Citation
English lesson book for Melanesians

Material Information

Title:
English lesson book for Melanesians
Creator:
Melanesian Mission Press
Place of Publication:
Norfolk Island
Publisher:
Melanesian Mission Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Mota
Physical Description:
4 pages ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
English language -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Mota speakers ( lcsh )
Moto language ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Pacific Ocean -- Norfork Island
Coordinates:
-29.033333 x 167.95

Notes

General Note:
Includes definitions in Mota

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, Univerity of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
174082299 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
THE

ENGLISH LESSON BOOK

for

M ELAN E S I A N 8.

----

NORFOLK ISLAND, 1906.

melanesian mission press. 190g.


INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

This Lesson Book is intended to be an aid to the Teaiher
in giving lessons in English. It is hoped that itWill
suggest a useful course of teaching, and will provide a
general system upon which English maybe taught through-
out the school.

Short vocabularies of the English equivalents of com-
mon native words are given. These may be very con-
siderably lengthened for both the lower and the upper
classes.

Examples of the use of words have been provided, not
to take the formation of sentences out of the Teacher's
hands, hut 1 r ugest to him forms upon which they^Ti^i,
easily -u,med; nevertheless the examples in.the t>k
should tie thoroughly taught before others are given.i

The Mota definitions will be of use when an explan^in
of the various parts of speech is to be given. [

The Lessons have been arranged in Courses adapteiq
the standards of the various classes. These Courg
should be followed distinctively throughout, the fijj
Course in all the parts of speech being finished before tj
second Course is taken; the same, likewise, with t(
second Course with regard to the third Course. ;

To open out to Melanesians the great library of simp\
English books, and also to enable them to meet the de
mands which an increasing white population in the Island^
imposes, should be the aim of all our teaching. __ ^^^^


I. O NOUN.

0 NOUN 0 SASE SAYA TEA.
1st Course.

boy head garden house land

girl face tree door sea

father leg road room rain

mother hand gate window wind

sun ship bird axe plate

moon boat hen hoe cup

star mast dog spade pan

cloud rope cat rake stone

night day sail ear -spoon

'Number (a). Si o gene ovinia, si we qogo 'ive
tuan o Noun mu.n o letas'*n&

Exercise.boy, boys: girl, girls: father, fathers.
2nd Course.

"husband brother mouth canoe bow
parent sister arm an chor arrow
son eye finger oar gun
daughter nose toe rowlock spear
banana basket hook village roof
yam bag line town floor
chair fire root snake rat
picture water rock egg mat
pebpie- net wall fence friend

year

month

Exercise.My brother plants yams and bananas in his
garden. My daughter stays in her house near the town.
The boy pulled the anchor into the canoe. I want a hook
and a line. I will then fish on the rock near the sea.
The little girl is always talking. The people scolded the


4

bad boy. Your spear is blunt. Where are my new bow
and arrows? He knocked his toe upon the rowlock. Eyes
are smaller than noses, and fingers are longer than toes.
My sister cooks bananas and eggs in her new pan. He,
drowned the snake in the water. I killed a rat in my
room yesterday. The people in this village fear the people
in that town very much.

3rcl Course.

grandfather rudder field flower war
grandmother deck ground fruit sin
hair board sand cocoanut famine
tongue cabin nest bat joy
neck calm plough cock death
shoulder storm bridge Pig sorrow
stomach shore hole crocodile pain
knee reef verandah club cough
back surf bedroom shield corpse
lip river sittingroom hill name
tail cave map mountain peace
wing wave bed hurricane blood
skin thunder broom neighbour horn
bone lightning cap trader crab
animal dew hat beak mist
summer winter stream

Exercise.The crocodile swallowed the little pig which
was walking near the river. All animals fear thunder,
but it is the lightning which kills. In my bedroom are
two beds, 3 chairs, my hat and my cap. The hurricane
killed all the flowers and fruits in our village. The surf
is big on the reef near the shore. The little bird built a
nest in a hole in the ground. My grandmother scolded,
the girl very much. His grandfather beat him very
hard with a stick. My neighbour has cocoanut trees
near his verandah, and yams and bananas in his garden.
When there is a storm the waves beat into that little cave.
Cows have horns and birds have beaks. The cock
snatched the food from the pig while he was sleeping
under the trees. The boy suffered great pain in his-


5

stomach because he ate green poacher A map is the
picture of the land and the sea. What is the name
)f that boy who is waiting in my sitting room ? If the
skin is thin we see the red blood inside. War and famine
save killed many people in this island. A hill is a small
mountain, and a stream is a small river. The trader who
lives On the shore smokes a long pipe.

Number (b). Si o gene, nirua si we qoqo o titan

Nounhoe^tata'ja^valvalilfo lea me rave amoa.^A fa ^

(1) box; grass ; gM?ss; fish ; dish ; branch ; brush ; bush ;
mosquito; ash ; church.

(2) wife; life; knife; leaf; calf; shelf.

(3) fly; baby; body; enemy; country,
man; woman.

foot; tooth,
.mouse; child; penny.

Exercise Many mosquitoes live in the bushes near the
river. A good cow may have a bad calf, and a good father
may have bad children. Men live in the gamals or with
their wives in their large houses. The skin on the feet of
black boys is very thick. Birds have beaks but no teeth.
Children often copy their parents. The calves like the
young leaves on the trees. Lions have very sharp teeth.
The men scold the children if they do not obey them.
There are more fishes in the sea than birds on the land.
White women cook and sew inside while the men work in
the fields and gardens. The pig walked into the church
while the people were praying. We can say three pence
atthreepennies, and six pence or six pennies. We sweep
t'EeTiouses with bushes and brooms. There is water in
the glasses and fo village have enemie^ in that country. The bird built a
nest among the Jgajes.on the branch of a tree. Mice and
rats and snakgsJTlive in holes in the ground. Flies and
mosquitoes have little wings which look like very thin
glass. Sharpen your knives before you clear the bushes,
.doctor sharpens his knives to cut off the boy's leg.


6

II. O ARTICLE.

0 AKTICLE WE SIS GAGANAG 0 NOUN.

Alo vavae ta Mota o Article nitol apena : o, na, i.
Alo vavae ta England o Article nirua apena : a si an, the.
A (An amoa a, c, i, o, u,) we qalo sorako.
The we qalo matagesegese.

Exercise,A boy, the boy, the .IjQys.

An axe, the axe, the axes.

III. O ADJECTIVE.

0 ADJECTIVE WE GAGANAG APE
MATEY NOUN.

1st Course.
tall hard far high sharp
short soft near low blunt
sweet strong dark old fast
bitter weak light new slow
small cold long bright black

Exercise.A tall boy, the tall boy, the tall boys.

An old mast, the old mast, the old masts.

Comparison of Adjectives (a).
0 Degree nitol apena.

1. Positive Degree : wevaglalaapematevnounwe savai.

2. Comparative Degree : we vaglala ape mateVTloilffwJ

mano savai, (we tuan o-neai.mun er.)

3. Superlative Degree : we vaglala ape matev noun we

savai aneane, (we tuan o-B4B,mun est.)

Exercise.

(1) tall, tall-er, tall-est.

short, shorter, shortest. -^


7

(2) A tall boy, a taller boy, the tallest boy.
The tall boy, the taller boy, the tallest boy.
The tall boys, the taller boys, the tallest boys.

(3) A tall boy, a taller girl, the tallest tree.

An old house, an older boat, the oldest ship.
The short mast, the shorter tree, the shortest girl.
The blunt spades, the blunter axes, the bluntest hoes.

2nd Course.

deep yellow dull broad straight

shallow green stupid narrow thick

rich poor wild round

Comparison of Adjectives (b).

1. 0 paspasoane letas ta e, we tuan alo Comparative
Degree mun r, wa alo Superlative Degree mun st.
wide large ripe white

wise tame true blue

3. 0 paspasoane letas ta y, we leas o y mun i, wa we
tuan alo Comparative Degree mun er, wa alo
Superlative Degree mun est.

pretty heavy dry happy lazy easy naughty ,

3. 0 tuan Adjective we pirim mun o paspasoane letas

qara tuan mun er alo Comparative Degree, wa
mun est alo Superlative Degree,
fat sad wet big thin red hot glad

4. 0 titan Adjective. 0 Degree tagai apena.

one two three hundred thousand million
first - second third hundredth thousandth millionth

Exercise.The picture is pretty, but the tree is prettier.
The snake is longer than the rat, but the rat is fatter.
This boy is stupider than that girl, because he is lazier.
The trees are greener in summer than in winter. The
black boys and girls like ripe guavas. Solomon was the
wisest man. Some boys are short and fat, and some are


a

tall and thin. Their guns are heavier than our.bows and
arrows. If the day is hot the boys are iazy. My father
is taller [than my mother/, but mother is fatter than he.
Two boys are stronger than one boy. A boy has 10 fingers
and ten toes. The first boy played, but the second worked.
This is the third month and the fourth day. A week has
7- days, a month thirty or thirty one,.and a year 365. One
hundred boys and fifty girls stay at Norfolk Island in the
winter. The wall is old but the roof is new. The people
in England are taller than the people in Melanesia. We
fear guns more than wo fear bows and arrows. A boy
works .harder than a girl, but a girl sews quicker. The
fire burns quicker if the wind is strong.

3rd Course.

0 tuan Adjective we ris sea alo Comparative Degree
iva alo Superlative Degree.

gdod better

bad worse

much more

many more

little less

Exercise.It is a good child who loves a bad father.
The good man is better than the wise man. There are
many cocoa-nuts in Opa, but there are more in Gela. You
talk worse now than, when you arrived at Norfolk Island.
The big boys work "less than the small boys, because they
talk more. More men die in war than from famine. The
stupid boy is bad, but the lazy boy is worse. Much work
and little play is not good, but much play and little work
is worse I have more eggs in my basket than you have
in your bag. There is less water in the river hi' summeS*
than in winter. L'leas bite more at night than in the day,
but they always bother the people in the Vanua. Those
who talk the least very often do the most work. He paid
back more money than he borrowed. The doctor pulled
out the man's tooth and he is now better, but the woman
who drank the medicine is worse.

best

worst

most

most

least


9

IV. O PlfON'OUN.

0 PRONOUN WE LEAS 0 NOUN.

1st Course.

1. Peksonal.
Ape nago Verb.

I

yon
he she it
we
you
they

Exercise.pirire help.

(1) I help you help

(2) Help me help him

(3) I help you
----- You help it

2. Possessive.

Ape nago Noun.
My
your
his her its
our
your
their

Exercise.(1).
My dog
My dogs
My black dog
My black dogs

Ape kule Verb.
me
you
him her it

you
them

we help

help us

you help him
we help them

they help

help them

we help her
they help us

We toga asau.
Mine .

his

yours

hers

ours

yours

theirs

its

your garden his house

your gardens his houses

your small garden his new house
your small gardens his new houses
Your small garden his smaller house my smallest dog
Your small gardens his smaller gardens my smallest dogs

(2). The dog is mine. The garden is yours. The
house is his. The dogs are mine. The gardens are yours.
The houses are his. The black dog is mine. The small
garden is yours. The new house is his. The black dogs


10

are mine. The small gardens are yours. The new houses
are his.. Tke small garden is yours. The smaller house
is his. The smallest dog is mine. The small gardens are
yours. The smaller houses are his. The smallest dogs
are mine.

3. Dkmonstbative.

this these that those

Exercise.

(1) This dog that house

(2) This garden is mine
These rakes are ours

2nd Course.
4. Reflexive.

these trees those gardens
that house is yours
those spades are theirs

Myself Ourselves
Yourself Yourselves
Himself, herself, itself Themselves _

Exercise.I rest myself. Help yourselves. He killed
himself. The cat cleaned itself. They rowed themselves.

5. Interrogative.

who ? which ? what ? whose ?

Exercise."Who planted the trees ? Which dog killed
the hen ? What killed the hen ? Whose chair is that ?

6. Relative.

who which that what

Exercise.(1). The boys who stayed at Rowa. Thehen

which I cooked. The fence that I jumped. Show him
what you want.

(2). I rested myself on the road. Show me the boy
who called me. Which net is the strongest? This is the
dog which killed the cat which ate the rat. The boy
knocked his finger on the gate which my father was mend-
ing. My son will climb the tree which you showed me.
Who will mend the road? I will mend it myself to-morrow.
Whose is the boat that you are rowing? The bird killed


11

itself. I will ask him myself what he called me. I cooked
the fish that you wanted, now I will rest myself in my
house. He laughed in himself. Who lifted the heavy box ?
The small boy lifted it himself. Ask yourselves if it is true.

3rd Course.

7, Indefinite.

no some any every

nobody somebody anybody everybody

nothing something anything everything

none one each other another

Exercise.One wants this, another that. Some want
one and some want another. Everybody wants something.
Every boy wants another knife. I want some bread. He
wanted somebody, but nobody answered. Some like
bananas and some like yams. The one worked hard, but
the other was lazy. Each boy followed his father. I
showed him something on the road. The surf is big, We
will return another way. Love everybody and hate no-
body. Help and love one another. Every bird has two
wings, and each man has two arms. Flowers and fruits
are in every country, and everybody likes them. Any
strong boy can pull a rope. If you want anything, ask
me. Some played and some rested, but nobody worked.
One must obey his parents and love everybody.

V. O VERB.

6STERB WE GAGANAG 0 TOGARA MON
0 NOUN SI 0 PRONOUN WAS WE GE 0

SAYA, SI WE TOGA AYEA.
1st Course.

0 Tense nitol apena :Present, Past, Future.
Present, we ge ilokenake.
Past, me ge ana?zaisa.
Future, te ge anaisa.


12

I AM.

Present.
I am
You'are
He, she, it is
We are
You are
They are
Exercise.(1).

am tall
was weak
will be near

Past.
I was
You were
He, she, it was
We were
You were
They were

Future.
I will be
You will be
He, she, it will be
We will be
You will be
They will be

(2) The boy is tall
The boys are tall
The girl is tall
The girls are tall

You are short He is old

You were slow He was cold

You will be quick He will be strong

the axe is sharp the star is bright

the axes are sharp the stars are bright

the house is taller the tree is tallest
the houses are taller the trees are tallest

ii. We tuan o Verb alo Past Tense mun ed, wa we tire

gegese o Future Tense mun will si shall.
clean mend pull lift finish wash
work help ask answer watch dress
laugh open kill shew fish undress
sail show obey clear punish scold
row jump disobey start swallow destroy
play fear drown anchor wait suffer
look plant turn climb thank knock
stay sew pray want wish shout
call end sharpen follow cook pluck
talk return rest bother cheer bousajv
Exercise.Clean cleaned will clean
work worked will work

Present. Past. Future.
I walk walked will walk
You walk walked will walk
He, she, it walks walked will walk
We walk walked will walk
You walk walked will walk
They walk Walked will walk


13

Exercise.

(1) I work you climb he cooks she sews it laughs
I worked you climbed he cooked she sewed it laughed
I will work you will climb he will cool^ she will sew

it will laugh

(2) I am working, you are laughing, he is talking.

I was walking, you were rowing, he was sailing.
I will be playing, you will be cooking, he will be fishing

(3) John wants us. That ship is sailing.

The boy climbed a tree. The girl was opening a door.
The cat will kill this bird. Tom will be cleaning the house.

(4) The dog jumped the gate. The cat climbed the
highest tree. John will help the weak girl. The dog
shewed me the road. My father is mending the road, I
will help him. The black boy climbs the tallest tree, I
will watch him. The naughty girl bothers her mother.
Pulltherope, we will help you. I fear I shall drown the fowl.
Sharpen the axe, it is blunt. Those strong boys will row
my new boat. The boy opens the window, he will jump.
He killed the bird, I will punish him. Look, I fear the boy
will drown. He mended the new gate. The black dog
disobeyed the boy. The cold wind will destroy these small
trees. Climb the tree and get me a cocoanut. The
boy knocked his head. My new axe is blunt, I will
sharpen it. My mother shewed me her rake. The bright
sun obeys God, it will help the gardens. We will mend
the gate the cow jumped. We will cook the fowl the cat
killed. Mother, you will plant the trees. The cow fol-
lowed the boy, the boy jumped the gate, the girls laughed,
and the boys shouted.

(5) The sun shines bright, we will row the boat. The
boat is new, it is mine. We will sail, the wind helps us.
Pull the rope, boys. Pull harder, the wind is strong,
The boat started and the boys cheered.

(6) My father is cleaning his garden, I will help him.
The gate is low, I will jump it. I shall want a sharp hoe.
Father, my hoe is blunt. You will be wanting a sharp hoe,


14

I will sharpen it. I will work hard, I will help my father,
I will clean his garden, I will obey him. Do you wish it
was finished? She wants her mother. The house is near,
I shall climb the gate. Look, mother calls me, I will help
mother. Fatl^r will anchor his boat.

2nd Course.

iii. Opaspasoaneletas ta e

die lie refuse
live love shp.ve
dive like bathe

we tuan alo Past Tense mun d.

wipe hate seize
change- chase accuse
arrive believe

iv. 0 tuan Verb o paspasoano letas ta y we leas o y mun
i qara tuan alo Past Tense mun tZ.ji ed.

pay try marry carry cry

say copy bury dry reply

v. Tuan Verb we tuan alo Past Tense mun t.
build burn send sleep learn spill lend

Exercise.He will live many years before he dies. He
dived into the water but he was drowned. They lied to
me about the road. He shaved every day in the' week.
The boys were bathing in the lake. Wipe your hands in
my room. Send the boy to me. He built a new house
at Longridge. The cat spilt the milk on the table. Lend
me your book, and I will return it to-morrow. We buried
him under the pine iree. The Bishop married the black
boy and girl. He lifted the box and carried it to the rock. I
lent him-my axe. The boys copied their father. Hechanged
his shirt. I will lend you a pound if you return it to-
morrow. The fire burnt the grass because it was dry and
the wind was strong. He said he copied the book, but he
lied. He lived at Mota, but he died at Gaua. He liked
his friend, but he loved his father. The boys undressed
themselves and bathed in the sea. When they finished
they dried themselves in the sun, dressed and returned
to the village. The dog seized a bone and the cook chased
him.


15

vi. i have.

Present.
I have
You have

Past.
I had
You had

Future.
I will have
You will have

He, she, it has He, she, it had He, she, it will have

Exercise>(1). I have a red box. You have a black
cow. He has a sharp hoe. We have ten fingers. You
have much food. They have long noses. They have a
white hen.

(2). I had five kumaras. You had my new hat. He
had very many yams. We had a fire to-day. You had a
brother and a sister. They had much water but no food.

(3). I will have an egg, please. You will have hard
work to-day. He will have food soon. We will have a
new ship. You will have my box after I die. They will
have bananas and yams in the boat.

(4). The boy has a brother and a sister, but he has not
a father or a mother. John had a sharp axe, but he was "
lazy. My friend will have lemons and oranges in his
garden. The girls have a house on the hill, but they have
no garden, and in the summer will have no food. The
one has a bow, the other has an arrow. Somebody had
lived in the house, because the garden had been cleared.
If nobody had lived in the house, the garden had not been
cleared. They will have finished their work before we
have finished ours. When you have cut the grass you
will rest, and then have your food. They had pretty pic-
tures on the walls of their house. Had the man hit the
boy ? If you had worked hard, the work had been finished
before now. Will you have a yam or a kumara ? I have
had a yam, now I will have a kumara. The boy had been
in Queensland, but he has returned now. The girl had
shut the gate herself after sh'e had walked through,

We have
You have
They have

We had We will have

You had You will have

They had They will have


16

vii. I do.

Present. Past. Future.

I do I did I will do

You do You did You will do

He, she, it does He, she, it did H'e, she, it will do
We do We did We will do

You do You did You will do

They do They did They will do

Exercise.What shall I do ? What will I do ? What
have we done ? I did my work, you do yours. I will do
to-morrow as I did yesterday. Do you live at Mota ? Do
they like bread ? Why do you do that ? Why does the
boy hit the dog ? Does the white man love his country ?
He does love his country very much. Do you sweep the
house ? I did sweep it yesterday, I will not do it to-day.
They do not row well. I had the work done, but I did
not do it. They do not work well because they did not
sharpen their axes. They have had a famine, but they
do not plant now. If they will do my work, I will do
theirs. I did wash myself to-day.

viii. I may.

Present. Past.

I may I might

You may You might

He, she, it may He, she, it might

We may We might

You may You might

They may They might

Exercise.I may sharpen my hoe. May I sharpen my
hoe ? Yes, you may sharpen your hoe. You might learn
if you tried. You may sweep the house now. May he
row in your boat ? The boys might refuse if I asked them.
They may not work to-day because it is Sunday. The
dog may kill the cat. He may not die if you watch him
night and day. The kumaras may be ripe in June. If it
had rained they might be ripe now, and we might have
had some to-day. She might have finished, but she may
not finish before to-morrow. 'May I help you ? You
may not.


17

ix. I CAN.

Present.

I can
You can

Past.

I could

You could

He, she, it can

He, she, it could

We can
You can
They can

We could
You could
They could

Exercise.He can talk. The baby can walk. The
little baby can walk. The little baby can dress himself.
You can help me if you like. He and his father can lift
the box. You could lift it yourself, but hej3an not. You
may help me if you can. They could not stay at Norfolk
Island, because the sun is always very hot. We can not
work to-day because it is wet. The birds can build
little houses in the trees. Can any body lend me a pound?
I can, but I will not. We can not row to Mota because
the wind is strong. If the wind was not strong we could
sail. We may row, but we can sail if you wish,
x. I MUST.

Exercise.I must work to-day in my garden. You
must not disobey your parents. He must return the book
I lent him. We must not lie. You must burn the grass
near the bananas to-day. They must not spill the milk
on the floor. My father calls me, I must answer. You
must not talk and-laugh, but you must leavn your figures.
We must build a new house for the white man. If you
are wise you will learn your books here at Norfolk Island,
because you must soon return and help your friends in
the islands. You must not be lazy. We must love every-
body, and must not hate anybody.

Exercise.Some marry, some do not. I will send you
bananas and yams, because you have none in your garden.
I built the house, but 1 dQ not live in it. I lend it to my

Present.

I must
You must
He, she, it must

We must
You must
They must


18

brother who pays me a pound every week. Do not wipe
your feet on the floor. He is thinner than he was. The
wild cat does not live in the village. If the grass is dry
you must burn it before you return. If it is not dry I will
send some boys to-morrow and they will burn it. The
people in this picture are building a large house. The
boys cut the bananas with their sharp hoes. There is
much tobacco on Norfolk Island, but we must chop it
down. I have nothing in my hand, have you anything in
yours ? Do not walk on the wet grass. Did you do it
yourself, or did somebody help you ? I did it myself,
nobody helped me. You could learn if you tried hard,
but you are stpid, and you do not try. He said he could
row, but he could not. They rowed their canoes to the
ship. Philip Island looks reddest when the sun is bright-
est. Some stars are larger than the moon. They look
smaller because they are far from us.

3rd Course.

Present,
(i)

begin

swim

spit

sink

sit

give

forgive

sing

drink

(a)
fall

draw
(')

get
forget

Past,
(a)

began

swam

spat

sank

sat

gave

forgave

sang

drank

(c)

fell

drew

(o)

got
forgot

Present,
(i)

write

drive

win

shine

rise

(ea)

steal

break

bear

tear

wear

Past,
(o)

wrote

drove

won

shone

rose

(o)

stole

broke

bore

tore

wore

(ive seasea)

bite bit

hide hid

choose chose

shoot shot


19

Present. Past.
(o) W
throw threw
know knew
hold held
blow blew
(a) (o)
awake awoke
(ive ris sza)
lie lay
see saw
fly flew
go went
eat ate
think thou;
catch caug]
teach taugl

Present. Past.
meet met
keep kept
feed fed
sleep slept
sweep swept

(sasarita)

hit shut cut beat read
hurt let

(we ris sea)

buy bought

sell sold

take took

make made

bring brought

find found

stand stood

understand understood

Exercise.The men in our village carry spears and
shields now, because one day the men of Mala came in
their canoes, and fought with our people. They had guns
and spears and clubs, and shot many woman and child-
ren, and some men, and cut down ourcocoanut trees, and
stole all our food, and shot all our pigs. By and by the
captain of the man-o-war heard what these men had done,
and went to Mala. When the people saw the ship sailing
near their village, they hid in the bush, but the sailors
came in boats and caught the chief and some men, and
took them away. The people fled into the bush and chose
a place for a new village. They began to clear the land,
they cut down the big trees and burnt them. They went
for straight trees and built their houses with them, and
roofed them with thatch. But they were hungry because
they had nothing to eat, and the women and children sat
down and cried. They went into the bush and dug wild
yams. The men caught fish in the river. The children
ate the wild yqnis and were satisfied, and drank the water


20

from the spring. The}' sold their mats and bought pigs
and kept them in a fence. They made gardens and planted
yams and ta.ro, but they were not happy. They knew
that they had clone wrong, and the men went to ask for a
teacher. They promised not to do as they did before, and
to give up stealing and fighting. When they build a
school house the teacher will teach them to read, and to
do right, and to live in peace; and then the people of this
village, will not carry bows and arrows and spears.

VI. O ADVERB.

0 ADVERB WE PIRIJV 0 VERB SI 0
ADJECTIVE.

1st Course.

Time.Alo savct masao qon n Before now soon after then

Yesterday to-day to-morrow always

Excrcisc.I worked before I played. Before you
jumped you looked. He plays now. Now she sews.
It will soon rest. We will return soon. You cook after
you fish. After they knock they open. He works, then
he rests. They rowed, then they sailed. Yesterday I
planted trees. I planted trees yesterday. To-day you
mend the road. You mend the roacl to-day. To-morrow
he will rest. He will rest to-morrow. The boys obey
always. The boys always obey. He reads very badly.

Place.Alo sava tanoi.

Here there

Excrciso.I cooked my fish here. Here you killed the
bird. He plucks the fowl there. There we sharpen our
axes. You wall rest here. They will work there.

Mann eu. Tarn avea.

well badly


21

Exercise.The boy worked badly. The girl sews well.
This road is badly mended. That ship is sailing well.
These fish are cooked badly. Those sails are well mended.

Degree.We savai.

little much very only

Exercise.The night is a little cold. He rests a little.
It is much darker. They laugh much. My axe is very
small. Your country is very far. Very much rain will
kill the trees. Thank you very much. He talks very
loud. I only laughed.

Negation.
not

Exercise.I will not work. He is not strong. It is
not mine. You prayed not.

Exercise.Work hard, you are always resting. We
worked hard, then we rested. I sharpened my axe here,
now it is very sharp. The boys row badly, they are not row-
ing well. I wanted you to-day, to-morrow I will uot want
you. The men are working very well, soon the road will
be mended. After it is mended they will rest. Yesterday
we planted these trees here. We will work there to-
morrow. He climbed the very high tree. It is not very
high, it is very low, that house is much higher. Help me
here now, I will help you to-morrow. We always obey
our father. I will call you soon, then you will not help
me. I will wash my hands, then I will ask him. I will
pluck the fowl after I kill it. I followed him after school.
Those old boys disobey always, they are not obeying now.
Soon I will want a new axe, mine is very old. It is not
an old axe, I sharpened it yesterday. I will rest, then I
will follow you. The big boy is not much stronger than
his brother.

2nd Course.

Time.Alo sava masao gon.
when early late presently while by and by


22

Exercise.When he died we buried him. He talks
when the work is finished. He worked early and late.
Presently I will help him. By and by he will rest. He
talks while he works. When the ship sails I will call you.
I will dress early to-morrow. By and by when the captain
calls, the sailors will pull up the anchor, because the ship
will start presently. We will watch them while they
work, and when they finish we will return to our house.

Place.Alo sava tanoi.
where above below inside outside

Exercise.Where will you work ? I will work where
you wish. Our Father lives above, but He loves us who
live below. It is hot inside, but it is wet outside. Do
not stay inside always. We will lie outside on the dry
grass. We will lie where the sun does not shine.

Ordeb.0 tano tapare.
firstly secondly . thirdly lastly

Exercise.What do you want? Firstly, I want a hoe;
secondly, an axe; thirdly, three rakes; and lastly, two
spades.

Repetition.Vagavisa.
once twice three times often seldom never

Exercise.1 called once, but you did not answer. You
wish me to call twice or three times, but I never call a
boy twice. I seldom call a boy twice. I seldom or never
call a boy twice. I often fish, but I seldom work in my
garden. I will never return to my country.

Exercise.We watched the boys while they were, walk-
ing on the road. We often fish on Saturdays after we
have washed the houses. By and by we will sail when
the wind changes. The people in the islands carried bows
and arrows before the white people arrived, now they only
carry clubs. Everybody has firstly, one head ; secondly,
two hands; and thirdly, ten fingers. I seldom work on
Saturday, but I stay inside. Before my father died he
lived at Santa Cruz. He can wash and dress himself


23

when he likes, but he is often lazy, and his mother must
help him. He was very ill twice in Mala and once in
Norfolk Island. I never carry a bow and arrow now.
The people of Mala and Guadalcanal' carry spears, but
these people here in this village carry bows and arrows.
"We cannot rest always, and we cannot work always. If
we worked always and did not rest, we could not live
many days. He was stupid before, but now he is wise
and learns his books well. The Southern Cross will soon
return from the islands and anchor off Town or off Cascades.

VII. O PI? E POSITION.

0 PREPOSITION WE TOGA PETEJV 0
NOUN SI 0 PRONOUN, WA Wtf VAG--
LALA 0 NONOMIA TAPENA MEN 0
YAYAE WE SEA.

1st Course.

at ~ on in under to through

near upon into over from about

Exercise.(1). At the door, near a tree, on a box,
upon the table.

(2). In my garden, into your house, under his hand,
over your head.

(3). He works in the garden. They sail on the ship.
You jumped over the gate. We climbed into the tree..
She will sew in the house. They will walk about the
road. Work near the stone on the road. I will not play
near the house. I will sail in my boat. I will cook the
fish in my pan. The cat likes the fish on the plate. The
houses under the pines are not new. I always stay at
Norfolk Island. The black boy will jump through the
window. Eow the boat near the land, the wind is very
strong. He jumped from here to there. They will pluck
the guavas from the trees. The moon is brightest in the


24

night. We were talking under the house. We will be
working on the roads to-morrow. Yesterday I was at
Mota, to-day I am here, to-morrow I will walk to Yureas.

2nd Course.

after beneath beyond of for

before above between with below

Exercise.He always walks after his father. He built
his house beneath the large tree. We say that God lives
above the clouds, but He is above them and below them.
The nose is below the eyes but above the mouth. We
walked on the road between the fences. The people of
Mala and Guadalcanal- live near Siota. Here is a letter
for you from your friend. There are many islands be-
tween Bugotu and Eaga. He killed the bird with an
arrow. The dog dived after the stone. There are many
islands beyond Bugotu. He turned down the road be-
tween Longridge and Town. The boy killed the rat upon
the floor beneath the table. The boy of Gaua married
the Motalava girl. He cried and wiped his eyes with his
coat. The girl walked between her mother and her father.
I am cooking a yam and bananas for you. I will send a
boy after your horse.

VIII O CONJUNCTION.

0 CONJUNCTION WE VILE TUWALE
0 VAVAE NA.N.

1st Course.

and but than o'r if because

Exercise.(1). You and I. He or she. Not father
but mother.

(2). I work and play. You worked but we played.
He plays.

(3). I will play to-morrow if I work to-day. Sharpen
my hoe and his axe. I will thank you if you sharpen


25

them. I will work very well if my hoe is sharp, and he
will not talk if his axe is sharp, but will work hard. If
you will work well we will plant our trees in my garden,
but they will want much rain, or the sun will kill them.
Look at that strong boy; I call and call, but he will not
help me. I am opening the gate because my dog will not
jump over it. He is not very strong, but he will work.
The boys like fishing and playing, but they will not help
in the gardens. That fat boy laughs and plays, but I
want him here. The girl mends my coat, but she sews
very badly because she talks much. I will stay near you
if you want me.

(4). To-day we will not work or school, but to-morrow
we will be planting the trees and mending the roads if it
is not raining. The girls will not help us because they
will be sewing in the house. The smallest boys are not
strong, but they work hard because they like work. He
knocked his leg on the stone near the gate, because he
disobeyed me and walked about the road. We planted
kumaras in the gardens yesterday, but to-day. we will stay-
in the house because it is Sunday. We always rest" on
Sunday, and play on Saturday." If we do not play, we fish
at the Qilo, or work in our gardens.

(5). Soon the ship will return from Siwo, and then the
boys will work at Cascades. They always work on the
ship and help, because they are strong. Here is the ship
now, we will walk to Cascades and help there to-day. The
Captain will thank us very much if we work well, but he
will not thank us if we laugh and talk and disobey him.
They want the ship at Auckland, and if it sails to-day it
will soon be there, because the wind is fair to-day, but
it will not be fair to-morrow. Now the work is ended
and the ship will sail soon. Look, the Captain walks
about the ship and calls the mate, and the mate orders the
sailormen. They pull up the anchor, the engine starts,
the people cheer, because they will soon return to New
Zealand. Now we will return to our houses, and to-
morrow we will rest because the work was hard to-day.


26

2 nd Course.

for though that so as

Exercise.He said that he was coming to Norfolk Is-
land, but he did not come. I will not lie to you, though I
did lie to my friend. He is taller than his brother, but
his sister is taller than he. I will do as you say. We
must work that we may live. He worked in his garden
though it was raining. As I say, so do you. Do it as I
do. We will cook a fowl for tea to-day. He said he had
worked, but he lied, for he played and talked so that he
did not work. The girls stayed in their houses as it was
raining. We will rest beneath this pine, for I have worked
hard in my garden. If he will not come, call his brother.
He must help us, though he is small. He washed because
he had played on the road. Copy the book as I said, and
you will soon learn it. He finished crying and dried his
eyes, but they are still red.

IX. O INTERJECTION.

0 INTERJECTION WE GAGANAG 0

MALAROWO SI 0 MAMAKEI.

3rd Course.

0 all! oh! alas hurrah !

.Exercise.Oh my leg hurts. He swam in the river/
but. alas! he was drowned. Hurrah !-I^see the ship
coming now. 0 no, it is not-our ship, it" 'is the steamer.'
Ah I see you are a Mala man: We walked down to the
sea, but alas the rain came and we were soon very wet.

1 lost my hat in the Qilo, but hurrah I soon found it.'
0 you bad boy, why did you do that? He ran quickly,
but alas! the ship.had sailed before he arrived. Hurrah!
the Captain sees him and will send a boat for him. Oh!
that is a pretty baby. 0 yes! it is a pretty baby, but
alas it is often ill. Will this wind make the ship sail
quickly? Ah! no, this wili not help the ship. '


27

Exercise.One hundred and fifty boys and fifty girls
live at Norfolk Island, and some white men and women
teach them and help them. The Melanesians sleep in
large rooms, but the white people live in their own rooms
in the same house. They wake the boys in the early
morning at 6 o'clock, and push and poke the lazy ones,
as many want to sleep on. Then the boys get up and
wash themselves. They do not all wash because they do
not like cold water in the early morning. But the big
boys must look after the small boys and the dirty boys,
and see that they wash every day. When they have prayed
in the Chapel, and eaten in the Hall, they have school,
and then the boys work in the gardens, and the girls sew
in a large room under the pines. When school and work
are finished, they may play if they like, or sit in their little
houses, or walk about the fields until the bell calls them for
tea. After tea they go into Chapel again, and then, after
school they may return to their little houses and sit and
smoke and talk, and then they go to bed. On Saturdays
they have no school, but they go and fish at the Qilo or
at the Vetal, and on Sundays they rest themselves.

When they have lived here six or eight years, they
return to their islands and teach others what they have
learned. If every boy and every girl learn well at Nor-
folk Island and teach well in their islands, soon all the
people will hear about God, and there will be no more
fighting and no more stealing, but everybody will live in
peace and happiness.



28

TWENTY FABLES

from
M SOP,
simplified for rendering into Mota.

-o--

I. THE.HIDDEN TREASURE.

An old man long ago was very ill, and his sons stood
around, keeping watch over him. Presently he spoke thus:

" My children, I am dying. Divide among you every-
thing that is mine. My house will be yours, and my
garden, and my fields. Do not sell the smallest part of
the land. Dig beneath the soil, for perhaps there you will
find precious things. Whatever you obtain in this way
is my gift to you."

These words being ended, the good man died, and his
land was divided amongst his sons. Because of their
father's words, these young men believed that he had
buried much money in the fields. Therefore, every
morning when the sun rose they went out with spades
and tools, and dug in the earth until evening. So they
continued to do till they had dug over the whole ground.

Then the eldest son was sad and he said, Where is
the money our father told us about ? We have dug for
many months, and have found nothing."

But the youngest son answered, Our father spoke not
of money, but of precious things. We have already found
much. We have learnt to work and not be lazy; the
work has made our bodies strong, and has cleared the
ground for yam and kumara gardens. In the future we
shall find the reward of our work in fine kumaras and
yams, and fat pigs, for in our search for treasure we have
well prepared the soil for all sorts of seed."

Then said the sons altogether, "Yes, yes! it is so in-
deed. Our father spoke well. He has given to us many
precious things in the soil of the field,"


29

II. THE COW AND THE PROG.

A cow was eating grass in a field where some little frogs
were playing. And it was like this ; the cow put her foot
down upon one, and killed it. The others jumped back
to their mother very quickly.

And they cried out to her thus, Mother! Mother!
Our brother is dead. A very, very big and terrible animal
put his foot upon him and killed him."

And the old frog said, Alas, my poor son Was the
animal as big as I ? "

Then they all shouted together, Fifty times as big "

But she took a very deep breath, and swelled out her
body, and asked them again, Was it as big as this? "

And they all cried as before, Much, much bigger than
you! "

Now the old frog was envious about it, and did not like
to think any animal was larger than she, so she tried again
to look as big as the cow. And she tried very hard, and
then once again harder than before, until she burst her-
self, and so died. But she could not make herself bigger
than the cow's foot.

Some persons, like the frog, are vexed when they see a
man greater or richer than themselves. Those people are
more foolish than the frog. He who tries to stand as a
big man, when ho is not so, will learn that all who see
him, call him a fool.

III. THE CEOW AND THE JUG.

The sun was shining in a sky without clouds, and the
ground was very hot and dry. A poor crow, nearly dead
with thirst, saw a jug on the ground, and flew to it quickly.
He reached it, and found the water in it so near the bot-
tom that he could not wet his beak. Then he tried to up-
set the jug, but the crow was weak and the jug was heavy ;
he tried in v;iin ; he could not .upset it.

Then he stood thinking what ha would do. Presently
he picked up a little stone in his beak, and dropped it into
thejug. Then he picked up another, and dropped it in


30

also. Thus he did again and aghi'n, and each stone, when
it fell, made the water rise in the jug higher than before.
When he had picked up twenty stones the water reached
the edge of the jug, and the clever bird could drink till he
had drunk enough. So he quenched his thirst and flew
away.

When you see before you a very hard task, do not say,
" I cannot do it! ". but just be quiet, and try to think, as
did the crow, of a wise plan. The thoughts of a weak
man wiir*often help him to do very hard things, while a
strong man, who tries with his hands only, will try in vain.'

IV. THE THREE AXES.

A poor. man was chopping fire-wood on the bank of a
deep river. Presently the axe-head flew off and fell into
the water, and sank to the bottom. The man sat down,
and cried with a loud voice; Alas alas I haVe lost my
axe, and who can bring it back to me? for he was very
sad, as with it he earned his food.

Now a wizard was walking near there, and heard the
man crying. And he said to himself, I will test this
man, whether he is true or not."

Now he went near him and asked what was the matter.
The man told him his axe had fallen into the deep water;
and that he was not able to dive for it. He also said he
was very sad, because he could not now work for his
bread.

Then the wizard dived for the axe, and brought up a
gold one. Is this yours ?'.' asked the wizard. "No,"
said the man, Mine is not a precious one like that."

Then the .wizard dived again, and brought up a silver
one. Is this yours ? asked the wizard. "No," said
the man, Mine is not as good as that." Then the
wizard dived again, and held up the iron axe which the
man had lost. The man cried out quickly, Yes, yes!
That is mine And he took the old axe joyfully, and
thanked him very much. .

Then the wizard gave him the gold axe and the silver
axe also, as a reward because he had not lied, but spoke
the truth,


ai

Now a'.man belonging to the. same village heard the
news from his friends. This man was very crafty, and
at Once thought of a plan whereby he might become rich.
So the man went to the river bank to cut fire-wood like
the other man had done, but he made his axe-head loose,
so that when he chopped it flew off fi'Om the handle, and
Ml into the deep water. The deceitful man then sat
down'arid cried very, very loud. :: r

The wizard appeared as before, and asked:-:the man
what he was crying for. "Alas! alas!" said the man,
." I have lost my axe, and I am very, very sad.

Then the wizard dived as before, and'-brought up a gold
axe.' Is this yours ? asked the wizard. Yes, yes !
that is indeed my axe," said the crafty fellow. Then the
wizard, who knew all about it, was' very angry, and
scolded him greatly for his deceitful behaviour.

He was punished justly; as besides the scolding the
wizard gave him, his own axe vras.really lost, and still
lies at the bottom of the river. '

V. THE TWO CRABS.

Two crabs, a mother and daughter, walked along the
sand by the side of the sea. The mother was following
her child, and when :sh<3;6aw how the little crab walked,
she scolded her, and said thus : - -

" Why do you walk so awkwardly? Walk straight for-
ward, not clumsily like that! Dp you hear me ? Why
do you not obey me ? "

But the little crab was walking as all crabs walk, and
she answered meekly, I walk as well as I can, mother.
If you wish me to walk straightforward, 1'pray you, shew
me yourself how to do so, and I will follow you."

Then the big crab was silent when the little one spoke
thus. She understood that she had been foolish, for if
she tried for many years, she could not walk straight for-
ward herself.

If we want to teach people to walk in a good way, let
us be careful always to walk in that good way ourselves,
or we shall speak to them, in vain.


32

VI. THE DOG AND THE SHADOW.

A dog ran along a road with a bone in his mouth. His
owner had given it to him, and he was happy about it.
He thought he would carry it to a place Tar from other
dogs, and gnaw it there by himself.

Presently he came to a clear pool. As he walked be-
side it, he looked down, and saw himself in the water.
And he said to himself thus:

" Here is another dog He is going one way with me,
and he carries a bone also. It looks as if it is larger than
mine. He thinks also he will eat by himself, but I will
not allow him to do so. I will snatch it from him ; after
that, I shall have two bones instead of one only. He does
not look as if he wants to fight; he will be afraid and will
run probably."

So the dog, leaning over, opened wide his mouth to
seize the bone he thought he saw in the water. But he
learned very quickly that he was mistaken. The true
bone sank to the bottom before his face, and he only
swallowed a lot of water.

This story explains the proverb, He who grasps every-
thing loses everything."

He who at first covets, will presently try to steal. He
may steal with success many times, but one day he will
find he also has lost everything.

VII. THE LION AND THE FOUR COWS.

The lion is the enemy of every animal weaker than he,
and he will spring upon, will kill, and eat any cow he
finds by itself. But he fears to attack a number of these
animals, for then they will stand against him, and with
their horns will probably hurt him very much.

Now four cows agreed to live together as friends, to
feed close together, and to sleep close together, lest the
lion should come near. Their thought was wise, and
while they lived thus they were safe. The lion walked
round about, and tried to seize one by itself, but the four
cows kept watch, and did not separate themselves,


33

Then the lion thought how he could make them break
their covenant together. And he resolved to stir up a
quarrel among them, and he did this. He commanded a
little bird to go and whisper lies in the oar of each of the
four cows about its three friends. The little bird obeyed,
and the cows believed every word he spoke. Then he
flew away, but the lion sat and watched secretly.

The four cows looked at one another angrily, and began
to walk apart. Then one spoke to another thus :

"I have heard that you speak evil of me behind my
back. From now I shall eat alone."

Another said thus: "You call me bad names when I
am asleep. From now I shall leave you." So two cows
walked away by themselves.

Then the third cow said to the fourth thus : You have
slandered me, and I was your friend. Now I shall go
away." And the third cow turned round and departed.

As the fourth cow was alone, it could not scold anyone.
But it did not remain alone long, for the lion sprang out
from behind a bush, leapt upon it, and killed it. Then he
chased each of the three cows that still remained, and
killed them one by one.

A very strong man is weak by himself, but if a few weak
men combine together, they will be strong, and will be
safe probably. He who quarrels with his friends, will
soon be in the hands of the enemy.

VIII. THE SUN AND THE WIND.

Long ago the sun and the wind disputed together about
their strength. The wind spoke thus :

" I am much stronger than you. Can you break down
a big tree with your breath? "

And the sun said "No; but still I am stronger than
you."

Then the wind began to be angry, and he challenged
the sun to contend with him about it.

And the sun said, It is good ; I shall show you my
words are true. See, a man is walking on the road; his


34

cloak is wrapped around him. Let us sec which is strong
enough to make him throw it off."

Then the wind laughed and said, That is very easy.
I can break down a tree; I can make a ship sink." -

But the sun only answered, Do you try first to take
away that cloak."

So the wind blew very hard, like a hurricane, and the
man sought shelter beneath a rock. But he only said,
"It is well I have a cloak;" and he wrapped himself
close in it.

And when the wind blew yet harder than at first, he
wrapped his cloak around him still closer. And the wind
blew till he tired, but the man would not let go his cloak.

Then the wind was sulky, and said to the sun, "It is
impossible. Let us try again about something different."

But the sun smiled, and said, Let me try just once
about this man and his cloak."

Now the sun shone upon the man, and shone and shone
continually, till he became very hot, and wished to cool
himself. Therefore he threw off his cloak, and sought the
shade of a tree.

Thus the sun was victorious in this contention.

The rough wind is like an angry man who tries with
shouting and with scolding to make things as he wishes.

The warm sun is like a kind-hearted. man who speaks
gentle words.

Men will resist the one, but will quickly obey the other,

IX. THE WOLF AND THE LAMB.

In a land far away is a high hill; a stream flows down
one side. On a certain day, when the sun was very hot,
a wolf and a lamb came at one time to drink the cold
water. The wolf stood on a rock above, and the lamb in
a shallow pool below.

Now the lamb had not seen a wolf before, and he did
not know the big animal wanted to kill him and eat him,
or he would not have stayed there.

The wolf was ashamed to attack the lamb without a


35

cause, so he.tried to begin a quarrel -with him. And he
spoke in a loud voice thus:

" Look what you are doing Because you stir up the
mud with your feet, you make dirty the water I drink.
You are bad ; you are shameless ; but 1 will teach you
not to annoy a wolf again."

The poor lamb stood trembling ; it was very much afraid
when the wolf scolded it thus. But it resolved to answer
the wolf, because he had accused it falsely. So the lamb
said in a humble voice, I am very sorry about it, but
I'cannot understand how I can make dirty the water you
drink, sinfce tlfe stream flows down, and you stand there
above me. You drink from the stream before it reaches
me."

These words were true, but they annoyed the wolf very
much.. He approached the lamb, and shouted thus, "Do
"not argue with mo! It is you who spoke evil of me a
year ago."

But the little lamb cried, No, indeed I was not yet
born a year ago."

At these words the wolf was very angry, and shouted
thus at the lamb :

" It is all one If not you, your father spoke against
me, and I shall eat you, so that you may not contradict
me again."

These words ended, the wicked wolf sprang upon the
lamb, rent it, and quickly devoured it.

X. THE BLIND MAN AND THE LAME.

One day, two men were walking in the bush, each by
himself, not knowing anyone else was near. The path
was rough, and one of the men was blind, and the other
lame. Both were going to one village, but the blind man
was in front of the other.

Both went very slowly, each walked with a stick, and
often they stopped short and groaned, for each feared lest
he should not reach the village.

Presently the blind man stood for awhile to rest himself.


36

And because of this the lame man saw the blind man afar,
and walked until he overtook him.

When the blind man heard the sound of the other's
feet, he said, Friend, where are you going ? "

The lame man answered, "To the other side of the
bush ; we botli are going one way."

Then the blind man said, I beseech you, help me, for
I am blind, and the way is very difficult, because the
ground is rough and the trees are many."

But the lame man said, Alas how can I help you,
my brother ? For I myself am lame, and have nearly
fallen by the way many times."

Then the blind man replied to him, Look I am strong,
and my feet are very firm. If you will give me your eyes,
I will give you my feet."

The lame man agreed gladly, for he understood the
plan of the other, and it was very wise.

So he climbed upon the shoulders of the blind man,
and guided him carefully along smooth paths. So they
went quickly, and arrived safely at the village.

XI. THE PINE AND THE BEIAE.

In a forest, far away, lived a tall pine. He had grown
higher than all the other trees in the bush. But he was
proud also, and despised every tree that was smaller than
himself. Each day he waved his branches to and fro,
and laughed and scoffed at the poor briers and shrubs
that grew about him.

" Look at me Look at me, everyone He would
speak thus. I am the chief in the bush, the king over
all the trees. I alone am beautiful, I alone am strong.
Look at me Admire me Why do briars and worth-
less things dwell here in the shade of a great tree like me ?
I despise them all. If I were not very kind-hearted, I
should forbid all creepers and thorns to grow near me."

It happened that presently a man came into the bush.
He carried an axe, and looked about for a tall straight
tree, because he wished to build a large house. And when
he saw this pine in the midst of the forest, he said, Good!


37

That one tree will be sufficient for my house. I will put
a mark upon it, and chop it down presently."

Then he lifted up the axe, and smote the trunk of the
great tree. But as he walked away to call some of his
friends to help him cut down the pine, the man saw the
briar with its many thorns. And he turned aside, so that
he should not touch it.

Then the briar lifted up its head and laughed, while the
proud pine groaned and sobbed, and his boughs shook,
because of his distress. And the thorns and creepers
which grew near him heard these words :

" Oh, I wish I were a humble briar, safe in the midst
of its thorns, and not a tall pine that man will cut down
to-morrow."

We pity the pine, perhaps ; but the punishment was
just.

" Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit
before a fall."

XII. THE BOYS AND THE FROGS.

A company of idle boys stood beside a pond; very
many frogs dwelt therein.

And it was like this : one boy picked up a stone, and
threw it at a frog, and hit it. Another boy followed his
example. The others clapped their hands together and
laughed. Then they all began to pelt the frogs ; if one
lifted its head above the water, a stone would probably
hit it and kill it, The boys played like this heedlessly.

But presently a big frog, who was the chief of all the
frogs, lifted up his head. A boy quickly raised his hand
to throw a stone, but the frog opened his mouth, and
spoke thus :

" My sons, you are bigger than we. Yes, yes ; but it is
yours to be very gentle and kind-hearted to everything
that is weak. You are cruel, because you are heedless.
We have not hurt you at all. But what are you doing?"

The boys stood ashamed, and dropped the stones; but
one replied, We were only playing."

Then the old frog shook his head, and said, Alas I


38

Alas This is only play to you, but to us it is our death."

From that time forward these boys thought about the
frog's words, and were kind and gentle to all animals and
Other weak things.

XIII. THE DOVE AND THE BEE.

One day an accidcnt happened to a bee. He was care-
less, and fiew very near the water of a stream; he fell
into the water, and was nearly drowned.

A dove sat on a tree near by. Seeing the bee fall in,
she plucked a leaf from a branch, and dropped it in front
of the bee. He crawled onto it, and after that, when his
wings were quite dry, he flew away safe.

On the morrow the bee saw his kind-hearted friend
again sitting there ; but a man with arrows had crept up
behind her, and was going to shoot her. The dove did
not know about it.

But the bee saw the danger. He flew straight to the
man, and stung his ear very hard. The man jumped,
and cried out, "Oh!" That was enough; the dove
heard the sound, and flew away unhurt, as the man shot
after her in vain.

He who is quick to help everyone, like the dove, will
always find a friend when he wants help himself.

XIV. THE SHEPHERD'S BOY AND THE WOLF.

A man long-ago had a large flock of sheep, and told his
son to look after them, and feed them, and keep them
safe from w7olves. Now a wolf is a wild animal, very
fierce, that kills and eats sheep when it can catch them.
And many wolves dwelt in that country.

But this boy was a silly fellow, who liked to play, and
to deceive his neighbours, and afterwards to mock therri.
So.he shouted often, A wolf! A wolf! Who will help
me ? and there was no wolf at all. The neighbours who
were digging in the fields, always left their work when
they heard the shout, and ran to help the boy. When
they reached the fence, and saw no wolf, but the sheep


39

quite safe, they were very angry. But the boy laughed
at them. It happened like this six times.

-Then the neighbours talked together, and said, "This
lad has deceived us six times, henceforth we will not listen
when he'cries, A wolf!' We will not leave our work, and
go forth in vain."

But the next day the boy saw a big gray animal jump
into the field, and he knew a real wolf now was among
the sheep. Then he was very much airaid, and he shouted
again with a loud voice, "A wolf! A wolf! Who will
help me ? "

The neighbours heard him, but they did not attend ;
they only laughed, and said, The boy wishes to deceive
us seven times ; he has deceived us six times, but to-day
he shall shout in vain. We will not go."

The boy still shouted, and called his friends' names,
but no one answered, or came to help him. So the wolf
killed every sheep.

In the evening, when the father visited the flock, and
saw every sheep dead, his anger was great, and he beat
the boy very hard. Then the boy wept long, and wished
he had been wise. He understood now that he who de-
ceives his neighbours will presently suffer for it himself.
After that he did not lie again.

XV. THE APE AND HEE YOUNG ONES.

A certain ape had two young ones. She loved one very
much, but despised the other. Now one day some men
with guns chased her, and tried to kill her, and the ape
was very much afraid, and fled away through the bush.
But she did not forget to seize her favourite child, and
carry it with her in her arms, for she thought that it would
thus be quite safe. The other child could only jump upon
her back, and catch hold of her tail. Thus the three fled
away together.

But as they dashed through the bush an accident hap-
pened. The hurry and the fright had blinded the mother
ape, while her beloved child could see nothing, for its face
was hidden in its mother's arms. So presently the branch


40

of a tree struck the little one on the head, and knocked it
down onto the ground, where the dogs quickly seized it
and killed it.

But the young ape, the despised one, still grasped its
mother's tail, and clung to her back, and with eyes open,
kept watch over itself, and so escaped alive and safe.

Those who wish to see children grow wise and strong
will not copy the old ape. If they are truly kind-hearted,
they will train the young and weak to look after them-
selves, and help them to overcome all dangers. Again, it
is a very bad thing to love one child in a family more than
the others; that child will suffer hereafter for the folly of
its father or its mother.

XVI. THE OLD MAN, HIS SON, AND THE ASS.

A certain old man, in a country far away, wanted some
money very much. Therefore he said to his son, Let
us take our ass to the market, and change him for money,
because now I cannot pay my debts."

So the old man and his son started on the road, and
drove the ass gently before them, that it might not appear
tired when they reached the market.

Presently they met a man, who stood still and spoke
thus : These two fellows are fools ; why does not one of
them sit upon the ass, and not walk and walk, till they
are very tired."

And the old man said, The stranger is wiser than I,
probably ; and he put his son upon the ass, and walked
behind him.

Soon they met two more persons, who cried out to the
youth, Oh, lazy boy Shall your father walk while you
go like a king? Are you not ashamed? Get down "

The youth thereupon descended quickly, and his father
mounted the ass.

For a short time they went on like this. Then they
met three others, and now these blamed the old man.

" Oh, hard-hearted fellow Your wretched son is almost
lame; he perspires; he is very tired; and you ride by
yourself! Why do you not allow him to ride with you ? "


41

The old man immediately ordered his son to mount the
ass, and sit behind him. So they went along the road
like this a little while. But soon they met four persons,
who reproached them afresh.

" It is wicked and cruel for two lazy men to sit on a
small ass. They make the ass carry them ; they ought
to carry the ass instead, if they wish to sell it presently."

So the old man and his son found a long stick, tied to-
gether the legs of the ass with a rope, tied him to the
stick, and endeavoured like this to carry him to the mar-
ket. But they tried in vain ; the ass was too heavy.

Then these two sat down by the road, and were silent
awhile. Presently the father spoke thus :

*' My son, we have erred. We have tried to follow the
directions of everyone, and this cannot be done. If we
follow one man's word, another calls us fools. Therefore
we will not listen to the voice of the people, but we will
do what we ourselves think is right."

His words ended, the old man released the ass, set it
before them, and drove it gently as at first. Thus they
presently arrived at the market.

It is very foolish for anyone to try to stand well before
the face of all men. He who is wise will strive always to
do right, and not fear what his neighbours may say about
it.

XVII. THE LION, THE WOLF, AND THE DOG.

Long ago a lion caught a sheep, and killed it. He stood
over it, prepared to eat it. Now a wolf came near, and
he was very impudent, and tried to snatch a piece of the
sheep, as if it were his. But the lion said, "No! Iam
not stingy, but I shall not give you any, because you
wanted to snatch a piece as if it were yours. Go away,
and do not return here "

The lion was angry, and his voice frightened the wolf;
he ran away with his tail between his legs.

Now a humble-minded dog happened to be near by,
and he saw these things. So he turned aside to go a
different way, lest the lion should think he expected to


42

receive a portion of the sheep also. He did not want the
lion to think that he wanted to do as the wolf had done.

But the lion saw him, and called his name. And the
dog was not afraid, for he said to himself, About what
should the lion scold me? So he went with confidence
towards him.

And the lion spoke to him in a gentle voice thus : My
friend, come and share this feast with me Because you
are humble, and not impudent like that wolf, I wish you
to sit beside me and eat freely."

XVIII. THE FOX AND THE CROW.

A certain crow stole a piece of meat from a house, and
flew up with it into a tree to eat it alone. But a hungry
fox saw her steal, and also the place to where she flew.
He wished very much to eat that himself; and his heart
was cunning, so he quickly thought out a plan to snatch
away the morsel.

He ran until he reached the tree upon which the crow
had perched, and then sat down beneath it, as if he were
hot, and wished to rest himself. The bird hopped from
one branch to another, and the fox looked up, as if he had
not known until then that she was above him.

Now a crow is a bird that is very black, but the fox
knew that every crow wishes it where white, so he began
to flatter and deceive her, and talked as if to himself thus :

" Oh, what shining feathers They dazzle me They
are as white as the inside of a cocoanut. And I admire
that small body, and the thin legs. Oh, why are mine
thick and short ? A beautiful bird like this can probably
sing better than all other birds. If I could only hear her!"

Now a crow cannot sing at all, or even chirp ; its cry is
hoarse and loud. The fox knew this perfectly, and only
spoke thus k> tempt her, but the foolish bird believed all
his soft words, and so decided to sing.

She opened her beak to begin, forgetting what was in
it, and immediately the piece of meat fell out of her mouth.
Then the crow understood why the fox very much wished
her to sing.


43

But now the fox was in a hurry, and could not wait to
hear, the song he had asked for, because the meat was be-
tween his teeth. So he laughed at the angry bird, and
ran away.

Did the crow sing to herself after that ? Probably not.

So, if people flatter and praise you, remember the fox
and the crow.

XIX. THE BUNDLE OF STICKS.

A certain old man had many sons. He also owned
many fields and cocoanut trees. But it was not well with
liim. The weeds in the fields were more than the yams.
The trees only bore a little fruit. The birds ate nearly all
the bananas. Why was this ?

Because the young men, instead of working every day
in the fields, and looking after these things, always
quarrelled and disputed with each other. Their father
tried in vain to make them live friendly together, but they
still quarrelled.

But one day the old man commanded his sons to come
before him. They arrived; and he gave to the eldest a
bundle of sticks, saying, I desire that you all, one after
another, shall try to break this bundle."

The. sons obeyed, but each tried in vain. The bundle
was very small, but it was very strong.

After that, the father untied the bundle, gave one stick
to each youth, and directed them to try and break them
separately. They laughed, for they were able to do this
easily, and every stick in the bundle was quickly broken.
When the last one was snapped, the father spoke thus:

" My sons, see the power of unity When they were
tied together in a bundle you could not break a single
stick; but when I divided them you laughed, for they
were very weak, and your work was very easy. You, my
sons, are born into one family, so that you should be tied
in one bundle, and strong because of your unity. You
separate yourselves to quarrel and dispute. Therefore
the whole family is weak ;. you neglect my fields and my
cocoanuts ; and we are all poor when we might be rich.


u

If you are again tempted to quarrel, remember the bundle
of sticks, and stand together in peace."

The sons stood dumb and ashamed before their father's
face. But they did not forget his words.

XX. THE SPARROW AND THE HARE.

Long ago, a hare was playing in a field, when an eagle
that flew in the heaven above saw her, descended quickly,
seized her with his sharp claws, and began to eat her.
The poor hare cried aloud, for she suffered much.

Now a hard-hearted sparrow sat upon a tree close by,
and saw the hare's distress ; but instead of pitying her,
he mocked her, and said, Why do you sit there and
sing like that ? If you are unhappy in the claws of the
eagle, why do you remain there? You can run rather
well; why do you not escape? Why "

But the sparrow stopped short, because a hawk that
was flying above his head suddenly dropped upon him,
and began to swallow him. Instead of laughing, the
sparrow could only cry out now with a feeble voice.

The hare was nearly dead, but she turned her eyes to
the sparrow, and said, It is well with you, fellow, be-
cause in your last hour you do not suffer mockery from
your neighbour."

He who laughs at anyone in trouble or pain is very
cruel, and his heart is stony. But when he also feels
trouble and pain, perhaps he will repent about it.


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE ENGL1SJI LESSON BOOK for -~ M E L A N ]~ S I A N S. ----~~G-~~--NOB,POLK ISLAND, l.'JOo. MELANESIAN MISSION PRESS. HJOG.

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE. This Lesson Book is intended to be an aid to the Teaiher in giving lessons in English. It is hoped that it~ill suggest a useful course of teaching, and will provi~e a general system upon which English may be taught thro~ghout the school. Short vocabularies of the English equivalents of common native words are given. These may be very oein siderably lengthened for both the lower and the upper classes. Examples of the use of words have been provided, n9t to take the forma.t..ion of sentences out of the Teacher's haws, hut L "uOe:;t to him forms upon which they,.~ e11sily .wmed; nevertheless the examples in the ok should be thoroughly taught before others are given.\ The Mota definitions will be of use when an explanli,m of the various parts of speech is to be given. r~ The Lessons have been arranged in Courses adapte\0 the standards of the various classes. These Com~ should _be followed distinctively _throu~hout, the flj; Course m all the parts of speech bemg fimshed before second Course is taken; the same, likewise, with ti second Course with regard to the third Course. \ To open out to Melanesians the great library of simp\ English boolcs, and also to enable them to meet the d~ mands which an increasing white population in the Island\ impose&, should be the aim of all our teaching.~~

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I. 0 NOUN. 0 NOUN O SASE SAVA TEA. lstCourse. boy head garden house land girl face tree door sea father leg road room ram mother hand gate window wind sun ship bird axe plate moon boat hen hoe cup star mast dog spade pan cloud rope cat rake stone night day sail ear -spoon "NiJMBER (a). Si o gene niriw si we q~.po we tuan o Noiin 11ii1n o Zetas~~ Exercise.-'-boy, boys: girl, girls: father, fathers. !Jnd Coune. husband brother mouth canoe parent sister arm anchor son eye finger oar daughter nose toe rowlock banana basket hook village yam bag line town chair fire root snake picture water rock egg poop1e----net wall fence year month bow arrow gun spear roof floor rat mat friend Exercise.-My brother plants yams and bananas in his garden. My daughter stays in her house near the t01rn. The boy pulled the anchor into the mtnoe. I w,rnt a hook and a line. I will then fish on the rock near the sea. The little girl is always talking. The people scolded the

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4 bad boy. Your spear is blunt. Where are my new bow and arrows? He knocked his toe upon the rowlock. Eyes are smaller than noses, and fingers are longer than toes. My sister cooks bananas ;1,nd eggs in her new pan. He.. drowned the snake in the water. I killed a rat in my room yesterday. The people in this village fear the people in that town very much. 3rcl Oou,rse. grandfather rudder field flower war grandmother deck ground fruit sin hair board sand cocoanut famine tongue cabin nest bat joy neck calm plough cock death shoulder storm bridge pig sorrow stomach shore hole crocodile pain knee reef verandah club cough back surf bedroom shield corpse lip nver sittingroom hill name tail cave map mountain peace wing wave bed hurricane blood skin thunder broom neighbour horn bone lightning cap trader crab animal de,v hat beak mist summer winter stream Exercise.-The crocodile swallowed the little pig which was walking near the river. All animals fear thunder, but it is the lightning which kills. In my bedroom are two beds, 3 chairs, my hat and my cap. The hurricane killed all the flowers and fruits in our village. The surf is big on the reef near the shore. The little bird built a nest in a hole in the ground. My grandmother_ sc_iold_cl. the girl very much. His grandfather beat him very harcl wiLh a stick. My neighbour has cocoa.nut trees near his verandah, and yams and bananas in his garden. When there is a storm the waves beat into that little cave. Cows have horns and birds have beaks. The cock snatched the food from the pig while he was sleeping under the trees. The boy suffered great pain in his-

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0 ;tomach because he ate green p1'.l.ches. A map is the picture of the land and the sea. What is the name )f that boy who is waiting in my sitting room? If the ~kin is thin we see the red blood inside. War and famine ilave killed many people in this island. A hill is a small mountain, and a stream is a small river. The trader who lives On the shore smokes a long pipe. NUMBER (b). Bi o gene nirna {i we qoqo o tllan Nounlt~e}1_ataga(_valvaW/o lcci me mve mnoa.;,(,/1. f.,,.--. (1) box; grass; gllss; fish; dish; branch; brush; bush; '-__ ..._ mosquito; ash; church. (2) wife ; life ; knife ; leaf ; ca.lf ; shelf. (3) fly; baby; body ; enemy; country. man ; woman. foot; tooth .J...-,-.mouse; child; penny. Exercise.-Many mosquitoes live in the bushes near the river. A good cow may have a bad calf, and a good father may have bad children. Men live in the gainals or with their wives in their la.tge houses. The skin on the feet of black boys is very thick. Birds have beaks but no teeth. Children often copy their parents. The calves like the young leaves on the trees. Lions have very sharp teeth. The men scold the children if they do not obey them. There are more fishes in the sea than birds on the land. White women cook and sew inside while the men work in the fields and gardens. The pig walked into the church while the people were praying. W '3 can say three pence ~hree pennies, and six pence-or six pennies. We sweep tlienoiises with bushes and brooms. There is water in the glasses and fo~ the dishes. The people of this village have enemieit in that country. The bird built a nest among the ~on the branch of a tree. Mice and rats and snak.(lilfye in holes in the ground. Flies and mosquitoes have little wings which look like very thi11 glass. Sharpen your kuh'.es before you clear the bushes. Tr':l 1loctor sharpens his knives to cut off the boy's leg.

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6 II. 0 AR1'I0LE. 0 ARTICLE WE SIS GAGANAG O NOUN.Alo vavae ta Mota o Article nitol apena: o, na, i. Alo vavae ta England o Article nirua apena: a si an, the. A (An amoa a, c, i, o, u,) we qalo sorako. The we qalo mn.tagesegese. Exercise.-A boy, the boy, the .bgys. An axe, the axe, the axes. III. 0 ADJECTIVE. 0 ADJECTIVE WE GAG-ANAG APE MATEV NOUN. 1st Course. tall hard far high sharp short soft near low blunt sweet strong dark old fast bitter wen.k light new slow small cold long bright black Exercise.-A tall boy, the tall boy, the tall boys. An old mast, the old mast, the old masts. COMPARISON OF AnmcTIVES (a). 0 Degree nitol apena. 1. Positive Degree: we vn.glala ape matevnoun we savai. 2. Comparative Degree : we vaglala ape mat~ ma.no savai, (we tuan o~mun er.) c
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'i (2) A tall boy, a taller boy, the tallest boy. The tall boy, the taller boy, the tallest boy. The tall boys, the taller boys, the tallest boys. (3) A tall boy, a taller girl, the tallest tree. Awold house, an older boat, the oldest ship. The short mast, the shorter tree, the shortest girl. The blunt spades, the blunter axes, the bluntest hoes. Bnd Course. deep shallow rich yellow green poor dull stupid wild broad narrow round straight thick COMP ARIS ON OF ADJECTIVES (b). 1. 0 paspasoane letas ta e, we tuan alo Comparative Degree mun r, wa alo Superlative Degree mun st. wide large ripe white wise tame true blue ~. 0 paspasoane letas ta y, we leas o y mun i, wa we tuan alo Comparative Degree mun er, wa alo Superlative Degree mun est. pretty heavy dry happy lazy easy naughty ,., 3. 0 tuan Adjective we pirin rnun o paspasoane letas qara tuan mun er alo Comparative Degree, wa mun est alo Superlative Degree. fat sad wet big thin red hot glad 4. 0 titan Adjective. one two three fust second third 0 Degree tagai apena. hundred thousand million hundredth thousandth millionth Exercise.-The picture is pretty, but the tree is prettier. The snake is longer than the rat, but the rat is fatter. This boy is stupider than that girl, because he is lazier. The trees are greener in summer than in winter. The black boys and girls like ripe guavas. Solomon was the wisest man. Some boys are short and fat, and some are

PAGE 8

8 tall nna thin .. Thetr guns are heavier than our.bO'lvs a.nd arrows. If thcn1ay is hot. the boys are lazy. l\'Iy father is taller ; than my molher'i\ but mother is fatter. t9an he. Two boys are stronger than one boy. A boy has 10 fingers ancl ten toes. The first boy played, lmL the second worked. Thi_s is the third month and the fourth day. A week has 7. days, a month thirty or thirty one,.and 11 year 365. One hundvecl boys ancl fifty girls stay at Norfolk Island in the winter. The wall is old but the roof is new. The people in Enghtnd arc taller than the people in l\lelanesia. \Ve fear guns more than we fear bows and arrows. A boy works .harder than a girl, but a girl sews quicker. The fire burns quicker if the wind is strong. 3rd Coune. 0 tuan Adjective we ris sea alo Comparative Degree wa alo Superlative Degree. gc5od better bad worse much many little more more less best worst most most least Excrcise.-It is a good child who loves a bad father. The good man is better than the wise man. There are many cocoanuts iu Opa, but there are more in Gela. You talk ,vol'se no,v tlrnn when you arrived at Norfolk Island. The big boys wol:k ess .than the small boys; l:iecause they talk more. More men die in war than from famine. The stupid boy .is bad, but the lazy boy is worse. Much work and little play is not good, but much play and little work is worse I have more eggs in my basket .than you have in your hug. There is less water in the river i:. than iu winter. ]<'leas bite more at night than in the day, .but they alw11ys bother the people in the Vanua. Those who folk the least very often do the most work. He paid back more money than he borrowed. The doctor pulled out the m::m's tooth and he is now better, but the woman who drank the medicine is worse.

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9 rv. 0 PJ:ONOUN. 0 PRONOUN vVE LEAS O NOUN. 1st Course. 1. PERSONAL. Ape nago Verb. I you he she it we you they Exercise.-pirin -help. (1) I help you help we help (2) Help me help him help us (3) I help you you help him You help it we help them .. 2. POSSESSIVE. Ape nago Noun. My your his her its our your their Exercise.-(1). Ape kule Verb. me you him her it us you them they help help them we help her they help us We toga asan. Mine. yours his hers .its ours yours theirs My dog your garden his house My dogs your gardens his houses My black dog your small garden his new .house :-~y black dogs your small gardens his new houses Your small garden his smaller house my smallest dog Your small gardens his smaller gardens my smallest dogs (2). The dog is mine. The garden is yours. The house is his. The dogs are mine. The gardens a.re yours. 'The houses are his. The black dog is mine. The small garden is yours. The new house is his. The black dogs

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10 are mine. The small gardens are yours. The new houses are his.. '1'11.e small garden is yours. The smaller house is his. The smallest dog is mine. The small gardens are yours. The smaller houses are his. The smallest dogs are rnino. 3. DEMONSTRATIVE. this these that those Exercise.-(1) This dog that house these trees those gardens (2) This garden is mine that house is yours These rakes are ours those spades are theirs 2nd Co1t,rse. 4. REFLEXIVE, Myself Ourselves Yourself Yourselves Himself, herself, itself Themselves Exercise.-I rest myself. Help yourselves. He killed himself. The cat cleaned itself. They rowed themselves. 5. JN'l.'ERROGATIVE. who? which? what? whose? Exercise.-Who planted the trees? Which dog killed ,the hen? What killed the hen? Whose chair is that? 6. RELATIVE. who Exercise.-(1). which I cooked. what you want. which that what The boys who stayed atRowa. The hen The fence that I jumped. Show him -,.....__ (2). I rested myself on the road. Show me the boyw ho called me. Which net is the strongest? This is the dog which killed the cat which ate the rat. The boy knocked his finger on the gate which my father was mend ing. My son will climb the tree which you showed me. Who will m"end the road? I will mend it myself to-morrow. Whose is the boat that you are rowing? The bird killed

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11 itsel. I will ask him myself what he called me. l cooked the fish that you wautecl, now I will rest myself in my house. He laughed in himself. Who lifted the heavy box? The small boy lifted it himself. Ask yourselves if it is true. 3rd Course. 7, INDEFINITE. no some any every nobody somebody anybody everybody nothing something anyH1ing everything none one each other another Exercise.-One wants this, another that. Some want one and some want another. Everybody wants something. Every boy wants another knife. I want some bread. He wanted somebody, but nobody answered. Some like bananas and some like yams. The one worked hard, but the other was lazy. Each boy followed his father. I showed him something on the road. The surf is big, we will return another way. Love everybody and hate nobo!'ly. Help and lovE: one another. Every bird has two wings, and each man has two arms. Flowers and fruits are in every country, and everybody likes them. Any strong boy can pull a rope. If you want anything, ask me. Some played and some rested, but nobody worked. One must obey his parents and love everybody. V. 0 VERB. BP'/ERB "\VE GAGANAG O TOGARA MON 0 NOUN SI O PRONOUN WAS WE GE 0 SAVA, SI WE TOGA AVEA. 1st Course. 0 Tense nitol apena :-PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE. Present, we ge ilokenake. Past, me ge ananaisa. Future, te ge anaisa.

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i. I AM. Present. I am Youare He, she, it is We are You are They are Exercise.-( l). 12 Past. I was You were He, she, it was We were You were They were Fut1tre. I will be You will be He, she, it will be We will be You will be They will be I am tall You are short He is old I was weak You were slow He was cold I will be near You will be quick He will be strong (2) The boy is tall the axe is sharp the star is bright The boys are tall the axes are sharp the stars are bright The girl is tall the house is taller the tree is tallest The girls are tall the houses are taller the trees are tallest ii. We tuan o Verb a.lo Past Tense mun cd, wa we tin gegese o F1tt1ire Tense mun will si shall. clean mend pull lift finish wash work help ask answer watch dress laugh open kill shew fish undress sail show obey clear punish scold row jump disobey start swallow destroy play fear drown anchor wait suffer look plant turn climb thank knock stay sew pray want wish shout call end sharpen follow cook pluck talk return rest bother cheer boc:i;l..~ Exercisc.-Clean cleaned will clean work worked will work Present. Past. Fzttztre. I walk walked will walk You walk walked will walk He, she, it wallis walked will walk We walk walked will walk You w.1\k walked will walk They walk wa.ll,;:ed, will wall,;:

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13 Exercise.(!) I work you climb he cooks she sews it laughs I worked you climbed he cooked she sewed it laughed I will work you will climb he will coo\ she will sew it will laugh (2) I am working, you are laughing, he is talking. I was walking, you were rowing, he was sailing. I will be playing, you will be cookin,g, he will be fishing (3) John wants us. That ship is sailing. The boy climbed a tree. The girl was opening a door. The cat will kill this bird. Tom will be cleaning the house. (4) The dog jumped the gate. The cat climbed the. highest tree. John \\.ill help the weak girl. The dog shewed me the road. My father is mending the road, I will help him. The black boy climbs the tallest tree, I will watch him. The naughty girl bothers her mother. Pull the rope, we will help you. I fear I shall drown the fowl. Sharpen the axe, it is blunt. Those strong boys will row my new boat. The boy opens the window, he will jump. He killed the bird, I will punish him. Look, I fear the boy will drown. He mended the new gate. The black dog disobeyed the boy. The cold wind will destroy these small trees. Climb the tree and get me a cocoanut. The boy knocked his head. My new axe is blunt, I will sharpen it. My mother shewed me her rake. The bright sun obeys God, it will help the gardens. We will mend the gate the cow jumped. We will cook the fowl the cat killed. Mother, you will plant the trees. The cow followed phe boy, the boy jumped the gate, the girls laughed, ~rd the boys shouted. (5) The sun shines bright, we will row the boat. The boat is new, it is mine. We will sail, the wind helps us. Pull the rope, boys. Pull harder, the wind is strong, The boat started and the boys cheered. (6) My father is cleaning his garden, I will help him. The gate is low, I will jump it. I shall want a sharp hoe. Father, my hoe is blunt. You will be wanting a sharp hoe,

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14 I will sharpen it. I will work hard, I will help my father, I will clean his garden, I will obey him. Do you wish it was :finished? She wants her mother. The house is near, I shall climb the gate. Look, mother calls me, I will help mother. Fat~r will anchor his boat. 2nd Course. iii. 0 paspasoane letas ta e we tuan alo Past Tense mun d. die lie ~efuse wipe hate seize live love shrNe cr.angechase accuse dive like 'bathe arrive believe iv. 0 tuan Verb o paspasoanc letas ta y we leas o y mun -i qara tun.n alo Past Tense rnun d \i ed. pay try mn.rry carry say copy bury dry v. Tuan Verb we tuan alo Past Tense mun t. cry reply build burn send sleep len.rn spill lend Exercise.-He will live many years before he diE>s. He dived into the water but he was drowned. They lied to me about the road. He shaved every day in the week. The boys were bathing in the lake. Wipe your hands. in my room. Send the boy to me. He lmilt a new house at Langridge. The cat spilt the milk on the table. Lend me your book, and I will return it to-morrow. -we buried hjm under the pine_.tree. The Bishop married the black boy and girl. He lifted the box and carried it to the rock. I lent him my axe. The boys copied their father. He ch~nged his shirt. I will lend you a pound if you return it tc morrow. The fire burnt the grass because it wn.s dry and the wind was strong; He said he copied the book, but he lied. He lived at Mota, but he died at Gaua. He liked his friend, but he loved his father. The boys undressed themselves and bathed in the sea. When they :finished they dried themselves in the sun, dressed and returned to the village. The dog sei;.ed a bone and the cook chased him.

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vi. I HAVE. Present. I have You have He, she, it has We have You have They have 15 Past. I had You had He, she, it had We had You had They had Fut1ire. I will have You will have He, she, it will have We will have You will have They will have Exercise,~(!) . I have a red box. You have a plack cow. He has a sharp hoe. We have ten fingers. You have much food. They have long noses. They have a white hen. (2). I had five kumaras. You had my new hat. He had very many yarns. We had a fire to-day. You had a brother and a sister. They had much water but no food. (3). I will have an egg, please. You will have hald work to-day. He will have food soon. We will have a new ship. You will have my box after I die. They will have bananas and yams in the boat. (4). The boy has a brother and a sister, but he )J.as not a father or a mother. John had a sharp axe, but he was lazy. My friend will have lemons and oranges in his garden. The girls have a house on the hill, but they have no garden, and in the summer will have no food. The one has a bow, the other has an arrow .. Somebody had lived in the house, because the gardet1 had been cleared. If nobody had lived in the house, the garden had not been cleared. They will have finished their work before we have finished ours. When you have cut the grass you will rest, and then have your food. They h~d .pi;etty pictures mi the walls of thefr house. Had th~ rn'an hit the boy? If you had worked hard, the work had been finished before now. Will you have a yam or a kumara? I have had a yam, now I will have a kumara. The boy had been in Queensland, but he h(],S ,returned now. The girl had shut the gate herself after slie had walked. t~rough,

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16 vii. I no. Present. Past. Fntnrc. I do I did I will do You do You did You will do He, she, it cloes He, she, it did H-e, she, it will do We do We did We will do You do You did You will do They clo They clid They will do. Exercise.-What shall I do ? What will I clo ? What have we done? I did my work, you do yours. I will do to-morrow as I did yesterday. Do you live at Mota? Do they like bread? Why do you do that ? Why cloes the boy hit the dog? Does the white man love his country? He does love his country very much. Do you sweep the house? I did sweep it yesterday, I will not do it to-day. They do not row well. I had the work done, but I did not do it. They do not work well because they did not sharpen their axes. They have had a famine, but they do not plant now. If they will do my work, I will do theirs. I did wash myself to-day. Vlll. I MAY. Present. Past. I may I might You may You might He, she, it may He, she, it might We may We might You may You might They may They might Exercise.-! may sharpen my hoe. May I sharpen my hoe? Yes, you may sharpen your hoe. You might learn if you tried. You may sweep the house now. :i\Iay he row in your boat? The boys might refuse if I asked them. They may not work to-day because it is Sunday. The dog may kill the cat. He may not die if you watch him night and day. The kumaras may be ripe in June. If it had rained they might be ripe now, and we might have had some to-day. She might have finished, but she may not finish before to-morrow. "May I help you? You may not.

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17 ix. I CAN. Present. I'ast. I can I could You can You coulJ He, she, it can He, she, it could We ca.n We coulcl You can You could They can 'rhey could Exercise.-He can talk. The baby can wa.lk. The little baby can walk. The little baby can dress himself. You can help tile if you like. He and his father can lift the box. You could lift it yourself, but he,.can not. You may help me if you can. They could not stay at Norfolk Island, because the sun is alwa.ys very hot. We can not work to-day because it is wet. The birds can build little houses in the trees. Can any body lend me a pound? I can, but I will not. We can not row to Mota because the wind is strong. If the wind was not strong we could sail. We may row, but we can sail if you wish. x. I MUST. I must You must He, she, it must Present. We must You must They must Exercise.-! must work to-day in my garden. You must not disobey your pa.rents. He must return the book I lent him. We must not lie. You must burn the grn,ss near the bananas to-day. They must not spill the milk on the floor. My father calls me, I must answer. You must not talk and-laugh, but you must learn your figures. We must build a new house for the white man. If you are wise you will leam yom books here at Norfolk IslanJ, because you must soon return and help your friends in the islands. You must not be lazy. We must love every .body, and must not hate anybody. Exercise.-Some marry, some do not. I will send you bananas and yarns, because you have none in your garden. I built the house, but 1 do not live in it. I lend it to my

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19 brother who pays men. pound every week. Do not wipe your feet on the floor. He is thinner than he was. The wild cat does not live in the village. If the grass is dry you must burn it before you return. If it is not dry I will send some boys to-morrow and they will burn it. The people in this picture are building a large house. The boys cut the bananas with their sharp hoes. There is much tobacco on Norfolk Island, but we must chop it down. I have nothing in my hand, have you anything in yours? Do not walk on the wet grass. Did you do it yourself, or did somebody help you? I did it myself, nobody helped me. You could learn if you tried hard, but you are st.i,pid, and you do not try. He said he could row, but he could not. They rowed their canoes to the ship. Philip Island looks reddest when the sun is bright est. Some stars are larger than the moon. They look smaller because they are far from us. 3rd Course. Present. Past. Present. Past. (i) (a) (i) (o) begin began write wrote swim swam drive drove spit spat W!Il wdn sink sank shine shone sit sat risP. rose give gave (ea) (o) forgive forgave steal stole sing sang break broke drink drank bear bore (a) (e) tear tore wear wore fall fell (we seasen) draw drew bite bit (e) (o) hide hid get got choose chose forget forgot shoot shot

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19 Present. Past. Pres3nt. Past. meet met (o) (e) keep kept throw threw feed fed know knew sleep slept hold held sweep swept blow blew ( sasarita) (a) (o) hit shut cut beat read a.wake a.woke hurt let (we ris sia) (we ris seci) lie lay buy bought see saw sell sold fly flew take took go went make made eat ate bring brought think thought find found catch caught stand stood teach tn.ught understand understood Exercise.-The men in our village c'.l.rry spears n.nd shields now, h0:::,1,nse one day the men of Mn.la came in their en.noes, and fought with our people. 'lhey had guns and spears .ancl clubs, and shot rnn.ny woman and child ren, n.nd some men, n.nd cut down our cocoanut trees, and stole all our food, and shot all our pigs. By and by the. captain of the rnn.n-o-wn.r heard whn.t these men had done, and went to Maln.. When the people sn.w the ship sn.iling near their villn.ge, they hid in the hush, but the sailors came in boats and cn.ught the chief n.nd some men, and took them n.wn.y. The people fled into the bush and chose a place for n. new villn.ge. They began to clen.r the land, they cut down the big t1'6es and burnt them. They went for straight trees ,1,ncl built their houses with them, and roofed them with thatch. But they \Vere hungry becaLlse they had nothing to eat, n.nd the women ancl children sat down n.nd cried. They went into the bush and dug wild yams. The men caught fish in the river. The children 11ite the wil~ YTIS ~nd were satisfied, and drU,nk the water

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20 from the spring. They solcl their ma.ts a.nc1 bought pigs and kept them in a fence. They made gardens and planted yams and ta.ro, but they were not happy. They knew that they had done Wl'Ong, and the men went to ask for a teacher. They promised not to clo as they did before, and to give up stea,ling and fighting. "When they build a school house the teacher will teach them to read, and to do right, rmd to live in peace; and then the people of this village will not carry bows and arrows and spears. VI. 0 ADVERB. 0 ADVERB "\VE PIRIN O VERB SI 0 ADJECTIVE. 1st Conrse. TIME.-Alo sava masao qon nan. Before now soon after then Yesterday to-day to-morrow always Exercise.-! worked before I played. Before you jumped you looked. He plays now. Now she sews. It will soon rest. We will return soon. You cook after you fish. After they knock they open. He works, then he rests. They rowed, then they sailed. Yesterday I planted trees. I planted trees yesterday. To-day you mend the road. You mend the roaq. to-day. To-morrow he will rest. He will rest to-morrow. The boys obey always. The boys always obey. He reads very badly. PLACio:.-Alo sava tanoi. Here there Excrcitc.-1 cooked my fish here. Ilere you killed the bird. He plucks the fowl there. There we sharpen our axcs. You will rest here. They will work there. 1VlANNirn.-'l'ama.vea. well badly

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21 Exercise.-The boy worked badly. The girl sews well. This road is baclly mended. That ship is sailing well. These fish are cooked badly. Those sails are well mended. DEGREE.-We savcti. little much very only Exercise.-The night is a little colcl. He rests a little. It is much darker. They laugh much. 1\Iy axe is very small. Your country is very far. Very much rain will kill the trees. Thank you very much. lie talks very loud. I only laughed. NEGATION.not Exercise.-! will not work. He is not strong. It is not mine. You prayed not. Exercise.-Work hard, you are always resting. We worked hard, then we rested. I sharpenecl my axe here, now it is very sharp. The boys row badly, they are not row ing well. I wanted you to-day, to-morrow I will not want you. The men are working very well, soon the road will be mended. After it is mended they will rest. Yesterday we planted these trees here. We will work there to morrow. He climbed the very high tree. It is not very high, it is very low, that house is much higher. Help me here now, I will help you to-morrow. We always obey our father. I will call you soon, then you will not help me. I will wash my hands, then I will ask him. I will pluck the fowl after I kill it. I followed him after school. Those old boys disobey always, they are not obeying now. Soon I will want a new axe, mine is very old. It is not an old axe, I sharpened it yesterclay. I will rest, then I will follow you. The big boy is not much stronger than his brother. 2nd Oou.rse. TrME.-Alo savct masao qon. when early late presently while by <1n
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22 E.rercise.-When he cliecl we buried him. He talks when the work is finished. He worked early and late. Presently I will help him. By and by he will rest. He talks while he works. When the ship sails I will call you. I will dress early to-morrow. By and by when the captain calls, the sailors will pull np the anchor, because the ship will st:1rt presently. We will watch them while they ,rnrk, and when they :finish we will return to our house. PLACE.-Alo sciva tanoi. where above below inside outside Exc.rcise.-vVhere will you work? I will work where you wish. Our Father lives above, but He loves us who live below. It is hot inside, but it is wet outside. Do not stay inside always. We will lie outside on the dry grass. We will lie where the sun does not shine. ORDER.-0 tano tapare. firstly secondly thirdly lastly Exercise.-What do you want? Firstly, I want a hoe; secondly, an axe; thirdly, three rakes; and lastly, two spades. REPETITION.Vagavisa. once twice three times often seldom never Exercise.-! c:iJled once, but you did not answer. You wish me to call twice or three times, but I never call a boy twice. I seldom call a boy twice. I seldom or never call a boy twice. I often fish, but I seldom work in my garden. I will never return to my country. Exercise.-We watched the boys while they were. walk ing on the road. We often fish on Saturdays after we have washed the houses. By and by we will sail when the wind changes. The people in the islands carried bows and arrows before the white people arrived, no,v they only carry clubs. Everybody has firstly, one head; secondly, two hands; aq_d thirdly, ten fingers. I seldom work on Satmclity, but I stay inside. Before my father died he lived at Santa Cruz. He can wash and dress himself

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23 when he likes, but he is often lazy, and his mother must help him .. He was very ill twice in Mala and once in Norfolk Island. I never carry_ a bow and arrow now. The people of Mala and Guadalcanar carry spears, but these people here in this village carry bows and arrows. We cannot rest always, and we cannot work always. If 'we worked always and did not rest, we could not live many days. He was stupid before, but now he is wise and learns his books well. The Southern Cross will soon return from the islands and anchor off Town or off Cascades. VII. 0 PUEP0SITION. 0 PREPOSITION WE TOGA PETEN 0 NOUN SI O PRONOUN, WA vV~ VAG LALA O NONOMIA TAPENA MEN 0 VAVAE WE SEA. 1st Course. at on near upon Exercise.-(l). upon the table. in under into over At the door, to from near a tree, through about on a box, (2). ln my garden, into your house, under his hand, over yotir head. (3). He works in the garden. They sail on the ship. You jumped over the gate. We climbed into the tree. She will sew in the house. They will walk about the road. Work near the stone on the road. I will not play near the house. I will sail in my boat. I will cook the fish in my pan. The cat likes the fish on the plate. The houses under the pines are not new. I always stay at Norfolk Island. The black boy will jump through the window. Row the boat near the land, the wind is very strong. He jumped from here to there. They will pluck the guavas from the trees. The moon is brightest in the

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24 night. We were talking under the house. We will be working on the roads to-morrow. Yesterday I was at Mota, to-day I am here, to-morrow I will walk to Vureas. 2nd Cours&. after beneath beyond of for before above between with below Exemise.-He always walks after his father. He built his house beneath the large tree. We say that God lives above the clouds, but He is above them and below them. The nose is below the eyes but above the mouth. We walked on the road between the fences. The people of Mala and Gua.dalcanar live near Siota. Here is a letter for you from your friend. There are many islands be tween Bugotu and Raga. He killed the bird with an arrow. The dog dived after the stone. There are many islands beyond Bugotu. He turned down the road be tween Longridge and Town. The boy killed the rat upon the floor beneath the table. The boy of Gaua married the Motalava girl. He cried and wiped his eyes with his coat. The girl walked between her mother and her father. I am cooking a yam and bananas for you. I will send a boy after your horse. VIII. 0 CON;JUNCTION. 0 CONJUNCTION WE VILE TUWALE 0 VAVAE NAN. 1st Course. and but than dr if because Exercise.-(1). You and I. He or she. Not father but mother. (2). I work and play. You worked but we played. He plays. (3). I will play to-morrow if I work to-day. Sharpen my h)e and his axe. I will thank you if you sharpen

PAGE 25

25 them. I will work very well if my hoe is sharp, and he will not talk if his n,xe is sharp, but will work hard. If you will work well we will plant our trees in my garden, but they will want much rain, or the sun will kill them. Look at that strong boy ; I call and call, but he will not help me. I am opening the gate because my dog will not jump over it. He is not very strnng, but he will work. The boys like fishing and playing, but they will not help in the gardens. That fat boy laughs aud plays, but I want him here. The girl mends my coat, but she sews very badly because she talks much. I will stay near you if you want me. (4). To-day we will not work or school, but to-morrow we will be planting the trees and mending the roads if it is not raining. The girls will not help us because they will be sewing in the house. The smallest boys are not strong, but they work hard because they like work. He knocked his leg on the stone near the gate, because he disobeyed me and walked about the road. We planted kumaras in the gardens yesterday, but to-clay we wiU stay: in the house because it is Sunday. We always rest on Sunday, and play on Saturday.' If we do not play, we fish at the Qilo, or work in our gardens. (5). Soon the ship will return from Siwo, and then the boys will work at Cascades. They always work on the ship and help, because they are strong. Here is the ship now, we will walk to Cascades and help there to-day. The Captain will thank us very much if we work well, but he will not thank us if we laugh and talk and disobey him. They want the ship at Auckland, and if it sails to-day it will soon be there, because the wind is fair to-day, but it will not be fair to-morrow. Now the work is ended and the ship will sail soon. Look, the Captain walks about the ship and calls the mate, and the mate orders the sailormen. They pull up the anchor, the engine starts, the people cheer, because they will soon return to New Zealand. Now we will return to our houses, and to morrow we will rest because the wol'k was hard to-day.

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2nd Conrse. for though 26 that so as Rcercise.-He said that he was corning to Norfolk Island, but he did not come. I will not lie to you, though I did lie to my friend. He is taller than his brother, but his sister is taller tlrnn he. I will do as you say. We must "ork that we may live. He worlrnd in his garden -though it was raining. As I say, so do you. Do it as I do. We will cook a fowl for tea to-day. He said he had ,vorked, but he lied, for he played and talked so that he did not work. The girls stayed in their houses as it ,vas raining. We will rest beneath this pine, for I have worked hard in my garden. If he will not come, call his brother. He must help us, though he is small: He washed because he had played on the road, Copy the book as I said, and you will soon learn it. He finished crying and dried his eyes, but they are still red. IX. 0 INTERJEC'rION. 0 INTERJECTION WE GAGANAG 0 MALAROWO SI O MAMAKEL 3rd Coiirse. 0 ah! oh! alas! hurrah! Bxercise.-Oh my leg hurts. He swam in the:river,. but alas! he was drowned. Hurrah! ,I
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27 Exerdse.-One hunc1rec1 anc1 fifty boys and fifty girls live at Norfolk Island, and some white men and women teach them and help them. The lVIelanesians sleep in large roorris, but the white people live in their own rooms in the same house. They witke the boys in the early morning at 6 o'clock, and push and poke the lazy ones, as many wn.nt to sleep on. Then the boys get up and wash therr1selves. They do not all wash because they do not like cold water in the early morning. But the big boys must look after the small boys and the dirty boys, and see that they wash every dn.y. When they have prayed in the Chapel, and eaten in the Hall, they have school, and then the boys work in the gardens, and the girls sew in a large room under the pines. When school and work are finished, they may play if they like, or sit in their little houses, or walk about the fields until the bell calls them for tea. After tea they go into Chapel again, and then, after school they may return to their little houses and sit and smoke and talk, and then they go to bed. On Saturdays they have no school, but they go and fish at the Qilo or at the Vetal, ancl on Sundays they rest themselves. When th~y have lived here six or eight years, they return to their islands and teach others what they have learned. If every boy and every girl learn well at Nor folk Island and teach well in their islands, soon all the. people will hear about God, and there will be no more fighting and no more stealing, but everybody will live in peace and happiness.

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28 rr\VENTY FABLES fro1n .l.ESOP, siniplifiecl for renclering into Mota. ----0--I. THE HIDDEN TRBASURE. AN old man long ago was very ill, and his sons shood around, keeping watch over him. Presently he spoke thus: IC My chiklren, I am dying. Divide among you every thing that is mine. My house will be yours, and my garden, and my fields. Do not sell the smallest part of the land. Dig beneath the soil, for perhaps there you will find precious things. Whatever you obtain in this way is my gift to you." These 'l'l"ords being ended, the good man died, and his land was divided amongst his sons. Because of their father's words, these young men beli8ved that he had buried mueh money in the fields. Therefore, every morning when the sun rose they went out with spades ancl tools, ancl dug in the earth until evening. So they continued to do till they had dug over the whole ground. Then the eldest son was sad and he said, IC Where is the money om father told us about? We have dug for many months, and have found nothing." But the youngest son answered, Our father spoke not of money, but of precious things. We have already found much. We have learnt to work and not be lazy; the work has made our bodies strong, and has cleared the ground for yam and kumara gardens. In the future we shall find the reward of our work in fine kumaras and yams, and fat pigs, for in our search for treasure we have well prepared the soil for all sorts of seed." Then said the sons altogether, "Yes, yes! it is so in deed. Our father spoke well. He has given to us many precious things in the soil of the field."

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29 II. TIIE COW AND THE FROG. A cow was eating grass in a field where some little frogs were playing. And it was like this; the cow put her foot down upon one, and killed it. '.!.'he others jumped back to their mother very quickly. And they cried out to her thus, "Mother! Mothe1 Our brnther is dead. A very, very big and terrible animal put his foot upon him and killed him." And the old frog said, "Alas, my poor son! Was the animal as big as I? Then they all shouted together, "Fifty times as big! But she took a very deep hrnath, and swelled out her body, and asked them again, "Was it as big as this?" And they a,ll cried as before, Much, much bigger than you!" Now the old frog was envious about it, and clid not like to think any animal was larger than she, so she tried again to look as big as the cow. And she tried very hard, and then once a.gain harder than before, until she burst her self, and so died. But she could not make herself bigger than the cow's foot. Some persons, like the frog, are vexed when they see a man greater or richer than themselves. Those people are more foolish than the frog. He who tries to stand as a big man, when he is not so, will learn that all who see him, call him a fool. III. THE CROW AND THE JUG. The sun was shining in a sky without clouds, and the ground was very hot and dry. A poor crow, nearly dead with thirst, saw a jug on the ground, and flew to it quickly. He reached it, and found the water in it so near the bottom that he could not wet his beak. Then he tried to up set the jug, but the crow was weak and the jug was heavy; he tried in vain; he could not upset it. Then he stood thinking what 113 would do. Presently he picked up a little stone in his beak, and dropped it into the_jug. Then he picked up another, and dropped it in

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80 also. Thus he "dicl again ancl again, ancl each stone, when it fell, made the water rise in the jug higher than before. When he h:i.d picked up twenty stones the water reached the edge of the jug, and the clever bird could drink till he had drunk enough. So he quenched his thirst and flew away. _,, When you see before you a very hard task, do not say, '' I cannot do it! ". but just be quiet, and try to think, as did the crow, of a wise plan. The thoughts of ri. weak man wilf often help him to do very hard things, while a strong man, who tries with his hands only, will try in vain: IV. THE THREE AXES. A poor_ man was chopping fire-wood on the bank of a deep river. Presently the axe-head flew off arid fell into the water, and sank to the bottom. The wan sat down, and cried with a. loud voice, '' Alas alas! I ha've lost my axe, and who _can bring it back to me? for he was very sad, as with it he earned his food. Now a wizard was walking near there, and heard the man crying. And he said to himself, IC I will test this man, whether he is true or not." Now he went near him and asked what was the matter. The man told him his axe had fallen into the deep water; and that he was not able to dive for it. He also said he was very sa,cl, been.use he could not now work for his bread. Then the wizard dived for the axe, and brought up a gold one. IC Is this yours? '.' asked the wizard. IC No," said the inan, ,i Mine is not a precious one like that." 'rhen the wiza,rcl dived again, and brought up a silver one. IC Is this yours?" asked the wizard. cc No," said the man, cc Mine is not as good as that." Then the ,,izar
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81 Now a;.man belonging to the .same village heard the news from his friends. This man was very crafty, and at once thought of a plan whereby he might become rich. So the man went to the river bttnk to cut fire-wood like the other man had clone, but he made his axe-head loose, so that when he chopped it fiew off from the handle, ancl fell irtto. the deep water. The deceitful m_an then so.t dwn and cried very, very loud. _., The wizard appeared as before, and asked"'the mail. ";hat he was crying for. "Alas! ttla"s said the man, .'.' I have lost my axe, and I am very, very s"::td. Then the wizard dived as before, a"nd-brought up a gold axe. "'Is this yours?" asked the wizard. "Yes, yes! that is indeed my axe," said the crafty fellow. Then the wizard, who knew all about it, was: very angry, and scolded him greatly for his deceitful behaviour. He was punished justly; as besides the scolding the wizard gave him, his mvn axe w'as.1:eally lost, and still lies at the bottom of the river. V. THE TWO GRA13S. Two crabs, a mother ancl daughter; walked along the sand by the side of -the -~ear. The mother was following her child, and when. shersaw how -the little crab walked, she scolded her, and said thus: "Why do you walk so awkwardly? Walk straight for ward, not clum[:lily like that! Dp you hear me? Why do you not obey me? ' But the little crab was walking as all crabs walk, and she answered meekly, "I walk as well as I can, mother. If you wish me to walk strnight forward, I pray you, shew me yourself how to do so, and I will follow you." Then the big crab was silent when the little one spoke thus. She understood that she had been foolish, for if she tried for many years, she could not walk straight forward herself. If we want to teach people to walk in a good way, let us be carefl ahvays to walk in tlrn,t good way ourselves, or we shall spea.k to them. in vain,

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82 VI. THE DOG AND THE SHADOW. A dog ran along a road with a bone in his mouth. His owner had given it to him, nnd he was happy about it. He thought he would carry it to a place far from other dogs, and gnaw it there by himself. Presently he came to a clear pool. As he walked be side it, he looked down, and saw himself in the water. And he said to himself thus: Here is another dog He is going one way with me, and he carries a bone also. It looks as if it is larger than mine. He thinks also he will eat by himself, but I will not allow him to do so. I will snatch it from him; after that, I shall have two bones instead of one only. He does not look as if he wants to fight; he will be afraid and will run probably." So the dog, leaning over, opened wide his mouth to seize the bone he thought he saw in the water. But he learned very quickly that he was mistaken. The true bone sank to the bottom before his face, and he only swallowed a lot of water. This story explains the proverb, He who grasps every thing loses everything." He who at ffrst covets, will prese.ntly try to steal. He may steal with success m:my times, but one day he will find he also has lost evetything. VIL THE LION AND THE FOUR COWS. The lion is the enemy of every animal weaker than he, and he will spring upon, will kill, and eat any cow he finds by itself. But he fears to attack a number of these animals, for then they will stand against him, and with their horns will probably hurt him very much. Now four cows agreed to live together as friends, to feed close together, and to sleep close together, lest the lion should come near. Their thought was wise, and while they lived thus they were safe. The lion walked round about, and tried to seize one by itself, put the four cows kept watch, and did not separate themselves,

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33 Then the lion thought how he could make them break their covenant together. Ancl he resolved to stir up a quarrel among them, and he dicl this. He commanded a little bird to go and whisper lies in the car of each of the four cows about its three friends. The little bird obeyed, and the cows believed every word he spoke. 'l'hen he flew away, but the lion sat and watched secretly. The four cows looked at one another ang1ily, and bega,n to walk apart. Then one spoke to another thus: 11 I have heard that you speak evil of me behind my back. From now I shall eat alone." Another said thus: "You call me bad names when I am asleep. From now I shall leave you." So two cows walked away by themselves. Then the third cow said to the fourth thus: "You have slandered me, and I was your friend. Now I shall go away." And the third cow turned round and departed. As the fourth cow wa,s alone, it could not scold anyone. But it did not remain alone long, for the lion spra11g out from behind a bush, leapt upon it, and killed it. Then he chased each of the three cows that still remained, and killed them one by one. A very strong man is weak by himself, but if a few weak men combine together, they will be strong, and will he safe probably. He who quarrels with his friends, will soon be in the hands of the enemy. VIII. THE SUN AND THE WIND. Long ago the sun and the wind clispnted together about their strength. The winc1 spoke thus : 11 I am much stronger than you. Can you break down a big tree with your breath?" And the sun said No; but still I am stronger than you." Then the wind began to be angry, and he challenged the sun to contend with him about it. And the sun said, "It is go::icl; I shall show y,,u my words are true. See, a man is walking on the roacl; his

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34 clon.k is wmppea n.ronncl him. Let us sec which is strong enough to make him throw it off." 'l'hen the wind laughed and said, That is very easy1 I can break down a tree ; I can make a ship sink." But the sun only answered, "Do you try first to tri.ke away that cloa.k." So the wind blew very harcl, like a hurricane, and the man sought shelter beneath a rock. But he only said, "It is well I have a cloak; and he wrapped himself close in it. And when the wind blew yet harder than at first, he wrapped his cloak around him still closer. And the wind blew till he tired, but the man would not let go his cloak. Then the wind was sulky, and said to the sun, "It is impossible. Let us try again about something different." But the sun smiled, and said, Let me try just once about this mn,n n,nc1 his clon,k." Now the sun shone upon the man, and shone and shone continually, till he became very hot, and wished to cool himself. Therefore he threw off his cloak, and sought the shade of a tree. Thus the sun wn,s victorious in this contention. The rough wind is like an angry man who tries with shouting and with scolding to make things as he wishes. The wn,rm sun is like a, kind-hearted. mn,n who speaks gentle words. Men will resist the one, but will quickly obey the other. IX. THE WOLF AND THE LAMB. In a land far awn,y is a, high hill; a, stream flows down one side. On a certain day, when the sun was very hot, a wolf n,nd a, ht111b cn,me at one time to drink the cold wn,ter. The wolf stood on a rock n,bove, and the lamb in a shallow pool below. Now the lamb had not seen a, wolf before, and he did not know the big animal wanted to kill him n,nd eat him, or he would not have stn,yed there. The wolf was n,slrnmed to attack the lamb without a

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85 ca"Qse, so he.triea to begin a quarrel with him. And he spoke in a loua voice thus : :Look what you are doing! Because you stir up the mud with your feet, you n1ake dirty the water I drink. You are bad; you arc shameless; but 1 will teach you not to annoy a wolf again." The poor lamb stood trembling; it was very much afraid \\hen the wolf scolded it thus. But it resolved to answer the wolf, because he had accused it falsely. So the lamb said in a humble voice, "I am very sorry about it, but Ycannot uridel'stand how I can make dirty the water you drink; sirtce the strnarn flows down, and you stand there above me. You drink from the stream before it reaches me."These words were true, but they annoyed the wolf very much.. He approached the lamb, ,i.nd shouted thus, "Do not argue with me! It is you who spoke evil of me a year ago." But the little lamb cried, "No, indeed! I was no't yet born a yeM ago." At these words the wolf wn,s very :ingry, n,nd shouted thus at the lamb: "It is all one'! If not you, your father spoke against me, and I shall eat you, so that you may not contrn,dict me again." These words ended, the wicked wolf sprang upon the l!!,mb, rent it, and quickly devomed it. X. THE BLIND MAN AND THE LAME. One day, two men were walking in the bush, each by himself, not knowing anyone else was near. The path was rough, and one of the men was blind, and the other lame. Both were going to one vilhige, but the blinc1 man was in front of the other. Both went very slowly, each walked with a stick, and often they stopped short and grnaned, for each feared lest he should not l'Cach the village. Presently the blind man stood for awhile to rest himself.

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86 Ancl becn,use of this the lame man snw the blind mn.n afar, and walked until he overtook him. When the blind man heard the sound of the other's feet he said "Friend where are you goina?" T1he lame' man an;wered, "To the oth;r side of the bush; we both are going one way." Then the blind man said, "I beseech you, help me, for I am blind, and the way is very difficult, because the ground is rough and the trees are many." But the lame man said, "Alas how can I help you, my brother? For I myself am lame, and have nearly fallen by the way many times." Then the blind man replied to him, "Look! I am strong, and my feet are very firm. If you will give me your eyes, I will give you my feet." The lftme man agreed gladly, for he understood the plan of the other, and _it was very wise. So he climbed upon the shoulders of the blind man, and guided him carefully along smooth paths. So they went quickly, and arrived safely at the village. XI. THE PINE AND THE BRIAR. In a forest, far away, lived a tall pine. He had grown higher than all the other trees in the bush. But he was proud also, and despised every tree that was smaller than himself. Each day he waved his branches to and fro, and hmghed and scoffed at the poor briers and shrubs that grew about him. Look at me Look at me, everyone He would speak thus. "I am the chief in the bush, the king over all the trees. I alone am beautiful, I alone am strong. Look at me! Admire me! Why do briars and worth less things dwell here in the shade of a great tree like me? I despise them all. If I were not very kind-hearted, I should forbid all creepers and thorns to grow near me." It happened that presently a man came into the bush. He carried an axe, and looked about for a tall straight tree, because he wished to build a large house. And when he saw this pine in the midst of the forest, he said, Good!

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37 That one tree will be sufficient for my house. I will put a mark upon it, and chop it clm,n prrnently." Then he lifted up the axe, and smote the trunk of the great tree. But as he walked away to call some of his friends to help him cut clown the pine, the man saw the briar with its many thorns. And he turned 3 side, so that he should not touch it. Then the briar lifted up its head ttnd laughed, while the proud pine groaned and sobbed, and his boughs shook, because of his distress. And the thorns and creepers which grew near him heard these words: "Oh, I wish I were a humble briar, sftfe in the midst of its thorns, and not a tnJl pine that ma.n will cut down to-morrow." We pity the pine, pediaps; but the punishment was just. Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit b&fore a fall." XII. THE BOYS AND THE FROGS. A company of idle boys stood besicle a pond; very many frogs dwelt therein. And it was like this : one boy pickecl up a stone, and threw it at a frog, and hit it. Another boy followed his example. The others clapped their hands together and laughed. Then they all begttn to pelt the frogs; if one lifted its head above the water, a stone would probably hit it and kill it, The boys played like this heedlessly. But presently a big frog, who was the chief of all the frogs, lifted up his head. A boy quickly raised his hand to throw a stone, but the frog opened his mouth, and spoke thus : "My sons, you are bigger than we. Yes, yes; but it is yours to be very gentle and kind-hearted to everything that is weak. You are cruel, because you are heedless. We have not hurt you at all. But what are you doing?" The boys stood ashamed, and dropped the stones; but one replied, "We were only playing." Then the old frog shook his head, and said, Alas I

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38 Alas! This is only play to you, but to us it is our death." From tla~ time forwanl these boys thought about the frog's words, and were kind and gentle to all animals and otter weak things. XIII. THE DOVE AND THE BEE. One day an accident happened to a bee. He was care less, and flew verv near the water of a stream ; he fell into the water, ana" wr,s nearly drowned. A clove sat on a tree near by. Seeing the bee fall in, she plucked a leaf from a branch, and dropped it in front of the bee. He crawled onto it, and after that, when his wings were quite dry, he flew away safe. On the morrow the bee saw his kind-hearted friend ngain sitting tl18re; but a man with arrows hacl crept up behind her, aml was going to shoot her. The clove did not know about it. But the bee saw the clanger. He flew straight to the man, and stung his ear very hard. The man jumped, and cried out, "Oh That was enough; the dove heard the sound, ancl flew away unhurt, as the man shot after her in vain. He who is quick to help everyone, like the clove, will always find a friend wlien he wants help himself. XIV. THE SHEPHERD'S BOY AND THE WOLF. A man long-ago had a large flock of sheep, ancl told his son to look after them, and feed them, and keep them safe from wolves. Now a wolf is a wild animal, very fierce, that kills and eats sheep when it can catch them. And many wolves dwelt in tlmt country. But this boy was a silly fellow, who liked to play, and to deceive his neighbours, and afterwards to mock therri. So he shouted often, A wolf A wolf Who wiH help me?" and there was no wolf at all. The neighbours w:ho were digging in the fields, always left their work \\!hen they hearcl the shout, ancl ran to help the boy. Whei1 they reached the fence, and saw no wolf, but the sheep

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39 quite safe, they were very angry. But the boy laughed at them. It happened like this six times. Then the neighbours talkcc1 together, and said, "This lad has deceived us six times, henceforth we will not listen when he cries, 'A wolf! We will not leave our work, and go forth in vain." But the next day the boy saw a big gray animal jump into the field, and he kne,v a real wolf now was among the sheep. Then he was very much airaid, and he shouted !),gain with a loud voice, "A wolf! A wolf! Who will help me?" The neighbours heard him, but they Jid not attend; they only laughed, and said, The boy wishes to deceive us seven times; he has deceived us six times, but to-clay he shall shout in vain. We will not go." The boy still shouted, and called his friends' names, but no one answered, or came to help him. So the wolf killed every sheep. In the evening, when the father visited the flock, and saw every sheep dead, his anger was great, and he beat the boy very hard. Then the boy wept long, and wished he had been wise. He understood now tlrnt he who de ceives his neighbours will presently suffer for it himself. After that he did not lie again. XV. THE APE AND HER YOUNG ONES. A certain ape had two young ones. She loved one very much, but despised the other. Now one clay some men with guns chased her, and tried to kill her, and the a.pe was very much afraid, a.nd fled away through the bush. But she did not forget to seize her favourite child, and ca.rry it with her in her arms, for she thought that it would thus be quite safe. The other child could only jump upon her back, and catch hold of her bil. Thus the three fled away together. But as they da.shed through the bush an a.ccidont ha.p pened. The hurry and the fright hall hlint1ec1 the mother ape, while her bdovml chilc1 cou!