take away the things.
Any tense of the Indicative Mood may be used in
asking questions but the Subjunctive is generally used
when reference is to the future, as Naya? shall I come?
Ake? shall he go? Babuna? shall they fight? But,
Alobi boye, did he speak thus? Azalaki na Boma? did
he live at Boma? (See also Infinitive Mood).
E. THE PARTICIPIAL MOOD.
The Participial Tenses are formed from the Indi-
cative tenses by inversion; e- is prefixed to the tense
form, and the Subject noun or pronoun follows
immediately after the verb.


32
ist Pers.,
2nd ,,
3rd
Example: Present tense.
Singular
e-kolinga ngai,
e-kolinga yo,
e-kolinga ye,
when I am loving,
when thou art loving,
when he is loving.
ist Pers.,
2nd ,,
3rd
Plural
e-kolinga bino,
e-kolinga bino,
e-kolinga bango,
when we are loving,
when you are loving,
when they ate loving.
Past.
e-lingi ngai, etc.,
Remote Past,
e-lingaki ngai, when I loved.
And so on throughout all the tenses.
FORCE OF THE PARTICIPIAL TENSES.
These tenses can only be used in clauses which
indicate the condition, and only when the condition,
was, or is, or will be fulfilled.
It is for this reason that the mood is called
participial and not conditional.
Example:
esalaki ngai na mondele afuti ngai mosolo mingi, when I worked
for the whiteman he paid me well.
ekosila ngai lisala na ngai nakosunga yo, when 1 shall have
finished my ivork I will help you.
When doubt or uncertainty is indicated, conditional
particles are used followed by the tenses of the
Subjunctive Mood.


33
soko lobi aya, nakokende na ye, if he comes to-morrow, I will go
with him.
soko nakima na zamba okosala nini? If I should run away into the
forest, zvhat would you do?
Uncertainty as to result is indicated by soko.
soko akamata nkuni, perhaps he will take firewood, or he may take
firewood.
NEGATION.
All verbs are negatived by the particle te, standing
after the verb or at the end of the clause.
Examples:
nalobi te, 1 spoke not.
kolamba boli te, ezali molamu te, not to cook food is not good.
yaka te, do not come.
mpo nini olobi na ngai te? why did you not speak to me?
nalingi nakende te, I do 7iot want to go.
kanga ntaba na nkamba akima te, tie the goat with rope that he
may not run away.
nabiangi yo kala-kala, ooki ngai te ? I called you long ago, did you
not hear me?
akufi boni? babomi ye te? how did he die? did they not kill him?
THE VERBS: to be, and, to have.
The verb to be, is rendered by zala, which is declined
perfectly regularly as a verb of the a class.
The verb, to have, is rendered by zala, and na,
thus zala na, to be with.


34
CHAPTER V.
DERIVED VERBS.
A. The Passive Verb.
Of the Upper River languages only the Bangi
language has a true Passive Verb. The ending is -ibwa,
but this would seem to have been summarily rejected.
Most of the other languages, however, form a Passive
sentence by inversion, and this is the method which
is likely to be accepted, though, as the Upper River
languages do not like Passive Forms, perhaps even this
mode may be rejected.
Active sentence: nakangi ntaba, I tied the goat.
Passive sentence: ntaba e-kangi na ngai, the goat
was caught by me.
To mark the Passive the sentence is inverted. Ntaba
is the object of the active sentence and in agreement
with the common rule in "Bangala" appears after the
verb. Ntaba is the Subject of the Passive sentence, it
appears before the verb, and the agent preceded by
the preposition na follows the verb.
In all the Upper River languages, however, there is a
Neuter or Stative verb. This is occasionally heard in
Bangala" and it is highly desirable that some attempt


35
should be made to retain this form, for now one usually
hears abeti, both for he beat, and he was beaten ; akangi,
he ties, and he was tied, which, to say the least of it, is
somewhat confusing.
B. The Neuter or Stative Verb.
The Neuter or Stative verb is easily formed. Setting
aside some peculiarities found in the different languages,
the following rules are simple and easily understood.
Verbs ending in o add -mo, kombo, to sweep,
kombomo, to be swept.
Verbs ending in e add -me, bete to beat, beteme,
to be beaten.
Verbs ending in a add -ma, sosa, to wash,, sosama,
to be washed.
Some verbs take -ana, instead of ama; tika, to
remain; makes tikana, to be in a state of remaining.
These verbs are then conjugated exactly as are the
Simple verbs ending in a, e, and o.
ndako akokombomo, the house is being swept.
batu bakobeteme, the people are being beaten.
ngombe akososama, the cloth is being washed.
Verbs ending in -ola form their Stative in oa (or wa),
fungola, to unlock; fungwa, to be unlocked.


36
Note the following:
funga, to lock; stative, fungama, to be locked.
fungola, to unlock: stative, fungwa, to be unlocked.
Thus the difference between funga, and fungwa, is
great, and apparent.
C. The Applicative Verb.
There is another Derived Verb which is common to
all the languages and is heard in "Bangala." It is
formed by adding -ela to the verb stem. The addition
of this suffix adds a prepositional idea to the idea of
the simple verb, as sumba, to buy, sumbela, to buy for;
buna, to fight; bunela, to fight for.
alambi nyama, he cooked meat.
alambeli mondele nyama, he cooked meat for the white man.
asumbi bilamba, he bought clothes.
asumbeli mwasi na yeye bilamba, he bought clothes for his wife.
Verbs ending in -ola form their applicative, by
changing the -ola into -wila.
tambola, to walk; tambwila, to walk to, or for.
D. The Causative Verb.
The Causative verb is formed by adding -isa or
sometimes -esa to the simple verb stem. It marks
that the object of the verb is caused to perform the
action, or to exist in the state described by the verb, as
beka, to borrow, bekisa, to lend, lit. to cause to borrow,
zala, to sit, zalisa, to cause to sit, to seat. This derived


37
verb is conjugated in the same way as any simple verb
ending in a.
bekisa ngai mitako zumo, lend me ten brass rods.
Verbs ending in -ola form their causative by changing
the -ola into -wisa.
tambola, to walk; tambwisa, to cause to zvalk.
Verbs ending in -ana form their causative by
changing -ana, into -inya.
yebana, to understand each other.
yebinya, to cause each other to understand.
E. The Reciprocal Verb.
This derived verb is formed by adding the suffixes -na
to verbs ending in a, -ne to verbs ending in e, and -no
to verbs ending in o. It denotes that the action is
reciprocal, as buna, to fight, bunana, to fight each other;
kaba, to divide, kabana, to divide together, to share;
pese, to give, pesene, to give each other; solo, to choose,
solono, to choose each other. These verbs are conju-
gated in the same way as simple verbs ending in a, e,
and o respectively.
bakabani samaki na makondo, they have shared up the fish and the
plantains.
Mankasa na Lotika bakolongono, Mankasa and Lotika are
marrying together.
F. The Reversive Verb.
This derived verb is formed by adding -ola to the
simple verb stem. As the name implies it reverses
the meaning of the simple verb.
d


38
e.g. funga, to shut; fungola, to open.
bomba, to hide; bombola, to reveal.
G. The Reflexive Verb.
The Reflexive verb is formed by prefixing mi-
before the simple verb stem.
lakisa, to teach; nakomilakisa, /, myself teach.
loba, to speak; amilobi, he spoke, hitnself.


39
CHAPTER VI.
ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS,
CONJUNCTIONS, AND INTERJECTIONS.
A. ADVERBS.
There are but few adverbs.
I give the following with the renderings of some
adverbial phrases.
(i) Adverbs of Manner and Quality:
boni-boni,
boni,
mpamba,
se, bobele,
na lobangu,
noki noki,
sika-sik'awa, sasaipi,
na moi na moi,
soko,
lokola na, pila moko,
boye,
bongo, boye.
molamu,
nye,
(2) Adverbs of Place:
how.
how much, why.
freely, gratis, vainly,
completely, exactly, only,
quickly (with speed).
quickly, at once.
now, at this instant, immediately,
slowly, quietly,
perhaps, probably,
as, like.
thus, in this way.
thus, in that way.
very good, very well,
quite, completely.
awa,
kuna, wana,
pene-pene, penepe, \
bele bele, J
mosika, esi,
o ntei, kati kati,
mbisa, \
na nsima, J
na miso na,
esika wapi?
here, in this place,
there, in that place.
near to.
far away,
in, within.
after, behind.
in the presence of.
in what place ?
D2


40
(3) Adverbs of Time:
lelo, to-day.
lobi, to-morrow, yesterday.
na nsima, afterwai ds.
kala kala, long ago.
sasaipi, now.
sikawa, now.
na boso. before.
ndiki, when, at the time.
Adverbial Phrases of Time.
na ntongo,
na ntongo mpenza,
na nsusu na boso,
na moi,
na mpokwa,
na butu,
kati-kati na butu,
kala-kala kani,
mokolo-na-mokolo,
mikolo yonso,
in the moi ning.
in the early morning.
very early in the morning (first cock
crowing),
in the day time,
in the afternoon,
in, or, at night,
midnight.
a very long time ago.
every day.
every day.
(4) Adverbs of Quantity:
moke moke, a few, a little quantity.
be, mingi mingi, many, much.
mosusu or mosiso, more, another.
nainu, yet.
(5) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation:
yes.
no, not.
certainly,
not so.
e, 10,
te,
solo,
lokuta,
soko,
(6) Adverbs of Interrogation:
boni? how many ? how much ?
wapi? where?
zambi nini?\
mpo nini? J
why?


41
What price? is rendered on the lower reaches of
the river by motuya nini or boni? what price? On
the upper reaches by nguo ngapi? how many doti of
cloth?
(7) Some adverbial Phrases:-
na likolo, above.
na mbisa, afterwards.
mikolo yonso, \ mokolo na mokolo, J always, every day.
na bobe, mabe, ill, badly.
na malamu, excellently, well.
na mayele, wisely.
na moi na moi, quietly, carefully.
na makasi, strongly.
na boso, before.
na nee na, under.
na epai na, to the side oj.
na libanda, outside.
epai oyo, this side.
epai kuna, that side.
B. PREPOSITIONS.
There is actually but one preposition, na. In and
about Bolobo and Lulanga, a second one is heard, o.
No doubt this is a great weakness in Lingala, but the
weakness is disguised by the use of prepositional
phrases, and by adverbs (where the context leaves
doubt as to the meaning).
Examples:
Abomi ntaba na mbele, he killed zhe goat with a knife.
azali na ndako, or better, azali kati na ndako, he is in the house.
abati likolo na ndako, he climbed to the top of the house.
alindi kati na masua, he sank between (lit., in the midst of) the
steamers.
yaka awa, na bwato, come into the boat (lit. come here, into
the boat).
yaka na bwato awa, bring the boat (lit., come with the boat here).


-4'2
A few PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES are
as follows:
na likolo na, or, likolo na, on the top of, above.
na nee na, under, underneath.
na kati na, or, kati na, "1 . . ., . , r
r msiae, inside of, z/z the midst of
na ntei na, or, ntei na, J J J
na boso na, or, boso na, before, m front of.
na nsima na, or, nsima na, behind, at the back of
na epai na, or, epai na, at the side of.
CONJUNCTIONS.
(1) na, and, but it is only used to join a series of
substantives (and can be translated, with).
Example:
basumbi yonso, bilamba na nsusu, na samaki, na kwanga na
biloko yonso, they bought all, clothes and (or, with) fowls, and fish,
and bread, and everything.
(2) mpe, and, is used in every other sentence.
Example:
botambolaki mpe bomonoki nzela te, you walked and did not see
the road.
(3) zambi, because.
akimi zambi abungi, he ran away because he forgot.
(4) soko, if, or perhaps.
soko nakoya, perhaps I shall come, soko naya, if I come.
soko, is often used with the sense of, when.
soko masua makoya, when the steamer comes.
(5) soko, soko, either, or.
soko lelo soko lobi, either to-day or to-morrow.
(6) nde, or kansi, but.
akei nde akufi, he went but he died.


43
INTERJECTIONS.
Ale! noki-noki! lobangu! quick I
kokolo! or sapi! wait, wait a minute!
E Tata! e Mama! expressions of surprise. (O father! O mother!)
nawa! nawa! alas, alas. (I die, I die).
ma! take this!
tika bongo! just sol stop it!


44
CHAPTER VII.
SYNTAX.
Many points which naturally come under this
heading have been dealt with in the grammar, others
are better treated here.
A. Formation of Substantives.
(a) The noun denoting the agent, or performer of
the action, is formed from the Indefinite Past Tense of
the Simple verb by adding the Prefixes of the Ist or
Mo-Ba Class.
tula, to forge, past indef. tuli; mo-tuli, a blacksmith.
bete, to beat, past indef. beti; mo-beti, a beater.
benga, to follow, past indef. bengi; mo-bengi, a follower.
sala, to work, past indef. sali; mo-sali, a worker.
(b) The sufferer of the action is denoted by the
corresponding noun formed from the Stative verb.
kangama, to be tied, past indef. kangami; mo-kangami, one
tied, a prisoner.
beteme, to be beaten, past indef. betemi; mo-betemi, one
beaten.
(c) The noun denoting the effect of the action is
formed from the Past Indef. Tense, by adding the
prefixes of the 4th or Li-Ma Class.
koma, to write, past indef. komi; li-komi, writing,
tena, to cut, past indef. teni; li-teni, the piece cut off.


45
(d) The name of the instrument is formed by adding
the prefixes of the 5th or E-Bi Class to the Applica-
tive verb, and changing the final letter into i.
koma, to write, applicative verb, komela; e-komeli, a pencil.
bakola, to take apart, applicative verb, bakolela; e-bakoleli, a
nail-puller.
(e) The noun denoting the place where the action
is wrought can be formed by adding the same prefixes
to the Applicative verb, but the final letter is changed
into e.
bumba, to hide, applicative verb, bumbela; e-bumbele a hiding
place.
(f) The numerical noun is formed from the Simple
verb by adding the Prefixes of the Lo-Mi or 2nd
Class.
bete, to beat, lo-bete moko, one stroke.
luka, to paddle, mi-luka mibale, two strokes or pulls.
baluki mi-luka mitano, they pulledfive strokes.
nayi miya mingi, I came many times (comings).
(g) Abstract nouns can be formed by suffixing o to
the stem of the verb, and prefixing bo-.
bolingo, love, from linga, to love.
(h) Introduced words are generally regarded as
singular nouns of the ist or Mo-Ba Class, and make
a plural by adding ba.
sanduku, trunk, ba-sanduku, trunks.
Sometimes, however, the first syllable of the noun,
when pronounced by the native, sounds like one of
the other singular prefixes, and is treated as such, the
plural taking the corresponding plural prefix, as bo-la-
nkete, pi. ma-lankete, from the English blanket. Thus
bo-lankete is a noun of the Bo-Ma Class.


X
#
B. Gender.
Sex is not represented in the inflexions of the noun,
but must be indicated by a noun signifying male or
female used as an adjective after the noun denoting
the object.
motu mobali, a person (male); motu moasi, a person (female).
ntaba mobali, a male goat; ntaba moasi, a female goat.
bilenge babali, boys; bilenge basi, girls.
C. Adjectives.
It will have been noticed that "Bangala" has but few
Adjectives; many of our Adjectives must be rendered
by the Past Indefinite Tense of an appropriate verb.
yaka na batu bakoki lisala or kosala, come with men sufficient for
the work.
ndako ebongi, a suitable house; mai maleki, running water.
D. Comparison of Adjectives.
(a) Adjectives are compared in various ways
(1) If the equality of two objects is to be compared
the substantives, lokola, or lolenge (or, lokola moko
lolenge moko) are used.
Example:
ndako yonso lokola (or lokola moko, or, lolenge moko) all
houses are the same, lit., all houses one kind.
(2) But, if some qualification of the object is to be
expressed, such ias breadth, length, etc., then the
equivalent adjective is used.
Example:
ndako yonso mosanda moko, all the houses are of one length.
minkanda bolamu moko, the books are equally good (lit., the books
one goodness.)


47
(3) To compare the simple difference between objects,
lolenge...lolenge, is used.
Example:
ndako oyo lolenge, yango lolenge, this house is of one sort,
that one of another.
(b) The Comparative of
1. Superiority or inferiority is expressed by the use
of the verbs, pusa, or leka, to surpass, or to excel.
Example:
moto oyo aleki ngai na makasi, this man is stronger than I
(lit., this man surpassed me with strength).
2. The Superlative is expressed by (a) accent, (b)
reduplication, or by (c) pusa, or leka.
Examples:
(a) mondele monene, a big whiteman, but, mondele monene,
(thus moneeene) a very big whiteman.
(b) nsusu moke moke, a very little fowl.
batu mingi mingi, very many people.
(c) basanduku bapusi, there are very many boxes (lit., the boxes,
they surpass).
capitani aleki mayele, the captai7i was very wise (lit., the captain
surpassed wisdom).
E. Indefinite Adjectives.
None, no one is rendered by the negative: motu te,
no man.
Certain by moko: motu moko, a certain man.
Several is rendered by mingi = mhny, or basusu, or
mosusu = more, others.
Someone, anybody, anything, is rendered by soko.
soko motu moko, someone, anybody.
soko bongo, perhaps so.
soko elamba, any cloth.


48
The whole is rendered by yonso, njoto yonso, the
whole body, nsu yonso, the whole fish.
All by banso: bato banso or yonso, all the people.
Each is rendered by repeating the noun: motu na
motu bakwi mbele moko moko, each man took one
knife.
Myself, alone, is rendered by, mpenza.
ngai mpenza, I myself.
bino mpenza, you yourselves.
F. Pronouns.
When the Personal Pronouns are used as Subjects
they stand before the verb.
ngai nakoya, I am coming; bango bayei, they came.
As objects they stand after the verb,
nakolinga yeye, I like him.
The same rule applies to the Demonstrative Pronouns.
moto oyo ayibi biloko, moto wana abumbi yeye, this one stole the
things, that one hid hint.
ngai namoni yango, yeye akamati yango lisusu, I saw these, he
caught those.
G. Relative Pronoun.
There is only an Interrogative Relative Pronoun.
It appears in two forms, nani? and nini?
Nani is used of persons, nini of things.
nani oleki awa? who passed here ?
yo okoiinga nani? whom do you love?
bilamba na nani? whose clothes?


49
H. Relative Clauses.
A Personal Subjective Relative Clause differs from
an Absolute Clause, only in the singular.
o- is prefixed to the verb in the singular, and ba-
in the plural.
motu obeti ngai, the man who beat me.
batu babeti ngai, the men who beat me.
But in a relative clause relating to things, the verb
takes the class prefix of the noun which governs it:
biloko bisumbaki ngai, the things which I bought.
An Objective Relative Clause may be formed in
two ways.
(a) By inversion:
motu abeti na ngai, the man whom I beat.
(b) The Relative may be expressed by a Demonstra-
tive Pronoun placed before the verb:
motu oyo nabeti yeye, the man whom I beat (lit., man that I beat
him.)
I. Interrogative Expressions.
What? is rendered by boni? or nini? standing at
the end of the clause.
mpo nini? what is the matter? okolinga nini? what do you want?
Where? by wapi?
okokende wapi? where are you going?
batu bajali wapi? where are the people?
Which? is rendered by nini? wapi?
mbele nini? which knife?
mbalankata wapi? which plate?


So
How much? How many? by boni? kwe?
motuya boni? what price?
batu bakimi boni? how many people ran away ?
Why? by mpo nini? boni-boni?
yo osali boye boni? why did you do so?
When? by mokolo wapi?
bayibi bwato mokolo wapi? when did they steal the canoe?
How? by nini? boni?
akimi nini? how did he run away?
akosala na nini? how does he do it?
J. The Verb.
(a) Agreement with its Subject.
When a verb has several Subjects the verb takes
the plural prefix, ba, for persons, bi, for inanimate
objects.
bwato na mbele na mandoki na masasi bilindi o mai, the canoe
and the knives and the guns and the cartridges sank in the water.
(b) The Force of the Tenses in the Indicative has
been shewn (p.p. 27-29).
(c) The use of the Imperative and the Subjunctive is
practically the same as in English.


CHAPTER I.
VOCABULARY.
A. Preliminary Observations.
(a) "Bangala" is yet in the process of making and
many words are not yet fixed. The inhabitants of the
State stations and camps, traders' establishments, etc.,
will naturally use many words peculiar to the districts
in which they are living. With freer and more constant
intercourse words will tend more and more to become
fixed, and will then qualify for inclusion in the common
language.
In preparing this vocabulary I have tried to secure
the words most generally used, but in those cases where
no word seemed generally current I have given,
wherever possible, the word common to the majority
of the riverine languages. In those cases where these
languages do not possess a good word, and one is
known to the Congo speakers of Swahili I have adopted
that word.
It is scarcely to be expected that more than a fair
proportion of these suggested words will be accepted.
The present "Bangala" vocabulary used by the
"Bangala" speakers shews too many vagaries in its
formation for it to be otherwise, hence I have thought


it desirable to leave a wide margin in this section, to
allow of other words being added as readers may deem
advisable.
A collation of these new words, from books filled in
by workers in the several districts, would make it
possible to issue a larger and more accurate vocabulary
later on. One may be permitted to hope, perhaps,
that an adequate number of men may be found whose
interest in the subject will be warm enough to lead
them to contribute this much towards the betterment
of a common means of intercourse.
(b) In those cases where the noun changes its prefix
to mark the plural, both the Singular and Plural forms
are given.
(c) Following the vocabulary is a suggested translit-
eration of the Metric System, the names of the days
and months, and a table of the hours of the day.
(d) It will be noted that a number of verbs end in
-oa, and some others in -wa, as longoa, to awake,
longwa, to depart. Some difference in the representa-
tion of these endings was necessary as verbs ending in
oa make the Past Indef. in -oi, whilst those ending in
wa, make this Tense in -wi, as na-longoi, I awoke,
na-longwi, I went away.


5i
Vocabulary.
Abandon, tika, kila.
abhor, yina.
abide, bika, umela.
abjure, angana.
able, v.i., koka, bonga.
abolish, limbisa, bungisa, longola.
abominate, kila.
abort, leka boleki, lekisa libumu.
abortive, mpamba.
abound, yikana.
above, n. likolo.
prep, na likolo na.
abscess, lituku, pi. matuku,
absorb, mele.
absolve, bungisa, limbisa.
abstain, kila.
abundance, mingi-mingi.
abundant, mingi, boiki.
abuse, kumba.
abyss, loselebete, mobongetela.
accompany, kende elongo na, (music) yembisa.
accept, yamba.
accomplish, silisa, kumisa, sukisa.
accomplished, sila.
accordeon, ndanda, nkosi.
accumulate, yikinya.
accuse, pata, tuba.
accuse each other, patana, tubana.
accustom oneself, mesene.
achieve, silisa bobele, kokisa, sukisa.
acid, nkangi, ngai.
acquaint, sakola, sangela.
acquiesce, dima.
acquire, zwa, kamata.
acquit, longisa,


52
acquitted, to be, longa.
adapt, bongisa, kokisa, yengibinya.
adapted, to be, bonga, koka, yengebene.
add, bakisa.
adequate, to be, koka, bonga.
adjacent, penepe na, penepene.
adjacent, to be, beleme.
adjust, ponga, bongisa, longibinya.
admire, sima.
adopt, yamba, amba.
adorned, to be, lata kitoko, bonzinga.
adult, mpomba, mokulu.
adultery, zambu.
fine for, bokali.
adze, ngwa.
adze, v.t., papa.
affair, mpo, likambo, zambi, pi. mambi, mbembo.
affirm, simba ndai.
afflict, yokisa mawa, tungisa.
after, na mbisa, na nsima.
afternoon, mpokwa.
afterwards, na mbisa, na nsima.
afraid, to be, banga, yoka nsomo.
again, lisusu.
against, (near to) penepe, penepene.
agitate, (a thing) nyingana.
ago, long, kala-kala.
agree, yamba.
agree together, yambana,
aid, sunga.
aim, sosolo.
air, mompepe.
alarm, bangisa.
alarmed, to be, banga.
albino, elumbu.
alike, pila moko, lolenge na.
alligator, ngandu, nkoli, ngonde, (fish eater).
allow, tika, lingisa.
almost, bele bele.
alone, mpenja.
also, mpe.
always, mikolo yonso.
amass, yanginya.
amaze, kamwisa.


53
amazed, to be, kamwa.
amend, nyanga.
amiability, boboto.
ammunition, masasi.
amomy, kati na, ntaka na.
amputate, tena.
amuse, sekisa, sepelisa.
ancestor bankoko.
anchor, mboko.
and, na, mpe.
angel, anze, ntoma.
anger, v.t., okisa, or, yokisa nkele.
anger, nkele, nkanda, makasi.
angle, nsuka.
angry, to be, oka, or, yoka nkele.
animal, nyama.
announce, sangela, sakola.
annoy, tumola, tungisa.
annul, boiya.
anoint, pakala mafuta.
another, mosusu.
answer, arnba, zongisa, to answer, 'yes' ambola, dima.
ant, black, nsombi, white, monsekeleke, ndonge.
antelope, nkani, mbuli, mpambi, mongu, ngandi.
anus, lisoko.
anvil, liboma, etuleli.
anxiety, nkasa.
anxious, to be, yoka or oka nkasa.
any, soko....
anyhow (in any manner), bulu-bulu.
anyone, soko motu moko.
any place, esika soko wapi.
appear, bima, monana, bimela.
appease, bondisa, utisa.
apply, banza.
apprehend, kanga, kamata.
approach, beleme, kuma penepe na.
aptitude, mayele, bwanya.
arm, loboko, pi. maboko.
armpit, lisasamba.
arrange, ponga.
arranged, to be, bonga, koka.
arrive, ya, kuma.
arrow, lobasi, pi. mbasi.


54
artery, mosisa, pi. misisa.
artful, mayele.
as (like to), pila moko, lolenge na.
ascend, bata.
ask, tuna.
ask for, bondela, lombo.
assemble, v.t., yanginya.
assemble, v.i., yangana.
assent, dima, (to say, 'yes') ambola.
assist, sunga.
assure, lendisa.
astonish, kamwisa.
astonished, to be, kamwa.
astonishment, ekamwisela.
attempt, v. meka.
attempt, n. bomeki.
attention, to pay, keba.
authority, bokonzi.
avarice, boimi.
avaricious, to be, ima.
avenge, enza mbomi.
avoid, pengola.
await, jila, zila.
awake, v.i., longwa.
awaken, v.t., longola.
axe, soka, pi basoka.
Back, n. mokongo, pi. mikongo.
back, of a house, na matutu.
back, at the...of, na mbisa, na nsima.
bad, mabe.
badly, na mabe.
bag, libenga, pi. mabenga.
baggage, biloko.
bail, ndanga.
bake, tumba.
baldness, n. libata, (head partly shaved), libondu.
bamboo, linkeke, pi. mankeke.
banana, likemba, bright yellow, ntela.
banana shoot, yana, pi. biana.
bank, engunda.
bank, (cut) mobongetela.
banish, panja.
bark, (of tree, etc.) loposo, pi. mposo.


55
bark, v.i., gboma.
barren woman, ekomba.
barter, sumbitinya.
base, ntina.
basin, saani.
basket, (shoulder) lipoli, other sorts, lipuka, ekolo, lungu.
bastard, mpampuka, (slave child,) mbotela.
bathe, sukola, sukola mai.
bathe a wound, sukola.
batter down, bula.
battle, etumba, pi. bitumba.
be, zala, yala.
be quiet! makelele! kanga minoko! tika nkele.
beach, mbongo, libongo, pi mabongo,
bead, yaka, pi bayaka.
beam, motondo.
bear, (give birth to) bota.
beard, lole, pi njole, ndole.
beast, nyama, mbiji.
beat, bete, kuta.
beater, mobeti, pi babeti.
beauty, n. monzenga.
beauty, bonzenga, kitoko, bompala.
beautiful, na kitoko, na bompala.
because, zambi, ntina'te.
bed, mbeto, elaleli, pi bilaleli.
bee, monzoi.
beef, ngombo.
before, boso.
before, adv. na boso.
before, prep, na boso na.
beg, onga, pekele.
beget, botisa, bota.
beggar, mongL
begin, masa, tata, banda.
beginning, ebandeli, emaseli, bomasi.
behind, na mbisa, na nsima.
believe, yamba.
bell, ngunga, eyengele, pi bayengele.
belly, libumu, pi mabumu.
bench, (seat) etanda, pi bitanda, libaiya, pi mabaiya.
bend, yumba, umba, kumba.
beneficent, na likabo.
bent v.i., umbama.


56
benumb, lalisa.
beseech, bondela, nyingonola.
bestow, pese, kabela.
bestride, kwakiya.
bet, n. mondinge.
bet, v. kata mondinge.
better, leka, pusa, (see grammar);
betray, teka.
^ between, na ntei na.
bewail, lela.
bewitch, loko, loka.
beyond, epai yango na.
Bible, monkanda na Nzambe.
big, monene.
bile, nzongi.
bind, linga, jinga.
bird, ndeki, moleki, pi. mileki, (sort of., komu, bird's crest, lisumba).
birth, lobotama.
biscuit, bisikiti.
bite, v.i., swa, swa mino.
bite, n. boswei, koswa.
bitter, na bololo.
bitterness, bololo.
black, mwindo, piti.
blacken, yindisa.
blacksmith, motuli, pi. batuli.
blanket, kamba, bolankete, pi. inalankete.
blaspheme, tuka Nzambe.
bleat, lela.
bleed, yunga.
bleed, v.i., tanga makila.
bless, yeya, sambola.
blindness, lolanda, molili.
blockhead, elema, pi. bilema, motu na ligboma.
blood, makila.
blossom, bontolo, pi. mantolo.
blow, lobete, pi. mbete.
blow, to givein anger, bete lopataka, embambola.
blow a horn, yula, ula.
of wind, pepe.
the nose, bimisa moyoyo.
whistle of steamer, benda, or, bete loseba.
blue, mwindo, piti.
blunt, v. tuna, tunwa.


57
blunt, adj. botunu.
boa constrictor, nguma.
boat, bwatu, pi. matu.
whale, (baleiniere) ebe
body, njoto.
boil, v.i., lamba, toko,
boil, n. lituku, pi. matuku.
boiler, mombondo.
boldness, makasi.
bolt, bulu.
bolt, v.i., kima.
bolt, v. t., kanga.
bone, monkua, pi. minkua, nkua.
book, monkanda, pi. minkanda; buku.
boot, sanpata, ekoto, pi. bikoto. molato, pi. milato.
borassus palm, lilebu, pi. malebu.
bore, tubela, sokoto.
born, to be. botama.
borrow, beka.
bottle, molangi, pi. milangi.
bottom, nse, se.
boundary, ndelo.
bow, litingbo, pi. matingbo.
bow of a canoe, mbaka na boso.
bowl, saani.
box, sanduku, pi. basanduku.
boy, elengi, pi. bilengi; boi.
bracelet, ekomo, pi. bikomo.
brain, mbongo.
branch, entapi, pi. bintapi.
branch out, v. kabwa.
bras, (firewood) ngunga na nkuni.
brass wire, motako, pi. mitako.
bread, limpa, mbolo, kwanga.
break, buna, bukia, bola.
wind, bete monkima.
break, v.i., bunya, buka, boma.
breast, libele, pi. mabele.
breath, mpema, mouli.
breathe, pema, yema, yula.
brick, litufane.
bridge, etalango, bwamba.
brighten, tanisa.
brilliant, langi-langi.


58
bring, yaka na, beke, yela, kamba, twala.
bring together, belemisa.
bring forth, bota.
bring up a child, bokolo.
brood, lobota, pi. mabota.
broom, ekombeli, pi. bikombeli; likomboko.
brother, elder, motomolo, ndeko, mpomba.
younger, molimi, mozimi, ndeko.
in law, monyali.
bruise, n. litutu, pi. matutu; ekeli, pi. bikeli.
bruise, v. nyatela, bola, (corn or grain) minyola.
brush, likomboko, ekombeli.
buffalo, ngombe, nzale.
bugle, kialo, mondule.
build, tonga.
builder, motongi, pi. batongi.
bulge, v.i., tutwa.
bullet, eyeli, pi. biyeli.
bundle, ebimba, pi. bibimba; ekangilu, pi. bikangilu.
bunch, etuka, (of bananas) ekango, pi. bikango.
burial, bokundi.
burn, tumba, jika.
burn down, tumba na moto.
burst out (of water etc.) punjoa.
burst, v.i., tuba, buka.
bury, kunda.
burying ground, malita, mayita.
bush, elanga.
but, nde, kansi.
button, bofunga, //. bifunga; nseti.
butter, mafuta na ngombe, manteka.
buy, sumba.
buyer, mosumbi, pi. basumbi.
by, na.
Cabin, ndako.
cable, nsinga, nkamba, mokulu, pi. mikulu.
calabash, ekutu, pi. bikutu.
calculate, tanga mituya.
calf of leg, mpende.
call, bianga, beka.
(give a name to) pese nkombo.
call together, anginya.
calm, v.t., bondisa, tilimisa.


59
calm, adj. nye.
calm down, v.i., tilima.
candle, buzi, moto, pi. mioto.
canoe, bwatu, pi. matu.
canon, monsinga, pi. minsinga.
cap, enkoti, pi. binkoti.
cap (percussion,) fataki, libwa.
capable, to be, koka.
capsize, zengwa.
captain, kapitene, pi. bakapitene.
capture, kanga.
carefully, na moi na moi.
carpenter, mosali na mabaiya, kapinta.
cartridge, lisasi, pi. masasi; eyeli, pi. biyeli.
cartridge belt, likuba, pi. makuba.
carry, tomba, nyanya, meme.
carry away, longola.
on the shoulder, memisa.
carve (meat), sese.
with a tool, koma.
case, libobo, pi. mabobo.
cassava, kwanga, green, kaka, soaked, mpunzi, dried, moteki.
long cassava puddings, monsona.
cat, ngampango, nkonoko, paka.
catch, v. t., kanga.
catch drops, tamba.
cause, ntina.
centre, kati, ntei.
certain, to make, kotisa.
certainly! solo!
chain, monyolo, pi. minyolo.
chain, v.t., kanga na monyolo.
chair, kiti, ngwende.
change (position), longwa.
channel, mongala, boleko.
charcoal, makala.
charm, v.t., lengola.
charm, n. monganga.
chase, benga.
chastise, bete, pika.
chat, v.i., lobana, solola.
chatter, n. lobaloba, biloba.
cheat, n. mokosi, mojimbi.
cheat, v.t., kosa, jimba, limba, kutinya.


6o
cheese, fromage.
chew, nyamuta.
chicken, nsusu, koko.
chief, mokonzi, pi. bakonzi; monanga, pi bananga.
chieftainship, bokonzi.
child, mwana, pi. bana.
illegitimate, mpampuka.
by slave mother, mbotela,
childbirth, mobota.
chimpanzee, mokombosi.
chin, ebeku, pi. bibeku.
chip, v.t., papa,
chip, n. epasu, pi. bipasu.
chocolate, shokola
choke, kibisa.
choked, to be, kiba.
choose, solo, pono, sola,
chop, kwete.
church, ndako na Nzambe, (people) lingomba.
cicatrix, lokoma.
cinders, makala.
circumcise, kata nsonge.
circulate news, tambwisa nsango.
citron, ndimu.
civet cat, molsoli.
clamour, nkelele.
clap hands, bete bisako.
clarify, kengisa.
claw, nkwala, longongo, pi. mangongo.
clay, libali, libazi, puddled for house building, bodongo.
puddled, pota-pota.
clean, v.t., sukola, petola.
clean, adj. peto.
cleanse, petola.
clear the table, tandola meza.
clearly, sembo, polele.
cleave, pasola.
cliff, mobo-ngetela.
climb, bata.
climbing girdle, molango, pi. milango.
clip, v. tena.
clock, ngunga, ntangwa.
clod (of earth) libungutulu.
close, ziba, liba, zimba.


61
cloth, elamba, pi. bilamba; ngombe, etobo.
clothe, latisa, watisa.
cloud, lipata, pi. mapata.
clutch, kamata, pela, kanga.
coagulate, kangana.
cockroach, mopesekele, mosokoloko.
cock, koko, nsusu mobali.
cocoa, kakau.
coffee, kawa.
coincide, v.t., yengebene.
cold, adj. na mpio, fresh (sharp), bobandu.
cold, to be, banda.
cold, (to have a), bele moyoyo.
coldness, mpio.
collar (brass), mongombo.
collect, takola, (a tax), tono.
comb, n. lisanola, pi. masanola.
comb, v.t., sanola.
come, ya.
back, butwa, zongwa.
from, uta, yuta.
near, beleme.
out, bima, pima.
to, kuma, yetela.
together, zwana, takana.
command, v.t., tinda.
commandant, kwamanda, pi. bakwamanda.
commandment, motindo, pi. mitindo.
commence, rriasa, tata, banda.
compact (to make), kata ndeko.
companion, ndeko, pi. bandeko.
compassion (to have), yokela mawa.
compete (with anyone), mekana.
competent, koki.
complete, adj., mobimba.
complete, v.t., kokisa, silisa, bongisa.
completely, nye.
completed, sila bobele.
complicate, v.t., bulinginya.
complicated, bulu bulu, na kakatanu.
compound, v.t., yanginya.
comprehend, yoka, yeba.


62
compress-* kama.
comrade, ndeko, pi. bandeko.
conceal, bumba.
conceive, zwa zemi.
concubine, nganzi, ngandi.
condemn, kitisa.
confess, yambola, dima.
confound, bulinginya.
confused, na bulu bulu.
confusion, bulu bulu.
congeal, lala, kangama.
consent, yamba, dima.
construct, tonga, tula,
consume, liya, mele.
contempt, boboiyi.
contradict, tumola.
contend together, bunana.
content, sepelisa.
continue, bika; verb and nainu, e.g. continue to speak, loba nainu.
contravene, bebisa, yunzola.
conversation, lisolo.
converse, lobana, solola.
converge, takana.
convert, bongola, zengola.
convey to, kamba na, tomba na.
convince, yambisa.
cook, lamba.
cool, bandisa.
cord, nsinga, nkamba, mokulu, pi. mikuiu; mokoli, pi. mikoli.
cord, v.t., linga, or, zinga na nsinga.
cork, n. etita, v. yunda.
corkscrew, eziboleli.
corn, lisangu, pi. masangu.
corner, nsuka.
corpse, ebembe, pi. bibembe.
correct, bongisa; reprimand, pamela; punish, tumbula.
correspond, bonga, koka, yengebene.
corrupt, bebisa.
corrupt, to become, beba, pondo, pola.
cost, motuya, pi. mituya.
cotton, busi.
cotton tree, molondu, pi. milondu.
country, ekolo, ese, pi. biese.
courage, mpiko.


63
cough, loketu, pi. nketu; lokesu, pi. nkesu; ekokotu.
cough, v. kotola, ketula.
cover, n. ebumbeli, pi. bibumbeli, (of a book), ekokolo.
cover, bumba.
covet, lula.
covetous, lokoso.
coward, goi-goi.
crack, monkaka, pi. minkaka.
crack, v. buka, pasola, to be cracked, paswa, ata.
crave for, yoka mposa.
crawl, landa.
crease, n. lisusa.
creator, mozalisi, moyemi.
crest, (of bird) lisumba.
crime, lisuma, pi. masuma.
cripple, v.t., lemisa.
crocodile, ngandu, nkoli.
crooked, to be, yotongono.
crooked, to make, yotonginya.
cross, n. ekulusu.
cross over, kata, katisa.
crow (as cock), tongo.
crowd, nkaka na batu.
crown, enkoti.
crush, v. t., tiyatela, tuta, bola.
cry, v. lela.
cry, n. nkelele, of a witch dloctor, bongangi.
cry out, nganga.
cultivate, lona, kona.
cunning, mayele, bwanya.
cup, kopo, (glass), nkeni.
curb, v. simbisa.
cure, bikisa.
cured, to be, nyanga.
curiosity, etaki.
current, (swirling), timbiri.
curse, tuka, kumba* tola.
custom, ejaleli, pi. bijaleli.
custom house, etakoleli, pi. bitakoleli.
cushion, likoba, pi. makoba.
cut, kata, tena.
cut down, kwete.
cut in pieces, sese.
cut off, kwete.


64
Daily, mokolo na mokolo.
dally, mongo, umela.
dam, moboka, pi. miboka.
dam, v.t., yuka, ziba.
damage, v.t., bebisa.
damp, v.t., bandisa.
dance, v.i., bina.
dance, n. bobina, kobina, dancing place, ebiheli.
darkness, jombi, molili, modidi.
dart, v.t., ta.
daub, v.t., kula, singa.
daughter, mwana-rawasi.
dawdle, mongo.
day, mokolo, pi. mikolo.
daybreak, moi motani, ntongo etani, monyeli.
daylight, moi.
day after to-morrow, ndele.
day before yesterday, ndele.
dead, kokufwa, kofwi.
deaf person, looko, pi. balooko.
death, bowi, liwa, kokufwa.
debase, bebisa.
debt, nyongo, mombale, pi. mimbale.
debt, (to be in), zwa or kula nyongo, or mombale.
debtor, raorae nyongo.
decant, angola.
decay, kufa, wa.
deceive, jimba, kosa.
decide, silisa mpo, sekisa.
decide against, (in a pal-aver), kitisa.
decide a palaver, kata likambo or mpo, or, tena likambo.
declare, sakola, sangela.
deduct, longola.
deface, boma, kufisa.
defame, kumba, tongo.
defect, mpota.
deficient, to be, yesene.
defraud, yiba, jimba, zimba.
deliberate, kanisa.
delicate, motau.
deliver, kosola, sikola.
demolish, tongola, boma.
demon, molimo, pi. milimo; moloki, pi. miloki.
demonstrate, lakisa, limbola.


65
denounce, pata, tuba.
deny, angana.
deprave, bebisa.
depraved, to become, beba.
deprive, longwila.
depth, bojindo.
descend, sunda, kita, kitela.
descend a river, twa, tia.
desert, kfrna.
deserve, komo.
desire, n. mposa.
desire, v. yoka mposa, linga.
desist from, tika.
despatch, v.t., toma.
despise, yina.
destroy, boma, bula^
destruction, bobomi.
detach, pusola, lutola.
detached, to become, puswa, lutwa.
determine, kana.
detest, yina.
detract, tongo.
devastate, ny^nga.
deviate, pengwa.
devour, liya.
dew, mamia.
dexterity, ntoko.
diarrhoea, leka libumu, or, moi.
die, wa, kufwa.
different, pila moko te, pila mosusu.
difficult, na makasi.
dig, tima, ima.
dig trenches, bokola.
dilatoriness, mongi-mongi.
diminish, bukola.
dip, ina.
direct, v.t., laka.
dirty, mbindo, na bosoto.
disappear, lemwa, lemoa.
disapprove of, boiya.
disarrange, bulinginya, sala bulu-bulu.
dissarranged, to be, bulangana.
disavow, angana.
discern, sosolo.


66
discharge cargo, lubola, labola.
disciple, moyekoli, pi. bayekoli.
discontinue, tika.
discourse, mpo, likambo, zambi, pi. mambi.
discover, kundola, libola, bumbola.
discreetly, na moi.
disembark, v.i., labwa, lubwa.
disembark, (things), lubola, labola.
disentangle, solo, lengele.
disfigure, bebisa.
disgrace, nsoni.
disgusting, sopi sopi.
dish, saani, lilongo, malongo.
dishonour, yokisa nsoni, pese nsoni.
disinter, kundola.
disjoin, banzola, bakola.
dismay, nsomo, bongo.
dismantle, (piece by piece), kakola.
dismiss, panza.
dismount, (take down), tongola, bakola.
disobey, sala nkanza, boiya.
disobedience, nkanza.
disorder, mobulu, bulu bulu.
disperse, palanganisa. v.i., palangana.
dispossess, botolo.
disprove, limbola lokuta.
dispute, v.i., yangana, wela, swana.
dispute, n. boswani.
dissolute, ewolo.
dissolute person, motu na ewolo.
distant, esi, mosika.
distinct, sembo.
distinguish, sosolo, kakola.
distribute, kabela.
district, ece, bice.
ditch, mongololo.
divest, lutola, pusola.
divert, pengola, (a road), pende.
divide, kaba.
divided, to be, kabama.
division (share), likabo, pi. makabo.
division, bokati, lokata.
do, sala, kela.
docility, bompolo.


6 7
doctor, nganga, pi banganga.
dog, mbwa.
domestic servant, boi, pi baboi.
dominate, kuma, lenga.
donkey, mpunda.
door, monoko, pi minoko; ekuki, pi bikuki; ejibeli, pi bijibeli.
doubt, ntembe, nkita.
down, prep, na nee, na se.
down, n. nkunza.
down river, ngele, mboli.
drag, benda, luta.
draw water, toka.
draw out, bila.
dread, banga.
dress, v.i. lata, latisa, lata bilamba.
dress, elamba, pi bilamba; molata, etobo.
dream, ndoti, nsaki.
dream, v. t., lota, lota nsaki.
drink, mele, nua.
drip, tanga, tono, tangela.
drive away, panza, panja.
drown, kiba na mai, wa na mai.
drown, v.t., kibisa na mai.
drum, mbenda, ngunga, lokole, mokuka, pi mikuka.
drum, v. bete mbonda, etc.
drunk, to be, langa masanga.
drunk, to make, langisa.
drunkenness, bolanga.
dry, v. kekisa.
dry up, yoma, koka.
dry up, v.t., yomisa, kokisa.
drying frame for fish, bolika.
duck, lisweswe, pi masweswe; libata, pi mabata.
dumbness, mbubu.
dumb person, emimi, ebubu.
dung, nyei, batubi, toi.
dupe, v.t., limbisa, jimba.
dust, mobulu, pi. mibulu; lifulu, pi mafulu.
dust, v.t., pupola.
duty, lotomo, pi ntomo.
dwell, zala, jala, yala.
dwell a long time, umela.
dwindle, ondo, tunga.


68
Each, yonso, or by reduplication, e.g.,
pese motu na motu likabo na ye, give each man his share,
ear, litoi, pi. matoi.
earth, nse, nee, soil, mabele, toto.
earth, (world), molongo.
early, na ntongo mpenja.
east, epai na monyeli.
easy, makasi te.
eat, liya.
efface, longola.
effort, bomeki.
egg, likei, pi. makei.
eight, mwambi.
eighteen, zumi na mwambi.
either...or, soko...soko.
eighty, ntuku mwambi.
eject, bimisa, pimisa.
elbow, moluku.
elephant, njoku.
eleven, zumi na moko.
elsewhere, na esika mosusu.
embark (people), kwela.
embark (goods), kwezisa, tombisa.
embarrass, bulinginya, kakinya.
embolden, kotisa.
embrace, lingana, banzela monoko.
emerge, obwa.
emigrate, kukola libongo.
employ, salisa.
employment, lisala, pi. masala; kosala.
enact a decree, ta motindo.
enclosure, n. lobala, pi. mabala.
encourage, mekisa.
end, nsuka.
end, v. silisa, sila, sukisa.
endeavour, meka.
endure, bika.
enema (to give), tonjola.
enemy, monguna, pi. minguna.
energetically, na makasi, na ngolu, na nguvu.
energy, ngolu, makasi.
Englishman, Engilisi, pi. Baengilisi.
engrossed, to be, pangama.
enjoin, sakola, sangela.


69
enlarge, nanola.
enliven, sepelisa.
enmity, nguna.
enormous, ebuki.
enough, to be, koka.
enquire, luka.
enraged, yoka, or, oka nkele.
ensign, ebendeli, pi. bibendeli.
ensnare, jimba, limba, limbisa.
enter, ingela.
entertain, bonzela.
entirely, nye, bobele.
entrails, lisopo, pi. masopo.
entrance, monoko, pi. minoko.
entrap, sisola.
entwine, lingitinya.
entwined, lingatana.
enumerate, tanga.
envy, yunela, lulela.
envious person, motu na motema mosanda.
epidemic, liwa.
equal, n. moninga, pi. baninga.
equal, to beto, yengebene.
equal, to, pila moko na, lokoia na, lolenge moko
equity, boyengebene.
equivalent, to be, yengebene.
erect, temisa, (a house), tonga,
escape, kima,
establish, zalisa, bikisa, kotisa, bakisa.
eternal, na lobiko.
evacuate, neka, leke nyei, simba nyei.
evade, pengola.
even, (smooth), patatalu.
evening, mpokwa-
everlasting, lobiko na lobiko.
everywhere, bisika yonso.
evil, mabe.
exact, adj. be-be.
examine, lembetela.
exasperate, tumola, yokisa nkelele.
exasperated, to be, yoka nkelele.
exceed, leka, pusa.
excel, leka, pusa.


70
excellent, molamu, malamu.
except, v. tika.
except,
exchange, sumbutana.
excite, yokisa, (with noun of quality),
exclaim, nganga.
excrement, nyei, batuba, toi.
excuse, mokalo, pi. mikalo.
excuse, to make, tiya mokalo.
execute, kela, boma, silisa.
exempt, kangola.
exhaust, silisa, (oneself), sila, (physically), tilima.
exhibit, monisa, talisa.
exile, panza.
exist, zala, jala, yala.
exonerate, longisa.
expectorate, twa nsoi, swa.
expectoration, nsoi.
expedient, bonga.
expel, bimisa, bengisa.
expense, motuya, pi. mituya.
expiate, yuta.
expire, (of a candle, etc,) lima.
expire, kufa, wa, sila.
explain, limbola, limbola ntina, kundola.
expose, bimisa, talisa.
expose for sale, tandola.
expound, limbola ntina.
extinguish, zimisa, limisa.
extol, sanzola.
extort, botolo.
extract, longola, bila.
extremity, nsuka.
eye, lisu, pi. misu.
eyebrow, lokiki, pi. nkiki.
eyelid, eteke, pi. biteke.
Fable, lisapu, mpo, libanza.
face, elongi, pi. bilongi; bombo, boso.
face to face, to be, kekana.
faeces, nyei, batuba, toi.
faint, timba.
faith, boyambi, limekinya.


ft
fall, kita, kwa.
false, na lokuta.
falsehood, lokuta.
family, libota, pi. mabota.
famish, kufa, or, wa na nzala.
famous, na lokumu.
famous, to make, kumisa.
far, esi, mosika.
fashion, v.t., ema.
fast, v. kila boli.
fasten, kanga, funga.
fat, mafuta, motuba, bonuku.
fat, to be, kata.
father, sango, pi. basango; tata, pi. batata.
father-in-law, bokilo.
fathom, loboko, pi. maboko, 4 or 8 fathoms, litina, 2 fathoms, doti.
fatigue, mpi.
fatigued, to be, njoto elembi.
fatten, katisa.
favourable, to be, longobana.
fear, nsomo.
fear, v. banga, lenge, yoka nsomo.
feast, n. lipata, elambo.
feast, to give, lamba lipata.
feather, lunsala, pi. nsala.
feeble, motau, goi-goi, bolembu.
feed, v.t., liyisa.
feed, v.i., liya, lia.
feel, yoka.
feign, zimba, jimba, limba.
fell a tree,
female, mwasi, moasi.
fence, lobalaka, pi. mbalaka.
fenced in place, lobala, //. mbala.
fence in, linga na lobala.
fertilise, botisa.
fetch, benga.
few, moke moke.
fibre, of palm nuts, linkamu, likamu.
field, cultivated, lisaja, pi. masala, enclosure, lobala, pi. mbala.
fifteen, zumi na mitanu.
fight, n. etumba, pi. bitumba.
sham, liwanda, mawanda.


7?
fight, v. buna, piga.
fight together, bunana, pigana.
figure, (form), lolenge.
file, mosio, pi. misio.
fill, tondisa, nyalisa.
fill up with earth, boka.
filled, to be, tonda, nyala.
finger, mosei, pi. misei; munsai, pi. minsai; mosapi, pi. misapi.
find, kundola, zwa, kuminya.
finish, sila, suka.
finish, v.t., silisa, sukisa.
finished, to be, sila bobele.
fire, moto, pi. mioto; meya, pi. mieya.
fire a gun, ta, or, bete bondoki.
fire, v. tumba, jika, lolisa.
firewood, nkuni, lokoi.
firebrand, esongi, pi. bisongi.
firmly, na makasi.
first, boso, at, na boso.
fish, samaki, mbiji.
fish, v. kanga, or, boma samaki.
with a line, lobo.
fishtrap, (various kinds), ndumba, nkala, lokandu.
fishhook, ndobo.
fishing camp, molako, pi. milako.
fishing camp, smoking or drying place, elika, bolika.
fishing right, elobeli, pi. bilobeli.
fissure, monkaka, pi. minkaka.
fist, embotu, pi. bimbotu.
fit in, ingisa.
fitting, -bongi.
ndako ebongi, the house is fitting,
five, mitanu.
fix, baka, a time, tiya elaka.
fixed, to be, bakama.
flag, ebendeli, pi. bibendeli, endeli.
flame, eloli, pi. biloli; mololi, pi. miloli.
flattery, londelengi.
flaw, mpota.
flay, pulola, pusola.
flea, nsili.
flee, kima.
flesh, mosuni, pi. nsuni.


73.
flesh, to lose, tunga.
flexible, motau.
fling, bwaka, usa.
flint gun, fataki.
float, v. teta, tepa.
flock, etonga, i>l. bitonga.
flog, kuta, bete, piga.
floor, (story), mokiri.
flour, mfufu, mposoko.
flower, ebuma, pi. bibuma, ndunda.
fly, v. pumbwa, yumbwa.
foam, mpulu, mfulu.
foetus, zemi.
fog, lopembe, pi. mpembe.
fold, linga.
follow, benga, tuta.
folly, ligboma, mpo na elema.
food, boli, biloko koliya.
fool, motu na bilema, elema.
foolish, na bilema, na ligboma.
foot, likaka, pi. makaka.
footprint, litambi, pi. matambi.
forbear, tika, kila.
forbid, kilisa.
force, nguya, makasi.
forest, nzamba, lokunda.
forge, v. tula.
forget, bunga, limba.
forgetfulness, libunga.
fork, nkanya, engasa, pi. bingasa.
form, lolenge, pi. ndenge.
form, (seat), etanda, pi. bitanda; libaiya, pi. mabaiya.
form, v.t., ema.
formerly, boso.
formidable, na nsomo.
fornication, ekobo.
forsake, tikela, tika.
fortification, libenge, pi. mabenge.
forty, ntuku minei.
foundation, moboko, pi. miboko.
four, minei.
fourteen, zumi na minei.


74
fowl, nsusu, koko, kuku.
fragile, motau.
fragment, eteni, pi. biteni.
fraternise, bembana.
free, nsomi.
free, Lo set, sikola, kosola.
fresh, mobesu, motau, cold, bobandu.
Friday, mokolo na mosala na mitanu.
friend, ndeko, pi. bandeko; koi, pi. bakoi.
friendship, to enter into, kata ndeko.
friendliness, boboto.
frighten, bangisa.
fright, nsomo.
fringe, nsomba.
frog, montoki, pi. mintoki.
front, boso.
frontier, ndelo.
fruit, ebuma, mbolo.
fruitfulness, boboti.
fry, kanga.
frypan, pan.
full, to be, tonda.
fullness, botondi.
function, lotomo, pi. ntomo.
funeral, nkundi.
funeral gift, makundela.
funnel, mombundo, pi. mimbundo.
Gable, kumbo.
gain, v. jwa, zwa, kwa.
gain a lawsuit, longa, longisa.
game, lisano, pi. masano.
garden, lisala, pi. masala; jala, pi. maala.
gather, (reap) nuka.
gather together (of people), yangana.
gaze at, keka.
gazelle, liboloko.
generation, libota, pi. mabota; mbota.
generous, na likabo.
get, zwa, kamata.
get away, longwa.
get up, bima, longola, teme.
get out of the way, longwa na nzela.
ghost, molimo, milimo; mongoli, mingoli.


75'
gift, likabo, pi. makabo; libonza, pi. mabonza.
give, pese.
give back, butisa.
girl, elenge (mwasi), pi. bilenge (baasi).
gladden, sepelisa, yokisa esengo.
glass, (drinking) kopo.
glass, (looking,) talatala, pi. matalatala.
glory, nkembo.
glorify, kumisa.
glutton, lokoso.
gnaw, kekete.
goat, ntaba.
go, kende, ke, kwende, longwa.
go away, longwa.
go before, leka boso.
go down, sunda, kita, (river) twa.
go in, ingela.
go out, bima, (of candle ofcandle, etc.), lima,
go up river, nana.
God, Nzambe, Nyambe, Nzakombi.
going up river, n. bonani.
good, molamu, malamu, mbote, mozuri.
gospel, nsango ndamu.
gourd, ekutu, pi. bikutu.
govern, angela.
government (Congo Beige), Bula Matadi.
grace, ngolu.
grand-father, nkoko.
grand-mother, nkoko.
grant, yokela, pese.
grasp, kamata, simba, kata, kanga.
grateful (to be) tondo.
gratitude, litondi, botondo.
gratis, mpamba, bule.
gratuity, matabishe.
grass, matiti, mayani, bikoko.
grasshopper, likelele, nyenzi-nyenzi.
grave, liyita, or, lilita, pi. malita; ngau.
gray hair, mbwei, mvwi.
grease, mafuta, mali.
great, monene.
very, ebuki.
greatness, bonene.
grieve, yokisa mawa.


76
grind, toko.
grind the teeth, kelete mino.
groan, kimela.
grow, to (of seeds), kola,
grow big, nene.
grow ripe, yula, yuma.
grope, momo.
ground, nee, se.
group, etuka, pi. bituka.
guard, batela, senzele, kengele.
guard, n. mobateli, pi. babateli; mosenzeli, pi. ba9enzeli.
gush out, sonjoa.
guide, n. molakisi.
guide, v. kamba, lakisa njela.
guile, mayele, londelenge.
guinea fowl, linkeme, pi. nkeme.
gum copal, mpaka.
gun, bondoki, pi. mandoki.
gun (flint), fataki.
Habit, ejaleli, pi. bijaleli.
habituate, v. mesene.
hack, kete.
half, etomba, pi. bitomba.
hail, matandala.
hailstone, litandala.
hair, swe, nswe, nswi.
cut in a tuft, lisumba.
style of hair dress, mokeka.
small body hairs, nkunza, (of people and animals),
hammer, hama. etuleli, pi. bituleli.
hammock, tipoi.
hand, likata, pi. makata.
handcuff, likosi, mpanga pulusu.
handkerchief, litambala, pi. matambala.
handle, mombala, mofeni.
hang up, bakia, kakia.
happiness, esengo.
happy, na esengo.
hard, makasi, bokoti,
harden, kotisa.
hardened, to be, kota.
hardness, makasi, bokoti.


77
harass, nyokolo.
harem, ndongo.
haste, lobangu, mbangu, noki noki.
hat, enkoti, pi. binkoti.
hatchet, soka, pi. basoka.
hate, yina.
hatred, boyini, loyina.
haul, benda.
haul up, benda likolo.
have, zala na, jala na, yala na.
hawk, nkombe, lilelembe, pi. malelembe.
head, mutu, pi. miutu.
headache, to have, yoka mutu.
heal, nyangia, bikisa.
heal, v.i., nyanga, bika.
health, good, nzoto kili kill.
healthy, nkuli-nkuli, kili kili.
heap, libondo, pi. mbondo.
heap up, sanganisa, takanisa.
heap together, yanginya.
hear, yoka, oka.
heart, motema, pi. mitema; to be hard hearted, lokwa.
heat, moto, (of the sun) moi, mwesi.
heaven, likolo, heavens, likolo.
heavy, bozitu, bojitu.
hedge, lobala, pi. mbala.
height, mosanda, molai.
heir, motiki, pi. batiki.
helmet, enkoti, pi. binkoti.
help, sunga.
her, ye, yeye.
heron, mokwela, pi. mikwela.
herb, lititi, pi. matiti.
here, awa, weni.
heritage, libula, pi. mabula.
hers, na ye, na yeye.
hiccough, eseseku.
hide, v.t., bumba.
high, mosanda, molai.
hill, ngomba, nkeka.
hillock, libondo, pi. mabondo.
him, ye, yeye.
himself, ye moko.
hindrance, nkaka.


78
hinge, binge.
his, na ye.
hit, bete, bola, ta.
hip, lilongo, pi. malongo.
hippopotamus, ngubu.
hoe, n. lokongo, pi. nkongo.
hoe, v.t., tima.
hoist, batisa.
hold (of a ship), nkobe.
hold, v. kamata, zwa. jwa, kata.
hold on kokolo sapi!
hold, to take, simba. Take hold Ma 1 Kwa !
hold your tongue makelele! kanga monoko! zala nye!
hole, lilusu, pi. malusu; monoko, pi. minoko.
hole, to bore, tuba, tubela.
holiday, eyenga.
homage, likumu.
honest, yengebene.
honey, boi. we, mwiki-mwiki.
honour, lokumu.
honour, v.t., kumisa, pika.
honoured, to be, kuma.
hook, (fish), ndobo.
hope, v. likia.
hope, n. elikia, pi. bilikia.
horn, mundule; liseke, pi. maseke.
horror, mangei.
horse, falasa; mpunda, pi. bampunda.
hour, zele, pi. zele; lobete, pi. mbete.
house, ndako, tumble down house, esasa.
wattle and daub, ndako na bodongo.
verandah, lingongo, pi. mangongo.
how many? boni? kwe?
humbug, v. jimbisa, limbisa, kutinya.
humbug, (a) motu na londelengi.
humiliate, sokia, kwisa.
hump, litutu, pi. matutu; in which cassava is planted, libondo,^/. mabondo,
hundred, monkama, pi. minkama.
hunger, nzala.
hungry, to be, oka nzala.
hunt, n. bokila.
hunt, v.t., bengisa, benga mokila.
hunter, mobengi.


79
hurl, ta.
husband, mobali, pi. babali; molomi, pi. batomi.
husk, loposo, pi. mposo.
hymn, loyembu, pi. nzembu.
hypocrisy, londelengi.
I, ngai.
idea, likanisi, pi. makanisi.
idiot, elema, pi. bilema; ligboma, etuku.
if, soko, ete.
ignorant person, etuku.
ill, adj., mabe.
ill, to be, bele.
to make, belisa.
illegitimate child, mpampuka.
child by slave wife, mbotela.
illness, kobele, bobeli, maladi, bokono.
illtreat, tumola, nyokolo.
imbibe, mele, nua.
imitate, mekolela.
immediately, bobele, sasaipi, sikawa.
immerse, zindisa, yina.
immodest, na bosoni.
immortal, to be, bika bokiki.
immovable, nye.
impair, bebisa.
impertinent, na loma.
impertinence, loma.
implicate; kakatinya.
implore, bondela.
important, monene, mpo monene.
impose upon, jimba, kutinya.
imposter, 'mojimbi.
impotent man, bobolo, (weak), impotent woman, ekomba.
impregnate, pese libumu, pese zemi.
impregnated, to be, zwa zemi.
imprison, kanga, (na ndako munyolo).
improve, pamela.
impudence, loma.
in, na.
inadequate, koka te.
incline, (to lean), tengeme.
incline, v.t., tengia.
incompatible, to be, yesene.


so
incompetent, koka te.
increase, yikana, botinya, pulisa.
inculpate, pata, tuba,
indemnify, futa, yuta.
indecency, bopunda.
indicate, lakisa, talisa.
indifference, bolokoi.
indolence, lomongi.
induce, lombo.
inform, sangela, sakola.
inhabitant, mosi, pi. basi.
inherit, zwa libula, kwa libula.
inheritance, libula, pi. mabula.
ink, bokobo, mai na mwindo.
innocent, to declare, longisa.
innocent, to be declared, longa.
instantly, sasaipi, sika-sikawa.
intelligence, mayele, bwanya.
inter, kunda.
intercede, v. bondelela.
interchange, bukinya. -
interdict, kilisa.
interdicted, to be, kila.
interpret, limbola.
interrogate, tuna.
interval, eleko.
intestine, lisopo, pi. masopo.
intimidate, bangisa.
into, na.
intoxicate, langisa.
intoxicated, to be, langa.
invisible, to be, bumbama.
invite, bianga.
involuntarily, na nko te.
invoke, bianga. tuna, bondela.
iron, ebendi, pi. bibendi; ebuni, pi. bibuni.
irritate, tumola, yokisa nkele.
island, esanga, pi. bisanga.
issue, v. bimisa, yuma, kuma.
it, yango, e-.
itch, ekangi, bikangi; about the throat, loto.
its, na yango.
itself, yango npenja.
ivory, mpembe.


8!
Jackal monsoli, pi. minsoli.
jam, we, boi.
jar, (pot) libeki, pi. mabeki; limbembeli, pi. mbembeli; mozaka pi.
mazaka.
jaw, ebanga, pi. bibanga.
jealousy, nzua.
jealous, to be, yoka nzua.
join, banza, baka.
joke, v. sekisa, sana.
journey, lokendo, pi. nkendo; mobembo, pi. mibembo; up river, bonani.
joy, esengo, pi. bisengo; nsai.
judge, juje, pi. bajuje; (native) mosemboli, pi. basemboli.
judge a palaver, katalikambo.
juice, mai.
jump, yumbwa, yumboa.
just, adv. bobele.
just, na yengebene.
just, to be, yengebene, sembwa. ...,.. .....i-:....
just man, mosemboli, pi. basemboli.
justly, semba-semba.
just so! se bongo!
Keep, (a thing), bumba, bumbela.
key, lifungola, pi. mafungola. v"i: wmti'11
kernel, njika. ........
kick, bete,
kidney, ngei.
kill, boma.
kilogramme, kilo, pi. bakilo.
kilometre, kilometa, pi. bakilometa.
kind, (sort), lolenge, pi. ndenge.
king, mokonzi, pi. bakonzi.
kingdom, bokonzi.
kinsman, ndeko, eboto, mozika,
kiss, v. banzela monoko.
kitchen, kuku.
knead, nyila, to expel moisture, nyata.
knee, libongo, pi. mabongo.
kneel, umba, umba libongo.
knife, mbele, kisu, pi. visu.
knob, litutu, pi. matutu.
knock, betele.
know, yeba, eba.
known, to become, yebama.
knot, litongo, pi. matongo; liswe, pi. nswe; of wood; litutu, //. matutu.


82
Labour v. sala.
labourer, mosali, pi. basali.
lad, elenge, pi. bilenge.
ladder, ngandu, etabeli, bonango, kidi.
lag, mongo.
lair, ndako.
lake, etima, pi. bitima.
lament, lela.
lamp, tala, mwinda.
land, v. labwa, lubwa.
land, n. mokili, engunda.
land, (put in, of steamer, etc.), seme.
landing place, libongo, pi. mabongo; mbongo, bosemi.
language, monoko, pi. minoko; lokota.
lantern, tala, mwinda.
large, monene.
lash, v. bete pimbo.
last, na nsima, na mbisa, na nsuka.
lath, (small sticks for wattle and daub construction), pito.
laugh, seke.
laughter, to die of, wa na makei.
laugh at, sisola.
law, motindo, pi. mitindo; mobeko, pi. mibeko.
lawsuit, likambo, pi. makambo.
lawful, to be, yengebene na motindo.
lay hold, kamata simba.
lay eggs, bota. c
lay the table, tanda meza.
lay up, n., bakia, yakia.
lazy, goi-goi, lomongi.
lead, v. kamba.
leaf, monkanda, pi. minkanda; lingango, pi. mangango.
of a tree, lokasa, pi. nkasa.
of cassava, used as a vegetable, pondu.
lean, v. tengia, tengeme.
leap, v. pombwa, yumbwa, yumboa.
leap, n. lipombwa.
learn, v. yekola.
leave, v. tika.
leg, lokulu, pi. makulu.
lemon, lilala, pi. malala.
lend, bekisa.
lender, mobekisi, pi. babekisi.


Full Text

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'ngala A

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r SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES University of London This book is due for return not later than the last date stamped below. If an extension of the loan is desired application should be made either in person or in writing, on or shortly before the due date, quoting the book bar code number. 1-'t MAR 199 t

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{ I ---SOAS 1338246 8 l llllllllllllllllll l llll 1111111 1 1111111111111111 1 1111111 1 1111111 -a3021S 013382458b

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SUGGESTIONS FOR A GRAMMAR OF "BANGALA" The "Lingua Franca" of the Upper Congo With DICTIONARY BY THE LATE WALTER H. STAPLETON 2 N D EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED B Y FRANK LONGLAND B A PTIS T M ISSIONARY SOCIETY BO LOBO CONGO BEi.GE

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"Hanna!t ~Vade" Pri11tinl( P,-ess Baptist Jl/ssion01J1 Society Bolobo Congo Bel.,e

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p R E FACE. THE difficulties met with by the Congo Colonial officia l s in their endeavour t o open up and administer the hug e territory for w hi ch they arc respon sib l e can on l y be appreciated by those w h o live in this section of the tropica l b e l t, and by the men who are engaged in similar work in like regions. Many o f these difficulties have been energetically attacked and satisfactorily sol ved, some in quite bril liant fashion. T h e manner in wh ich the transport difficulty was sol ved i s a striking in s t a nc e T h e work of bridgin g the cataracts of the Lower Congo by a railway, a n d of placing and maintainin g a regul a r flee t of s teamers on the Upper Co n go, has been carried out wit h rare s ki ll and en t e rpris e, and with a measur e of success largel y exceedin g the most sanguine expectations of those of us w h o rem ember the conditions of trave l and transport on the Co ngo between ten and twenty year s a g o Many probl ems, howev er, y e t await solution; not the least important of them, p erhaps being that of sec urin g an effic i ent means of communication between the white m e n and the many Bantu tribes which occupy this vas t region. A

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b In preparing a "Comparative Handbook of Congo Languages," which is a comparative study of nine lang uages spoken on the Congo from the Atlantic to Stanley Falls, at Mr. Grenfell's suggestion I wrote a chapter on the subject of a common language, but, the volume being already large enough, that chapter is here presented in the from of a pamphlet for circulation amongst the white men on the Congo, who may feel that the time has come for some attempt to be made towards the so luti on of the language difficulty. My thanks are due to the staff of the Printing Office at Bolobo for printing this book, and to the Baptist Missionary Society for bearing the cost of its publication. WALTER H. STAPLETON. fitly, I903.

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INTRODUCTION. ARISING out of the subject of a common language for the lower section of the Upper Congo River referred to in the introduction of a "Comparative Handbook of Congo -Languages" I have been asked whether the comparative study of the languages there dealt with has yielded any r esults which might be embodied in "Suggestions for a Gram mar of the "Bangala." This is a subject which I approach with considerabl e diffid e nce, for I am under no delusion as to its thorny character. I am well awar e of the many arguments which may be at once a dvan ce d for leavin g tb.e matter severely alone. It will be said that "the' Bangala' is a grammarless jargon traversing p ractic a lly eve ry rule of Bantu word and sentence construction,'' That "it may possibly serve as a medium for the purch ase of food, and eve n for the direction of l abour; may be, but only this on the co ndition that a considerabl e amount of suggestive gesture i s used b y the speaker, an d a large measure ~ f the r es ponsibilit y of interpret a tion is accepted by the h earer." "Interchange of thought" it will be said "is by it A2

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d practically impossible," "as an effective means of intercommunication it is hopelessly inadequate." "Its verb has no tenses." "No attempt is made to concord its parts of speech." "Teaching in such a medium is out of the questi0n." Again, it may be urged, that "as missionaries, it is our business to give the natives the word of God in their beautifully expressive mother tongues," and so on. Notwithstandir1g al l this, a little consideration will shew that there is much to be s;iid on the other side. A common language is a practical necessity of the situati on. The attempt made by the Be l gian authorities to impose one administration over the whole area of the Congo basin invo lves some common efficient mea11s of intercommunication between the forces of Government and the many tribes of the Bantu race, speaking different languages, which occupy this huge territory It is quite impossible that the State officials should learn all the l ang1,1ages spoken in the Congo basin, or. indeed any large number of them; and no one language at present serves for a region of even moderate extent. Thus on the rooo miles of open waterway between Stanley Pool and Stanley Falls, on the !owes( estimate, five distinct languages are spoken; not to speak of seve ral dialects not yet c la ssified. That captains of s teamers should learn all these, or that State officials, who may be changed from station to station, should undertake the task of learning a new language with every removal, or that a commissaire of a district should speak three or four languages to the peoples he governs, 1s utterly impracticable. Seeing the difficulty the Government decided smn~ .years agQ that "Ban gala should be used as the Lingua

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,/ e franca. It is to be regretted that no official gave the N gala ( e., the l::mguage spoken by the tribe of people living about No11velle Anvers) scientific study. Had a simple Grammar and Vocabulary been drawn up and published some years ago, we might now have been in the possession of the common effective means of intercommunication between white man and b l ack man, administrator and subject, which is daily becoming a more urgent necessity. As it is, out of this fel t necessity has grown up a jargon called "Ban gala" which is spreading rapidly over the whole of that part of the Congo basin which has never passed under the domination of the Arabs. I 11 the Oriental Zone a broken Swahili is, for the moment, a strong competitor; but even there" Bangala" is largely spok e n by the Free State forces, and is now more or less spoken from t h e Atlantic to Lake Tanganyika, and from the regions of the Upper Kasai to the Nile. It is evident, then, that a common language is a felt necessity, and must certain l y come. Is there any further question as t o what that language i s to be? Sir H. Johnston thinks that the on l y sati sfactory solution of the language difficulty in these great African States is the introduction of a Eui-opean lan g uage. For the Congo, administered by Be l gians, with French as the official language, but one European language is possible, namel y, French. But experience has s hewn that the Congo native does not readily acquire French, and we have not yet a rriv ed at the day of Government schools. But need a European l anguage be considered? "Bangala" has come and s co rn it as we may, it has come to stay. It must be plain to all that it wou l d greatl y simplify the outlook for all who are attempting to

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f iidminister, civilise, and. uplift the Congo races, and to open up the country to the best forces of civilisation, if a common language were spoken over a wide area. Will it not be wise for us to consider whether or no "Ban gal a" could be used as the basis of an effective common language? Could not the white men introduce into this lingua franca those grammatical forms of expression which wou l d make it s uch, and without w hich it will, and must remain an utterly ineffective jargon? I am convinced that "Bangala" has come to stay; and there are but two courses open to us with regard to it. We can ignore it, but I think we ought then to face the is s ue that it will produce its effects for all that, and one effect is even now distinctly visible. We have a people growing up around u s who, in spite of all our educational efforts, are losing grip of their expres sive mother tongues, and speaking a jargon which it i s impossible to use in their upliftng. I yie l d to none in my desire to give the peoples of the Congo the Scriptures in their mother tongue (the fact that I have translated some portions into two languages will shew thi s) but I cannot shut my eyes to the fact that already thousands have been born to the State forces to whom "Bangala" is the only mother tongue they know; and that thousands of the workers, drawn from the different trib es of the Congo basin, a r e forgetting their parent speech, and whilst they speak the "Bangala" with amazing fluency, their range of thought and idea, limited enough before, is now confined to the narrow circle of physical need and supply. This is a movement I feel we hardly dare ignore, or in a few years we may be left with trans lations of the Scriptures l ofty, may be, in tpeir diction, idiomatic in

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g their expression, models of accuracy in their gramma tical form, but as antiquated and obsolete as the translation Elliott gave to the Red Indians. One other course is open. We can attempt to direct and control this movement, shaping the "Bangala" gradually into a language which will serve for State station, co l ony, and mission school,for the purposes of the Government, the. commercial houses,and the Missionary Societies; and as an effective medium of interchange of thought and idea between the widely scattered tribes of this region of Darkest Africa. In this book I ventu re to make som e suggestions towards a Vocabulary a nd Grammar of the "Bangala" or lz'ngua franca. I take it that, in theory, the only vocabulary which is at all lik e ly to be accepted as a common one by a number ot different tribe s must conform to those rules of syllabisation and pronunciation which are common to al l the speak ers. Peculiar forms of pronunciation would stand no chance of acceptance. So with a common Grammar, it must be based on princi p l es of clearness and simplicity And, as a matter of fact, an examination of the ' Bangal a" s h ews that thi s is exactly what has happened. How has ' Ban gal a" grow n up? There are three languages spok e n between Stanley Pool and Mobeka; the language of the Bobangi, that of the Lolo, and that -of. the Bangala peoples, and these have very many features in common, for they belong to the same branch of the Bantu language family. The dialects spoken in Lak e Ntomba, and in the neighbourhood o f Lulanga are but agglomerates of Bobangi, L o lo, and Ngala. The so-ca lled U poto language is but a dialect of N gala, with

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ft some elements both in grammar and vocabulary drawn from Ngombe and the language of Basoko. The observation has been advanced that the Bobangi is the basis of the eclectic language ca lled the "Bangala." This observation is scarce l y borne out by facts It would seem to be nearer the truth to say that the features common to the three l a n g u ages afore-mentioned, with their dialects, are the basis of the "Ba11gala" language; and .none of the three languages has contributed more than the merest quota of its peculiarities. Historically, it is easy to see how this has came about. The workers for the State, traders, missionaries, etc. in the early days were drawn from the area lying between Stanley Pool and Mobeka, and a little later from as far as U poto . These workers, being brought together on steamer and station, soon found the common base_ of their several languages, and used it as the medium of intercourse, and the white men picked it up from them. This point must be Ternembered when we speak of the "Bangala" as a gramrnarless jargon. It can be readily pointed out that, in many cases where grammatical rules have been departed from, analagous methods of construction can be given from the above three languages. It is by no means the grammarless jargon of Pidgin English, for it has arisen not from the endeavour of the b l ack man to speak a language belonging to a totally different language fami l y, but from the endeavour of a number of people .of one race, speaking languages of the same family to reach a cqmmon medium of intercourse; though it must be admitted that the unwil lingness s hewn by white men to take the trouble to learn the Ngal a language, and to speak i t at. a l l grammatically, has sadl y marred the product .

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The line s of a Grammar and Vocabulary, therefore, would seem to be marked out for us in the process which has produced the present spoken "Bangala." What is necessary is to give some form and shape to modes of expn::ssion which are essentia l but wofully lackin g, and these must follow the lines of the present growth of the "Bangal a I am here making such an attempt. It will be understood of course that these "Suggestions towards a Grammar and Vocabulary for the 'Bangala'" are tentative, put forward principally as a means of calling attention t o a question of increasing gravity, with a view t o provoke tho ught, and to s tart other minds upon a consideration of the problem, in the hope that something practical may ensue.

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PART I.

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CHAPTER I. A. Preliminary Observatiom,. The "Bangala" is a lang uag e of the Bantu Family and is distinguished from the European languages mainly by three characteristics . : The first is the division of nouns into Classes. These Classes have each of them prefixes proper to the Singular and the Plural Number, and it is by their prefixes that we distinguish between them, and determine the C lassP.s to which they belong. The second is the agreement made between the noun and all qualifying or dependent words by these prefixes which vary according to the different Classes of nouns.* The third is the absence of gender. To indicate the sex a noun signifying male or female is used after the ordinary noun; mobali signifies male and mwasi female:mwana mwasi, mwana mobali, ntaba mwasi, ntaba mobali, a girl. a boy. a f e male goat. a male goat. As will be seen, however, later o n in th ese notes "Bangala" i s steadily ridding itself of the principle of Alliterative Concord.

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3 B. The Alphabet. "Bangala" is written m Roman characters. The vowels are pronounced generally as in lt_:=tlian,. the consonants as in English. The following are the letters with their approximate values. a is pronounced as t h e a m father. b b boat. eh cli clt urch. d d do n e. e bet. f I ,, /ate. g g gate. h !, !tat. machine. j j ,, joy. k k key. I let. m 1/Z 1nan lamb. n n na il, ant. 0 OU b ought. p p pay. r ,. bury. s see. t take. u 00 tool. v v vale. w w walk. y y yet. z z zeal.

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4 There are four diphthongs:-Ai is pronounced as the ai in aisle mai, 1.valer. motau, weak. mokei, egg. nkoi, leopard. au ei oi " ow,, now ay,, pay uoy,, buoy Note. L is a feeble letter and is pronounced as d or r by numerous speakers. Thus Abili (a man's name, ) is also pronounced Abidi, or Abiri. D and G are rarely employed alone but are used with the nasa l n, thus ndako, a house (not dako), ngando, a crocodile (not gando). F and P are used indiscriminately, thus, mfulu or mpulu, foam, froth. M is re-placed by b 111 some districts. C. On Syllables Every syllable ends in a vowel. mo-tu, a man. ba-tu, men. ma-su-a, steamer. mo-nde-le, a wlziteman. D. On Accents. The primary accent falls on the first syllable of the stem. When the word has more than three syllables a secondary accent falls on the penult. li-kondoj piilangiina, a plantain. to scatter.

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5 CHAPTER II. SUBSTANTIVES. A. Classification of Nouns. "Ban gala" nouns are made up of a stem and a prefix. mo-tu, li-kondo, a person. a plantain, Mo-and li-are the prefixes, tu and kondo the stems of the two nouns mo-tu, person, and li-kondo, plantan. These prefixes which are singular in number are replaced in the plural number by the prefixes ba-and n;iarespective l y. ba-tu, ma-kondo, persons. plantains. Nouns are divided into C l asses by these Prefixes, and are named the Mo-Ba C l ass, the Li-Ma Class, etc., mo being the singular Prefix of Nouns which make their plural by exchanging mo-for ba,-and li-the singular Prefix of Nouns which make their plural by exchanging lifor ma-. B

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6 Bangala has 8 classes of N c,uns :-rst Class, mo-ba. 2nd Class, mo-mi. 3rd Class, n-n. 4th Class, Ii-ma. 5th Class, e-bi. 6th Class, bo-ma. 7th Class, lo-n. 8th Class, lo-ma. rst or Mo-Ba Class.-This class comprises those nouns which have mofor the Singular Prefix and make the plural by changing mointo ba-. Before a vowel stem the Singular Prefix is mw-(mbefore o); the plural is b-. mo-tu, mo-tuli, mw-asi, mw-ana, m-ombo, a person, a blacksmith, a wife, a child, a slave, ba-tu, persons. ba~tuli, blacksmitlzs. b-asi, wives. b-ana, clzildren. b-ombo, slaves. Some speakers pronounce the m of the singular prefix as b. Some Personal Nouns in this class have no prefix in the singular, but take the prefix ba-in the plural. r sango, afatlzer, ba-sango,/athers. 1 tata, a fatlz er, ba-tata, fat!te s. nyango, a motlzer, ba-nyango, motlzers. mama, a motlzer, ba-mama, mothers. Also some introduced words, as yanji, a jigger,-ba yanji, jzggers,sanduku, a box, basanduku, boxes. Exception to Mo-Ba class mondele, a whiteman, makes, mindele, w'!titem en 2nd or Mo-Mi Class.-Comprises all those nouns which have mo-or mufor the singular prefix, and make their p l ural by changing moo r muinto mi-. Before a vowel stem the singular prefix is mw(before

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7 o it ism); the plural prefix is a lways mi-. Some speakers pronounce the initial m in these prefixes as b, and sometimes (as. by Lol o men) the plural prefix is pronounced as be-. mo-nkoko, sugar cal/.e, motema, heart, mo-noko, moutl,, mo-tako, a brass rod, mo-nkanda, a book, mw-ete (mo-ete), a tree, m-oto, (mo-oto) a candle, mi-nkoko, si~1;ar canes. mi-tema, hea1 ts. mi-noko, mouths. mi-tako, brass rods mi-nkanda, books. mi-ete, trees. mioto, candles. 3rd or N-N C lass.-This c l ass of nouns comprises those nouns which do not change their form to make the plural. They u s u ally have the letter nor mas the i nitial. ndako, a !touse, or !touses. mboka, a town, or towns. mbwa, a dog, or dogs. mpota, a sore, or sores. rnbula, rain, or rains. nsusu, a/owl or/owls. On the upper reaches of the river there is a tendency to drop the initial nasal and one hears susu for cliicken, also koko. In some cases nouns which formerly belonged to this class drop the nasal and adopt the prefixes mo-mi, as ntuku, a ten, now nearly a lways heard motuku, ten, mituku, tens. 4th or Li-Ma C lass.-Thi s class comprises all those nouns w hich make the singu lar with the prefix Ii-, and the plural by changing liinto ma-. l i-kei, an egg, rna-kei, eggs li-kongo, a spear, rna-kongo, spears, li-kondo, a banana rna-kondo, bananas. Before vowe l s t erns begir 1ning w i .th the i singular prefix is reduced to 1-, the plural tom-. 1 iso, e y e rn-iso, e yes. B2

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8 1-ino, tootli, m-ino, teeth . Before vowe l stems with a or o, the li-becomes z. z-olo, a nose, z-amba, a forest, ma-olo, noses. mamba, forest s 5th or E-Bi C lass.-This clas s co mprises all those nouns which take e-for the prefix in the singular, and make the ir plural by changing e-into b. e-loko a t!tin g e-lamba, cloth, e-lema, a fool, e-benga, a pigeon bi-loko, thing s bi-lamba, clot!,s. bi-lema, fools. bi-benga, pige ons. 6th or Bo-Ma C lass.-Comprises all those nouns which have the singular prefix bo-, and change bo-into ma-to mark the p lural. bo-ndoki, a g m t, bo-kobo, paint, bo-langiti, a blanket, ma-ndoki, guns. ma-kobo, paints ma-langiti, blank e t s Before vowel stems the singular prefix is bw-(bbefore o) and the plural is m-. bw-ato, c ano e m-ato, canou, Abstract nouns belong to this class; spme have only a s in i ul a r number, and others only a p l ural. bo-boto, kindliness, ma-yele cunning, ma-kasi, strength A few other nouns which h ave no singu lar appear as plural nouns of this class mai, water, mafuta, oil, butter, grease 7th or Lo-N Class.-Comprises those nouns which have lo -for the singular prefix, and change lo-into mor n-for the plural. (a) When the stem commen ces with k, s, or t, the plural i s formed by c h a n gin g the lo-into n-. lo-kel e sp oon, n-kele, s p oons l o-seba, a st e ame whistle n-seba, s te amer whistles. (b) When the stem comme n ces with l the plural 1s

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9 formed by changing lointo n-, and the prefix n then changes the 1 of the stem into d. lo-lemo, a tongue n-demo, tongues lo-lenge, a sort, n-denge, sorts, kinds. (c) When the stem commences with y the plural takes n-, and the n-changes the y into j or z. lo-yembo, song, n-jembo, o r n-zembo, songs. (d) When the stem commences with b and p the plural is formed by changing lointo m-. lo-poso, a skin, m-poso, skins (e) When the stem commences with n or m the plural i s made by dropping the singular prefix lo-meko, a balanre meko, balances. There i s a tendency t o drop the nasal prefi x in the plural, and one often hears:-poso, s kins, kele, spoom. Sth or Lo-Ma C lass.-Cont a in s two n ouns. lo-boko, an ar 111, lo-kulu, a leg, ma-boko, arms. ma-kulu, iegs. VARIA. In the distri c t about Nouvelle Anvers there i s a tendency to make a collec ti ve noun from nouns belonging to the Mo-Mi C l ass by putting them into the 3rd or N-N Class,-mw-ete, a tree; mi-ete, trees, but speakin g o f a large ur ind efin it e number, njete, trees; mu-nkei, an egg, mi-nkei, eggs, but nkei when speaking of a l a rge or indefinite number. Many nouns a r e s hiftin g out of the 3rd or Nasal class under this rule into the Mo-Mi Class. Thus instead of ntako, a brass rod, mo-tako, plural, mi-tako,

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IO and so c,n. Another reason for this is the fact that the Ngombe, the Basoko, and the Lokele peoples are steadily ridding their nouns of the nasal which is difficult for them to pronounce. Other speakers, who have been accustomed to use the nasal as the prefix characteristic of these nouns, object to using the stem only, and add the most popular prefix mo-making the plural in mi-. The languages of the Balolo, the people of U poto, and the Lokele living between the Lomami mouth and Stanl eyville, have a class of nouns with the prefixes I-To. These nouns are generally diminutive.

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I I CHAPTER III._ ADJECTIVES. The languages from which "Ban gala" has drawri its form s h ave a few adjecti ves which according to Bantu law concord with the nouns they qualify by adopting a prefix proper to the C las s and Number of the \! oun; mo-tu mo-lamu, a good man. li-kongo li -sanda, a long spear . "J;?an g ala" however, has attached a definite prefix -to the stems of these concording adjectives and formed them into indeclinabl e adjectives.* The rule s for Adjectives in "Ban gala" may by given thus;--( r ) Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify. batu makasi, masua monene, makei mabe, ndako mosanda, strong people. a large s!tip bad eggs. a tall ltouse. Bangala" th u s breaks away from an important ru l e in Bantu sl ructur e ,-th e rule that eve ry part of speec h dependent on the Noun s h ould be brou ght in to conco rd with i t by ad opting a pre fix proper to the C l ass a nd Number of the Noun Here again however, it may be pointt;. d ou t t h at "Bangala" h as foun d the common b ase in the extens ion o( a principl e illu strate d i n th e Upp e r Congo l a nguage s -In Ngala th e Abstract no un can b e used afl e r the noun to qualif y it, in stea d of th e a dj ec ti ve, thu s, mo.tu mo-nene, motu bo-nene, bot h 1~1e_\l_nipg a la rge man.

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12 (2) These A dj e ctiv es can b e used a b solute l y, i. e t o refer t o nouns understood o r i m p li e d (the v e r b to b e does not n eed t o be e x press ed.) malamu, makasi, (they are o r it is ) good. ( they a, e o r it is ) sf1g. Thi s i s t h e pri nc i p l e a d o p te d by" Bangala," i t h as m a d e its a djecti ves int o n o un s o f qua li ty whic h a r e u sed a s indeclina bl e a dj ec ti ves B u t it will b e n oted t hat thi s n o un a l a dj ec t ive has not adopted t h e prefix bo-w h ic h is th e co mm o n p refix for for mi n g a bstract n ou n s fr om A dj e c t iv e s t e m s, th ey appear w ith th e prefixes moa s mo-nene, a nd ma-as makasi. The se c o nd rul e above se r ves to ex pl ai n this In a ll t h e l a n guages fro m w hi c h B a ngala" h as dra\\n its grammati ca l form s t h e A dj ec ti ves ca n be u se d a b so l ut e l y Thus o n e ca n say malamu r e f e rrin g to n o uns un de r stoo d p rov ided that t h ese n o un s bea r the prefix ma-. Thus malamu m ay be used r efer rin g to ma-nkeke bamboos, ma-nkoko, suga1' caues, a n d ma-tu cauoes, etc meanin g the)' are good. B u t th e r e i s a l ways a difficult y w h en th e a dj ec ti ve i s n eeded to re fer to n ou n s of d iff e rent cl asses, thu s i f one wishes to l um p say e-lamba cloth, ~nd nsusu, jowls a nd makondo, bananas, and s a y they an good w h a t prefix s h a ll o n e a pply t o th e a dj ective ? S hall o n e say bi-lamu o r li-lamu o r ma-lamu? O n thi s point t h e r e is n o gen e ral agr ee m e nt b e t wee n t h e rul es o f th e diff e r e n t l a n g u ages n o r a n y absol u te rul e in a ny o n e l a n guage, whic h would h e foll owe d b y a ll s p ea k ers In B a ngala th e gen e r a l co n se n s u s o f opi nion h as decided o n a ce rtain prefix for th e seve r a l a djecti ,es w h e n u sed abso lut e l y, a n d th e n h as g radu a ll y co m e t o use thes e in dec linabl e forms t o quali fy n o un s eve n wh e n th e nou n is exp r essed ; so th a t t h ese absolute form s h ave now taker-i th e p l ace o f t h e concordi n g A dj ec ti ves A n d thi s, agai n, is bu t th e furt h e r exte n sio n .,f a n o th e r m o d e of express i o n w hi c h m ay be illustrated fro m t h e Uppe r R i ve r langu ages The r e a re a ce rt a in num be r o f nouns d e n ot: n g a q ua li ty w hi c h are us e d t o qua lif y noun s, a nd i n this c on s tru c t i o n m ay be call ed n o un a l a dj ec ti ves Th,is in B an g i libunu mean s a curve; libunu ca n b e u se d a ft e r a noth e r n o un t o d e n o t e t h e p ossess i on of t hat q u a lit y ; li>ngele libunu, a c111'1ed b, ass ,od Or, in Ngal a, ngombila, is a n o un m ea nin g cloud; thi s noun m ay foll ow a noth e r no u n as but u a day, a nd thus butu ngombila, a cloudy day. "Ban g a l a h as th us, l ;y a er fect l y l eg i timate p roce s s, form e d n o un s 0 f qua l it y from th e rad i ca ls of th e h e r e tofore co n c ordin g A dj ect i ves by g i v in g th e m a n o un prefix, a nd u ses th e m to qu a lify n o un s afte r the m ode l o f butu ngombila, h e nc e di s p e n s in g with t h e n ecess it y o f co n co rd

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13 The following are the most important of the Adjectives. monene, moke, molai, mosanda, mokuse, '\ mokwe f mobesu, mowindu, motani, makasi, motau, malamu, mabe, bozitu motunu, monzenga, ngoi-ngoi, mpembe, mingi} be, !an;e,big small. ta!!, h~r ;f,. !on,,:. sl,ort f re sh, g reen. black, dark. light, light c o!ou, ed. stiong weak, tender. good. evil, bad. h eavy. blunt. b eautiful. cowar d ~ v. white. many. ( 1) Adjectives a r e intensified in force by the use of be after the a djecti ve or by doubling the adjective. makasi be, 11e1y strong. moke moke, ve, y small. (4) The diminutive mwa, small, a lways precedes the noun. mwa mafuta, a little oil. A. ADJECTIVAL PHRASES. Adjectiv a l phrases are formed by the particl e na, which is inva riabl e for all classes. T hi s particle may be said t o repr esent the prepos i tion of. motu na makasi, a 111-an o f strength = a str on g 1nan This is anolhe r bre:1.ch o f the Rule o f Conc o rd b ut it mu s t be said th a t "Ba ngala" ha, h e r e so l ve d a cliffic ull y in a very ingeniou s way.

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Na also represents to belong to bwato na rnondele, the canoe belonging to the white man. bana na rnwasi, the cliildren belonging to the woman. Adjectival phrases are also formed by the verb zala, to be, and the preposition na, which means in this case, with. rnai mazali na rnoto = the water is !tot. The l anguages which have contributed to t h e formati o n of" Bangala" follow mainly two methods of forming Adjecr.ival clau ses Examples may be taken from Ngala and Bangi. Ngala has an adjectiva l particle -a wh ich i s brought into concord with the noun by the use of the adjecti va l prefix to form Adjectival clau ses thus, -rnw-ete rnw-a rnondele, rni-tako mi-a rnokonji, tlte trees of the wltite man. the brass rods of the chief. B.mgi does not possess thi s particl e, but the con cording prefix is u se d to introduce the Adjectival claus e. rno-nkoko rno rnwana, li-kongo Ii rnotu, tlte sugar cane of the child. t he spear oj the 111an. Which of these methods shoul d be adopted? It is ev ident that it wou l d n o t b e an e a sy matter for a people accusto m e d t o o n e o f tli es e method s to le a rn to u se the o th e r. ; 'Banga la" so l ve d the difficulty again by extending another. m e thod o f form in g a dj ec ti va l clauses which is u se d in Ngal a a pro ~ eeding by which both m et h o d s of concorcling ~ight be dropped . Thus, with a few personal noun s, Ngala u ses the particle na, and or with, to form adjecti va l phrases ndeko na rnoto, batu na rnokonji, a ji-ien d of tlt e man, lit., a friend with the man. the people of tlte chief. This i s the method adopted in "Bangala." Here, again, o n e may grieve to lo se the variety and precision givei1 by t h e use of concord i n g parti cl e but it must be agreed that "Bangala" has found the line 0of least resistance. We hav e n o right to call t hese form s ungrammatical, and we may we ll r e m embe r that experts attribute t h e spread of Engli s h lar gely to the facility with which it has clropped and does sti ll drop its inflexions

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15 B. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. THE CARDINAL NUlvJERALS. The cardinal Nume rals are invariable~' THE UNITS. moko, one motoba, sz"x. mi bale, two nsambu, seven misato, three, mwambi, eig!tt minei, four, libwa, nine. mitano, five, zum~} ten. zum1 / THE TENS. The tens are expresse d by the noun motuku, pl. mituku, followed by the mu ltiplying unit. mituku mibale, mituku misato, mituku minei, twenty. thirty. forty, and so on. THE It UNDREDS AND THOUSANDS. The hundreds are expr esse d b y the n o un monkama, pl. minkama, fol lowl:'d by the multiplying unit. monkama moko, minkama mibale, minkama mitano, minkama mwambi, one !wndred. two hundred. jive hundred. eif;'lit hundred. ----------------* In Ngala and Bangi the first five numeral s a r e a djecti ves and concord w ith the noun s they qualify as Ngala: batu babale, two people ndako ibale two houses "Bangala" h as se i zed the for m of the num e ral w h ich was r;e nerally u se d w h e n the nou n was no t expresse d o r impli ed, and u ses it as an in declina bl e form, r eally makin g t he. fir s t five nume ral s into noun s co rr espondi n g t o the second five, w h i c h a r e noun s in all the l a n g ua ges.

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16 The t/toztsands a r e expr essed by the noun nkoto, (which does not change to form the plural) foll owed by the multiplying unit. nkoto moko, nkoto minei, nkoto mitano, nkoto libwa, mokoko, mikoko mibale one thousand. four thousand. .five thousand. nine tl,ousand. ten thousand. twenty thousand. i11IXED NUMBERS. zumu na moko, eleven zumu na mibale twelve. zumu na mitano, .fifteen, zumu na mwambi, e~E;hteen. mituku mibale na motoba, twenty si.x:. mituku minei na libwa,fo, ty nine. monkama moko na mituku nsambu na mitano, one liundnd and seventy .five. minkama mitano na mituku mi bale na minei, five lumdred and twenty four. nkoto motoba, na minkama misato, na mituku motoba na libwa, si.x: t l,ousand and tlwee htmdnd and sixty nine. nkoto zumu na mwambi, na minkama mibale na mituku misato na nsambu, eig-liteen thomand and two htmdred and thirty seven mikoko mibale, na nkoto motoba na minkama minei na zumu na misato, twenty thousand and six thousand, and four lztt11dred, and thirteen. (a) Numeral Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify. batu zumu na motoba, sixteen people. mandoki nkoto moko na minkama mitano, One thous,md .five luuulred guns. mitako minkama libwa na mituku libwa na libwa, nine lwndred and ninety nine b1ass 1ods. (b) The num e rals are u se d absolutely. mitano, five; monkama, on e lumdred.

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(c) In order to translate, one by one, two by two etc. or, one each time, two each time, etc. the cardinal numbers are simply reduplicated:~ moko-moko, one by one. basali bakamati mibale-mibale, the work11len each took two. (d) "About a" certain number is rendered by "soko." Batu soko mitanu, about jive people. ORDINAL NUMERALS. The ordinal Numerals are formed from the Cardinal Numerals preceded by na," except the first which is boso. motu na boso, batu na nsambo, kiti na motoba, kopo na libwa, the jii-st man. the seventh 1/lan. the sixth chair. tlie ninth glass. etc. etc C. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. The Possessive Adjectiv es are:-na ngai, my. na biso, our. na yo, thy. na bino, your. na yeye, his. na bango, their. na yango, its. na yango, their. These are really the Objective Pronouns preceded by the possessive particle nat, This is in accordanc e w ith th e method adopted by "Bangala" in the formation of Adj ect ival phrases. The River l ang uag es concord these forms: -Ngala: Bangi: motu wa babale, moto o nsambo, the second 11,an. the sev enth 111au. t A further extension of th e meth od adop ted th e "Bangala" of forming Adjec ti va l phrases by th e u se of na. Tho Upper Rive r l an g uages concord th ese form s N gala: batu ba ngai, 111;1 people; Bangi : nkeni e yo, his cup.

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18 '.Na yango z"ts, na yango tlzez"rs, refer t b flOutis of all classes.* (a) Possessive Adjectives fol low the nouns they qualify mombo na ngai, ndako na yo, molangi na yeye, my slave, tlty ltouse, his bottle, batu na biso, ou, people. mandoki na bino, your guns. basi na bango, tlzeirwives. D. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES The Demonstrative Adjectives mark two pos itions. 1st Position: Near the sp eaker, 2 n d Posi tion: Near t h e person spol;:en to, or s01ne dz'.stance away from tlte speaker, or p revz"ously mentz"oned. The Demonstrative Adjective of the 1st positi on 1s oyo; which is indeclinable :-motu oyo, tlzis man. batu oyo, tl,ese men. ndako oyo, this lzouse. elamba oyo, tlzis cloth The Demonstrativ e Adjective of the 2nd position i s wana, or oyo kuna. Which are the same in the singular and plural. mwana oyo kuna, that chld. bana oyo kuna, thos e cltildren. biloko wana, those things. wana, is more gen e r ally used than oyo kuna . D u e d oub tl ess to the necessity of fin ding tl -e co mmon bas e of t h e River l a n g ua ges. Some of th e l an guages have a s p ec i a l for m of th e Possess i ve Adjecti ve for its, tlzeirs, r efe rrin g lo the noun s o f eac h separate Class. Ngala: mwana wa yango, the child of it, referrin g to ntaba a goat Bangi: loposo lo mongo, the bark of it, its bark (r efe rrin g to mwete, a tree). Others, suc h as the lan guage of Basoko ha ve n o Possessive fo rm s out s id e th e rst or Mu-Ba C l ass, but u se the Demonstrat i ve ; h ence "Bangal a" h as dropp e d a ll th e forms except those above.

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19 Greater distance is marked by lengthening the final vowel of the adjective. Demonstrative adjectives follow the noun they qualify.

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20 CH APTER IV. PRONOUNS. A. Personal Pronouns. S in gular. plural. 1st Pers., ngai, 1 me, 2nd Pers., yo, thou, thee. 3rd Per,., yeye h e him, yango it ( a ll classes). biso, we, us. bino, you. bango, they, them. These forms are both NfJminative and Objective, and serve to represent the nouns of all C la sses.* They may b e called Self-standing Pronouns to distinguish them from the Pronominal Prefixes w hich represent the subject o f the verb. B. Possessive Pronouns. The Possessive Pronouns are identical with the Possessive Adjestives. mbele na yo malamu, na ngai mabe, Jo1w knife is good, mine is bad. tika samaki na ngai, kamata na yo, l e ave my fish alone, take yours. ------------------------------* Some o f the Upper River languages have Pronouns to represent the nouns of all the Classes. Thus, in Bangi mongo and mingo are the sing. and plur. pron o un s r eferring to all nouns o f the Mo-Mi Class; mwango and miango a r e the corresponding Ngala forms. But some of the languages have no spec ial Pronouns to r eprese r.t Nou ns outside o f the 1st or Mo-Ba C lass. True to its central principl e of dropping forms which are not common t o a ll the l anguages "Bangala" u ses yeye and bango, for it, they, or them, re f er rin g t o n ou ns o f a ll Classes.

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21 C. Demonstrative Pronouns. The Demonstrative Pronouns are oyo, this, or these, and yango or kuna, that or those. sumba makondo oyo, tika yango, buy these plantain, leav e those kende na motu oyo, moto kuna ake na ngai, go with this man, that one goes with me. yaka na mitako oyo, pese basali yango, come with these brass ods, give tlze wo,kmen those D. Interrogative Pronouns. Who? interrogativ e is rendered by nani? nani okofuta basali? wlzo is paying the workmen? motu nani or nani? who i s th e man? ye akoloba nani? who is it who s/;eaks? What? interrogative is rendered by nini? or ndei> mpo nini? nini? ye alobi nini? what is the matt er? what is it? what did he say ? G

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22 CHAPTER IV. VERBS. Verbs are divided into three conjugations. Verbs ending in a, form the A conjugation, those ending in e, the E conjugation; those endin.,g in o, the O conjugation; as loba, to spea!?; bete, to beat; kombo, to sweep. Inflexions of the Verb. Verbs are inflected in relation to Number and Person, Mood and Tense. NUMBER AND PERSON. The relations of Number and Person are shown by prefixes attached to the verb. These prefixes represent the Subject of the verb and translate I, thou, he, she, it, they, before the verb. If the subject is inanimate the verb takes the class prefix of the subject noun as its prefix. There is a tendency to drop this, and to introduce in its place the personal prefixes a and ba as z"t, and they.

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23 Pronominal Prefixes. Singular. Plural. !St Pers. na-I. !St Pers . to-we. 2nd o-thou. 2nd bo)'OU, 3rd a-he, she. 3rd bathey. Class Prefixes. !St a-he. bathey. 2nd mo-it. mithey. 3rd e-it. ithey. 4th Ii-it. mathey. 5th e-it. bithey. 6th bo-it. mathey. 7th loit. itliey. 8th lo-it. mathey. These are regular for all tenses. Emphasis is expressed by placing a Substantive or Self-standing Pronoun before the verb. Examples. nalali na masua, ye, asali boye, bino, bokoki kokende, motu ayibi biloko, molangi mokwi na nee, ndako ikangami, I slep t on the steamer. He ( himself} did tltus. You ( all of you) a, e able to go. A man stol e the things. The bottle fell on the ground. The hous e s are locked up. THE MOODS AND TENSES. Five Moods are recognised, A the Indicative Mood, B the Imperative Mood, C the Infinitive Mood, D the Subjunctive Mood, and E the Participial Mood.

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A. The Indicative Mood. The Indicative Mood has the following tenses:I. The Present. 2. The Past. 3. The Remote Past, or the Past Indefinite . 4. T h e Customary. 5. Pluperfect. 6. Future. r. THE PRESENT is formed by adding the prefix ko-to the root o f the verb, and placing before that the prenominal prefix. Exampl e, linga, to l ove. Root, linga. (Throughout the following tenses "linga" will be taken as a model). rst Pers. 2nd 3rd Singular. na-ko-linga, o-ko-linga, a-ko-linga, Plural. I am loving. thou art loving. he is loving. r s t Pers. to-ko-linga, we a,e loving. 2nd bo-ko-linga, you are lovin1;. 3rd ,, ba-ko-ling a, they a,e loving. if.. ... Classes mo-ko-linga, mi-ko-linga, e-ko-linga, i-ko-linga, ect, 2. THE PAST is formed by strikin g off the final a, e, or o, of the root, and repla c ing it by i. The prenominal prefixes are added just as in the preceding case. rst Pers. 2nd 3rd Singular. na-ling-i, o-ling-i, a-lin~-i, P lu ral. I loved. to-ling-i, thou lovedst. bo-ling-i, he loved ba-ling-i, we loved. you loved. they l~ved,

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25 Verbs which have w, o r y, or i, before the final vowel make .their past in ei. liya, wa, to e a t mak es t o d i e, l make s nalei, 1 ate. awei, he died. The verb kende, to go is irregular, and makes, -kei, in the past, as nakei, I went. 3 THE REMOTE PAST, or THE PAST INDEFINITE, is formed by adding ki, to the simple verb as a suffix. The pronominal prefix is added as before. Thus in the A conjugation, the rst person singular would be na-lin g a-ki, in the E conjugation, (taking a s an example, bete, to stri!.:e) na-bete-ki, in the O conjugation, (example, kombo, to sweep,/ na-kombo-ki. Singular. rst Pers na-linga-ki, I lov e d or was loving. 2nd o-linga-ki, thott etc 3rd a-linga-ki, l te etc Plural. r s t Per s to-linga-ki, we, e tc., e t c 2nd bo-linga-ki, y ou, etc 3 r d ba-linga-ki, t h ey et c ., e t c 4 THE CUSTOMARY is form e d exactly as the present, (i. e. by prefixing ko to the simple verb,) and the addition of ka, ke, or ko, accordin g a s the verb is of the A, E or O conjugation. I t i s c onjugated quite regularly. na-kolinga-ka, na-ko-bete-ke, na-ko-kombo-ko, I a m in t!te h a bit of likin g I am in t h e h abit o.f b eatin g I am i n tlte ltabit of sweeping.

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' 26 5. THE PLUPERFECT is formed by adding ka, to the simple verb of the A conjugation, ke to those of the E conjugation, ko to those of the O conjugation. Thus-na-linga-ka, I had loved. na-bete-ke, I had beaten na-kombo-ko, l had swept, and so on quit e regularly. By some speakers, the ka, ke, or ko, is omitted, and the tense becomes nalinga, nabete, nakombo. 6. THE FUTURE has usually the same form as the present tense, i. e. na-ko-linga, means I am loving, or I shall love. However there is another form;-Singular. rst Pers., nde na-ling-i, l shall love. 2nd nde o-ling-i, tl,ou shaft love. 3rd nde a-ling-i, he shall love. Plural. rst Pers., nde to-ling-i, we shall love. 2nd nde bo-ling-i, yott shall love. 3rd nde ba-ling-i, they shall love. On the use of this see "The Use of Tenses." IDIOMATIC CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. Twu tenses are formed by conjugating the verb with the verb zala, to be, (zala bez"ng co11:fugated as a verb of the A conjugation). These may be called I. The ACTUAL PRESENT; 2. The IMPERFECT.

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27 r. THE ACTUAL PRESENT. 1st Pers., znd 3rd 1st Pers znd 3rd nazali ko-linga, ozali ko-linga, azali ko-linga, Sing. I am lovin g n ow, ( l itera ll y it can be Compared with the a n alagous "pidgun" Engli s h ~xpres sion "I l ive to come"). tlzou art lovin g now lie is loving now. Plural. tozali ko-linga, bozali ko-linga, bazali ko-linga, w e are loving now. you are l011ing uow. t!te y are loving now. 2. THE IMPERFECT. 1st Pers., :ind 3rcl 1st P e r s., znd 3rd Sing. nazalaki ko-linga, ozalaki ko-linga, azalaki ko-linga, Plural. tozalaki ko-linga, bozalaki ko-linga, bazalaki ko-linga, I w as co1 1tiug (then). t!tou, etc. !te e t c we were loving (then) you, etc. t!tey, etc. A. FORCE OF THE TENSES. Of the tenses gi v en, the Present ( r ), the Past ( 2 ), and the Remote Past (3 ) are those most generally in use. A g r eat deal of confu s ion is occasion e d by the use of what is apparentl y the Pas t tense for the Present. Indeed some say there is no Present, or rather there i s no di-fference in the tense forms cif these

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28 two tenses, i. e., they both have the i suffix. But the native is, or was, more logical in his speech than we are in ours. For i n stance, we say in English, "I am sitting on a chair," using our present form of the verb, and meaning that we are actually sitting at the time of speaking. But in Lingala a native would use the past form and say "nazali na kiti," (literally, I sat) meaning, he is already seated, and is now sitting on his chair. But if he were in the act of sfrting and not actually seated, he would say, "nakozala na kiti," i. e. I am ( ~n the act of) sitting in the chair. Thus, always use the Present with the sense of "in the act of," otherwise use the Past form. Examples: (a) motu akobambola mwinda, (b) motu abamboli mwinda, f The man is in the act of tig!ttin g the lamp. The man lig!tts tlze lamp ( at any time). The above sentences may mean (a) the 111,an will light the lamp, and the man lit the lamp, however no difficulty will be found in g i v in g either of the~e forms its right meaning, if the context in which it occurs is examined. Again, nalingi bandeko na ngai, means, I love my friends ( or I loved my friends), and, nakolinga bandeko na ngai, means, 1 love 7nJ' friends (perhaps for the first time) or, J will love my friends. By some speakers, the Present form i s not used at all, its place being taken by what we have called the actual present (see Idiomatic Conjugation cf the Verb, a). Thus: (c) motu azali kobambola mwinda, T!te man is (actually) lig!tting tl,e lamp. Both forms (a) and_ (c) are cc>rre~t.

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29 3 The Remote past is brou ght into requisi t ion whe n any act done at any remote, or indefinite time is to be related. mwasi akomboki ndako, the woman swept the house (at the ind ef init e time of which t h e s peaker speaks). nazalaki na Boma, lived at Boma ( o nc e up o n a time). --4. The Customary tense needs no explanation, and a s ingle example will suffice. mwasi akosukolaka bi lamba, the wo111an wasltes t!te clotltes regularly or every day, i e. it is her custo111 to do t!tis. 5. The P luperfect is used quite ~egular!Y: ayaka na ndako, abeteke mbwa, ak'omboko ndako, !te !tad c ome to t!te !tou se. lte !tad beate' ~ t!t e dog. lte !tad swept t!t e !tous e 6. The Future. The form most generall y in use is identical viith that of the present, as alrea'.dy noted. Its time is indicated by the context in which it occurs. Thus akoya lobi, means Jze wz'll come tom orrozv. But in the resulting clause of a sentence, if the result is regarded a s certain, then the second form seems to be used. -------------. Exampl e, soko masua makoya lobi, mondele nde akamati nkuni, if t!te stea111e1 comes to -111orrow, t!te whi te11wn will take ji1ewood . rii.;re on l y remains 01ie -other teri .se to Se noted, the Imperfect, which is derived from the idioniatic conJu~ gation of the verb. It is used quite regularly nazalaki kolala, .. azala~i.koloba, was sleeping. /; _was ,peaM1 :.f

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30 B. IMPERATIVE MOOD. The simple form of the verb is used, often prefixed, but it is not necessary sumba, to buy, ko-1 s also Example, Singular. Plural. sumba, or kosumba, buy ( tlwu); bo-sumba, buy (you). The Emphatic Imperative is formed by adding -ka, to the A conjug::i.tion -ke to the E conjugation -ko to the O conjugation. sumba-ka, buy ( at once). teke-ke, sell ( ,, ) kombo-ko, s wee p ( ,, ) bosum ba-ka, bu y ( all of you at o nce) boteke-ke, sell ( ,, ,, ) bokombo-ko, sweep ( ) Often the plural is formed by adding -ni to the stem. Sing: Ioba, s pea k Plur: Iobani, spe a k. Ya, to come, always takes the Emphatic Imperative. Sing: yaka, c o11le. Plur: boyaka, or yakani, c ome. C. INFINITIVE MOOD. The [nfinitive is formed by prefixing ko-to the simple verb ko-linga, to lov e ko-bete, t o b eat ko-kombo, to s weep. Example: ayi ko-kanga ntaba, te ca1/le t o t i e u p ltis goat. Note this sentence. It means, h e came in order to tie up his goat, but if the sentence s tood, he came that

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he might tie up his goat, i. e. if it were a hypothetical sentence, then the subjunctive would be used in place of the infinitive (See Subjunctive Mood). D. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. The Subjunctive Mood has one Tense. It consists of the simple verb, with the prenominal prefixes. pese ye nsusu alamba na mai, give him a fowl that he may cook it with water. The Subjunctive is used after verbs expressing entreaty, purpose, desire, etc., and afte r hypothetical adverbs, conjunctions, and phrases. alingi ake, he wants to go ( he wislies that lie may go). yaka tokende, c ome l e t us g o tika ye alongola biloko, l e t Mm. take away the things. Any tense of the Indicative Mood may be used in asking questions but the Subjunctive is generally used when reference is to the future, as Naya? shall I come? Ake? shall he go? Babuna? shall they figl-tt? But, Alobi boye, did he speak thus? Azalaki na Boma? did he live at Boma? (See also Infinitive Mood). E. THE PARTICIPIAL MOOD. The Participial Tenses are f ~rmed from the Indicative tenses by inversion; eis prefixed to the tense form, and the Subject noun or pronoun follows immediately after the verb.

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32 Example: Present tense. rst Pers., 2nd 3rd rst Pers., 2nd 3rd Singular e-kolinga ngai, e-kolinga yo, e-kolinga ye, Plural e-kolinga bino, e-kolinga bino, e-kolinga bango, when I am loving w hen thou art loving when he is loving when we are loving. whe n you a n loving. whe n they ate loving Past. e-lingi ngai, e tc., R e mote Past. e-lingaki ngai, wizen I lov ed. And so on throughout all the tenses. FORCE OF THE PARTICIPIAL TENSES. These tenses can on l y be used in clauses which indicate the condition, and only when the condition, was, or is, or will be fulfilled. It is for this reason that the mood is called participial and not conditional. Example: esalaki ngai na mondele afuti ngai mosolo mingi, wiz e n I worke d for the wl,ite11tan li e paid 1/le we!!. ekosila ngai lisala na ngai nakosunga yo, whe n l sha l l have finishe d my w or k I will help you. When doubt or uncertainty is indicated, conditional particles are used followed by the tenses of the Subjunctive Mood.

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33 soko lobi aya, nakokende na ye, if he comes to-morrow, I will go with him. soko nakirna na zarnba okosala nini? If I sl,ould ,-,m away into the forest, what would you do? Uncertainty as to resu l t is indicated by soko. soko akainata nkuni, p erha ps he will take fir e wood, or he may ta k e firewood. NEGATION. All verbs are negatived by the particle te, standing after the verb or at the end of the clause. Examples: nalobi te, 1 spoke not. kolarnba boli te, ezali rnolarnu te, not to cook food is not good yaka te, do not come rnpo nini olobi na ngai te? why did you not sp eak to me ? nalingi nakende te, I do not want to go. kanga ntaba na nkarnba akirna te, tie t h e g oat with rope that h e may n o t run away. nabiangi yo kala-kala, ooki ngai te? I call e d you lon g ago, d i d you n o t hear me ? akufi boni? baborni ye te? !tow did lze die ? d i d they n~t /
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34 CHAPTER V. DERIVED VERBS. A. The Passive Verb. Of the Upper River languages only the Bangi language has a true Passive Verb. The ending is -ibwa, but this would seem to have been summarily rejected. Most of the other languages, however, form a Passive sentence by inversion, and this is the method which is likely to be accepted, though, as the Upper River languages do not like Passive Forms, perhaps even this mode may be rejected. Active sentence: nakangi ntaba, I tied the goat. Passive sentence: ntaba e-kangi na ngai, the goat was caught by me. To mark the Passive the sentence is inverted. Ntaba is the object of the active sentence and in agreement with the common rule in "Bangala" appears after the verb. Ntaba is the Subject of the Passive sentence, it appears be.fore the verb, and the agent preceded by the preposition na follows the verb. In all the Upper River l anguages, however, there is a Neu ter or Stative ve rb. This is occasionally hear d in Bangala" and it is high l y desirable that some attempt

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35 should be made to retain this form, for now one usually hears abeti, both for he beat, and he was beaten; akangi, he ties, and he was tied, which, to say the least of it, is somewhat confusing. B. The Neuter or Stative Verb. The Neuter or Stative verb is easily formed. Setting aside some peculiarities found in the different languages, the following rules are simple and easily understood. Verbs ending in o add -mo, kombo, to sweep, kombomo, to be swept. Verbs ending in e add -me, bete to beat, beteme, to be beaten. Verbs ending in a add -ma, sosa, to wash, sosama, to be was/zed. Some verbs take -ana, instead of ama; tika, to remain; makes tikana, to be in a state of remaining. These verbs are then conjugated exactly as are the Simple verbs ending in a, e, and o. ndako akokombomo, batu bakobeteme, ngombe akososama, ihe house is being swept. the people are bein g beaten. the cloth is being washed. Verbs ending in -ola form their Stative in oa ( or wa), fungola, to unlock; fungwa, to be unlocked.

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. Note the following : funga, fungola, t o lock; stat i ve, to unlock : stative, fungama, fungwa, to be !or ked. to be unlocked. Thus t h e difference between funga, and fungwa, 1 s great, and apparent. C. The Applicativ e Verb. There is another Derived Verb which is common to all the languages and is heard in "Bangala." It is formed by adding -ela t o the verb s tem. The addition of this suffix adds a prepositional idea t o the idea of the simp l e verb, as sumba, to buy, sumbela, to buy for; buna, to fight; bunela, to fight for. alambi nyama, !te cooked meat. alambeli mondele nyama, lie cooked meat for t!te w!tite man. asumbi bilamba, lie boug!tt clotlies asumbeli _mwasi na yeye bilamba, lie boug!tt clot!tes for ltis wife. Verbs ending in -ola form their applicative, by changing the -ola into -wila. tarn bola, to walk; tambwila, to walk to, or for. D The Causative Verb. The Causative verb is formed by adding -isa or sometimes -esa to the simple verb stem. It marks that the object of the verb is caused to perform the action, or to exist in the state described by the verb, as beka, to borrow, bekisa, to lend, lit. to cause to borrow, zala, to sit, zalisa, to cause to sit, to s eat. This derived

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37 verb is conjugated in the same way as any simple verb ending in a. bekisa ngai mitako zumo, lend me ten brass rods. Verbs ending in -ola form their causative by changing the -ola into -wisa. tarn bola, to walk; tambwisa, to cause to walk. Verbs ending in -ana form their causative by changing -ana, into -inya. yebana, to understand each otlter. yebinya, to cause eaclt otlter to understand. E. The Reciprocal Verb. This deriv e d verb is formed by adding the suffixes -na to verbs ending in a, -ne to ve rbs ending in e, and -no to verbs ending in o. It denotes that the action is reciprocal, as buna, to fight, bunana, to fight each other; kaba, to divide kabana, to divide together, to s h are ; pese, to give, pesene, to give each other; solo, to choose solono, to choose each other. These verbs are conju gc:1.ted in the same way as simple ve rbs ending in a, e, and o resp e ctiv e ly. bakabani samaki na makondo, tlte y ltave sltared up tlte fish and the plantains. Mankasa na Lotika bakolongono, 1Wankasa and Lotika are marrying together. F. The Reversive Verb. This d e riv e d verb is formed by adding -ola to the simple verb stem. As the name implies it reverses the meaning of the simple verb D

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e.g. funga, bomba, to shut; to hide; fungola, born bola, G. The Reflexive Verb. to open. to reveal. The Reflexive verb is formed by prefixing mi before the simple verb s tem lakisa, loba, to teac!t; to speak; nakomilak isa, amilobi, I, myself, teach. he spoke, himself.

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39 CHAPTER VI. PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND INTERJECTIONS. A. ADVERBS. There are but few adverbs. I give the following with the renderings of some adverbial phrases. (1) Adverbs of Manner and Quality:-boni boni, how. boni, how much, why. mpamba, freely, gratz"s, vainly. se, bobele, completely, exactly, only. na lobangu, quickly (with speed). noki noki, quickly, at once. sika-sik'awa, sasaipi, now, at this instant, immedia tely. na moi na moi, slowly, quietly. soko, perhaps probably. lokola na, pila moko, as like. boye, t!ms, in this way. bongo, boye. thus, in that way. molamu, ve,y good, very well. nye, quite, completely (2) Adverbs of Place:-awa, kuna, wana, pene-pene,penepe,} bele be l e, mosika, esi, o ntei, kati kati, mbisa } na nsima, na miso na, esika wapi? ltere, in this place. tltere, in that place. neai' to. far away. in, within. after, b e!tind. in the presence oj. in what place? D2

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40 (3) Adverbs of Time:-lelo, lobi, to-day. na nsima, kala kala, sasaipi, sikawa, na boso, ndiki, to-morrow, yesterday. afterwa,ds. long ago. now. now. before. when, at the time. Adverbial Phrases of Time. na ntongo, na ntongo mpenza, na nsusu na boso, namoi, na mpokwa, na butu, kati-kati na butu, kala-kala kani, mokolo-na-mokolo, mikolo yonso, in the mo, ning. in the early morning. very early in the morning ( first cock crowz'ng). in the day time. in the afternoon. in, or, at night. midnight. a vety long time ago. every day. every day. (4) Adverbs of Quantity:-moke moke, be, mingi mingi, mosusu or mosiso, nainu, a few, a little quantity. many, much. more, another. yet. (5) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation:-e, io, te, solo, lokuta, soko, yes. no, not. certainly. not so. perhaps. (6) Adverbs of Interrogation:-boni? wapi? zambi nini?} mpo nini? how many? how mucl,? where? why?

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41 What prz'ce? is rendered on the lower reaches of the river by motuya nini or boni? what prce? On the upper reaches by nguo ngapi? how many dot of cloth? (7) Some adverbial Phrases:-na likolo, na mbisa, mikolo yonso, } mokolo na mokolo, na bobe, mabe, na malamu, na mayele, na moi na moi, na makasi, na boso, na nee na, na epai na, na libanda, epai oyo, epai kuna, above. a.fie, wards. always, every day. ill, badly. excellently, well. wisely. quietly, carefully. strongly. before. under. to the side oJ. outside. this side. that side. B. PREPOSITIONS. There is actually but one preposition, na. In and about Bolobo and Lulanga, a second one is heard, o. No doubt this is a great weakness in Lingala, but the weakness is disguised by t~e use of prepositional phrases, and Jjy adverbs (where the context leaves doubt as to the meaning). Examples: Abomi ntaba na mbele, lte killed ihe goat with a knife. azali na nda:ko, or better, azali kati na ndako, lte is in tlt e ltouse. abati likolo na ndako, !te cli11zb~d to tlte top of tlte ltouse. alindi kati na masua, lze saizk bet71;een (lit., in tlt e midst of) the stea711ers. yaka awa, na bwato, c ome into tlte boat ( l it . come here, into tlze boat). yaka na bwato awa, bring the boat (lit., come with tlte boat ltere )

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A few PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES are as follows: na likolo na, or, likolo na, on the top of, above. na nee na, under, underneath. ~! ~f;f ~:: i:: :t~li ::,} inside, i11side of, in the midst of. na boso na, or, boso na, before, in the front of. na nsima na, or, nsima na, behind, at the back of. na epai na, or, epai na, at the side of. CONJUNCTIONS. (r) na, and, but it is only used to join a series of _substantives (and can be translated, wz'tli). Example: basumbi yonso, bilamba na nsusu, na samaki, na kwanga na biloko yonso, they bought all, clothes and (or, with) fowls, and jislt, and bread, and everytlzing. (2) mpe, and, is used in every other sentence. Example: botambolaki mpe bomonoki nzela te, yott walked and did not see the road. (3) zambi, because akimi zambi abungi, lze ran away because he forgot. (4) soko, if, or perhaps. soko nakoya, pa/zaps I shall come, soko naya, if I come soko, is often used with the sense of, w!ten. soko masua makoya, when the steamer comes. (5) soko, soko, ez'ther, or. soko lelo soko lobi, eitlze,to-day or to-morrow. ( 6) nde, or kansi, but . akei nde akufi, he went but he died.

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43 INTERJECTIONS Ale I noki-noki I lobangu I quick I kokolol or sapil wait, wait a minute! E Tata! e Mama! expressions of s u rprise. (0 father! 0 mother!) nawa I nawa I alas, alas. (I die, I die). ma! take this! tika bongo I just so I stop it I

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44 CHAPTER VII. SYNTAX. Many points which naturally come under this heading nave been dealt with in the grammar, others are better treated here. A. Formation of Substantives. ( a) The noun denoting the agent, or performer of the action, is formed from the Indefinite Past Tense of the Simple verb by adding the Prefixes of the Ist or Mo-Ba Class. tula, to forge pas t ind e f tuli; mo-tuli, a bla c ksmitlt bete, to beat, past ind ef. beti; mo-beti, a b eate~. benga, to follow, pas t indef. bengi; mo-bengi, a follower. sala, to work, past indef. sali; mo-sali, a worker ( b) The sufferer of the action is denoted by the corresponding noun formed from the Stative verb. kangama, to be tie d, past indef kangami; mo-kangami, one tied, a prisoner. beteme, to be beaten, past indef. betemi; mo-betemi, one beaten. ( c) The noun denoting the effect of the action is formed from tqe Past lndef. Tense, by adding the prefixes of the 4th or Li-Ma C l ass. koma, to write past indef. komi; li-komi, writing. tena, to cut, past indef. teni; li-teni, tlte piece cut off.

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45 ( d) The name of the instrument is formed by adding the prefixes of the 5th or E-Bi C l ass to the Appl i c a tive verb, and changing the final letter into i. koma, to write applicat ive verb, komela; e-komeli, a pencil. bakola, to take apart, applicative verb, bakole!a; e-bakoleli, a nail-puller. (e) The noun denoting the place where the action is wrought can be formed by adding the same prefixes to the Applicative verb, but the final letter is changed into e. bumba, to !tide, a pplicative verb, bumbela; e-bun:ibele a ltiding place. (f) The numerical noun is formed from the Simple verb by adding the Prefixes of the Lo-Mi or 2nd Class bete, to beat, lo-bete moko, one s t roke. luka, to paddle, mi-luka mibale, two strokes or p ulls. baluki mi-luka mitano, t!tey pulled.five strokes nayi miya mingi, I came many times ( comings). (g) Abstract nouns can be formed by suffixing o to the stem of the verb, and prefixir1g bo-. bolingo, love, from linga, to love . ( h) Introduced words a r e generally regarded as singular nouns of the rst or Mo-Ba Class, and make a p l ural by adding ba. sanduku, trunk, ba-sanduku, trunks. Sometimes, ,however, the first syllable of the noun, when pronounced by the native, sounds like one of the other singular prefi xes a nd i s treat e d as s u c h, the plural t a kin g the correspondin g plural pre fix, as bo-la nkete, pl. ma-lankete, from the English bla nke t. Thus bo-lankete is a noun of the Bo-Ma C l ass.

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B. Gender. Sex is not represented in the inflexions of the noun, but must be indicated by a noun signifying male or female used as an adjective after the noun denoting the object. motu mobali, a person (male); motu moasi, a person (female). ntaba mobali, a male goat; ntaba moasi, a fe1!lale goat. bilenge babali, boys; bilenge basi, girls. C. Adjectives. It' will have been noticed that "Bangala" has but few Adjectives; many of our Adjectives must be rendered by the Past Indefinite Tense of an appropriate verb. yaka na batu bakoki lisala oi kosala, co1/le wZth men suffident for tlze work. ndako ebongi, a siti"table house; mai maleki, rzmnin.1; water. D. Comparison of Adjectives. ( a) Adjectives are compared in various ways (1) If the equality of two objects is to be compared the substantives, lokola, or lolenge ( or, lokola moko lolenge moko) are used. Example: ndako yonso lokola (or lokola moko, or, lolenge moko) all houses are the sa1!le, lit., all houses one kind. (2) But, if some qualification of the object is to be expressed, such 'as breadth, length, etc., then the equivalent adjective is used. Example: ndako yonso mosanda moko, all the houses are of one length. minkanda bolamu moko, the books are equally good (lit., the books one goodness.)

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41 (J) To compare the simple difference between objects, lolenge .. .lolenge, is used. Example: ndako oyo lolenge, yango lolenge, this house is of one sort, that .oize of another. (b) The Comparative of I. Superiority or inferiority is expressed by the use of the verbs, pusa, or leka, to surpass, or to excel. Example: moto oyo aleki ngai na makasi, this 11tan is stronger than I (lit., this 11tan sztrpassed me with strength). 2. The Superlative is expressed by (a) accent, (b) reduplication, or by ( c) pusa, or leka. Examples: (a) mondele monene, a big wliiteman, but, mondele monene, (thus moneeene) a very big whiteman. ( b) nsusu moke moke, a very little jowl. batu mingi mingi, very many people (c) basanduku bapusi, t here are very many boxes (lit., the boxes, they rnrpass ). capitani aleki mayele, the captain was 11e 1y wise (lit., the captain surpassed wisdom). E. Indefinite Adjectives. None, no one is rendered by the negative: motu te, no man. Certan by moko: motu moko, a certan man. Several is rendered by mingi = m'any, or basusu, or mosusu = more, oth e rs. Someone, anybody, anythng, is rendered by soko. soko motu moko, -soko bongo, soko elamba, someone, anybody. pe1 haps so. any cloth.

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The whole is rendered by yonso, njoto yonso, the whole body, nsu yonso, the whole fish. All by banso: bato banso or yonso, all the people. Each is rendered by repeating the noun: motu na motu bakwi mbele moko moko, each man took one knife. Myself, alone, is rendered by, mpenza. ngai mpenza, I myself. bino mpenza, you yourselves. F. Pronouns. When the Personal Pronouns are used as Subjects they stand before the verb. ngai nakoya, I am coming; bango bayei, they ca?lle. As objects they stand after the verb. nakolinga yeye, I like hi?ll. The same rule applies to the Demonstrative Pronouns. moto oyo ayibi biloko, moto wana abumbi yeye, tlzz's one stole the things, that on e hid hi11t. ngai nam~ni yango, yeye akamati yango lisusu, I saw thes e he caught t!wse. G. Relative Pronoun. There is only an Interrogative Relative Pronoun. It appears in t wo forms, nani? and nini? Nani is used of persons, nini of things. nani oleki awa? yo okoiinga l}ani? bilamba na nani? who passed here? w!zom do you love? w!wse clothes ?

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49 H; Relative Clauses. ,, A Personal Subjective Relative C lau ~ e differs from an Absolute Clause, only in the singular. o-is prefixed to the verb in the singular and bain the plural. motu obeti ngai, the man who b eat me. batu babeti ngai, the m e n who beat me. But in a relative clause relating to things, the verb takes the class prefix of the noun which governs it: biloko bisumbaki ngai, t lt e tlzi ngs which I boug h t An Objective Relativ e Clause may be formed in two ways. ( a) By inversion : -motu abeti na ngai, the man who m I b e a t (b) The Relative may be expressed by a Demonstra tive Pronoun placed before the verb: -motu oyo nabeti yeye, the m an who m I beat (lit. man t h a t I b e a t him.) l. Interrogative Expressions. What? is rendered by boni? or nini? standing at the end of the clause. mpo nini? what is t he matter? okolinga nini? what d o you want ? Where? by wapi? okokende wapi? wlze 1 e are yoi t going? batu bajali wapi? w h ere are tlte people? Which? is r endere d by nini? wapi? mbele nini? which k nife? mbalankata wapi? w h ic h p la te?

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50 How much? How many? by boni? kwe? motuya boni? what price?batu bakimi boni? liow many people ran away? Why? by mpo nini? boni-boni? yo osali boye boni? why did you do so? When? by mokolo wapi? bayibi bwato mokolo wapi? when did. they steal the canoe? How? by nini? boni? akimi nini? how did lie run away ? akosala na nini? lzow does he do it? J. The Verb. ( a) Agreement with its Subject. When a verb has several Subjects the verb takes the plural prefix, ba, for persons, bi, for inanimate objects.' bwato na mbele na mandoki na masasi bilindi o mai, the can o e and the knives and the guns and the cartridges sank in the water. ( b) The Force of the Tenses in the Indicative has been shewn (p.p. 27-29). (c) The use of the Imperative and the Subjunctive is practically the same as in English.

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CHAPTER I. VOCABULARY. A. Preliminary Observations. ... f)' (a) 'Bangala" is yet in 'the process of making and many words are not yet fixed. The inhabitants of the : St.ate stations and camps, traders' establishments, etc., will naturally use many woi"ds peculiar to the districts in which they are living With freer arid more constant intercourse words will tend more and. more to become . fixed, p,nd will then qualify for inclusion in the common language. In prepadp_ g this vocabulary I have tried to secure the words most generally used but in those cases where no word seemed generally current I have given, wherever possible, the word common to the majority of the riverine languages. In those cases where these languages do not posses s a good word, and one is known to the Congo speakers of Swahili I have adopted that word. It is scarcely to be expected that more than a fair proportion of these suggested words will be accepted. The present "Bangala" vocabulary used by the "Bangala" speakers shews too many vagaries in its formation for it to be otherwise, hence I have thought

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it desirabie to leave a wide margin in this section, to allow of other words being added as readers may deem advisable. A col lation of these new words, from books filled in by workers in the several districts, would make it ossible to issue a larger and more accurate vocabulary later on. One may be ermitted to hope, perhaps, that an adequate number of men may be f"und whose interest in the subject will be warm enough to lead them to contribute this much towards the betterment of a common means of intercourse. (b) In those cases where the noun changes its prefix to mark the plural, both the Singular and Plural forms arc given. ( c) FoJlowing the vocabulary is a suggested transliteration of the Metric System, the names of the days and months, and a table of the hours of the day. ( d) It will be noted that a number of verbs end in -oa, and some others in -wa, as longoa, to awake, longwa, to depart. Some difference in the representation of these endings was necessary as verbs ending in oa make the Past lndef. in -oi, whilst those ending in wa, make this Tense in -wi, as na-longoi, I awoke, na-longwi, went away.

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5 r VOCABULA-RY. Abandon, tika, kila. abhor, yina. abide, bika, umela. abjure, angana. able, v.i., koka, bonga. abolish, limbisa, bungisa, longola. abominate, kila. abort, leka boleki, lekisa libumu: abortive, mpamba. abound, yikana. above, n. likolo. prep, na likolo na. abscess, lituku, pl. matuku, absorb, mele. absolve, bungisa, limbisa. abstain, kila. abundance, mingi-mingi. abundant, mingi, boiki. abuse, kumba. abyss, loselebete, mobongetela. accompany, kende elongo na, (music) yembisa. accept, yamba. accomplish, silisa, kumisa, sukisa. accomplished, sila. accordeon, ndanda, nkosi. accumulate, yikinya. accuse, pata, tuba. accuse each other, patana, tubana. accustom oneself, mesene. achieve, silisa bobele, kokisa, sukisa. acid, nkangi, ngai. acquaint, sakola, sangela. acquiesce, dima. acquire, zwa, kamata. acquit, longisa,

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52 acquitted, to be, longa. adapt, bongisa, kokisa, yengibinya. adapted, to be, bonga, koka, yengebene. add, bakisa. adequate, to be, koka, bonga. adjacent, penepe na, penepene. adjacent, to be, beleme. adjust, ponga, bongisa, longibinya. admire, sima. adopt, yamba, amba. adorned, to be, lata kitoko, bonzinga. adult, mpomba, mokulu. adultery, zambu. fine for, bokali. adze, ngwa. adze, v. t., papa. affair, mpo, likambo, zambi, pl. mambi, mbembo. affirm, simba, ndai. afflict, yokisa mawa, tungisa. a fter, na mbisa, na nsima. afternoou, mpokwa. afterwards, na mbisa, na nsima. afraid, to be, banga, yokansomo. again, lisusu. against, (near to) penepe, penepene. agitate, (a thing) nyingana. ago, lon g, kala-kala. agree, yamba. agree together, yambana, aid, sunga. aim, sosolo. air, mompepe. alarm, bangisa. a larmed, to be, banga. albino, elumbu. alike, pila moko, lolenge na. alligator, ngandu, nkoli, ngonde, (fis h e ater) allow, tika, lingisa. almost, bele bele alone, mpenja. also, mpe. a lways, mikolo yonso. amass, yanginya. amaze, kamwisa.

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amazed to be, kamwa. ame nd nyanga. amiabilit y, boboto. 2 .mmunition masasi. arno n ~ kati na, ntaka na. a mput ate, tena. amuse, sekisa, sepelisa. a n cest~ bankoko. a n c h o r mboko. a nd na, mpe. a n ge l, anze, ntoma. 53 a n ge r, v .t. okisa, or, yokisa nkele. a n ge r nkele, nkanda, makasi. a n g l e, nsuka. an g r y t o b e, oka, or yoka nkele. a n i m al, nyama. a nnoun ce sangela, sakola. annoy tumola, tungisa. a nnul boiya. anoint pakala mafuta. anoth e r mosusu. a n s w er, amba, zongisa, lo a n s w er, yes' am bola, dima. a m, b lac k, nsombi, w hit e, monsekeleke, ndonge. antel o p e, nkani, mbuli, mpambi, mongu, ngandi. anu s, lisoko. a nvil, liboma, etule li. a n x iet y, nkasa. a n x i o u s, to be, yoka o r oka nkasa. any, soko ... a n yhow (in any m a nn e r), bulu-bulu. a n y on e, soko motu moko. an y p la c e, esika soko wapi. appe a r bima, monana, bimela. app ease, bondisa, utisa. a ppl y banza. a ppreh e nd, kanga, kamata. ap pr oac h. beleme kuma penepe na. apti t ud e, mayele, bwanya. arm, loboko, pl. maboko. a rmpi t, lisasamba. arr a ng e, ponga. arran g ed t o b e bonga, koka. arri e, y ~, kuma. arr uw, lobasi, pl. mbasi. E

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artery, mosisa, pl. misisa. artful, mayele. as (like to}, pila moko, lolenge na. ascend, bata. ask, tuna. ask for, bondela, lombo. assemb l e, v. t., yanginya. assemble, v.i yangana. 54 asse nt, dima, (to say, 'yes') ambola. assist, sunga. assure, lendisa. astonish, kamwisa. astonished, to be, kamwa. aston ishment, ekamwisela. attempt, v. meka. attempt, n. bomeki. attention, to pay, keba. authority, bokonzi. avarice, boimi. avaricio us, to be, ima. avenge, enza mbomi. avoid, pengola. await, jila, zila. awake, v.i., longwa. awaken, v .t., longola. axe, soka, pl. basoka. Back, n. mokongo, pl. mikongo. back, of a house, na matutu. back, at t h e .. of, na mbisa, na nsima. bad, mabe. badly, na mabe. bag, libenga, pl. mabenga baggage, biloko. bail, ndanga. bake, tumba. baldness, n. libata, (head partly shaved), libondu bamboo, linkeke, pl. mankeke. banana, likemba, bright ye llow ntela. banana shoo t yana, pl. biana. bank, engunda. bank, (cut) mobongetela. banish, panja. bark, ( of tr ee, etc ) loposo, pl. mposo

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bark, v.i., gboma. barren woman, ekomba,. barter, sumbitinya. base, ntina. basin, saani. basket, (shoulder) lipoli, other sorts, lipuka, ekolo, lungu; bastard, mpampuka, (slave child,) mbotela. bathe, sukola, sukola mai. bathe a wound, sukola. batter clown, bula. battle, etumba, pl. bitumba. he, zala, yala. be quiet makelele kanga minoko tika nkele. beach, mbongo, libongo, pl. mabongo, bead, yaka, pl. bayaka. beam, motondo. bear, (give b ir t h to) bota. beard, lole, pl. njole, ndole. beast, nyama, mbiji. beat, bete, kuta. beater, mobeti, pl. babeti. beauty, n. monzenga. beauty, bonzenga, kitoko, bompala. beautiful, na kitoko, na bompala. because, zambi, ntina'te. bed, mbeto, elaleli, pl. b,ilaleli bee, monzoi. beef, ngombo. before, boso. before, adv. na boso. before, prep. na boso na. beg, onga, pekele. beget, botisa, bota. beggar, mong-i begiA, masa," tata, banda. beginning, ebandeli, emaseli, bomasi. behind, na mbisa, na nsima. believe, yamba. bell, ngunga, eyengele, pl. bayengele. belly, libumu, pl. mabumu. bench, (seat) etanda, pl. bitanda, libaiya. pl. mabaiya. bend, yu~ba, umba, kumba. beneficent, na likabo. bent ,.i., umbama. E2

PAGE 74

benumb, lalisa. beseech, bondela, nyingonola. bestow, pese, kabela. bestride, kwakiya. be t, n. mondinge. bet, v. kata mondinge. bette r leka, pusa, (see gram m a r ) bet ray, teka. betwee n na ntei na. bewail, lela. bewitch loko, loka. be yond, epai yango na. Bible, monkanda na Nzambe. big, monene. bile, nzongi. bi nd linga, jinga. bird, ndeki, moleki, pl. mileki, (so r t of komu, bi'rd's c r est, lisumba). birth, lobotama. bi scuit, bisikiti. bi te, v.i., swa, swa mino. bite, n. boswei, koswa. bitter, na bololo bitterness, bololo. black, mwindo, piti. blacken, yindisa. black s mith, motuli pl. batuli. bl a n ket, kamba, bolankete, pl. malankete. blaspheme, tuka Nzambe. b l eat, lela. bleed, yunga. ble e d, v.i., tanga makila. bl ess, yeya, sambola. blindn ess, lolanda, molili. b l ock h ead, elema, pl. bilema, motu na ligboma. b l ood makila. b l osso m, bontolo, pl. mantolo. b l ow, lobete, pl. mbete. blow, to g ive-in anger, bete lopataka, embambola. blow a horn, yula, ula. of wind, pepe. th e n ose, bimisa moyoyo. whistle of stea m e r, benda, o r bete loseba. b l u e, mwindo, piti. b lunt v. tuna, tunwa.

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blunt, adj. botunu. boa co n str i ctor, nguma. boat, bwatu, pl. matu. whale, (baleiniere) ebe body, njoto. boil, v.i., Iamba, toko. boi l n. lituku, pl. matuku. boiler, mombondo. boldnes s, makasi. bo l t, bulu. bolt, v.i., kima. bolt, v t., kanga. 57 bone, monkua, pl. minkua, nkua. book, monkanda, pl. minkanda; buku. boot, sanpata, ekoto, pl. bikoto. molato, pl. milato. bora ssus palm, lilebu, pl. malebu. bore, tubela, sokoto. born, to be, botama. borrow, beka. b o ttle, molangi, pl. milangi. bottom, nse, se. boundary, ndelo. bow, litingbo, pl. matingbo. bow of a canoe, mbaka na boso. bow 1 saani. box, sanduku, pl. basanduku. boy, elengi, pl. bilengi; boi. bracelet, ekomo, pl. bikomo. brain, mbongo. branch, entapi, pl. bintapi. branch out, v . kabwa. bras (firewood) ngunga na nkuni. brass wire, motako, pl. mitako. bread, limpa, mbolo, kwanga. break, buna, bukia, bola. wind, bete monkima. break, v.i bunya, buka, boma. br east, libele, pl. mabele. breath, mpema, mouli br eathe, pema, yema, yula. brick, litufane. bridge, e _talango, bwamba. brighten, tanisa. brilliant, langi-langi.

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bring, yaka na, beke, yela, kamba, twala. bring toget her, belemisa. bring forth, bota. bri ng up a child, bokolo. brood, lobota, pl. mabota. broom, ekombeli pl. bikombeli; likomboko brother, elder, motomolo, ndeko, mpomba. younger, molimi, mozimi, ndeko. in l aw, monyali brui se, n litutu pl. matutu; ekeli, pl. bikeli bruise, v nyatela, bola, (corn or grain) minyo _la. bru sh, likomboko, ekombeli. buffalo, ngombe, nzale. lrngle, kialo, mondule. bu ild, tonga. bu ilder motongi, pl. batongi. bulge, v.i., tutwa. bulle t, eyeli, pl. biyeli. bundle, ebimba, pl. bibimba; ekangilu, pl. bikangilu bun c h, etuka, ( o f bananas) ekango, pl. bikango. buria l bokundi. burn, tumba, jika. burn d own tumba na mot. o burst ouL ( o f water e tc.) punjoa. burst, v.i tuba, buka. bury, kunda. buryin g ground, malita, mayita. bu sh, elanga. b u t, nde kansi. bu tt on, bofunga /I. bifunga; nseti. butter, mafuta na ngombe, manteka. buy, sumba. buyer, mosumbi, pl. basumbi. by, na. Cabin, ndako. cabl e, nsinga, nkamba, mokulu, pl. mikulu cal a bas h, ekutu, pl. bikutu. calcul a t e tanga mituya. calf of l eg, mpende. call, bianga, beka. (giv e a name t o) pese nkombo. call together, anginya. calm, v t., bondisa, tilimisa.

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calm, adj nye. calm down, v.i., tiliina. candle, buzi, moto, pl. mioto. canoe, bwatu, pl. matu. canon, monsinga, pl. minsinga. cap, enkoti, pl. binkoti. cap (percussion,) fataki, libwa. capable, to be, koka. capsize, zengwa. captain, kapitene, pl. bakapitene. capture, kanga. carefully, na moi na moi. 59 carpenter, mosali na mabaiya, kapinta. cartridge, lisasi, pl. masasi; eyeli, pl. biyeli. cartridge belt, likuba, pl. makuba. carry, tomba, nyanya, meme. carry away, longola. on the shou l der. memisa. carve (meat), sese. with a tool, koma. case, libobo, pl. mabobo cassava, kwanga, green, kaka, soaked, mpunzi, dri ed, mo tekf long cassava puddings monsona. cat, ngampango, nkonoko, paka. catch, v. t kanga. catch drops, tamba. cause, ntina. centre, kati, ntei. certain, to make, kotisa. certainly! solo! chain, monyolo pl. minyolo chain, v.t., kanga na monyolo. chair, kiti, ngwende. change (position), longwa. channel, mongala, boleko. charcoal, makala. charm,' v. t., lengola. charm, n. monganga. chase, benga. chastis e bete, pika. chat, v.i., lobana, solola. chatter, n lobaloba, biloba. chea t n. moko s i, mojimbi. cheat, v.t., kosa, jimba, li~ba, kutinya.

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cheese, fromage. chew, nyamuta. chicken, nsusu, koko. 60 chi ef, mokonzi, pt. bakonzi; monanga, p t ban.anga. chiefta i nship bokonzi. chi l d, mwana, p!. bana. illegitirnat e, mpampuka. by s la v e m o t h e r mbotela, childbirth, mobota. chim p anz ee, mokombosi. chi n ebeku, pl. bibeku. chip, v.t., papa. chip, n. epasu, pt. bipasu. chocolate, shokola choke, kibisa. c h oked, to b e k iba., choose, solo, pono, sola. c hup kwete. church, ndako na Nzambe, ( p e opl e) lingomba. cicatrix, lokoma. cinders, makala. c ir cum c i se, kata nsonge. circulate news, tambwisa nsango. citrnn, ndimu. civet cat, molsoli. clamour, nkelele. cl a p hands, bete bisako. clarify, kengisa. cl aw, nkwala, longongo, pl. mangongo. cla y, l ibali, libazi, pn d J !ecl fur house buil ding bodongo. puddled, pota-pota. clean, v t., sukola, petola. cle an, adj. peto. cleanse, petola. clear the tabl e tandola meza. clearly, sembo, polele. cleave, pasola. cliff, mobo-ngetela. climb, bata. clim bing girdle, molango, p!. milango. clip, v. tena. clock, ngunga, ntangwa. clod (of earth) libungutulu. close, ziba, liba, zimba.

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61 cloth, elamba, pl. bilamba; ngombe, etobo. clothe, latisa, watisa. cloud, lipata, pl. mapata. clutch, kamata, pela, kanga. coagulate, kangana. cockroach, mopesekele, mosokoloko. coc k, koko, nsusu mobali. cocoa, kakau. coffee, kawa. coincide, v. t., yer:gcJ~ne. cold adj. na mpio, fresh (sharp), bobandU: cold to be, banda. cold, (to have a), bele moyoyo. coldness, mpio. collar ( bra ss), mongombo, collect, takola, ( a tax), tono. comb, n. lisanola, pl. masanola. comb, v.t., sanola. come, ya. back, butwa, zongwa. from, uta, yuta. n ea r beleme. out, bima, pima. to, kuma, yetela. together, zwana, takana. command, v. t., tinda. commandant, kwamanda, pl. bakwamanda. commandment, motindo, pl. mitindo. con1menc e ; rliasa, tata, banda compact (to mak e), kata ndeko. companion, ndeko, pl. bandeko. compassion (to have), yokela mawa. compete (wi th anyone), mekana. competent, koki. complete, adj mobimba. complet~, v. t., kokisa, silisa, bongisa. completely, nye. completed, sila bobele. complicate, v. t., bulinginya. complicated, bulu bulu, na kakatanu. compound, v.t., yanginya. comprehend, yoka, yeba.

PAGE 80

compress, kama. comrade, ndeko, pl. bandeko. conceal, bumba. conceive, zwa zemi. concubine, nganzi, ngandi condemn, kitisa. confess, yambola, dima. confound, bulinginya. confused, na bulu bulu confusion, bulu bulu. congeal, lala, kangama. consent, yamba, dima. construct, tonga, tula consume, liya, mele. contempt, boboiyi. contradict, tumola contend together, bunana. content, sepelisa. continue, bika; verb and nainu, e.g. continue lo speak, loba nainu. contravene, bebisa, yunzola. conversation, lisolo. converse, lobana, solola. converge, takana. convert, bongola, zengola. convey lo, kamba na, tomba na. convince, yambisa. cook, lamba. cool, bandisa. cord, nsinga, nkamba, mokulu, pl. mikulu; mokoli, pl. mikoli cord, v.t., linga, or, zinga na nsinga. cork, n etita, v. yunda. corkscrew, eziboleli. corn, lisangu, pl. masangu. corner, nsuka. corpse, ebembe, pl. bibembe. correct, bongisa; reprimand, pamela; punish, tumbula correspond, bonga, koka, yengebene. corrupt, bebisa. corrupt, to become, beba, pondo, polil.. cost, motuya, pl. mituya. cotton, busi. cotton tree, molondu, pl. milondu. country, ekolo, ese, pl. biese. courage. mpiko.

PAGE 81

cough, Joketu, pt. nketu ; lokesu, pt. nkesu ; ekokotu. cough, v. kotola, ketula. cover, n. ebumbeli, pt. bibumbeli, (of a book), ekokolo. cover, bumba. covet, lula. covetous, lokoso. coward, goi-goi. crack, monkaka, pt. minkaka. crack, v. buka, pasola, to be cracked, paswa, ata. crave for, yoka mposa. crawl, Janda. crease, n. lisusa. creator, mozalisi, moyemi. crest, (of bird) lisumba. crime, Jisuma, pt. masuma. cripple, ~t., lemisa. crocodi l e, ngandu, nkoli. crooked, to be, yotongono. crooked, to make, yotonginya. cross, n. ekulusu. cross over, kata, katisa. crow (as cock), tongo. crowd, nkaka na batu. crown, enkoti. crush, v. t., nyatela, tuta, bola. cry, v, lela. cry, n. nkelele, of a witch dloctor, bongangi. cry out, nganga. cultivate, Iona, kona. c unn ing. mayele, bwanya. cup, kopo, (glass), nkeni. curb, v. simbisa. cure, bikisa. cured, to be, ~anga. curiosity, etaki. current, (swirling) .. timbiri. curse, tuka, kumba, tola. custom, ejaleli, pt. bijaleli. custom house, etakoleli, pl. bitakoleli. cushion, likoba, pt. makoba. cut, kata, tena. cut down, kwete. cut in pieces, sese. cut off, kwete.

PAGE 82

Daily, mokolo na mokolo. dally, mongo, umela. dam, moboka, pl. miboka. cla m v.t., yuka, ziba. damage, v.t., bebisa. damp, v.t., bandisa. dance, v .i. bina. d a nce, n. bobina, kobina, dan c ing pl ace, ebiiJ.eli darkn ess, jombi, molili, modidi. dart, v t., ta. daub, v .t. kula, singa. daughter, mwana-mwasi. dawdle, mongo. day mokolo, j>l mikolo. daybreak, moi motani, ntongo etani, monyeli. daylight, moi. o, day afte r to-morrow ndele. clay before yes t e rd ay, ndele. dead, kokufwa, kofwi. d ea f p e rson, looko, pl. balooko. death, bowi, liwa, kokufwa. debase, bebisa. debt, nyongo, mombale, pl. mimbale. debt, (t o be in), zwa o r kula nyongo, o r mombale. debtor, mome nyongo. decant, angola. decay, kufa, wa. deceive, jimba, kosa. decid e :,;ilisa mpo, sekisa. deci d e against, (in a palaver), kitisa. decide a palaver, kata likambo o r mpo, or, tena.likambo. declare, sakola, sangela. deduct, longola. d e face, b .oma, kufisa. defame, kumba, tongo. defect, mpota. d e ficient, to be yesene. defraud, yiba, jimba, zimba. del i berate, kanisa. d e lica te motau. d e liv e r, kosola, sikola. d e moli s h, tongola, boma. demon, molimo, pl. milimo; moloki, pl. miloki. demonstrate lakisa, limbola.

PAGE 83

denounce, pata, tuba, deny, angana. deprave, bebisa. deprav ed, to becom e, beba. depri ve, longwila. d epth, bojindo. d esce nd, suftda, kita, kitela. de sce nd a river, twa, tia. d ese rt, 0kfina. d ese r ve, komo. d es ir e, n. mposa. d esi r e, v. yoka mposa, linga. de s ist from, tika. d espatc h v.t., toma. d es pi se, yina. d estroy, borna, bul destruction, bobomi detach, pusola, lutola. detached, t o become, puswa, lutwa. dete rmine, kana. detest, yina. detract, tongo-1f devastate, n:y;~nga. deviate, pelAfswa. d evo ur, li:g
PAGE 84

discharge cargo, lubola, labola. disciple, moyekoli, pl. bayekoli. discontinue, tika. 66 discourse, mpo, likambo, zambi, pl. mambi. discover, kundola, libola, bumbola. discreetly, na moi. disembark, v.i., labwa, lubwa. disembark, (things}, lubola, labola. disentangle, solo, lengele. disfigure, bebisa disgrace, nsoni. disgusting, sopi sopi. : dish, saani, lilongo, pl. malongo. dishonour, yokisa nsoni, pese nsoni. disinter, kundola. disjoii;i, banzola, bakola. dismay, nsomo, bongo. dismantle, (piece by piece), kakola. dismiss, panza. dismount, (take down}, tongola, bakola. disobey, sala nkanza, boiya. disobedie n ce, nkanza. disorder, .mobulu, bulu bulu. disperse, palanganisa, v. i., palangana. dispossess, botolo. disprove, limbola lokuta. dispute, v.i., yangana, wela, swana. dispute, n. boswani. dissolute, ewolo. dissolute person, motu na ewolo. distant, esi, mosika. distinct, sembo distinguish, sosolo, kakola. distribute, kabela. district, ece, bice. ditch, mongololo. divest, lutola, pusola. divert, pengola, (a road}, pende. divide, kaba. divided, to be, kabama. division ( share}, likabo, pl. makabo. division, bokati, lokata. do, sala, kela. docility, bompolo.

PAGE 85

doctor, nganga, pl. banganga. dog, mbwa. domestic servant, boi, pl. baboi. dominate, kuma, lenga. donkey, mpunda door, monoko, pl. minoko ; ekuki, pl. bikuki ; ejibeli, pl. bijibeli doubt, ntembe, nkita. down, prep. na nee, na se. down, n. nkunza. down river, ngele, mboli. drag, benda, luta. draw water, toka. draw out, bila. dre a d, banga. dress, v. i lata, latisa, lata bilamba. dress, elamba, pl. bilamba; molata, etobo dream, ndoti, nsaki. dream, v. t., Iota, Iota nsaki. drink, mele, nua. drip, tanga, tono, tangela. drive away, panza, panja. drown, kiba na mai, wa na mai. drown, v.t., kibisa na mai. drum, mbenda, ngunga, lokole, mokuka, pl. mikuka. drum, v. bete mbonda, etc. drunk, to be, langa masanga. drunk, to make, langisa. drunkenness, bolanga. dry v. kekisa. dry up, yoma, koka. dry up, v. t., yomisa, kokisa. drying frame for fish, bolika. duck, lisweswe, pl. masweswe; libata, pl. mabata. dumbness, mbubu. dumb person, emimi, ebubu dung, nyei, batubi, toi. dupe, v.t., limbisa, jimba. dus t, mobulu, pl. mibulu; lifulu, pl. mafulu dust, v. t., pupola duty, lotomo, pl. ntomo. dwell, zala, jala, yala. dwell a long time, umela. dwindle, ondo, tunga.

PAGE 86

68 Each, yonso, or by reduplication, e.g pese motu na motu likabo na ye, give each rnai. 1 his s hare. ea r litoi, pl. matoi. earth, nse, pee, soil, mabele, toto. earth, ( world), molongo. early, na ritongo mpenja. east, epai na monyeli. easy, makasi te. eat, liya. efface, longola. effor t, bomeki. egg, likei, pl. makei. eight, mwambi. eighteen, zumi na mwambi. e ith er. .. or, soko ... soko. eighty, ntuku mwambi. eject, bimisa, pimisa. e l bow, moluku. elephant, njoku. eleven, zumi na moko. elsewhere, na esika mosusu. embark (people), kwela. e mbark (goods), kwezisa, tombisa. embarrass, bulinginya, kakinya. embolden, kotisa. embrace, lingana, banzela monoko. emerge, obwa. emi gra t e, kukola libongo. employ, salisa. employment, lisala, pl. masala; kosala. enact a decree, ta motindo. enclosure, n. lobala, pl. mabala. encourage, mekisa. end, nsuka. end, v silisa, sila, sukisa. endeavour, meka. endure, bika. enema (to give), tonjola. enemy, monguna, pl. minguna. energetically, na makasi, na ngolu, na nguvu. energy, ngolu, makasi. Englishman, Engilisi, pl. Baengilisi. engrossed, to be, pangama. enjoin, sakola, sangela.

PAGE 87

enlarge, nanola. enliven, sepelisa. enmity, nguna. enormous, ebuki. enough, to be, koka. enquire, luka. enraged, yoka, or, oka nkele. ensign, ebendeli, pi, bibendeli ensnare, jimba, limba, limbisa. en l er, ingela. entertain, bonzela. entire l y, nye, bobele. entrails, lisopo, pl. masopo entrance, monoko, pl. minoko. e nlrap, sisola entwine, lingitinya. e nLwined, lingatana. en um erate, tanga. e nvy, yunela, lulela e nviou s person, motu na motema mosanda. epidemic, liwa. equal n. moninga, pl. baninga. eq u al, to be to, yengebene. equa l t o pila moko na, lokola na, lolenge moko na. e qui t y, boyengebene equivalent, to b e yengebene. e rect, temisa, (a hou s e), tonga. es cape, kima. es tablish, zalisa, bikisa, kotisa, bakisa. e L e rn a l, na lobiko. e vacuate, neka, )eke nyei, simba nyei. evade, pengola. e ven, ( s mooLh), patatalu. evening, mpokw~. eve rlasting, lobiko na lobiko. e verywhere, bisika yonso evil, mabe. exact, adj be-be e xamine, lembetela. exa s perate, tumola, yokisa nkelele e xa s perated, to be, yoka nkelele. e xce e d, leka, pusa: e x ce l leka, pusa. F

PAGE 88

excellent, molamu, malamu. except, v. tika. except, exchange, sumbutana. excite, yokisa, (with noun of qual i ty). excla i m, nganga. excrement, nyei, batuba, toi. excuse, mokalo, pl. mikalo. excuse, to make, tiya mokalo. execute, kela, boma, silisa. exempt, kangola. exhaust, silisa, (oneself}, sila, (p h ysically), tilima. exhibit, monisa, talisa. exile, panza. exist, zala, jala, yala. exonerate, longisa. expectorate, twa nsoi, swa. expectoration, nsoi. expedient, bonga. expel, bimisa, bengisa. expense, motuya, pl. mituya. expiate, yuta. expire, ( of a cand l e, etc,) lima. expire, kufa, wa, sila. explain, limbola, limbola ntina, kundola. expose, bimisa, talisa. expose for sale, tandola. expound, limbola ntina. extinguish, zimisa, limisa. extol, sanzola. extort, botolo. extract, longola, bila. extremity, nsuka. eye, lisu, pl. misu. eyebrow, lokiki, pl. nkiki. eyelid, eteke, pl. biteke. Fable, lisapu, mpo, libanza. face, elongi, pl. bilongi; bombo, boso. face to face, to be, kekana. faeces, nyei, batuba, toi. faint, timba. faith, boyambi, limekinya. 'n

PAGE 89

fall, kita, kwa. false, na lokuta. falsehood, lokuta. family, libota, pl. mabota. famish, kufa, or, wa na nzala. famous, na lokumu. famous, to make, kumisa. far, esi, mosika: fashion, v.t., ema. fast, v. kila bol i. fasten, kanga, fung:a. fat, mafuta, motuba, bonuku. fat, to be, kata. father, sango, pl. basango; tata, pl. batata: father-in-Jaw, bok1lo fathom, loboko, pl. maboko, 4 or 8 fat homs litina, 2 fathoms; doti. fatigue, mpi. fatigued, to be, njoto elembi. fatten, katisa. favourable, to be, longobana. fear, nsomo. fear, v banga, lenge, yoka nso!IIC>. feast. n lipata, elambo. feast to give, lamba lipata. feather, lunsala, pl. n!iala . feeble, motau, goi-goi, bolembu. feed, v. t., liyisa. feed v. i., liya, lia. reel, yoka. f e ign, zimba, jimba, limba. fell a tre e, female, mwasi, moasi. fence, lobalaka, pl. mbalaka. fence d in place lobala, pl. mbala. fence in, linga na lobala. fertilise, botisa. fetch, benga. few, moke moke. fibre, of palm nuts, linkamu, likamu. field, culti v ated, lisata, pl. masala, e nclo s ur e, lobala; pl. mbala. fifteen, zumi na mitanu. fight, n. etumba, pl. bitumba. sham, liwanda,. mawanda. Fz

PAGE 90

fight, v. buna, piga. fight together, bunana, pigana. figur e, (form), lolenge. file, mosio, pl. misio fill, tondisa, nyalisa. fill up with earth, boka. filled, to be, tonda, nyala. . finge r, mosei, pl. misei; munsai, pl. minsai; mosapi, pl. misapi. find kundola, zwa, kuminya. finish, sila, suka. finish, v t silisa, sukisa. finis h ed, t o be, sila bobele fire, moto, pl. mioto; meya, pl. mieya. fire a gun, ta, or, bete bondoki. fire, v tumba, jika, lolisa fiFewood, nkuni, lokoi. firebrand, esongi, pl. bisongi. firmly na makasi. first, boso, at, na boso fish, samaki, mbiji .-" fish, v. kanga, or, boma samaki. with a line, lobo. fishtrap, (various kinds), ndumba, nkala;lokandu. fishhook, ndobo. fishing camp, molako, pl. milako fishing camp, smo king or drying plac e, elika, bolik,4 fishing right, elobeli, pl. bilobeli fissure, monkaka, pl. minkaka. fist, embotu pl. biinbotu ..,,, fit in, ingisa. fitting, -bongi. ndako ebongi, the house i s fittin g five, mitanu. fix, baka, a time, tiya elaka. fixed, to be, bakama. flag, ebendeli, pl. bibendeli endeli. flame, eloli, pl. biloli; mololi, pl. miloli flattery, londeleng1 flaw, mpota. flay, pulola, pusola. flea, nsili. flee, kima. fles h mosuni, pl. nsuni

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flesh, to lose, tunga. flexible, motau. fling, bwaka, usa. flint gun, fataki. float, v. teta, tepa. flock, etonga, /JI. bitonga. flog, kuta, bete, piga. floor, (story), mokiri. flour, mfufu, mposoko flower, ebuma, pl. bibuma, ndunda. fly, v. pumbwa, yumbwa. foam, mpulu, mfulu. fcetus, zemi. fog, lopembe, pl. mpembe. fold, liilga. follow, benga, tuta. folly, ligboma, mpo na elema. food, boli, biloko koliya. fool, motu na bilema, elema. fool ish, na bilema, na ligboma. foot, likaka, pl. makaka. footprint. litambi, pl. matambi. forbear, tika, kila. forbid, kilisa. force, nguya, makasi. forest, nzamba, lokunda. forge, v. tula. forget, bunga, limba forgetfulness, libunga. fork, nka.nya, engasa, pl. bingasa. form, lolenge, pl. ndenge. form, (seat), etanda, pl. bitanda; libaiya, pl. mabaiya. form, v. t., ema. formerly, boso. formidab l e, na nsomo. fornication, ekobo. forsake, tikela, tika. forti fication, libenge, p l mabenge. forty, ntuku minei. foundation, moboko, pl. n'liboko four, minei. fourteen, zumi na minei.

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fowl, nsusu, koko, kuku. fragile, rnotau. fragment eteni, pl. biteni. fraternise, bernbana. free, nsorni. free, Lo s e t sikola, kosola. fre s h rnobesu, rnotau, cold, bobandu. Fr iday rnokolo na rnosala na rnitanu. friend ndeko, ;,I. bandeko; koi, pl. bakoi. friend ship, Lo enter into, kata ndeko. frien dliness, boboto. fri ghten, bangisa. fri g h t, nsorno. fringe, nsornba. frog, rnontoki, pl. inintoki. fron t, boso. fron tier, ndelo. fruit eburna, rnbolo. fruitfulnes s, boboti. fry, kanga. frypan, pan. fu 11, to be, tonda. full ness, botondi. functi,no, lotorno, pl. ntorno funeral, nkundi. fune r a l gif t, rnakundela. funnel, rnornbundo pl. rnirnbundo. Gab le, kurnbo gain, v. jwa, zwa, kwa. gain a l awsuit, longa, longisa. gam e, lisano, pl. rnasano. garden, lisala, pt. rnasala; jala, pt. rnaala. gather, (reap) nuka. gat h er toget h e r (of p eop l e), yangana. gaze at, keka. gazelle, liboloko ge nera t i u n libota, pl. rnabota; rnbota. generous, na likabo. get, zwa, karn11ta. get away, longwa. get up birna, longola, terne ge t out of the way, longwa na nzela. ghost, rnolirno, rnilirno; rnongoli, mingoli. . ;:. __ ,.

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gift, likabo, pt. makabo; libonza, pl. mabonza. give, pese. give back, butisa. girl, elenge (mwasi), pl. bilenge (baasi) g ladd en, sepelisa, yokisa esengo. glass, (drinking) kopo. glass, (lo o king,) talatala, pl. matalatala. g l ory, nkembo. glorify, kumisa. g lutt on lokoso gnaw, kekete. goat, ntaba. go, kende, ke, kwende, longwa. go away, longwa. go before, leka boso go down, sunda, kita, (river ) twa. go in, ingela. go out, bima, ( of ca ndle ofcandl e, e tc.), lima go u p ri ver, nana. God, Nzambe, Nyambe, Nzakombi. going up river n. bonani. good, molamu, malamu, mbote, mozuri gospel, nsango ndamu. gourd, ekutu, pl. bikutu. govern, angela. government (Congu B e i ge), Bula Matadi. grace, ngolu. grand-fathe r, nkoko. grandm other, nkoko. gra nt, yokela, pese. grasp kamata, simba, kata, kanga. gratefu l (t o be) tondo. gratitude, litondi, botondo gratis, mpamba, bule. gratuity, matabishe. grass, matiti, mayani, bikoko. grass h o pp er, likelele, nyenzi-nyenzi. grave, liyita, or lilita, pl. malita; ngau. gray h a ir, mbwei, mvwi. g r ease, mafuta, mali. g r ea t monene very, ebuki. grea tness, bonene. ~rieve, yokisa mawa.

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gr ind, toko. g rind the Leeth, kelete mino. groan, kimela. grow, lo (of seeds), kola, grow big, nene grow ripe, yula, yuma. g rop e, momo. gro und nee, se. gro up, etuka, pl. bituka. g uard, batela, senzele, kengele. 76 I guar
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harass, nyokolo harem, ndongo. haste, lobangu, mbangu, noki noki. hat, enkoti, pl. binkoti. hatchet, soka, pl. basoka. hate, yina. hatred, boyini, loyina. haul, benda. haul up, benda likolo. have, zala na, jala n.i, yila na. ha" k, nkombe, lilelembe, p,. malelembe. h ead, mutu, pl. miutu. h eadache, to have, yoka mutu. heal, nyangia, bikisa. heal, v.i., nyanga, bika. health, good, nzoto kili kili. healthy, nkuli-nkuli, kili kili. heap, libondo, pt. mbondo. h ea p up, sanganisa, takanisa. heap together, yanginya. hear, yoka, oka. heart, motema, pl. mitema; t o be hard h earted, lokwa. h eat, moto, (of the s un) moi, mwesi. heaven, likolo, heavens, likolo heavy, bozitu, bojitu. hedge, lobala, pl. mbala. height, mosanda, molai. heir, motiki, pl. batiki. helmet, enkoti, pt binkoti. help, sunga. her, ye, yeye. heron, mokwela, pl. mikwela. herb, lititi, pl. matiti. h ere, awa, weni. heritage, libula, pl. mabula. h ers, na ye, na yeye. hic cough, eseseku. hide, v t., bumba. high, mosanda, molai. hill, ngomba, nkeka. hillock, libondo, pt. ma ondo. him, ye, yeye. himself, ye moke>. hindrance, nkaka.

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hinge, binge. his, na ye. hit, bete, bola, ta. hip, lilongo, pl. malongo. hippopotamus, ngubu. hoe, n. lokongo, pl. nkongo. hoe, v.t., tima. hoist, batisa. hold (of a ship). nkobe. ho l d, v. kamata, zwa, jwa, kata. hold on kokolo sapi I hold, to take, simba. Take hold! Ma I Kwa hold your tongue makelele I kanga monoko zala nye I hole, lilusu, pl. malusu; monoko, pt. minoko. ho l e, to bore, tuba, tubela. holiday, eyenga. homage, likumu. honest, yengebene. honey, boi, we, mwiki-mwiki. honour, lokumu. honour, v. t., kumisa, pika. honoured, to be, kuma. hook, (fish), ndobo. hope, v. likia. hope, n. elikia, pl. bilikia. horn, mundule; liseke, pl. maseke horror, mangei. horse, falasa ; mpunda, pl. bampunda. hour, zele, pl. zele; lobete, pl. mbete. hcmse, ndako, tumble down house, esasa. wattle and dauu, ndako na bodongo . verandah, lingongo, pt. mangongo. how many? boni? kwe? ..;J_ humbug, v. jimbisa, limbisa, kutinya. humbug, (a) motu na londelengi. humiliate, sokia, kwisa: hump, litutu, pl. matutu; in which cassava is planted, libondo, Pf-mabondo1 hundred, monkama, pl. minkama. . hunger, nzala. .. hungry, to be, oka nzala. hunt, n. bokila. hunt, v.t., bengisa, benga mokila. hunter, mobengi.

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hurl, ta. husband, mobali, p!. babali; molomi, pl. balomi. husk. loposo, pl. mposo. hymn, loyembu, pl. nzembu. hyp ocrisy, londelengi. I, ngai. idea, likanisi, pl. makanisi. idiot elema, pl. bilema; ligboma, etuku. if soko, ete. ign ora nt person, etuku. ill, a dj., mab~. ill, to be, bele. to make, belisa. illeg itimate child, mpampuka. child by slave wi[e, mbotela. illn ess, kobele, bobeli, maladi, bokono. illtreat, tumola, nyokolo. imbibe, mele, nua. imitate, mekolela. immediately, bobele, sasaipi, silcawa. immerse, zindisa, yina. immodest, na bosoni. immortal, to be, bika bokiki. immovable, nye. impair, bebisa. impertinent, na loma. impertinence, foma. implicate ; kakatinya. implore, bondela. important, monene, mpo monene. impose upon, jimba, kutinya. imposter, mojimbi impotent man, bobolo, (weak), impo t ent woma n, ekoin~a. impregnate, pese libumu, pese zemi. .. impregnated, to be, zwa zemi. imprison, kanga, (na ndako munyolo). improve, pamela. impudence, loma. in, na. inadequate, koka te. incline, (to lean), tengeme. incline, v.t., tengia. incompatible, Lo be, yesene. : ::,\ .;. i ;. .,.

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incompetent, koka te. increase, yikana, botinya, pulisa. inculpate, pata, tuba. indemnify, futa, yuta. indecency, bopunda. indicate, lakisa, talisa. indifference, bolokoi. indolence, lomongi. induce, lombo. inform, sangela, sakola. inhabitant, mosi, pl. basi. inherit, zwa libula, ltwa libula. inhe-ritance, libula, pl. mabula. ink, bokobo, mai na mwindo. innocent, to declare, longisa. innocent, to be declared, longa. instantly, sasaipi, sika-sikawa. intelligence, mayele, bwanya. inter, kunda. intercede, v. bondelela. interchange, bukinya. interd ict kilisa. interdicted, to be, kila. interpret, limbola. interrogate, tuna. interval, eleko intestine, lisopo, pl. masopo. intimid!fte, bangisa. int o, na. intoxicate, langisa. intoxicated, to be, langa. invisible, to be, bumbama. invite, bianga. involuntarily, na.nko te. invoke, bianga, tuna, bondela. :.' J-~ I : iron, ebendi, pl. bibendi; ebuni, pl. bibuni. irritate, tumola, yokisa nkele. island esanga, pl. bisanga. issue, v bimisa, yuma, kuma. it, yango, e-. itch, ekangi, pi, bikaitgi; about the throat, loto. its, na yango. itself, yango npenja. ivory 1 mpembe.

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Jackal monsoli, pl. minsoli. jam, we, boi. ja r, (pot) libeki, pl. mabeki; limbembeli, pl. mbemtieli; mozaka pl. mazaka. jaw, ebanga, pl. bibanga. jealousy, nzua. jealous, to be, yoka nzua. j oin banza, baka. joke, v sekisa, sana. jonrney, lokendo, pl. nkendo; mobembo, pl. mibembo; up river, bonani. joy, esengo, pl. bisengo; nsai. judge, juje, pt. bajuje; (native) mosemboli, .pl. basemboli. judge a palaver, katalikambo. ju ice, mai. jump, yumbwa, yumboa. just, adv. bobele. just, na yengebene. just, to be, yengebene, sembwa. just man, mosemboli, pl. basemboli. ju s tly, semba-semba. just so se bongo Keep, (a thing), bumba, bumbela. key, lifungola, pl. mafungola. kernel, njika. kick, bete. kidney, ngei. kill, boma. kilogramme, kilo, pl. bakilo. kilometre, kilometa, pl. bakilometa. kind, (sort}, lolenge, pl. ndenge. king, mokonzi, pl. bakonzi. kingdom, bokonzi. kinsman, ndeko, eboto, mozika, kiss, v banzela monoko. kitchen, kuku. knead, nyila, to expel moisture, nyata. knee, libongo, pl. mabongo. kneel, umba, umba Jibongo knife, mbele, kisu, pl. visu. knob, litutu, pl. matutu. knock, betele. know, yeba, eba. known, to become, yebama. '.;i}1.L~ l !:, !. !. ., /1,LL:.:..::. :, ..... .'.i"',., . 1 knot, litongo, pl. matongo; liswe, pl. nswe ; of wood; 1itutu, pi; mat~tu.

PAGE 100

Lah
PAGE 101

lengthen, kolisa. leopard, nkoi. leprosy, mabanji. lesso n liteyo, pl. mateyo. Jet, (allow), tika. Jet down, sundisa, kitisa. lett e r, monkanda, pl. minkanda. lettuce, letu, pl. baletu. leve l sembola, tandola, sala alima. up, with earth, boka. liberal person, motu na likabo. Jiberality, likabo. liberate pusola, luto1a, kangola. lick, lete. l i e, n lokuta, pl. nkuta. lie, v. loba lokuta. life bomoi. lift, tombola, netola. light, adj. bojitu te. light, v. bambola, lolisa, pelisa, sala motu. lighten a boat v. yanginya. lightening, nkaki, mokakali, mokalazi. lime, (fruit), lilala, j>l. malala; londimu, pl. ndimu, limit, ndelo. limit, v. tiya ndelo, suka. limp v. tengola, tenguma. line, molongo, pl. milongo line to stand in line, temele na nkondo. linger, umela. lip, lobebu, pl. mbebu: lion, nkosi. liquify, nyangola. liquid, mai. listen to, yokamela. litigation, likambo, pl. makambo. litre, lita, pl. balita. little, moke moke, mwa. live, zala, jala, yala. live in dissension, boiyana. liver, mabele. lizard, liwalatala. lizard, monitor, lobambe loan, mbeka loathe, yina.

PAGE 102

lock, funga, kanga. lock n. lofungola, (mama), jl!. mafungola. l odge, v. lala. lodging place esika kolala. loiter mongo. long, mosanda, molai long ago, kala kala. look tala keka look at, tala, keka. l oo k for, luka, tomba. looking glass, talatala, pl. batalatala. l ooks, angry, misu na nkanda. lord (master), nkolo. loosen, v. tungola, lutola, bandola. loosen, Y.i., tungoa, lutoa. loo t punza, botolo. lose, bunga. lose, v.t., bungisa. lose a lawsuit, kita. lo se one's way, bunga, peni'oa. louse, nsidi, nsili. love, n bolingo. love, v., linga. lower, sundisa, kitisa. lower than, na nee na. lungs, mpululu lust, mposa, greed, lokoso. Machine, makine, pl. bamakine. magazine, (store), ebumbeli, pl. bibumbeli; magazini. magnify, kumisa. magnified, to be, kuma. maggot, nkusu. maiden, ngondo, pl. bangondo. m;:im, kata, tena. maintain, bikisa. maintainer, mobikisi. maize, lisanga, pl. masanga. make, sala, zalisa. make an inquiry, tuna. make fast, k;L1Jga. male, mobali, pl. babali; molomi, pl. balomi m al ice, nko, ekuna. malign, v soko.

PAGE 103

85 man, motu, pl. batu of character, mompele, pl. bampele. man, freed, nsomi. mango, mango, pl. bamango; lingola, pl. mangola. manifest, monisa. manioc, dried, moteki, in pudding s kwanga. leaves, used a s a veg etable, pondu. manner, ejaleli, pl. bijaleli manufactur e v. sala, zalisa. manure, nyei. march, v. tambola. mark, v. koma. mark, n. elembo, pl. bilembo; tribal marks, nkoma. market place, libongo, pl. mabongo; zandu. marriage, libala, bolongani. marry, bala, longo marvel v. kamwa. masculine, na mobali mask, v. bumba. mass, n. mesa. massag e v. tuta. mat, (different sorts}, litoko mbeto, manji. match, (lucifer}, alimet, pl. balimet; fofolo. match oneself, ulana. matter, (affair}, mpo, likambo, zambi. mea n, adj. na mpamba. meaning, ntina. measure, v. meka. measur e n. lomeko, pl. meko; a rule, emekeli, pl. bimekeli meat, nyama, mbiji, ebwele. meal, koliya, boli. medicine, longanga, monganga. meditat e manyolela, kanisa bokanisi. meet together, zwana, takali.a, komana . mee ting, n. botakani. melt, nyangola. mercy, ngolu. merchant, motekisi, pl. batekisi. merely, mpenza, mpenja, bobele. message, monoko, pl. minoko; nsango. messe nger, ntoma, ekima. midday, moi na mutu, njanga. middle, na kati, na ntaka na. midnight, ejekitana. G

PAGE 104

midwife, mobotisi. milk, mabele, mai na libele. milk, v. kama libele, kamola. millipede, nkongolo. mimic, n. ekola. mimic, v. mekolela. mince, sese. mine, na ngai. minor' elengi, pl. bilengi. minute, minite. mirror, talatala, pl. batalatala. miser, moimi. misery, bwale, boloji, bosenga. 86 mislead, bunga nzela, pengola, limbisa, bungisa. mislead one another, yesene, esene. miss, yesene. m iss fire, bete mpamba. mist, lopembe. mix, bulinginya, sangana, kulumba. mixed, to b e bulangana. moan, v. kimela. mock, sisola. moisten, bandisa. Monday, mokolo na boso. money, mosolo, pl. misolo; (European), franka, pl. bafranka. monitor lizard, lobambe. monkey, nkema, l a r ge v ariety, mokombosi. monsi e ur, mondele, pl. mindele. month, sanja, pl. basanja. monthly, na sanja. moon, sanja, pl. basanja. more, mosusu . morning, na ntongo. morning, early, na ntongo mpenja. morsel, etomba, pl. bitomba; eteni, pl. biteni. mortar, poto-poto. mortar, (for pestle), eboka, pl. biboka. mosquito, lokungi, pl. nkungi. mosquito n et, moskitali. moth er, nyango, pl. banyango; mama, pl. bamama; moboti, pl. baboti. mother-in law, mokilo, pl. bakilo. motive, ntina, mobelo. mound, (for cassava), libondo, pl. mabondo. mount, v. bata.

PAGE 105

mountain, nkeka, ngomba. mourn, lela, lela lilaka. mouse, mpo. moustache, mpobombo. mouth, monoko, pl. minoko. move, v. tambwisa. much, mingi mingi. mucus, moyoyo. mud, mabeli, masotu, poto poto. muddle, bulinginya, kakitinya, muddled, na bulu bulu, na kakatanu. multiply, yikinya. murder, n. emai. murmur, n. momfwemfwe. murmur, v., sala momfwemfwe, music, musiki; instruments, ekembe; string, nzenze; iron rattle, engboko; gong, lokombi. muscle, mosuni, pl. nsuni. mushroon, liyebu, pl. mayebu. musty, to make, kaka. mute person, emimi, mbubu. my, na ngai. Naked, bontaka, bolumbu. nail, (finger), nkwala, nzongolongo. nail, nseti. nail puller, ebakoleli, pl. bibakoleli name, nkumbu ; lina, pl. mina. name -sake, ndoi. name, v. pese nkumbu, tanga nkumbu. narrate, solola. narrowness, nkaka, mpika. nation, nee. native, (of a place), mosenji, pl. basenji. nativ e place, mboka. nature, (of a thing), lolenge, momboto. navel, montolo. near, penepe, peneperte, bele bele. neck, nkingo. neck l ace, ekata. need, v. senga. needle, lontunga, pl. ntunga; ntonga. neglect, v. kila negro, moindu. G2

PAGE 106

neighbour, ndeko, moninga. nerve, mole, pl. miole. 88 nervou s person, (wo rri ed person), motu molika. ne w, motemu, na sasa1p1. new s, nsango. n ex t, penepe. next week, eyenga ekoya. net (fish bar), nkala, lokandu. nev e rth e le ss, nzokandi. never, mokolo moko te. niggardly, na moimi. night, butu, mokolo. nightmare, ndoti na nsomo. nine, libwa. nipple, nsonge na libele. no, te. n o i se, makelele, nkelele. nonsen s ic al ta l k, bilobaloba not, te. nothin g, mpamba, eloko te, nothing but t r ees bobel e njete. notify, sakola, sangela. nouri s h ( a child), bokolo. now, sasaipi, sika-sikawa. nur s e, nungisa. nut s, palm, mbila, nsombe. Oar, nkai. oath, ndai. oath, to ta k e, simba ndai, lai ndai. obey, tosa. obscure, ( a matter), kakitinya. obscure, ( a thing), ,cindisa obscure, jombe, molili modidi. ob s t a cle, esimbiseli, ekakinyeli. obtain, zwa, jwa, kamata, kula. obstinate, na mpokotoi. occupation, mosala, kosala, lotomo. of, na. offer, pese. offspring, libot a p l nbota; bana. oil, mafuta, mali. o ld, na kala kala. old man, monuna, old times, kalakala. old, grow kotoa, kotwa.

PAGE 107

omit lekisa, bunga. on e, moko. on e by o n e, moko moko. o ni o n, litungulu, pl. matungulu. o nl y, bobele se. ooze tanga. o p e n, jibola, libola; a p a r t pull nanola; pull to pi eces, kakola. ope nin g, monoko, pl. minoko; nzela; lilusu pl. malusu. o p e n v .i j iba, liba. o ppress, tumola, nyokolo. o r, soko. ora n ge, lilan j e pl. malanje; lilala, pl. malala. o r ga n ndanda, nkosi. orna m e nt atio n bompala, kitoko. o r pha n etiki. ot h e r mosusu. ot h e r p eo p le, basusu. o ur s, na biso. outsid e l ib anda ndanda. ova l pila mo k o na like i over coat, etobo, or e l emba n a mpi o. ove r co m e longa. overflow, zinda, tonda. o v e r t h row, ( a n e n e m y ) buka. owl esulungutu. own v yamola, dima. own e r nkolo. oyste r, lokele pl. nke le. Pacify, bondo pa c ify, v. t., bondisa. pac ified, to be, tilima. pac kage, ebimba, pl. bibimba; ebolo. pa d d l e, n nkai, kai. p ad dl e, v luka. p a ddl er, moluki, pl. baluki. p adl ock, lofun gola, pl. mafung ola. pag e lan g u pl. nyang u ; monkanda, pi. minkanda. p a in, boloji bololi bwale. p ain v yokisa boloji. pa int, bokobo, pt. makobo; langi. p a in t, v. kosa bokobo, kosa langi, kobo bokobo. pa l ave r mpo likambo.

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palaver, to gai n longa likambo. to lose, kita likambo. to decide, kata likambo. to jud ge, sembola likambo, samba likambo. pale, motani. palmtree, mbila different sorts, nsese, ndele, river palm, lipeke. paper, monkanda, pl. minkanda. writing, monkanda na kokoma. parable lisapo pl. masapo; libanza, pl. mabanza; mpo paradise, paradiso. parasol, longembu, pl. ngembu. parc e l, ebimba. parc el, s m a ll liboke. pardon, v limbisa. pard oned, to be, limba. pardon, n. bolimbisi, bobungisi. parent, (father), sango, pl. basango; tata, pl. batata. (mother), nyango, pl. banyango; mama, pl. bamama. part by pa rt, likelemba parry, tamba. pass, v,i., leka, pusa, lekana. pass, v. t., lekisa. pass out, bima. passage, elekela, pl. bilekela past time, eleko eleki paste, banza. path, nzela. patience, mpiko. patient, to be, yika mpiko. paw, likaka, pl. makaka. paw-paw, pai-pai pawn, sikola, tukia ntuka. pay, v. futa. p ay, n lifuta, mosolo. peace, boboto, nye peace, (to live in), bembana. pea nut, nguba, nkalanga. peel, loposo, pl. mposo. peel, papola tobola polola, pusola pen, ekomeli, pl. bikomeli; lapi p e ncil, ekomeli lapi penetrate, ingisa, tubia. people, batu. people, certain, batu basusu pepper, ndongo.

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perceive, keka, yeba, yoka. perch, v. bakema. 91 perfect, v. t., silisa, bongisa, kokisa. perfect, bokoki, bobongi. perform, baka, sala. perhaps, soko. period, eleko. perish, kufwa, wa. permanent, lobiko. permanent, to be, bika. perpetua l lobiko. perplex, kakitinya. perplexed, to be, kakatana, bulangana. permit, tika. persecute, nyokolo. persecution, bonyokoli. person, motu. person, a nervous, motu mokila. persevere, meka. perspire, pama, toka. perspiration, molungi, zunguwa. pestilence, Iowa. persuade, yambisa. pervert, bebisa. pickaxe, etimeli, pl. bitimeli. picture, lilingi, pl. malilingi ; bolendela. pie, pai. piece, eteni, pl. biteni. pierce, tubia, tubela. pig, ngombele, nguma, ngulu. pig, wild, nsombu. pigeon, ebenga, pl. bibenga. pilfer, yiba. pill, mombuma, pl. mimbuma. pillage, punza, yiba. pillow, likoba, pl. makoba; nkata; ( nat i ve, wooden), ekomba, pl. bik:omba. pilot, v. lakisa nzela. \ pincers, lingato, pl. mangato. pipe, mongenzu, pl. mingenzu; (tobacco), nkonango, mweka, potongo. pit, libela, pl. mabela. -;----.....__ __ pit, (to . onese l f against) ulana. pity, mawa. pity, v.t., yokela mawa.

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place, esika, pl. bisika. place, v. tiya. p l acen t a, kuku. plague, v. tumola, nyokolo. plain, n. esobe, pl. bisobe. plainly, sembo. plane, v. wala, wolo, kombo. 92 plane, n. likomboko, pl. makomboko. plank, libaiya, pl. mabaiya; etanda, pl. bitanda. pla n t, v. Iona, kona, sika. p l ant, n. ndunda. p l a n tain, likondo, pl. makondo. planta t ion, lisala, pl. masala. plaster, (to .' .a house), lipa, lam bola. plate; saani. play, v. sana. play, n. lisano. plead, bondela, sambela, samba. please, v. sundisa motema, sepelisa pledge, n ntuka, ndanga. pledge, v. tukia, or, tiya ndanga, sikola. pleasure, esengo, nsai. pluck, muka, nuka. feathers, bila nsala. pluck to pieces, piece by piece, bandola. plunder, v. punza, yiba. p l under, n. bopunzi pocket, libenga, pl. mabenga. point, nsonge. point out, lakisa, talisa. poison, nkasa, nsamba, mbondo. pole, nj e te. police, pulusu. pol ygamist, mobali na ndongo. polish, tanisa. poll ute, bebisa. pomp, kitoko, bompala. pond, etima, pl. bitima. ponder over, manyolela. poor, na mosolo te, bosenga, poor man, mobola. porr i dge, fuka, poriji. po r ter, motombi, pl. batombi. porterage, (i.e. place where goods are carried overland from canoe to canoe), lipendu.

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portion, likabo, pl. makabo. portion out, v. kaba. possess, zala na, zwa. possessor, nkolo. possible, to be, kokana. 93 post, (to support roof}, likonji, pl. makonji. pot, (used for palm oil), libeke pl. mbeke. potato, libengi, pl. mabengi. pound, v. tuta, bola. pour, v. sopa, swela. pour into, angola. pour away, swela, swa. poverty, bosenga, boboiyo. powder, v. minyola. powder, n. puturu, gunpowder, baluti. / power, makasi, nguya. praise, v. sima, kumisa. pray, bondela, sambela. I prayer, losambo, bosambeli. i preach, lambola. precede, tambola boso. 'l p,~ep,, motindo, pi mitindo; mobek'[ m ~ ~ o precious, na motuya. prefer, pono, solo. pregnant, to he, zwa zemi. prejudiced, (to be .. against), lokwa. --~""=>"-'-prepare, ponga. present, v. pese. present, n. likabo, pl. makabo. present, point arms, sisa. present, at, bebe, sikawa . press, mata, kama, kamola. preserve, bikisa, bumba. press down, nyata, nyatela. pretend, jimba, limba, kutinya. pretty, monzenga. prevail, v. longa. prevaricate, kakitinya. previous ly, yambo, na boso, kala kala. previous, adj. na boso. price, motuya, pl. mituya. prick, v. pika, suma. \

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94 print, v. bete monkanda. prison, nsenjeli, boloko, ndako na monyolo. prisoner, mokangami, pl. bakangami. privation, bosenga. probably, soko. proclaim, lambola. procure, zwa, jwa, kamata. produce, bimisa, bota. profane, v. bebisa. profligate, motu na ewolo. prohibited thing, (taboo), ngili, ngizi. promise, elaka, ndaka. promise, v. tika ndaka, !aka. promptly, noki noki, bobele sasaipi. pronounce, loba. pronounce s entenc e kata likambo, silisa likambo prop, v. sukuta. prop, n. esukuteli, (roof), likonzi. proper, to be, bonga, koka. proportion, v. yengibinya. proprietor, nkolo. prostitution, likobo. protect, batela, kengele. prove, limbola. prove, (try), meka. provisions, biloko, bilei. provok e tumola nyokolo. prow of a canoe, mbaka na boso. prudence, mayele. publicly, na misu na batu. publish, tambwisa mpo, bimisa mpo, lambola. puddle, (clay), bodongo. pull, benda. pull to pieces, pandola, bandola. pull out, bikola, pikola. pumpkin, etukatuka. punish, kambisa, kuta, tumhula. punishm e nt, likamba. pure, to b e petoa. purge, mono kosimba. purify, petola. purity, bopetwi. purlin, motondo. purpose, kana.

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purpose, n ntina. purposely, na nko. pnrse, libenga, pl. mabenga. pursue, benga, bila. pus, maina. push, tinda, tinja. push off, sekola. put, tiya, tika. put back, butwisa, zongisa. put down, tiya na nee. put in at beach, seme put in order, ponga. putrify, polisa. putrified, polo puzzle, v. t., kakitinya, bulinginya. puzzled, bulangana, kakatana. puzzling, bulu bulu, kakatanu. Quality, lolenge, pl. ndenge. quantity, mingi. 95 quarrel, n. boswani, zomanu, lo wela. quarrel, v swana, wela, omana'. quench, zimisa, limisa. quenched, to be, zima, lima. question, liloba, lotuna, botuna, mpo. question, v. tuna. quick! ale I noki I na lobangu I quickness, lobangu. quinine, kinini quote, a price, tuya. quit, longwa, longoa. quiet to be, zala nye quiet, to become tilima. quiet, nye. Rabbit, (species of), nsimbiliki radiant adj. langi-langi. rafter, molenge, pl. milenge; lingembo, pt.' ngembo; libasa. rag, eteni, pl. biteni. rage, nkanda. rain, n. mbula. rain, v. tono, no. rainbow, monyama, nkubi. raise, tomb;, netola, temisa. raise up tombela, temisa.

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raise up earth for floor, boka. raise from the dead, kundola. rake, nkanya. ramrod, moswa, pl. miswa. rancid, ngai. rapid, n. (fall), bweta. rapid, na Iobangu. rat, mpo, bush rat, motomba. ration, mposo. rave, v. omwa. raw, mobesu. razor, lotebu, pl. ntebu. reach to, kuma. read, tanga. reading, Jotanga, botangi. reason, ntina, zambi. reason, to give, longisa. rebuke, palela. red, na ngola. recall, butwisa. recall to memory, kundola na ntema. receive, yamba, jwa, dima. receiver, mokuli, pl. bakuli. reckon, tanga. recognise, tondolo, sosolo. recollect, kundola na motema. recommend, yebinya. recompense, futa. reconcile, bembisa. recover, (a thing), zwa, kundola. recover, of sickness, nyanga. recruit, takola. rectify, bongisa, sembola. redemption, bokosoli. redeem, kosola, sikola, endola. reflect, manyolela, kanisa. reduce, tungisa. refuse, pima, boiya. refusal, boboiyi region, ekolo, pl. bikolo. regret, mawa. regret, v. yoka mawa; rejoice, sepela, sepelisa, yoka esengo. relax, Iutola.

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relation by marriage, semeke. rely upon, yamba; mekinya. remainder, montika, ntika. remedy, monganga, mono. remember, kanisa, manyolela. remote, mosika, esi remote, of tim e kala kala. r e move, v.t., longola, sokola. r e move, v.i., longwa, sokwa. r e nounce, yanginya, boiya repair, ponga. repel, boiya, bengisa. r e ply, butisa. repose, lala, tutuma. repre ss, simbisa. reprimand, palela, pamela. reprimand, n. epamela. reproduce, botinya. repudiate, boiya, tona. r e pul se, pima. r eq uire, bianga, lombo. resemble, ula. resin, mpaka. resolve, kana. respect, n. lokumu. respect, v. kumisa. rest, lala, pema. restore, butwisa, zongisa. restrain, simbisa. r esu rr ect ion, bosekwi, losekwa. retire, longwa. return, v.t., butwisa, zongisa. 97 return, v. i., butwa, zonga, ya nainu. revea l, monisa, kundola, limbola reverence, tondo. revive, v. t., sekola, akola. revive, v.i., sekwa, akwa. revolt, yunzola. reward, libonza, pl. mabonza. rib, mopanzi, pl. mipanzi r i ce, loso, bofunga. riches, mosolo, misolo. rich man, mokuli, mozwi. ridge of house, motondo, pl. matondo; songe.

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98 rind, loposo, pl. mposo. ring, lopete, pl. mpete; of people to watch game, nkondo; heavy brass, mongombo, (for leg) ekomo. ring bell, bete ngunga. ripen, yola, kola. rise from the dead, kundwa. river, ebale, loi. river, up, na likolo, down, na ngele road, nzela. road, wide, mopali. roast, tumba na moto, kanga. rob, yiba. robber, moyibi. robbery, loyiba. rock, libanga, pl. mabanga; litadi, pl. matadi. roll, bungitinya. roll up, lingatana, jinga, linga. roof, mwanza, pl. mianza; nsamba. root, dried cassava, moteke, pl. miteke ; mpunzo root, tree, ntina, unremoved, ekumu root out, bila. rot, v. t., polisa rotten, to be, polo. row, v. luka. row, n. molongo, pl. milongo row, n (nois e), nkelele rower, moluki. rub, kula, singa. rub over, koba, singa. rudder, eyenda, biyenda ruin, v. bebisa. rule, (measure), emekeli, metelo, lomeko. rule, motindo, pl. mitindo; mobeko, pl. mibeko run, v. tambola lobangu, kende lobangu run agrouad, v. kakema. run away, kima. rust, makeli Sabbath, eyenga, pl. biyenga. sack, mofuku, pl. mifuku; libenga, pl. mabenga. sacrifice, moboma. sadden, v yokisa mawa, tungisa salad, salade. sa lt, monana, mokwa.

PAGE 117

salutation, moseso, losako. salute, v. sesa. same, (alike), lokola, pila moko. same as, lokola na, pila moko na. sandbank, zelo, pl. melo. sandal, molato, pl. milato. sap, mai satan, satana. satiate, v. yutisa, tondisa. satiated, to be, yuta, tonda. Saturday, mokolo na mposo, samedi. sa uc~pan, lobeki; lisasu, pl. masasu. save, v. kosola, bikisa, bumba. save money, v. bumba mosolo. saved; to be, koswa, bika. saviour, mokosoli. saw, n. mosomani, pl. misomani. saw, v. tena. saw crosswise, kata, kete, kwete. saw lengthwise pasola, yatola. say, loba, sakola. scaffold, etalangu, pl. bitalangu. scald, jika, fia. scale, (balance), kilo, lomeko. scale, loposo, pl. mposo. scamper away, v. Iota. scare, v. t., bangisa. scared, to be, banga, jika, yoka nsomo. s catter, v.t., palinginya. s catter, palangana, miakela. scent, v. lumbuta. school, sikole science, boyebi. scissors, makasi, mokati. scold, v. palela. scorch meat, v. jika. scorn, n. boboiyi. scorpion, nkotu. scour, v. kunyola. scourge, sisola. scrape, v. wala, walola. scratch, v. kwata, kota. scream, v. nganga. screw driver, eyotoleli, pl. biyotoleli. L (

PAGE 118

scrutinise, sosolo. sea, mai na monana. 100 seal, v. banza elembo. seal, n. elembo pl. bilembo; elimbeteli, pl. bilimbeteli. search for, luka. season, eleko, dry season, kole. high water, mpela low water, elanga. seat, v. t., zalisa, yalisa. seat, n. kiti, ngwende, ebonga, mokusa, second, sekondi. second, na mibali secrecy, bonkutu. seduce, v. lengola see, mona. seed, mombuma, pl. mimbuma; momboto, pl. mimboto seek, v. luka, tomba. seek each other, lukana. seize, v. kamata, kanga, banza. select, v. solo. s elf, moko, mpenja. sell, v. teke, expose for sale, tandola. send, v. toma, tinda. send away, panza, panja. send back, butwisa, zongisa. send word to, toma monoko, toma ekima. sender, n. motomi, pl. batomi. sensation, boyoki. sentry, senzili, pl. basenzili; mobate li, pl. babateli separate, v. kabela, bakola, tangola, zingola. separate, v.i., tangwa, bakwa, kabwa. sermon, liteyo, pl. mateyo; liteyi servant, boi, pl. baboi; mosali, pl. basali. serve, v. salela. serviette, litwaya, pl. matwaya. servile, na boombo. servitude, boombu. s et forth, sembola bimisa, sakola. set on fire, lolisa seven, nsambo. sevente e n, zumi na nsambo. s eventy, ntuku nsambo. several, mingi.

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severe, makasi. sew, tonga, sona. sex, lolenge na njoto. shade, molili. s hadow, lilingi, pl. malilingi. shake, v. t., nyikinya, nyangisa. shake, v.i., nylngana, nyanga. shame, nsoni. share, likab0, pl. makabo. s hare, v. kaba, kabana. IOI sharp, (to taste), nkangi, ngai, ngamu. sharp, of tool, botu, na mpio. sharp, to be, pota. sharpen, v. seba. (point), songolo. shave, kulola. sheath, libobo, lilako. sheath, v. bumba na libobo. she, ye, yeye. shed, esakango, pl. bisakango; esamba, pl. bisamba. shed, v. (skin of snakes, etc.) lutoa, puloa. sheep, ntaba, mpata. sheet of paper, lingongo, pl. mangongo; monkanda, pl. minkanda. shell, loposo, pl. mposo; lokele, pl. nkele. shell, of a tortoise, ebobolo. shew, monisa. shie ld nguba. shifty person, motu mokalo. shine, v. tana. shining, langi-langi. shirt, shemesi. shiver, wata, nyikana, lenge mpio. s hoe, ekoto, pl. bikoto; sampata. show, monisa, talisa. s hore libongo, pl. ma bongo; mbongo. short, mokusi, mokwei. shorten, v. kutola. shot, yeli, pl. bayeli. shoot, ta. shoot a rapid, twa, tia. shoulder, libeke, pl. mabeke; litotoko, pl. matotoko. shout, v. nganga. shout, n. nkelele, bongangi. H

PAGE 120

shovel, mpau. shun, v. pengoa, pengwa. shut, v. liba, jiba. sick, bele, kono. sickness, maladi, kobele, bokono side, epai; lokenge, pl. nkenge. side, (of body) mobanji mopanji sieve for ric e lungu. sift, finely, sasa. sigh, monkima, pl. minkima. 102 sign, n. elembo pl. ndembo; monkanda, pl. minkanda; elimbeteli ; ,pl. bilimbeteli. sign v. koma nkumbu. silence zala nye makelele I kanga monoko silver, palata, pl. bapalata. similitud e boyulani. simplify kakola. s imult a n e ou s ly, pil.i moko. sin, n lisumu, ;/Jl. masumu; mabe. sin, v sala lisumu. sincere, sembo. sincere v. semboa. s ink, v i., linda, zinda. sink, v.t., lindisa, zindisa. sir, mondele, pl. mindele. sister, nkaja, ;/JI. bankaja; ndeko, pl. bandeko. sister-in-law, monyali1 pl. banyali. sit, yala, zala, jala. six, motoba. sixteen, zumi na motoba. s ixty, ntuku motoba. size limelo skeleton, nkuwa. s kill, mayele, bwanya. skin, loposo, p l mposo. skin v. polola loposo skip, v pombwa. skirt, yembeyembe, pl. mayembeyembe; ( sh ort),' kifunga ntumbo skirt of fibr e bilembo slander, v. tongo. slander, n litongi. slash. sese, tena, kete. slave, moombo, pl. baombo s lavery, boombu. -.

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103 sleep, v. lala, tuka, tutuma, lala mpongi. s leep, n. mpongi. slice, v. sese. s lic e, n. eteni, pl. biteni. s lip v. selimwa. slippers, milatu. s lit, monkaka, pl. minkaka. s lowl y, (carefully), na moi. s m a llp ox, kokoto. s m as h, bula, boma.' s mear koba, kula, singa. smell, v.i., lumba, bimisa nsolo. s m e ll, n. nsolo; rancid, malasi. sm il e, v. manga manga. smoke, n. molinga. s mok e tobacco, v mele makaiya. smoot h, v. sembola, lengele. s mooth, ad j. sembe-sembe, patatalu. s n ai l, mobembe, pl. mibembe. s nake, nyoka, njo. s n a r e (n e t) fish, monyama, anima l bozanga. s n atc h away, botolo. sneeze, ta lisei, or eche. sno r e, kololo. s nuff v. nusa. snuff, n. tombaku. su, in this way, boye. so, in that way, bongo. soak, melisa mai, nuisa mai. soap, saboni. society, lingomba, pl. mangomba. soda, magadi. s oft, ad j. motau. soft, to be, lemba. s oft e n, v. t., lembisa. sof tly, na moi na moi. soil, n. mabeli, masotu. soil, v. t., boba, bebisa, tiya mbindu. sojourn, umela, zala. sol dier, solda, pl. basolda. s older, soloda. solit a ry, mpenja. solitud e, bompenza ( {.,,__ I ffa 1 f \r \.[ -r

PAGE 122

sometimes, mikolo mosusu. son, mwana mobali. song, loyembo, pl. nzembo. sore, mpota. sort, n. Jolenge, pl. ndenge. sort, v. solo, pono, Jengele. soul, molimo, pl. milimo. 104 sound, with a lin e, meka bozindu or pondo, meka mai. sounder, motu na pondo. soup, supu, lisongoi. sour, nkangi. sow seeds, Iona, kona, kuna. sower, moloni. spade, mpau. spark, lototo, pl. ntoto. sparkle, ngenge, tana. speak, loba. whisper, loba mpwempwe. speak togeth e r, v. lobana. speaker, molobi. spear, likongo, pl. nkongo. species, ndenge. speech, liloba, pl. maloba; mpo speed, lobangu, mbangu. sp ell (cast a ) v. loka. spend, silisa, liya. spider, libobe, pl. mabobe. spill, v. sopa. spinster, likombi, pl. makomb1. spirit, molimo, pl. milimo; eli li, pl. bilili; strong spirit, mbanda, mo-kundwa; water sp irit, edjo. spit, twa n soi spite, nkanda, loyina, nkele. spite, to harb our, bumba nkanda. spittle, nsoi. sp lendour, linkembo, nkembo. split, v.j., yatwa, ata, paswa. split, v.t., yatola, pasola; spoil, v.i., beba. spoil, v. t., bebisa. spoiled (rott en), to be, polo. spoon, lokele, pl. nkele; litoko, pl. matoko.

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105 spotted, masau-masau, matono-matono. spread the clot h etc:, tanda. spring, (water), liziba, pl. maziba. sprinkle, (water), sopa mai, swela mai. sprout, n. mwana. banana, eyana, pt . biyana. sprout, v. twa. spy, mokengeli. spy on, kengele. squander, wolinginya. squandered, to b e, wolongono. squash, matela, nyatela. squat, v. sondeme, sotoma. squeeze, kama, ama, kamola. squeeze out moisture, nyata. squirrel, esende, pl. bisende. stage (for drying fish), etalaka, pl. bitalaka; botala. stammer, kekuma. stammering, likekuma. stamp, v. tuta na makolo, nyatela. staunch {blood, etc.), sukisa. stand, teme. stand up, v. t., temisa. stand in line, teme na nkondo. stained, to be, ndinkana. stairs, ngandu, ebateli, bonango. star, moto, pl. mioto. stare, keka . start, v. banda, masa, tata. stay, v. tikela. stay in one place, umela. stay, n. esukuteli, pl. bisukuteli. stay (prop), v. sukuta. steadfast, ngwi. s teal, yiba, botolo. steal away, kima. steam, mouli, moto. steamer, masua. steep, v. yina. steep, adj. mobongitela steer, amba, yamba, umb a. stench, nsolo mabe. steps, ngandu ; bonango, pl. manango. steri l e, ekomba.

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stern, mbaka na nsima. s tew, n. situ. stick, v. banza. l66 stick, v. (as bone in t h e throat), kakema. stick, n (cane), pimbo. stick, thick, lingenda, pl. ngenda. sting, v swa. stir, nyinginya, nyikinya, kulumba, bulinginya. sto mach, libumu, pl. mabumu. s t o m ac h ac h e yoka libumu. s t o n e libanga, pl. mabanga; litadi, pl. matadi. stool ebonga, pl. bibonga. stoop, tinama, umba, kusama. stop, tika, teme. stop, n. lotemele, loteme. s t o p u p, boka, yika. s t op up, v.t., bokisa, yikisa. store, sitowa, magazini, ebumbeli. sto rk, bolamba, pl. malamba. s t o rm, ekumbake, pl. bikumbake. s torm, (t o be worried), lemwa. s t o ry, lisap9, pl. masapo; mpo. s tory, o f a h o use, mokiri. s traight, alima, sembo. st raight e n sembola. st rap, nkamba. st r eet (houses on o n e s id e) mololo (hou ses b ot h s i des), milolo. s tr e n g th, makasi, nguya. st r e ngth e n, kolisa, kotisa. stretch, v. nanola. stri de n. litambi, pl. matambi. s t ri d e v bwaka matambe. s trike, ta, bete. st rik e o n e ano th er, betene. st rik e one's foot against, ta libako. s trik e, ( as s tick int o t h e gro un d), pika. s tring, ngeli, nkamba, nsinga, mokulu, pl. mikulu. s trip pulola, lutola. s tri v e, meka. s tron g l y, na makasi, na nguya. strnggle, n etumba.

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stubborn person, motu na mpokoto. st udding (of a h o use) makonzi. s tumbl e, ta libako. st upid per son, elema, pt. bilema. s ubm erge lindisa, zindisa. s ubmit tosa. s ubsist yala, jala, zala. s ubtra ct, longola. s u cceed o n e a n o th er, kitana. s ucc o ur sunga. sucrmn b, kwa, kufwa, wa. s u ck, nunga. s uckl e, nungisa. suddenly, noki, sasaipi bobele suffer, (feel), yoka. s uff er (to make), tumola. s uff e rin g, boloji, bwale. sufficien t, koka, bonga. suffocate, kibisa. s uffocat ed l o b e, kiba. suga r, sukari; (native), monkoko, pl. minkoko. sui tab l e, to be, bonga. s ulphur, tosinda. s ummi t, nsonge. sum, motuya, pt. mituya. s ummon anginya. s un, moi. sunli g ht, moi. s unris e, monyele. sunset, eloli s u perinte nd, kengele. s up e ri or na likoko. s uppl y, pese, (make up a d efic iency) kokisa. suppo rt, sukela, sukuta. s up purate, tanga. s ur e t y, ndanga. s urfa ce etando. s ur pass, leka, pusa. s urround, linga, zinga. s ur v ive, tikana, bika, s uspend, bakia, kakia. s u s t a i n bikisa.

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swaddle, linga, zinga. swallow, mele. swarm, nyalangana. swear, tuka, kumba. swear an oath, simba ndai. sweat, n. zunguwa, molungi. sweat, v. toka, pama. sweep, kombo, yombo. sweet, bolenge. swell, tutoa. swim, nyanya. 108 swimmer, (strong), mobali, non-swimmer, mobimbi. swindle, kutinya. switch, n. mpimbu. swoon, wa bonsinga. sword, botale. symptom, elembo. Table, meza. table cloth, e[amba na meza. table, to lay the, tanda meza. taboo, ngili, ngizi. tail, mokondo. tainted, (offish, etc.), to be, polo. take, zwa, kamata. take apart, bakola, tangola. take away, longola. take back, after giving, botolo take: down, bakola. cake off, longola. take out, as nail, etc., bila. talent, mayele, bwanya. talk, loba. talkative, adj. monoko monene. tall, molai, mosanda. talon, nkwala, longo. ngo. tap, v bete. tap, v a barrel, etc., tubela. task, mosala, kosala; lotomo, pl. ntomo. taste, meka. tatoo, (cicatrix), nkoma, of Bangala tribe, likwala . tatoo, v. (to cut tribal marks), koma nkoma.

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tax, v. takola ntako. tax, n. ntako, sanja. tea, sa. teach, yekola, lakisa, teya. 109 teacher, molakisi, pl. balakisi; moteyi, pl. bateyi. tear, pasola, kala, kaja. teardrops, njuli, mpisoli. tease, v. tumola, nyokolo. tell, lobela, sakola, sangela. temple (anat.), lopagatoi. temptation, bolengoli, lisenginya, bomeki. tempt, lengola, senginya, kosa; (a woman), bianga mwasi. ten, zumi. tenacity, makasi. tender, adj. motau. tent, ndako na elamba. terrify, bangisa, jikamisa, yokisa nsomo. terror, nsomo. test, meka. testify, sangela. thank, v. tondo, sema. thanks, litondo, motondele. that, conj. te, ete. them, bango. then, conj. bongo. there, wana, kuna. thick, na mbinga. thickness, mbinga. thief, moyibi, pl. bayibi. thigh, ebelo, ekolo. thin, grow, ondo, tunga. thin, adj. na mbinga te. thine, na yo. thing, eloko, pl. biloko. think, kanisa, banza, manyola. thirst, mposa na mai. thirsty, oka mposa na mai. thirteen, zumi na misato. thirty, ntuku misato. this, oyo. thorn, jaba, pl. maba; monzube, pl. minzube. though, nsoki.

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thought, likanisi, pl. makanisi. thousand, nkoto. thread, v. ingisa. threaten, (by words), kana. throat, mongongo, pl. mingongo throw, bwaka, usa, ta. uo throw down, kitisa, bwaka na nee. thunder, nkaki. Thursday, mokolo minei, mosala na minei. thus, in this way, boye in that way, bongo. thy, na yo. tickle, nyomita. tie, kanga, banza, tonga; a knot, in making a n et, soma. tile, twile, pl. batwile. till, kino. t ime, ekeki, eleko, ndembe; a certain time, elaka. ti mes, o l d, kala-kala. times, high water, mpela. low water, elanga. tin; engwongolo. tire, v. i., lembisa, tonga, tekwa. tired, to be, lemba, yoka mpi. toad, likololo, pl. makololo tobacco, likaiya, pl. makaiya; tumbako. to-day, lelo. to e, mosei, pl. misei ; munsai, pt. minsai. together, elongo tomato, tomato, pl. batomato. to-morrow, lobi. tongue, lolemo, pl. ndemo tool, esaleli, pl. bisaleli. tooth, lino, pl. mino. toothpick, mombai, pl. mimbai. top, likolo nsonge. torch, esongi pt bisongi. torment1 tumola nyokolo, tungisa. t o rtoi se nkumba. torture, monyoko boloji. t0ta l yonso. touch, v. mama; to be in ju xtapositi o n bandama. tow, v. benda.

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towel, litambala, pl. matambala. town, mboka. trace, v. koma. track, v benga. track, of animals, etc., matambi. trade, mombongo, pl. mimbongo. train, masua na mokili. tranquillize, tilimisa, bondisa, bandisa. transcribe, akiza. transfigure, bungola. transform, bongwinya, bongwana. translate, bongola. transport tomba, tombela, kamba. trap, n animal, bozanga. tree, mwete, pl. miete; njete. tremble, nyikana, lenge, wata. trench, mongololo, pl. mingololo. tribute, ntako, sanja. tribal mark, lokoma, nkoma. trick, jimba. trickster, mojimbi, pl. bajimbi. trifle, eloko na mpamba. triumph, longa. trouble, v. tungisa. trousers, mbati. truly, solo trumpet, mondule, pt. mindule; kialo. trunk (box), sanduku, pl. basanduku. trunk, of elephant, boembo. trunk, human, or of a tree, mobimbi. truth, solo. try, meka. tsetse fly, etuna, pl. bituna. tube, mongenzu, pl. mingenzu. Tuesday, mokolo na mibali, !llOSala na mibali. tuft, lisumba. tumble, kita, kwa. tumour, etiya, pl. bitiya; ljtutu, pt. matutu. turn, bongola, zengola. turn, v.i., bongwa, zengwa. turn aside, v. t., pengola. turn aside, v. i., pengwa. turn out, longola.

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y turn round, v. t., zelinginya. turn round, v.i., zelengene. turn by turn, likelemba. 112 to do a thing turn by turn, sala likelemba. tusk of elephant, mpembe na nzoku. twelve, zumi na mibali. twenty, ntuku mibali. twin, liasa ; jasa, pl. masa. twine, nsinga, kamba. twist, yotolo, lingitinya. two, mibali tyrant, motumoli, monyoki. Ug l y man, ekanga. u lcer, mpota, ndala, monkoJi. ulcerate, .yanga mpota. umbrella, longembu, pl. ngembu. unanimously, adj. na monoko moko. unbar, fungola. unbind, lingola, lutola, kangola, pusola. unchain, kangola. unclose, libola, zibola. unclothe, polola, lutola. uncover, bumbola, kundola. under, na nee na. understand, yoka, yeba. underneath, na nee na. undo, bakola, bandola, fungola. undress, lutola bilamba, longola bilamba uneq u al, yengebene te. unfold, lingola, zingola. unhinge, bakola. unhook, kakola. uniform, adj. pila moko. unite, kanga, banza. universe, iolongo. unlock, fungola. unmoor, sekola. u n nail, bandola. unravel, lingola. unripe, adj. mobesu. unsheath, blla. unstick, banzola. untie, tongola.

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until, kino, yeko. unwell, to be, bele. upon, likolo na, na likolo na. uproar, nkelele, makelele. uproar, to make, tiya nkelele. 113 upright (to set a thing ... which has fallen), simamisa. urine, minya. urinate, leka minya, simba minya. us, biso. useless, mpamba. utter, v. bemisa. utterly, nye. Vacant, to be, tikela mpamba. vacillate, nyingana. vainly, mpamba. valley, mbenga. value, motuya, mosolo. vanish, lemwa. vanquish, longa, pusa, leka. variegated, matono-matono. vary, yesene. vegetable, ndunda. vein, rrionsisa, pl. minsisa. veracity solo. verandah, mokelele. very, be. vex, tumola, nyokolo, yokisa nkelele. vexed, to be, yoka nkele. vibration, bolengi. victim, moboma, pl. baboma. vigorously, na ngolu, na makasi. village, mboka. vine, monjimbiliki, pl. minjimbiliki; kamba. vinegar, mai na ngai. vio late a person, sumbisa. violent, makasi. visible, to be, monana. vision (faculty of), misu, bomoni. visit, tala, keka. vitiate, bebisa. vocation, lotomo, pl. ntomo. voice, monoko, pl. minoko.

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voluntarily, na nko. vomit, lua, se, sanza. voyage, moluka. Wages, mosolo. wait for, jila, zila. wait! kokolo I sapi waste money, bwaka mosolo, liya mosolo. walk, tambola. wall, etutu, pl. bitutu; efelo. wallet, libenga, pl. mabenga. wander, tambola mpamba want (need), senga. want (desire), yoka mposa, linga. war, etumba. warm, hands, v. oto. warm, na moto wash, sukola waste, (or, fibre), limbusu. waste away, of person, ondo, tunga. watch, v. senzele, kengele. watch, n. likanga, pl. makanga; ntangwa. watch over, v. batela. water, mai. water, v. sopa mai. water animals, melisa mai. waterpot, mojaka. water cooler, mbongo. water, high, mpela. water, low, elanga. wave, mula, pl. miula. weak, motau. weaken, v.i., lemba. weaken, v. t., lembisa. wealth, mosolo. wean, v .i., kila libel e. wean, v t kilisa libele. wear clothes, lata bilamba weary, l embisa. I weanness, mp1. weave, tunga. weed, eyembu, pl. biyembu. week, eyenga, pl. biyenga.

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weep, lela, tanga njuli. weigh, meka bojitu. welcome, nyangela. weld, banza. well, libela. wet, v.t., (dirty), bobisa. what, nini? whet, seba, wheel, eyika, pl. biyika; mwiko, pl. miiko where? wapi? esika wapi? when? mokolo nim? eleko nini? whine, lela. whip, pimbo. whirl, jelinginya. whirlpool, timbiri. whistle, v. o f a s teamer, benda loseba, bete piololo white, mpembe. white ant, monsekeleke, pl. minsekeleke. whiten, tanisa. whiteness, botani, mpembe. w hiteman mondele, pl. mindele. who? nani? na? motu na.ni? whole, yonso, en.co, mobimba. why, mpo nini? boni? wick, lamp, elamba na tala. widow, bozenge. widower, ndenga. wife, mwasi, pl. basi; mwasi na bolongani, pl. basi na bolongani. will, kana. win, longa. wind, n mompe, pl. mimpe; mompepe, pl. mimpepe wind, v. linga, zinga. window, lililisa, pl. malilisa; (small), lilusu,pl. malusu; ekuki, p,. bi ltuki. wine, masanga, manga. wing, lipapu, pl. mapapu. winnow, pepa; rice, by shaking, sasa, pupa. wipe, sungola, kunyola, pangusa. wisdom, mayele, bwanya. wise, na bwanya, na mayele. wish, mposa. wish for, yoka mposa, linga, tombo. witch moloki, pl. baloki; witch doctor, monganga. witchcraft, bonganga, liloki, boloki. with, na.

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within, na kati na, na ntei na. without, na .... te. witness, nzeneneke. wittingly, na nko. wizard, moloki, pl. baloki. woman, mwasi, pl. basi. confined, mwekele. H6 witli children, moboti, pl. baboti. wonder, v. kamwa. wool, nkunja. word, mpo; liloba, pl. maloba. work, n. mosala, kosala, lotomo. work, v. sala. workman, mosali, pl. basali. world, molongo, pl. milongo worry, lemwa. wound, n. mpota. wound, v.t., jokisa. wound, v.i., joka, joka mpota. wrangle, wela, swa, swana. wrap up, linga, jinga. wrench, yosola, kwakola . wrestle, n liwanda, wrong, to be, kita. write, koma, sono. writing, n. lokoma. writhe, otogono, kalangana. Yam, ngoma. yawn, n. mwasaso, pl. miasaso yawn, v. sala mwasaso. year, mbula, elanga; mobu, pl. mibu. yes, e, io. yesterday, lobi. yet, nainu. you, bino. younger, mojimi, pl. bajimi yours, na bino. youth, monzenga, pl. banzenga. Zero, mpamba.

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LI NGA LA-ENGLISH. Akiza, to transcribe. alima, straight. alimet, match. ama, to squeeze. amba, to s t eer, adopt. ambola, to assent. angana, to disavow, deny, abjure. angela, to govern. anginya, to s ummon ca ll together. angola, to decant, pour into. anze, angel. ata, to crack, sp lit. awa, adv., here. Baka, to fix, join, perform. bakama, to be fixed. bakema, to perch. bakia, to l ay upon, hang up, s u spe nd. bakisa, to add, estab li s h bakola, to disjoin, separate, take apart, take down, undo, unhook. bakwa, v.i., t o se parat e. bala, to marry. baluti, gunpowder. bambola, to light. banda, to begin, commence, sta rt. banda, to be cold. bandama, to b e in juxtaposi t ion )>andisa, to damp, 9001, moisten, tranquillize. bandola, to pluck to pieces (piece by piece}, loosen, undo. banga, to be a fraid, alarmed, fear, dread, be scared. bangisa, to a l arm, frighten, scare, terrify. bango, them. bankoko, ancestors. banza, to apply, join, s tick, paste, se ize, ti e, unite, weld. banza, to think. ban3eJa monoko, to embrace, kiss.

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I I8 banzola, to disjoin, uns tick bata, to ascend, climb, mount. batela, to guard, protect, watch over. batisa, to hoist. batu, peopl e. batubi, dung faeces, excrement. be, very. be-be, exact, present at, beba, to bec ome c orrupt, depraYed, to spo il. bebisa, to contravene, cor rupt chmage, debase, deprave, disfigure, impair, perv ert, pollute, profane, ruin, spoi l, soil, v i t i ate bele, to b e ill, unwell. bele moyoyo, to have a cold. bele-bele, a lm ost, near. beleme, to come near, be adjacent to, approach to. belemisa, to brin g n ear together. belisa, to make ill. beka, to borrow, call. beke, to bring. bekisa, to lend. bembana, to fraternise, live in peace bembisa, to reconcile. bemisa, to utter. benda, t o drag, haul, p ull, tow. benda Joseba, to blow a whistle, (of s teamer, etc.} benda likolo, t o haul up. bende, to abate. bendisa, to appease. benga, to chase, fetch, follow, pursue, track. benga mokila, to hun t. bengisa, to expe l, hunt, repel. bete, to beat, chastise, hit, flog, kick, strik e, tap. bete bisako, t o clap h ands. bete bondoki, to fire a gun. bete loseba, to bl ow a whistle, (of steamer, e tc.) bete mbonda, to drum. bete monkanda, to print. bete mpamba, to miss fire. bete mpimbo, to la sh. beteme; to strike one ano ther. bianga, to call, in v it e invoke, require. bika, to abide, con tinu e e ndure, be h ea l ed, be permanent, s ur v i ve. bikisa, to cure, es tabli s h, heal, maintain, pr ese r i e, save, s u sta in bika bobiki, to be immort a l

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l I ~ bikoko, long riverside grass. bikola, to pull out. Il9 bila, to draw out, extract, pursue, root o u t, pull out, unsheath. bila nsala, to pluck feathers. bilei, provisions. bilembo, a skirt of fibre. bilema, foolishness. biloba, chatter. bilobaloba, nonsensical talk. biloko, baggage, pro vis i ons. bimela, to appear. bima, to appear, come out, get up (from bed), go out, pass out. bimisa, to eject, expel, expose, issue, prod u ce, set forth bimi:,a mpo, to publi s h. bimisa moyoyo, to blow the nose. bina, to dance. bino, you; na bino, yours bisika yonso, everywhere. biso, us; na biso, ours. bisikiti, biscuit. boba, to soil. bobandu, cold, fre sh, sharp, cool. bobele, entirely, just, immediately, merely, on l y, sudden ly. bobele sasaipi, promptly. bobeli, illness. bobina, a dance. bobisa, to make wet, dirty boboiyi, scorn, refusal, contempt, poverty bobolo, a weak, impotent man. bobomi, destruction bobongi, perfect. boboti, fruitfulness boboto, peace, friendlin ess amiab ili ty. bobungisi, pardon. bodongo, puddled clay for hou se building. boembo, trunk of an elephant. bofunga, rice. bofungu, button. boi, jam, honey. boi, domestic servant. boimi, avar i ce. boiya, to annul disapprove of, d i sobey, refuse, renounce, r epe l r epudiate. boiyana, to live in dissensi on. bojindo, deep. '.~

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120 bojitu, heavy; meka bojitu, to weigh. boka, to stop up, fill up l evel with earth. bokali, fine for adultery. bokati, a division bokila, a hunt. bokisa, to stop up. bokilo, fat h er -in-law bokobo, paint; kobo bokobo, t,1 paint. bokobo, ink bokola, to d ig trenches. bokolo, to nourish, bring up a c hild bokoki, perfect. bokono, sickness, illness. bokonzi, kingdom, chieftainship, authority. bokosoli, redemption bokoti, hardness. bokundi, a burial. bola, to break, bruise, crush, hit, pound, kick. bolamba, a stork. bolanga, drunkenness. bolankete, a blanket. boleko, a channel. bolembu, feeble. bolenge, sweet. bolengi, v ibr ation. bolengoli, temptation. bolendela, a picture. boli, food bolika, a drying frame for fish bolimbisi, a pardon. bolingo, love. bolok, prison. boloki, witchcraft. bolokoi, indifference. bololi, pain. bololo, bitter. boloji, misery, pain, suffering, torture; yokisa boloji, to pain. bolumbu, naked. boma, to break, demolish, deface, destroy, execu te, kill, s m ash. bomasi, the beginning bombo, face. bomeko, or, bomeki, an attempt, effort, temptation. bomoi, life. bomoni, vision,

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121 bompala, o rn amenta ti o n pomp, b ea uty. bompenza so litud e. bo mpolo, docility. bonana, a journey up-stre am. bonango, a l adde r, s tair s, s teps. bondela, to ask for, beseech, implore, invoke, plead, pray bondelela, to in terce de. bondisa, to ca lm, pacify, tranquillize. bondo, to p ac ify bondoki, g un bonene, grea t ness. bonga," to be ex p e di e nt, abl e, a d apte d, adequa t e a rran ged, correspo n d, fitting, proper, suffic i ent, s u itable. bonganga w i tc hcraft, medicine pa l aver. bongangi, a sho ut. bongisa. to adapt, adjust, comp l e t e, correct, perfect, rect ify. bongo, so th e n, in that way. bongo, d i s m ay, f ear . bongola, to co n vert, tra nslat e, turn bongwa, to tu rn bongwana, to transform. bongwinya, to tran sfo rm boni? why? h ow many? bonkutu, sec r ecy. bont.i.ka, n a k ed. bontolo, bosom. bonuku, fat. bonyokoli, persecution. bonzela, to ente rtain. bonzenga, beauty, prettines s, s pl e ndour, youthfulness. boombu, se r v il e, s l avery. bopetwi, purity. bopunda, ind ece ncy bopunzi, plunder. bosambeli, a pray er. bosekwi, resurr ection. bosemi, a l a nding p l ace. bosenga pr i vat ion, po ve rty misery boso, before, face, first, front; na boso, previou s ly. bosoni, immodesty. bosoto, dirt. boswani, a quarr e l di s put e. boswei, a bit e bota, to give birth to, bring forth, lay e,ggs, produce .

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botakani, a m ee ting. botala, a dr y ing stage for fis h. botale, a s word. botama, t o b e born. botangi, a reading. botani, w hit e ness. botinya, to incr ease, to reproduce. botisa, to beget, ferti l ise. 122 botolo, to di sp o ssess, extort, l oot, s teal. botondo, grat i t u de. botondi, fulln ess. botu, s harp (of too l). botunu, blunt. botuni, a q u est i on bowi, death boyambi, faith. boye, th u s, in Lhis way, so. boyebi, s ci e n ce, know l e dge. boyengebene, equity. boyini, h~tred. boyoki, se n sa tion boyulani, s imili t ud e. bozanga, ani mal snare. bozenge, a widow. bozitu, h eavy buka, }lo br eak, bu r st, crack, overt h row an ene my. b1kia to break bukinya, to inte rchange. bukola, to di mi n i s h. bula, to b atte r clown, smas h Bula Matadi, Government of the C9 l ony. bulangana, to b e disarranged, be mi xe d, be pe r plexe d puzzled. bule, abortive, gratis. bulinginya, to stir, puzzle, muddl e, co mpli cate, co nfou nd mi x, disarrange, e mb arrass. bulu, bo l t. bulu-bulu comp li cated, confused, d i sor der ed mudd l e d puz z l in g. bumba, t o concea l keep a thin g, ma sk, preserve, hide. bumba nkanda, to harbour sp i t e bumba mos olo to save mon ey bumbama, to b e in v i sib l e bumbola, t o di scover, uncov er. bumela, to e mbrac e

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buna, t o fight. bunana, t o fight tog e th e r bunga, to forget, lo se, o mi t. 1 2 3 bungisa, t o abol ish, abs ol ve l ose mi s l e ad bungitinya, to roll. bunya to break, busi, cotton. butisa t o g i ve back, r e pl y. butu ni g ht butwa, t o co m e b ac k re turn butwisa, to put bac k, r ec all, return a thin g r~sto r e se n d back. buzi, candle. bwaka, t o throw. bwaka mosolo, to waste m oney bwale m i se r y, p a in s uff e ri ng bwanya, apti tud e, c unning, i nte lligence, s ki ll t a lent, wisd om. bwatu, a boat, ca n oe. bweta, a w a t e r fall, rapid Chupa, a bottl e Dima, t o ac c e p t, ac qui esce assen t, confess co n s e nt, own r ece i ve doti, 2 fath o ms of barter clo t h E, yes eba t o kno w ebakoleli, a nail pull e r. ebale, a riv e r ebambola, a blow ebandeli, t h e b eg in n in g. ebanga, j aw ebateli, s t ai r s ebe, a wh a l e boat bal e ini e r e a b road beam e d s h a ll o w draft c a no e. ebeku, chin. ebelo t high. ebembe, c orpse ebendi iron ebendele e n s i g n, flag ebenga, wil d p i geo n, d ove ebimba, a bund l e, p ac k age, par ce l. ebineli, a d a n c iu g p l ac e ebobolo, s h e ll of a t orto is e. eboka, m orta r (for p o undin g food) ebolo a pack a g e. ebonga a n a ti v e s tool, seat

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eboto, a kinsman ebubu, dumb person. ebuki, e normous, very great. ebuma, fruit flowe r ebumba, a cover. ebumbeli, store, magazine, cover. ebuni, iro n ebwele, animal, meat. eche, to sneeze ece, a dist ri ct, cou ntr y. edjo, a water spirit. efelo, a wa ll. 1414 e j aleli, a custom, h ab it, man ner of liv ing ejekitana, midnight e j ibeli, door. ekakinyeli, an obstacle ekamwisela, asto ni sh men t ekanga, an u g l y man. ekangi, itch. ekangilu, a pa r cel. ekango, bunc h of bananas. ekata, necklace. ekeki, time. ekembe, nativ e mu s i ca l in s trum e nt. ekima, a me ssenger; toma ekima, to sen d word ekomba, an impotent woman. ekomo, brace le t, h e avy brass coll ar. ekobo, fornica ti o n. ekokolo, a cove r o f a book. ekokotu, coug h e kolo, t hi gh. ekolo, r eg ion, country. ekolo, a basket. ekomba, a native wooden pillow. ekombeli, a broo m, brush. ekomeli, pe n pencil. ekoto, s h oe, b oot ekuki, door. e k ulusu, a cross e kumbake, a s t o rm. ekumu, unremoved root of tree after felling ekuna, malice. ekutu, a go urd calabash.

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elaka, a promis e certain time. elaleli, a bed. elamba, a dress, cloth, wick. elambo, fea st. elanga, bush. elanga, low water season, low water, year. elekela, a pa ss ag e eleko, time, seaso n, interval. eleko ni-ni? when? eleko eleki, pa s t time. elema, a s tupid person, a fool, idiot. elembo, s i g n symptom sea l, mark. elenge, boy minor. elenge mwasi, g irl. elika, fishin g ca mp, smoking and drying place elikia, h ope eli li, a sp irit elimbeteli, a s i gn. elita, a cork. elobeli, fish in g right eloko, a thing; eloko na mpamba, nothing. eloli flam e, s unset. elongi, face. elongo, together. elumbu, a n a lbin o. ema, to fas hion, form. emai, a murd e rer. emaseli, the b e ginning. embotu, fist emek eli, a m e asure, rule emimi, a dumb person, a mute. enco, t h e who le. endola, to redeem. engasa, fork engboko, iron rattle Engilisi, Englishman, Protestant. engunda, land engwongolo, a tin, bucket. enk oti, a cap,.crown, helmet, hat epai, s ide. epai na monyeli, east. epai yango na, beyond. epamela, a reprimand. epasu, a ch ip

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esakango, a shed. esaleli, a tool. esamba, a shed. esanga, an island. esasa, a tumble-down house. eseseku, hiccough. esende, a squirrel. esene, to mislead one another. 126 esengo, happiness, j9y, pleasure; yoka esengo, to rejoice esi, dista nt far, remote esika, a place; esika soko wapi? where? esimbiseli, an obstacle. esobe, a plain. esongi, a fire-brand, torch. esukuteli, a prop, stay esulungutu, owl. etabeli, a ladder. etaki, curiosity. etakoleli, a custom h o use etalaka, a stage for drying fish. etalangu, a scaffold, pier. etanda, bench, seat, form, plank etando, surface. etapi, branch. ete, if, that. eteke, eyelid. eteni, fragment, morsel, piece, rag s lice etiki, an orphan etima, a lake, pond. etimeli, pickaxe. etiya, a tumour. etobo, cloth, overcoat. etomba, a m o rsel, half, part. etonga, a flock. etuka, gro up bunch package. etukatuka, a pumpkin. etuku, a foo l etubeli, an anvi l, hammer. etumba, a battle, fight, war, struggle. etuna, tsetse fly. etuti, a bed. etutu, wall. ewolo, dissolute.

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eyana a banana s prout. eyembu a weed. eyenda, a rudder. eyenga, a week, Sabbath, holiday eyengele, bell. eyika, wh eel. eyotoleli, s crewdriver. eziboleli, a cork sc rew Falasa, a horse. fataki, flint lo :k, percussion c a p. fia, to scold. fofolo, matches fuka, p o rridg e funga, to lock, fast e n fungola, to unlock, unbar, undo i27 futa, to pay indemnify, recompen se, pay ofl: Gboma, t o bark goi-goi, c~wardly, feeb le la zy. Ima, to be avaricio us ima, to dig. ina, to dip. ing' e!a, to enter. ingisa, to fit in, thread, penetrate. io, yes. Jaba, t h orn. jala, to ex i st, live, s it, dw e ll. jala, a garden . jasa, a twin. jelinginya, to whirl. jiba, to s hut. jika, to burn, fire, sca ld scorch. jika, to be scared. jikimisa, to terrify. jila, to await. jimba to cheat, decei ve, defraud, dupe, ens n are, impos e upon, pretend, trick jinga, to bind wrap up, roll up. joka, to be wounded. jokisa, to wound jombi, darkne ss jwa, to gain, hold obtain, procure receive.

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Kaba, to divide, port i on o ut, s hare. kabela, to distribute, bestow. kabola, to separate. kabana, to share. kabwa, to separate. kai, a paddle. kaja, to tear kaka, to make musty. kaka, green manioca. 128 kakatana, to be puzzled, perp l exed. kakatanu, puzzling, comp l icated, m u ddling . kakau, cocoa. kakema, to run aground, stick (as bone in the throat). kakia, to hang up. kakitinya, to obscure a matter, puzzle, complicate. p e rple x, prevaricate, mudd l e kakola, to open, dismantle piece by piece, pull to pieces, simplify, distinguish. kala, to tear. kala-kala, long ago, old times, previously. karila, to compress, press, squeeze. kama libele, to milk. kamata, to acqu ir e, apprehend, clutch, get, grasp, ho ld, lay hold, obtain, procure, seize, take. kamba, to bring, guide, l ead, transport. kamba, a blanket. -kamba, a vine, twine, belt. kambisa, to punish kamola, to press, squeeze. kamwa, to be amazed, astonished, marvel, wonder. kamwisa, lo amaze, asto nish. kana, to determine, will, threaten. kanga, to apprehend, catch, capture, fasten, make fast, grasp, impri s on, lock, seize, t i e, unite. kanga; to fry, roast. kangama, to congeal, coagulate. kangola, to exempt, l iberate, unbind, unchain. kanisa, to deliberate, think, reflect, remember. kansi, but. kapinta, ca rp enter. kapitene, captain. kata, to grasp, ho l d.

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kata, to cut, saw ac,oss. kata, to cross over. kata, to be fat. kata likambo, to decide a palaver, pronounce sentence. kata ndeko, to make a compact between friends. kata nsonge, to circumcise. kati, na-na, within. kati, the centre. katisa, to fatten. kawa, coffee. keba, to pay attention. ke, to go. keka! lo ok keka, to gaze at, stare, perceive, visit. kekana, to be face to face. kekete, to gnaw. kekuma, to stammer. kela, to do, execute. kende, to go. kengele, to guard, protect, superintend, SPY. on, watch. kengisa, to clarify, kete, to slash, saw across, hack. ketula, to cough, kialo, bugle, trumpet. kiba, to be choked, suffocated; -na mai, to drown. kibisa, to choke, drown, suffocate. kidi, ladder. kifungantumbo, short native sk irt. kila, to abandon, 3bominate, abstain from, forbear, be interdicted, neglect kila boli, to fast. kilisa, to forbid, interdict. kilo, sca le, balance, kilogramme. kima, to bolt, desert, escape, flee, run away, stea l away. kimela, to groan, moan. kinini, quinine. kino, till, until. kisu, knife. kita, to descend, fall, go down, tumble, be wrong, lose a lawsuit. kitana, to succeed on e a noth er. kitela, to descend. kitisa, to l et down, lower, throw down, condemn, decide a palaver (lgai n st. kiti, a seat, chair.

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kitoko, pomp, fine clothes, beauty. koba, to smear, rub over. koi, a friend. 130 koka, to be able, adapted, adequate, arranged, capable, to correspond, dry up, be enough, be proper. kokana, to be possible. kokisa, to achieve, adapt, adjust, complete, dry, perfect. koko, cock, fowl. kokolo I wait! hold on! kokoto, smallpox. kola, to grow, ripen. kole, dry water season. kolisa, to lengthen, strengthen kololo, to snore. koma, to carve, mark, trace, write. koma nkoma, to tatoo. kombo, to plane, sweep. komo, to deserve. komu, a sort of bird. kt>na, to cultivate, plant, sow seeds. kono, to be sick. kopo, cup, glass. kosa, to cheat, deceive, tempt, trick. kosola, to deliver, redeem, save, set free. koswa, to be saved. kota, to scratch. kotisa, to embolden, establish, make certain, strengthen. kotoa, or kotwa, to grow old kotola, to cough. kufa, to decay, expire, die. kufisa, to deface. kufwa, to die. kukola libongo, to emigrate. kuku, placenta. kula, to obtain. kula mombale, or nyongo, to be in debt. kula, to daub, rub, smear, plaster. kulola, to shave. kulumba, to stir, mix. kuma, to arrive, come to, reach to. kuma, to dominate, to be honoured, magnified kumba, to abuse, curse, defame, swear

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kumba, to bend. kumbo, a gable, roof. 131 kumisa, to accompl ish, praise, glorify, honour, magnify, respect, make famous. kuminya, to find. kuna, there. kunda, to bury kundola, to discover, disinter, explain, find, uncover, revea l, recover a thing, raise from the dead. kundwa, to rise from the dead. kunyola, to wipe, scour. kusama, to stoop. kuta, to beat, flog, punish. kutinya, to cheat, humbug, impose upon, pretend, swindle. kutola, to shorten. kwa, to gain, fall, succ umb, tumble. kwa take hold kwanga, native bread, bread kwata, to scratch. kwe? how many? kwela, to e m bark people. kwende, to go. kwete, to chop, cut down, cut off. kwezisa, to embark goods. kwisa, to humiliate, lower. Labola, to disharge cargo labwa, to disembark. !aka, to promise, direct. lakisa, to demonstrate, indicate, point out, teach. lakisa nzela, to guide. lala, to lod ge, sleep, repose, rest to be congealed. lala mpongi, to sleep Jalisa, to benumb. lamba, to cook, boil. lamba limpata, to give a feast. lambola, to proclaim, publish, preacJ:i. lambola, to plaster langa, to be intoxicated. langisa, to intoxicate. langa, paint. langi-langi, brilliant, radiant, shining. langu, a page. lapi, a pen, pencil.

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lata, to dress, wear. latisa, to dress, clothe. 1.32 leka, to exceed, excel, surpass, vanquish, pass. leka boleki, to abort. leka libumu, to have diarrhoea. lekisa, to omi t, pass. lela, to cry, bewail, bleat, lament, whine, mourn. lelo, to-day. lemba, to be tired, weaken, soften. lembisa, to tire, weaken, soften, cripple. lemwa, to disappear, vanish. lemwa, to worry, to storm. lembetela, to examine. lendela, to await. lenge, to tremble, fear. lenge mpio, to sh i ver. lengele, to arrange, disentangle, smooth, sort. lengola, to charm, tempt, seduce. lete, to lick. liasa, a twin. liba, to close, shut. libala, marriage. libali, clay libaiya, bench, seat, form, plank. libanda, outside. libanga, rock, stone libanza, fable, a parable. libasa, a rafter. libata, a duck. libata, baldness. libeke, sh_ oulder. libeke, jar, pot. libela, a pit, well, abyss. libele, a breast. libenga, bag, sack, purse, pocket, wallet. libenge, fortification, stockade. libengi, potato. libobe, a spider. libobo, a case, sheath; bumba na libobo, to sheath. liboke, a small parcel. libola, to discover, open, disclose. liboloko, gazelle. liboma, an anvil.

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133 libondo, he a p, hill o ck mound for c a ssava libondu, h ead p a r t l y shav ed. libongo, a b e a c h l anding plac e m a rk e t plac e s h o re libongo kn ee. libonza g ift, r e ward. libota tamily, gene ratio n, b ro od o ffaprin g libuka, puber ty libula, inhe rit a n ce libumu, abdo m e n s t o m ac h ; yoka libumu, to hav e s tomach-ach e libunga, for ge tfuln ess libungutulu a clod o f ear t h libwa, p e r cuss i o n cap, sto ne, ro ck libwa, n;n e lifungola, a k ey lifuta p ay. lifulu, dust. ligbom a folly, a fool. likabo, g ift p o rti o n share lib e rality. likabo moto na b e n eficenl p e r so n. likaiya, to b a cc o likaka, foo t paw likamba, puni s hm e nt. likambo, an affair, pal ave r l a w suit, di s c ourse longa lik;imbo, t,) g ain a p alave r. kita likambo, to lo se a p a l aver. kata likambo, to d e cide a pal ave r sembola likambo, to judge a palaver. likamu, linkamu, fibr e o f palm nut s likanga a w a tch l ikata a hand. likei, a n e gg. likelele a g ra sshopper. likelemba, p art b y part. libeke, po t (u se d for palm o il). likekuma, s tamm e rin g likemba, b a n a n a likia, t o hope likino, g r ee d. likoba a pillow, cu hi o n likobo, pro s titution. likolo, h e.tven, above, t o p likolo na -na, upon above. J

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tikolo na, superior, up river. likololo, a toad. likombi, a spinster. likomboko, a broom, brush, plane likondo, a plantain. likongo, a spear, hoe. 134 likonji, a prop to support a roof, king post. likosi, handcuff likuba, cartridge belt. likumu, homage. likwala, tribal mark, Bangala tribe. likwanda, a wrestle. lilako, sheath. lilala, an orange, lemon. lilange, an orange. lilebo, a Borassus palm. lilelembe, a hawk. lililisa, a wind0w. lilingi, a picture, shadow lililingi, shadow, picture. lilita, grave. liloba, a question, word, speech. liloki, witchcraft. lilongo, dish, plate. lilongo, hip. lilusu, hole, an opening, small window. lima, to die out as candle, be quenched. limba, to forget, be pardoned. limba, to cheat, pretend, feign, ensnare. limbembeli, jar, pot. limbisa, to mislead, humbug, dupe. limbisa, to absolve, pardon, abolish. limbola, to demonstrate, explain, prove, reveal, interpret. limbola lokuta, to disprove. limbola ntina, to explain a thing. limbusu, waste. limekinya, faith. limelo, size. limisa, extinguish, quench. limpa, bread. limpati, a feast. Jina, a name.

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linda, to s ink lindisa, to s ubmerge. 135 linga, to want, desir e, l ove, wish for. linga, t o bind, ro ll u p, wrap u p, s u rround, swa ddl e, wind, fold, cord Lip. linga na lobala, to f e nc e in lingana, to em brace. lingangu, a l eaf (of a book). lingatana, to roll up, be e ntwin ed. lingato, pin cers. lingisa, Lo allow. lingitinya, to e ntwine, twist. lingembo, a rafter lingenda, a thi ck st i ck lingola, mango. lingola, to unbind, unfold, u nra vel. lingomba, soc i ety, church, asse mbly. lingongo, a vera nd a h (at the e n d of t h e hons e). lingongo, a s h eet of paper. linkeke, a bamboo. linkembo, spl endo ur linkeme, guinea fowl. linu, tooth. lipa, to plaster a wa ll. lipapu, wing lipata, a cl o u d. lipeke, a river palm. lipendu, port e r age. lipoli, a s h ou l der basket. lipombwa, a l eap lipuka, a basket lisako, a sa lut at i on. lisala, e mploymen t. lisala, pla ntation, garden, cult i vated field. lisanga, maize. lisangu, wine. lisano, a game, play. lisanola, a comb. lisapo, a sto r y, fab l e, parable. lisasamba, armpit. lisasi, cartridge. lisasu, saucepan. liseke, horn (to blow). lisenginya, temptation lisoko, a nus, b ack. Jz

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lisoloko, conversation. lisongoli, soup. lisopo, intestine, entrail. liso eye. 136 lisurnba, a bird's crest, headdre ss, tuft of hair. lisurnu, sin, crime. lisusa, a crease. lisusu, again. liswe, a knot. lisweswe, a duck. litadi, a stone, rock. litarnbala, a towel, handkerchief. litarnbi, footprint, stride. liteyo, a sermon, les so n. litina, 4-8 fathoms (of cloth) litingbo, a bow. litondi, gratitude, thanks. litondo, purlin, beam litoi, an ear. litoko, a spoon. litoko, a native mat. litongi, slander. litongo, knot. litotoko, shoulder. litufane, a brick. lituku, an a bcess. litungulu, an onion. litutu, a bruise, tumour, knob, lump, knot of wood. litwaya, serviette. liwa, death, epidemic. liwalatala, a lizard liwanda, a sham fight liya, to eat, feed, devour, consume, spend. liya rnosolo, to waste money. liyebu, mushroom. liyisa, to feed. liyita, grave. liziba, a spring of water. loba, to say, pronounce, talk, speak. loba lokuta, to lie. loba rnpwernpwe, to ,vhi sper. lobambe, a monitor lizard. lobana, to converse, to chat.

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137 lobala, an enclosure, fenced in p l ace, hedge, fence. lobalaka, f ence. lobaloba, chatter. lobangu, fast, speed, haste, quickness. lobangu, na, quick! kende lobangu, to run. lobasi, an arrow. lobebu, lip. lobeki, saucepan lobela, to tell. lobete, a blow, hour. lobi to-morrow, yesterday. lobiko, perpet u a l permanent. lobiko na lobiko, everlasting. loboko, an arm, a fathom (of cloth, etc.). lobotama, a birth. lobo, lo fish. lofungola, a l ock, pad l ock. loi, a river. loka, to bewitch, cast a spe ll. lokandu, a fish trap. lokasa, a leaf of a tree lokata, a division. lokele, spoon, s hell, oyster. lokendu, a journey. lokenge, a side. loketu, a cough. lokesu, a cough. lokiki, eyebrow. loko to bewitch lokoi, firewood. lokola na, eq u a l to. lokola, a like. lokole, a drum. lokoma, a tribal mark, cicatrix. lokombi, a mu s ical in stru m ent, a gong. lokoso, l ust, covetousness, g r eed lokota, langu age. lokulu, a leg. lokumu, famo u s, hon o ur respect. lokunda, a forest. lokungi, a mosquito lokuta, a l ie.

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138 lokuta, na, false lokwa, hard h earted, prejudiced against. Jolanda, blindness. lole, beard, (pl. nzole). lolemo, tongu e. Jolenge so r t kind, form, figure, nature of a t hing, el1ual i ty. lolenge na, a lik e. lolenge moko na, equal to. lolenge nzotu, sex lolisa to fire, ligh t, set on fire. Joma, impe rtinenc e. Jombo, to induce, r equire. lomeko, a scale, rule, measure. lomongi, indolence, l aziness Iona, to cultivate, plant, sow seeds. Jondimu, a lim e. londelengi, flattery, guile, hypocri sy. longa, to declare innocent, dom i nate gam a lawsuit, overcome, pre,>ail, triumph. longanga, medicine. longembu, an umbrella, parasol. longibinya, to adjust. longisa, to acquit, exonerate, declare innocent, give rea son Jongo, to marr y Jongobana, to be favourable. longola to abolish, take away, cl~ducl, carry away, extract, subtract, remo ve efface, turn out, get up, awaken. longongo, taion, claw. longwa, to go away, quit, retire, change po sition, remove, awake, gel away. longwa nzela, to get out of the way. longwela, to depri ve. lontunga, a needle. looko, a deaf p e r so n. loposo skin, husk, peel, she ll, bark of a tree, rind. lopataka, a blow for anger. lopete, a ring lopembe, fog, mist. losako, salutat i on. losambo, prayer. loseba, whistle; benda loseba, lo blow a whistle (of s teamer). losekwa, resurrection. loso, rice. Iota, to dream.

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Iota lo scamp e r away. Jotanga a reading. lotebu, a razor. loternele, a stop. Joto, a skin disease about the neck. 139 lotorno, occupation, task, fun c tion, duty, wo r k. Jototo, a s park. Jotuna, a question. Iowa, pe s til ence lowela, to quarrel. loyernbu, a h ymn. loyiba, a robbery. loyina, spi te, hatred. lua to vo mit. lubola, t o discharge cargo. lubwa, to di se mbark. luk~, to requir e, look for, search for, seek. luka, to row, paddle. lukana, to see k each other. lula to covet. lulela, to e nvy. lurnba, to give out a s m e ll. lurnbuta, to sce nt. lungu, a basket, s iev e for rice. iunsala, a feather. luta, to drag. lutola to di ves t, strip, liberale, unclothe, unbind l oose n, relax; lutola bilarnba, to undress lutoa, to s hed, (a s kin, as snake). lutwa, to b e detached, loosen. Ma! Lak e h o l d rnabangi, l e prosy. rnabe, evil, bad, ill. rnabele liver. rnabele, milk rnabeli, mud, soil. rnafuta, fat, grease, oil. rnafuta. na ngornbo, butter. rnagazini a store. rnai, water, sap, liquid, juice; sopa rnai, to waler. rnai na rnonana, the sea. rnai na rnwindu, ink.

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mai na ngai, vin egar. maina, pus. makala, charcoal, coa l, cinders. n:iakasi, a nger, st r ength, hard severe, v i o lent tenacity, boldnes,, force, power. makelele, noise, upro ar. makelele be quiet! hold you r tongue! makeli, rust. makila, blood. makini, machine. makonzi, studding for a mud house. makundela, a funeral g ift maladi, sick ness. malamu, good, excellent. malasi, rancid s mell. mali, oil, g r ease. malita, burying grou nd. mama, mother mama, to tou c h mambi, pl. of zambi, affa irs. mamia, clew. manga, wine. manga-manga, s mile mangadi, soda. mangei, horror. manteka, butler. manyola, to remember, m editate. manyolela, to r eflect, ponder over. manzi, mat. masa, to begin, commence, start. masanga, w ine. masasi, ammunition masau-masau, spotted. masotu, soil, mud. masua, stea mer. masua na mokili, train. mata, to press. matabishi, gratuity. ma tarn bi, track of anima ls; bwaka matambi, Lo stride. matandala, hail. matela, t o squash. matiti, grass. matono-matono, variegated, .s pollecl matu, pl. of bwatu, boats, canoes. matutu na-, back of a hou se.

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mawa, pity, gri e f ; yoka mawa, to regret; yokisa mawa, Lo sa dd e n mayani, grass. mayele, wisdom, c unning, a ptitude, a rtfuln ess, gui l e, talent prudence, sk ill, intelligence. mayita, burying ground. mbaka na boso, bow o f canoe. mbaka na mbisa, s t ern o f canoe. mbanda, a s tron g s pirit. mbangu, s p eed. mbasi, arrow. mbati, tro u sers. mbeka, a l oan. mbele, knife. mbembo, a n a ffair. mbenga, a valley. mbeto, a mat, bed. mbila, palm tree. mbindo, dirty. mbinga, t hickn ess. mbisa, na ... na, behind mbiji a n a nim a l, m eal. mboka, native place, town vill ai;e. mboko, a nch o r mbolo, bread. mbolo, fruit. mboli, dow n river. mbonda, drum mbondo, poison. mbongo, brain. mbongo, beach, landin g place, s hore. mbongo, pot for coo lin g water. mboti, good. mbotela, a c hild by s l ave m o th e r bas t ard. mbubu, dumbn ess, a mul e mbula, a y ear, rain. mbuli, a ntelop e mbunzu, an albinc. mbwa, a dog. mbwei, g r ey hair. meka, to attempt, try e nd eavou r t as t e, prove, p e r seve r e, s tri ve, measure. mekana, to compete w ith any o ne. mekinya, to r e ly upon. mekisa, to encourage.

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mekolela, to imitate. melana, to scatter. mele, to drink, swallow, absorb, consume. mele makaiya, to smoke to bacco. melisa mai, to soak memisa, to carry on the shoulder. mesa, mass. mesene, to acc u s tom oneself, h abi tu a te. metelo, a measure, rule. meya:, fire. meza, a table. mfufu, flour. mfulu, foam. miakela, to scaLter. mibali, two. mikolo mosusu, someLimes. mikolo yonso, always. milolo street with hous es on both s ides. minei, four. mingi, much, severa l, abundant. miniti, minute. minyola, Lo powder, bruise corn. miso, vision; na miso na batu, publicly. minya, urine; leka, or simba minya, Lu urinaLe. mitanu, five. moasi, a fema l e, wife. mobali, mal e husband mobali na ndongo, a polygamist. mobali, strong swimmer. mobangi, th e side ( o f body). mobateli, a guard, sentry. mobelo, motive. mobekfsi, a lend er. mobeko, a law, rule, precept. mobembe, a s n a i l. mobembo, a journey. mobesu, fresh, unripe raw. mobeti, a bea ter. mobikisi, a maintainer, sav iour. mobimba, the whole, complete. mobimbi, trunk (body), trunk of a tree. mobimbi, a nonsw immer.

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143 moboka, a dam. moboko, a foundation. moboma, a sacrifice, victim. mobongetela, c u t bank of river, a cliff mobota, c hi ldbirth. moboti, a woman with ch i ldren, a mother mobotisi, a midwife. mobu, a year. mobulu, dusL, cliso n lcr. modidi, darkness. mofeni, a hand le. mofuku, a sac k. moi, na moi, carefully, discreetly. moi, s un, s unli g ht, dayligh t h eal of un. moi motani, day-br ea k moi na mutu, midday. moimi, a miser. moimi, na moimi, niggardly. moindu, a negro mojaka, a wat e r pot. mojimbi, a cheat, trickster, impostor. mojimi, young e r brother or sister. mokakali, hghtning. mokalo, an ex cuse; tiya mokalo, to make an excuse. mokangami, a prisoner. mokati, scissors. mokeka, s tyle of head dres s moke-moke, very little, few. mokelele, verandah. mokengeli, a spy. mokili, land. I mokilo, father or mother-inl aw. mokiri, floor, s torey. moko, one; ye moko, he, himself. moko moko, one biy one. mokolo, night, day; mokolo nini? when? mokolo na mokolo, daily mokombosi, a chimpanzee. mokondo, a ta il. mokongo, the back. mokonzi, a king, chief mokosi, a c h eat.

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mokosoli a sav i o ur. mokuka a drum. mokuli, a rich man, receiver. mokulu, an adult. : mokoli s tring cord, cable. mokundwa, a strong spirit mokusa a seat. mokusi, sho r t. mokwa, sal t. mokwe, short. mokwela, a h eron. molai high, l o ng, L a ll. molakisi, guide, teach e t molako, fishing camp. molamu exce llent, good. molangi glass, bottle, gauge g l ass. molangu, a clim b in g g irdl e molata dress molato, a s h oe, sandal. mole a nerv e moleki a b ir d molenge a rafter. molili, blindness, darkness, s h ade. molimi, younger bro t h e r or s i s t e r. molimo, a s pirit so ul ghost. molinga, mozinga, s m o k e. molobi a spea k er. mololi, flame. 144 mololo a streel w ith house s on one side moloki, w i tch, w izard, demon. molomi, a husband. molondu a cotton tree molongo a lin e, row. molongo, the world, universe. moloni a sower molsoli, a c ivet cat. moluka, a voyage. moluki, a paddl e r mwer. moluku, elbow molungi s weat. mombai a toothpic k. mombala, a h andle. mombale, a debt. mombongo, trade.

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145 momboto, the natur e o f a thin g seed. mombuma, a pill, se ed. mombondo, a boiler, boiler funn el. mome nyongo, a d ebtor. momfwemfwe, a murmur momo, t o g rope. mompe, th e wind. mompele, a m a n o f c h a ra ct er. mompepe, t h e w ind. mompepe, a ir. monana, t o a pp ea r b e v i s ibl e monana, s alt monanga, a chi ef. mondele, a whit e man mondinge, a b et ; kata mondinge, to bet. mondule, a t rump e t, b u g le. monene, b ig, i m port a nt, l a rge. mongala, a c h a nn e l. monganga, a re m e d y m e di c in e, witc h do c t or. mongenzu, a tu be, pip e mongi, a be g g a r mongi-mongi, dila t orin e ss. mongo, t o dall y loit e r dawdl e, lag. mongoli, g h ost. mongololo, a ditch, t r e n c h mongombo, h eav y brass co ll a r worn by wom e n mongo, a so rt of a nt e l o p e mongongo, t h e t hro at. mongtna, a n e n e m y moninga, a fri e n d, e qu al. monisa, to ex hibit, m anifest s h ow, r eveal. monjimbiliki, a v in e monkaka, a crack, fiss ur e s lit. monkama, a hundr e d. monkanda, a p a p e r l ette r, p age, l e af, bo o k, s i g n monkanda na Nzambe, B i b le. monkima, a s i g h monkoko, s u ga r, s u ga r ca n e monkoli, a n ulcer. monkwa, monkua, a bon e monuna, a n o ld m an. monoko, m o uth, voice h o l e, e ntran c e, door o p e ning me ssage, lan g uage; toma monoko,. to se nd a message mono, r e m ed y m e di c ine; mono kosima, a purge

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monsekeleke, a white ant: monsinga, canon. monsisa, artery, vein. monsoli, a jackal. montika, remainder. montoki, a frog. monyali, son or daughter-in-law. monyama, rainbow. monyama, a fishing net. monyele, sunrise, daybreak. monyoko, torture. monyolo, a chain. monzenga, pretty, youthfulness beauty. monzoi, a bee. monzube, a thorn. moombo, a slave. mopali, a wide road. mopanzi, a rib, side of the body. mopesekele, cockroach. mosala, work, task, occupation. mosali, a workman, labourer, servant. mosanda, tall, high, long. mosapi, finger mose1, a finger, toe. mosemboli, a judge, just man. mosenji, a native of a place. mosenzeli, a guard. moseso, a salutation. mosika, far, distant, remote. mosikitali, mosquito net. mosi, inhabitant, native. mosio, file. mosokoloko, a cockroach. mosolo, money, pay, riches, wages, value, cargo ; mosomani, a saw. mosona, cassava pudding made in a long roll. mosumbi, a buyer. mosuni, flesh, muscle. mosusu, another, more. moswa, a ramrod. motako, brass wire, a "rod," tax. motani, pale, grey coloured, light. motau, feeble, fragile, d@licate, soft, weak, tender, flexible.

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moteke, dried cassava root. motekisi, a merchant. 147 motema, a heart; sundisa motema, to please. motemu, new. moteyi, a teac her. motiki, an heir. motindo, sort, kind. moto, a fire, heat, steam. moto, pl. mioto, star. moto, cand l e motoba, six. motomba, a bush rat. motombi, a porter. motomi, a se nd er. motomolo, an e lder brother or s ister. motondele, thanks. motondo, a beam motongi, a builder. motu, a man, person; motu na ewolo, a profligate motu na likabo, libera l person motu na londelengi, a hypocrite. motu mokalo, a shi f ty person. motu na mpokotoi, a s tubborn person. motuba, fat. motuli, a b l acksmith. motumoli, a tyrant. motuya, a price, s um expense, va lu e, co st; na motuya, precious. mouli, breath, steam moyekoli, a di sc i ple. moyibi, a thief, robber. moyemi, a creator. moyoyo, mucus. mozalisi, a creator. mozika, a kinsman. mozimi, younger brother or s ister. mozwi, a rich man mozuri, good. mpaka, copal, re s in. mpamba, nothing, vainly, zero, grat i s, abortive, u se less. mpambi, a sor t of antelope. mpampuka, an i ll egi timate chi l d mpanga, handcuff. mpata, s heep.

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mpau, shovel, spade. mpe, and, also. mpela, high water season. mpema, breath. mpembe, white, whiteness, ivory mpende, calf of the leg. :~!~z~, }alone, self, solitary. mpi, fatigue, weariness; yoka mpi, to be tired. mpika, narrowness. mpiko, courage, patience; yika mpiko, to be patient. mpimbo, switch. mpio, cold, co ld ness, sharp. mpisoli, teardrop. mpo, an affair, palaver, discourse, fable, parable, question, speec h, s tory, word. mpo nini? why? mpo, rat, mouse. mpobombo, moustache. mpokwa, afternoon, evening. mpokotoi, obstinacy. mpomba, an adult, elder. mpongi, sleep. mposa, wish, desire, lust. mposa na mai, thirst; yoka mposa, to desire. mposo, ration. mposoko, flour. mpota, a wound, sore, ulcer, defect, flaw. mpula, foam. mpululu, lungs. mpunda, horse, donkey. mpunzo, cassava root, ( soa ked) muka, to pluck. mula, a wave. mundule, a horn. munsai, a toe, finger ; mutu, a head mwa, littl e. mwala, to he amazed astonished. mwambi, eight. mwana, a child, sprout. mwana moasi, a daughter. mwana mobali, a son. mwanza, a roof.

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mwasi, (na bolongani), wife. mwasi, a female. mwasaso, a yawn. mweka, a tobacco pipe mwekele, a confined woman. mwesi, heat of s un. mwete, a tree. mwiki-mwiki, honey mwiko, whe e l. mwinda, a l amp, l antern mwindu, b l ack, hlu e mvwi, grey h a ir. Na, of, in on, by, with, and. na lobiko, e t e rnal. an makasi, firmly. na mpamba, nothing na ngele, down river. na ngolu, vigorously, energetically na kala kala, old times. na kati, in the middle na kati-kati, in the middle 14-9 na nko, witting l y, vo lun taril y, purposely na nee, down. na nsomo, formidab le. na ntaka na, a m o ng. na?-who? nainu, yet. nana, to go up riv er. nani? who? nanola, to s tretch, enlarge, open. nbangu, haste. nee, ground, earth; na nee na, lower than, under. ndai, cath; simba ndai, to take an oath; lai ndai, to take an oath. ndaka, a promise; tika ndaka, to promise. ndako, a house, cabin, lair. ndako na elamba, tent. ndako na bodongo, wattle a nd daub hou se ndako na monyolo, prison. ndako na Nzambe, church. ndala, an t ; lcer. ndanda, outside. ndanda, :111 o rg an (musical instument), an accordeon ndanga, bail, pledge, surety; tiya ndanga, to pledge. K

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nde, but. ndeki, a bird. ndeko, a friend, companion, brother kinsman, comrade, s ister. ndele, a kind of palm. ndele, the day before yesterday, the day after to -m orrow. ndelo, a frontier, limit, boundary. ndembe, time. ndenga, a widower. ndenge, pl. of lolenge, sorts, kinds, species. ndimu, a citron. ndikana, to be stained. ndobo, a fish hook. ndoi, a namesake r ndole, a beard. ndongi, a sort of ant. ndongo, pepper ndongo, a harem. ndoti, dream; ndoti na nsomo, nightmare. ndumba, a fishtrap. ndunda, a flower, pl a nt, vegeta ble. neka, to evacuate. nene, to grow big netola, to lift. netola, to raise. ngai, I. rigai, kidney. ngai, acicl, rancid, sharp to ta s t e. ngampango, a cat. ngamn, sharp to taste. ngandi, a sort of antelope. ngandi, a concubine ngandu, a crocodile. ngandu, a ladder, ste p, stai r s. nganga, to cry out, scream, shout, exclaim. nganga, a doctor. nganzi, a concubine. ngau, a grave. ngele, down river. ngenge, to sparkle. ngili, a taboo, prohibited thing. ngizi, a taboo ngoli, string. ngolu, energy, mercy, grace.

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ngoma, yam. ngomba, a mountain hill. ngombe, cloth. ngombele, pig ngombo, beef, buffalo. ngonde, crocodi l e ngondo, a maid e n nguba, pea nut. ngubu, hippopotamu s ngulu, pig nguna, e nmity. nguma, a boa constrictor. ngumba, a pig. 151 ngunga, a bell, drum, cl oc k watch; bete ngunga, to ring t he bell. ngunga na nkuni, a space o f fir ewood. nguya, p ower, force, st rength ngwa, an adze. ngwende, a chair, sea t. ngwi, steadfast. nini? what? njanga, midday njete, a tree, pole njika, kernel. njo, s nake. njoku, an e l ephant. njoto, t h e body njuli, a tear-drop; tanga njuli, to cry nkai, a paddle oar. nkaja, a sister. nkaka, narrowness, hindrance. nkaki, lightning, thunder. nkala, a fis htrap. nkalanga, a peanut. nkamba, cord, string, cable, stra p, belt. nkanda, a nger rage, spite. nkangi, acid, bitt e r, sha rp to taste, sour. nkani.,an antelope. nkanya, a fork, rake. nkanza, disobedience. nkasa, anxiety nkasa, poison nkata, a pillow. nkeka, a hill a mountain. nkele, a ng er, spite; yoka nkele, to be vexed K2

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nkelele, a row, clamour, noise, uproar, shout, cry. nkema, a monkey. nkembo, glory, splendour. nkeni, a g l ass, cup. nkita, doubt. nkingo, neck. nko, malice. nkoi, a le opard. nkolo, a possessor, proprietor, lor d, master. nkoma, tribal mark, 'cicatrix. nkombe, hawk nkobe, hold (of a steamer). nkoko, a grandfather, grandmother. nkoli, a crocodile. nkombo, name. nkonango, a tobacco pipe. nkondo, a ring or line of people. nkongolo, a millipede. nkonoko, a cat. nkosi, an organ, accordeon. nkosi, a lion nkubi, a rainbow. nkuli, h ealthy. nkumba, a tortoise nkumbu, name. nkundi, a funeral. nkuni, firewood. nkkun~a, I down, small body hairs, wool. n unJa, I nkua, a bone, ske le ton. nkwala, fingernail, claw, talon. no, to rain. noki, suddenly. noki, promptly, quickly. nsai, plea s ur e, j oy. nsaki, dream. nsamba, roof. nsamba, poison. nsambu, seven. nsango, news. nse, bottom, earth. nsedi, 1 flea. nseli, r louse. nsenjeli, prison.

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nsese, a kind of p a l m nsete, nail .or s cr e w, butto n nsima, na, b e hind. 153 nsimbiliki, a kind of native rabbit. nsinga, c o rd st ring, t wine, cabl e, rope. nsoi, expec t or a tion, s pittl e nsoki, though. nsolo, smell ; bimisa nsolo, t o g ive out: s m e ll. nsomba, frin ge. nsombe, p a lm n u ts. nsombi, bl ac k ant s nsombu, a w ild pig. nsomi, fre e a fre e man nsomo, fri g h t d i s m ay, f ea r t e rror; yoka nsomo, to be scared; y okisa nsomo, t o t e rrif y nsoni, s h a m e, disg race; pese nsoni, di s h o nour. nsonge, moo n. nsonge, p o in t, s ummit, to p nsonge na libele, n i ppl e.' nsuka, a corn e r a n g l e ex tr e mity e nd. nsusu, fow l c h i c k en; nsusu,mobali, c ock. nsuni, flesh. nswe, nswi, hair. ntaba, s heep ntaka, na, in th e midd le. ntako, t ax tribu te ntangwa, a cl oc k wa t ch. ntei, th e ce ntre. ntei, na .. na, betwee n w i thin ntela, bri g ht ye ll ow ban a n a. ntembe, d o ub t. ntika, r e m a ind er. ntina, r eason, purp ose m otive, m e anin g ca u se ntina'te, b e cau se ntina, a tr ee root, b ase. ntoko, dex t e r i t y ntoma, a n a n ge l m e~senger. ntom,o fun c ti o n. ntong a a n ee dl e ntongo, t h e m orn i n g ; na ntongo mpenja, e arly in th e m o rning; ntongo etani, d ay br ea k. ntuba, a goat. ntuka, a pled ge

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nua, to drink. nuisa mai, to soak (in wat e r) nuka to pluck, gather. reap. nunga, to suck. nungisa, to suckle, nurse. nusa, to snuff. nyala, to b e filled up nyalisa t o fill. nyama meat, a nimal. 154 nyanga, to shake, be cured, be he a led. nyangia to h eal. nyangela, to welcome. nyango mother. nyangola to liquefy, melt. nyanya, to carry, swim. nyata, to squeeze out moisture, wring out, press down. nyatela, to bruis e, crush, stamp, press down, squas h. nye entirely, completely, calm, immovable, peace, quiet. nyei, exc rem ent, faeces, dung; !eke nyei, Lo evacuate nyenzinyenzi, a grasshopper. nyikana, to shiver, tremble. nyikinya, to stir. nyila, to knead. nyingana, t o vac illat e, agitate, s h a ke, s tir. nyoka, a sna k e. nyokolo to tonnent, tease, pro voke, persecute, oppress, vex, harass, ill t r eat. nyomita, to tickl e nyongo, a debl. nzala, hunger; yoka nzala, to be hungr y nzali, a buff a l o. nzamba, forest. Nzambe, Nyambe, God. nzambu, adultery. nzela, a path, road, opening. nzembo, pl. of loyembo, hymns. nzenze, a stringed musical instrument. nzeneneke, a witness. nzokandi, neverthel e ss rizongi, bile nzongolongo, finger nail. nzoto, body; nzoto kili-kili, g ood he alth. nzua jealousy.

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Obwa, to emerge. oka, to hear, feel. oka nkele, to be angry okisa nkele, to anger. omana, to quarrel. omwa, to rave. 155 ondo, to woste a way, dwindle, grow thin. oto, to warm the hands oyo, this. Pai, pie. pai-pai, the paw paw fruit. paka, a cat pakola, to anoint. pala:ta, si l ver. palela, to rebuke, reprimand, scold. palangana to scatte,, disperse. palinginya, to scatter, to d i spe r se. pama, to perspire. pamela, to reprimand, reprove. pandola, to pu 11 to pieces. pangama, to be engrossed. pangusa, to wipe. panza } d' d b I 1 panja,' to 1sm1ss, nve away, arns 1, ex, e. papa, to chip, adze papola, t o peel. paradiso paradise pasola, to cleave, crack, split, saw lengthwi se, tear. pasoa, to be cracked. pata to accuse, in~ulpa te, denounce. patatalu, s mooth, even. pekele, to beg. pela, to clutch. pelisa, to light. pema, to breathe rest. pende, to divert. penepe, }next near. penepene, pengoa (pengwa), to shun, lose one s way, deviate. pengola, evade, divert, mislead, turn aside. pepe, to blow (of wind). pese, to give, offer, bes t ow, grant, supply. pese libumu, or, zemi, to impregnate

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pepa, lo winnow. peto, cle an. petoa, petwa, Lu be pure. petola, L o clean cl eanse, purify. piga, to fight, flog, chastise. pika, to honour. pika, to prick. pikola to pull o ut. pila moko, like, lik e Lo, the sam e as, uniform. pila mosusu different. pima to refose, repulse. pimisa lo reject. pimbo a w hip st i ck. piti, blue black. pito, lath, small stick used for \,.alls in mud h o u ses polele, clearly. polisa, to putrif y, rot. polo, Lo be rotten, putrified. polola Lo un cloth e, peel, s kin s trip. pombwa, to leap skip. pondu leaf of cassava used as a vege table. pondo, to corm pt, rot. -ponga, to adjust, a rran ge, prepare, r epai r, pul in o rd er. pono, to choose, sorl, prefer. poto-poto, mud mmtar. potongo a t obacco pipe. pulisa, lo in'crease. pulusu, a handcuff, a policeman. puloa, t o shed skin, as snake. pumbwa, to fly. pun~a 1 to "i~ot p i llag e plunder. punJa, f punjoa, to bur s t out. pupa Lo winnow rice pupola, to dust. pusa, to exceed, excel, pass, vanquish, surpass. pusola, to divest, detach, flay peel, liberate, unbind. puswa, to be detached puturu, powder. Sa, Lea. saani, a p late, dish, bowl, basin. saboni, soap. sakola, to say, tell, acquaint, announce, inform, enjoin, set forlh, notify, declare.

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1~7 sala, to do, make, work, perform, labour sala alima, to level, straighten sala bulu bulu, to disarrange. sala nkanza, to disobey. salade, salad salela, to serve. salisa, to employ. samba, to plead. sambela, to pray; p l ead. sambola, to bless. sampata, a shoe, boot. sana, to play, joke. sanduku, a box. sangana, to mix. sanganisa, to heap up sangela, to inform, declare, enjoin, acq uaint, announce, n o tify, testify, tell. sango, father. !:iz~,}a moon, month, tax, tribute sanza, to vomit. sanola, to comb. I Sanzola, to extol. sapi wait! h o ld on sasa, to sift finely, s h ake rice {to cleanse it). sasaipi, imm ediate ly, now, suddenly. Satana, Satan. saw, red . se, o nly. se, bottom. se, to vomit. seba, to sha rpen seke, to laugh. sekisa, to am u se, deride sekwa, to revive. sekola, to revive, unmoor, push oft sekondi, a second. selimwa, to slip. sema, to thank. seme, to put in at a beach . semeke, a relation by-marr i age. sembe-sembe, smooth. sembo, distinct, clearly, plainly, stra ight, si ncerely. sembola, to rectify, set forth, straighten, smooth level .

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sembwa, to be just, sincere. senga, to need. senginya, to tempt senzele, a guard, sentry. senzele, to watch. sepela, to rejoice. sepelisa, to gladden, enliven, please, amuse. sesa, lo salute, greet. sese, to mince, carve meat, cut in pieces slice. shemisi, a shirt. sika, to plant. sika sikawa, now. sikawa, immediately. sikola, to redeem, set free, pawn, deliver. sikuli, school. sila, to finish, expire, exhaust, be accomplishod. silisa, to exhaust, enc.I, execute, complete, perfect, accomplish, spe nd. silisa likambo, to pronounce sentence. sima, to praise, admire. simamisa, to set a fallen thing upright. simba, to lay hold, grasp. simba ndai, to take an oath. simba nyei to evacuate. simbisa, to curb, restrain, repre ss. singa, to daub, rnb,' smear. sisa, to point a weapon at a person. sisola, to entrap, laugh at, trick, sco urge, mock. sitowa, store. soka, an axe, hatchet. sokia, to humiliate. soloda, a so ldier. soko, perhaps: if, probably, or; soko motu moko a nyon~ soko ... soko, either ... or. sokola, to remove. sokoto, to bore with a knife. sokwa, to remove. solo, certainly, truly. solo, abdomen, stomach. solo, to choose, prefer, select, so rt, disentangle. solola, to narrate, converse, chat. soma, to tie a knot in net making. sondeme, to squat. songolo, to sharpen to a point.

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songoa, to gush out. sono, to write. sopa, to spill, pour, sprinkle. sopi-sopi, disgusting. sosa, to bathe, wash. 159 sosolo, to discern, recognise, distinguish. sotoma, to squat. suka, to finish, limit. sukari, sugar. sukela, to support. sukisa, to end, achieve, accoinplish, finish, staunch sukola, to bathe, wash, clean. sukuta, to support, prop, stay. suma, to prick sumba, to buy sumbisa, to violate a person. sumbutana, to exchange. sunda, to go down, descend. sundisa, to lower, let clown. sunga, to help, aid, assist, succour. sungola, to wipe. swa, to sting, bite, expectorate, pour away. swa, to wrangle. swana, to wrangle, quarrel, dispute. swe, hair. swel~, to pour away, pour, sprinkle. Ta, to strike, shoot, throw, hit, dart, hurl. ta bondoki, to fire a gun. ta libako, to stumble. ta lisei, to sneeze. ta motindo, to make a law. takana, to meet, converge, come together. takanisa, to h eap up. takola, to collect a tax, recruit. tala! look! tala, lo v isit, look at, see. tala, lantern, lamp. talisa, to s how, exhibit, expose, point out, indicate talatala, a looking g las s tamba, to catch drops, parry. tambola, to walk, march. tambwisa, to move, tambwisa mpo, to publish abroad. tana, to shine, sparkle,

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tanda, to spread a cloth. tandola, to level, expose for sa le. tanga, to read, reckon, enumerate. tanga mituya, to calculate. tanga, to ooze, drip, suppurate. tanga mokila, to bleed. tangola, to take apart, separate. tangwa, to separate. tanisa, to polish, whiten, brighten. tata, father. tata, to begin, start. te, not, no. te, that. teke, to sell. tekwa, to tire. 16o teme, to get up, slop, stand; teme na nkondo to stand in line. temisa, to stand up, to erect, raise up. tena, to cut, maim, clip, amputate, saw, s lash. tenge, to lean, incline. tengeme, to Jean, incline. tengola, to limp. tenguma, to limp. teya, to teach. tia, to desce n d a river. tika, to forbear, excepl, desist from, forsake, discontinue, leave, allow, lel, abandon, permit, stop, pul. tikana, to survive. tikela, to forsake, stay; tikela mpamba,, lo be vacant. tilima, to exhaust oneself, cool down pacify tilimisa, to calm, tranquillise. tima, to dig, hoe. timba, to faint. timbiri, swirling current, whirlpool. tinama, to stoop. tinda, to send, command, push. tipoi, a rammock. tiya, to p lace, pul on, or in. tiya elaka, to fix a time. tiya nkelele, lo make an uproar. to, to grow, s prout. tobola, to peel. toi, excrement, faeces. toka, draw water, sweat, perspire. toko, to boil.

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toko, to grind. tola, to curse. toma, to dispatch, send. tomba, to look for, seek. tomba, to carry, raise, transport. tumbako, snuff, tobacco. tumbola, to lift, raise up. tombisa, to. e mb ark. tombo, to wish for. tona, to repudiate. 161 tonda, to be filled up, overflow, sat iated tondisa, to fill, satiate. tondo, to be grateful, reverence, thank. tondolo, to recog nise tonga, to sow, tie. tongo, to crow. tongo, to defame, slander tongola, to unti e, loosen. tongwa, to loosen tono, to rain, drip. tonyola, to give an enema. tosa, to obey, submit. tosinda, sulphur. toto, soil. tuba, to acc u se, denounce. tuba, to burst. tubana, to accuse each other tuba, tubela, to bore. tubela, to pierce. tubia, to pierce, penetrate. tu~a, to swear, curse, blaspheme. tuka, to sleep. tukia ntuka, to pawn. tula, to construct, forge tumba, to fire (a fire), burn, roast. tumbula, to punish. tumola, to illtreat, exasperate, contradict, plague, oppress, irritate, annoy, provoke, tease, cause sufferi ng, torment. tuna, to ask, question, interrogate, inquire, invoke. tunga, to lose fles h, grow thin, dwindle, waste away. tunga, t o weave. tunga, to build, construct, build a house. tungisa, to reduce, afflict, annoy, sadden, t o rm ent, trouble.

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tungola, to demolish, take down. tunwa, to blunt tuta, Lo mass;,,ge, crush, pound. tuta, to follow tutoa, to swell, bulge. tutuma, to sleep, repose tuya, to quote a price. 162 twa, to shoot a rapid, g o down with the current twa, to sprout. twa nsoi, to spit. twala to bring. Ula, to resemble ulana, to pit one s elf against, match oneself. umba, to steer, bend, stoop. umba libongo to kneel. umbola, to straighten. umela, to stay in a place, sojourn, abide, dally, linger. unga, to beg. usa, to throw uta, to come from. utisa, to appear. Visu, pl. of kisu, knives. Wa, to die, decay, succumb, expire peri s h wa na makei, to die with laughter. wa bonsinga, to swoon wala, to plane, scrape. walola, to scrape. wana, there. wapi? where? wata, to shiver, tremble watisa, to terrify. we, honey, jam wela, to quarrel, dispute. weni, here wolo, to plane. Ya, to come, arrive; ya nainu, to return yaka na, to bring. yaka, a bead. yakia, to lay ~ on. yala, to be, dwell, exist, live, sit. yamba, to receive, consent, accept, acquiesce, believe, adopt, agree rely upon.

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yamba, to steer. yambisa, to convince, persuade yambo, previously. yambola, to confe ss, own. yanga mpota, to ulcerate. yangana, to assemb l e, gather toget h er. yangana, to dispute. yanginya to compo und heap together, .lighten a boat, assemb le. yango, it. yatola, to s plit, saw l e ngthwi se. yatwa, to s plit. ye, yeye, him, her; ye moko himself, herself. yeba, to know co mpreh end, u nderstand, perceiv e yebana, to beco me known yebinya, to recommend. yeko, until. yekola, to learn. teach. yela, to bring. yele, shot. yemba to s ing. yembeyembe, native skirt. yembisa, to accompany with music. yema, to breathe, dry up. yemisa, to dry up. yengebene, to b e just, e qual to, ea rnest, coincide, adapted to. yengibinya to adopt, propor t i on yese, a d i strict, country. yesene t o be deficient mi ss one another, vary. yetela to come to. yeya, to bless. yiba, to steal, plunder, defraud rob, pillage yika, to stop up. yikana, to increase, abound yikinya, to accumu late, multiply. yikisa, to stop up. yina, to detest, loathe, hate, abhor, despis e. yina, immerse, s t eep. yind isa, to obscure a thing , blacken. yoka; to understand, suffer, perceive, comprehend, f ee l, hear. yoka mutu, to have headache; yoka mposa, to era ve for. yokisa mawa to afflict yoka nsomo, to fear. yoka nkele, to be angry. yokamela, to li sten to.

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yokela, to grant. yokela mawa, to have compassion yokisa mawa, to grieve. yokisa nsoni, to dishonour. yola, to ripen. yombo, to sweep yonso, the whole, all, total. yotolo, to twist. yotonginya, to make crooked. yotongono, to be crooked. yuka, to dam. yula, t o breathe, grow ripe. yuma, to grow ripe, issue. yumba, to bend yumbwa, yumboa, to jump, fly, leap. yumwa, to awake. yumola, to awaken. yunda, to cork up. yunela, to envy. yunzola, to contravene, revolt. yutato, expiate, be satiated, idemnify. yuta, to come from. yutisa, to satiate. Zala, t.o be, live, dwell, exist, sit. zala na, to have. zala nye silence zalisa, to make, establish, seat. zambi, because, reason. zambi, a discourse, an :i.ffair. zandu, a market place. zele, an hour. zelenge ne, to turn round. zelinginya, to turn round. zelo, a sandbank. zami, a foetus. zengola, to convert, turn. zengwa, to come back, turn, capsize. ziba, to close, dam. zibola, to open. zila, to wait, wait for. zima, to put out, be quenched. zimba, to defraud, feign.

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z1m1sa, l o ext in guish, quench. zinda, t o overflow, s ink. zindisa, to immer se, s ubm e rg e, s ink a thing. zinga, to wind, s w ad dl e suiround. zingola, t o sep a rat e, unfold. zomanu, a quarrel. zonga, t o r et urn zongisa, to se nd back, pu t back, return, r esto re. zumi, ten. zunguwa, p e r s pira t i o n zwa. to get, tak e, acqui re, r ecover a t hing, gain, h o ld, possess, obta in, find. zwa zemi, to conceive, be pregnant. zwa libula, to inh e rit. zwana, to com e together, meet toge ther. Corrections and Additions. ap pe a rance elongi. artery, monsisa. acc u se, funda. boiler, mombundo. button, bofungu. bellows, nkuka; to b l ow, luta nkuka. bucket, ewongong:olo. bark cloth, likuta break v. bunya. build, v t unga. cou ntry yese. co r k up v yunda. clothe, v. latisa. dream, ndoto, nsaki. dirty, \ epotu. d1sgustmg, J dung, etc., batuba. eve ning eloli. edge, boputu. e mbrace, bumela. eye, liso f e rr y, lipendu. furrow, mongololo, pl. mingololo. f east !i11lpati. l eec h, zongi, pl. nsongi. lau g ht e r, ntolo. L

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i66 CHAPTER II. A. The Metric System. metre, meta, plur. bameta. are, ale, bale. stere, setele, basetele. gramme, gulama, bagulama. litre, lit a, balita. kilo-, kilo-, bakilo-, IOOO. ltecto-, eketo-, beketo-, IOO. deca-, deka-, badeka-, IO. did, desi-, badesi-, O'l, centi-, senti-, basenti-, O'OI. milli-, mili-, bamili-, 0. EX. -.entiare, senti-ale, p lur. basenti-ale.

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167 B. Divisions of Time. The names of the months, days, etc., are given in the forms which result from the native attempt to pronounce the French names. I have followed this plan because any method of transliteration by a regular interchange of letters yields some very cumbrous forms. THE JJ!IONTHS. Janua1y, Janwie. February, Fevie. Marclt, Malasi. Aprz"l, Avili. May, Me. June, Juni. July, Juli. August, Aou. September, Setambe. October, Oto be.-Novpnber, Novambe. December Desambe. DAYS OF THE WEEK. Monday, Lundi, Mosala na boso. Tuesday, Madi, ,,. mibali. WednesdaJ', Mekedi, misato. Thursday, Jodi, mme1. Friday, Vendedi, mitanu. Saturday, Samedi, Mokolo na mposo. Sunday, Dimanche, Eyenga. L2

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'168 THE HOURS. Hour is rendered by lobete, pl. mbete; or zele; the qualifying numeral follows the noun, as lobete moko, zele moko, one /tour; mbete mibale, two /tours, and so on. NATIVE TIME TERMS. The following are the mo s t important of the divisions of time which have nativ e equivalents. Year, mobu, pl. mibu; mbula. M ontlt, sanja, pl. basanja. Week, eyenga, pl. biyenga. Day, mokolo, pl. mikolo . Hour, lobete, pl. mbete; zele. Daybreak, monyele. Early morning, na ntongo penja. Morning, na ntongo. Mz'd-day, njanga, moi na mutu. Afternoon,}na mpokwa. Evening, eloli. Niglzt, butu. Now, sikawa, sasaipi. Day after to-morrow,} d 1 DaJ1 before yesterday, n e e. To-day, lelo. To-morrow, lobi } e terday, lobi. Every day, mikolo yonso. Sunday, eyenga. Workda }mokolo na lisala~ Y, mosala.

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CHAPTER III. USEFUL PHRASES. zambi nde? mpo nini? what is the matter? what do you want? motuya nde? motuya nini? what is the price? mitako kwe? mitako boni? how many brass rods? nsusu kwe? nsusu boni? how many fowl s? ntaba kwe? or boni? how many goats? nkumbu na yo nini? what is your name? bakoloba nini? what do they say? mondele wapi? wapi mondele? where is the white man? mindele bazali? are the white men about? mboka na yeye wapi? where is his town?

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ooki? or, oyoki? do you hear? mpo nini ooki te? 170 why did you not listen? okolinga, nabete yo? do you wish me to beat you? okoki komena masua? can you see the steamer? bakoya na mikolo kwe? in how many days will they come? okolinga nini? what do you wish for? bakoyeba na-hini? how do they know? bokosukola bilamba na mondele na saboni te? are you washing the ciothes of the white man without soap? okopese biso nsu soko moke-moke te? 1 ,vill you not give us even a little bit of fish? ngai nafuti mosali na sanduku te? did I not pay the workman with a box? mpo nini bakobanga ngai? or, bakobanga ngai mpo nini? why are they afraid of me? boi yak a na ngai. boy! come with me. lakisa ngai ndako na ngai. shew me my house. bambola moto. light a candle. tika moto na'ndako. leave the candle in the house. tiya awa. put it here.

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171 tika kuna. Tika wana. put, or leave it there. tandaka, or po_ngaka mbeto na ngai. make my bed. kamata saboni, sukola bilamba na ngai. take the soap and wash my clothes. tanda meza. lay the table. yaka na saani na mbele na nkanya. bring a plate and a knife and a fork. longola lokele mbindo be. take away the spoon! it is very dirty. angola mai na saani, nasukola maboko na ngai. pour water into the basin that I may wash my hands. litambala lijali wapi? mosusu .noki! where is the towel? another quick! mondele mosusu asili koya, kamata nsusu. another white man has come, catch a chicken. noki kamata mosusu pila moko. quick! catch another lik e it. kenda, lobela mondele soko akoliya pita moko na ngai. go, ask the white man if he will eat together with me. mondele akolinga nsusu te, sumbaka samaki nok" i noki. the white man does not like fow ls, buy some fish at once. lamba samaki na mai, kangaka makei na mafuta. boil the fish in water, fry the eggs in butter. tumba makondo na moto. roast the plantain in the fire. boil lobela baltiki toseme kuna na libongo. boy! tell the paddlers that we land there at the beach. mpo nini batu bakimi boye? why did the peopl e run away l ike that?

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172 babangi bondoki na yo. they were afraid of your gun. bianga solda. call the soldier. sentili, batu wapi? ngai nakolinga baluki mingi na ntongo. soldier, where are the people? I shall want many paddlers in the morning. nakokende Singitingi lobi. I am going to Stanleyville to-morrow. ndako na' mondele ezali epai nini? where is the house for the white man to sleep. lakisa ngai njela. shew me the path. mpo nini osukoli ndako te? why hav e you not cleaned the house? longola biloko na bwato, tika yango na mbongo. take the things out of the canoe, put them on the beach. bango baluki mingi, tika basusu b.,tlongola biloko. they have paddled much, let others take out the things. sala moto monene, nakobela mingi. make a big fire, I feel very sick. pese ngai monganga, kuna na molangi moke-moke. g ive me the medicine there in the small bottle. mpo nini osumbi makei mabe? yo molamu. te. why did you buy bad eggs? You are no good. sumbaka masusu malamu! noki! buy some more good ones! quick! yaka ria kopo na mai. 'Bring a g l ass of water. mai majali mabe, masusu te? the water is bad, have you no more?

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. 173 soko oyebi te, olobi boye boni? if you did not know why did you say so? soko okolobela ngai boye, nakobete yo. if you speak to me in that way, I will beat you. yo goi goi, pila moko na basenji. you are a coward, just like the natives. bianga mokonji aya noki noki. call the chief to come at once. okoloba ete kwamanda apesi yo mokanda, moj11li wapi? you say the Commandant gave you a book, where is it? yo ojali mabe, mpe batu na yo bajali mabe. you are bad and your people are bad too. batu na nkai bajali wapi? where are the paddlers? okolinga matabishe? ngai nakopese yo te. you wish for a present? I shall not give you one. okolinga kopese ngai samaki? zambi te. you wish to give me some fish? All right. bakoya na mikolo boni? in how many days will they come? tomaka batu na yo na mboka na ngai, nakopese bango elamba. send your people to my place, I will give them cloth. batu banso bajali na bwato? boluka na makasi. are all the men in the canoe? pull strongly boi, batela biloko na ngai, nakolala. boy, guard my things, I am going to sleep. mai mingi na bwato, mpo nini olongoli yango te? there is a great deal of water in the canoe, why did you not take it out? soko omeni masua, iobela ngai, nakoke na yango. if you see the steamer, tell me, I shall go in it.. Singitingi ejali mosika? tokokuma lelo? is Stanleyville very far? shall we arrive to-day? mosika te I soko baluki malamu, nde tokumi noki noki. it is not far! if they paddle well we shall reach there very soon.

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r74 soko toseme awa na libongo. perhaps we may land here at the beach. mondele koseme te basenje mabe mingi. white man do not land! the natives are very bad. toke na libongo na likolo, batu kuna bajali malamu. let us go to the beach higher up, the people there are good. nakoki komona ndako na Singitingi. I can see the houses at Stanleyville. noki noki! mbula ikoya, be quick! the rain is coming. makasi makasi nkai nkai mboka bele-bele sikawa. strongly! strongly! paddle! paddle! the town 1s near now. yo motu na boso, okoluka te? you man in the bow, are you not paddling? keka nakoki komona ebendeli na Bula Matadi. look! I can see the flag of the Free State. kokolo solda akopese bino monana. wait a bit! the soldier will give you some salt. sumbela ngai makondo na mafuta na samaki. buy for me some plantain and oil and fish. batu na Basoko bakobuna na mikolo minso or yonso. the people of Basoko fight together every day. nakangaki moyibi na butu, akimi na nto~go. I tied up the thief in the night, but he !an away this morning. silisa bilamba na ngai boso sukola na yo na mbisa. finish my clothes first and wash yours afterwards. bilamba na yo bisili, pese ngai mosusu te. your clothes are finished, do not give me more. bango basalaki kala kala, bino bosali bobele lobi. they worked long ago, you worked yesterday only. soko baboma nyama lelo nakopese bango nini? if they kill an animal to-day what ,;hall I give them? soko motu oyo akufa, mpo na yo. I" it this man should die it will be your affair.

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175 soko omeni mbele na ngai te, tala na sanduku. if you do not see my knife, look in the box. esili mbwa koliya nyama, kangola ye. when the dog has eaten the meat, untie it. mbula ileki na ndako na ngai, nsese ijali na nsonge te. the rain drips into my house, there are, no palm fronds on the ridge. kangaka nsese kuna ekotanga mbula. tie the palm fronds where the rain drips through. soko okosalela mondele, sala pila moko mondele alobi. if you work for the white man, work as the white man says. ngai nakokanisa te boi na yo ajali mabe. I think that your boy is bad. te I aleki yo na malamu. no! he is better than you. nameni yango bompala. I see that it is very fine. nazalaki kolala na yeye na ndako na butu, mpe bakimi na bondoki na yo. I was sleeping with him in the house in the night and they ran away with your gun. ndeko na ngai apataki ngai moyibi, mpe mondele alongisi ngai. my friend accused me for a thief, but the white man acquitted me. okoloba Jokuta yo, oy i bi lofungola na elengi. you are telling lies! you stole the boy's padlock. nazalaki koluka na yeye na bwato amonisi ngai lofungola. I was paddling with him in the canoe, and he shewed me the padlock. solo! na ngai namoni yango na sanduku na yeye. truly! and I saw it in his box. batu na Liboko bakosala masala mingi, mpe batu na Ilebo bakosala mingi te. the people of Liboko perform many tasks, but the people of Irebo do not perform many.

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176 I batu na Upoto batumbi na moto mboka na Ngombe. the people of O poto have burned the town of the Ngombe with fire. bakoteka matufi na motuya monene. they are selling rubber at a high price. soko ajali na monana, okoki kosomba makei na nsusu. when you have salt, you are able to buy eggs and fowls. linzanza na samaki motuya boni? what i s the price of a tin of fish? falanka mibale na meya. the francs and a half. mondele apesi ngai palata mokd. the white man gave me a five franc piece. monkoto moko na patelo moko palata mibale. one coat and one pair of trousers are ten francs. loba "Bangala" ngai nakoyeba monoko na Tambatamba te. speak "Bangala" I do not know the language of the Arabs. basolda na Bula-Matadi bakolata kaniki. the s9ldiers of the State wear blue drill. mwasi na yeye atongi shemisi na amelikani. his wife sewed a shirt of grey bafi:. soko okoliya loso na mokwa te, ebongi te. if one eats rice without salt, it is not good. toke na magasini na mondele, soko tosumba samaki. let us go to the white man's store, perhaps we may buy fish. mondele boi na yo abwaki kiti na ngai na mai. 1vhite man! your boy has thrown my chair into the water. te! kiti na yeye, na kiti na ngai bikiti na mai mpamba. no! his chair and mine fell into the water of themselves.

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177 okoloba lokuta! sala yeye ngwende mosusu. you are 1 ying make him another chair. ngai nakoyeba kosala te, ndeko na ngai akosala. I do not know how to make it, my friend will make it. ngai nakoyoka mpio mingi, ngai nakolata nkamba na ngai. I feel very cold, I will wear my blanket . mondele abeti bondoki na yeye, mpe abomi nyama te. the white man fired his gun but he did not ki ll an animal. soko tokende na juje, akokata likambo na biso. if we go to the judge he will decide our palaver. yo matoi te? libola matoi na yo, yoka ikoloba ngai. have you no ears? qpen your ears and listen to what I say. mokonji! kapiteni alobi eleki ye mboka na yo amoni nkuni te. chief, the captain says when he passed your village he saw no wood. batu na mboka na yo bajali kwe? tanga bango. how many peopl e are there in your village? count them. bianga bato na mboka yonso bayaka na nkuni lelo call all the peopl e in the village that they bring fire wood to-day. babali sala matufani, basi batima bodongo. all the men are to make bricks, and the women are to dig clay. bango bakosala lisala mosusu te, baya na samaki mikolo yonso. those who do no other work; let them bring fish every day. kamata mboko, bwaka yango na mai. take the anchor and cast i t into the water.

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178 tokoki te mai bojindo be! we are not able! the water is very deep! mpo te tika mboko kamata munyolo, kanga na njete. never mind! leave the anch~r take the chain and tie up to the tree. masua malali na zelo mikolo mwambi, batu yonso njala mingi. the steamer has been on the sandbank eight days, all the people are very hungry. ale! kende na mboka, loba na batu bake na masua na boli noki noki. ., move yourself! go to the village and tell the people to take food to the steamer at once. ;. .,

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179 CONTENTS. PAGE. Preface a-b Introduction c/ PART .. I. CHAPTER I. A. Preliminary Observations B. The A lphabet C. On Syllab l es D. On Accent CHAPTER II. SUBSTANTIVES (5-9). A. A Classification of Nouns Varia A. Adjectival Phrases B. Numeral adjectives The Cardinal Numerals The Units The Tens ADJECTIVES ( IIr9). The Iundreds and Thousands Mixed Numerals Ordinal Numerals C. Possessive Adjectives D. Demonstrative Pronouns CHAPTER Ill. PRONOUNS (20!). A. Personal Pronouns B. Possessive Pronouns C.' Demonstrative Pronouns D. Interrogative PronO)IUS CH1PTER IV. VERBS (22-38). 3 4 4 5 9 13 15 r5 15 15 .15 16 17 17 18 .... 20, 20 21 21 Inflexions of the Verb 22 Number and Person 22 The Moods and Tenses 23 A Indicative mood (!) Present (2) Past Indefinite (3) Past Definite

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(4) The Customary (5) The Pluperfect (6) The Future 180 Idiomatic Conjugation of the Verb (I) The Actual Present ( 2) The I rn perfect A. Force of the Tenses (I) The Present (2) The Past (3) The Remote Past (4) The Customary (5) The Pluperfect (6) The Future B. The Imperative Mood C. The Infinitive Mood D. The Subjunctive Mood E. The Participial Mood -Force of the Participial Tenses Negation The Verhs: to be, and, to have CHAPTER V. DERIVED VE.tBS (34.38). A. The Passive Verb B. The Neuter Verb C. The Applicative Verb D. The Causative Verb E. The Reciprocal Verb F. The Reversive Verb G. The Reflexive Verb CHAPTER VI. ADVERBS, i'REPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND I NTERJECTIONS A. Adverbs (1) Adverbs of Manner and Quality (2) Adverbs of Place (3) Adverbs of Time (4) Adverbs of Quantity (5) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation (6) Adverbs of Interrogation (7) Some Adverbial Phrases B. Preposition Prepositional Phrases Conjunctions Interjections 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 36 36 37 37 38 (39-43) 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 42

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I i l r8r CHAPTER VIL SYNTAX (44-50). A. Format i o n o f Substanti,es B. Gender c. Adjectives D. Compari so n of Adjectives E. Indefinite Adjectiv es F Pronouns G. Rel ative Pronoun H Rel ative C l a u ses I. Interrogative Expressions J. The Verb PART II. CHAPTER I. VOCABULARY (51-98). A. Prelimin ary Observati ons B. Voca bulary English-Lingala Lingala-English A. The Metric Syst e m B. Divis ion s of Time The Months Days of the Week The Hours Native Time Terms CHAPTER II. CHAPTER Ill. USEFUL PHRASES (169-178) 50 51 rr7 166 167 167 167 168 168

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I W) -. /a:;:;d N egatiori D'vt-J' -1L-errogation r1.dverbial Phrases ..,.-position repositional Phrases Conjunctions Interjections 41 41 42 42 43

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\ j l x ~=---........ S149 8 J.5 0 1 3 : 1 I ~-