Aids to the study of ki-swahili

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Aids to the study of ki-swahili four studies compiled and annotated
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Swahili
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Mervyn W. H. Beech ( Editor )
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Africa
Afrika
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-6.307 x 34.854

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"Compiled direct from non-English speaking natives."--Preface.

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Full Text
AIDS TO THE STUDY OF
KI-SWAHILI


Dictionary of the Suahili Language

By L. Krapf. 30/- net.

Comparative Grammar of the Congo
Languages, and of Swahili.

With a Vocabulary.

By W. H. Stapleton . 6/- net.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH TRUBNER & Co.. Ltd


AIDS TO THE STUDY
OF KI-SWAHILI

FOUR STUDIES COMPILED
AND ANNOTATED

By

MERVYN W. H. BEECH, M.A., F.R.A.I

Examiner in Ki-Swahili in the East Africa
Protectorate

Author of "The Tidong Dialects of Borneo/' The Suktheir
Language and Folklore, etc., etc.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER Sc CO., LTD.
New York : E. P. DUTTON & CO.




PREFACE

The objects of this little compilation are two. Primarily
it is intended to assist those students who, already well
acquainted with the elements of the Swahili language,
are desirous of entering for the Government Higher
Standard ?5 examination. Study I has been compiled at
the request of a number of individuals, and because, as I
believe, no such treatise on writing ki-Swahili in the Arabic
character exists in English.

There is a tendency nowadays to discourage this form
of writing, but there can be no doubt that, putting aside
the question of its suitability, a knowledge thereof is still
essential for coastal administration. The student will
find that, after having become proficient in reading good
clear writing, there will remain the unpleasant fact that
he will still be able to decipher only about one in every
six of the letters that he receives in the course of his duties.
It is to assist him in this difficulty that the letters in this
section have been chosen.

A model was first selected and subsequently specimens
of letters, which in a small space would contain the greatest
variety of methods of writing, were carefully chosen.

To decide upon the model was by no means so easy as
it may sound, for of the large number of authorities ques-
tioned, both Arab and Swahili, I never succeeded in find in.,
two whose views entirely coincided.

The selection, it is hoped, will prepare the student for
any variety and, with the exception of letter No. 1 which
is the model, must not be taken as teaching him how to
write but as giving him a practical knowledge of how to
read.

In Study II I have endeavoured to draw attention to

v


vi

PREFACE

idioms and noteworthy constructions of which I made
notes when I myself was learning the language. Con-
sequently I have occasionally slightly stretched the context
in order to include a note that I have considered would be
useful. Some of the points to which I have drawn attention
may seem at first sight trivial or unnecessary. But it
must be remembered that many phrases of which the
translation is obvious, and which are apt to be passed over
unnoticed, will be found on closer inspection to be in reality
idiomatic.

Study III consists of aphorisms and riddles. Some of
these have doubtless been published before, but a great
proportion are new, and all have been collected from the
natives by myself.

If some of the explanations, all of which were given to
me by Wa-Swahili, are rather unsatisfactory I prefer to
leave them so rather than to risk inventing a false interpre-
tation myself.

A knowledge of aphorisms is not only most useful in
emphasizing a point, but also gives the student* many
glimpses of the national character. Not that the Swahili
acts up to the high level of his maxims, which are probably
in many cases derived from the Arabsor perhaps it is
that he would say as did Ovid, Video meliora proboque
deteriora sequor.

Study IV may be of anthropological interest to some, but
it is inserted here chiefly as an example of pleasing and
harmonious language.

The whole of the four studies have been compiled direct
from non-English speaking natives and no interpreters have
been used.

Secondarily the aim of this little book is to endeavour
to create in the student an appreciation of the euphony
of. this language, and, in spite of its composite character,
ki-Swahili well spoken is most euphonious.

Language is not only a science but an artj and, if perfec-
tion is to be attained, it should be studied from both these
points of view.

The science consists in attaining to grammatical correct-
ness ; the art in acquiring idiom, intonation and gesture.


PREFACE

vii

Knowledge of the former without the latter is incomplete.

To publish a book on ki-Swahili, however small, requires
some boldness, and I should scarcely have ventured to do
so but for the encouragement received from Mr. A. C. Hollis
and the Rev. John Hamshere of the Church Missionary
Society, after they had perused my MS. To the latter,
who has resided for over twenty years on the Coast, I am
especially indebted for his kindness in giving me many
valuable suggestions. He is referred to throughout the
work by the initial H.

1 must also acknowledge the assistance received from a
large number of Arabs and Wa-Swahili, notably the late
Sheikh Muhamad bin Salim bin Hamis TMazarui, Liwali
of Takaungu ; Sharif Ahmad bin Uusuf, Kadhi of Fort
Smith ; his cousin Sharif Said Hasan bin AloiMuhamad
bin Salim and Shaaban bin Muhamad.

Nor must I omit to mention the kind encouragement
I have received from the. Royal Anthropological Institute,
the African Society, Sir Harry Johnston, Chief Justice
Hamilton, and the publishers, all of whom in one way or
another have by their sympathy and interest enabled me
to have the book produced.

M. W. H. B.

Mombasa.




CONTENTS

PAGE

Preface v

Swahili Traditions as to Themselves xi

Study I.Ki-Swahili Writing . 3

Study II.Ki-Swahili Stories, with Translation

and Notes on Idiom . 58

Study III.Enigmas and Aphorisms, with Explana-
tions as given by Wa-Swahili ' 117

Study IV.Magic in Pemba

134




SWAHILI TRADITIONS AS TO
THEMSELVES

To obtain a satisfactory answer to the question as to what
a Swahili really is, it will be necessary to divide our inquiry
into three stages. In the first we shall attempt to satisfy
ourselves as to the original meaning and significance of
the term. In the second we shall endeavour to trace its
development; whilst in the third and last we shall attempt
to describe what is generally understood by the term at
the present day.

It must be remembered that the arguments are to a
great extent those given by the people themselves. Limits
of space and the absence of books of reference will of necessity
preclude the subjecting of these arguments to a minute
and critical examination, but, whilst some of them may be
unsupported and unconvincing, it is nevertheless claimed
that the conclusions are substantially correct.

The First Stage.

The Arabic word signifying a coast is sahil (J.fcLo)
and its plural is suahil _

The final i with the teshdid ^ is a genitive affix.
Thus we obtain an Arabic word * Swahiliyi, which

means (a man) of the coasts.

When we have once grasped the fact that this is a term
which the Arabs applied to those of themselves who sett! 1
on the African coast,1 and not to a native coast tribe which
they found already there upon their arrival, we shall have
advanced a considerable distance in the solution of our
problem.

Now as there are still a large number of persons who

1 It is said that the Arabs also use this term to designate the
Coast people in their own country.

xi


xii SWAHILI TRADITIONS AS TO THEMSELVES

persist in believing in the original existence of an African
tribe called the Wa-Swahili, it will be as well to give some
of the evidence obtained from local tradition and old MSS.,1
although we are unable to guarantee its truth.

There can be no doubt that the settlement of the
East Coast of Africa dates back to pre-Muhamadan and
even pre-Christian times, and that it was effected by peoples
from Arabia, Persia and Syria, all of whom came probably
by way of the Persian Gulf. In Mombasa and its vicinity
the most important divisions of the Swahili are the Thelatha
Taifa *2 or Three Tribes, and the Tissa Taifa 2 or Nine
Tribes. The Thelatha Taifa or Three Tribes consist
of the Wa-Kilindini, the Wa-Changamwe, and the Wa-
Tangana. Of these the first Kilindini 3 is said to be a
corruption of Jilindan-iyi this being the

name of an Arab tribe living near Maskat. Changamwe is
said to be a corruption of Taghamaw-iyi an

Arab tribe in Syria.4

The origin of Tangana is disputed. Some derive it from
the Swahili word Ku-tangamana (to mix), and explain
Wa-Tangana as being the name given to all Arab and
Persian settlers in Mombasa, who did not belong to the
two first-mentioned tribesas we might say The Miscel-
laneous. Others declare that the Wa-Tangana came from
Shiraz in Persia. The Tissa Taifa or Nine Tribes *
similarly boast of Asiatic derivations.

There is considerable disagreement as to the composition

1 The oldest Swahili MS. that I have seen is written on rice
paper obtained probably from Persia. It consists of a number
of verses explaining the meaning of difficult words. It is said to
be over 500 years old and both Arabs and Swahili have found it
very difficult to translate.

* Be it noted that these designations are in pure Arabic. In
Ki-Swahili, Miji mitatu, Miji Tissia.

3 Kilindini. Some would derive this word as follows : Ki-
lindi-ni : lindi, a hole or pit; ni locative affix. Hence the place
where there is a hole, or the place of deep water, which, it must
be admitted, seems more probable.

4 Although Ku-changanya (Zanzibar dialect) (to mix) is a
tempting suggestion, which, if correct, would place the tribe in the
same category as the Wa-Tangana.


SWAHILI TRADITIONS AS TO THEMSELVES xiii

of the Nine Tribes. It is difficult to obtain two identical
lists from two different Swahili.1

We can, however, examine some of those about whom
there is no dispute.

The Wa-Jomvu are said to be settlers from the country
of Jauf (t-jys,) in the Yemen.

The Wa-Kilifi are said to be an Arab tribe from near
Mecca. The tribe is called Kulfah (dftK) after its
founder Kulfah bin Hanthalah ^ doK).

The Wa-Mtwapa are said to be the Tabia (^IL) a
tribe who live near Maskat and also in Syria. The true
Wa-Pate, of whom there are said to remain only about ten
families, are said to have come from A jam i.e.

Persia.

The Wa-Gunia, who speak what is generally called a
barbarous dialect of Ki-Swahili, are said to be Persians from
Kangoni, near Shiraz, but it is admitted that they are very
much mixed up with a tribe from the Sudan called Muiili

a

(jy) whose chief town is Bana. Gunia is supposed
to be a corruption of Kangoni. As to the Wa-Malindi it
is not suggested whence they came. The town of Malindi2
is said to have been called Muludh 9 but changed

1 This is, I think, due to the fact that each tribe has a number
of subdivisions, and, if the speaker belongs to one of those sub-
divisions, he is apt to refer to his particular section as being the
comprehensive name of the tribe ; e.g. the Wa-Pate are divided
into Wa-Pate, Nabahani, Ma-sharifu, Arabs (Abdi Salam), Wa-
Kilio and Wa-Pokomo. The first four are of Asiatic origin, the
fifth Nyika and the last descendants of natives of the Tana river,
of which hereafter; cf. infra, p. xv. n 2.

The Wa-Siyu again are said to be divided into the Wa-Siyn.
Wa-Famau, Wa-Katwa and Ma-Sharifu.

2 Malindi. Local tradition says that the present town i
sixth which has been built on the same spot. It is said to date
from 1271 A.H-.

The previous town is said to have been destroyed in 1017 A.H.
which date is the same assigned to all ruins on the East Coast,
e.g. Gedi, Kilifi, Ngomeni, etc., etc. The story is that the Asiatic
settlers attempted to enslave the Galla, but were defeated and so
weakened that they became an easy prey to the people of Witu,
who swept down the coast and overwhelmed all the towns except
those situated on islands.


xiv SWAHILI TRADITIONS AS TO THEMSELVES

to Malindi out of compliment to Vasco da Gamas wife
whose name was Linda !

However unconvincing these derivations may be, they
are sufficient to convince us of the Swahili tradition of
their Asiatic origin dating from a very long time ago.1

The Second Stage.

We need not doubt that it was the quest of slaves
which first brought the Arabs and Persians to East African
shores, and that subsequently they decided to employ 6ome
of these slaves in cultivating the fertile coast lands.

Now these slaves were almost invariably purchased in
the large slave market of Kilwa, an island in, what is as I
now write, German territory, and Zanzibar. They con-
sisted of natives of central Africa, e.g. Wa-Nyassa.2 As
was customary, many of the women they took as concubines.

We now have a number of Arab and Persian tribes settled
along the East Coast of Africa, living with a host of Bantu
slaves by whose women they were frequently having children.
What is the next 6tep ?

The child of an Arab by a slave-concubine (Suria) takes
his fathers nationality. He is an Arab. His child in
turn by a native woman is an Arab ; and again his child
under similar circumstances is an Arab ;and so on
indefinitely. If, however, the hybrid child is a female and

1 Of other Swahili tribes it might be added that the Wa-Shimazi
are said to belong to an Arab tribe called Shemzi after their founder,
one Ahmad bin Ali Shemzi. The Wa-Faza are said to have come
from Faza near Halab in Syria. The Wa-Pemba are said to have
come from Shiraz in Persia and settled in Pemba island in 1771
a.d. No derivation is given for the word Pemba but their dialect
of Ki-Swahili, Ki-Jezirati, is obviously from the Arabic Jezirah
(&jijsx) (island).

2 These slaves of Central African origin are called Wa-Shambara,
which does not mean, as far as I can find out, a native of Usambara
in German East Africa. Here we have the origin of the Ki-Swahili
language, viz., a compromise between Arabic and primitive Bantu
languages of Central Africa evolved in the efforts of master and
slave to understand one another. It is a mistake to regard Ki-
Swahili as a mixture of Arabic with Ki-Nyika or with the language
of a primitive Bantu tribe found by the Arabs on the Coast when
they first arrived.


(saaqjo uiojj uopoupsip jo
osodjnd oift joj a'l) t s;oi ut jaij;e9o; pauiof aq o;, UBgun-n};
uiojj paAuap aq o; pres si DiivmGun-mi qcl mwcnbun-njft e

I a;OU IIIX -piA pUU i BqiAu^VY

paziurBfsj jo saqu; aq o; pres 9jb imyfnptyj pire rndquiod^r z

uouiuioo

9JOUI put? ajoui auiooaq ppiOAi ;i ;mp poojq uraoiJjy jo uoi;djosqB
jo SUOIJVJ9U98 pwaAas ja;jt? jajBj Moq oas o; ^Cs-ea si ;i ;nq aaui
<'>'iM.nxa aq ssajjqnop saS-ejs Ajj-ea aq; ui ppiOAV uoum ub qong ,

uuoujy aq; jo soi;sija;oBJBqo Afpjoq puB jbiobj aq; aioui
puB ajoui qjosqB o; panupuoa sjap;as asaq; jo s;UBpuaosap
aq; ;q; ;obj aq; o; ;ua;xa ;BajS AjaA b o; ;qnop ou anp
qiqBAVg aq; uajq;ajq Jiaq; uodn UA\.op qooj o; auioo pBq jjn*)
UBisjaj aq; uiojj s.iapB.i; qB.iy aq; ;sBd auii; Suoj b joj

a§B;s pjiq; aq; joj a[qisuodsaj
si suBadojuj jo ;uaApB aq; q;pv jaq;aSo; Apio oSb sjboA
001 auios iujzbj\[ aq; S a sqBjy jo uopBjSiuiun qsaij y

, aovig jxasauj aKV anraj shx

qBjauaS ui uopBjndod aApBU aq; puB jaq;ouB auo o; UAiouq
ssa[aq;jaAau ajB Aaq; UBadojnj ub jo saAa aq; in c bijbz
-bav. aq; uiojj ABp-o; jo t bubaySuu-b^ aq; qsmSupsip
o; 8uiq;ou jo ap;q si ajaq; sasBD Aubui ui qSnoq;;B ayo^
e /bubaySuu-b^Y saAjasuiaq; papf;s uaq; sasssp A\au aajq;
asaq; uiojj saAjasuiaq; qsmSupsrp o; jap jo ui apis jBUja;Bd
aq; uo ;uaosap opBisy jo asoq; aq qiqBA\g ajnd eqx
S saqij; qiqBAYg aq; ui paprqoui uib^sj o; pa;jaAUOO Suiaq
ja;jB auiBoaq pUB[ja;uiq JBau aq; jo saqij; UBOiJjy jaq;o
jo suosjad puB ouioqoj-B^Y uiBjjao Ajpjiqx

paSuojaq

sja;sBUi-xa ubisjoj jo qBjy Jtaq; qoiqAi o; aqp; t qiqBAvg 9
;Bq; o;ui pa;BJodjoaui auiooaq o; paAvoqB Apuanbajj ojoay
;jBd Jiaq; uo sSuipqsqoBq jaq;o jo snoiSqaj jo uopBidxa ui
sja;sBui Jiaq; Aq paajj saAB[S jo /iui^isbui aq; uiB§y

poo[q qBjy jo uinorpoui
b aABq sjaq;o ui ;nq suBOiJjy ajud ajB sasso auios ui oqAv
/BijBZ-BAV aq;ssBp Avau b dn SuiSuuds a\ou aABq a^

l UBUIOAA.

oabjs b puB ubui 9ab[S b jo guijdsjjo aq; o; paqddB uua;
jBopuapi aq; si qoiqAv t BqBZ]\[} ub ;nq f qBjy ub ;ou si ppqo
jaq aAi;BU b ;nq t qBjy ub Ajjbui ;ou saop ajBuiaj siq;

Ax saAiaswanx ox sv snoixicivhx iiihvavs


xvi SWAHILI TRADITIONS AS TO THEMSELVES

* children of their mothers they contemptuously called
them. The Portuguese not unnaturally classed all the
people they found on the coast as Swahili, a custom which
has been consistently followed by all Europeans. Arab
tribes like the Mazrui fostered this idea by proudly styling
themselves Arabs as opposed to Swahili; whilst the
c Wa-zalia and Ma-Haji (i.e. Africans converted to
Islam) invariably style themselves Swahili when introducing
themselves to Europeans.

Conclusion.

A Swahili Mu-ungwana and an Arab is therefore
exactly the same, with the exception that the former may
have Persian blood in his veins. It is quite impossible
to distinguish many of the Wa-Swahili Wa-ungwana of
Mambrui from the Arabs of that place, or any other.
Their families have certainly been there very much longer
than the Arabs/ and occasionally, though by no means
invariably, they are, owing to having absorbed more of
the African characteristic, of slightly darker tint. Both
must be descended from an Arab (or in the case of a Swahili
an Arab or Persian) on the paternal side. This is a sine
qua non, even though the mothers may have been pure
Africans for fifty or more generations. The children are
still Arabs or Swahili; as the case may be. Conse-
quently though many show their Asiatic descent in then-
appearance, in very many cases there is in appearance
nothing whatever to distinguish them from wa-zalia who
have no Asiatic blood in them at all.

Again an Mzalia, if he succeeds in marrying an
mu-ungwana woman, may produce a child possibly more
Asiatic in appearance than many wa-ungwana. Still this
child is an mzalia, as descent on the maternal side is not
considered.

In fine, there need be no difference in appearance between
an Arab, a Swahili and an Mzalia in the eyes of an
European, but it must never be forgotten that the distinc-
tion is there, very often recorded in genealogies handed down
from father to son, and that it is very jealously guarded by
the people themselves.


§uquy\\

i Aaais




PRELIMINARY REMARKS

Ki-Swahili, or Ki-Sawahili, is written in the Arabic
character.

That this character, however, cannot be said to be well
adapted to the language may be demonstrated by the
following :

There is nothing in the Arabic alphabet to correspond
to the letters p, v, ch, ng, ny.

The fact that all these letters occur very frequently in
Ki-Swahili makes the writing at first somewhat difficult
to read.

For p the Swahilis have to use bab,

,, ch ,, ,, ,, ,, shinsh.

v ,, ,, ,, ,, b faf.

For the sake of distinction beginners are taught to write
p as o and v as <-J, but these forms are seldom to be
met with in expert handwriting.

Hard g has to be written £ ghain (gh), the Arabic
guttural, which letter is not found in the Bantu, but only
in the originally Arabic words. The letter ^ which takes
the place of hard g in Arabic is occasionally used.

It is unfortunate that Ki-Swahili has not adapted the
useful letters g ch, £ g (hard), £ ng, ny, which are to
be found in the Persian, Urdu and Malay alphabets.1 3

1 Since writing the above I have received a letter from a Bajun,

a native of Lamu. This is inserted on page 45. These Swahili
.are said to be of Persian extraction. It is instructive to find that
the writer uses some of these letters.

3


4

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

The absence of ng and ny is particularly to be regretted,
as Ki-Swahili abounds in words containing these sounds.
The contrivances are clumsy and confusing*
n very commonly goes out altogether before g or y. It
does so indeed before most consonants
e.g. ku-andika £iSjf

=ngombe, an ox or

- c

=nyumba, a house

What is actually spelt is ghombe or ghobe and yumba.

-C>C C C - c c ^

<-, >4.3 and If more correct are far less fre-

quently used.


Name of
letter
in Kl-
SwahlH

Alifu '

Bei

Tei

Thei

Jimu

Hhei

Khe

Dali

Thali

Rei

Zei

Sini

Shini

Sadi

Thadi

Twei

Thwei

Aini

Ghaini

Fei

Kafu

Kiafu !

Lamu

Mimu

Nunu

Hei

Wau |
Ya

KI-SWAHILI ALPHABET.

Pronunciation

i : \!

s i -

Can only be joined when it follow another
. letter, c.g. ba !j but ab

j b or p P is sometimes distinguished thus *

j ordinary t as in English Can appear finally as X*A c.g. 8ailttfcf

a year. Also when isolated cad appear
i finally as d

A ^

; y

y >

j*

U*

k
k

t

t

O
-J

J i
r i -

c> 1

i *

j' j i tt-s tilas in English three1 e-8- Athman. ^

-1 g
£
* £
j j.

i

i 1 Js

; I y

) j >



** u**

strongly aspirated h

Can be used also for hard g, but rare,
c.g. ^ = Hhasani

Scotch loch
man dj'

d

as in cs =

orGer- cg

Can only be joined finally except occasion-
ally in writing quickly as =

Wahadahu

* th as in English they e.g. =fetha (Zanzibar dialect)
r

* z or lazy s

) Both these letters are joined when follow-
f ing a letter only.

sh or eh

I

Often written as a straight line
=sanat ...

c c

e g- = mpishi or mbichi

In Lamu, the Urdu, Persian and Malay
is used for eh. *"

^ 1 fd. emphatic and very sibilant c.g ^ =nusi
: ^ ss, also s(w) ^

also s(w)

^ ' dh or emphasized d

k la very dental t = tt

! k k

= Fedha (Mombasa dialect)

^lkL* = Sultan

'a k thpronounced as near- | ~(Uj ^nathannl

ly as possible z also O

=th(w) j "

1 Jt *. a hamzah sound vide p. 7 j
: C =* Greek rough breath- '****'
ing or 'a J

I *1 c: 'ttsi'or ; tr**"gombe' &

I a ' (* or t *

a - emphatic * k *

: a O

< cM ordinary ' k

* ^ *m

| x | c5 n

£ h (ordinary

y

' v is sometimes distinguished <

Kadhi (Mombasa dialect)
appears occasionally thus j or ^

written quickly as in mimi

Final h when joined written ns in
* dJJ LUO = Abdallah

w, u, o, consonant or long | Joined when folllowing a letter only
y ; vowel .

; y, 1, e, or ny, consonant j lg. or 1 =All
<5 ; or vowel !

For * Hamzah vide page 7.

nyumba

Lani-Aiif =la~is Teldoin used by Swahili.


VOWELS

Ki-Swahili is written in many ways, as the examples will.
6how. There is considerable disagreement as to which i6
the correct method, but since the writing was introduced
by the Arabs, that approved by the Arabs may be safely
followed.

The first example, page 15, is a letter from Muhamad
bin Sali bin Hamis to myself.

This man1 is the Liwali or Arab Governor of Takaungu,
and is the second most important member of the royal
household of the Mazrui. His letter is therefore inserted
as an example of correct writing.

The short vowels, it will be seen, are signified by the

' Fatha a.

Kesra i, e.

^ Dhamma o, u.

Long vowels are shown in the alphabet on the preceding
page.

Words beginning with an a, e, o, u, or i sound are in-
variably commenced with 1 (alif) or o (ain).

These are changed into the vowel intended by means
of the vowel signs attached or by the vowel immediately
following.

Thus 1 a, I i or e, 1 u or o.
e.g. jf ule, ile, aJl alif.

l6a, Athman.

) and ^ can however begin a word when

=w and y, i.e., whenever they have the signification of
a consonant.

Thus ^3 =ya, ) =wa, =yetu, =watu.

1 He has died since this was written.

6


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

7

NUMBERS

These being borrowed from the Sanskrit read from left

to right.

0 ^ 6

SI v 7

V 2 A 8

3 9

F 4 S* 10

£> 5

A sum in addition.

? v N = 479

S V r = 123

'f V = 647

1249

OTHER ARABIC SIGNS EMPLOYED

The teshdid which doubles a letter
e.g. d£)l= Allah.

The sulcun c which marks absence of vowel after a conso-
nant, and indicates the long vowels ^ and ^ as
opposed to two distinct syllables, e.g. ^^ = mtu, a
man, and <-i£=kufika not kufiika.

The hamzah An abrupt cutting off of the breath.

The chief use of the hamzah in Ki-Swahili is to mark
where ^ and y are used as vowels, and not as consonants.

Note.One however frequently finds the hamzah omitted
and the dhamma used over,

e.g* =uli-o-pata or

whereas c**LJI =uli-yo-pata
=nili-i-pata

s ----

=baada-e (Mombasa dialect).

=baada-ye (Zanzibar dialect).

=tayari.


8

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

MONTHS

In letter-writing the Arabic months are employed.

As the year is lunar the months appear at all times of
our year.

Their names are
Swahili Months.

1. (Mfunguo nne)
2- ( , , tano)
3. ( , j sita)
4. ( , sabaa)
5. ( , , nane)
6. ( , , tisia)

Arabic Months as pronounced and
written by the Sioahili.
Muharam
Safur

Rabii-l-Awal
Rabii-i-thani ^

Jemad-l-Awal

Jemad-i-thani or Jemad-l-akhir
(or

7. (Rajabu)

8. (Shabani)

9. (Ramadhani)

10. (Mfanguo mosi)

11. ( pili)

2. ( tatu)



Rajab
Shaban
Ramadhan
Shuwal
Thal-ka-adi
Thil-Haji. -^sAI

LETTER WRITING

Arabic days of the week are sometimes employed.

Written by a Swahili. Arabic.

(Sunday) 1-ahad .J*.ut o*.!
(Monday)- T-ithnain
(Tuesday) T-athalatha UlsJ %JUJt
(Wednesday) 1-arbaa UwH*
(Thursday) 1-khamis A**1'
(Friday) T-jumaa. iujl
(Saturday) Sabti f*
The letter is usually headed by some such religious

phrase a6wahadahu (Ar. one)=peke yake S.

T-hamdullilahi wahadahu !

Praise to God the only God !


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

9

Taala Biminihi !

Great God who wards off all ills ! (S. Mkubwa mwenyi

kuzuia maovu.)

Whereafter the letter opens with a string of compliments
in Arabic. The following words appear most commonly

1 /l-Hathwarat (Ar. Presence (S. kilicho tayari

mbele) (cf. ku-hudhuria).

]1-Jenab (Ar. (?) Absent (S. mwenyi kuwa

V mbaH).

1-Moheb (Ar. Friend, beloved (S. mpenzi).

2 l-akaram (Ar. Honoured (S. mtukufu).

l-muhtaram, Desired (S. mwenyi kuaniwa).

3 1-aziz (Ar. wp) Noble, beloved (S. mpenzi).

I- C J

l-mukaram (Ar. Honourable (S. mtukufu).

l-afham Clever (S. Mwenyi akili). (Ar. root
1-heshim (Ar. ^~^>) Respected (modest) (S. mwenyi
heshima).

l-maatham Holy (S. mtakatifu).

Some special words are used almost exclusively in letters
e.g. Ku-arifu to inform. (Cf. Malay
Ku-wasili, to arrive (of a letter).

The general form for closing a letter is

(Date) £j\$ name \y

Year (sanat) 1330.

Swahili make the following distinction when using Chris-
tian and Muhammadan dates.

Thus £> =sanat 1332 h.

I* ._V>CSS^' ^ =sanat 1914 m.

1 Thus the phrase L-jenab 1-hathwarat, which so often com-
mences a letter, would have the signification of he who is far away
but yet is near (owing to his being able to be approached by letter).
H. understands jenab to signify the excellent but Krapf makes
Ila jenabi = to the side of. My rendering is the result of independent
inquiry.

2 H. suggests generous ? cf. ku-kirimu.

3 H. would render = tukufu= mighty.


10 AIDS TO THE STUDY OEKI-SWAHIL1

The & (h) stands for Hegeira=the flight (i.e., Muhamads
flight from Mecca to Medina).

^ (m) stands for Miladia=the birthday (i.e., of

Christ).

(Ar. writing silk wakatabahu) == mwenyi kuandika
* Biyedihi j = signature.

The following are stereotyped beginnings and endings
of letters-

From child to father.

y . ..............

From brother to brother.

<^1

l ..........

From friend to friend,
yy^^ ui ^£i)i c^aUi

..........

The following original letters are inserted in exactly the
same form in which they were received. No corrections
have been made in the originals and several mistakes will
consequently be found.

In the Roman version, however, mistakes are corrected.

It can safely be averred that the student, who is able
without assistance to decipher the examples here given,
may be said to be competent to read any letter that may
be addressed to him in Ki-Swahili.

It has not been thought necessary to give English trans-
lations of the several letters, it being assumed that the
student will not address himself to the study of writing
before he has attained a certain proficiency in the spoken
language.

Letter No. 1 is given as a specimen of writing
that should be followed. A1I the rest are carefully
selected specimens of kinds of letters that the
student may any day have to decipher.




12

AIDS TO THE STUDY OE KI-SWAHLL1

Letter from the late Liwali of Takaungu to the author on the
subject of journeying with him to Mombasa. This is
an example of the best written Swahili.

Taala Bimanihi.

Ila hatharati janabi l-ajali l-akrami 1-azizi Bwana
Beech balozi wa Takaungu. . .

Wabaadu nakuarifu barua yako tukufu imewasili mkononi
mwangu jana usiku, na uliyoniarifu nimefahamu ahasanta
sana, na mimi nitafurahi sana tukifuatana sote kwenda
Mombasa, lakini nataka kwa ihisani yako uniarifu safari
yako itakuwa lini walsalamu, wakatabahu mohibeka
Muhamad bin Salim b. Khamis, biyadihi, tarekhi 9 Jemadi-1-
akhiri sanat 1329.


KI-SWAHILI WRITING



£Aaz>- (J,

9 ?

W'j*

<_i>c^2> r 9>^4xr

e>Lli ljf&\ £/6 <" "


14

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Letter from the author to Liwali Muhamad bin Salim
apologizing for not writing before and informing him
of his future movements and of the return of a bicycle.

Taala Bimanihi !

L-jenab l-sheikh l-moheb l-akram l-mukaram 1-afham
l-sheikh 1-aziz Muhamad b.Salim b.Kamis 1-Mazrui salamu
sana baada ya salamu nakuarifu hali yangu njema tafadhali
nisamehe sikukuandikia barua mbele ya hii kwa sababu
ninashikwa sana ni homa tangu nilipotoka Mombasa wala
sina nguvu ya kuondoka kitandani hatta leo nami nasikitika
sana kwa sababu sikupata kuonana nawe tena Mombasa ;
Inshallahu tutaonana tena siku nyingine ; nami na bibi
yangu taketi Dagoreti karibu na Nairobi; nakhabari ya
maghari yako moja nalirudisha 1 Mombasa nataraji ulilipata
salama ahasanta sana; nami nisalimia Sheikh Raschid na
Kadhi na Mazrui wote ; inshallahu wapate baraka, salam
aleik warahamata Allah wabarakatah wakatabahu mohibek
1 Beech Tarekh 7 Rajab Sanat 1329.

1 This word both in original and transliteration should have
been nililirudisha.


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

15

JW ^\J^-o ^Jb

Jr >/ \JW ^ cV^

^5^5>X> ^\3 ^1^' 1_iV>** c_-T^r

cr^ eJN>^T^ U-jI-a3^ l-t1 l^-^1 ^pVj ?^>3

cA^O £>\

L-r>^> y>U ,^rsfj?. e_J^-
-tf> j^JJ Z-^jy^

cJ^ -C^ \ j\£^

\ ^y*~* r~^j^


JCkS^ J^-T \ ^V>L oj.

-----vr-T /^,?



y-JFfJ.


16

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

1329.

L Bandar Takaungu, Fi Gonjora,

Assistant Commissioner,

Takaungu.

L-jenab 1-moheb 1-akram l-asham l-afham l-aziz
mister Beech, wabaada 1-athi aarafaka barua yako aziz
imeniwasilia, jamii uliyoarifu nimefahamu ahasanta sana
l-ajili ya furaha ya nafsi yangu kupata barua yako, namimi
sina shughuli ya kunizuia kuja aagana nawewe, basi natumai
kesho nitaazimu kuja kukutezama we we lazima Inshallahu
Taala; namimi nasikitika kwa kulla Bwana mwema
haketi Takaungu na labuda inte yetu haina bahati aalam
hatha katabah mohibeka 1-muktari Khamis bin Said,
biyadihi, (illegible) Jemad-l-akhir.

The above is a letter from an Arab-Swahili to the author,
wherein he informs him that he will come to see him, and
politely expresses his regret that the author is leaving the
district.

This is included as a sample of letters frequently received
in East Africa which are very difficult to decipher owing
to the curious handwriting and the mixture of Arabic.


Ki-SWAHILI WRITING

'r'4

jr*Ua>

17







3c, yi&AsS'^

V> )f v; ' <|\sS*I

tyL i v

> / / /

'<'*s' (J

* >>

/%/

^ < (V^L'jJr ?jjlx

^ ----:r -



/. /





18

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Letter set in the Higher Standard Swahili Examination,
1911.

Mombasa,

High Court.

JL-jenab T-aziz T-akram l-maatham l-asham bwana
Hamilton judge.

Wabaadu nakuarifu nyumba yangu ni rahani katika
* Court nami nataka kuiuza hiyo nyumba ao kuiweka
rahani nipate fedha kulipa deni niwiwayo katika Court
basi sikuthubutu kufariya haya ela kwanza nipate ruhusa
kwakobasi naomba kwa ihisani yako kupata jawabu
wa^alam katabahu Tijara binti Mzee tarekh 21 Jemad-1-
akhir sanat 1329.


KI-SWAHILI writing

19



-^uCaT ^iifi

jf ^4^3 Ji^

o ^ O -^ J ^

sw

cA^o



(r^

(js-^o ij" ^ol>'

t>N^>lg-

Uilrj ' '


20

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Letter from a Swahili to the author excusing himself from
attending court owing to a fall from a horse.

Ila 1-mubajali T-afhami l-hakim T-aathami Bwana
Beech aazahu T-maliku 1-azizi amina wabaadu nimetoka
saa thenashara u nussu siku ya i-jumaakuja katika koti
kusikiliza amri yako nimepanda juu ya farasi ameniangusha
nimevundika shingo na mkono wa ku-shoto sikuweza kufika
Dagoreti basi nataka msamaha bwana wangu katabahu
Sheikh Abudi bin Sheikh Kali 1-Ansari tarekh yaume
i-jumaa 9 thil-Haji sanat 1329.


KI-SWAHILI WHITING

21



^ V>^->

414

'"v $&>***

^&s> &

^^4cM#ci( sg&fZi??/



,

^Js! V^V^!<'


22

AIDS TO THE STUDY OE KI-SWAHILI

Letter from Sherif Ahmad bin Yusuf, a native of Pemba, to
the author, wherein he informs him that he is sending
a Nubian cook, also the story on page 44.

Ila hatharai basha Ndagoreti Bwana Beechi harasahu
thatuhu wabaada naarafaka kuwasilia mpishi Abdula
Fathili Mola Sudani mtezanje kazi yake namimi natumai
mutasikizana wasalam salamna ala ahali-l-beiti min sharifu
Ahmad bin Yusuf biyadi. Nahizi hadithi zitezame walakini
nambari sikuziweka uzuri nambari ya tatu ilikosa mahali
pa kuweka walakini hivyo nilivyotia sindano ndivyo
hapana hofu wasalam tarekh 21 Rabi-l-awali Sanat 1330.


c\>

KI-SWAHILI WKITINC!

23

1 ij

J-w-, .7;



r>J^'i o-^JLZ cj!





4? S^Wf

£ ^



^ CiUi

ui uX^ | /

" s s

j i & L' r / r ^ x

s /" t. -*

'A^'Jj


24

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Letter set in the Higher Standard Swahili Examination,

1912.

Ila jenab T-sheikh 1-moheb T-akram 1-akhasham Hamid
bin Muhamad bin Isa T-Timami salamahu Allahu Taala
wabaadu nakuarifu hali yangu njema wa thamma nawe
kuwa kathalika ya afia wa zaidi khabari siku nyingi sikupata
barua yako wala salamu yako na barua ni nussu ya kuonana
basi siwate kuniarifu hali yako walsalamu wakatabahu
Ahmad bin Ali bin Salim biyadihi.


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

25

c)p 3 Lo >Jo\(^l^Vcr^O)?

c5^ ^ o^^sA. o^ fj \3^~/

6M_>> ^A^5iy.j)i3\5 _^JK

o Loc-


26

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Taala Bimanihi.

28 July, No 23.

1911.

Ila jenab, hatharati bwana Beech, Assistant District '
(Commr.) wabaadu nakuarifu ahasanta sana nimefurahika
kupata barua yako tarekhi mwezi 28 July sanat 1911
nimifahamu uliyoniarifu yote katika barua yako aithaa
nimetakabathi sitampu ya senti sita anuwani ya
barua yako nimefahamu na huku Takaungu Liwali Mu-
hamad bin Salim hawezi homa siku hizi naye amepata
amri kwenda Mombasa kufanya dawa kwa dakitari 1-mudiri
wa Mtanganyiko Abdallah bin Rashid amekuja kushika
kazi yake nasi tu wazima sote office salamu sana kwa
watu wa office na mi mi natumai ya kuwa tutaonana
Insha Allahu Taala Katabahu Athman bin Jafar karani
Takaungu Tarekhi mwezi 1 Shaaban sanat 1329.

Letter from Athman bin Jafar, a Beluchi clerk at
Takaungu, acknowledging receipt of a six cent stamp and
giving other news of the place.


KI-SWA.HILI WRITING







Wj a *1 , O . >__ ^-M

li£-- "'" .'V

1^,1 ic'j

I .' " f ?-

tilV,

\ - \ <9^ tvT ^ r 7 y I ^



..< <-*' v ;...

V A.,^ '^? f-*~ 'JU J

\V:^' l> -;rt^ ^>^,9

*... ; -
fULT "\ (*JU?~-tss
'Jj' -^T ^ k* cX/^ b
. <.. ;' 9^2^ f ft -.. ^

o-Aj i ^ <-* Lo


28

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Salam Allahu Taala.

Ila jenab sheikh T-ajil T-akmal kitabak Sharif 1-wasil
jazaka Allahu walfakhira (?) T-akh bwana Beech Collector
Naivasha salamu Allahu Taala insh-Allahu salam aleika
warahamatu Allahi wabarakatuhu waazka-tahiyat ama
baadu nakuarifu mimi hadimu yako habari ya kuku nime-
mwambia yaya kufunga anambia tutafunga namna gani na
kuku hawa hawana posho hutuma wenyewe tutakapowa-
funga watapata wapi posho ndio habari ya kuku lakini mimi
sitakubali sharti tawafungia kesho na wewe bwana zidi
kunisamehe Sana siuthike kwa sababu nimekuletea barua
maana naona barua ni adaabu zaidi kama kukabiliana kwa
midomo na wewe zidi kujitalamisha sana kuandika na
kusoma wasalam wakatabahu T-hakiri Illahi Taala Abdallah
bin Seif boy wa bwana Tew Police Naivasha.

A letter from Abdallah bin Seif, a boy working for the late
A.D.S.P. Mr. Tew. He is in trouble about some fowls.

The writer has gone somewhat out of his depths and the
result is a specimen of very inferior writing and grammar.


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

29



Jiy s* A) ^j^ji

C^\> Jbi ik
ZtyJsMiV-


30

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILJ

Ila hatharati T-waziri Bwana Beech hafathahu Allahu
Taala.

Wabaada naarafaka hali zetu njema wa thama na wewe
kuwa kathalika T-afia waaitha imepita kalamu ya Mngu
ina I-allahi wa ina Illehi rajiuna amefariki dunia ahali yangu
yule aliyekuwa mzazi na mimi nikaleta barua Dagoreti
nikasikia bado hukuwasili nawewe mwarifu bibi habari
kama hii wasalam na bibi nisalimia sana wakatabahu
T-barua mfanyiza kazi Fort Smith Hasani bin Harms
21 shahari Thil Haji sanat 1329.

Sharif Ahmad, writing on behalf of Hasani b. Hamis, in-
forms the author of a death. The letter contains a sentence
in Arabic from the Koran.


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

31

.V.7 L ,

-a\AjL>

^ ^ ^ ft I

^ i ^ *-^rJ '&*> t-^J ^

£C'/>W' ^ -Ci>l*J' Jj 'Jj'

. * So '. ' ^ x ' x . * &

\ ^ 4^Jx' u 1 j> OJ 0 1^

-/^' J ^ i-v. i

V^*A'r r^ fc ->

';-*> U>UJ J KjJ

CA^^ti/rj*'---bf

x-^i ViLl- o^r^'c1>->

,yJ>


32

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Ila jenabi sheikh l-mukaram Bwana Beech wabaadu
nakuarifu amekuja Msomali jina lake Adani anapeleka
makitabu amshitaki Mkikuyu aitwa Wanguri zamani
Wanguri alikopa mbuzi mmoja rupia sita akatoa tatu zika-
baki tatu hataki kutoa hata jana akenda Adani kudai
rupia zake Wanguri akatoa kisu kumpiga Msomali Adani
akakinga kisu kikapiga mwavuli na mimi nikamwuliza
Wanguri kweli huyu Msomali akudai rupia sita Wanguri
amesema huyu Msomali mimi nilinunua mbuzi kwake
nikatoa rupia taslimu kwa bei ya rupia nne hizi sita sifa-
hamu wala mimi sikutoa kisu ni mrongo na Msomali asema
anao mashahidi walakini mimi nimewambia wende zao waje
I-Jumaa.

Sharif Hasan informs the author of a quarrel between a
native Kikuyu and a Somali that has occurred in his absence.


KMWAHILI WRITING

33


34

AIDS TO THE STUDY OE KI-SWAHILI

Fort Smith * Kikuyu 20 Rabi T-awal Sanat 1330.

11a hatharati basha.Dagoreti Bwana Beech harasahu Allahu
thatahu wabaada barua yako imewasili nimesoma nimefa-
hamu uhyoniarifu na habari ya Fundi Sudi na Hasani bin
Hamisi aamili Kikuyu nimeona uzuri kama ulivyotengeneza
Fundi Sudi kulipa rupia khamsini ni kama suluhu walakini
katika sharia yetu suluhu hulipwa upesi na mimi nime-
fanyiza taratibu Fundi Sudi alipe rupia hizi kwa siku
ithenashara ha wao wameridhia maneno haya wasalam
Sharif Ahmad bin Yusuf biyadihi.

A case decided according to Muhammadan law by the
author is approved of by the kadhi with one reservation
as to time.


KI-SWAHILI WRITING

35

[/-/*?'y,y? k Sf/oj's*. C^xj 9 Uj >
i

c/cf"^ k >,>^ C/oOJ ^ ^ t ciJ v^j tix I



* < ^ A iA>,> ^I> ^ ;

G0 ^vr0 G <3C4, ^


AyCt/ J


30

A JDS TO THE STUDY OE KI-SWAHlLl

July,

1911.

Taala Bimanihi.

Ila jenabi (illegible) 1-aziz Bwana Beech District Cotii-
missioner wabaadu nikuarifu case ya number Kumi
Criminal imekuisha kuja kutoka Mombasa maneno yale
yale yako ulivyohukumu aitha babaake Harnisi bin Saidi
mzee wa Gonjora amekufa tarekh mwezi mosi July sanat
1911, amekufa Tezo aitha na habari ya 1-kathi Suleimani bin
Ali sasa hajambo amekuja dakitari Takaungu kufanya dawa.

Na homa iko kama kwanza na sasa Liwali Muhamad
bin Salim hawezi homa na mimi natumai ya kuwa tutaonana
kama kwanza na sasa natumai kwa Mwenyiezi Mngu kama
hayo hatha wasalam na watu wote wamesikitika nafsi zao
kuondoka we we Takaungu hata mjeuri wa Boka 1 amesi-
kitika sana bwana wetu wamesikitika hatha salaam kata-
bahu Athman bin Jafar Karani Takaungu.

Athman bin Jafar informs the author of a death and of
the unhealthy season at Takaungu.

1 Mjeuri wa ltoka, a nickname for the Mudir of Koka, who was
continually sending letters complaining of rna-jcuri or insults to
himself.


KT-SWAHILT WTUTTNf!

37



/ f '/



p. \ l-ix l I



'pdbj JrC 'Ju frjf&f'

"* l-f^T 1-J 1

^ -_jl_7--^\

j|f y* a\jJj ,Jy (jJ U i ^ J l-^> ' I

/^ tVU*^ JpI^JjUJ-li^', '?^l'

/ui>y>A f>

ry'J^Jj£ ''xSU'J'i-fj-.****^-i ^

r/ f

'^XSOj^L^ S *4 y**"t j~ ^ ,

£}U,L


38

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHITJ

Bwana Beech mfalme salamahu Allahu Taala.

Ua l-mohebi aalim hatharati mufahimu l-hakimu
l-akram 1-aziz essalam aleika warahamat min Allahi
wabarakatuhu ama baadu aarifaka 1-kitabu ile barua
uliyoitaka ni hiyo hati ya mkono wangu mimi wa kathalika
nataka wino maana wino wangu umekiusha nami nimepata
maneno mengine nataka andika wa kathalika nimesikia
ya kuwa wataka kusafiri lakini sijui siku gani nataka nijue
siku ya safari Allah Allah usiwate kunijuvia wasalaam
wakatabahu 1-barua Shaaban bin Muhamad bin Sheikh
T-Bajuni 1-kiwaiyu tarekha yaume wahidi wa asherin
Jemad-l-akhir sanat 1330.

Shaaban bin Muhamad writes a specimen letter for the
author, The writer is a native of Mombasa,


KT-SWAHTLT WRITING

39


40,

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHTU

Fort Smith 21 Thil Haj sanat'1329.

Ila hatharati T-waziri Bwana Beech hafathahu Allahu
Taala wabaadu naarafaka barua yako imewasili na uliyonia-
rifu nimifahamu ahasanta sana wa aithahu imepita kalamu
almakadi amefariki dunia mke wa Hasani bin Hamisi Yule
aliyekuwa na mimba ukamletea dakitari amekufa jana saa
tano za mtana tumemzika saa kumi kalu-ina-llahi wa ina
Illehi rajiuuna wasalam wakatabahu Sherifu Ahmad bin
Yusuf. Na bibi tusalimie sana na Hassan akusalimu.

The author is informed of the death of the wife of Hasani
bin Hamis,


T' fS/srCr *t-v '<*f^n Vr7 k

^vO Cf^ ip ^r> ? f^o

V' -s^ i? ) f1^- 0 **^7 i e?

c\

f; 'lTTflfT ITTIV l *'C/'/p <'rrr Tf' (

^ ^ r rj'r*'Z^c t<^~) OT. rjl? ? /ffA'

't f
^ jp^t i rf> rf o ',~o

S*

^yp^XxM

Ifr

ONLLlihW 1'imVAYS-lM


42

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

Tarekh 12 Rabi-l-Awal.

Salama Illahi Taala.

Sanat Hejeirat 1330.

Ila 1-ajil 1-akram 1-mukaram 1-balozi Bwana Beech bin
(?) salam aleika warahamatu Illahi wabarakatuhu azka
tahiyati aleiha aladawami sadarheti 1-amra fi min bandari
Ngongo ila 4 Dagoreti wa-l-harakati sakin min fathil
Illahi 1-wahid 1-kahari waaitha tafathali sana bwana zidi
kuwaradhi sana kwa hayo nitakayokukuulitha nafahamu
unapacha kujifunza maneno ya kisawhili basi napenda-
penda kukuvulitha zichu za kisawahili kwanza kuna kichu
huichwa kishinda pana na kichu huichwa shinda na
kichu tena huichwa inda na 4 kingine huichwa 4 infucho *
na kichu tena huichwa 4 kitunguu pana na kichu tena
huichwa Matembe matembe (?) pana na kichu tena huichwa
mai tini hatha Illathi wasalam katabahu T-hati mchumishi
wako Muhamad bin Muhedin bin Ali bin Ahmad-l-Bajuni.

This is the letter referred to on the note to page 3. The
letter is of course in the Ki-Amu (Lamu) dialect. In this
letter the writer asks the author if he can explain the local
meaning in Ki-Amu of several words.

He has subsequently explained the words as follows :

Kishinda. When a coconut (nazi) is cut in half one half
is left with the fruit inside and the other half is
scraped out. The empty half is kishinda.

Shinda is a half shell of coconut with the three holes
stopped up with wood. It is used for measuring
tembo or coconut toddy, in Ki-Mvita it is upawa
or kasi.

Inda is cotton wool (pamba) put in 4 mafuta ya ucho
(kittvita uto) and then wrung out.

Ufucho. A piece of wood sharpened like an 4 msuaki
(tooth-brush-stick) and used to clean the scum off
toddy (Cf. UfitolH.)

Kitunguu. A ladle for taking tembo and putting it into
the 4 shinda.

Mai tini (maji chini) is the scum of oil or fat {mafuta).

The writer is Muhamad bin Muhedin (Bajun).

He omitted to explain 44 matembe matembe, nor have I
been successful. I may be mistaken in the transliteration,
or perhaps ='4 kidogo kidogo from tembe, a grain.


KI-RWATTIT.iT writing

43



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46

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

* Mimi nitashuka twende kwa maguu huyu kipofu
apande huyu punda tupate kufika mjini upesi. Mume
akamjibu Asiyehurumiwa usimhurumie. Mwanamke
asikubali akashuka ndani ya punda akampandisha kipofu.
Wakenda hata wakafika karibu ya mji wakamwambia
Huu ndio mji tumefika tukupeleke mahali gani ? Na
yule mwanamume na mke wake na kipofu wote ni wageni
hawaujui mjiule. Kipofu akasema nigelekani sokoni
nipate kuomba. Wakenda naye hata sokoni yule mume
akamwambia \ Tumefika sokoni shuka na sisi tukatafute
mahali pa kufikilia. Akashuka kipofu na punda akam-
shika, yule mwanamume kipofu akapiga kelele Huyu
aninyanganya. Watu wakakusanyika kusikiliza habari
ya kipofu watu wa mji na asikari, wakamwuliza Una nini
we kipofu. Akasema Mimi nimetoka na mke wangu na
punda wangu na punda nimepanda na mke wangu ameni-
shikia punda hata ndfani tumekutana

I will dismount and we will both walk and let the blind
man get on the donkey; and then we shall reach the town
quickly.

But her husband answered, For whom God has no pity
have no pity. But the woman would not listen; she dis-
mounted from the donkey and set the blind man upon it,
and they went their way to the outskirts of the town, when
they asked the blind man, Now that we have reached the
town where shall we take you ? The blind man, as well
as the man and his wife, were all'strangers, nor did they
know the town at all. And the blind man said, Take me
to the market so that I may beg. So they went with him
to the market, and then the husband said, Here we are at
the market; get down and we will find a place to take you
to.

The blind man dismounted whilst the husband held the
donkey, and the blind man shouted out, This man is
robbing me People collected, both guards and towns-
folk, to hear what the blind man had to say, and they
asked him, What is the matter, blind man ?

And he said, I started out with my wife and my donkey ;
I mounted the donkey with my wife, who held me on the
donkey. When we were on the road we met


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48

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

na huyu mwanamume peke yake akasema na huyu mke
wangu wakaondoka muda mkubwa nikimmwita mwanamke
simwoni kuniitika, na mimi sina mato kama nitamfuata
hata aliporudi sikuweza kusema naye maana nna khofu
kuniwata ndiani. Hata nimefika hapa nasikia amwambia
mwanamume Tumnyanganye na huyu punda twende zetu
na mimi ndipo-dipo nika piga kelele ameninyanganya mke
wangu ataka kuninyanganga na huyu punda wangu Naye
ndiyo mato yangu ndiyo maguu yangu. Watu wakaona
ni kweli ahyonena kipofu asikari wakamshika yule mwana*
mume na yule mwanamke na punda wao akawekwa katika
sirikali. Na siku ile ilikuwa ni l-Jumaa hapana hukumu
mwanamume na mwanamke wakafungwa kil a mtu chumba
chake hata asubuhi wakaitwa katika njumba la hukumu
akaulizwa kipofu, akasema kama jana akaulizwa mwana-
mume, akasema kama ilivyokuwa

this man by himself, and he spoke with my wife and they
were away for a long time, and I called and called the woman
without getting (lit. seeing) any response. And I have
no eyes, so could not follow her. When she came back I
could not chide her (lit. speak), for I was afraid she would
leave me in the road. When we reached this place I heard
her say to the man, Let us steal the donkey and go our
way, and that is why I shouted out that I was being robbed :
my wife wants to rob me of my donkeythe donkey who
is both my eyes and my legs. And the people were con-
vinced that the blind mans words were true, so the guards
arrested both the man and the woman, and their donkey
was impounded.

Now that day was a Friday, so the Court was not sitting;
therefore the man and wife were both locked up in separate
cells. Next morning they were called to the great judg-
ment hall and the blind man was asked what story he had
to tell. And he said the same as he had said the day before,
but the husband on being questioned related the true facts


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50

AIDS TO THE STUDY OE KI-SWAHILI

mwanzo hata mwisho, na yule mfalme akatezama hukurnu
yao akasema huyu mwanamke mtieni ndani ya chumba
peke yake, na huyu mwanamume chumba chake na hujm
kipofu chumba chake hata kesho itakuwa hukurnu yao.
Wakarudishwa ndani ya viumba na kipofu akatiwa ndani
ya chumba hata usiku hakimu akaamrisha asikari watatu
kusikiliza kwa killa mtu atakalosema ndani ya chumba
Kipofu akasema. Ama hajui watu nitamtwaa punda
wake na mkewake, wote niwapande, naye arudi kwao hana
punda hana mke : Yarabi nakuche upesi na mwanamke
akasema Ama mume wangu alinambia. Asiyehurumiwa
usimhurumie nisikubali sultani akasadiki maneno ya kipofu
nitafanyaje mimi nisikose mume wangu nitwaliwe ni kipofu
kwa wema tuliomfanyizia mambo kwa Mngu.

from beginning to end. Then the king pondered as* to
what judgment he should give regarding them, and said,
Put this woman in a cell by herself and her husband in a
cell by himself and the blind man in a cell by himself until
to-morrow, when judgment will be deliveied. So they were
returned to their cells and the blind man was put into a cell
by himself. But at night time the judge ordered three
guards to listen to what each of them should say in his cell.

The blind man said, Indeed the judge is no reader of
character I shall get the mans wife and his donkey and
mount them both !and hehe will return to his home
donkey less and wifeless. May the dawn quickly come

And the woman said, Indeed my husband said to me,
For whom God has no pity have no pity, and I wouldnt
listen to him. Now if the king believes the blind mans
words, what shall I do so as not to lose my husband
and be taken by the blind manand all because of the
good we did to him in Gods sight.


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52

AIDS TO THE STUDY OE Kl-SWAHIU

Mwanamume akasema Mtu hashiki neno la mwananike
mimi leo ni siku ya pili ni kifungoni na mke wangu na
punda M^angu siwajui nitawapata ama tapewa kipofu bure.
Nilimwambia mke wangu huyu kipofu Mngu amempoka
mato, amempoka mali, hakumpa mtoto wa kumshikia
fimbo. Asiyehurumiwa ni Mngu usimhurumie asiridhie
mwanamke huyu leo nitafanyizaje mimi hata mke wangu na
punda wangu nisinyanganywe ni kipofu huyu, walakini
mambo kwa Mngu. Hata asubuhi killa mtu akapeleka
timamu kwa hakimu na hakimu akamrisha kuletwa wa-
fungwa. Wakaulizwa kipofu akasema Huyu ataka ku-
ninyanganya mke na punda wangu kwa ajili sina mato
akaulizwa mwanamke akasema Mu me wangu ni huyu
walakini kipofu nalimkutia ndiani apotea ndani ya mwitu,
mume wangu akanikataza kumtukua, akanambia Asiye-
hurumiwa usimhurumie. Mimi nisikubali nikamtoa mwi-
tuni nikaja naye ndiani, hawezi kwenda nikashuka punda
wa mume wangu naliokuwa naye mimi nimepanda nikaona
afathali nimwazime huyu kipofu hata nipate mahali penyi
watu tumweke, na sisi twende zetu na mume wangu na punda
wetu hata tulipokuja hapa sokoni tukamwambia shuka
tuona akipiga kelele tukashikwa mimi na mume wangu naye
asikamatwe, naye ndiye mwivi wa vitu vitatu kwanza
mwivi wa fathili, pili mwivi wa punda tatu ataka kuniba
mimi; basi angalia we we hakimu. Hakimu akahukumu
mwanamke na mumewe ruhusa, na kipofu ndiye mwizi,
walakini sirikali inamsamehe kwa kuwa hana mali wala hana
mato. (Wasalam Tarekh lelat hamsat min shahar Ramadhan
5 sanat 1,330 wakatabah Sharif Ahmad bin Jusuf biyadihi).

And the husband said, A man shouldnt listen to what a
woman says. This is my second day of imprisonment, and
I dont know whether I shall get my wife and donkey, or if
they will be given to the blind man. I told my wife that
God had taken away the mans eyeshad taken away his
property, and had given him no child to hold a staff for
him, and I said, For whom God has no pity have no pity,
but she wouldnt listen to me, and now what shall I do to
prevent my being robbed of my wife and donkey by a blind
man ? Well the matter is in Gods hands.

Next day each guard made his report to the judge who
ordered the prisoners to be brought. When they were




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STUDY II

Ki-Swahili Stories with Translation
and Notes on Idiom


8S

pinoM gq ubui siqq. ^rq oj ojqm gq ji -jBqj ^qgnoqq. gq puy = t omm
nfin'n vu vftuvdumpm^fW. vdyUmiyu. nfim[ vonrvi\pfi znivduizvqv,

uosjgd 'jsjq gqc*

gSuBqo gq^ oo^ gjo^; { <{*aui SuiAvoqoj si gqubui b si gjgqj
diu puiqgq ,, 'jBq^ Mouq <}OU pip ayg ^q i jgq pmqgq 3umoqoj guo
ouios sbav gjgqj Avouq -jou pq? sqg= t tyvnfiuv njtu vunq ndu^fi
viunfiu vmvy wi/ncyofl *3'9 qJ9A qsBd b SAVoqoj gsugj jugsgjd gqj^

'oi'j'Buioipi jgASAioq 9JB uosjgd puB ssub-j jo
S8SH *qsq8ug; in sb ^snf bjo9j otjbjo in gougings gqi jtq pgMoqoj
im(i, SuiuBaui vannq vfi, jo muvy vquitKny sb qons *ruoo B qqAv gsBjqd
gq'} 3uionpoj}ui ^q qiqBMg-i>j ll! passgjdxo si Btibqqo oi^bjo 9

jq/gougnbgsuoo ou jo uosjgd b ,
uB9ui Abui njui ig nuwpy-utq ig pgdxg ppioAv suq n%ui tg *

diujvfui jo dutnvfui f

nu jo ooyjippB

gq1} Aq qjgApB ub sguioogq /jnoqqSigu b Huv.nl unou gqj, e
pgsn osjB si wyvofY 'vvydfii^v uBqi opeuioipi gjoui si wyijv z

t(*sjqgi^ auo puB puBS
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peq puB unou uounuoo b guioogq SBq qi g*i Hsvcnvu-nqy si uoi'jBAijgp gqj gui sqg-} jgujg \\ *y ssijft JSbi
sqSnBj s^bmjb gq gsnBogq ^sgq sq9nB[ oqAv jobj ui ubui bggjJBdgj
ui sjgoxg oqAv ApB9J jbmsub ub SBq sAbmjb oq.wuBui b gq 'oudu vaiq
vqi'puii[8dfii9v vfiivmu vu 'iBuyfiu iftqv ifiudcnui npu tu Hsvaivuvg -1

jojiSBAiBU'Bq aqcj jo puoj os sbav Sup[ aq^ puy /iC-es o;
Suiq^iCuB !jou OABq yCpBOJ noiC ji uoao oxn o; jadsiqM pu-B ^Bp
iC.i9A0 am uouiums osjb (jsnui no^C ^Bq(} p9uiB9ap j Supj qo >
piBS puB jnoABj 9qq b SuiuiBC}qo jo sno.nsop jCj9a sbav isbasl
-BUBq 9qq A\.0£j -uitq *i9dsiqAv puB pBoq siq pU9q pjnoAi
Supi aq-j Suiq oqc} paqoB0J j9izia oq-j U9qAv puy t ;uBA.i9S

jn0A > P[UOAV .I9IZIA 9q^ puB t j J0IZIA C}UO |[B9 p[UOAV

9upi 9qq pounoo ui Supqs ojoav ^9q(j uaqAv S9uip C}B avo^;

tJ9IZIA pUTUI J9A0^ ptBS §Upl

aqq (jng /uavo^ aq^ uo ajqno.r} Siq auios 9uuq piAV aq
! guiaq UBuinq ou si iSBAVBUBq aqq 'jBip Avouq -jou op noiC sdBq
-jad Suiq mo q pres puB dn qo§ .xaiziA uiBpao b puy

papua^B

osjB iSBAVBUBq aq^ pounoo aq^j papua-j-jB ajdoad uaqAV iCBp
ifjaAa puB Suiq b JBau paAi[ oqAV iSBAVBUBq b sbav aiaqx

ISVMVNVa 3HX


BANAWASI.1 ,

Told by Sherif Hasan bin Aloi, a native of Pemba.

Dialect Ki-Jizirat.

Kulikuwa na banawasi alikaa 2 jirani na 3 mfaume, na
kulla siku huenda watu wakibarizi, na banawasi huenda.

Akatoka Waziri akamwambia Ewe mfaume 4 wetu hujui
kama banawasi si mtu,5 atafanya mambo makubwa sana
katika mji ? 6 Mfaume akajibu Haithuru Waziri.

Nayule mfaume ampenda banawasi kwa habari ya zihaka,
hata 7 siku moja wanakaa 8 barazani mfaume huita. Wa-
ziri Waziri huitika 4 Lebeka yule Waziri akifika kwa
mfaume huinamisha kichwa mfaume akanongoneza. Na
yule banawasi, apenda sana apate kama yale. Banawasi
akajibu 9 mfaume nimeota ya kuwa kulla siku shoti na

him you will mix him up with the child. Here we have all three
persons singular in one sentence, all referring to the same subject.
(H. thinks so many changes must be considered abnormal. This
is probably correct, for a later version inserted before utamchanganya
the words upanga wangu. Thus by addressing the sword the subject
is changed in the case of this one word. Note, too, that in the
oratio recta the future is used not the conditional. (H. justly
remarks that oratio obliqua is also expressed as oratio obliqua (not
merely oratio recta, the conjunction ya Icwamba or kwamba
being used to introduce the indirect speech depending on the opening
clause.)

7 Hata, until here = so much so that.

8 Wanakaa, here =when they were sitting; lit. they are sitting.
Much simpler and much more idiomatic than walipokuwa wakikaa.

9 akajibu. The ka tense, usually described as the narrativ
or historical tense, would perhaps be better designated the Con-
nective tense. It is to be noted that it is not solely used in relating
a story or in describing events which have occurred in the past.
It is connective merely and irrespective of time. The following
examples will make clear some of its uses.

(a) Nairative. Aliondoka akatamka* he got up and spake.

(b) Final. Alijaribu hata akasikiahe tried until he heard.

(c) Subjunctive connective. Aje akashuke chini = Let him come
and (let him) go down. .

(d) Future connective. Waliokuja kuniba mie n'na hofu kurudi

59


}nq uotnqsuBi; b sb t Aot, u9Ai8 bbm. j *(j) vqmnfn= ,duiyqs g
4*joj uiiq ij-bo o; 8urq;ou pBq ,=
jo} paqBO si eq qoiqM pjoM ou sBq *;q i t opxnfiv oudu rmvq, v

vpudvqv jo} rypudqv e
qj9A 9q; uioj} ajqBJBdas 9q Abui siq; g^ojsj odvln z

iunq8 jo

tuoqsv jo yu'oqs zubz=, WH8 0UI II0 noA q;iAi ;Bq; Ajbss9D9u
si ;x *;q dm n-eo os{B ;shui noj^ ,= { dynun xviwi rm ytoyg, x

t* uiiq ;nd aoq^BJ sn ;9} unq qms ;ou ;smu 9^V,
l,iudqd
, l sjbuiiub Jiaq; p9J9;q8nBjs Agq; %xn[% os uoui ;B9qo noA pip Aq^
,muvfiu vlmqovJ[v(n nivon vfiuvBurypnq sen tuvenjf -dayjnossuoQ (/)

, 4 99S pUB UT J9^U9 OJ 9UI00

I pip mojx vuovofiu tn6uvofm nCnq slvtrxhfifl; 7vaifiutfuj (a)

9UI |B9}S pUB Ujn^gj

\\10n 9ui qonpqB 01 9uibo oqM 9soq; ;s9j piBj}B uib jt vqiuvY{pcn

/tmo; aq; uio.ij

pasunq OAOuiaj .10 aip pm aq .iaq;ia uiiq jo i9;;aq aq; ;o§
aABq pBqs 9ay % aioui ;Bq^ *STO ;noqB Suiq;iCuB Avouq
;{UOAl ISBAlBUBq aq; paAV. iC.ia^ OS op O; SpBJ oqA\. auo
iCuB 0}U09X9 pm UOiC ;Bq; pUB §§9 S4Uaq B S^B[ (}U999jd

9U0viCj9A9 ;Bq; 99joop ;sniu Suiq q no A 8ui;aaui aq; jo pua
aq; ;b puB f ajpnS siq in 88a scuaq b dn dBm aiououi-o;
9J9q S9UI00 OqM UBUI iCl9A9 ;aj pr9 aq tXX8AV ^J9A,

, <*P I PI'69 9H

puy t I ISBAVBUBq 9q^ JO pi.l C^9§ )X9!}9jd B Q.UBAV noA 0(J t

§uiq aqc} piBS ^uasajd sbav oqAV uioq ^saSuno^C aqj,

t I ISBAVBUBq siq^ JO

UAVOJ 9qj piJ 0% op J IIBO JBqAi pa^, piBS Supf 9qj puy

/paumi aq pm imoj eiqj aiou puB J Suiaq UBuinq
ou si iSBAiBUBq siqj i Surq q no^ p[Oj s^Cba^b aABq j ^BqAi
jsnf si ji piBS laiziA aqj puB paxqnojj ajaAV a^doad aq^

{*Sup[ jCui aui pfoj aABq noiC (yeqj pB
uijojjad pm j Suipm po^ piBS puB qoBq ^[juajoiA pajiBjs
is'BAVBUBq aqj puB pajsaC 9up[ aqj puB JBa siq ^uaq isBMBUBq
aqj puy -uiiq oj ^Cbs oj aqof b jnq Suiqjou pBq oqAV Sup[
aq:} paqoBOiddB aq puy {'a.us jubajqs .ino^, paiaAvsuB
aq puy t j tsbaibubq[ uiiq oj papBO Suiq aqj aoB[Bd aq;
;b [Batjjlb siq uo puB qj-ioj j9s aq X[.iBa Sutujoui ;xajsj

/ISBAlBUBg 09

op i[iav i Surpm poo po.iaAisuB aq ;bi{;;saf b paAO[ aq

riiHVAYH-iM' do Aaais rAiu 01 saiv

09


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES <51

mimi umite 1 uninongoneze ujapo 2 huna neno. Mfaume
akajibu Inshallah banawasi.

Asubuhi akenda 3 alipofika mfaume akamwita E
banawasi! banawasi akaitika Lebeka Seidina akenda
kwa mfaume na mfaume hana neno aitwalo 4 ela zihaka.
Banawasi akainamisha mashikio akafanya zihaka mfaume
banawasi alingoka kwa shime 5 akamwambia Inshallah,
ntafanyiza yote uliyonambia mfaume wangu.

Watu wakasikitika, Waziri akajibu 6 yakuwa mimi nili-
mwambia zamani mfaume banawasi si mtu, na sasa mji
huu utaharibika.

Mfaume akasema mimi njfanyeje hata aondoke katika
mji huu banawasi ? *

Yupo kichinja-mimba7 akamwambia mfaume wataka
neno la kumwondoa banawasi ? akasema Ndiyo
Akamwambia.

Kesho kulla watakao kuja hapa kulla 8 mmoja nafun-
dike 9 yaii 10 la kuku, ikiisha baraza wewe mfaume ujibu
kiafa muliopo11 kulla mtu atoe yaii la kuku, asiyetoa ntam-
wua, na banawasi hajuibasi atashindwa, atakufa ao
ataondoka katika mji.

H. says, In all the cases where I have heard this word used it has
been equivalent to saying kaza, e.g., a boat's crew urged on to
greater exertions by the captain to spurt. It is a noun of
course. I wonder if it is connected with fanya kinwc to act the
man. The nearest to it in sound is shume in paka shume.
I have no remembrance of shime meaning joy, rather it =effort,
exertion. Since writing this I have found a native (not, however,
a Swahili proper) who thought it could mean joy.

1 kujibu throughout can often be translated as to say or to
exclaim, etc.

7 kichinja-mimba the little fellow who slays pregnancy, i.e.
the youngest-born.

8 kuUa seems alone in requiring the two ls. It is not pronounced
ku-la, nor can it be divided in spelling. It is both Arabic and
Hebrew.H.

9 nafundike. Na is the regular sign of the cohortative : cf.
atakae naje, etc. =He who wishes let him come.H.

10 yaii in kiMvita is i {la kuku), plural mai. The division of
syllables makes yaii difficult; some write yayi, but perhaps yai is
nearer the actual sound and more scientific in its spelling.H.

11 Kiafa muliopo = All ye who are present. Kiafa =JamiL


(52 AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAH1L1

This was what the youngest-born said, and barely were
the words out of his mouth when the king proclaimed his
edict that every one on the following day should bring an
egg, just as the youngest-born had suggested.

The banawasi was of course not present at the time.

Early next day his subjects came and sat in council before
the king, and as they were about to disperse the king said,
Every one lay an egg

Every one let fall an egg except the banawasi, who had
not got one.

Said the king, Where is your egg ? And the banawasi
replied, Are you making fun of me or are you serious ?
But the king answered, I am not joking. I tell you that
if you have failed to lay an egg you shall die ; for such is
my edict.

Oh, said the banawasi, the reason I have not laid an
egg is that all these here are laying hens, whereas I am the
rooster

The king was nonplussed and had nothing to answer, so
he called to the banawasi and said, You have my per-
mission to go. So he went.

Up got the youngest-born again and said to the king,
To-morrow when the banawasi comes tell him to sew a
millstone. All right, said the king. Because, added
the youngest-born, by telling him to sew a stone you will
be ordering an impossibility.

Next morning early the banawasi came, and on being
called Banawasi! he answered, Yes, Baramaki. The
king said, There is a stone of mine with which I grind 1 2 3

1 yu katika kumwambia ; lit. he is in the act of telling him, i.e.
as we say, 4 Barely had he finished telling him 4 Hardly were the
words out of his mouth.

2 hayupo. Npte present tense and not 4 hakuwako.'

3 karibu ya kuondoka. Note the simple way of expressing 4 Just
as they were about to get up.


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 63

Maneno haya asema huyu kichinja-mimba, yu katika
kumwambia 1 mfaume mfaume akatoa amri Kesho kulla
mtu alete yaii kama alivyosema kichinja-mimba, na wakati
huo banawasi hayupo.2

Asubuhi wakaja watu wakakaa barazani kwa mfaume,
karibu ya kuondoka 3 mfaume akajibu, Kulla mtu azae
yaii.

Kulla mtu akaangusha yaii ; alivebaki ni banawasi, hana
yaii ye.

Mfaume akajibu, Li wapi lako yaii 1 Banawasi
akajibu, Wanizihaki ao wanambia4 kweli ? Mfaume
akajibu, Sina zihaka, nakuambia kama hukutoa yaii
utakufa sababu ni amri yangu. Banawasi akajibu, *Sebabu
ya kuwa mimi sina yaii hawa ni mitamba,5 mimi ni jogoo !

Mfaume akashindwa hana 6 la kusema akamwita, Ewe
banawasi nenda zako nakupa ruhusa. Banawasi akenda
zake, akaondoka yule yule7 kichinja-mimba akamwambia
mfaume kesho atakapokuja banawasi mwambie ashone
jiwe la mtama. Mfaume akasema, Inshallah. Kichinja-
mimba akajibu maana kumwambia shona jiwe hataweza
kushona.8 Asubuhi banawasi akaja mfaume akamwita
Banawasi! akaitika Baramaki! 9 akamwambia Lipo
jiwe langu mwenyewe nasagia 10 mtama na nganu na kulla
kitu, lina pasuka nishonea. Banawasi, akajibu, Hiyo
udiyo kazi ndogo sana, akamwambia, Kesho weka jiwe

4 wanambia for wa-niambia.

5 mitamba. Mtamba = obviously here a laying-hen, though
neither H. nor I have ever known it elsewhere to mean anything but
a cow or a heifer.

6 hana. Graphic present tense.

7 yule yule =that very same. Reduplication for emphasis; cf.

vile-vile, sawasawa.'

8 maana kumwambia shona jiwe hataweza kushona ; lit. Reason
to tell him sew a stone he will not be able to sew, i.e. For
by telling him to sew a stone you will be imposing an impossible
task upon him. hataweza. As the present tense hawezi generally
means he is ill the future is frequently employed in a present
sense to avoid confusion.

2 Baramaki, tr. juggler, ni mtu mwenyi kuzidisha akili ya
banawasi.

10 Nasagiathe prep, and relative nalo / with which, is under-
stood.


64

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

millet and wheat and everything elseit is brokenplease
sew it for me. That is a very easy matter, said the bana-
wasi, and told him that if he placed the stone on the verandah
the next day he would sew it at once.

Every one was very astonished ; and some even remarked,
Can a stone be sewn ?

Next day early he camehe had taken off his cap and
filled it with pebbles, and on arrival he called the king and
said, Here I am, give me my work to do. And the king
said, Your work is what I told you of yesterday. The
Banawasi answered, If clothes are torn they are sewn
with thread of the same material: when the seams of bags
become unstitched they are sewn with thread of the same
material as the bags : when a rush basket is torn to pieces
it is darned with fibre : and this is a stone which is broken,
so I have brought thread of stones ; will you please roll
my thread and I will sew.

And the king said, Oh you banawasi, is there such a thing
as stone-thread ? And he answered, When you told me
to sew the stone didnt you know that no one could sew a
stone ? well, if such a thing as that is possible I pray you to
roll my pebble-thread.

The king was again nonplussed and said, Oh, banawasi,
are you not to be outdone ? And the banawasi replied,
* No, 0 king, you know that I am not to be caught napping

Off went the banawasi. Then the same manthe
youngest-borncame and addressed the king and said, 0
king, I have just remembered something, and he said,

What ? And he answered, The banawasi has a dappled
ox, borrow it and then slaughter it. If this ox is slaughtered
the banawasi will no longer stay in this town.

So the king went to borrow the ox and the banawasi lent
it him, and directly he gave it him the king slaughtered it 1 2 3 4

1 kanajaza for akajaza. It is not uncommon to prefix the ka
of this tense to the pronominal prefix.

2 kuchanika : to be rent straight up from end to end.

3 kufumuka : to become unripped (of the seam).

4 kanda = kikapo cha ukindu : ungongo = fibre : kutomewa =to be
darned.

J linapanuka. Note idiomatic absence of relative.


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 05

hapa barazani ntalishona mara moja. Watu wakataajabu
sana, tena wakasema jiwe hushoneka ? Asubuhi akaja
amevua kofia na ndani ya kofia kanajaza 1 kokoto. Ali-
pokuja akamwita mfaume mfaume nnakuwapo lete
kazi nifanye. Mfaume akajibu, Kazi yangu ni hii ya
jana. Banawasi akajibu, Nguoikichanika2 hushonwa
kwa uzi wa nguo ; gunia likifumuka 3 hushonwa ni uzi wa
gunia ; kanda likiraruka hutomewa kwa ungongo4na
hili ni jiwe linapasuka,5 nami naleta uzi wa jiwe, na uzi
huu we we sokota mimi nishone. Mfaume akajibu, Hewe
banawasi jiwe lina uzi ? Banawasi akamwambia ulipo-
nambia nishone jiwe basi hujui kama hakuna awezaye
kushona jiwe, na kama yuko nisoketea kamba ya kokoto.

Mfaume akashindwa akamwambia, E banawasi hushin-
diki ? Banawasi akamjibu, Hewe mfaume wangu unijua
ya kuwa kama mimi sishikiki! 6

Banawasi akenda zake, akaja yule-yule kichinja-mimba
akamwita mfaume, akamwambia, Mfaume sasa nakum-
buka neno moja, akamwambia neno gani ? akamwambia
Yupo ngombe wa banawasi, mwikanga,7 kamuazime8
akiisha kupa mchinje. Akichinjwa ngombe huyo banawasi
hakai9 katika mji huu. Mfaume akenda kuazima ngombe-
banawasi akampa, alipompa mfaume-akamchinja, bana-
wasi hana10 habari, akapelekewa nyama. Banawasi akau-
liza nyama hii ni ngombe gani ? akaambiwa ni Ngombe
wako. Banawasi akajibu Kana nitenda 11 mfaume, lakin

6 sishikiki = I am not to be outdone. Ku-shika, to hold,
kushikika =to be holdable to be able to be caught as we say
colloquially, You cant catch me out.

7 mwikanga =jivu-jivu, dappled.

8 kamuazime. The ka has a peculiar and significant force.
The use is frequent and it implies a verb preceding but suppressed ;
e.g. here the verb to be supplied is some such an one as send (and
borrow . .). The prenominal infix is that of the obj< 1 hird
singular and not the subject in the plural.* It is common speech
to say to ones servant, Kanunue vita . i.e., (Jo and buy tilings.
It may be said that the suppressed verb is generally a verb of mo-
tion.H.

9 hakdi. Note again present tense not future.

10 hana. Graphic present again.

11 kana nitenda = Do what you like with me. Apparently =
nitendea kama upendavyo.


06 AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

without the banawasis knowledge ; and some of the meat
was sent to the banawasi.

And the banawasi asked, 1 2 3 4 What meat is this ? and he
was told, It is your ox.

And the banawasi replied, Oh, do what you like to me,
0 king, I dont mind. Might doubtless is right. He
added, however, Nevertheless I want the skin to be brought
to me. So the king sent it to him, and when he saw the
skin he muttered to himself ; and what he said was, A
solitary tree builds not. And he folded up the skin, and
the next day early he pegged it out until it was dry, then
tied it up and said, Now Im going to move house.

So he went his way and reached a place where there was
much treasure and this treasure he came upon merely by
accident, and he took the rupees and threw away the oxskin
on the very spot, and returned to the town after a few days.

And when the people saw him they were very astonished
as to how the banawasi came by the treasure and he was
asked, Banawasi, where did you get this treasure from ?
And the banawasi replied, Everything comes to him who
waits, and I got this treasure from the sale of my skin.
Then the people asked him, Is a skin such a great treasure ?
And he replied, It i6 very great indeed. And now I give
every one who has a goat or an ox or even a dog to know
that its skin is treasure. So the people slaughtered their
animals until there was nothing alive left in the town.

But on the day when all were setting forth to sell their
skins the banawasi said, I am very ill, but do you take

1 Wangi ivape usipowapa hutwalia rnkono wao. An aphorism

{jumbo): to explain the same=kufumbua. The meaning is

KuUa mwenyi nguvu hufanya atakavyo ; lit. 4 wangi ukiwapa
hupata samahani, usipowapa hufanya apendalo almost =4 might is
right.

2 nataka na ngozi. Na is not a prep, here, but rather a conj.
Nevertheless I should like the skinafter all that has happened.H.

3 4 mti pweke haujengi.' 4 A solitary tree builds not. Another

4 jumbo.' He means. If I were not a poor lonely man I should not
have suffered this. The proverb is known in Mombasa as Mtu
pweke hajengi.


Kl-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 67

haithuru, wangi wape usipowapa hutwalia mkono wao. 1
Tena akajibu nataka na2 ngozi niletewe. Mfaume akam-
pelekea. Alipoona ngozi alisema peke yake, neno alilosema
mti pweke haujengi 8 akakunja ngozi, asubuhi akaianika
hata ilipokauka, akaifunga, akasema Sasa Nahama,
akenda zake akafika mahali pana 4 mali mangi, na malr
hayo aliona kwa kujaliwa tu, 5 akachukua rupia, ngozi
akaitupa pale pale, akarudi mjini kwa siku zinapita. 6
Watu wakamwona wakataajabu sana banawasi mali alipo-
pata, akaulizwa Ewe bunuasi mali hii unapata wapi ? *
Banawasi akajibu, Kuinamako ndiko kuinukako 7
ma mali hii nauza ngozi yangu.8 Watu wakauliza,

Ngozi ni mali sana ? Banawasi akajibu, Ni mali maku-
bwa sana, na sasa anaye mbuzi, na mwenyi ngombe,
mwishoniy mbwa, ngozi yake ni mali. Watu wakachinja
mjini musisaze10 nyama yo yote. Hata siku za safari watu
huenda uza 11 ngozi banawasi akajibu Mimi ni mgonjwa

4 pana : where there is. Cf. panapo miti=penyi mitia shady
spot. Here the relative affix po is omitted.

5 Kwa kujaliwa tu. Kujaliwa = to be benefited or otherwise
(by God), so can translate he saw that the riches were providential.
H. suggests spelling kujaaliwa =to be granted, then noun majaaliwa
used when people wish to shift responsibility from themselves and
would render, He saw the riches by accident. Not by any plan
or design of his : it was granted or decreed that he should see them.

6 kwa siku zinapita =when days have passed, i.e. after some
time.

7 kuinamako ndiko kuinukako. To bend in a place is to rise

up in that place, i.e. Everything comes to him who waits, or
after storm calm.

8 na mali hii nauza ngozi yangu. A terse idiom meaning, I
got these riches by selling my skin ; lit. And these riches I sell
my skin. Very frequently the student, after searching for elaborate
idioms whereby to turn phrases, finds that the solution is very much
more simple than he imagined. It is well always to i phrases as simply as possible. The Swahili can leave more to bo
understood than we can.

,J mwishoni = last of alleven. H. suggests mwisho ni

mbwa as more idiomatic.

10 musisaze. The prefix mu here must be carefully distinguished
from the 2nd pers. pi. It is 3rd pers. sing, impersonal locative.

There be not left in the town.

11 uza for ku-uza. The infin. prefix can often be omitted.


(8 AIDS TO THE STUDY OF Kl-SWAHILI

your loads and follow the road in a southerly direction,
until about midday you will see a large town, and when you
are asked what you are carrying you must say we are carry-
ing them.*

So they started off, but travelled in the wrong direction
and got lost and eventually came out at a kings town,
where the guards asked them, What are you carrying ? *
And they answered, We are carrying Them . And
they were asked again, What may them be ? Some
one who was present said, I say, my friends, we had better
mention skins or we shall get into trouble. So they
said, Them are skins. Whereupon some were beaten,
others ran away until they returned to their town, where
they complained to that same king.

0 king, see what the banawasi has brought upon us
And the king 6aid, Call him. So he was called, and came,
and the king said to him, What do you mean by deceiving
people into slaughtering their animals by reason of your
lies ? And the banawasi answered him, They are fools.
I told them that if they were asked what they had got they
should say Them, but they didnt stick to what I said.
And the king replied, You are not fit to live here at all
and the banawasi replied, All the better for me.

The king gave orders to fire the banawasis house, and
he said, Well, I want the ashes then. And the king said
to him, You are a fool. What is the use of ashes ? And
he replied, / know anyhow.

His house was fired and completely burnt, and he waited
until the fire was out, collected the ashes and put them in a
sack, then took his leave, saying, You havent heard the
last of me yet.

So saying he went off to the jetty and saw there a boat.
It was not his boat, so he stole it, and disappeared with it,
and reached a large town. Now all the supplies he took
with him when he set out were five rupees.

On reaching the town he beached the boat in which he 1

1 Kusini : kusi =south. Kasikasi =north (or kibula). Masha

riki, maawio or Mawao or Matokeo =East. Mangaribi, kutwa
maivno, matweo =West. Winds blowing from these quarters are as
in the diagram.


KI-8WATTTLI STOUTES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 9

lakini chukueni mizigo yenu mufuate njia ya kusini 1
Iiata katikati ya siku mutaona mji mkubwa, mutauli
zwa Munachukua ninH nanyi mujibu, rrunachukua
Zizo 2

Wakaenda zao wale wakapotea upande mwingine,3
wakatokea mji wa mfaume, asikari wakauliza Munachukua
nini ?

Wale wakasema, Tunachukua Zizo. Wakaulizwa
tena, Zizo uini ? Pana mmoja 4 akamwambia wenziwe,
Enyi wenzangu ni kheiri tutaje ngozi, tutapata
taabu.5 Wakasema ni ngozi. Waliposema hivyo wa

N

Mrmnde is used also to denote especially the early morning
breeze which blows down the creeks to the E. Coast and which is
westerly.

2 Zizo = those same =zizo hizo = those very same (afore,
mentioned).H. tr. these,

3 mwingine = in. another (wrong) direction.

4 pana mmoja akamwambia =Some one present said ; lit. there
is one and he said.

'* tutapata taabu. (If we dont) we shall get into trouble. 4 Tusj-
pozitaja is understood.


70

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

had Come and took another, and those rupees of his he
stuffed into the seat cushions and between the ribs of the
boat, then sank it in the water. After this he landed, and
on returning he saw there were two children in a boat, one
was the son of the king and the other of the vizier. So
he caught them and took them before the king and said,

0 king of this town, I have a complaint to make to you
I am a poor man and came in my boat, and in my boat I
was carrying the property of an Indian, ten measures of
silver, and now these children have sunk the boat. And
the king replied, There is no 6moke without a fire ; let
men go and look inside the boat. There must be left some
traces of a treasure such a6 this, even if it be only a rupee.
So the guards went, and the boat was pulled up on to dry
land, with the result that one rupee was discovered. And
the banawasi said, £ Do you believe me ? And the king
answered, There is certainly something to support your
statement. And the banawasi replied, What is broken
one mends ; and the king answered, In this case mending
is to repay you. And the banawasi said, What will you
pay ?

And the king and the vizier paid ten measures of silver,
just as the banawasi had 6aidrbut of course all that he
had said was untrue.

When he had received the money he returned to the
original town, and on his arrival at the jetty news spread to
the king, who was told that the banawasi had a well full
of silver.

And the king replied, What do you mean ? and they
told him the banawasi had a boat full of silver.

So the banawasi was summoned, and the king asked him,

* Where did you get all this wealth from ? To-day 1 want
you to tell me the truth. And the banawasi replied, This
wealth comes from the ashes of that burnt house of mine.
If you thought you were going to ruin me by burning my
house you made an error. And the king said to him, Are
ashes wealth ? And the banawasi replied, If they were.
not wealth should I have the appearance of possessing a
whole mint of silver ?

1 wa kupiqwa akapigwa wa kukimbia akakimbia ; lit. He who


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 71

kupigwa akapigwa, wa kukimbia akakimbia1 hata wa-
karudi mjini, wakenda wakashitaki kwa mfaume yule-yule.
Mfaume, tezama hali aliyotufanya huyii banawasi.
Mfaume akajibu Mwitani, Akaitwa, akaja, mfaume
akamwambia, Kwani wewe kudanganya2 watu waka-
chinja 3 nyama wao kwa maneno yako ya urongo ? Bana-
wasi akamjibu, Ni wapombavu. Mimi niliwambia mukiu-
lizwa nnini, semani zizo, wasishike 4 maneno yangu.

Mfaume akamjibu, Wewe hufai kukaa hapa kabisa.
Banawasi akajibu Ni majaliwa yangu.5 Mfaume akaam-
risha nyumba ya banawasi itieni moto. 8 Banawasi
akajibu Nataka jivu. Mfaume akamwambia, Wewe
mpombavu, jivu ni la nini ?. Akamwambia, Najua mimi
mwenyewe.

Nyumba ikatiwa moto ikateketea yote. Banawasi
kanakaa 7 hata nyumba ilipozima moto, akateka maivu
akatia guniani, akawaaga,8 Munaona haya na mangini
yaja. 9

Aliposema hivyo akenda zake hata forozani akaona
mashua, wala mashua si yakwe, akaiba, akatokomea nayo,
akafika mji mkubwa, nayeye,10 vile angenda ana hakiba
rupia tano.

was destined to be beaten, etc. A somewhat elaborate phrase
meaning only, Some were hit, others ran.

2 kwani wewe ku danganya watu wakachinja. Why did you
cheat the men so that they killed? . . A common use of the
infin.

3 wakachinja (vide sup., p. 59, n: 9).

4 wasishike :. but they didnt hold, i.e. They didnt stick
to my advice.

5 majaliwa. A noun arbitrarily made out of the passive of a
verb, ku-jdliwa, vide sUpi'a, p. 67, n. 5. H. translates It is my
fate.

6 Note the abrupt change into the direct quotationtho very
words of the king One would expect itiwe moto.B.

7 kanakaa (vide supra, p. 64, n. 1).

8 kuaga : to take leave of a person, hence to say in parting.

9 munaona haya na mangini yaja ; lit. You are seeing these
and others are coming = You havent heard the last of it yet,
f.e. He laughs best who laughs last.

10 vile angenda =alipokuwa akienda (ana hakiba rupia tano) hivi
tu hakiba in Kimvita akiba. It is exactly equivalent to the Malay
* ungkus, provision or store for a journey.


*01 'u £9 -d v.idns npm xyaid oApBOoj apisut sbm 9j9ip= mtniU g
*(9AI'^B00|) 9pisut 9J91J4 t

*je;iAV oip m quis o^=ifmu vnfi-not 9
sqij= muruvtmu s
(i munu,njmu 04

|9||Tu^d oh put 4Boq 0144 jo (9uiqu|d) pooai oq; ui S40uq s4S999ns jj)
'4oq oq4 jo h 4-998 oq; uo q4op= 9J9q q40p jo 840uq= opunfia
*(q4op) 04m oqod 04= nydiuoyony G
/tii oiutso oq qoiqM ,= mfnyofitpi z
qottoq 04vyinof ,

aqj [[t?j p3i[do.i §up[ oq; puy /sbav joao ;Bq; Aouuiof
;s.ioav oq; st siq; o[qno.i; puB oun;.io}siui ioj t poqdoj
;oo[qng b puy ( j Aouuiof uioA ;noqB ;Bq^ paqs'e Suiq
oq; puy -po;.iB;9 pBq Aoq; raoqAv uioij Suiq aoq;o ;Bq;
o; pouui;o.i put? pouop.recl o.ioav uibSb s.ioq;o ubj s.ioq;o
injinq o.ioavnouios .iop.10 siq; uoaiS puq Suiq oq; uoq^

sodu;g A;uoav; o;

u .jiu qoBO poouo;uo9 Suiq oq; put? soqsB jo po;siguoo ;q8io.i}
.li aq; ;Bq; uuq poui.iojut put? Suiq oq; o; pou.m;o.i p.nmS
oq; o^ /soqsB si ti ;i qo^ } ;Boq q;iAv poaOAVSUB luoq;
jo ouo puy /si u ;t ;BqAV Abs ;snui no^ f poaoAvsuB
p.renS oq; ;ng /isBAVBUBq oq; jo ;ojoos b si ;Bq; {/;i o;
sy poqdo.i ouo puy ( j ouibu ou st?q qoiqAv ;t J} siq; si
, uioq; poqsB p.ren§ y ,/;? 91 ;q8iojj uiq } piBS
Aoq; put? ;qSio.ij uoq; jo oui;bu oq; Suiunbui jo osod.md
oq; .loj ;no pou.m; o.ioav spjBnS oq; jbaij.ib uoq; uq

UBUI OOJOLJ

t? sbav uavo; siq; jo Suiq oq; avo^j uavo; oSibj Ajoa b avbs
Aoq; pouAV'Bp q;uoA09 oq; uoq^ -sA-sp xis jo oo-Bds oq;
.10} ;uoav Aoq; pu-B O[dood jo ;soq 'B q;iAV poq-BS diqs oqj^

/goqsB si tt ;i,, ;t?q; uoi;uoui luoq; ;oj
; o.iB put? oot?[d Suiput?[ oq; ;t? oai.i.u? iCoq; uoijav puB umo;
oSabi b oos Aoq; [i;un diqs b ui uioq; q;iAV o§ ojdood oq;
;o[ saqsB osoq; 0; sb ;nq qi lub j §up[ oq; o; piBS puB
Ajqi.uoq pouBOiS puB ssouyji pouSio; oq ;nq opinS oq; uooi[
OABq pjnoqs isBAVBUBq oq; q;io; §ui;;os }0 Abp oq; uq

sqoBS ui ;nd ojoav soqsB oq; puB ;i ;ujnq Suiq
oq; oy /uavo; 0[oqAV oq; uing uiiq po.iOAVsuB isBAVBUBq
oq; puy t j sosnoq .1110 uanq oav qBqg poqsB Supj oq^

riiHVAVs^i do aciiIlLs midj 01 saiv

ZL


KI-SWATTTLT STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 73

Alipofika mji ule akaika 1 mashua yake aliyokujia,2
akachukua nyingiue, zile rupia zake akazichomeka 3 ndani
ya vifundo,4 na ndani ya mataruma 5 akaiyua 6 maji.
Kiisha akenda juu, aliporudi akaona mule7 ndani ya
mashua muna 8 watoto wawili, mmoja ni mtoto wa mfaume
wa pale, na mmoja ni mtoto wa Waziri, akawakamata,
akenda nao hata kwa mfaume. Banawasi akasema, Ewe
mfaume wa mji we, nakushitakia. Mimi ni masikini
nnakuja na mashua yangu, na mashua hiyo napakia mali
ya Mhindi jizila kumi za fetha, na watoto hawa wafiaiza-
misha. Maufme akajibu, Mtama ukimwaika huonekana
punje 9 na wende watu wakatezame ndani ya mashua ;
mali kama hiyo haikoshi kuonekana ijapokuwa ni rupia
moja. Wakenda asikari, mashua ikakwezwa 10 juu, ika-
bainikana rupia moja. Banawasi akajibu, Munasadiki ?
Mfaume akajibu, Naona dalili ya kuwa maneno yako ni
kweli. Banawasi akajibu, Liharibikalo hufanywa. 11
Mfaume akajibu, La kufanya ni kukulipa. Banawasi
akasema, Nilipani ? Mfaume na Waziri wakalipa jizila
kumi alizosema banawasi, akapewa. Na maneno hayo 12
banawasi alikuwa mwongo tu. Alipopewa akarudi mji ule
ule : kufika 13 forozani habari zikenda kwa mfaume akaam
biwa mfaume banawasi ana kisima kia fetha. Mfaume
akajibu Kwa nini. Watu wakamwambia, Ana fetha
mashua tele. Akaitwa banawasi, mfaume akajibu, Hewe
banawasi we mali hii wapata wapi % leo nataka useme
kweli. Banawasi akamjibu, Mali hii ni lile jivu la nyumba

9 mtama ukimwaika huonekana punje, If millet is spilt the grains
are visible ; as we sav, Theres no smoke without a fire. He
means that if so many rupees were inthe boat there would sure
to be one or twm still visible. Punje =tembe. It is not known in
Mombasa, but is quoted by Krapf on the authority <>i ere,

10 ku-kweza : ku-kwea, to climb; hence kukweza, to to
climb, i.e. here to beach.'

11 Liharibikalo hufanywa. That which is spoilt one mends.
It is best to find a remedy for ills. The kjng answers, la kufanya
ni kukulipa, the remedy is to pay you.

12 maneno hayo, acc. of respect.

1:* kufika, understood is akiisha. The omission makes it more
graphic,


OBAojdmo penpis b ;t| i ;ofqns b mitxH H

;6 -i*

(j
*o;0 AjpBq ofivq-ia -8-0 xij0jd |Biqj0ApB
AjBuipjo si ij\ #Axp0;i0X9 jo Ajp0;B0q *9-i 0sim.-0Jij *o%omia 9

tim normal, jo pB9;sui t vmnq i t 9q o; qj0A
0qj sb Aj0J9ui jBoddB -jr 8ui>|bui poddoap si t 0ABq o; } qjA 9q;

jo t vu , 0q; ;Bq; pooyjoii uojjo si t*ou SBq qoiqAV, o/mf s

, JO t 9UIBS Aj0A JBqX 'Oil'll y

p0u8i0j oq -0-1 jy0suqq uodn pid oq= miiCm^v K

'8 'u ?6 *d 9P}A t'pwui, b

0joj0j0qj *[subj; : qjiuisj0Ajis b jo 0J0q : Aq;iuis b vpuvaiioi z

t-9qB(jsiui b opBUi noA (osnoq Aui Suiumq Aq) oui
uinj oj 8uio8 9J9AV noA jqgnoqj noA jj /omtmcyra/ tui^vi vniuvcri
iumi%i\n iofii[ opudfiji = iuv\iunoim[ isvq iuv\iuvcn mudsiqn t

;uoav uouijoqyy oq; ov^ /Stoq po.i.re; b pire qui puB jodBd
oui pui^ t pres isBAVBUBq oq; puy t i aaojj t poqdo.i uoui
-joqyy oq; puy (&£ep Jo;;oq Aui ui noA piBAi.o.1 piA\. j puB
oyqnoj; ui uij /a.ou oui o; poo§ oq uouuoqsij noA ayou
o.ioqx t pres oq isBAVBUBq oq; po;tsodop p-eq Aoq; uoi(ay puB
;oqsBq oq; pouodo puB uiiq po;isodop puB ;uoav Aoq; og

c puB[yi ;josop b uo uiiq oaboj a ;oy iSBMBUBq siq;
SuiUA\.otp JOJ uosboi ou g^ojoqx ,piBS UBUiioqsp oq; puy
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t I ouop no A OABq ;Bipw isBAVBUBq oq; pouoi;sonb puB
uoinioqsq uib;joo b ;o§ dn uodnojoqAv bos oq; poqoBOJ ^Coq;
ji;un uiiq q;iM ;uoav Xoq; puB /Suiq q PD ^q S9& P^avs
-ub uouijoqsq oq; puy ,'uiiq UAvoxp puB iSBMBUBq oq;
oqBx -uoaiS ojOAi sjopjo inoqAi o; uouijoqsq ouios o; joao
uoaiS puB §Bq b ui ;nd pire pozios sbav oq qoupvv Siii^bs .io;jb
. t qonui ;ou st;Bqx p^qdoj ISBMBUBq oq; puy ^bos oq; ui
pouAvo.ip oq qBqs no^C nOiC oabs ubo 8uiq;ou siq; aa;jy ,
poaoAvsuB §up[ oq; puy t i ouo Are joj o.ibo ; iSBAVBireq oq; ;Bq; pozi[BO.i ;ou no^C OABq §uiq o,
uiiq po.iOAVSUB isBAVBUBq oq; puy t j soqoi.i ojoav soqsB
;Bq; oui po; ;ou noX pjd, poqdoj §uiq oq; puy

4 i noA o; ouop j OABq ;Bq^ pojoaasub
isBAVBUBq oq; puy t. i oui o; op o; popuo;ui noA ;BqAv siq;
9I j unq PT^9 §uiq oq; ouibo oq uoijav puy /iSBAVBireq

niHVMS-DI dO AQQlLS 3HJ, 01 SQIV U


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 75

yangu uliyochoma ; ukisema vvanilani basi hukunilani. 1
Akamwambia, Majivu mali % Banawasi akamjibu, 4 Ka-
ma si mali mimi nna dalili ya kiwanda 2 kia fetha %
Mfaume akamjibu, 4 Tuchome majumba. Banawasi
akamwambia, Choma mji wote. Mfaume akachoma,
yakatiwa maguniani majivu. Siku ya safari banawasi
ndio rubani, akajitia 3 ugonjwa, akaugua sana, aka-
mwambia mfaume,4 Mimi siwezi, Jakini haya majivu na
wende watu ndani ya marikebu wataona mji mkubwa,
wakifika bandarini wataulizwa, e Munapakia nini*? na
wajibu, Tunapakia lilo, 4 wasitaje kama' majivu.
Marikebu ikatoka na kaumu ya watu. Walikwenda
muda wa siku sita ; ilipopata siku ya sabaa wakaona mji
mkubwa sana, na mji huo una mfaume mkali.

Walipofika wakatolewa asikari ili kuulizwa walichopakia,
nawao, wakasema, 4 Tunapakia 44 lilo Asikari akajibu,
Lilo nini ? lisilo jina. 5 Mmoja akajibu, 4 Habari ya
lilo niwasia wa banawasi. Asikari akajibu, Shoti muta-
sema lilo nini.

Mmoja akaona vimoto 6 akajibu 4 ni jivu. Asikari
akarudi kwa mfaume akamwambia hawa wanaleta jivu.
Mfaume akatoa amri kulla mtu napigwe fimbo asherini-
asherini.

Mfaume akiisha sema hayo wa kupigwa akapigwa, wa
kukimbia akakimbia, wa kusemehewa akarudi7 hato kwa
yule mfaume mwingine alikotoka. Mfaume akauliza
4 Habari ya safari V waria 8 akajibu, 4 Safari zote ni kheiri ?
safari hii ni taabu na mashaka.

Mfaume akajibu, 4 Mwiteni banawasi. Akaja banawasi,
mfaume akamwambia, 4 Ndivyo ulivyonitenda ? Bana-
wasi akamjibu nnakufanyaje ? Mfaume akajibu, 4 Wewe
hukuniambia kama jivu ni mali ? Banawasi akamwambia
naye, 4 Hewe mfaume hukusikia kama banawasi hana
muhali ? 9 Mfaume akamjibu, 4 Sasa huna salama ela

9 muhali uficho, Mias no-secrets. This is how the word was
explained to me; but, as H. points out, Krapf in a long note explains
it differently as displeasure, anger, which seems to suit the
context better. I only know it as = care, e.g. Sina muhali = I
dont care.


{ 'zia Abs i teqAi JdquiQuiQj noA jt ees

pire jiBAV oj uoA Ae-id x, 'vvotniu (w[8nofn) misnof nm/ izdcmu

iu muiiu vppiqs iu vnl.
asn-eoaq tx) [ia*w uib i uaqAv noA Aed9.i qiAY i pura 9[qnoax Aui ui 9iu
di9j|, *** cuibj 9q^ ut noA Awfoj qiAY j pira ^qSnoap 9qq. ui (9tu dpq
*9{) 9ui joj 9p90J9XUj, rmaw, vfi, ddyfocniu vnl vfi, xuvsquioifi g

(vudm djna) tudofdanuvofnj t
*G u 6Q d *(-?P jdBJ^x ap?a) 8Bq : vqiunf t

iSBAYBUBq aqj puy t j noA AqBa.i jBqj si iSBAYBUBq suoiobiS
pooQ uiiq paqsB puB paqsiuojsB aaaAY oqM a[doad jo
Payoio b sbav aaaqj iCqqaC aqj uo aiaq ayo^j *A auiBO puB paAip iSBAYBUBq aq juauijJBdB ajBAud siq ui sbay Suiq aqj aunj siqj-qB ayo^j

{*§Bq Aui puB aui quig., raaqj oj piBS aq
pUB aoB[d SuipuBj aqj .iBau oj unq qjiAY juaAY Aaqj puy
/SuiqiAY pof) ajBs aq qBqs j paiaAYsuB aq piiB tsn
o; jsruj iSBAYBUBq auio;) t piBS uiaqj jo auo a.ioiu.iaqj.mj
: pjBoq uo uiiq jnd uauuaqsij aqj og /p.iBoq uo aui jud
I juauqqinj jo Abp aq; si Abp AjaA siqj puB jaqjaSoj paa.i§B
9M uieq* % pres 8M puB uauwaqsij auiBs asaqj auiBo a.iaqj
um.O'X aqj oj 8uiu.mjaj papuajui aq qoiqAY uo Abp aqj U()

§Bq siq ui sjajjaj aqj jnd uaq; AquiBj
sPl IF J sauiBu aq(X puB oo^ Jaq^Bj stjaiziA 8(§^nq] aq;
jo auiBU aqj pauSis aq puB uiaqj q(jtAv. pajuiBtiboB uaaq
uaAa jou pBq iSBAYBUBq aqj jBqj jobj ui 8uo[ ospBap uaaq
aouis Suo[ |[B pBq asaqj ayo^ aaqjBjpuBjS siq puB jaqjoui
siq puB .laqjBj s{Suiq aqj uio.q auioo oj §uijjodand s.iajja[
lUBqs pajooouoo iSBAYBUBq aqj jq3no.iq uaaq pBq aq qoiqAY
jadBd aqj qjiAY juq Xbay Jiaqj juaAY uauuaqsq aqj og

/§Bq-puiAY

b si iSBiABUBq aqj o3 s4jaj 8uo[B auiOQ pres uauuaqsq aqj
jug /[[a.A noA! jBa.ij j qtAV os qi aui pajBajj sBq .xa[n^j .mo
sb jsnp uiaqj oj piBS aq puy /sn uodn a[qno.ij 3uuq oj
jubay noA! rsB.wBUBq og pa.iOAYsuB uaiu.iaqsy aqj puy

/.xaiziA A!ui .xaqjouB puB
jaiqo-ux-japuBuiuioo Am aq qBqs no^ jo auo pUB §up[ aq
qBqs i jBqj piBS i jBqj jaquiauiai noiC ji aas puB jibay jsnf
noA! paqsiuq si qjuom siqj uaqAY fspuax.ij Xj\[, pa.iaAYSUB
iSBAYBUBq aqj puy iSBAYBUBq aq^ oj uioq; aAB§ Aaqj uaqAY
uiaq; joS Aaqj qjun Aqqj[Bajs sSuiqj aqj .ioj paqoo[ puB

riiHYAVs-ix do Aon&s dHi oi saiv ol


Kl-SWAHILl STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 77

nikutose ndani ya bahari. Banawasi akajibu Hayo si
makubwa. Kjrisha kusema hayo banawasi akakamatwa
akatiwa ndani ya fumba,1 akapewa wavuvi, wakaambiwa,
Mchukueni banawasi mukamtose.

Wavuvi wakaitikia, E wallah mfaume,1 wakenda naye,
walipofika baharini akaondoka mvuvi mmoja akamsaili
banawasi Umefanyaje ? Banawapi akamjibu, Usiniu-
lize hayo, kama wataka fanya wema nifanyiza, kama
wataka kufanya ubaya wako haithuru. Wavuvi waka-
sema, Huyu banawasi haina haja kumtosa tukamwekeni 2
katika kisiwa kisichokuwa na watu.

Wakenda wakamweka wakamfungua fumba. Walipom-
weka banawasi akawajibu, Enyi wavuvi niombeani ya
jua niwalipe ya mvua 3 Wavuvi wakamjibu, Kama
yapi. Banawasi akasema, Kanitafutieni karatasi na
wino na mfuko wa lami. Wavuvi wakenda, wakatafuta
kwa uficho hata wakaleta, wakampa banawasi.

Banawasi akajibu, Henyi rafiki zangu mwezi huu
kiisha mukae4 mukifahamu yakuwa mimi ntakuwa mfaume.
na nyinyi mmoja atakuwa jemadari wangu, na mmoja
atakuwa Waziri.

Wavuvi wakamjibu, Ewe banawasi we wataka tuletea
mashaka ? Akawambia, Kama sultani wenu alivyo-
nionya mashaka, mimi tawaonyesha raha. Wale wavuvi
wakajibu, Twendeni zetu banawasi ana maneno mangi.
Wavuvi wakenda zao, karatasi zile alizoletewa banawasi
akaandika barua za kubuni,5 akataja jina la babaye yule
mfaume 6 na jina la mamaye na jina la babuye na hawa
wote walikufa zamani hata banawasi hawajui, akaandika
na jina la babaye Waziri wa mfalme na jamaa zake wote,
akatia ndani ya mfuko.

Siku alipoazimu kwenda mjini wakaja wale wale 7 wavuvi.
akawambia, Niliwapa miadi mimi8 nanyi, na

5 za kabuni : sham.

6 babaye yule mfalme : the kings father. This is the invariable
way of expressing such a phrase.

7 wale wale. Vide supra, p. 63, n. 7.

8 9 miadi is an agreement for a fixed time the limit of which is
hadi. Note redundant but idiomatic mimi nanyi.


78

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-BWAHIU

answered, Well, who do you think it is ? And they
replied, The reason we asked you was because you were
drowned.5 And he answered them, I wasnt drowned*
I was only sent for a stroll. And he produced his letters
and gave them to the king and the Vizier and all his enemies.

On receiving these letters very one read them and the
king exclaimed, I believe the banawasi has reached the
other world and has come back againhe must have done
so because he never knew my father or my mother or any
of my family, and here is a letter from my father And he
called to the banawasi, who approached, and the king asked
him, My friend, banawasi, tell me truly what the other
world is like. And the banawasi replied, The other
world is beautifulthe scents are beautiful and everything
is there; if you went you wouldnt wish to come back again.
And he said to him, I am ready to go, and added, When
shall we start ? And the banawasi answered, Whenever
you like.5 And the king collected his goods and chattels
with presents to send to the other world, and when he had
packed up all he wanted, he called the banawasi and asked
him, How many men shall I take ? 5

And the banawasi replied, Let us go yourself and the 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9

1 halahala na sisi =Trust to us. (H. writes, I know this only
as a word strengthening an injunction to do something ; here it
suggests to me a verb suppressed, implied, as though they requested
him to make sure that they were all right, and in response he promises
Inshallah (itakuwa) Salama It will be all right.)

2 nitosani. This form is just as frequent as nitoseni. Vide
these stories passim.

3 zamani hizo. It is a common mistake to suppose zamani
always means a long time ago' It is merely the Ar. time,
with no necessary reference to the past.

4 kupiga mbizi : to dive.

8 jeshi : a host, here verb =it was filled. The narrator gave
me inajeshi, but it is difficult to let this stand. Panajeshi is sub-
stituted therefore rather than pana jeshi.

6 kuniona kwenu mwathania kania nani ; lit. In your perceiving
me you think that (I am) who ?

7 hasimu : a foe.

8 kuzimu : the lower world, the grave.

9 vilikuwaje : It must be so for . ; lit. these things were
what (about them ?)


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 71)

yangu ni ile ile sasa nipakiani. Wavuvi wakampakia tena
mvuvi mmoja akasema, Ewe bunuasi halahala na sisi.1
Banawasi akajibu, Ishallah salama. Wakenda naye
karibu ya bandari akamwambia, Nitosani2 na mfuku
wangu.

Na zamani3 hizo mfaume yupo bandarini katika sebule
yake, banawasi akapiga mbizi 4 akazuka forozani, na hapo
forozani palikuwa panajeshi ya watu,5 watu wakataajabu,
tena wakamwuliza. E. banawasi we ni we we kweli ?
Banawasi akawajibu, Kuniona kwenu mwathania kama
nani ? 6 Wakamjibu, Sababu ya kuuliza ni kuwa wewe
ulitoswa. Akawajibu, Mimi sikutoswa nilipelekwa ma-
tembezi. Akatoa barua akampa mfalme, akampa na
Waziri, na kulla aliye hasimu 7 yake.

Walipopata barua hizo kulla mtu akasoma, mfaume
akajibu, Nasadiki kama banawasi amefika kuzimu,8
kiisha amerudivilikuwaje 9 banawasi hajui babayangu
wala mamayangu wala jamaa zangu wote, na barua hii ni
ya baba.

Akamwita banawasi, akaja banawasi, mfaume akamwu-
liza, Sahibu yangu banawasi nambia kweli habari ya
kuzimu ku 10 namna gani ? Banawasi akajibu, Ewe
mfaume wangu kuzimu ni kuzuri manukato 11 mema
mema jamii vitu vi kuzimu, nawe ukenda hutamani rudi
huko. Akamwambia Tayari, tena akasema, Safari
lini. Banawasi akamwambia, Siku utakayo. Mfaume
akakusanya vitu na zawadi 12 kupeleka kuzimu, hata alipo-
kuisha funga vitu atakavyo 13 akamwita banawasi aka-
mwuliza, Nichukue watu wangapi ?

10 ku. 3rd pers. sing, agreeing with the ku in kuzimu. A
variant for the usual nV Vide infra kuzuri agrecinv

same manner.

11 manukato : scents.

12 zawadi : a present given to people on seeing them again after
some time.

13 atakavyo : which he wants. Ki-Swahili is a graphic lan-

guage : hence the present tense and not alivyotaka, which it would
be if the idiom were the same as in English. It is little points
such as these which should be noted by those desirous of speaking
idiomatic Swahili.


HO AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

vizier and his son and every one that has had anything
to do with the business. And the king called them and
ail who were there went, and they embarked on a ship
which travelled day and night for three days until on the
fourth day the banawasi saw that they were among the
currents, and he said, Here is truly the road to the other
world. So the ship came to a staiidstill and the banawasi
said to the king, Wait, I am going to see if the people are
ready and waiting for you. Now when our banawasi started,
he had brought dates and chewing mixture and all the heart
could desire from the place whence he had started and had
hidden them without the others noticing. And the bana-
wasi sank himself and swam to where the ships rudder
was. The others did not see him but thought he was
under the water. After about an hour the,banawasi made
a noise, Come, ye Faithful, get me up with a rope. And
the king gave orders, Lower the steps. When he had
climbed up he produced the chewing mixture and the dates
and everything else and said to the king, The people are
ready ; do you see the presents I am bringing you from
them ? On seeing these the king believed all the more,
and said, Come, banawasi, let us be going. And the
banawasi answered, If you want to go quickly be tied
to the anchor. 80 he was tied to the anchor ; for after
ail Choice is better than compulsion.

And when he had sunk, the banawasi exclaimed, Praise
be to God And the vizier asked him, Come, banawasi,
what are you giving thanks about ? And he answered,
Is it not the custom to do so when some one starts on a
journey ? And the vizier said to him, And I, too, want
to go speedily to join the Icing. And the banawasi replied,
It is you whom I want to go speedily more than any one
else. And he was tied to a stone and sunk together with
his son ; and both the children of the king were sunk also. 1

1 JcuUa mtu wa masliauri. Every one who has had aught to do
with the business (of trying to get rid of him). Here, as frequently
in Swahili story telling, the narrator actually puts into the mouth
of the banawasi what he (the narrator) knows will convey the
idea to the listener but which at the same time the banawasi cer-
tainly would not have said. The narrator is in fact half addressing


KI-SWAH1LI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES'81

BanawasI akajibu, Twendc we we na Waziri na mtoto
na kulla mtu wa mashauri. 1 Mfaume akaweta 2 wakaja
wote kama walivyo,3 wakangia ndani ya marikebu,4 mari-
kebu ikaabiri muda wa siku tatu mchana na usiku hata
siku ya nne banawasi akatezama hapa ni katika mikondo.5
Akamwambia, Ni hapa ndipo penyi njia ya Kuzimu.
Marikebu ikasimama, banawasi akamwambia mfaume,
Ngoja nenda mimi hatezame 6 watu wa tayari kukungo-
jea wewc. Na yule banawasi kule atokako alinunua tende,
na ughaibu,7 na kulla kitu kia tuno8 akaficha, wale hawajui
kama ameficha kitu. Banawasi akajitosa akenda hata
katfka sukani ya marikebu ; wale hamwoni; wathani yu
ndani ya maji.

Ilipopata kiasi kia saa moja banawasi akapiga kelele,
Enyi Islamu nipatani kwa kamba Mfaume akaamrisha,
Teremsheni ngazi. Alipopanda akatoa ughaibu akatoa
na tende, na kulla kitu, banawasi akamwambia mfaume,
Watu wa tayariwaona zawadi hii nnakuletea ? 9
Mfaume kuona hayo 10 akazidi kusadiki, mfaume akajibu,
* Ewe bunuasi we twende. Banawasi akajibu, Kama
wataka uende upesi fungwa nanga. 11 Akafungwa sababu
Hiyari hushinda utumwa, 12 akatoswa mfaume.

the listener. The banawasi would be far too clever to make such
a silly remark. Vide infra, p. 105, n. 9.

a akaweta for akawaita.

3 kama walivyo, as many as there were.

4 marikebu. The root shows that it is that- which rides the
waves, we write marikabu.'H.

5 mikondo: currents. Such were necessary for the speedy

sinking of his enemies.

6 hatezame =nikatezame (ha=nika-).

7 ughaibu =betel chewing mixture consisting of timbaku, tobacco,
chokaa, lime, katu, chewing gum, tambuu, betel leaf (or if this is unob-
tainable a kind of grass called mjengo), popoo, areca nut. This is
kept in a box called Jaluba, to chew lime and tobacco only =kuvuata.

8 tuno, anything prized or valued. (We write it tunu H.)

9 zawadi hii nnakuletea. Again note idiomatic absence of the
relative.

10 kuona hayo, vide supra, p. 73, n. 13.

11 Fungwa nanga, Be tied as to the anchor, an acc. of respect.

12 Hiyari hushinda utumwa. Choice conquers slavery. Better
to act of ones own free will than under compulsion.

G


82

AIDS TO THE STUDY OK KL-SWAHIL1

All the banawasis enemies were sunk tooevery one of
them. And he said to the sailors, Remember this-what
happens to the weak happens also to the strong. Further
he added, Bout ship and let us be off. But the helms-
man protested, How can we go when we are waiting for
the appearance of the king and his people ? And the
banawasi replied, Look here, steersman, since your father
went to the other world have you ever seen him return ?
The steersman had nothing to answer, so he remained silent;
further the banawasi said to the captain, Here you, cap-
tain, why are you not turning the ship ? And the captain
replied, Are you mad, banawasi ? And the banawasi
said to him,* The one who is mad is the king who believed
me when I said I had come from the other world, and now
if you like stay here with your ship for ten years and see if
your king will return.

And the captain believed that they were all really dead,
and at that very moment they saw the body of the viziers
son from whom the stone had become detached, floating on
the water. And the banawasi called out, Steersman,
catch the horse of the viziers son who has returned from
the other world.

And when they saw that it was a corpse they realized all
the more that the banawasi had killed them all.

Then the 6hip returned to the jetty and the banawasi
disembarked first and said to the townspeople, Come and
greet the travellers on their return from the other world
those who went this year and those who went lastall
have returned. 1 2 3

1 Ni ada ya msajari. It is the custom to speed a parting guest
with the expression, May Heaven be praised, may you have a safe,
journey, hence the banawasi says, It is the custom when one goes
on a journey.

2 wewe ndiwe nikutakaye. Note the manner of expressing em-
phasis here ; lit. You : it is you : you who I want. . .

3 Fahamuni . litapata. peku weak (?), lungu strong (?). In
which case the phrase means, Remember that what the weak suffer
the strong will also suffer, i.e. The tables are turned.

* Sarahangi. Ar. word meaning the mate : or as Malay

serang, the native steersman of a ship.


KI-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 83

Alipotoswa banawasi akasema, Alhamdullilahi! Wa-
ziri akajibu, Ewe banawasi we mbona washukuru ? *
Banawasi akasema, Ni ada ya msafiri. 1 Waziri waka-
mwambia, Na mimi nataka kwenda upesi upesi nimfuatie
mfaume, bunuasi akamwambia, We we ndiwe nikutakaye 2
uende upese.

Akafungwa jiwe akatoswa na mwanawe, akatoswa na
watoto wa mfaume wawili.

Wakatoswa kulla aliye hasimu ya banawasi, wote waka-
wakatoswa, akawambia baharia, Enyi baharia fahamuni
lililopata peku na lungo litapata.3 Tena akawajibu,
Rudishani marikebu twende zetu. Sarahangi 4 akatamka,
Tutakwendaje na tungoje mfaume akaonane na watu.
Banawasi akamwambia, Ewe sarahangi babayo ahkwenda
Kuzimu umemwona akirudi ? Sarahangi hana la kusema,
akanyamaza, akamwambia tena nakhothah wa marikebu.
E nakhotha we mbona hurudishi marikebu ? Nakhothah
akajibu, Bunuasi una wazimu ? Banawasi akamwambia,
Mwenyi wazimu ni mfaume, niliyemwambia natoka
Kuzimu, naye akasadiki, na sasa kaeni hapa na marikebu
yenu muda wa miaka kumi kama mutamwona mfaume
wenu akirudi.

Nakhothah akasadiki yakuwa ni kweli wanakufa ; mara
ile ile wakona mtoto wa Waziri jiwe linafunguka, ayelea na
maji.5 Banawasi akamwita, Sarahangi kamata farasi wa
mtoto wa Waziri atoka kuzimu

Walipotezama ni maiti wakazidi kuyakini yakuwa
banawasi kanaua watu wote.

Marikebu ikarudi hata forozani, akashuka yeye kwanza
akawambia watu walio mjini, Njooni mushungie 6 wasafiri
waliokwenda Kuzimu, waliokwenda mwaka huu na mwaka
jana wote wanarudi.

6 mtoto wa Waziri jiwe linafunguka ayelea maji : the viziers

sonthe stone has become unboundhe is floating on the water.
Note the idiomatic way of saying, They saw the viziers son, from
whom the stone had become detached, floating in the water.

6 mushungie: greet. In Ki-Mvita mushangilie.


84

AIDS TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILI

The kings town' was plunged in grief and the banawasi
said, When I was slain why didnt you mourn for me ?
And the banawasi mounted the throne and worried people
to his hearts content. Such is the story of the Banawasi.


Full Text

PAGE 1

AIDS TOrrHESTUDYOFKI-SWAHILI

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DictionaryoftheSuahil i Language ByL.KRAPF.30/-net.ComparativeGrammaroftheCongo Languages, and of Swabili.With a Vocabulary.ByW.H.STAPLETON.6/-net.iKEGANPAUL,TRENCHTRUBNER&Co..LToI_ _______. ---_ I

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AIDSTOTHESTUDYOFKI-SWAHILIOFOUR STUDIES COMPILED AND ANNOTATED MERVYNw.H.BEECH,M.A.,F.R.A.!Examinerin intheEastAfricaProtectorateAuthoro f"The Tidong Dialects ofBorneo,""TheSuk-theirLanguageandFolklore,"etc., etc.KEGANPAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER&CO.,LTD.NEWYORK:E.P. DUTTON&CO.

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PREFACETHE objects ofthislittlecompilationaretwo.Primarilyit-isintendedto assist thosestudentswho,alreadywellacquaintedwiththeelements oftheSwahili language, are desirous ofenteringfortheGovernment"Higher examination.StudyIhasbeen compiledattherequestofanumberof individuals,andbecause, asI believe,nosuchtreatiseon writingki-SwahiliintheArabiccharacterexistsin English.Thereisatendencynowadaysto discouragethisform of writing,buttherecanbenodoubtthat,puttingasidethequestion ofitssuitability,a knowledge thereof is still essential forcoastaladministration.Thestudentwill findthat,afterhavingbecome proficient in reading good clearwriting,therewillremaintheunpleasantfactthat he will still be able to decipheronlyaboutoneineverysixofthe letters thathe receives inthecourse ofhis duties.It is to assist himinthisdifficultythatthe inthis section havebeen chosen. A model wasfirst selectedandsubsequentlyspecimens ofletters,which ina small space wouldcontainthegreatestvarietyofmethodsof writing, were carefully chosen. To decideuponthemodel wasbynomeanssoeasyasitInaysound, forofthelargenumberofauthorities ques tioned,bothArabandSwahili, I never succeededi J) fi ll d i11'"two'whose viewsentirelycoincided.Theselection,itis hoped, willpreparethestudentfur any varietyand,withtheexception ofletterNo.1which isthemodel,mustnotbetakenas teaching himhowto write but as giving himapracticalknowledge of. howtoread,InStudy11Ihaveendeavouredto draw' Iattentiontov

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viPREFACEidiomsandnoteworthyconstructions ofwhichImade notes whenI myself was learning the language. Con sequently Ihaveoccasionally 'slightlystretchedthecontextin order to include anotethatIhaveconsidered would be useful.SomeofthepointstowhichIhavedrawnattentionnlayseematfirstsighttrivialor unnecessary.Butitmustbe rememberedthatmanyphrases of whichthetranslationis obvious,andwhichareapttobe passed over unnoticed, willbe found oncloser inspection tobeinrealityidiomatic.StudyIIIconsists of aphorismsandriddles. Someof these'havedoubtlessbeen'published before,butagreatproportionarenew,andallhavebeen collected fromthenativesbymyself. Ifsomeoftheexplanations, allof which were given to meby Wa-Swahili, areratherunsatisfactoryI prefer to leavethemsoratherthantoriskinventingafalse interpre-tationmyself. A knowledge of aphorisms isnotonlymostuseful in emphasizing a point,butalsogivesthe studentmanyglimpses ofthenationalcharacter.NotthattheSwahiliactsuptothehighlevelofhis maxims, whichareprobablyinmanycases derived fromtheArabs-orperhaps. itisthathewouldsay asdidOvid,"Videomeliora proboque cleteriora sequor." Study IVmaybeof anthropologicalinteresttosome,butitisinsertedherechieflyasan example of pleasingandharmonious language.Thewholeofthefourstudieshavebeen compileddirectfrom non-English speaking nativesandnointerpretershavebeen used. Secondarilytheaimofthislittlebookis to endeavourtocreateinthestudentan appreciation oftheeuphonyof.thislanguage,and,in spite ofitscompositecharacter,ki-Swahili well spoken ismosteuphonious.Languageisnotonly asciencebutanart,and,ifperfectionistobeattained,itshould bestudiedfromboth these pointsofview.Thescience consists inattainingtogrammaticalcorrectness;theartin acquiring idiom,intonationandgesture.

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PREFACEviiKnowledge oftheformerwithoutthelatteris incomplete. To publish abookon ki-Swahili, however small, requires someboldness"andIshouldscarcelyhaveventuredtodo sobutfortheencouragementreceived from Mr.A.C. Hollis andtheRev.JohnHamshereoftheChurch Missionary Society,aftertheyhadperusedmyMS. To thelatter,whohas resided forovertwentyyearsontheCoast,Iam e speciallyindebtedforhis kindness in giving memanyvaluablesuggestions. He is referred tothroughouttheworkbytheinitialH. Imustalso acknowledgetheassistance received fromalargenumberofArabsandWa-Swahili,notablythe late Sheikh )fuhamad bin Salim binHamis'l-Mazarui, Liwali ofTakaungu;SharifAhmadbinUusuf, Kadhi"ofFortSmith;his cousinSharifSaidHasanbin Aloi;, MuhamadbinSalim and ShaabanbinMuhamad.NormustIomittomentionthekindencouragementIhavereceived fromthe.RoyalAnthropologicalInstitute,theAfrican Society, SirHarry.Johnston, ChiefJusticeHamilton,andthepublishers, allofwhominonewayoranotherhavebytheirsympathyandinterestenabledme tohavethebook produced. )1. W.H.B.

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CONTENTSPAGEPREFACE,VSWAHILITRADITIONSASTOTHEMSELVESxiSTUDYI.-KI-S\VAHILIWRITING.3STUDYII.-KI-SwAHILISTORIES,WITHTRANSLATIONANDNOTESONIDIOM.58 STUDY III.-ENIGMASANDAPHORISMS,WITHEXPLANA-TIONSASGIVENBYWA-SWAHILI 117STUDY' IV.-NIAGICIXPEMBA 134ix

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SWAHILI. TRADITIONSASTOTHEMSELVESToobtainasatisfactoryanswer tothequestion astowhata Swahilireallyis,itwillbe necessary to divide ourinquiryintothreestages.Inthefirstwe shallattemptto satisfy ourselves astotheoriginalmeaningandsignificance oftheterm.Inthesecond we shallendeavourtotraceitsdevelopment;whilst inthethirdandlastwe shallattemptto describewhatis generallyunderstoodbythetermatthepresentday..Itmustberememberedthattheargumentsaretoagreatextent. those given bythepeople themselves.Limitsof spaceandthe absence of books of reference willof necessity precludethesubjectingof theseargumentstoaminuteandcriticalexamination,but,whilst someofthemmaybeunsupportedandunconvincing, itis nevertheless claimedthattheconclusionsaresubstantially correct. THEFIRSTSTAGE.The Arabicwordsignifying a is'sahil' anditspluralis'suahil' Thefinal"i"withthe isa genitive affix.ThusweobtainanArabic word 'Swahiliyi,'whichmeans'(a man) 01thecoasts.'Whenwehaveoncegraspedthefactthatthisis a1 r -rmwhichtheArabsappliedto those01themselves who s('11 I :1ontheAfrican coast,"andnot toanativecoast tribewhi ch theyfoundalreadythereupontheirarrival, we shall haveadvanceda considerabledistancein the solution ofour problem. Nowastherearestill a largenumberof persons who1ItissaidthattheArabsalsousethis term todesignatetheCoast intheirowncountry, xi

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xiiSWAHILITRADITIONSASTOTHEMSELVESpersist in believing in the original existence ofan Africantribecalled the Wa-Swahili, itwillbeaswelltogivesome oftheevidenceobtainedfrom local traditionandoldMSS.,lalthoughweare unable toguaranteeitstruth.There canbenodoubtthatthesettlementoftheEastCoastofAfricadatesbacktopre-Muhamadanandeven pre-Christian times,andthatitwas effected by peoples from Arabia, PersiaandSyria, allofwhomcameprobablybywayofthePersianGulf.InMombasaandits vicinitythemostimportantdivisions oftheSwahili arethe'ThelathaTaifa '2or' Three Tribes,'andthe'Tissa Taifa '2or'Nine Tribes.'The'ThelathaTaifa 'or'ThreeTribes'consist ofthelVa-Kilindini,thelVa-Changamwe,andtheWa Ttmqana,Of thesethefirst Kilindini3is said tobeacorruptionof'Jilindan-iyi' thisbeing the name ofanArabtribeliving .nearMaskat.Changamweis said tobeacorruptionofTaghamaw-iyi an Arabtribein Syria. 4 The origin ofTanganais disputed. Some derive itfromtheSwahiliword' ,Ku-tangamana'(tomix),andexplainWa-Tanganaas beingthenamegiven toallArabandPersiansettlers in Mombasa, whodidnotbelong tothetwo first-mentionedtribes-aswemightsay'TheMiscellaneous.' Others declarethattheWa-Tanganacamefrom Shiraz in Persia.The'TissaTaifa'or'NineTribes"similarlyboastof Asiatic derivations. There is considerable disagreement as tothecomposition1TheoldestSwahili 1\IS. thatIhaveseeniswrittenonricepaperobtainedprobablyfromPersia.Itconsists of a numberof versesexplainingthemeaningof difficult words.Itissaidtobeover500yearsoldandbothArabsandSwahilihavefounditverydifficult totranslate.ZBeitnotedthatthesedesignationsareinpureArabic.InKi-Swahili, Mijimitatu,Miji Tissia.3Kilindini.Somewouldderivethiswordasfollows:Kilindi-ni:lindi, a holeorpit;nilocativeaffix.Hence'theplacewherethereis a hole,' orthe'placeofdeepwater,'which,itmustbeadmitted,seemsmoreprobable. 6 Although'Ku-changanya'(Zanzibardialect)(to mix) is 8temptingsuggestion, which, ifcorrect,wouldplacethetribeinthe same category 88 theWa-Tangana.

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SWAHILITRADITIONS TOTHEMSELVESxiii ofthe'Nine Tribes.'Itisdifficulttoobtaintwo identical listsfromtwo different Swahili.! Wecan, however, examine someof those aboutwhomthereisno dispute. TheWa-Jomvuaresaidtobe settlers fromthecountryofJau] intheYemen. TheWa-KilifiaresaidtobeanArabtribefromIleal' Mecca.Thetribeis called'Kuljah (d.O.l$') afterits founderKulfahbinHanthalah c)1&.ill'). The TYa--!Jftwapa are said tobetheTabia (d\h) atribewholivenearMaskatandalsoin Syria. The true Wa-Pate,ofwhomthereare said toremainonlyabouttenfamilies,are said tohavecomefrom'Aj'am' i.e. Persia. TheWa-Gunia,who speakwhatis generally called abarbarousdialect of Ki-Swahili, are said tobe Persians fromKangoni,nearShiraz,butitisadmittedthattheyareverymuch mixed up with a,tribefromtheSudancalledMuiUi(J;')whose chieftownisBana.'Gunia'is supposed tobeacorruptionofKangoni.Astothe fJTa-Malindi it isnotsuggested whencetheycame.ThetownofMalindi2is said tohavebeen called .'Muludh' but' changed1Thisis,Ithink,duetothefactthateachtribehasanumberofsubdivisions,and,ifthe.speakerbelongstooneofthosesubdivisions, heisapttorefertohisparticularsectionasbeingthecomprehensivenameofthetribe;e.g,theWa-PatearedividedintoWa-Pate, Nabahani, Ma-shariju,'Arabs'(Abdi Salarn) Wa KilioandWa-Pokorno.ThefirstfourareofAsiaticorigin"thefifth NyikaandthelastdescendantsofnativesoftheTana riv er, ofwhichhereafter;cf.infra,p.'xv,n2.TheWa-SiyuagainaresaidtobedividedintotheWa-Riu,Wa-Famau,Wa-Katwaand J.l1a-Shariju. 2Malindi.Localtraditionsaysthatthepresent tOWIl Isixthwhichhasbeenbuiltonthesamespot.Itissaidt o dill(' from1271 A.H-. .Theprevioustownissaidtohavebeendestroyedin1017A.H.whichdateisthesameassignedtoallruinsontheEastCoast,e.g.Gedi, Kilifi,Ngomeni,etc.,etc.ThestoryisthattheAsiaticsettlersattemptedtoenslavetheGalla,butweredefeatedandsoweakenedthattheybecameaneasypreytothepeopleofwuo,whosweptdownthecoastandoverwhelmedallthetownsexceptthosesituatedonislands.

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xivSWAHILITRADITIONSASTOTHEMSELVESto'Malindi'outof compliment to VascodaGama'swife whose name wasLinda! However unconvincing these derivationsmaybe, they aresufficientto convince usoftheSwahilitraditionoftheirAsiatic origindatingfromaverylongtimeago.!THESECONDSTAGE.We need notdoubtthatitwasthe quest of slaves whichfirstbroughttheArabsandPersians toEastAfrican shores,andthatsubsequentlytheydecided to employ some of these slaves incultivatingthefertile coast lands. Now these slaves were almostinvariablypurchasedinthelarge slavemarketofKilwa,an island in,whatisasI now write,Germanterritory,andZanzibar.Theycon sisted ofnativesofcentralAfrica,e.g.lVa-Nyassa.2As was customary,manyofthewomentheytookas concubines. WenowhaveanumberofArabandPersiantribessettledalongtheEastCoast of Africa, livingwithahostofBantuulavesbywhose womentheywere frequently having children.'Vhatisthenext step? The child of anArabbya slave-concubine (Suria)takeshisfather'snationality.Heisan'Arab.'Hischild inturnbyanativewomanisan'Arab';andagainhis child under similar circumstances isan'Arab';-andBOon indefinitely. If, however,thehybridchild isafemaleand1OfotherSwahilitribesitmightbeaddedthattheWa-Slvimaei.aresaid to belongtoanArabtribecalledShemziaftertheirfounder,oneAhmadbinAliShemzi.TheWa-Fazaaresaidtohavecomefrom Faro "nearHalabinSyria.TheWa-PembaaresaidtohavecomefromShirazinPersiaandsettledinPembaislandin1771A.D.NoderivationisgivenforthewordPembabuttheirdialectof Ki-Swahili,'Ki-Jezirati,'isobviouslyfromtheArabicJezirah (&flfr) (island).2TheseslavesofCentralAfricanoriginarecalledWa-Shambara,whichdoesnotmean,asfarasIcanfindout,anativeofUsambarainGermanEastAfrica.HerewehavetheoriginoftheKi-Swahililanguage,viz., acompromisebetweenArabicand"primitiveBantulanguagesofCentralAfricaevolvedintheeffortsofmasterandslavetounderstandoneanother.ItisamistaketoregardKiSwahili asamixtureofArabicwithKi-NyikaorwiththelanguageofaprimitiveBantutribefoundbytheArabsontheCoastwhentheyfirstarrived.

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SWAHILITRADITIONSASTOTHEMSELVESxvthisfemaledoes 'not marryan'Arab'buta native, her childisnotan'Arab'butan'Mzalia'whichistheidenticaltermapplied totheoffspring ofaslavemanandaslave woman.1We have now springing upanew class-s-the "wa-zalia,' whoinsomecasesarepureAfricansbutin othershave a modicum ofArab blood. Againthe'masikini,'orslavesfreedbytheirmasters in expiation of religious orotherbackslidings ontheirpart,were frequently allowed tobecome incorporated intothat, Swahili 'tribetowhichtheirArab or Persian ex-masters belonged. Thirdly,certainWa-Nyika, Wa-Pokomoandpersons ofotherAfricantribesofthenearhinterland, became,afterbeing converted to Islam, included intheSwahili tribes."ThepureSwahili, i.e. those of Asiatic descent onthepaternalside,in order to distinguish themselves from these three newclasses,thenstyledthemselves'Wa-ungwana.'3Now,althoughinmanycasesthereis little or nothing to distinguishthe'Wa-ungwana'ofto-dayfromthe"wazalia'intheeyesofanEuropean,theyare nevertheless. known tooneanotherandthenativepopulation in general.THETHlRDAND STAGE.Afreshimmigrationof Arabs, e.g.theMazrui some100 years agoonly,togetherwiththeadventof Europeans, is responsible forthethirdstage.Foralong time pasttheArabtradersfromthePersian GulfhadcometolookdownupontheirbrethrentheSwahili, due nodoubttoaverygreatextenttothefactthat'thedescendants of these settlers continued to absorb moreandmorethefacialandboldly characteristics oftheAfrican-e-1Suchanunionwould,intheearlystages,doubtlessb e e x tr. 'I I .I \rare,butitiseasytoseehowlater,afterseveralgeneratiou-o fabsorptionofAfricanblood,thatitwouldbecome.moreandmoreconunon.'2Ngomben 'iandKidutaniaresaidtobe'tribesofIslamizedWanyika,andvidexiii.note1.a Mu-ungwa'na, pl,wa-ungwana,issaidtobederivedfromKu-ungana,'tobejoinedtogetherinlots'(i.e,forthe purpose ofdistinctionfromothers),

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xviSWAHILITRADITIONSASTOTHEMSELVES'childrenoftheirmothers'theycontemptuously calledthem.The Portuguesenotunnaturallyclassed allthepeopletheyfound onthecoast asSwahili,a custom which hasbeen consistently followedbyall Europeans.ArabtribesliketheMazrui fosteredthisidea byproudlystyling themselves'Arabs'asopposedtoSwahili;whilstthe TVa-zalia'and'Ma-Haji'(i.e. Africans convertedtoIslam) invariably style themselves Swahili when introducing themselves to Europeans.CONCLUSION.A Swahili "Mu-ungwana 'andan'Arab'is thereforeexactlythesame,withtheexceptionthattheformermayhavePersianblood inhisveins.Itisquiteimpossible to distinguish many oftheWa-Swahili"Wa-ungwana'of Mambrui fromthe'Arabs'ofthatplace, oranyother.Their families have certainly beenthereverymuch longerthanthe'Arabs,"andoccasionally,thoughbyno means invariably,theyare,owingto having absorbed moreoftheAfrican characteristic, of slightlydarkertint.Bothmustbe descended fromanArab(orinthecaseofa Swahili anArabor Persian) onthepaternalside. This isasine quanon, eventhoughthemothersmayhavebeenpureAfricans forfiftyormore 'generations. The children are still'Arabs'or "Swahili 'asthecase may be. Conse quentlythoughmanyshowtheirAsiatic descent intheirappearance, inverymanycasesthereisinappearancenothingwhateverto distinguishthemfrom' wa-zalia 'who have no Asiatic blood inthematall. Again an "Mzalia,' ifhe succeeds inmarryingan, mu-ungwana woman,mayproduce a child possibly more Asiatic in appearancethanmany'wa-ungwana.' Stillthischildisan' mzalia,' as descent onthematernalsideisnotconsidered.Infine,thereneedbeno difference inappearancebetween an'Arab,'a'Swahili'andan'Mzalia'intheeyesofan European,butitmustnever be forgottenthatthedistinctionis there,veryoften recorded in genealogieshandeddownfromfathertoson,andthatitisveryjealouslyguardedbythepeople themselves.

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ST UDY IKi-SwahiliWriting

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PRELIMINARYREMARKSKI-SWAHILI,or Ki-Sawahili, iswrittenintheArabic character.Thatthis character, however,cannotbe said tobewelladaptedtothelanguagemaybedemonstratedbythefollowing:-There isnothingintheArabicalphabetto correspond tothelettersp,v,eh,ng,ny. Thefactthatalltheselettersoccurveryfrequently in Ki-Swahili makesthewritingatfirst somewhat difficult to read.Forp ,theSwahilis havetouse y ba-b, "ch ...rshin-sh." v j fa-f.Forthesakeof distinction beginners aretaughtto write pas andvas u, butthese formsare seldom tobe met with inexperthandwriting.Hardghastobewritten e ghain(gh),theArabicguttural,whichletteris not found intheBantu,butonly intheoriginally Arabic words.Theletter whichtakesthe place ofhardgin Arabic is occasionally used.Itis ftnfortunate thatKi-Swahili hasnotadaptedtheusefulletters e eh, g (hard), CCoL) ny,whichareto be found inthePersian,UrduandMalayalphabets.'1SincewritingtheaboveI receivedaletterfromaBajun,anativeofLamu. This isinsertedonpage 45. These'Swahili. aresaidtobeofPersianextraction.Itisinstructivetofindthat,thewriterusessomeoftheseletters.3

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4AIDSTOTHESTUDYOF KI-SWAHILI The absence of ng andnyisparticularlytoberegretted,as Ki-Swahiliaboundsin words containing thesesounds.The contrivances are clumsy and-confusing-nverycommonly goesoutaltogetherbeforegory.Itdoesso indeed beforemostconsonant-s-e.g. ku-an.dika c .,==ngombe, anox or ==nyumba, ahouse Whatisactuallyspelt is ghombe or ghobeandyumba, : and ifmore correct arefarlessfrequentlyused.

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KI-SWAHILI ALPHABET.inmi m i =ngombe., t'; ,v'issometimesdistinguished U c-"'KadhiOlomba3:1appearsoccasionally th u'.)fi T0 Oftenwrittenasastraightline-cc=sanat c .g. ='mplshl'or'mblchi' L;mu:the Urdu,Persianand Malay(; IS foreh,; roi writtcuquickly as i ll C' Pronunciation"n''f'or'v' emphatic' k'ordinary,k',01'h'(ordinary. j'I' f*'cl6 sibilantIe.g =nU8tL -c,dh'oremphasized'd' := Fedha (Mombasa dialect)verydentalt'=tt' (bt.:: I __=Sultan, tr;,a;i0 =nathannl=th(w)aharnzahsound,videp.7 i =' :\ bdlIal I';g roughbreath-i ..aII t:: : or'g': ...AA : I Canonlybe joined whenitfollowsanother letter,e.g.ba 4 butab '1" : c;.,......i ,.bor p 'fPIssometimes distinguishedthus _I c...::.....:1 ordlnuryt as in Canappearfinally as e.g. sanat,ayear.Alsowhen Isolated canappear finallyas d .'. i .th' a.'J In English three': e.g.Athman.= 0 : 'j'ICanbe forhard'g,'but r .II 'E!.& estrongly asplratedh'Ie.g. 0L::..:= Hhasani C e.g. =Sheikh ma.n'dJ'<.... d' Can onlybe joined finally except ocoaslon-allyinwtltlngquickly asdJ.&)= ,th'asinEnglish.'they'. e.g. =fetha (Zamlibar dialect)),r'I)Boththeselettersarejoinedwhenfvllow:, ,z'or'laz)"8fIngaletteronly. V"" 's'))... 'sh'or'ch' j I 1,0,'b h h I hwhenjoinedwritten! =Abdallah ) i -'-' .w consonantorlong ; Joinedwhenfolllowingaletteronly, I ; y,I,e,orny,cousonant11 lP or 10 =AIl r. i '(:j orvowel '-J : I -C J -nyumba Lam-.fllf:;}iTsecldO in-W!cdby"Swaillll : J S' JI ) i o I WauYa'Aini C Ghaini \ e Fei Ka.fuKiafu LamuMimuNunuReiTwei d'Thidib Thwei lbSidiThali Rei Zei Sini Shini Dili AlifuTheiJimuHheiKhe'Bei Tei

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VOWELSKi-Swahili iswritteninmanyways, astheexampleswillshow.Thereis considerable disagreement astowhichjsthecorrectmethod,butsincethewriting wasintroducedbytheArabs,thatapprovedbytheArabsmaybe safely followed. Thefirst example, page15,isaletterfromMuhamadbinSaIibinHamisto myself.Thisman1ist.heLiwaIi orArabGovernor ofTakaungu,andisthesecondmostimportantmemberoftheroyalhousehold oftheMazrui.Hisletteris thereforeinsertedasanexampleof correct writing. Theshortvowels,itwillbeseen,aresignified bythe-. Fathaa. .:Kesrai,e. J Dhamma0,u.Long vowels are shown inthealphabetonthepreceding page.Wordsbeginningwithana,e,0,u,orisoundareinvariablycommencedwith1(alif)or ? Cain).Thesearechangedintothe vowel intendedbymeansofthevowelsignsattachedorbythevowelimmediatelyfollowing.Thus f a,1iore, (u oro. e.g. Jf ule, He, alif. Isa, Athman,)and can however begin awordwhen-=wandy,i.e., whenevertheyhavethesignification of a consonant.Thus =ya,)=wa, =yetu, =watu.1He has diedsincethiswaswritten.6

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7KI-SWAHILI WRITINGNUMBERS, Thesebeing borrowed fromtheSanskritreadfromleft to right.0 1 2 3 4 o5"\ 6 v 7 t\ 8 9 V 10A8uminaddition. v 479 123 "\V 6471249OTHERARABIC. SIGNS Theteshdid '" which doubles alettere.g. till 1=Allah. Thesuleuaicwhichmarksabsence ofvowelafter a consonant,andindicatesthelongvowels cand)as opposed totwodistinctsyllables, e.g. =mtu, a man,and notkufiika. Thehamzah. An-abruptcuttingoffofthebreath.ThechiefuseofthehamzahinKi..Swahili istomarkwhere and,areusedasvowels,andnot as consonants.Note.-Onehowever frequently findsthehamzahomittedandthedhammaused over,e.g, =uli-o..pataor whereas =uli-yo-pata =nili-i-pata =baada-e-(Mombasa dialect). =baada-ye(Zanzibar dialect)

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8AIDS 110rJiHE STUDY OF KI-S\VAHILIMONTHSInletter-writingtheArabicmonthsareemployed. Astheyearislunarthemonthsappearatalltimesofouryear.Theirnamesare-Swahili Months.ArabicMonthsaspronounced and written bythe Swahili. 1.(Mfunguo'nne) 2.(tano)Safur 3.(;;sita)Rabii-I'.r:7y, (Tuesday)'l-athalatha "WW' (Wednesday)'l-arbaa". (Thursday)'l-kharnis (Friday)'l-jumaa. (Saturday) 'Sabti Theletteris usuallyheadedbysome such religious -phraseas-v;wahadahu(AI'. one) = pekeyake S. 'l-hamdullilahiwahadahu!Praise toGodtheonlyGod! or jai

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KI-SW AHILI WRITING9TaalaBiminihi !GreatGodwhowardsoffallills!(S. Mkubwa mwenyikuzuiamaovu.)Whereaftertheletteropenswithastringof compliments in Arabic.Thefollowing wordsappear most commonly-l{'l-Hathwarat(Ar. Presence (S. kilichotayarimbele)(cf. ku-hudhuria),'l-Jenab(Ar. (1) Absent(S. mwenyikuwambali). 'l-Moheb (AI'. Friend,beloved (S.mpenzi),2'l-akaram (Ar.,.)') Honoured(S.mtukufu).'l-muhtaram,Desired (S. mwenyi kuaniwa).3'l-aziz (AI'. Noble, beloved (S.mpenzi),'l-mukaram(AI'. Honourable(S.mtukufu).'l-afham Clever (S.Mwenyi akili). (Al'.root 'l-heshim (AI'. Respected(modest) (S. mwenyi heshima). --'l-maathamHoly(S.mtakatifu).Some special wordsareusedalmostexclusively inletters-e.g.Ku-arifuto inform.(Cf. 'Malay Ku-wasili, toarrive(ofaletter).Thegeneral formforclosingaletteris(Date)rJu name ,.U...,Jj Year(sanat)1330. Swahilimakethefollowing distinction when usingChristianandMuhammadandates.Thus J:l =sanat1332h.i =sanat1914m.1Thusthephrase'L-jenab'l-hathwarat,whichsooftencorn mences aletter,wouldhavethesignification of'hewhois far awaybut yet isnear(owing tohisbeingabletobeapproachedbyletter).H.understandsjenabtosignify'theexcellent'butKrapfmakesIlajenabi=tothesideof.Myrenderingistheresultofindependentinquiry..2H. suggests generous?cf.ku-kirimu.3H.wouldrender=,tukufu'=mighty.

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10AIDSTOTHESTUDY OFKI-SW AHILIThe (h)standsfor Hegeira==the flight(Le., Muhainad's flightfromMeccato Medina). The ,. (m)standsfor Miladia==thebirthday(i.e.,of Christ). J --wakatabahU} == mwenyikuandika(AI'. writing l:.:S_ Biyedihi == signature. Thefollowingarestereotypedbeginningsandendings ofletters-, From childto[ather, JJ1}1jy
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12 TO'fHE STUDY OF LetterfromthelateLiwaliofTakaungutotheauthoronthesubject of journeying withhimto Mombasa. Thisis an example ofthebestwrittenSwahili.TaalaBimanihi. IIahatharatijanabi'I-ajali 'l-akrami 'I-aziziBwana ( Beech'baloziwaTakaungu. ... .Wabaadunakuarifubaruayakotukufuimewasili mkononi mwangujanausiku,na uIiyoniarifu nimefahamuahasantasana, namimi nitafurahisanatukifuatanasote kwenda Mombasa, lakininatakakwa ihisani yako uniarifu safari yakoitakuwalini walsalamu,wakatabahumohibeka Muhamad binSalimb. Khamis, biyadihi,tarekhi9Jemadi-l akhirisanat1329.

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KI-SW AHILI \VRITING 13 6/6 / / ///.,/!,/ J' r'I I' I /':" ". 9 ..7./ t ',/

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14AIDSTOTHESTUDYOF KI-S\VAHILILetterfromtheauthorto LiwaliMuhamadbinSalim apologizing fornotwriting beforeandinforming him ofhisfuturemovementsandofthereturnofa bicycle. TaaIa Bimanihi!'L-jenab 'l-sheikh 'I-moheb 'I-akram'l-mukaram'l-afham 'I-sheikh 'I-azizMuhamadb.Salimb.Ksmis'I-Mazrui salamusanabaadaya saIamu nakuarifuhaliyangunjematafadhalinisamehesikukuandiklaibaruambeleyahiikwasababuninashikwasananihoma th.ngu nilipotoka Mombasa wala sinanguvuyakuondokakitandanihattaleonaminasikitikasanakwasababusikupatakuonananawetenaMombasa;Inshallahututaonanatenasikunyingine;naminabibiyangu'taketiDagoretikaribuna Nairobi;nakhabariya maghari yako moja nalirudisha1Mombasanatarajiulilipatasalamaahasantasana;naminisalimia Sheikh Raschid naKadhina Mazruiwote;inshallahuwapatebaraka,salam aleikwarahamataAllahwabarakatahwakatabahumohibek : Beech'Tarekh7RajabSanat1329.1Thiswordbothinoriginalandtransliterationshouldhavebeen"nililirudisha.'

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KI-SWAHILI WRITING 15

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16AIDSTOTHESTUDYOFKI-8WAHILI1329.'LBandarTakaungu,FiGonjora, Assistant Commissioner,Takaungu.'L-jenab 'l-moheb'l-akram'l-asham 'l-afham 'l-aziz'mister'Beech,wabaada'l-athiaarafakabaruayakoaziz imeniwasilia, jamii uliyoarifu nimefahamuahasantasana'I-ajiliyafurahaya nafsiyangukupatabaruayako,namimisina shughuli ya kunizuiakujaaagananawewe, basinatumaikeshonitaazimukujakukutezamawewe lazimaInshallahuTaala;namimi nasikitika kwakullaBwanamwemahaketiTakaungunalabudainteyetuhainabahatiaalarnhathakatabahmohibeka'l-muktariKhamisbin Said, biyadihi, (illegible) Jemad-I-akhir. The above isaletterfroman Arab-Swahili totheauthor,wherein he informs himthathewillcometo see him,andpolitely expresses his regretthattheauthoris leavingthedistrict. Thisis included asa sample oflettersfrequently received inEastAfricawhichareverydifficultto decipher owing tothecurious handwritingandthemixtureof Arabic.

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KI-S'V AHILIWRITINGc17

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18 AIDS TOTHESTUDYOFKI-SWAHILILettersetintheHigher Standard Swahili Examination,1911.Mombasa,'HighCourt.' 'L-jenab 'l-aziz 'l-akram'l-maatham'l-asham bwanaHamilton'judge.'Wabaadunakuarifunyumbayangunirahanikatika,Court'naminatakakuiuza hiyonyumbaao kuiwekarahaninipate fedha kulipa deni niwiwayokatika'Court'-basisikuthubutukufariyahayaela kwanzanipateruhusakwako-basinaomba kwa ihisani yakokupatajawabuwasalamkatabahuTijarabintiMzeetarekh21Jemad-lakhir sanat1329.

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KI-S\VAHILI \VRITING 19 v>")\)\..z. \ r" r 'L-

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20AIDSTOTHESTUDYOF KI-SWAHILILetterfroma Swahili totheauthorexcusing himself fromattendingcourtowingtoafallfromahorse.Ila'l-mubajali 'I-afhami I' -hakim 'I-aathamiBwanaBeechaazahu'I-maliku 'l-aziziaminawabaadunimetokasaathenasharau nussu sikuya i-jumaakujakatika'koti' kusikilizaamriyakonimepandajuuya farasiameniangushanimevundika shingona mkono wa ku-shoto sikuweza kufika Dagoreti basinatakamsamahabwanawangukatabahuSheikh Abudi bin Sheikh Kali l-Ansaritarekhyaumei-jumaa 9thil-Hajisanat'1329.'

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!(I-HWAHILl'VHITINU 21

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22AIDSro THEOF I(I-SWAHILILetterfrom SherifAhmadbin Yusnf, anative of Pemba,totheauthor,wherein he informs himthatheis sending aNubiancook,also thestory on page 44;. IlahatharaibashaNdagoretiBwanaBeechiharasahuthatuhuwabaadanaarafakakuwasilia mpishi AbdulaFathiliMolaSudanimtezamekaziyakenamiminatumaimutasikizanawasalamsalamnaala ahali-'l-beiti min sharifuAhmadbinYusufbiyadi. Nahizihadithizitezame walakininambarisikuziweka uzurinambariyatatuiIikosamahalipakuweka walakini hivyonilivyotiasindano ndivyohapanahofu wasalamtarekh21Rabi-'l-awaliSanat1330.

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I(I-SWAHILI WRITINO 23

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24AIDSTOtfHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILILettersetintheHigherStandardSwahiliExamination,1912.IIa jenab 'I-sheikh 'l-moheb'l-akram'l-akhashamHamidbinMuhamadbinIsa'l-TimamisalamahuAllahuTaalawabaadunakuarifuhaliyangunjemawathammanawe kuwakathalikayaafiawazaidikhabarisiku nyingisikupatabaruayakowalasalamuyakonabaruaninussu yakuonanabasi siwate kuniarifu haliyakowalsalamuwakatabahuAhmadbinAIibin Salim biyadihi.

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}(I-SWAHILI WRITING 25

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26AIDSTOTHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILIrraala Bimanihi.28July,No23.1911.Ilajenab,hatharatibwanaBeech, Assistant District (Commr.)wabaadunakuarifuahasantasananimefurahikakupatabaruayakotarekhimwezi'28'Julysanat'1911'nimifahamu uliyoniarifuyotekatikabaruayakoaithaanimetakabathi'sitampu'ya"sent.i 'sitaanuwaniyabaruayakonimefahamu nahukuTakaunguLiwali Muhamadbill Salim hawezihomasikuhizinayeamepataamrikwenda Mombasakufanyadawakwadakitari'l-mudiri wa Mtanganyiko AbdallahbinRashidamekujakushikakaziyakenasituwazima sote'office'salamusanakwawatuwa'office'namiminatumaiyakuwatutaonanaInshaAllahuTaalaKatabahuAthmanbinJafarkaraniTakaunguTarekhi mwezilBhaabansanat1329.LetterfromAthmanbinJafar,a Beluchi clerkatTakaungu,acknowledging receipt ofasixcentstampandgivingothernewsoftheplace.

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}(I-SWAHILIWRITING27

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28AIDSTOTHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILISalam AlIahu Taala.Ilajenabsheikh 'l-ajil 'l-akmalkitabakSharif l-wasiljazakaAIlahu walfakhira (1) 'l-akhbwanaBeech'Collector'Naivasha saIamu AllahuTaalainsh-Allahu salam aleikawarahamatuAllahiwabarakatuhuwaazka-tahiyatama baadunakuarifumimihadimuyakohabariyakukunime mwambiayayakufungaanambiatutafunganamnagani nakukuhawahawanaposhohutumawenyewetutakapowafungawatapatawapiposhondiohabariyakukulakini mimi sitakubalishartitawafungiakeshonawewebwanazidi kunisamehesana'siuthike kwasababunimekuleteabaruamaananaonabaruaniadaabuzaidikamakukabilianakwa midomo nawewezidikujitalamishasanakuandikana kusoma wasalamwakatabahu'l-hakiri IIlahiTaalaAbdaIlah binSeif'boy'wabwana"Tew''Police''Naivasha.'Aletterfrom AbdaIIah binSeif,aboy working forthelateA.D.S.P.Mr.Tew.He is introubleaboutsomefowls. The writer hasgone somewhat 'outofhisdepths'andtheresult isa specimen of very inferior writing and grammar.

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KI-SW AHILI WRITING29

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30AIDSTOTHESTUDYOF KI.SWAHILIIlahatharati'l-waziriBwanaBeechhafathahuAllahu Taala.Wabaadanaarafakahalizetunjemawathamanawewe kuwakathalika'I-afiawaaithaimepitakalamuyaMngu inaI-aIIahiwainaIIIehirajiunaamefarikiduniaahaliyanguyule aliyekuwa mzazinamiminikaletabaruaDagoreti nikasikiabadohukuwasili nawewe mwarifu bibihabarikamahii wasalam nabibi nisalimiasanawakatabahu'l-baruamfanyiza kazi'FortSmith'HasanibinHamis21shahariThilHajisanat -1329. Sharif Ahmad, writing on behalf ofHasanib.Hamis,in formstheauthorofadeath.Thelettercontains a sentence in Arabic fromtheKoran.

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AHILIWRITING31

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32AIDSTOTHESTUDYOF KI-SWAHILIIlajenabisheikh'l-mukaramBwanaBeechwabaadunakuarifuamekujaMsomali jina lakeAdanianapslekamakitabuamshitakiMkikuyuaitwaWangurizamani Wanguri alikopa mbuzimmojarupiasitaakatoatatuzika bakitatuhatakikutoahatajanaakendaAdanikudairupiazakeWanguriakatoakisukumpigaMsomaIi Adaniakakinga.kisu kikapiga mwavuli namimi nikamwuliza Wanguri kwelihuyuMsomaliakudairupiasitaWanguriamesemahuyuMsomalimimi niIinunua mbuzi kwakenikatoarupiataslimu kwabeiyarupia'nnehizisitasifahamuwalamimisikutoa kisuni mrongo naMsomali asemaanao'mashahidi walakini mimi nimewambia wendezaowajeI-Jumaa.SharifHasaninformstheauthorofa quarrel between anativeKikuyuanda Somalithathas occurredinhis absence.

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WHITING33 D

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34AIDSrorfHEsrunv O}' KI-SWAHILI'FortSmith''Kikuyu'20Rabi'l-awalSanat1330. lla hatharatibasha_DagoretiBwanaBeechharasahuAllahuthatahuwabaadabaruayakoimewasili nimesoma nimefahamuuliyoniarifu nahabariyaFundiSudi naHasanibin Hamisi aamiliKikuyunimeona uzurikamauli vyotengenezaFundiSudi kuliparupiakhamsininikamasuluhu walakinikatikashariayetusuluhuhulipwa upesinamimi nime fanyizataratibuFundiSudi aliperupiahizikwa sikuithenasharahawao wameridhia manenohayawasalam SharifAhmadbin Yusuf biyadihi. A-case decided according toMuhammadanlawbytheauthorisapprovedofbythekadhiwith one reservationaato time.

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WRITING 35

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3UAl:DS tfO1'HE01" .July,1911. Bimanihi.Ilajenabi (illegible)'l-azizBwanaBeech 'DistrictCom missionerwabaadunikuarifu'case'ya'number.'Kumi'Criminal;imekuishakujakutokaMombasa maneno yalo yaleyakoulivyohukum uaithababaakeHamisi binSaidl mzeewa Gonjoraamekufatarekhmwezimosi'JulY'sanat]911,ainekufa Tezo aithanahabariya'l-kathiSuleimani binAlisasahajamboamekujadakitariTakaungukufanyadawa. Nahomaiko karna kwanza nasasa LiwaliMuhamadbinSalimhawezihomanamiminatumaiyakuwatutaonanakamakwanza nasasanatumaikwaMwenyiezi :Mngu kamahayohathawasalam nawatuwote wamesikitika nafsi zao kuondoka weweTakaunguhatamjeuri waRoka'1amesikitikasanabwanawetuwamesikitikahathasalaamkatabahuAthmanbinJafarKaraniTakaungu.AthmanbinJafarinformstheauthorofadeathandof theunhealthyseasonatTakaungu.1 wa Roka,anicknamefortheMudirofRoka,who was continually sendingletters complainingofma-jcurior 'illSUltS' tohimself.

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KI-R\VAlfILI\VHTTTNn 37 LSVD'l\..!-L!/T--_.... _

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38 AIDS TO THE OF KT-S\VAJfTLI BwanaBeech mfalmesalamahuAllahuTaala.Ila'l-mohebiaalimhatharatimufahimu'l-hakimu'l-akram'l-aziz essalam aleikawarahamatminAllahiwabarakatuhuamabaaduaarifaka 'l-kit;bu ilebaruauliyoitakanihiyohatiya mkonowangumimiwakathalikanatakawinomaanawinowanguumekiushanaminimepatamaneno menginenatakaandikawakathaIikanimesikia yakuwawatakakusafiri lakini sijui sikuganinatakanijuesiku ya safari Allah Allah usiwatekunijuviawasalaamwakatabahu'l-baruaShaabanbinMuhamadbin Sheikh 'J-Bajuni 'l-kiwaiyutarekhayaumewahidi waasherinJemad-I-akhirsanat1330.ShaabanbinMuhamadwrites a specimenletterfor the author,ThewriterisanativeofMOIDbasa,

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KT-S\VAHTLT \VRITING 39

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40... AIDR. TO TIrE' STUDYOF KT-R\V AJITLT'FortSmith 21ThilHajsanat'1329.Ilahatharati'l-waziriBwanaBeechhafathahuAllahuTaalawabaadunaarafakabaruayakoimewasili na uliyonia rifunimifahamuahasantasanawaaithahuimepitakalamualmakadiamefarikiduniamkewaHasanibinHarnisi Yule aliyekuwa namimbaukamleteadakitariamekufajanasaatanozamtanatumemzikasaakumikalu-ina-'llahi waina IllehirajiuunawasalamwakatahahuSherifuAhmadbin Yusu. Nabibi tusalimiesananaHassanakusalimu. Theauthoris informed ofthedeathof the wifeofHasanibinHamis.

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KI.SWATTTLI\VRITINO41

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42AIDSTOTHESTUDYOFKT-SWARILI Tarekh 12Rabi-I-Awal.SalamaIIlahi Taala.Sanat Hejeirat1330.Ilal-ajill-akraml-mukaraml-baloziBwanaBeechbin (1) salamaleikawarahamatuIllahiwabarakatuhuazkatahiyatialeihaaladawamisadarhetil-amrafiminbandari,Ngongo' Ha 'Dagoreti'wa-I-harakatisakinminfathilIllahil-wahidl-kahariwaaithatafathalisanabwanazidikuwaradhisanakwahayonitakayokukuulithanafahamuunapachakujifunzamanenoya kisawhilibasinapendapendakukuvulithazichuzakisawahilikwanzakunakichuhuichwa'kishinda'pananakichuhuichwa'shinda'nakichutenahuichwa'inda'na' kingine 'huichwa' infucho 'nakichutenahuichwa'kitunguu'pananakichutenahuichwaMatembematembe (1) pananakichutenahuichwamaitinihathaIllathiwasalamkatabahu'l-hatimchumishiwakoMuhamadbinMuhedinbinAlibinAhmad-l-Bajuni,Thisistheletterreferredtoonthenotetopage3.TheletterisofcourseintheKi-Amu(Lamu)dialect.InthisletterthewriteraskstheauthorifhecanexplainthelocalmeaninginKi-Amuofseveralwords. Hehassubsequentlyexplainedthewords asfollows:-K isbinda,Whenaeo COR ut(nazi)iscutinhalf' onehalfisleftwiththefruitinsideandtheotherhalfisscrapedout.Theemptyhalfiskishinda. Sh indaisahalfshell ofcoconutwiththethreeholesstoppedupwithwood.Itisusedformeasuringtemboorcoconuttoddy,inKi-Mvitaitisupawaorkasi,Indaiscottonwool(pamba)putin'mafutayaucho '(kittvitauto)andthenwrungout.U[ucho.A piece ofwoodsharpenedlike an 'msuaki'(tooth-brush-stick)andusedto cleanthescum off'toddy'(Cf. Ufito1-H.) Kitunguu.Aladlefortakingtemboandputtingitintothe'shinda.'Maitini(majichini) isthescumofoilorfat (ma/uta). ThewriterisMuhamadbinMuhedin(Bajun).Heomittedtoexplain"matembematembe,'nor have I been successful. Imaybemistakeninthetransliteration, orperhaps='kidogokidogo'fromtembe,a grain.

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TffLT\VRITTNn43

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44 ATDH TO TTTERTUny OF J{T-R'VAlfIIJI DialectKi-Jizirat.AsiyeburumiwaniMnguusimlncrumie.Aliondokamtuna mkewe wakasafirihatawalipofikandianiwakaonamtuamengiamwituniapigakelele akiliaasema'Enyijamaahapanawatukaribuhapa ?' Waliposikiayulemtuna mkewewakasimamakumtezama,mwanamkeakamwambiamumewake'Twendetukamtezameyulemtuamesubiwanikitugani'mwanamumeakamwambiamkewake'Twendezetutunakiunandaa.'Mwanamke asiridhiewakendahatawalipofikawakamwonani kipofumatoyotemawili.Mwanamkeakamwambiamumewaketusimwatehuyumtukipofulabudaataliwanijamaamaatazidikupotea.Mwanamumeakamwambiamke wake ,Asiyehurumiwausimhurumie.'Mwanamkeasikubulimaneno .ya mumewakeakamtukuakwahurumazake.Ikawayulekipofuhawezikwendamwanamkealikuwajuuyapundanamumewakeametanguliakwamaguupundawaoalikuwammoja,alipoonaldpofuhawezikwendaakamwambiamumewake.,ForiohomGodhasnopityhavenopity.'Amanand his wifestartedonajourney,andwhentheywereon the roadtheysawamanwhohadgotintotheforest. Hewasshoutingandcryingoutthese words, '0my people, istherenooneintheworld near? 'Andonhearinghimthemanandhiswifestoodstill to lookathim,andthewomansaidtoherhusband,'Let us goandseewhatistroublingthatfellow.'Butthemansaidtohiswife,"Letusratherbegoing:wearehungryandthirsty.'Butthewomanwouldnotconsentandwentuptothestrangerandfoundhimtobeamanblindinbotheyes.Thenthewomansaidtoherhusband,'Letusnotleavethisblindmanhere,lesthebedevouredbygreatwildbeastsorelsegetmore hopelesslylost.'Butherhusbandsaidtohiswife,'Forwhom God has nopityhavenopity.'Butthewomanwouldnotlistentoher husband's wordsandinherpitytookchargeofhim.Ithappenedthattheblindmancouldnotwalk. Nowthewomanwasmountedonadonkeyandher husband was walking infront.Theyhadbutonedonkeybetweenthem.Sothewoman, when shesawthattheblind man couldnotwalk,saidtoherhusband:

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IAswrittenbya Swahili,SharifAhmadbin Yusuf. '--...... ftow'7Sl....-f.......JJ--I I. / P/,';,,-:-, '/: '"<1".7",.,.'w:,:;.;. \ (-:.;; ., f},rJi .c:.. If'=''7.:,7:".,/0,">i\(..\J(..jt,y:o;;'oQ,'-;.; :. "I", ,/"r.,?<'.'A.\, ,.. "1"" It AB writtenbytheauthorinaccordancewith ruleslaid downillthisLook..

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46 AIDSTOTHESTUDY O.F KI-SWAHILI'Miminitashukatwendekwamaguuhuyukipofuapandehuyupundatupatekufika mjini upesi.' Mumeakamjibu"Aeiyehurumiwausimhurumie.'Mwanamkeasikubaliakashukandaniyapundaakampandishakipofu.Wakendahatawakafikakaribuyamjiwakamwambia'Huundio mji tumefikatukupelekemahaligani 1'" Na yulemwanamumenamkewakena kipofu wote ni wagenihawaujuimjiule. Kipofuakasema sokoninipatekuomba.Wakendanayehatasokoniyulemumeakamwambia t .' Tumefika sokonishukanasisitukatafutemahalipakufikilia.'Akashukakipofu napundaakamshika, yulemwanamumekipofuakapigakelele'Huyuaninyanganya.'Watuwakakusanyikakusikilizahabariya kipofuwatuwamjinaasikari, wakamwuliza'Unanini we kipofu.'Akasema'Miminimetokanamkewangunapundawangunapundanimepandanamkewanguamenishikiapundahatandtanitumekutana. ,I willdismountandwewillbothwalkandlettheblindmangetonthedonkey;andthenwe shallreachthetownquickly.'Butherhusbandanswered, 'ForwhomGodhasnopityhavenopity.'Butthewomanwouldnotlisten;shedismountedfromthedonkeyandsettheblindmanuponit,andtheywenttheirwaytotheoutskirtsofthetown,whentheyaskedtheblindman,'Nowthatwehavereachedthetownwhere shall wetakeyou l' Theblindman,aswell asthemanandhiswife,wereall strangers,nordidtheyknowthetownatall.Andtheblindmansaid, 'Takeme tothemarketsothatImaybeg.' Sotheywentwithhim tothemarket,andthenthehusbandsaid,'Herewearcatthemarket;getdownandwewillfinda place totakeyouto.'Theblindmandismountedwhilstthehusbandheldthedonkey,andtheblindmanshoutedout,'Thismanis robbing me!'People collected,bothguardsandtowns folk,tohearwhattheblindmanhadtosay,andtheyasked him,'Whatisthematter,blindman 1 'Andhesaid,'Istartedoutwithmywifeandmydonkey;Imountedthedonkeywithmywife,who held meonthedonkey. 'When wewereontheroadwemet

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AIDSTOTHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILInahuyumwanamume pekeyakeakasemanahuyumke wangu wakaondokamudamkubwanikimmwitamwanamkesimwoni kuniitika, namimisinamatokamanitamfuatahataaliporudi sikuweza kusemanayemaanan'nakhofukuniwatandiani.Hatanimefikahapanasikiaamwambiamwanamume 'Tumnyanganyenahuyupundatwendezetunamimi ndipo-diponikapiga keleleameninyanganyamke wanguatakakuninyanganganahuyupundawanguNayendiyomatoyangundiyomaguuyangu.'Watuwakaonanikweli aliyonena kipofu asikariwakamshikayule mwana mume nayule mwanamke napundawao akawekwakatikasirikali.Nasikuile ilikuwanil'-Jumaahapanahukumumwanamumenamwanamkewakafungwa kilamtuchumbachakehataasubuhiwakaitwakatikanjumbalahukumuakaulizwa kipofu, akasernakamajanaakaulizwa mwanamume, akasemakamailivyokuwa 'thismanbyhimself,andhe spoke with nlYwifeandtheywere away foralong time,andI calledandcalledthewomanwithoutgetting(lit.seeing)anyresponse. AndIhavenoeyes,so couldnotfollowher.WhenshecamebackI couldnotchideher(lit. speak), forIwasafraidshe would leavemeintheroad.WhenwereachedthisplaceIheardhersayto .the man,'Letus stealthedonkeyandgoourway,'andthatiswhyIshoutedoutthatIwasbeingrobbed: my wifewantstorobmeofmydonkey-thedonkeywho is bothmy eyes andmylegs.'Andthepeople werecon vincedthattheblindman'swordsweretrue,sotheguardsarrestedboththemanandthewoman,andtheirdonkey was impounded. Nowthatday was aFriday,sotheCourt was notsitting;thereforethemanandwifewerebothlocked upinseparatecells.Nextmorningtheywere called tothegreatjudgmenthallandtheblindman was askedwhatstoryhehadtotell.Andhe saidthesameashehadsaidthedaybefore,butthehusbandonbeing questionedrelatedthetrue facti)

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1

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50 TO THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILImwanzohatamwisho, nayulemfalmeakatezamahukumuyaoakasemahuyumwanamkemtienindaniyachumbapekeyake,nahuyumwanamumechumbachakenahuyukipofuohumbachakehata keshoitakuwahukumuyao.Wakarudishwandaniyaviumba-riakipofuakatiwandaniyachumbahatausikuhakimuakaamrishaasikariwatatukusikiliza kwa killamtuatakalosemandaniyachumba'Kipofuakasema.'Amahajuiwatunitamtwaapundawakena mkewake, woteniwapande,nayearudikwaohanapundahanamke:Yarabinakucheupesi !'namwanamkeakasema'Amamumewangualinambia."Asiyehurumiwausimhurumienisikubalisultaniakasadikimanenoyakipofunitafanyajemimi nisikosemumewangunitwaliwe ni kipofu kwawematuliomfanyiziamambokwa Mngu. n'0l11 beginning toend.Thenthekingpondered as towhatjudgmentheshouldgiveregardingthem,andsaid,,Putthiswomaninacellby herselfandherhusbandina cellbyhimselfandtheblindmaninacellby himselfuntilto-morrow, whenjudgmentwillbe delivered.' Sotheywerereturnedtotheircellsandtheblindman was putintoacell by himself.Butatnighttimethejudgeorderedthreeguardstolistentowhateachofthemshouldsayinhis cell. Theblindmansaid,'Indeedthejudgeisnoreaderofcharacter!I shall gettheman'swifeandhisdonkeyandmountthemboth!-andhe-hewillreturntohish01l1Cdonkeylessandwifeless.Maythedawnquicklycome!'Andthewomansaid,'Indeedmyhusbandsaidtome,"Forwhom Godhasnopityhavenopity,"andIwouldn'tlistentohim.Nowiftheking believestheblindman'swords,whatshall Idosoasnottolosemyhusbandandbetakenbytheblindman-andall because ofthegood wedidtohimin God's sight.

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G2 .ro THEOF Mwanamumeakasema'Mtuhashiki neno lamwanamkemimileonisikuyapilini kifungoninamkewangunapundawangusiwajuinitawapataama' tapewa kipofubure.'Nilimwambiamkewangu'huyukipofuMnguamempokamato,amempokamali,hakumpamtoto'wakumshikiafimbo.Asiyehurumiwani Mnguusimhurumieasiridhiemwanamkehuyuleonitafanyizajemimihatamkewangunapundawangunisinyanganywenikipofuhuyu,walakinimambokwa Mngu.Rataasubuhikillamtuakapelekatimamukwahakimunahakimuakarnrishakuletwawa fungwa.WakaulizwakipofuakasemaHuyuatakakuninyanganyamkenapundawangukwaajilisinamatoakaulizwamwanamkeakasema'Mumewangunihuyuwalakinikipofunalimkutiandianiapoteandaniyamwitu,mumewanguakanikatazakumtukua,akanambia'Asiyehurumiwausimhurumie.'Mimi nisikubalinikamtoamwituninikajanayendiani,hawezikwendanikashukapundawamumewangunaliokuwanayemiminimepandanikaonaafathalinimwazimehuyukipofuhatanipatemahalipenyiwatutumweke,nasisitwendezetunamumewangunapundawetuhatatulipokujahapasokonitukamwambiashukatuonaakipigakeleletukashikwamiminamumewangunayeasikamatwe,nayendiyemwivi wavituvitatukwanzamwivi wa fathili, pili mwivi wapundatatuatakakunibamimi;basiangaliawewehakimu.Hakimuakahukumumwanamkenamumeweruhusa,nakipofundiyemwizi, walakini sirikaliinamsamehekwakuwahanamaliwalahanamato.(WasalamTarekhlelathamsatminshaharRamadhan5sanat1,330wakatabahSharifAhmadbinJusufbiyadihi),Andthehusbandsaid, 'Amanshouldn'tlistentowhatawomansays.Thisismyseconddayofimprisonment,andIdon'tknowwhetherIshallgetmywifeanddonkey,oriftheywillbegiventotheblindman.ItoldmywifethatGodhadtakenawaytheman'seyes-hadtakenawayhisproperty,andhadgivenhimnochildtoholda staff for him,andI said,"ForwhomGodhasnopityhavenopity,"butshewouldn'tlistentome,andnowwhatshallIdotopreventmy beingrobbedofmywifeanddonkeybyablind man? WellthematterisinGod'shands.'Nextdayeachguardmadehisreporttothejudgewhoorderedtheprisoners tobebrought.When they were

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!{I-H'VATITLI\VHITTNG I

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fi4 AIDSTO TITERTTTDYOFKI-R\VAT-TTLT questioned, ,the blindmananswered,'Thisman wants to robmeofmydonkeyandmywife because Ihaveno eyes.'Butthewoman said,'The other manismy husband. ThisblindmanImetontheroad. He waslostintheforest,and.myhusband forbad metotakecharge ofhim, saying,"ForwhomGodhasnopityhavenopity."'ButI wouldnotobeyandtookhimoutoftheforestandwentwithhim,andwhen I found he could notwalk Igotdownfrommyhusband'sdonkeyonwhichIhadbeen riding,andIthoughtitbettertolendittotheblindmanuntilwe should cometoapopulatedplace where wecouldsethimdownandgoon our way,Iandmyhusbandandthedonkey.'When,however, wehadreachedthemarketheretodismount, we heardhimmakinga clamour,theresult of which was thatIandmyhusbandwerearrestedandhe wasnot.Anditishewhois reallythree times a thief. ,Firstly he stoleourkindness, secondly he stoleourdonkey,andthirdlyhewantsto steal. me,Thinkwell,0 -IudgeJ'Andtheking gavejudgmentthatthewomanandherhusbandweretobeacquittedandthattheblindmanwastherealthief,buttheCourtpardonedhim because hehadno moneyandnoeyes. (Theend.Date5Ramadhan1330,signatureof SharifAhmadbinYusuf.)

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STUDY11Ki-Swahili Stories with Translation andNoteson Idiom

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THEBANAWASI. There wasa banawasi who livednearaking,andeverydaywhenpeopleattendedthecouncilthebanawasialsoattended.Anda certain viziergotupandsaid,'0ourking,per haps youdonotknowthat.the banawasi isnohumanbeing ; hewill bring somebig trouble onthetown.'Buttheking said,'Nevermind, vizier.' Nowattimes when theywere sitting incounciltheking wouldcallout'vizier I 'andthevizierwould answer, 'Yourservant.'And.whenthevizier reachedtheking,theking wouldbendhisheadandwhisper tohim.Nowthebanawasiwasverydesirous ofobtainingalike favourandsaid, ,Oh,king,Idreamedthatyoumust also summonmeeverydayandwhisper tome, evenifyoureallyhavenotanythingtosay.'Andthekingwassofond ofthebanawasi-for1 Banauiaei, ; nirnturnwenyiakili nyingina maarija, asiyeshindika kwaneno,'i.e.,amanwhoalwayshasananswerready,whoexcels inrepartee-aman,infact,wholaughsbestbecausehealwayslaughslast.MissA."ernertellsmethederivationisAbu-nawasi,i.e., itisapropername,butithasbecomeacommonnounandhadbetterbeleftuntranslated.Thestoryoriginatesfromthe"Thou sand andOneNights."2 alikaa ismoreidiomaticthanaliyekaa.Akakaaisalso use'].3Thenoun[irani,a'neighbour,'becomesanadverbbytheadditionof na. mfaumeormfalme . 6 Simtu.OnewouldexpectSibin-Adamu.Simtumaymean'apersonofnoeonsequence.'-H. 6 OratioobliquaisexpressedinKi-Swahilibyintroducingthephrasewitha conj.suchas kuxsmba,kamaoryakuwa,meaning'that,followedbythesentenceinoratiorecta,justasinEnglish.Usesoftenseandpersonare,however,idiomatic.Thepresenttensefollows apastverb,e.g., 'HakujuakamanyumayangukunamtuaniJuata'=8hedidnotknowthattherewassomeone followingbehindher;lit.'Shedidnotknowthat"behindmethereisaman--heis followingme."Note,too,thechangetothefirstperson..'Akazingatiayakuwahuyu utarnchanganya nahuyumtoto'='Andhethoughtthatifheweretohitthismanhewould,mixhimupwiththechild';lit.Andhethoughtthat'If1hit58

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BANAWASI.l_ Toldby SherifHasanbinAloi,anativeofPemba.DialectKi-.I izirat.Kulikuwa na banawasi alikaa2jirani na3mfaume, na kulla sikuhuendawatuwakibarizi, na banawasi huenda.Akatokawaziriakamwambia'Ewe mfaume4wetuhujuikamabanawasi simtu,satafanyamambomakubwasanakatikamji ? 'GMfaumeakajibu'Haithuruwaziri.' Nayule mfaumeampendabanawasi kwahabariya zihaka,hata7siku mojawanakaa8barazanimfaumehuita. ziriI'wazirihuitika'Lebeka'I'yulewaziri akifika kwa mfaume huinamisha kichwa mfaumeakanofigoneza.Na yule banawasi,apendasanaapatekamayale. Banawasiakajibu9'mfaumenimeota yakuwakulla siku shoti nahimyouwilllnixhimupwiththechild.'Herewehaveallthreepersonssingularin one sentence,allreferringtothesamesubject.(H.thinkssomanychangesmustbe consideredabnormal.Thisisprobablycorrect, foralaterversioninsertedbeforeutamchanganyathewordsupangawangu. Thus byaddressingtheswordthesubjectischangedinthecaseoft .hisoneword.Note,too,thatintheoratiorectathefutureisusednottheconditional.(H.justlyremarksthatoratioobliquaisalsoexpressedasoratioobliqua(notmerelyoratiorecta,theconjunction'yakwamba 'or'kwamba'beingusedtointroducetheindirectspeechdependingon the opening clause.)7Hata,"unt.il 'here='somuch RO that.'8Wanakau,here=whentheyweresitting;lit.theyare sitting.Muchsimplerandmuchmoreidiomaticthanwalipokuwauiakikri.9akajibu. The' ka 'tense,usuallydescribedasthe'narrativ :or'historical'tense, wouldperhapsbebetterdesignatedthe'Connective'tense.Itistobenotedthatitisnotsolelyusedinrelatingastoryorin describingeventswhichhaveoccurredinthepast.Itisconnectivemerelyandirrespectiveof time,Thefollowingexampleswillmakeclearsomeofitsuses.(a) Narrative.Aliondokaakatamka-'hegotupandspake.'(b)Final.Alijaribuhataakasikia-hetrieduntilheheard.(c)Subjunctiveconnective.Ajeakushukechini=Lethimcomeand(lethim)godown.(d)Futureconnective;'Waliokujakunibamien'nahoju.kurud;59

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00 AIDS'TO TJTRRTOnyOF KT-R\VAHILI heloveda jest-t.hathe answered ,'GodwillingIwilldo so,Banawasi.'Nextmorning early heset forth,andonhis arrival at.the palace theking called tohim,'Banawasi!'Andhe answered,'Yourservant,sire.' Andhe approachedtheking,whohadnothingbutajoketosaytohim.And the banawasibenthis ear,andtheking jested,andthebanawasistartedviolentlybackandsaid,'GodwillingIwill perform allthatyouhavetoldme,my king.' Thepeoplewere troubled,andtheviziersaid,'ItisjustwhatIhave' alwaystoldyou,0king;thisbanawasi isnohumanbeing ;andnowthistownwillberuined.'Andthekingsaid,'Well,whatcanIdotoridthetownofthisbanawasi?' The youngestbornwhowas presentsaidtotheking, Doyouwantapretexttogetrid of thebanawasi ?' And hesaid,'Ido.' .f'Verywell,'hesaid,'leteverymanwhocomeshereto-morrowwrapupa hen's egginhisgirdle;andattheendofthemeeting, you,0king,mustdecreethatevery-one present lays ahen'segg,andthatyou' will execute .anyonewhofailstodo so.Verywell,thebanawasiwon'tknowanythingaboutthis.Whatmore 1 we shallhavegotthe better ofhim.Eitherhewilldieor remove himself fromthetown.'wakaniba'-Iamafraidlestthosewho'cametoabductmewillreturnandstealme.(e)I nfinitival. N ilipataie kuja nikangia nikaona.'HowdidIcometoenterinandsee?'(J) Consecutive. 'Kwaniwe kudanganya watu wakachinja nyama.' "Vhy didyoucheatmensothattheyslaughteredtheiranimals?'(g)Usewith Imperative."Hainahaiakumtosatukmnwekeni.' Wemustnotsinkhim,letusratherputhim....'1 'Shoti namimiuniite' =' You m-qat alsocallme;lit.'Itisnecessarythatwithmeyoucallmeshoti'=Zanz.shartiorashartiorshurti. .2ujapo.Note,thismaybeseparablefromthe.verb.3akendaforakaenda. 4 'hanamooaitwalo';lit.hasno word whichheiscalledfor=' had. nothingtocallhimfor.'_5 8him-e' (1),I was given'joy ,' as a translation,but

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KI-SWAHILI STDRIES, TRANSLATIONANDNOTES 61 mimi uniite1uninofigonezeujapo hunaneno.' Mfaumeakajibu'Inshallahbanawasi.' Asubuhiakenda3alipofika mfaumeakamwita''Ebanawasil'banawasiakaitika'LebekaSeidina'akendakwa mfaume na mfaumehananeno aitwalo4ela zihaka.Banawasiakainamishamashikioakafanyazihaka mfaumebanawasi aliiigoka kwa shime'5akamwambia'Inshallah,ntafanyizayoteuliyonambia mfaume wangu.'Watuwakasikitika, waziriakajibu6yakuwamiminili mwambia zamani mfaume banawasi simtu,nasasamjihuuutaharibika.Mfaumeakasema'miminifanyejehataaondokekatikamjihuubanawasi 1 Yupo kichinja-mimba7akamwambiamfaume'watakanenola kumwondoa banawasi l' akasema'Ndiyo'Akamwambia. Kesho kullawatakaokujahapakulla H mmoja na'fun dike9yaii10lakuku,ikiishabarazawewe mfaume ujibu kiafa muliopo'!kullamtuatoeyaiilakuku,asiyetoantamwua,na banawasihajui-basiatashindwa,atakufaaoataondokakatikamji.'H.says,'InallthecaseswhereIhaveheard this wordusedithasbeenequivalenttosaying"kaza,"e.g., aboat'screwurgedontogreaterexertionsbythecaptain-"tospurt."Itis a nounof course. Iwonderifitisconnectedwithfanya kinwe-" toact the man."Thenearesttoitinsoundis"ahume"in"
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TO OF KI-SWAHILl Thiswaswhattheyoungest-born said, andbarely werethewordsoutofhismouthwhentheking proclaimed his edictthateveryoneonthefollowingdayshould bring an egg,justastheyoungest-bornhadsuggested. The banawasi wasof course notpresentatthetime.Earlynextdayhis subjects cameandsatin council beforetheking,andastheywereaboutto dispersethekingsaid,'Everyonelayanegg!'Everyoneletfallanegg exceptthebanawasi, whohadnotgotone. Saidtheking, 'Where isYOUI'egg l' Andthebanawasi replied,'Areyou making funof111eorarcyouserious 1 'Buttheking answered, 'Iamnotjoking. Itellyouthatifyouhavefailedtolayaneggyou shalldie;forsuchis my edict.' ,Oh,' saidthebanawasi,'thereason Ihavenotlaid an -eggisthatall these hereare laying hens, whereas Iamtherooster!' Theking was nonplussedandhadnothing to answer, so he called tothebanawasiandsaid,'Youhavemyper missiontogo.'Sohe went. Upgottheyoungest-bornagainand said totheking,'To-morrowwhenthebanawasi comestell him tosewa millstone.''Allright,'saidtheking.'Because,'addedtheyoungest-born, by telling himtosewa stone youwill be ordering an impossibility.'Nextmorningearlythebanawasi came,and' on beingcalled'Banawasi! .'he answered,'Yes,Baramaki.' The kingsaid,'Thereisa stone ofmine with whichIgrind1yu katikakumwambia;lit.he is inthe act oftellinghim,'i.o. as we say,,Barelyhadhe finishedtellinghim'-'Hardlywerethewordsoutofhismouth.' .2hayupo.Nptepresenttenseandnot'hakuwako.'3karibu ya kuondoka.Notethesimplewayofexpressing'Just as theywereabouttogetup.'-

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AHILISTORIES, TRANSLATION ANDNOTES 63 Manenohayaasemahuyukichinja-mimba,yukatikakumwambia1mfaumemfaumeakatoaamri"Keshokullamtualeteyaiikamaalivyosema kichinja-mimba, nawakatihuobanawasihayupo."Asubuhiwakajawatuwakakaabarazanikwamfaume,karibuya kuondoka3mfaumeakajibu,'Kullamtuazaeyaii.'Kullamtuakaangushayaii; aliyebaki ni banawasi,hanayaii ye. Mfaumeakajibu,'Liwapi lako yaii?' Banawasiakajibu,'Wanizihakiaowanambia 4 kweli t 'Mfaumeakajibu,'Sinazihaka,nakuambiakamahukutoayaiiutakufasababuniamriyangu.'Banawasiakajibu,'Sebabuyakuwamimisinayaiihawanimitamba,"mimi nijogoo! Mfaumeakashindwahana6lakusemaakamwita,'Ewebanawasinendazakonakuparuhusa.'Banawasiakendazake,akaondokayuleyule7kiohinja-mimbaakamwambiamfaume'keshoatakapokujabanawasimwambieashone jiwelamtama.'Mfaumeakasema,'Inshallah.'Kichinjamimbaakajibu'maanakumwambiashonajiwehatawezakushona.'8Asubuhibanawasiakajamfaumeakamwita ( Banawasi!'akaitika'Baramaki!'9akamwambia'Lipojiwelangumwenyewenasagia10mtamananganunakullakitu,Iinapasukanishonea.'Banawasiakajibu,'Hiyoudiyo.kazindogosana,'akamwambia,'Keshoweka jiwe4wanambiaforuia-ni-ambia. 5 mitamba. Mtamba=obviouslyherealaying-hen,thoughneitherH.norIhaveeverknownitelsewhere tomeananythingbutacowor a. heifer.6hana.Graphicpresenttense.7yuleyule=thatverysame.Reduplicationforemphasis;cf., vile-vile,' "sanoa-eauxi.'8maana kumwambia shona 1iwe hataweza kushona;lit.'Reasontotellhim"sewastone"hewillnotbeableto sew,' i.e,'Forbytellinghimtosewastoneyouwillbeimposinganimpossibletaskuponhim.'hataweza.Asthepresenttense hawezi 'generally means 'heisill'thefutureisfrequentlyemployedinapresentsense toavoidconfusion.2Baramaki,tr..'juggler,''nimtumweny 'i kuzidisha akiUya banawasi.'10Nasagia-theprep.andrelative'nalo','withwhich,'isunder-stood. "

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64AIDS TOTHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILImilletandwheatandeverythingelse-itisbroken-pleasesewitfor me.'"Thatisaveryeasymatter,'saidthebana wasi,andtoldhimthatifhe placedthestone ontheverandahthenextdayhewouldsewitatonce.Everyone'was very astonished;andsome even remarked,'Cana stone besewn 1 'Nextday early he came-he hadtakenoffhiscapandfilleditwith pebbles,andonarrivalhe calledthekingandsaid,'HereIam,givememyworkto do.' Andtheking said,'YourworkiswhatItoldyouofyesterday.'The Banawasi answered,'Ifclothes aretorntheyaresewn withthreadofthesame material :whentheseamsofbags becomeunstitchedtheyaresewn withthreadofthesame material asthebags:whenarushbasketistorntopieces itisdarnedwithfibre:andthisisastonewhichis broken, soI havehroughtthreadofstones;willyouplease roll lllythreadandIwillsew.' Andthekingsaid,'Oh you banawasi, istheresuchathingasstone-thread?'Andhe answered,'Whenyoutoldme tosewthestonedidn'tyouknowthatnoone could sewa stone 1 well,ifsuchathingasthatis possible Iprayyouto rollmypebble-thread.'Thekingwas again nonplussed and said,'Oh, banawasi, areyounottobe outdone l' Andthebanawasi replied, ,No,0king,you knowthatIamnottobecaughtnapping!' Off wentthebanawasi.Thenthe same man-theyoungest-born-cameandaddressedthekingandsaid,'king,Ihavejustremembered something,'andhesaid, 'Whatl' Andhe answered,'Thebanawasi hasa dappled ox, borrow itandthenslaughter it.Ifthisoxisslaughteredt.he banawasi willno longerstayinthistown.'Sotheking went to borrowtheoxand -the banawasi lent ithim,anddirectly hegaveithimtheking slaughtered it1kanajazaforakajaza.Itisnotuncommontoprefixthekaofthistensetothepronominalprefix. 2 kuchanika: toberentstraightupfromendtoend. a kujumuka:tobecomeunripped(oftheseam). 4 kanda=kikapocooukindu: ungongo =fibre':kutomeuxi=tobedarned. .j linapasuka,Noteidiomaticabsenceofrelative.

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KI-S\\T AHILI STORIES,TRANSLATIONANDNOTES 00 hapabarazanintalishonamaramoja.'Watuwakataajabusana,tenawakasema'jiwehushoneka Asubuhiakajaamevuakofianandaniyakofiakanajaza1kokoto. Alipokujaakamwitamfaume'mfaumen'nakuwapo lete kazi nifanye.' Mfaume akajibu,"Kaziyangunihiiyajana.'Banawasiakajibu,'Nguoikichanika2hushonwa kwauziwanguo;gunia Iikifumuka3hushonwa niuziwagunia;kandalikiraruka hutomewa kwa ungongo 4-na hilinijiwe linapasuka,5.naminaletauziwajiwe,nauzihuuwewesokotamimi nishone.' Mfaume akajibu, 'Hewe banawasi jiwelinauzi Banawasiakamwambia'uliponambianishone jiwebasihujuikamahakunaawezayekushonajiwe,nakamayukonisoketeakambaya kokoto.' Mfaume akashindwa akamwambia,'Ebanawasi hushin diki l' Banawasiakamjibu,'Hewemfaume wanguunijuayakuwakamamimi sishikiki! '6Banawasiakendazake,akajayule-yule kichinja-mimbaakamwitamfaume, akamwarnbia, "Mfaume sasa nakumbukaneno moja,'akamwambia'nenogani ,akamwambia'Yupo ngo111be wa banawasi, mwikanga,? kamuazime I:l akiishakupamchinje. Akichinjwa ngombc huyo banawasi hakai"katikamjihuu.'Mfaumeakendakuazima ngombe banawasiakampa,alipornpamfaumevakamchinja,bana wasihana10habari, akapelekewanyama.BanawasiakauIiza'nyamahiini ngombe gani ,akaambiwa'ni ngombe wako.' Banawasiakajibu'Kananitenda11mfaume,lakin6 s-ish 'ikiki ='Iamnottobeoutdone.'K u-shika,tohold,kushikika=tobeholdable-'tobeabletobecaught'aswesaycolloquially,'Youcan'tcatchmeout.'7mwikanga=jivu-jivu,'dappled.'8kamuazime.The'ka'hasapeculiarandsignificantforce.Theuseisfrequentandit implies averbprecedingbut suppressed;e.g.heretheverbtobesuppliedissomesuchanoneas"send'(andborrow...). The prenominalinfix isthatofthe ub j t .1 hirdsingularandnotthesubjectintheplural.'Itiscommon oe chtosaytoone 'sservant,'Kanunuevita...'i.e., Go andbuythings.Itmaybesaidthatthesuppressedverbisgenerallyaverbofmotion.-H.9 hakiii. Noteagainpresenttensenotfuture.10hana,Graphicpresentagain.11kana nitenda =Dowhatyoulikewithme.Apparentlynitendeakama uperKlavyo. F

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66 AIDSTOTHESTUDYOFRI-SWAHILIwithout the banawasi's knowledge;andsomeofthe,meatwassenttothebanawasi. Andthebanawasi asked,'Whatmeatisthis 1 'andhe was told,'It is" yourox.'Andthebanawasi replied, 'Oh,dowhatyouliketome,oking,Idon'tmind. Might doubtlessisright.'He added, however, 'Nevertheless Iwanttheskilltobebroughttome.'Sothekingsentittohim,andwhenhesawtheskin hemutteredtohimself;andwhathe said was,'Asolitarytreebuildsnot.'Andhe folded uptheskin,andthenextdayearlyhe pegged itoutuntilitwasdry,thentieditupandsaid,'NowI'Ingoingtomove house.' Sohe went hiswayandreached aplacewheretherewas much fieasureandthistreasurehe cameuponmerely by accident,andhetooktherupeesandthrewawaytheoxskin ontheveryspot,andreturnedtothetownafterafew days. Andwhenthepeoplesawhimtheywereveryastonished astohowthebanawasicamebythetreasureandhewas asked,'Banawasi,wheredidyougetthistreasurefrom 1 Andthebanawasi replied,'Everythingcomestohimwho waits,andIgotthistreasurefromthesaleofmy skin.' Thenthe people asked him, 4 Isaskinsuchagreattreasure 1 Andhe replied,'Itisverygreatindeed. AndnowIgiveeveryonewhohasagoatoranoxor even adogtoknowthatitsskinistreasure.'Sothepeople slaughteredtheiranimalsuntiltherewasnothingalive left inthetown.Butonthedaywhenallweresettingforthtoselltheirskinsthebanawasisaid,'Iamveryill,butdoyoutake1' Wangi urape usipouxupa hnuuialiamkonouiao:'Anaphorism(fumbo):'toexplain'thesame=kujumbua.'I'hemeaningis'Kullamwenyinguvu huJanyaatakavyo";lit.'wangiukiwapahupata samahani, usipowapahufanyaapendalo 'almost='rnightisright.'2nataka nangozi. isnot a prep.here,butrather a conj,NeverthelessIshouldliketheskin-afterallthathashappened.-H.3'mtipweke haujengi.''Asolitarytreebuilds not.' Another, jumbo.'Hemeans. 'If Iwerenot a poor, lonelymanIshouldnothavesufferedthis.'TheproverbisknowninMombasa as Mtupweke hajengi.

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KI-S\VAHILIS"TOl-tIEH,TRANSLATION AND NOTES.6'7 haithuru," wangi wape usipowapahutwaliamkonowao.",1Tenaakajibu'natakana2ngozi niletewe.' Mfaumeakampelekea. Alipoona ngozi alisemapekeyake,neno alilosema'mtipwekehaujengiSakakunjangozi,asubuhiakaianika hata ilipokauka,akaifunga,akasema'SasaNahama,,akendazakeakafikamahalipana 4 mali mangi, namali:hayoalionakwakujaliwatu,5akachukuarupia,ngoziakaitupapalepale,akarudimjinikwasikuzinapita.6Watuwakamwonawakataajabusanabanawasimali alipopata,'akaulizwa'Ewebunuasi'malihiiunapatawapi 1 'Banawasiakajibu,'"Kuinamakondikokuinukako'"7mamalihiinauzangoziyangu.'8Watuwakauliza, I 'Ngozinimalisana l' Banawasiakajibu,'Nimallmakubwasana,'nasasa mbuzi,namwenyi ngombe, mwishoni f mbwa, ngoziyakeni mali.'Watuwakachinjamjini musisaze10nyamayo yote.Ratasiku zasafariwatuhuenda ngozibanawasiakajibu'Miminimgonjwa4pana:'wherethereis.'Cf.panapomiti=penyimiti=ashadyspot.Heretherelativeaffix'po'isomitted. 5 'Kwakujaliwatu.'Kujaiiioa=tobebenefitedorotherwise(byGod),socantranslatehesawthatthericheswere'providential.' H.suggestsspellingkujaaliwa :::;:::to begranted,thennounmajaaliwausedwhenpeoplewishtoshiftresponsibilityfromthemselvesandwouldrender,'Hesawtherichesbyaccident.'Notbyanyplanordesignofhis:itwasgrantedordecreedthatheshouldseethem.6kwasikuzinapita=whendayshavepassed,i.e.'aftersometime.'.7"kuinamakondikokuinukako.',Tobendinaplaceistoriseupinthatplace,'i.e,'Everythingcomestohimwhowaits,'or'afterstormcalm.'8no,malihiinauzangozi yangu.Aterseidiommeaning,'Igottheserichesbysellingmyskin';lit.'AndtheserichesIsellmyskin.'Veryfrequentlythestudent,aftersearchingforelaborateidiomswherebytoturnphrases,findsthatthesolution is vervmuchmoresimplethanheimagined.ItiswellalwaystoI"itephrasesassimplyas possible. The Swahilicanleavem ort-t ()bo,understood'thanwecan. lJ mwishoni='lastofall'-'even.'H.suggests'mwishonimbuxi as moreidiomatic.10musisaze.Theprefix 'mu heremustbecarefullydistinguishedfromthe2ndpers.pl.Itis3rdpers. sing.impersonallocative,'Therebenotleftinthetown.'11uzo,forku-uza.Theinfin.prefixcanoftenbeomitted.

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oHAIDS TO THEsrunv OF xr.swAI-IILIyourloadsandfollowtheroadin a southerly direction.untilaboutmiddayyouwill see alarge town,andwhenyou are askedwhatyouare carrying youmustsayweare carry ing"them.'Sotheystartedoff,huttravelled in the wrongdirectioiiandgotlostandeventually cameoutata king's town, wheretheguards asked them,IWhatareyoucarrying? .Andtheyanswered,IWearecarrying"Them".'Andtheywere asked again,'Whatmay"them"be l' Some onewhowaspresentsaid,.'Isay,my friends, "re hadbettermention"skins"orwe shall getintotrouble.'Sotheysaid,'"Them"are skins.' Whereupon somewere beaten, othersranawayuntiltheyreturnedtotheirtown, wheretheycomplained tothatsame king. ,0king,seewhat the banawasi has broughtupon us! 'Andthekingsaid, 'Call him.' Sohewascalled,andcame,andtheking said tohim,'Whatdoyoumeanby deceiving peopleintoslaughteringtheiranimals by reason ofyourlies l' Andthebanawasi answered him,'Theyarefools. Itoldthemthatiftheywereaskedwhattheyhadgot .theyshouldsay"Them,"buttheydidn'tstick towhatI said.' Andtheking replied,'Youarenotfittolivehereatall';andthebanawasi replied, 'Allthebetterfor me.' Thekinggave orders tofirethebanawasi's house,andhe said, 'Well,Iwanttheashesthen.'Andtheking said tohim,'Youareafool.Whatis -the useof ashes l' And he replied,'Iknowanyhow.'Hishousewasfiredandcompletelyburnt,andhe waiteduntilthefirewasout,collectedtheashesandputthemina sack,thentookhis leave, saying,'Youhaven'theardthelastofmeyet.'So saying he went offtothejettyandsawthereaboat,Itwasnothisboat,sohe stole it,anddisappeared with it,andreached a large town. Nowallthesupplies hetookwithhimwhenhe set outwerefive rupees. On reachingthetown he beachedtheboatinwhichhe1Kusini:kuei=south.Kasikaei=north(orkibula). Masharilei, maawio orMawaoorMatokeo=East,Mangaribi, kunoamaiwio,matweo=West.Windsblowingfromthesequartersare as inthediagram.

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J\J-FHVATTTLTRT01UER,TRANRLATJON ANDNOTES tj9 Iakinichukuenimizigoyenumufuatenjiayakusini1hatakat.ikatiyasikumutaonamjimkubwa,mutaulizwa"Munachukua .nanyimujibu,'Tunachukua"Zizo".' 2 Wakaendazaowalewakapoteaupandemwingine,3wakatokeamjiwamfaume,asikariwakauliza'Munachukuanini ? "Vale wakaserna,"Tunaohukua"Zizo."Wakaulizwatena,'Zizonini ?' Panammoja '1 akamwambiawenziwe,'Enyiwenzangunikheiritutajengozi,tutapatataabu.'5Wakasema,ni ngozi.'Waliposemahivyowa N wNW Mmande -sKusis MatalaiNE SEEMmandeisusedalsotodenoteespeciallytheearlymorningbreezewhichblowsdownthecreekstotheE. Coast andwhich is westerly.2'Zizo'=' those same'=zizohizo=thosevervsame(aforementioned).-H.tr.these, :J murirujine=in.another(wrong)direction. -I panammojaakarmoambia=80moonepresent said; lit.'there is oneandhesaid.'.-,tutapatataabu,(Ifwedon't) we shallgetintotrouble. 'TU8i pozitaja isunderstood.

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70AIDSTOTHESTUDYOF KI-SWAHILIhad Come andtookanother,andthose rupeesofhishe stuffedintotheseatcushionsandbetweentheribsoftheboat,thensankitinthewater.Afterthishelanded,andonreturninghesawthereweretwochildren inaboat,one wastheson of the and theotherofthevizier. So hecaughtthemandtookthembeforethekingandsaid, ,0kingofthistown, Ihaveacomplainttomaketoyou. Iama poormanandcame inmyboat,andinmyboatIwascarryingthepropertyofanIndian,tenmeasures of silver,and now these childrenhavesunktheboat.'Andtheking replied, Thereisnosm 'okewithoutafire";let mengoandlook insidetheboat.Theremustbe left sometracesofatreasuresuch asthis,evenifitbeonly'arupee.'Sotheguardswent, 'andtheboatwaspulledupontodryland, withtheresultthatonerupeewas discovered. And thebanawasi said,'Doyoubelieve me ?' Andthe king answered,'Thereiscertainlysomething tosupportyourstatement.'Andthebanawasireplied,'Whatisbrokenone mends.' ;andtheking answered,'Inthiscassmendingistorepayyou.'Andthebanawasfsaid,'Whatwillyoupay?'Andthekingandthevizierpaidten measures of silver,justasthebanawasihadsaid-s-but of course allthathe hadsaidwasuntrue.Whenhehadreceivedthemoneyhereturnedtotheoriginal town,andonhisarrivalatthe jetty newsspreadtotheking,who was toldthatthebanawasihadawellfull of silver.Andtheking replied,'Whatdoyoumean?'andtheytoldhimthebanawasihadaboatfullof silver. Sothebanawasiwas summoned,andthekingaskedhim, Wheredidyougetallthiswealth frorn To-dayIwantyouto tell methetruth.'Andthebanawasi replied, Thiswealthcomesfromtheashes ofthatburnthouse ofmine.Ifyouthoughtyouweregoingtoruin'mebyburningmy house youmadeanerror.'.'Andtheking said tohim,'Are asheswealth ?' Andthebanawasi replied,'Iftheywere. not wealth should Ihavetheappearanceof possessing a wholemintof silver ? '1 kupiQwa akapl.gwawakukimbiaakakimbia; lit. 'Hewho

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I{I-RW ARILI RTORIRS, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 71kupigwaakapigwa,wakukimbiaakakimbia1hatawakarudimjini,wakendawakashitakikwamfaumeyule-yule.'Mfaume,tezamahalialiyotufanyahuytibanawasi.'Mfaumeakajibu'Mwitani,'Akaitwa,akaja,mfaumeakamwambia,'Kwaniwewekudanganya2watuwakachinja3nyamawaokwamanenoyakoya urongo l' Banawasiakamjibu,'Niwapombavu.Mimi niliwambia mukiu lizwan'nini,semani" zizo," wasishike 4 manenoyangu.'Mfanmcakamjibu,'Wewehufaikukaahapakabisa.'Banawasiakajibu 'Ni majaliwayangu.'5Mfaumeakaamrishanyumbayabanawasi"itienimoto.'6Banawasiakajibu'Natakajivu.'Mfaumeakamwambia,'Wewempombavu,jivunilanini 1.' Akamwambia,'Najuamimimwenyewe.'Nyumbaikatiwamotoikateketeayote.Banawasik'anakaa7hatanyumbailipozimamoto,akatekamaivuakatiaguniani,akawaaga,""Munaonahayanamanginiyaja.'9 ., Aliposemahivyoakendazakehataforozaniakaonamashua,walamashuasiyakwe,akaiba,akatokomeanayo,akafikamjimkubwa,nayeye.!? vileangendaanahakibarupiatano. wasdestined to he beaten,ot .c.' Asomewhatelaborate phrasemeaning only,'Somewerehit,othersran.' 2 knoani.1Oe1Oekudanganyauxuu. "Whydidyoucheat the mensothattheykilled? ...'Acommonuseoftheinfin.3wakachinia (vide sup.,p.59,n.9).4umeiehske ::'buttheydidn'thold,'i.e,'Theydidn't"stick"tomyadvice.'. 5maqaliuia.Anounarbitrarilymadeoutofthepassiveofaverb, k'l.l-ia,uwa, vide supra, p.67,n.5.H.translates'Itis my fate.'6Notetheabrupt change intothedirectquotation-t Ill'"cry .wordsoftheking-s-On ewouldexpect'itiioe moto.' -.J-I.7kanakaa (vide supra,p. 64, n.1).8kuaqa:'totakeleaveofaperson,'hence'tosayill p
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72AIDSTO TT-lERTlIDV OF KJ.RW AHILITheking asked,'Shallwe burn our houses?' Andthebanawasiansweredhim,'Burnthewholetown.'Sothekingburntitandtheashes wereputin sacks. Onthedayofsettingforththebanawasishould have beentheguide,buthe feigned illnessandgroanedhorriblyandsaidtotheking,'Iamill,but as to these" ashes let. thepeople go with theminashipuntilthey see a largetown,andwhentheyarriveatthe"landing placeandareaskedwhattheirfreight is,letthem say it is "it."Don'tletthemmentionthat"it"isashes.'Theshipsailedwithahostof people,andtheywentforthespace ofsixdays.Whentheseventhdawnedtheysawaverylargetown.Nowthekingofthistownwasa fierceman.Ontheirarrivalthe guards wereturnedoutfor the purposeofinquiringthenatureoftheirfreight,andtheysaid,'Ourfreight is"it.'"Aguardaskedthem,'Whatisthis"it" which has noname ?' Andone replied, As to"it,"thatisa secret ofthebanawasi.'Buttheguardanswered,'Youmustsaywhat"it" is.' Andoneofthemanswered with heat,'Well"it" is ashes.' f-:o tl :eguardreturnedtotheking and informedhimthatthrir freight consisted of ashes,andtheking sentenced each mrn to twentystripes.Whenthekinghadgiven this order some wereh( at (n ,othersran,othersagainwerepardonedandreturned10thatotherkingfromwhomtheyhadstarted.Andthekingasked,'Whataboutyourjourney?'Andasubjectreplied,'Formisfortuneandtrouble thisis the 'worst journeythateverwas.'Andtheking replied, 'Callthe 1kuika = tobeach.2nliyoklljia= 'whichhecame ill. :1kuehomeka=topokeinto(cloth). .. vi/undo=knotsofcloth,here=clothontheseatsof theboat. (H.suggestsknotsinthewood(planking)oftheboat, andHO paralleltomaturuma 1)5 mataruma=ribs.8ku-yuamaii=tosinkinthewater.7mule,there inside (locative). muna =therewasinsidelocativeprefixide ,'1lI1)l'a, P: 67, n.10.

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KT-RWATTTLTRTORTER,,TRANRLATTON AND NOTRRi:l Alipofikamjiuleakaika1mashuayakoaliyokujia.takachukuanyingine,zilcrupiazakeakazichomoka3ndaniyavifundo,?nandaniyamataruma5akaiyua6maji.Kiishaakendajuu,aliporudiakaonamule7ndaniyamashuamuna8watotowawili ,mmojanimtotowamfaumewa pale, nammojanimtotowa waziri,akawakamata,akendanaohatakwa mfaume.Banawasiakasema,'Ewemfaumewamjiwe,nakushitakia.Miminimasikiniu'nakujanamashuayangu,namashuahiyonapakiamaliyaMhindijiziIakumizafetha,nawatotohawawanaizamisha.'Maufmeakajibu,'"Mtamaukimwaikahuonekanapunje"9nawendewatuwakatezamendaniya.mashua;malikamahiyohaikoshikuonekanaijapokuwanirupiamoja.'Wakendaasikari,mashuaikakwezwa10juu,ikabainikanarupiamoja.Banawasiakajibu,'Munasadiki ? l"ffaume akajibu,'Naonadaliliyakuwamanenoyakoni kweli.'Banawasiakajibu,'Liharibikalo.hufanywa.'11Mfaumeakajibu,'Lakufanyanikukulipa.'Banawasinkasema,"Nilipani I 'Mfaumenawaziriwakalipajizilakumializosemabanawasi,akapewa.Namanenohayo 12 banawasialikuwamwongotu.Alipopewaakarudimjiule ule:kufika13forozanihabarizikendakwamfaumeakaambiwamfaumebanawasianakisimakiafetha.Mfaumeakajihu 'Kwa nini.'Watuwaka.mwambia, 'Ana fethamashuatele.'Akaitwabanawasi,mfaumeakajibu,'Hewebanawasiwemalihiiwapatawapi?leonatakausemekweli.'Banawasiakamjibu, "Mali hiinililejivulanyumha 9 mtamaukimnoaikahuonekana l)unie, Ifmill et isspiltthegrainsarevisible';as we Ray, There'snosmokewithoutafire.'Hemeansthatifsomany rupeeR were the boat therewouldsuretobeoneortwostillvisibl e. Punie=teml)e. Jt is notknowninMombasa,butisquotedbyKrapfon theauthority ( ) ( .:,r-re,10ku-kiueza: ku-kuiea,toclimb; h ence kukureza,to( '; 11 1 -('toclimb,i.e.here' to beach.'11LiharibikalohuJanywa.'Thatwhichis spoilt one mends!' ,It is besttofind aremedy for ills.'Thekinganswers,la kujanya'Il 'i kukulipa,' theremedyisto pay Y O\1,' .12manenohayo,ace.ofrespect.1:\kufika,understoodisakiislut, The omissionmakes it. moregraphic,

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74AIDS !O THESTUDY-OFKI-SWAHILIbanawasi.' Andwhenhecametheking said tohim, 'Is thiswhatyouintendedtodotome Andthebanawasi answered,'WhathaveIdonetoyou Andtheking replied,'Didyounottellmethat ashes were riches Andthebanawasi answered him,'0king, have you not realizedthatthebanawasi doesn't carefor anyone Andtheking answered, ,Afterthisnothing cansaveyou,you shall he drowned inthesea,'Andthebanawasi replied, 'That'snotmuch';after saying whichhe was seizedandputinabagandgiven overtosome fishermen to whom orders were given."Takethebanawasianddrownhim.'Andthefishermenanswered,'Yes,byGod,0 king,'andtheywentwithhimuntiltheyreachedthesea, whereupon upgotacertainfishermenandquestionedthebanawasi.'Whathaveyoudone 1 Andthebanawasi replied,'Don'task questions ;ifyouwantto behave welltomedoso,ifyoudon'tIdon'tmind.'Andthefisherman said.>'There'sno reason for drowning this banawasi ;let'sleave himona desert island.' Sotheywentanddeposited himandopenedthebasket,andwhentheyhaddepositedthebanawasihesaid,' There now,you fishermen begoodtomenow.I'mintroubleandIwillrewardyouinmybetterdays.'And thefisher men replied,'How Andthebanawasisaid,'Findmepaperandinkandatarredhag.' Ro the fishermen went1ukisemawanilanibaeihukunilani='Kitendohikiulithan .iwaniualakinihukuniua.''Jfyouthoughtyouweregoingtoruinme(byburningmyhouse)youmadeamistake.' 2 kiwanda,asmithy:here of asilversmith:transl.therefore a 'mint.'Vide p.94,n.3. :I akajitia=heputuponhimself,i.e.hefeigned. 4kilo. 'Thatverysame'or'it.' 5 lisilo,"whichhasno.'Itisoftennoticedthatthe'na'oftheverb'tohave'isdropped,making it appearmerelyastheverb'tobe';'kuwa'insteadof'kuwana,'vimoto,fire-wise, i.e,heatedlyorexcitedly.Viisordinaryadverbialprefix,e.g. vi-baya ,badly,etc.7wa kupigwa...akarudi.Videsupra,p.70,n.1andp. rm, n. waria, a subject; lit. a skilled employee,

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KI-SWAHILI STORIES, ANDNOTES75yanguuliyochonia;ukisemawanilanibasihukunilani.'1Akamwambia,'Majivumali l' Banawasiakamjibu,'Kamasimalimimi'nnadaliliyakiwanda2kiafetha 1 'Mfaumeakamjibu,'Tuchomemajumba.'Banawasiakamwambia,'Chomamjiwote.'Mfaumeakachoma,yakatiwamagunianimajivu.Sikuyasafaribanawasindiorubani,akajit.ia 3 ugonjwa,akauguasana,"akamwambiamfaume,'Mimisiwezi,lakinihayamajivunawendewatundaniyamarikebuwataonamjimkubwa,wakifikabandariniwataulizwa,"Munapakianini -'?' nawajibu,'Tunapakia"lilo," 4 wasitajekamamajivu.'Marikebuikatokanakaumuyawatu.Walikwendamudawasikusita;ilipopatasikuyasabaawakaonamjimkubwasana,namjihuounamfaumemkali. Walipofikawakatolewaasikariilikuulizwawalichopakia,nawao,wakasema,"Tunapakia"lilo.'"Asikariakajibu,,"Lilo"nini 1 lisilojina.'5Mmojaakajibu,'Habariyaliloniwasiawabanawasi.'Asikariakajibu,'Shotimuta-sema"lilo"nini.': ..Mmojaakaonavimoto6akajibu'nijivu.'Asikariakarudikwamfaumeakamwambiahawawanaletajivu.Mfaumeakatoaamrikullamtnn'apigwefimbo asheriniasherini.Mfaumeakiishasemahayowakupigwaakapigwa,wakukimbiaakakimbia,wakusemehewaakarudi7hatokwayulemfaumemwinginealikotoka.Mfaumeakauliza,Habariyasafari l' waria8akajibu,'Safarizotenikheiri ? safarihiinitaabunamashaka.'Mfaumeakajibu,'Mwitenibanawasi.'Akajabanawasi,mfaumeakamwambia,'Ndivyoulivyonitenda l' Banawasiakamjibun'nakufanyaje 1 Mfaumeakajibu, ""ewe hukuniambiakamajivunimali l' Banawasiakamwambianaye,'Hewemfaumehukusikiakamabana "on s ihanamuhali 1 '9Mfaumeakamjibu,'Sasahuna I'HI" 111; 1 ('la 9 muhaU =uficho, ha. ... HO-secrets.'Thisishowthewordwasexplainedtome;but,asH.pointsout,Krapf in.a longnoteexplainsitdifferentlyas'displeasure,'"anger;'whichseemstosuitthecontextbetter.Jonlyknowitas=' care,' e.g.Sinamuhal i =Idon'tcare,

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inATDR ro TIlE STUDYOF J\.T-R'VAlTILI andlookedforthethingsstealthilyuntiltheygot the In,whentheygavethorntothebanawasi.Andthebanawasi answered,"Myfriends, whenthismonthisfinished,youjustwaitandseeifyourememberthatI saidthatI shall bekingandoneofyou shall bemy commander-in -chiefandanothermy vizier.'...Andthefishermen answered,'So,banawasi, youwant 1.0 bring trouble upon us.'Andhe said tothem, 'Justas our Ruler hastreatedmeillsowillItreatyouwell.'Butthefishermen said,'Comealong,let'sgo,thebanawasi isa wind-bag.' Sothefishermen wenttheirway,butwiththepaperwhichhehadbeenbroughtthebanawasi concocted sham letterspurportingtocomefromtheking'sfatherandhis motherandhisgrandfather. Now thesehadalllongsince beendead--solonginfactthatthebanawasihadnotevenbeenacquaintedwiththem;andhe signedthename ofthe tkillg's vizier'sfathertoo,and the names ofallhisfamily;thenputthelettersinhisbag. Onthedayonwhichheintendedreturningtothetown there came these same fishermen,andhesaidtothem,'We agreed together,andthisverydayis the dayof fulfilment;putmeonboard.' So thefishermenputhimonboard:furthermore oneofthemsaid,'Come,banawasi,trustto us,'andhe answered,'Ishallbe safe, God willing.' .Andtheywentwith himtonearthelanding place,andhe said tothem,"Sinkmeandmybag.'Nowall-thistimethekingwasinhisprivateapartmentonthelanding place, and thebanawasi dived,andcame upatthejetty.Nowhereonthejettytherewasa crowd of people whowere astonishedandaskedhim, "Good gracious, banawasi, isthat really you?' Andthebanawasi J [umba:bagivideKrapf,dic.),p.59,n. n. tukamnoekeni.(vide supra), Niombeani ya[ua niwaUpe yamvua, f Intercedeforme(Le,helpme)inthedroughtandIwillrepayyouintherain,'i.e.'HelpmeinmytroubleandIwillrepayyouwhenIam well off,'because.[uanishidda,mouaniraha,' 4 mwezihuukiisha(ukiisha)mukae.'Jprayyouto wait andsee ifyou remember what I say, viz., that! ..'

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nikutosendaniyabahari.'Banawasiakajibu'Hayo si makubwa.'Kuishakusemahayobanawasiakakamatwaakatiwandaniyafumba,1akapewa wavuvi, wakaambiwa, "Mchukueni banawasi mukamtose.''Vavuviwakaitikia,'Ewallah mfaume,' wakenda naye, walipofikabahariniakaondokamvuvimmoja akamsaili banawasi'Umefanyaje l' Banawasiakamjibu,'Usiniulize hayo,kamawatakafanyawema nifanyiza,kamawatakakufanyaubayawakohaithuru.'Wavuviwaka sema,'Huyubanawasihaina' hajakumtosatukamwekeni2katikakisiwa kisichokuwa nawatu.'Wakendawakamweka "wakamfungua fumba. Walipom weka banawasi akawajibu,'Enyiwavuviniombeani yajuaniwalipe yamvua!'3Wavuviwakamjibu,'Kamayapi.'Banawasi akasema, Kanitafutienikaratasina winona mfuko wa lami.'Wavuviwakenda,wakatafutakwaufichohatawakaleta,wakampabanawasi. Banawasiakajibu,'Henyirafiki zangu mwezihuukiishamukae .. mukifahamuyakuwamimintakuwamfaume. nanyinyimmojaatakuwajemadariwangu, na mmojaatakuwawaziri.'Wavuviwakamjibu, banawasi wewatakatuleteamashaka l' Akawambia,'Kamasultaniwenu alivyo nionyamashaka,mimi'tawaonyesharaha.Wale wavuvi wakajibu,'Twendenizetubanawasianamaneno mangi.'Wavuviwakenda zao,karatasizile alizoletewa banawasiakaandikabaruaza kubuni, S akatajajina lababayeyule mfaume6na jina lamamayena[inalababuyena hawa wote walikufa zamanihatabanawasi hawajui,akaandikanajinalababayewaziri wa mfalme najamaazakewote,akatiandaniya mfuko. Siku alipoazimu kwenda mjiniwakajawale wale t\'";\v11\"j.akawambia,'Niliwapamiadimimi"nanyi,n. : I; zakabuni:.sham.'6babayeyulemfalme:'theking'sfather.'Thisistheinvariablewayof expressingsuch a phrase.7 wcde wale.Videsupra,p.63,n.7.89miadiisanagreementfor a fixedtimethelimitof which is hadi:Noteredundantbutidiomatic'miminanyi.'

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78 AIDS, tfO THE STUDY Olf KI-H\VAHILI answered,'Well,whodoyouthinkit it;?' Andtheyreplied,'Thereason we asked youwas becauseyouwere drowned.' Andhe answeredthem,'Iwasn'tdrowned; Iwas onlysentfora stroll.' AndheproducedhislettersandgavethemtothekingandtheVizierandallhis enemies. On receiving theseletterseveryonereadthemandtheking exclaimed,'Ibelievethebanawasihas reachedtheotherworldandhascomeback"again-hemusthavedone so because he never knewmyfatherormymotheroranyofmy family ,andhereisaletterfrommyfather!'Andhe called tothebanawasi, who approached,andthekingaskedhim,'Myfriend,banawasi, tell metrulywhattheotherworldis like.' Andthebanawasi replied,'Theotherworldisbeautiful-thescents are beautifulandeverythingisthere;ifyou went youwouldn't Wish tocomebackagain.'Andhe said tohim,'Iamreadytogo,'andadded, 'Whenshall westart l' Andthebanawasi answered,'Wheneveryoulike.' Andtheking collected hisgoodsandchattelswith presents tosendtotheotherworld,andwhen hehadpackedupallhe wanted, he calledthebanawasiandaskedhim,'Howmanymen shall Itake 1 Andthebanawasi replied,'Letusgo yourselfandthe1halahalanasisi=Trustto us. (H. writes,'Iknowthisonly as awordstrengtheninganinjunctiontodosomething;hereit suggests tomeaverbsuppressed,implied,asthoughtheyrequestedhimtomakesurethatthey were allright,andinresponsehepromises'lnshallah(itakuwa)Salama'-'Itwillbeallright.') 2 nitosani.Thisformisjustasfrequentas'nitoseni.'Videthesestoriespassim.3zamaniEizo,Itisacommon-mistaketosupposezamawialwaysmeans'alongtimeago.'ItismerelytheAr. 'time,'withnonecessaryreference tothepast. kupigambizi:to dive.5ieshi:ahost,hereverb='itwasfilled.'Thenarratorgavemeinaieshi,butitis difficult tolet this stand.Pcnajeelciissubstitutedthereforeratherthanpanaj eshi.6kunionakwenumwathaniakamanani;lit.'InyourPerceiving me you thinkthat(I am)who? '1 hasimu:afoe.8kuzimu:thelower world,thegrave.Ivilikuwaie:'Itmustbesofor.'..';lit.'thesethingswerewhat(aboutthem?)'

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KI-SWAHILISTORIES, rrRANSLATION AND 7U yanguniHeile sasanipakiani.'Wavuviwakampakiatenamvuvimmojaakasema,'Ewebunuasihalahalanasisi.'1Banawasiakajibu,'Ishallahsalama.'Wakendanayekaribuyabandariakamwambia,'Nitosani2namfukuwangu.'Nazamani3hizo mfaumeyupobandarinikatikasebuleyake,banawasiakapigambizi .) akazukaforozani, nahapoforozanipalikuwapanajeshiyawatu,"watuwakataajabu,tenawakamwuliza.'E.banawasiweniwewekweli l' Banawasiakawajibu, : Kunionakwenumwathaniakamanani 1 '6Wakamjibu,'Sababuya kuuliza nikuwawewe ulitoswa.' Akawajibu,'Mimisikutoswa nilipelekwa ma tembezi.'Akatoabaruaakampamfalme,akampanawaziri,nakullaaliyehasimu 7 yake.Walipopatabaruahizokullamtuakasoma, mfaumeakajibu,'Nasadikikamabanawasiamefika kuzimu," kiisha amerudi-s-vilikuwaje9banawasihajuibabayanguwalarnamayanguwala[amaazangu wote,nabaruahiini yababa.'Akamwitabanawasi,akajabanawasi, mfaumeakamwuliza,"Sahibuyangubanawasinambiakwelihabariyakuzimuku10narnnagani l' Banawasiakajibu,'Ewemfaumewangukuzimunikuzurimanukato11memamemajamiivituvi kuzimu, naweukendahutamanirudihuko.'Akamwambia'Tayari,'tenaakasema,'Safarilini.'Banawasiakamwambia,'Sikuutakayo.'Mfaumeakakusanyavituna zawadi12kupeleka kuzimu,hataalipokuishafungavituatakavyo13akamwitabanawasiakamwuliza,'Nichukuewatuwangapi 1" .10ku; :lrd pers,sing.agreeingwiththekuin /';11:.'//1111. Avariantfortheusual 'n-i.' Vide -infra kUZU1'iagroc-iu. :samemanner.11rnanukato:'scents.'12zanoadi, a presentgiven topeople 011seeingthem againafter sometime.13atakavyo:'whichhe wants.' Ki-Swahili isa graphic language:hencethepresenttenseandnot aUvyotaka, whichitwouldbeiftheidiomwerethesameasinEnglish.ItislittlepointssuchasthesewhichshouldbenotedbythosedesirousofspeakingidiomaticSwahili.

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so AIDSTOTHESTUDY OF KI-H\" AHILIvizierandhissonandeveryonethathashadanythingtodowiththebusiness.' Andtheking calledthemand ail whoweretherewent,andtheyembarkedona ship which travelleddayandnight forthreedaysuntil onthefourthdaythebanawasisawthattheywere amongthecurrents,andhesaid,'Hereistrulytheroadtotheotherworld.' Sothe. shipcametoa startdstillandthebanawasi said totheking,'Wait,Iamgoingtoseeifthepeoplearereadyandwaiting foryou.'Nowwhen OID' banawasistarted,hehadbroughtdatesandchewingmixtureandallthe heart" coulddesirefromthe place whencehehadstartedandhadhiddenthemwithouttheothers noticing. Andthebanawasisankhimselfandswamtowherethe ship'srudderwas.The others didnotseehimbutthoughthe was underthewater. Afteraboutanhourthe, banawasimadeanoise,'Come,ye Faithful, getmeupwitha rope.'Andthekinggave orders,'Lowerthe steps.' Whenhehadclimbed uphe producedthechewingmixture. andthedates and everything else andsaidtotheking,'Thepeople areready;doyouseethepresents Iam bringing youf1'0111them ?' Onseeing thesetheking believed allthemore,andsaid,"Come, banawasi, letusbe going.'Andthebanawasi answered,'Ifyouwanttogo quickly betiedtotheanchor.' Ho hewastiedtotheanchor;forafterail'Choice if'; betterthancompulsion.' Andwhenhehadsunk,thebanawasi exclaimed, Praise betoGod!'Andthevizier asked him,'Come,banawasi ,whatareyougivingthanksabout ?' Andhe answered, Is itnotthe custom todoso when someonestartsonajourney l' Andthevizier said tohim,'AndI,too,wanttogo speedily tojointheking.' Andthebanawasi replied, ,ItisyouwhomIwanttogo speedily morethananyoneelse.'Andhewastiedtoa stoneandsunktogetherwith hisson;andboththechildren ofthekingweresunkalso.1kulla m-tu wa mashauri.'Everyonewho has hadaughttodowiththebusiness'(oftryingtogetridofhim).Here,asfrequentlyin Swahili story t elling,thenarratoractuallyputsintothemouthofthebanawasiwhathe(thenarrator)knowswillconveytheideatothelistenerbutwhich ut thesametimethebanawasicertainlywouldnothavesaid. The narratorisinfacthalfaddressing

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KI-SWAHILI AND NOTEH'Hi Banawasiakajibu,"Twendcwewena waziri namtotonakullamtuwamashauri.'1Mfaumeakaweta2wakajawotekamawalivyo,"wakangiandaniyamarikebu.!marikebuikaabirimudawasikutatumchananausikuhatasikuyannebanawasiakatezamahapanikatikamikondo."Akamwarnbia,'NihapandipopenyinjiayaKuzimu.'Marikebuikasimama,banawasiakamwambiamfaume,,Ngojanendamimihatczame6watuwatayarikukungojeawewe.Nayulebanawasikuleatokakoalinunuatende,na ughaibu,? nakullakitukiatuno"akaficha, walehawajuikamaamefichakit.u,Banawasiakajitosaakendahatakatikasukaniyamarikebu;walehamwoni;wathaniyundaniyamaji.Ilipopatakiasikiasaamojabanawasiakapigakelele, ,EnyiIslamunipatanikwakamba!'Mfaumeakaamrisha,"Tercrnshcningazi.'Alipopandaakatoaughaibuakatoanatende,nakullakitu,banawasiakarnwambiamfaume,'Watuwatayariwaonazawadihii'nnakuletea?'9Mfaumekuonahayo10akazidikusadiki,mfaumeakajibu, Ewebunuasiwetwende.'Banawasiakajibu,"Kamawatakauendeupesifungwananga.'11Akafungwasababu'Hiyarihushindautumwa,'12akatoswamfaume.thelistener.Thebanawasiwould be far too clever tomakesucha sillyremark.Videinfra,P:105,n. U. 2akawetaforakawaita. 3 karna walivyo, 'as manyasthero were.' 4marikebu.Therootshows that itisthatwhich'rides' thewaves,wewrite"marikabu,'-H. a mikondo : .'currents.'Suchwereuecessaryforthespeedy sinking ofhisenemies.6hatezame=nikatezame(ha=nika-). 7ughaibu =betelchewingmixtureconsistingoftimbaku,tobacco,chokaa, lime, katu,chewinggum,tambuu,betelleaf(orifthisisunobtainableakindofgrasscalledrnjengo),popoo,arecanut.Thisiskeptill a boxcalledJaluba,tochewlimeandtobaccoonly=kuvuata. 8 tunc,anythingprizedor valued. (\Vewriteit"tunu.'-H.) 9 zaicad.i hi,,: "nnakuletea, Again note id iomaticubsenceoft .herelut.ive.10kuona hayo, vide supra, p.73,n.13.11Funqioa nanqa,'Be tied astotheanchor,'anace.ofrespect.12Hiya1'i liusliinda utumu:a, Choice conquers slavery.'Betterto,actofone'sownfreewill than undercompulsion.G

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TO THE STUDY OF Allthebanawasi's enemies weresunktoo-everyoneofthem.Andhesaidtothesailors,'Rememberthis-i-whathappens totheweakhappensalsotothestrong.'Further he added,';Boutshipandlet usbeoff.'Butthehelmsmanprotested,'Howcanwego when weare waiting for the appearanceofthekingandhis people l' Andthebanawasi replied,'Lookhere, steersman, sinceyourfatherwent totheother world haveyou ever seenhim return? Thesteersmanhadnothingto answer, soheremainedsilent;furtherthebanawasi said tothecaptain,'Hereyou, cap tain,whyareyounotturningtheship l' Andthecaptainreplied,'Areyoumad,banawasi l' Andthebanawasisaid to him:" Theonewhoismadistheking who believed me when I said Ihadcomefromtheotherworld,andnow ifyoulikestayherewithyourship fortenyearsandseeifyourking willreturn.'_ Andthecaptainbelievedthattheywereallreallydead,andatthatverymomenttheysaw the bodyofthevizier's 60n fromwhomthestonehadbecomedetached,floating onthewater.Andthebanawasicalledout,'Steersman,catchthehorse ofthevizier's sonwhohasreturnedfromtheotherworld.'And when theysawthatitwasa. corpsetheyrealized allthemorethatthebanawasihadkilledthemall.Thentheshipreturnedtothejettyandthebanawasidisembarkedfirstandsaidtothetownspeople,"Comeandgreetthetravellers ontheirreturnfromtheotherworldthosewhowentthisyearandthosewho wentlast-allhavereturned.'1Niadayamsajari.It is the custom to speeda part.ingguestwiththeexpression,':MayHeavenbepraised,mayyouhavea Hafe journey,'hencethebanawasisays,'Itisthecustomwhenonegoesonajourney.'.2wewe ndiwe nikutakaye.Notethemannerofexpressingemphasishere;lit.'You:itisyou:youwhoIwant,...'3Fahamuni...litapata,pekuweak(?),lunqu.strong(?).Inwhichcasethephrasemeans,'Rememberthat what. t.lu: weak sufferthestrongwillalsosuffer;'i.e.'Thctablesaret.nrned.' 4 Saralumqi.Ar.wordmeaningthe 'mate': or us Malay'serang,'thenativesteersmanofaship.

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S'rORIEB, liRANBLATION AND NOTES 83Alipotoswa banawasi akasema,'Alhamdullilahi!'Wa ziriakajibu,'Ewebanawasiwembonawashukuru 1 'Banawasiakasema,'Niadaya msafiri.'1Waziri waka mwambia,'Namiminatakakwendaupesiupesi nimfuatie mfaume, ,bunuasiakamwambia,,Wewendiwenikutakaye2uende upese.' Akafungwa jiweakatoswana mwanawe,akatoswanawatotowamfaumewawili.Wakatoswakullaaliyehasimuya banawasi, wote wakawakatoswa,akawambiabaharia,'Enyibahariafahamunilililopatapekuna lungolitapata.'3Tenaakawajibu,,Rudishanimarikebutwendezetu.'Sarahangi4akatamka,'Tutakwendajenatungojemfaumeakaonanenawatu.'Banawasiakamwambia,'EwesarahangibabayoalikwendaKuzimuumemwonaakirudi ?' Sarahangihanala kusema,akanyamaza,akamwambiatenanakhothahwa marikebu.'Enakhothawembonahurudishimarikebu ? 'Nakhothahakajibu,'Bunuasiuna wazimu ?' Banawasiakamwambia,"Mwenyiwazimu ni mfaume, niliyemwambianatokaKuzimu,nayeakasadiki, na sasa kaenihapanamarikebuyenumudawamiakakumikamamutarnwonamfaume wenuakirudi.'Nakhothahakasadikiyakuwanikweliwanakufa;maraHeHewakonamtotowa waziri jiwe linafunguka, ayelea na maji."Banawasiakamwita,'Sarahangikamatafarasi wamtotowa waziriatokakuzimuI'Walipotezamanimaitiwakazidikuyakiniyakuwabanawasik'anauawatuwotc. Marikebuikarudihataforozani,akashukayeyekwanzaakawambiawatuwalio mjini, Njooni mushungie6wasafiri waliokwendaKuzimu,waliokwendamwakahuunamwakajanawotewanarudi.' 43 mtotowa uiaziri [iioe linafu;nguka ayeleamaji:'theviziers'son-the stone hasbecomeunbound-heisfloatingonthewater.Notetheidiomatic way ofsaying,"Theysawthevizier'sson,from whom t .hostone had becomedetached, floating inthewater.'Gmuslnuujic:"greet.'InKi-Mvitu ---.=.mu,o;:han(j,:Zie.

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84 AIDS roTHESTUDY OF l(I-SW AHILI The king's town' wasplungedin griefandthebanawasisaid,'WhenIwas slainwhydidn'tyoumournforme 'Andthebanawasimountedthethrone and worried people tohisheart'scontent.Suchisthe story oftheBanawasi,

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KI-RWAHILTSTORIES,TRANRLATION AND NOTESH5 Msiba ukangiakatikamjiwarnfaume,banawasi akawa jibu,'Miminiliwawa1mbonahamukufanyamsiba ? 'Banawasiakakaajuuyaenzi2akataabishawatuatakavyo. Ndiyohabariya banawasi.------_. .._ _._-1 niliwawa:'WhenI was slain.'Itisidiomatictoavoidusingtherelativeasoftenas possible .ItcanalwaysbesuppliedbytheSwahilimind.. 2 [uu.yaenzi:enzi=reign.Butthephrase'juuyaenzi' isstrangeto mc.-H ..NOTEONPAST 'rENSF. INFIXES.InKi-Unguja (Zanzibar dialect) haaapresentcontinuous meaning,whereas inKimvitn"na ispresent perfect and equivalenttothe 'me'tense. I was inclined todistinguishHeis coming=yuwaja,Heis come=anakuja:he has come (moreemphatic)amekuja,andalikujaof course came. H.howeverremarksthat,withregardtothetwoformsinKi-Mvitaforthepres,perf.theC.M.S. assessorshave shown no difference in emphasis betweentheforms'na' and' me,'andthathe himself,afteralongacquaintancewithboth, seems tofeelthattheSwahili preference fortheformin'na'is occasionedratherbyloveofthatsound-tothemithasafiner,moreelegantsoundthantheheavierlabial'me,'andthatit seemstohimtobemerelyforeuphony.Againhe says, ,Jnotherways,listeningtogood Mombasa.conversationof'the" 'iV aungwana," especiallytheirwomen-onenotices how theytendto"give"sounds-softandquickly-glidingspeech-reallyprettyspeech."Kana"for "kama" isaverycommoncaseofthispreference.'

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RGAIDS ,TO THE RTUDYOFKI-S'VAIIILI 'DON'T YOITRPEARLSBEFORESWINE'FREETRANSLATIONLongago there wasaSultanwhohadtwo children,both sons, oneofwhom was calledMuhamadandtheotherAIi,andtheirfatherdidallin his powerto encouragetheireducation. Hetoldthemnottogo outsidethegrounds,andhis children obeyed him.ButonedayithappenedthatAli,theyoungest ,born,strayedoutsidethegrounds,and Raw averyfine high-road. Soheretracedhis stepsand Raid tohis brothel', There was nosenseinour father prev-enting usfrom strolling outsidethegrounds, fortherethecountryisveryopen indeed. Andhe said tohim,'Letus'go-I wish tosee.'Whentheyreturned they said totheirfather, "Make us twocars befitting our royalestate.''Readily,'acquiescedtheirfather.Inthree days' timetheyreceivedthecarswhich, fashioned astheywereofgoldandsilver,werea wonder to behold. Andtheywere given alsocloaks,turbans,anddaggers, allin regal style,andtheyclimbedintotheircars;andafterproceeding ontheirwayforthespace ofan hour,theysawanothercarfollowingbehindthem.Nowthiscar belonged tothesonofaking,like themselves.Buttheprince passed hastily in front ofAliand. Muhamad, so thatAli spoke,andremarkedtohis brother,'Howisthis 1 Withoutdoubtthatisa royal princebuthehas1Fathilizapundanimashuzi.Adonkey'skindnessisbreakingwind. Anaphorismmeaning,'Don'tcastyourpearlsbeforeswine.'SharifHasanexplaineditsmeaningas,"Vhetheryougiveadonkeygoodexpensivefoodormerelycheapgrass,theresultisthesame,viz.,'wind.'Soitisonly a wastetogivegoodfood.Krapftranslates,'Youcan'tmakeasilkpurseoutofasow'sear,'butthisisperhapsnotaquitecorrectparallel.The'masbuzi'ofanAfricandonkey at anyrateisparticularlynoticeable,andthemetaphoris anaturalone. 2 kichinja-mimba:'Theyoungestborn';videp.61,n.7.3haku/anyanenokutuzuia;lit.'did.notmakeamattertoprevent,'i.e.'It was quiteunnecessary(forourfather)topreventus'; Tr,'There was no sense inourfatherpreventingus.'

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KI-RWAlfTLI sronrts, TRANRLATIONANnNOTRRRiFATHlLI ZAPUNl)ANIl\IASHUZllToldbySharifHa-sanbin Al6i ofPemba.DialectKi-Jizirat.. Zamanihizo zilizopitakulikuwanasultanial.azaawatotowawiliwotewanawaume,mmojaaitwaMuhamad,mmojaaitwaAli navijanawale walijaliwakusomasananibabayao.Aliwa.mbiamusitokenje ya boma.Wakasikizawalewatoto.IkatukiasikumojaakatokaAlikichirija-mimba.>akaendanje ya borna,akaonabara-baranzurisana,akarudi,akamwamhianduguyake,'Babahakufanyanenokutuzuia3sisikntemheanjeyahoma,nimahalikulikonat.hifu.' 4 Akarnwambia,'Twendenikatezarne.' 5 Waliporudiwakamwambiababa,"Tufanyiemagharimawiliyaufaume.'Babayaoakasema,"Tayari.'Mudawasikutatuwakapata,namagharihayoniajahuyalifanizwakwathahabunafetha;wakapewamajohonavilembanamajembiayotcyaufaume,wakapandamaghariyaowakendakiasikia6saamojawakaonagharinyumayaoyuwafuatia.?Nagharihilo lilikuwa lamtotowamfaumekamawao."AkapitayulemtotombeleyaAlinaMuhamadkwakasi." Aliakatarnkaakamwambia10nduguyake,'Jisi11ganiyulemtotowamfaumekweli,lakiniamepitakwajeuri, 4 nirnahalikuliko natkifu. nathifu,open,clear. Cf.mkubuiakulikowakubwa,bigwheretherearebigmen,i.e,amanbiggerthantheaverage.Heretranslate,'Itisaparticularlyopenspot," OJ 'Fortherethecountryisveryopenindeed.' li twendenikatezame:'LetusgothatImaysee';uid cI'..,1)Katense final. ekia=Zanz.clia.7uiakaona ... yuwaluatia; lit.'Theysawacarriagebehindthem:itis followingafterthem.'8kamaw ao;lit.ofcourse ,. ;' astheirs,'i.e.astheirfather was a king. 11 kasi=haste(implyingdisrespect).10akatamkaakamuximbia; lit.'utteredand spoke.' Cf. BiblicalEnglish,'openedhismouthandspoketo'...11[isi=ginsi, gill 'i, id.

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R8 J\ TDR TO TTfE RTlJDYOFJ(TfnVAJTTLI passedusin an insolentmanner;howisithehasfailed topayusany respect? Certainlywe111UStfollowhim.' So theywhippeduptheir horses than ever inorder to comeupwith-himbutwithoutavail,and, as wasnotunnatural,AllandMuhamadlosttheirway. Then anunexpectedthinghappened,theysaw beforethema wall,havingtheappearanceofa fortress. .Thewall enclosurewas'madeofcopper,andoutsideittheyperceived a king'sgarden.Afterobservingthegardentheynoticed that it also containedtwo h01WCR; onewasthehouse ofanold croneandtheotherof a Pathan. So AliandMuhamadwentuptothedoorofthecrone'shouseandknocked:'Hodi,' they said,and the oldcrone answered ,Hodina!'"Madam,'they Raid to her,'won'tyougive us some water?' Andthecrone answered them,"Wherehaveyoucome from? WhathasbefallenyouthatIseeyourtroubledfacesandbewildered' eyes?' AndAliansweredher,"Worriesandtroubleshave'comeuponus.'Andshe said tothem,'How?'And they answeredher,'Wehappenedtobetakingadrivewhen"re sawa youth-andayouthofroyalbirthinourthinking,. forhewas inacarornamentedwithpearlsanddiamonds-buthepassedus scornfullyandwethoughtitbettertofollowhimsothathemighttellushisname, and thenameofhisfatherandthesiteofhistown.'Andthecroneansweredthem,'Listen,Arabs,Iknowthisyouth,buthis sister lives here,andthereasonwhyhepassedyouin haste wasbecausehewashurryingtohis castle,thegatesof whicharealwaysclosedatfour,andsothenexttimehehurriesto the dooryouneedn'tbedistressedaboutit.'1huwaje...asiuieze:lit. Howisitthathecouldnot..._howisitthat ?2 kumwandamia.Noteinfin. in finalsenseasinEng.3wasimpate. Buttheydidn'treachhim.' ikabidikupotea y'llle A.na .lllJ.; lit.'AnditiscertaintobelostthatAliandM.,'i.e. So A.and 1\1". naturallygotlost.'Ku-bidimust,'imembidi'hemust'(impers.)followedbyinfin. The wordinother contextsis usefultoimply pe1iodically.'6 kutokeza ... shani.shani makubwa, a greatevent,

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KT-RWATTILTSTORJRR,Tl1ANRLATION AND NOTERsn huwajesisiwatuwawiliasiweze1kutupaheshima,hapanahudhielakumfuatia.'Wakajitahidikupigafurasiwaokumwandamia,"wasi: mpate,"ikabidikupotea4yuleAlinaMuhamad.Ikatukiakutokezamahalihaponishani5waIionabomamithiliya ngome.Ilikuwabomala sifuri, nanjeyabomawakaonabustaniyamfaume.Wakiishakuonabustanihiyo,ndaniyabustanimulikuwa6na7nyumbambili,nyumbai mojani ya ajuza8mwanamke,nanyumbamojailikuwa yaPathani.WakendaAlinaMuhamadhatakwayuleajuza,wakabishahodi,ajuzaakawajibu,,Hodina!'!)Wakanlwalllbia,,Bim10mkubwahut.upimaji l' Ajuzaakawambia,'Mwatokawapi?Taabuganiiliyowapatambonanawaonamunabadilika11surazenumunageuka11machoyenn ? AB akamjibu,'Nit.aahu na mashaka iliotupata.'Akamwamhia,'Kamayapi 'Wakalnwalnbia,'Ilikuwaaisitunakwendamatembezi t.umeonakijana,nakijanahuyu,kuthanikwetu,nikijanawa mfaume,alikuwanaghariinapambwapambolakenilulunaalmasiIakiniametupitakwatharau,tunaonaniafathalisisikumfuatiahatatumpatekijanahuyuatupejinalake, najina fit babayakenamahalipalipo namjiwake.'Ajuzaakawajibu,'SikizaniWaarabu!Kijanahuyunamjualakinihapayuponduguyakemwanamke,asiliyakupitakwakasinikuwaakimbilizah0111ahii ,kullasikusaasomethingunexpected ( vide Krapf'sDic.)."Ksuokeza'( videKrapf)='toshowitself,'hence' tohappen';lit.'Andithappenedthero is anunexpectedeventtoshowitselfintheplacehere.' Thus simply,'Anunexpectedthinghappened.'6muliknnoa.Idrewattentiontothislocoprefix, r id ,p. 67,n.10.Itmustnotbeconfusedwiththe2nd pers. pI. !lI'( 'li x 7na='also.'8ajuea :averyoldwoman,the'crone'ofour tales. Ar, 9Hodi, hodina.Forpossibleexplanationofthemeaningof,hodi' vide Krapf'sDictionary.'Hodina' does notappearto bp knowninMombasa.10Bim,A respectful wordfor"mother'or'marriedwoman.'11munabadilika,munageuka.Bothverbsmean'changed,',altered,'butcannotverywellherendered :;\0 in EnglishEtR thecronehadneverseenthembefore.

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90AIDSTOTIfESTUDY OFKI-S\VAJ-TILIAIiandMuhamadlaughed. AfterthisAli said toher,'Givemesome betel.' And she answered him,'Ihave no betel,butIrememberthatthePathanovertherehasatable where hesells betel and all sorts ofthings.'SotheywenttothePathanandasked' him,'Pathan,haveyoua"betel"table ? 'Buton hearing these wordsthePathanburstoutcrying,andwhentheysawthistheyaskedhim,'Whatmakesyou cry?' Andhe replied, 'Iwill tell youwhatmakesmecry. AlongtimeagoIwasrich-Ihadthousandsandthonsandaof rupeeR-I alsohadsevenchildren-,Nowthesechildren of mine were murdered, andthemur deress Ithinkisthatoldcrone.And RO when I first sawyouapproachingtheold crone,justasIoncesawmy wronged childrenapproachher,I fearedthatyou,thechildren ofa. fellow-man,might meet withthe same fatethattheydid.AndthatiswhyI cried.' After sayingthisthePathanweptallthemore,untilAIi .saidtohim,'Stopyou]' cryingandseeifIdon'trepayyouto-dayforthelossofyourchildren.'ThenthePathanlaughed. Sotheyreturnedtothecroneandwere received with respectandreverence,andaftertheyhadbeentherea little whileMuhamadsawayounggirlof marvellousbeauty,andhesaidtohisbrother,'ThePathanspokethetruth,forsincewehavebeen inthishouse Ihaveseenamaidenwho plainly isnotthedaughterofahumanbeingprobablysheisa"witch."Andhe said tohim,'Doyouwanther l' 'Ido,'he answcred-s-' letmetest the matter.According tothePathanthisshouldbetheGeniethatslewhis seven children.' Andhe said,'Verywelltalktoher.'Sotheycalledthecroneandaskedher,'Old1asiliyakupita... mlango.'Thereasonof hispassing isbecauseheishurryingtowards this castle,whosegates,etc.'..2tambuu, vide eupra, p.81,n. R. 3 kuhoji =kuuliza=kusaili. 4 Lipilikulizalo.Kuliatocry:kulizacausative,'tomaketo cry.' "Vhatmakesyoucry?'

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KI-SWAHILI STOllIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES0] kumihufungwa1111ango,1na yeyc akikimbilia mlangomusiuthikekwa:havo.'WakachekaAlinaMuhamad.KiishakusernahayoAliakamwambia,'Tupetambuu.' 2 Akamwambia,'Mimitambuusina,nafahamuyulePathanihuwekamezakuuzatambuunakullajinsi.'WakaendakwaPathani,wakamwuliza,'EPathaniweunameza yatambuu ?' KiishakuscmamanenohayoPathaniakalia, alipolia wakarnhoji,"'Lipilikulizalo '4Akawajibu,'Linilizalontawambia.'Mimi zamani nilikuwatajiriwalakhi 5 nalukuki,natenanilikuwa nawatotowangusabaa.Nawatotohawo waliwawa, Jut mwenyikuwauanatuhumuni6yuleajuza,naasiliy'akuwaonanyinyimunafikia7kwayuleajuzakamanilvyoonawatotowanguwanathulumiwa," nanyinyiwatotowamwenzanguu'nahofukuuawa;ndiponikalia,KiishasemahayoPathaniakashitadin India. Aliakarnjibu,'Nyamazakilio-"utezameyaleontakulipiadia11yawatotowako,'Pathaniakacheka.Wakarudikwaajuza,walipofikawakafanyiwaheshimanataathima."WalipokaapundekidogoMuhamadakamwonamtotomwanamkenimzuriajabu,akamwambianduguye,'yalemanenoyaPathanisadakta13kwa'kuwakiasitulichokaahapanabainimwanamke,mwanamkchuyusiwabinadamulabudaniJini.'Akamwambia,wamtaka l' Akajibu;'Namtaka.Nifeeli14mamboyake5lakhi=100,000,lakuki an amount beyondexpression.'6ni.Notepres.tense.7Asiliya...munafikia.Pres.participlerenderedbypres.indic.,'WhenJfirstsawyouapproaching'(lit.youareapproaching).8kuth.ulumu,'towrong'; lit.' JustasIsawmychildrentheyarewronged.'9kushitadi=kukifiri == kuzidi= kuiitahidi allwordsimplyingrenewedorincreasedeffort .10kilio,n.fromv.ku-lia= 'weeping.'11utezame...dia '...andseeifIdon'tcompensateyou for...,:'diaor{idia=compensation.12taatliima :reverence. 'lI)akajanyiwu, 'andtheywere receivedwith.'13sadakta='kweli' = t.ruc, correct. 14 kujeeli=toexamine.

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f)2A.TDR ,TO TIfERTUDY OF KI-SW AIfILLwoman,isthat a daughterof yours in there?' Andshe answered, 'Itis.'Andtheysaid toher,'Maywetalkwith herin private?' 'Readily,'said she,andtheythankedher.Andthecrone went'andcalled,"Mychild,daughterofaGenie,makeyourselfattractivewithsweet-smelling scentandjasmine.' Andat once shedidso. AndMuhamadgotup, went in,andtheyspokeandagreedandarrangedtosleep together.ThenAli cameandcalled hisbrother,who answered, 'Yes?' Andhesaidtohim, ,Whenyouaresleepingwiththiswitch, if she says, "Shutthedoor," say to her;"With usitisforbidden";andifshe says,"Putoutthelamp,"answer her,"With us itis considered shameful." Finally he said, 'Youmarkmy wordswell;Ishallsleep at thedoor.' So theythenatetheirfood,andafterwards conversed awhile,afterwhich AIilaydown withdrawnsword,untilatmidnightheper ceived the womanhadbeentransformedintoahuge snake. AIi said, 'Thiscomesofmy elderbrothernotlistening towhatthePathansaid,'andhe aroseandcutoffthecreature'shead. And when hehaddonesohetookoff histurbanandroiledthehead, neckandtrunkoftheserpent upinit,thenlaidthebundledown intheveryplacewherethetwohadbeenlying. Afterthathewentoutofthehouse(itwasabout1201'.1o'clockatnight),andhe went totheplacewherethecastle wasandpassed inside, forAli possessed acharm.Now insidetherewereroads-tenatleast;andeveryroadwasguardedbysentries ofthekingwho ownedtheplace,andtheirruimher couldnothavebeenlessthanathousand.1vikuba'nimarashi(scent)yaliyotangamanishwa nimajaniya mrihani, na mkadiruJ, aju ruJ, dalia.'afujasmine.2zamani, vide swpra, p.78,n. 3.:) miko:'ni mno nisilojanyiwa ntimtu 'Forbidden.'Cf. Malay'pantang '.' 4 kuisha-kwe=kuisha kwak(w)e.6 mongezi=mazumgumzo=conversation.'ikabakimongezi,kiisha';lit.'Andthereremained(onlytheafter-dinner)conversation;andafter(thattoo)wasfinished....'6Leli=midnight. The t .imesare: (J,l,a/agiri, s.aoa.m.jsabahe,6.30a.m.;adhuhuriormtanakatiormtikati,noon;

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l{ISWAHILISTORIES, TRANSLATION AND U3 kamaaliyosemaPathaniitakuwanihuyuJinimwenyikuuawatotosabaa.'Akamwambia,'Basisemanaye.'Wakamwitaajuzawakampahabari,'Eweajuzamunamwanamkehumundani l' Akajibu,'Ndio.'Wakamwambia,'Tutapatafaraghatusemenaye l' Akawajibu,'Tayari.'Wakamjibu,'Ashasanta.'Akendaajuzaakamwambia,'Ewemwanangumtotowa-Iinijipambekwavikuba1na afu,akajipambapundeileileAkajaMuhamadakapitandani,wakasema, wakasikizana,wakaaganakulala.AliakajaakamwitanduguyeMuhamad,akaitika'Lebeka.'Akamjibu,"Zarnani2utakapolalanahuyuafiriti akikuambia"Fungamlango"mwambie,"Kwetusisinimiko"3;akikuambiacc 'Zimataa!"mwambie"Kwetusisiniaibu.Kuishakwe 4 hayoakamwambia.". Sikiasanamanenoyangunamiminalalahapamlangoni.'Wakalachakulawalipokishakulaikabakimongezi 6 ,kiishaAliakalalanaupangawakehatausikuleli6' akaonayulemwanamkeanageukasatu,Aliakasemahayanimakusudiyamkubwawanguhakusikiza7manenoyayulePathani.Aliakaondokana upanga wakeakamkatakichwa.Alipomkataakavuakilembachakeakazongomeza8kichwapamojana shingonakiwiliwilichayulesatu.Akiishahayoakamwekapalepalewalipolala wote wawili.Tenaakatokakatikanyumba,nailikuwasaasabaaaosaasitakamahivyo,akendahatapenyiboma.NahuyuAlialikuwana sihiri,"akapitapenyihomaakangiandani.Nahumondanimuna10bara-barahazipunguikumi,nakullabara-barakunaasikariwahuyumfaumemwenyi boma,asikarihaoidadiyakwehawapunguialifu.alasiri, '3 p.m.;ahurubu shems,5.30p.m.;mangarib i ( \ \p.m.;liisha,7.30p.In.;leli,midnightorusikumakungu ; I,I,I ,usikuwa manane).7hayanimakusudi...hakusikiza.'Thisistheresultofmyelderbrothernotlisteningto'ma-kusud.i (Ar. means. 'purpose.'Hereithascometo mean 'result.'8ku-zonqomeza : torollup(insomething,e.g., a cloth).9sihdri: acharm(whichenabledhimtopassthroughwithoutbeingobserved).10mu-na:theplace-in prefix again,videeupra,P:67, 10. .

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n4 AIDS TO rrHE STUDYOF KI-H\VAl{ILl AndAlienteredwithoutbeing observed,andhekepton until hereachedthehouse of the king'sson(theveryson whohadmarriedthesister oftheyouthwhomAlihadfollowed).Andwhenhereachedthere J:1esaw awoman being letdowninabasket(andthiswomanwasactuallythe sister ofthatsameyouth,beingthewifeoftheking'sson).Ali stood "stilland,when the woman,afterbeing lowered ,went her way, he followed herasfarasthehouse of a goldsmith, Nowthewomandidnotknowtherewasanyonefollowingbehindher:shethoughtshewas alone. After reachingthegoldsmith'shouse sheknockedatthedoorandcalled,'Hodi!';thenagaina secondtimesheknockedandcalled. (Nowthecorrectnumberoftimesto call'hodi'is three.)Andthegoldsmith answered, 'Whoareyou l' 'Doyounotknowme-thepersonwithwhomyouhaveatrystoflongstanding 1 'thewomanreplied.Andthegoldsmithanswered,'Nevertheless,tellmeyourname.'Andshetoldhim, saying,'ItisI,theking'sdaughter.'Andhesaidtoher,'Isityou 1 TwodaysagoIsummonedyou,butyoucouldnotcome.I 'shallnotopenthedoor.'Andthewomanansweredhim,'Openthedoor!' Then thegoldsmithsaidtoher,'Ifyoureallywishmetoopenthedooryoul11UStbringmetheheadofYOUI'husband,theking'sson.'Nowwhilethisconversation was going onAJiwaspresentandlistening toit.Andthewomanansweredhim,'Ifyouwanthishead,whatyourequireofmeisa small matter-youhaveonlytogivemea knife.' So thegoldsmithunsheathedaknifeandpushed his handouttoherthrough1ateremslnoa.Graphicpresentillparticipialsense,(Hesawthewornan)'beinglowered.'2akenda,forakaenda.3sonaraisasmithof Rome kind,probablyagoldsmith.Asmith,mjua.( chum ,a)01' mfuaj-i worksin n kiioanda(smit.hy ). HiR implement.sarekweleopincers,' nyu : ndohammer,kiribabellows,[uauscanvil,ka.libu furnace (mould?),inuoao tank forwater, Undo a chisel forcuttinghotiron. To blowthebellowsiskuvukuta, a hammered

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Aliakangiahilayakuonekana,akafulizahata akafikanyumbayamtotowa mfaume, nahuyumtotondiye aliyeoanduguyeyulemtotoaliomfuataAli. Alipofikaakaonamwanamkeateremshwa1ndaniyakapo,na mwanarnkehuyuninduguyeyuleyulemtoto,nayenimkewamtotowa mfalme. YuleAliakasimamaalipoteremukamwanamkeakacnda 2 zake, Aliakamfuata.hatawakafikanyumbayasonara," nayulemwanamkehakujuakamanyumayangukunamtuanifuata,"athaniayupekeyake.Alipofika kwa sonara,akabishahodi I> maraya kwanza,hodiakatimizamarambili-s-nadasturiyahodinimaratatu.Sonaraakajibu'Nani Mwanamkeakajibu,'Hunijuimtuambayekwarnbatunamiadiyamilele.6mimi nawe?' Sonaraakajibu,'Juuyahayolakini7nipajinaIako;'akampajinalake, 'Ni mimibintimfaume.'Akamwambia, 'Wewe?' -Iuzinilikuitahukuwezakuja,sifunguimlango.'Mwanamkeakamjibu,'Funguamlango.'Sonaraakamwambia,'Kamawatakanifunguc niletea kichwachamumeomtotowamfalme.'NamanenohayoyakisemwaAliyupoayasikiliza."Mwanamkeakarnjibu,'Kamawatakakichwa ndilo nenodogolakutendekakwangu 9; nenopanaposazanipapiece ofironismkando:theiron droppings afterhammeringchomuie,andsparksrnacheche.4nayule...anijuata,videsupra,p.58,n. 6, transl,ibid. 5 kabisha hodi. To knockatthedoorcallingout'hodi! fi miadiya milele, 'atrystoflongstanding.',luuii 'i:-; t he timelimitforfulfilrnentofthetryst.Notertheidiomherc:lit.'Doyounotknowme,thcpersonwho-thatwehavea try:-;t oflong titH.nding' ='Doyounotknowme-thepersonwho (ha" .u-rangod a meetingwithyou,anddoyounotknow)thatyou and I havean agreement...etc.'7Juuyahayolakini'yes-but.'8 n'1 maneno...ayasikiliza.Noticetheconstr.;lit.'NowwhilethesewordswerebeingsaidAliisthere-heislisteningtothem.'9lakutendekakuxmqu:'which youwant done by me.' K1.l tendeka means 'tohedoahlo,'luiitendeki,itcan'tbedone. The literaltranslationof this phrusewouldbe'whichisdoablefor you (infix."ku")atIn)'(cost).'.

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thepeep-hole,andgavehertheknife,andthewomanwentherway, Aliagainfollowing 1:(.1'far as her house. Nowithappened that onthisverydaythewoman'sbrotherhadarrivedfroma foreignland and was sleeping onhisbrother-in-law'sbedintheprivateapartment,andthewomandidnotgoto whereherhusbandwas sleeping,hutmistaking heltbrother forhim,cutoffhisheadandwentdownagainbelow. Aliwasstillthereandagain followed alongwith her tothegoldsmith'shouse, at which sheknocked and called"Hodi.'Butthegoldsmith"answered,'Goback!''Iwillnot,'answeredthe roman.The goldsmithsaid,'Very'well then.' Aliwasthereeavesdropping.Andthewomansaid,'Openand"takewhatyouaskedforsothatyoucanseehowIloveyou.'Uponwhichthegoldsmithanswered-her,'Thisisnotlove.Rowhaveyoudaredtocutofftheheadofyourhusband-aking'sson 1 AreyounotafraidiTowhatlimitswouldyoud:iveabeggarlikeme ?' Andthewomanreplied,'Ifyoudon'topenofyourownfreewillyoushalldosoby force.' The goldsmithwasfilledwithanger;noisilyopenedthedoor,rushedatthewoman,andbitoffherear.On seeingthisAlidrewhisswordandcutoffthegoldsmith's head withthewoman'searinitsmouth. The womanranawayandAlireturned.Nowallthistookplaceduringthenight:it had notyetdawned." Ali followedanother roadand cameoutinsightofa mosque, where hesawseventhieves, each ofWhOl11said1neno panaposazanipakisu:'thereremainsonlytogiveme a knife';lit.' wheretherecausesamattertoremaingivemeaknife.'2akampenyezeandaniyakomeoiandheput his handforherthroughthepeephole.Komeousually means abarorlock,butherethewordmeansthesmallholeinthedoorthroughwhichpeoplelooktoseewho has come.Inthewordpenyezeaiscontainedthenotionofsqueezingintoasmallplaco.:1shemeqi ,abrother-or sister-in-law.4 sebule. The womcu'xquartersof n. houseor any private1'00111. 6 yulemwanamkc ... a kamkata;lit. 'That womanfailedto gowhereher husband wassleeping,andwhenshesawhim(her

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!{I-SWAHILI STORIES, TRANSLATIONANDNOTES D7 kisu.'1Sonaraakatoakisu,akampenyezeandaniyakomeo 2 akampakisu,mwanamkeakenda.Aliakamfuatatena hat-a nyumbanikwake. Nasikuhiyo ilikuwanduguyakeyulemwanamkeamekujaugenianalalakitandakia shemegiyc3sebuleni.? Yulemwanamkcasindealikolalamume wake;'> alipomworiaakathaninimumeweakamkatakichwaakaterernukatenahadichini. Aliyupo,akendatenahadikwa sonara, Ali waote,6alipofikaakabishahodi,sonaraakajiba'Rudi!'Mwanamkcakajibu, 'Hil'udi.'Nonara akajibu,'Bas!'Mwan arnkeakajibu,"Funguauohukueamana7yakoupatejuakamamiminakupenda.'Aliyupoasikiliza upenuni."Kiishakusemahayosonaraakajibu,'Hilosipendo 9 wewckunaweza10kukatakichwamumeotenaaliyekwamhanimtotowamfaumeusiogope.Jemimi nilicIukarautanikomeshawapi ? '11IV[wanamkcakajibu,'Utafunguakwahiyariaoutafunguakwanguvu.'Sonaraakangiwaniuchunguakafunguamlangokwakishindo.1 Alipofunguaakarnrukiamwanamkeakamtafuna13shikio, Alialipoonavileakatoapangaakakatakichwachayulesonaraakakatana shikio layulemwanamke.Mwanamkeakakimbia,Aliakarudi,'naukatihuowoteilikuwa ni usikuhaijapambazuka.Aliakafuata' bara-bura nyingine,akatokeamahalipanamskiti,akaonawivisabaanakullamwivianamanenobrother),thinkingit Wc1H herhusband,shecut...'Aftertheword' sleeping ,isunderstoodsomesuchphrase as, but went totheroomwhereherbrotherwassleeping.' r Aliuiaote,'Aliandall,'i.e,hewentwiththe \\"0111<\11.7 amand:fulfilmentof, a thingagreedupon,i.e.heretlu-lu-ad(athingleftintrusttlcuamaniuia),a deposit.----:-H.).11 asikilizaupenuni:'heislistening at the eaves' -,1 1 paralleltoour'eavesdropping.' 9 hilasipendo: 'This isnot"Love.'"10wewekunaweza;lit.'thereisforyoutobeuble,,i.c,'thatyoucoulddareto...'11Je mimi ...ioapi :"Vhat?wherewouldyoumakemecease--Iwhoamabeggar,'i.e.'Towhatlimitswouldyoudriveabeggarlikeme ? .12kwa kishindo'noisily.'13ku-tajuna =te chew, here evidently='bitoff'forvide2 lines infra..H

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U8 AIDSTOTHESTUDY OF I{ISW AHILI something. The first thief said,'0Mosque! Iamgoing to steal the king's sword.andif1escape unobserved byanyone,IvowthatIwill bring youa sack of"dinars.", And the second thief' swordswere,'() Mosque! Iam goingto stealtheking's royal chair ,andifIreturnsafely, IvowthatIwill bring a sack of silver.' Whiletheywere speaking Aliwas there listening tothem.Andthe_thirdthief spoke,'()Mosque!Iamgoingtogettheking's ring,andifI succeed in bringingbackthebeauti-fulthing, Iwill bring a sack of gold.' Andthefourththief said,'0Mosque! IfI-succeed in stealingtheking'sturban,Iwill bring agoat.'Andthefifthofthemsaid,'IfIgettheking's dagger, I will bring adiamond.', Then camethesixthandsaid,'IfI succeed ingettingthe' king'sshoes,Iwill bring anewe with its lamb.' There remainedonlytheseventh, and he said, 'IfI succeed whenIgotostealtheking'svirgindaughter,Iwill bring a camel'shump.'Mtermakingtheirvowstheyexhortedoneanother,saying, Letusbe going.' Sotheystartedofftotheking's house,Alibeinga little way behind. After reaching iteveryonegotwhathehadbeggedtheMosqueforandtheyreturnedto fulfil.their vows. Alifollowedthemagainto1lwapo...nimtu;lit.'Whereitisthat(i.e,when)Igotosteal...andbenotseenbyanyone-Iwill...etc.,etc.'Intranslatingitisnecessarytoturnthephrase,'Ianigoingtostealtheking'sswordsandifIescapeunobservedIwillbring...etc.Andsimilarlythephrasescontainingthevowsoftheotherthievesmustbeturnedabout.ladinari.This is from'denarius'-theRoman.penny; we haveitintheNewTestamentandrenderit'half-rupee.'-H.2nikarudi=tena iwapo narudi, vide supra,note1. _c,3 nanaziri=(Ar.)'j avow).Cf.Biblicalsect'.Nazarites'undervowstoleavetheirhairlongandabstainfromwine,etc.kunaziriistovowtodosomethingineventofsomethinghappeningin a certainmanner.H.addstothis,'TheNazariteswerenotstrictly a sect,butaclassofpersonsintheIsraelitecommunityundervows-thesamewordbeing USE'd forvow as inArabic,viz. iT). We USE'ku,weka

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KI-S\VAHl.L1 tfRANSLArrlONANDNOTES 90 asema. Mwiviwakwanzaalisema,'Hewemsikiti iwapo miminendakuibaupangawamfaumenisionekane nimtu1yeyotentaletamfukommojawadinari.' la Na mwivi wapiliana'maneno alisemanaye,'HeweMsikiti iwaponakwendakuibakitichaenzikia mfalmenikarudi2salamananaziri3kuletamfukummojawafetha.'WakisemahayoAliyupoawasikiza. Mwiviwatatuakatamka,'HeweMsikiti iwaponendapata4peteya mfalmehaiba5hajanayontaletamfukummojawathahabu.Na mwivi wa'nnenayealisema,'HeweMsikitikamantakwendakuiba6kilembakiamfalmentaletambuzi.'Nawatanowaoalisemanaye,'Kamantapatajembiayamfalmentaletajiwela almasi.Akajawasitaakasemanaye,'I waponakwendanikapataviatuvyamfalme.ntaletakondoonamwanawe.'Aliyebaki niwasabaa;huyunayeakanena,' Mimi iwaponakwendakwamfalmehamwiba7mtotowamfalmemwanamwalintaletanunduyangamia.'Walipokuishamanenoyaowaka'mbizana8'Twendeni.'Wakendazaohatanyumbaya mfalme, Aliyunyumanyuma." Walipofikakullamwenyikuombajuuya Msikiti 1tadhi1'i forthevowingandkuondoanadhiriforthefulfilmentofthevow.OurChristiansnotinfrequentlydothison their cwnaccount.'.H.iswritingintheMombasadialect,hencedhinsteadofzinku-naziri.1 pata: theinfinitivalpref.Kuisoftenomitted. :; haibahajanayo. IhavefollowedH.andtaken thisil :-' / 11;;/)(/ nikaianu-yo. 'AndIcamewiththebeautifulthing.' ofcoursetakinghaiba as anounandnotas=nikaiba,but (Ill 1 \ 1 / ; 1 : reflectionIaminclinedtotakeneitherhaibaorhaja ttl:"1l()1I11:-' HIIlI tomakethephrase=nikaiba,nikaianayo=(andif)Istealandcomebackwithit.ukamantakwendakuiba, ...Noticethecompressedidicm='IfIsucceedwhenIgotosteal....'7hamunba =nikarnwiba, vide supra, n.5.8kuambizana:'toexhortoneanother.'-H.(KrapfhasItosticktogether.') 9nyuma-nyuma: alittlewaybehind:suchistheeffectofthereduplicationhere.

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100AIDS TOTHE Y OF !{.!-S'V AHILItheMosqueandstayedatthedoor,andas each onewe 11.: inhecutoffhis head,untilsixwere killedand there remained onlytheseventh. Nowthiswashewhohadstolentheking's daughter,andAlithoughtthatifhestruckhimhe would strikethe girl aswell; so helefthim. When, however,thelastthiefputthe girl onthegroundAli killed him,thusdisposing ofall seven. When hehadkilled himthegirlgotup with aneffortandcaughtholdofAll,andasked him,'Whoare you?' Ali answered her,'Andwhoare you?' And she said,'Itis I,theking'sdaughter.'. Alisaidtothegirl,'Doyouknowthis place?' She answered,'NeversinceIwas bornhaveIever descended frommyfather'shouse.' AndAli answered,(Whodid youcome with to-day?' Andthechild answered, (Iwas asleep-s-I donotknowwhobroughtme here.' Ali said toher,'Lookatthese heads,'andshe lookedatthem.Andwhenshesawthemshesaid,'Icannotpartwith you, Ali, until you havetakenmetol11Yhouse.' Ali answered her,'Youarea virginandIama young man.Ifweare seenbytheking,or if" he hears itfrom scandal-mongers, mylifewillbe forfeit.'But she saidtohim,'IfsuchisthecaseIwillbesuretyforyourlife.' 80 theywent ontheirway. NowAlihadplentyofgood sense andtheywent upstairs inthehouseandhe laid her upon herbed.Ali asked her,1kuiaueha= (ku-ondoa) : 'to fulfilt .heiruaziri(vows).'H. ::;ug gests,'Couldthisbe kujaku-usha,"kuushbeingusedastheoppositeofku-uieka ?2 Aliakazingatia.. huytt uuoto, Vid e su/pru;P: n, ij, q.u.trans.ibid. a ku-uiikafor ku-ioekadoesnot appeal'to be knowninMombasa.InKi-Mvitaku-unkaisto'crow'(ofa eoek).4ku-juru:tokill. ij wakujualiuku; The infix.kuintheverbistheobjectiveformpronominalreferringtoplacehukuand11to wanijuamimi ? you knowJl1P.'r .H.6 lcuealiuia: (since) ] was born. "1kiJishu1ca'1uu descend(from)above...' todescend'becausethewomen'squarterswereonthetopstorey.

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wakapatn, wnkurudi bH:-:i kujnushu1nnxirizao.Aliakawa .fuat t('lla hut \I:-:kit ini ukukuamluugoni.kullumwcnyikungiaaknmuua hatn wakcshawotc :-:1ta akabakimmojawnsn.ban. HlIYlIaliyeilm mtotowumfalmc ,akapitandaui ya\1:-;k1ti.' Aliuknzingatiuynkuwnhuyunikimpiga lllHLllga. wangu.utumchunganyanahuvumtoto ,"akarnwucha, akalll\rika:1 cliiuiyulemtoto.Alipornwiku"hiniAliaknmjm:u yule mwiviwnsabna,Kuishakumjuru 4 mtotoakuondokakwakishindo.a.knrnka.matuAli ,akamwuliza, nHni?'Na Aliukamjibu, Xa .\H'\H'nani'?' Aknmwnmhin .: "Xi mimimtotowumfnlme. 'Aliakn.mwumbiumtoto,"Wn.kujua hllku.'" Mtotoa.kamjibu. : Tnngukuvia wafj ijupatnk ushuknjuu 7ya nvumha haba.'Ali n .kumwambin, '1...('0 unu-kujanaunni ?'. \Uoto aku.mjihu. \lillli nilikuwuusingiz.ini 1-\1.1ui waliokujunnmihapu. AIi ukumwumhiu. 'T('zama vichwa,'yulemtotoukuvionnvir-hwa.Alipoonavichwauknmwam hia,'\lillli:-:i\H'zi kukuurhn :\lihadi unipc-liknyumba.nikwct11,'Alin.kumwamhia. '\r('\\"(, mw.uuuuwali Ha miminimvulnna.."iwupotunuoru-kununimfa.lnu-nonkusikin namafisadi"I'oho.\'angllitupotcn.'Aku.mw.uuhiu. Kallla ni hayo roliovako'tut.hamini.' \Vak('nda zno. .-\Iiajlla:-:aua ilimu.wukupnudundani ya nvumba., uku.mwiku10.l1L1I ya kitanrlahake.Aliaka-mwuliz. Ew(' mwanumwulindipokitandanipakohapa,'aku.mw.uuhiu..Huswn Alinknsc mu ucndaznngu.' :\IWH:nalll,,'ali uknjihu Hunuujiu ya kwoudu,wiviwacwaliokujanihamicII,-u'nahofukurudiwanginwakuuihu.!" :l rnrulaun:u ,"(llm,!.!: mn.n \\IIIlIIas itttuin od p,dH'I'I," fill' Slllllll time. !I mafisad.i: slalld('l'pl's.{plI-tal(':-:.:-:l'alldallllollgl'l':-:, ( 'f.uulaku, a tell-talc.IIIalcrnnaoilca =akalll\\'pka. 11uihrtniiev.lcu-ni-ibami ,\li t'i:-:.. ('IlII11\l1l1lflll'lllIll'mimi.11 ,'I'h ('Ollstl'l1f'tiollishl'll\.i:('Il."'I'1lIl:-:t' t IIi("'I's,,,IIIl iunu: 111;-;ll 'a'l nu :Ift'ill'Ilt IInl's will (:111111'.d( ."1:l/I'u!.'ffl/i1Jff,,'idl'""111"'0.p.;-,!). 11. !l.

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102AIDSTOTHE RTUDY OF I{IRW AIIILT'Gentlemaiden, isthis really whereyousleep ''Yes,certainly,'she replied. Ali said,'NowIwillgo,'butthemaiden answered him,'Youcannotgo.Sincethosethieves cameandstole me,Iamafraidthatotherswillcomeanddoitagain.'SoAlistayed,butheintendedtoremainuntilthemaiden fell asleep and thentorunaway;butitturnedoutthathestayednntilbothwereOVerC0111e with sleep.Ali drew his swordandplaced itbetweentheminthebed,sothatifanyonesawthemwhilst sleeping, he might knowthattheylay as brotherandsistermight.Well,nextdaythemaiden'snursecameearlytoawakenher,butwhenshereachedthebedshe recoiledandsaid to herself, 'Whatdoestheyoungmistressmeanbysleepingwithaman l' Andshewentandtoldher companion, whosaid,'Itisnousetalkingaboutit:bestto gee for oneself-s-let usgo,andyoucanshowme.'Sotheywent,and she sawitwasthetruth,anda scandal-monger who was present saw also,andthestoryreachedtheking'sears.Andtheking said,' Guards,arrestthismanwho if; sleepingwithmydaughter!' Ho theguardswentandfoundthembothasleep. Aliwasarrestedand hisanus wereboundfirmlybehindhis back. Now thenews hadreachedtheking whileitwasyetdark,butbythetimethe party arrivedbeforehimdaylightwas visible.Andthekingasked hill}, Ali,'Howisitthatamanlikeyouhasbeensleeping with mydaughter l' AndAli answered him,'Foramanlike myself tosleep withyourdaughterwould bea crime.'Andtheking answered,'Nowyouarea criminal: andcrimebySwahilicustomisdeath.'Ali answered him,"May nota criminalspeak l' The king answered,'Saywhatyonlike;anyhowto-dayyou shall beexecuted.'Ali said to him, 'My wishis this. Iwanttobejudge and deliver1azimayaAli... us.ingizi =' Ali'8 intentionwasthatthemaidenfallasleep,andthathethenrunaway,butithappenedthat....Azimareferstotheintention,ikawa to whatactuallyhappened.'.2ili:hereand infra 8,wehavetwoconstructionsfollowingili,,inorderto,'viz.,iliaque(subj.)andilimwamsha(infin.). :1 ibura=namna. 4 mwanainthemouthofthe 'yayahas cometomean mistress," andI haveheard it .used HOt., of youngmistresseither.t-v-H.

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KI-RWAITILIRTOHTER,TRANRLATJON AND NOTERiO? Aliakakaa.AzimayaAlialitakaapateusingizi yulemwanumwaliAliakimbio;ikawanikukaahatawakalala,wotewakaibwani usingizi.!Kulalakwao Alialitoaupangaakawekakatikatiyakitandaili2atakayeonaajuekuwahapawanalalamtunanduguye.Basi hat-a asubuhiakajayayawayulemtotowa mfalmoili2kwendamwamsha.Alipofikaakarudinyumaakasomapokcyo. 'Niibura3gani ya mwana4 'leokulalanamtu,a.kcndna.kamwamhiamwenziwo.Mwcnziwoa.kajihu, ; KlIsimliasikitcndo horakuonamweuyewc,twendoukanionyeshc.'Wakcndaakaonakweli,Yupofisadi (j nayeameona,habarizikendahatakwamfalme.Mfalmeakajibu,'Henyiasikarikamkamateni7huyumtualiyelala namwana!"Asikariwakendana wale wote wa usingizini,akakamatwa. Ali,akafungwamikononyumapembengornbe." Rata wakafikakwamfalmehabarizilezikipitazot .eilikuwausiku,sasainabainikakwaasubnhi.MfalmcakamwulizaAli'vilikuwaje9mtukarnaweweukalalanamtotowangu ?' Aliakajibu,'Mtukamamimikulalanamwanavonimakosha.'IIIMfalmeakamjibu,' Hasa wewemhalifunauhalifukisawahili1.1nikuuawa.'Aliakajibu,"Mhalifuhaweziscma j "Mfalmeakajihu, 'Helua kamaupcndalo,sikuyaleowewoutauawa.'Aliakamwambia,'Nipendalonat.akaniwehakimunihukumuwat.umudawasaamoja,nikiishaniuawe.'Mfalmeakamwambia.,'Hiloumepata,'Aliakajibu, 'Hijapata; kamanimepataletckit.ikiaenzinikalie 12 karnadasturi ya ukakimu.'Mfalmeakaondokn ;) kusimliasikitendo : 'It's no use talking about. it.'6fisadihere =mdaku, atell-tale.7kamkamateni,Againthekaofthcconnectivetenseprefxedandmeaning'and.' pembe i.e.the hands arecrossedandtiedtogether at the back so H,:-; somewhattoresembleox'shorns.9 ViUkuwaje: '.Howisitthat?'...ui-Li-lcuura-je,Noticet .hekatensefollows...tukalala). (V'ide supra,p. i)B, n. B). 10m/ikosha =lnakosa, kimvita, sfrequently appear::; asshin this dialect.Cf.shindano,aneedle,shikio,shitaki, etc. 11lci-eaaoah.ili :'intheSwahilicustom.'12kukalia,Cf.Krapf Diet. =tositup(eithertodogood or harm)..

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104AIDSTO THE STUDYOF J(I-RW ARILIjudgmentsfortho Kpaee ofonehour-s-after thatlet me be killed.' .And the kingansweredhim,'You have obtainedyourwish.' Alianswered,'Ihavenot yet obtainedit.IfI have,thenbringtheroyalchairformetositonasiscustomaryforajudge-giveitme.'Sothekingrosefrom hischairandgaveittoAli.AndwhenAlihadheensitting therea little while up came a woman(nowthiswasthe same womanwhohadgonetothegoldsmith). Hh{\ cameweeping loudly,andwhen shearrived, she laid her complaintbefore hisMajestytheKing,'0king, Ihaveacomplainttomake:howisitthatyoursonwho was myhusbandcouldcutoff111ybrother's head?' Butthekinganswered,'Ihavenoauthorityhereto-day-Alithereisking.'ButAli said,'Guards,arrestthiswomanandgive her fifty lashes. The people wereastonishedtosee the prosecutorbecomethecriminal.'ButAli rent on,'Goto the goldsmith's house andbringwhateveryoufindinit.'When theguards wenttheyfoundthegoldsmith'shead and not .wccnitsteeth a humancar,andtheytookitjust as itWH.R totheking.Andthepeople said,'This is a marvel.'Immediatelynftorwardstheold crone who lived outside the groundswas seen comingshoutingandwrithing. And when shearrivedsh e said ,what 1 have to say,vVhat Hort of a kingdomis this? 'I'hiovescame last night,andoneofthem Hlt,pt. all nightat my houseandI111Ud('I'('d mydaughter.Why, thisboy who isspeakingisthev(:,J'y man's brother AIL'Butthekingmadethe SUIue answer,'Ihavenoauthorityto-day-Aliisking.'Alimadethesameorder as before,"Guards,letthisold crone receive ahundredlashes with a whip.'1akuoruloka[uu: 'andgot. lip front off, v ide p,1 11.7.2siaha:uproar. a kua]e,How is itthat,id su-pra,n.1. v 'ilikltwaje,id.-Imjded 'i: withawhip,' a(:0111111011 ace.ofrespect.' ;j meh.itaki rJ1'1uZ1:ye ... to t.heprosecutorbeoornet .lu -(:r'irnilla;I":Iit."t.ho SIHl wh (H. writes, Kurudi meansalso, to correct.,''to punish,'hence 'the

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KI-SWAJ-JILT RTORTRR,THANRLATTONAND NOTER ionjuu1 ya kit.ihakeu.k.unpAli.Alin .lipoknn kitakoakatokeamwanamke, Ha mw.uuuukchuyuHiyulealiyekwendukwasonara.Yuwajan.kiliakwasiaha,"alipofikaakashitakikwamfalmemwenyicnzi.'Mfalmenashitakihuwaje3mtotowakokuwarnumownngu,nakiishaakawezakumkat.akichwanduguvangu.' '\'[fa,lnw nkajibu, 'Millli1('0 sinaufalmemfa.lmenihuvuAli.'Aliakajihu,'Henyiasikarika.mkamatenimwunnmkehuyumumpigemjeledi4marahnmshin.'Wat.u wukastaajabuhuyunishitakindiyearudiye.5Aliakajibu,'Nendenikwasonaramukatezamekamakilichokomulete'Asikariwalipokwendawakaonakichwakiasonaranamdomonimunatishikiolamtu.Asikariwakachukuavilevilehatakwamfalme.Watllwakaserna,'Hiininjabu.'Alipokuishahayomaramojahiyoakaonayulenjuzaaliyenje ya bomaajaakipigakele le akigaagaa7Alipofika, 'N'namancuo ya kuserna. H1I11niufn.lmeganipanakujamaghaidi H janarumojaakalulanyumbanikwangnusiku,ukachinjamtotowangll,na IIItoto huyunscmayeniyulenrlugu ya MuhamadAli!lMfnlmeakajihuvilevile." f-iina ufahueleo;mfalnu-uiAli.'Aliakam l'isha ka.mnkwn.nzn, 'Henyiasik.u-ihuvunjuzn llapigw(,IO ju .lideI1min..' n.e(!IIS(l!' hocouu-stlu-puuislu-r."Huttlu-lut.ter do('s notlitt hp(\1.11 it t .hnt. (1I'/l.di,Ij(" eunlx-. anuliu-ae co-'slwwhois punished'?)6muna, "videsupra, p. 67, n.10.7kugaagaa:t .owrit hp, :rollingabout withindignation'app.lI' ently.8maqhaidi:thieves.panakuqa,'there is theretocome;'i. 'where(thieves)come.' .H asenuuje...Ali.V id csupra, p. n,1.Hero again thenarratorhalfaddressest 110 to whom heistelling.the story. Thewomanisspeakingtotheking, andshouldreallysa)', 'huyuasenunje n-i udnujyanuctoalesjelalananuotoicanqu' ,..etc.Insteadof that thenarratorputsintohermouththe proper namesAli and Muhamad,ignoringt he fact that:-.;11('has notmen tioned that }Iuham:aclwas theyouth \\"110hadsleptwith herdaughter.10na-piqwe. The'" nu' cohortut.i ve.11[alide mjeledi, id. Fron:t.lu-Arn.hi ">"),:::,l\.skin 01' !tidoi ('0111whichwlriparcmado),

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106 AIDR TOTHESTITDYOFKI.. R'VAJIILT Soshe was beatenandAlisaid as before, 'Go to thecrone's house,look there,andbringwhateveryousee.'Sotheguards w-ent andenteredthecrone's house,andsearchedaboutandfound aserpentthathadbeen killed. And Muharnadtheyfoundinafaint,andallweretakentotheking.The people werevery astonished and said,'Whendid thesethings happen 1 After deliveringjudgmenton these two-the womanandtheoldorone-e-Aliwentonto say, 'Goto the Mosqueandbring allyou find.'And they wentandfound sevendead men,andtheyfound also the bags of silver'and gold andeverythingelse,andbroughtthem.ThenAli asked theking,'Whosesword isthis l' 'Itis mine,' he answered. Aliaskedhim again, Whoseringandwhose chairandshoesandturbanandswordand child arethese l' Andtheking answered,'Allare mine.'ThenAliretorted,'Arethereno sentries inyourfortress 1 'Therearehundreds,'repliedtheking.'Thenhow,'saidAli,'didImanagetoreachthisenclosureandgainentranceandseeall these thingswhich youhaveseen l' And the king answered, 'I havenothingtosay.'Ali replied,'Cannotyou see bythisthatIama king's son like yourself ?-yet thereasonofmyfirst coming wasthe stubbornness ofMuhamad.Ithappenedthatwewereunderabantogo outsideourgrounds,butonedayIhappenedtogo put and saw thattheroad was clear,andIreturnedandconversedwithmy elderbrotherandtoldhimwhatIhadseenoutsidethegrounds.Andwesaidtoourfather,"Father,ifyouloveyourchildren giveuswhatwewant-aroyalcar befittingourrank."Andourfather said, "Readily.'",Iwakachukura-chukun:i:'andtheysearched andsearched' (inKi-Mvita,ku-chakura-chakura). 2ameuauia.Noteabsenceofrelative. 3kanazirai ==akazirai =he was in a faint 4 kufika:graphicfor 'wakaflka..'i.vingine'l/'Y o: such-like,'etcetera.'8kamanjaa:likefamine(because famine affects 'Inany).One would naturally thinkthephrasemeantthe opposite! Such wasnarrator's explanation,H.suggests"wameiaa 'or"kumeiaa,'

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KI-SWAHrLI STORIES, TRANSLATION AND NOTES 107 Akapigwa,akascmavilevilcAli,'Nendcnikwaajuzamukatezamcnyumbanikwakekullamutakaloonamulete.'Asikariwakendawakangianyumbayaajuza,wakachukurachukura1wakaonasatuameuawa;"wakamwonanaMuhamadkanazirai,"wakachukuliwawotekufika4kwa mfalme.Watu'wakaataajabusana,tenawakascma. "Ma mbohayayalifanyiwa lini Akiishatoahukumuiloyahawawatuwuwili,ajuzanayulemwanamkc,Aliakasematena,"NendaniMsikitinikullamutakaloonamuletr-.'Wat.uwakenda,wakaonawatusabaawameuawa,wakaonatenamifnkuyafethanathahabuna vinginevyo,5wakachukua.Aliakamwulizamfalme,'Upangahuu WPJ nani 1 Mfalmeakasema,'wangu.'Aliakaulizatena,'Petehii na hikikitinaviatunakilembanaupanganahuyumtotowanani l' Mfalme akaserna,'Jamiiniyangu.'Aliakajibu,'Bomanimwakohapanaasikari l' Mfalmeakajibu,'Wapokamanjaa.'6Aliakajibu,'Nilipatajemimikujahomahilinikangia7ndaninikaonahayamuliyoyaonanyinyi l' Mfalmeakajibu,'Sinalakusema.'Aliakajibu,, Usinione hivi na mimi8nimwanawa mfalmekamawewe,'lakiniasiliyahujahukuni ukinzi9waMuhamad,Ilikuwaaisini kupigiwamarafukukutosatoka10njeyaboma,hatasikumojaikawanikutokamimi11nikaonanjiayabomakunathifu,nikarudi,nikafanyakamakuongea12namkubwawangu,nikampahabarikamanilivyoonakatikanjeyaboma.Tukamwambiababayetu,'Ewebabakamawatupendasisiwanaotwatakagharimojalaufalme.'Baba :y-etu akatujibu,'Tayari.'meaning theplaceisfullofthem,'butIamtoldit is nommonphrase as it stands. 7Vide supra "p.59,n.9,transl.ibid.8usione...mimi:'Can'tyouseeby thisthat 1am....'o =ushindano.(Cf.Krapf,ukinsani,"dispositiontogainHay.')10ilikuwasisi...toka:'Itchancedthatw .:wereforbiddennottogoout....' .11ikawanikutoka mim1: ; lit. 'Ithappened there is a goingout,'i.o,'Ihappenedtogoout.'12kuonqea :toconverse.

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108 AIDR' TO TIfE RTUDY OF KI-R'VATfTLT ,And aftera few da ys weweregivenacarsuitabletoourroyal rank,and jf you ()king.willnow senda mantobringourcar. and our drivel'. youwillsee that itisonethatyou yourself wouldnot be ashamedto possess.So thekingsentaman,andthecarwasbrought,andon seeing itthekingfelt SOITY,andwas filledwithconcernandremorse,and said 1 believe. 'ThenAlicontinued, wentonour way alongthe road and Haw a king'sSOil whom,whenhepassedwithoutshowing us respect, we followedwiththeintentionofcatchingup,but' failed completely.Lastlywegotlostandsawthiscastle ofyours.And when wereacheditwesawagarden,nottomentiontwohouses, one belonging toaPathanandtheotherto this old crone.Andweapproachedtheoldcrone's house first, and she 'welcomed us, andwhenweaskedforwater shegave it,though when Iaskedherforbetel she toldmethat she hadnone,hutrememberedthatthere was abetel tableatthePathan's. Ho wewenttothePathanandknocked and called,"Hodi," and thePathanreplied.Y'Hodina;" and cameontof his house,whereuponwoexpressed0111' wish for hetel.'Butwhen he saw us heweptand writhed, and wewere filled withpity-for him,and1 asked him,"Why,whenwe ask for betel do youlamentfOI .'no reason ? ,And thePat.han answered, No reason yOlt Hay? ;' And we said, Yes." 'ThePathananswered," Ilament because 1.sawyougoing totheoldcrone;for she is notahuman-being.Ihadoncesevenmalechildren,andinmy beliefitwasthatoldcronewho killedthemandwhenIsawyouIthoughtto myself, 'Thesechildrenwillmeetwithasimilarfate.' ", NowallthetimehewasspeakingtheoldcroneandthePathanwerepresent.,AfterhearingwhatthePathansaidwereturnedtothecronetospy.,andweperceivedthathehadspokenthetruth.1ku-juta:tobesorry.2oisitoslie: 1 '-;' adv.pref.andv.ku-toslui,'let these thingsnot.besenough,'i.e.'to nothingof.': 1ndarci ya ny-innba:' [roue insidethe house.' Cf . p. n.7.

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l(l-H\VAHILI S'rOH.IBH,TRANHLATION AND NOTEHlOB Mudawasikuchachetukapewagharikamadasturiya ufalme, nawewe mfalmetoamtusasaakaletegharina saisi wetu, ulitezame waweza kulimiliki.' Mfalmeakatoamtulikaletwaghari. Mfalme alipoonaghariakasikitika,nahuzuniikam'giaakajuta1akasema, Nasadikimimi.'KiishaAliakajibu,'Tukajazetukatikabara-baratukamwonamtotowa mfalme. Alipopitaasitupeheshimatakamwandamiahadiyakumwandamia,tusim-patekabisa.Mwishowetutukapoteahatatukaonabomahiiyako.Tulipofikahapobomanitukaonabustaniyakovisitoshe2tukaonanyumbambili,mojayaajuza,mojayaPathani,tukafikakwaajuzakwanza.Ajuzaakatukaribishatukatakamaji,akatupa,nikamwulizaajuza,'Hunatambuu 'Ajuzaakajibu,'Sina,nafahamakwa yulePathanihuwekamezayatambuu.''TukaendakwaPathanitukapigahodi.Pathaniakatujibu,"hodina,"akatokaPathanindani3yanyumbatukatakatarnbuu..'Pathanialipotuonaakaliaakagaagaatukangiwaniimani.!nikamwuliza, "Sisitwatakatambuunawewe walia bilakisa ?"5 Pathaniakajibu,"Niwapikisa."6Tukasema"ndio."\Pathaniakasema,"Naliakwasababunilipoonanyinyimunafikiakwaajuza;naajuzasimtu:miminilikuwa nawatotowanguwanaumesabaa.Naminilikuwatajirikatikabomahili,nakuthanikwangu7niajuzaaliyeuawatotowangu,Nilipoona nyinyi, nikafikiri walewatotowatakufakarnawalivyokufawatotowangu."ZamanialipoakisemamanenohayoyuleajuzayuponaPathaniyupo."KuishahayoaliyosemaPathanitukarudikwaajuzaHi kupeleleza,tukaonanikweli.ulcasliuka [uu,'"she came down[roniabove':Iit. ':-:;11(' camedown(notbelow'but)above.', Itukangiwa niirnani:Andwe werefilled withpity.' imani= confidence,here='pity'accordingtothenarrator. 5 kisa,reason.6niwapikisa=(Yousuggest)whereisthe reason? i.e. t r.'forno reasonyousay?'7lcuthariikwangu='Inmythinking.'Cf. supra. Kuthaniakwenu, inyourthinking.'Thepronounisinagreementwiththeinfinitivalprefix ku 'andthewholephraseisindependentandparenthetical.

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,AndIUybrothersleptwiththecrone's daughter-s-we saying shewasnomortalbecauseofherbeauty.And whensheandMuhamadhadcometotermsIwas outside,butI told mybrothernottoputoutthelampinthehouse noryettoshutthe door. Andinallhefollowed my advice,andwe sleptuntilwell intothenight, whenI observedthatthissister-in-law ofminehadbeentransformedintoa large serpent. This convinced methatthePathanhadspokenthetruth.'Thereandthen, in.orderto waste no time, Idrewmy swordandcutofftheserpent'shead. Nowyou, judges, whoarehere,andyouviziers, lookatthisheadandtell meifitistheheadofahumanbeing oraserpent.'Andwhentheysawitsomeranaway;othersenduredit. ,ThenIcametothewallofyourcastle,andIenteredin,andIsawyourdaughter-in-law comingdowninabasket,afterwhichshewenttothegoldsmith who refused her, saying,"Iwon'tlisten toyouuntilyou bring meyourhusband'shead.",ThusthekingwastoldallthatAlihaddone. ,WhenIsawthatitwasa princess being dalliedwithby a goldsmith Iwasfilledwithindignation,andcutoffhis headtogetherwiththewoman's ear.Lookather-howmanyears has shegot ?' Andthepeople lookedand saw thatshehad only one,andsome laughedandotherssup pressed smiles. AfterthatIwenttotheMosqueandsaw these thieves whomIkilled,andit W8JS theywho stoleyourchild;butyou,0king, knowthatgoodisnotrewarded inthisworld, forifitwere,youwouldn'thavethoughtof killing11le-Iwho have done younothingbutgood.Butformeyourchildwouldhavebeen killed;thusaniItoberewarded!Trulytheoldmen say, "Don'tcastyourpearls before swine!".' .1"jilule=delay-'soastowastenotime.' 2 aliyekwenda ... akakaa.Notethewayofex pressing'SOIUCranaway,othersstayed.'aakaadi=akendahere,butforitsusualmeaning vide Krapf',Diet.,adi. hamkata=nikamkata.Thiscanonlyberenderedasinthe

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KI-HWAHILI srrORIES, TRANSLA'rION ANDNOTES111'Nduguyanguakalalana mwanawe waajuzatukisemasibinadamukwahali alivyo mzuri. Na waliposikizana yeye naMuhamad,mimi niko nje lakini nilimjibunduguyanguyakuwanyumbaniusizimetaa,namlango usifunge. Nayoteakanisikiatukalalahatausiku,nikaonahuyushemegiyanguamegeukasatu,nikayakinialiyosemaPathani.Palepale nisifanye jifule1nikatoaupangawangunikamkatakichwasatunanyinyimakathimuliohapanamawaziritezamenikichwa hikinikiabinadamunikiasatu '1 Watuwalipotezama aliyekwenda mbioakaenda'aliyesitahmiliakakaa."'Tenanikajahapakatikaukutawakowaboma,nikangiandaninikaonamkweoanatokandaniya kapo. Alipoteremshwaakaadi3hadikwasonara,sonaraakakataa,aka.. mwarnbia. Sikusikizi lete kichwa kiamumeo;'NamanenohayaapewahabarimfalmekamaaliyofanizaAIL ."Nilipomwonanimtotowa mfalmetenawakowewe kuchezewa nisonaranikangiwa niuchungusonaranikamkatakichwa namwanamkehamkata 4 shikio,mtezamenianamashikiomangapi l' Watuwakamtezama,akaonekanana moja, aliyechekaakachekaaliyevumuliaakavumulia." ,KiishanikaendaMsikitinihaona6wivihawani-liouaua,tenandio walioibamtotowako lakini wewe mfalmeduniahiimtendawema halipwi wema,?kamahulipwa usingewazakuniuamimi,namindiye niliyekufanyawema:mtotowakoangeuawa,8narniijaza?yangunihii,nawazeewali sema,"Fathilizapundanimashuzi.",10translation;hedidn'tactuallycutoffthewornarr's earH:'-: weknow.Krapfhas 'vu'm ilia' =endure,tolerate.Render then''' asin the translation.InKi-Mvitavumiliaiscertainlycorrect. :; aliyecheka,etc.,videeupra,p.70,n.1.' Son1O laughed, u1.J1Or:::i suppressedsmiles.'6haona:vide supra,p.99,n.5=nikaona.7mtendawemahalipuiiwcma: a proverb.'Goodisnotrewarded'(inthisworld).8mtotowako angewawa.'Butforme'isunderstood before thisphrase.Angewawagraphicforangeliwawa.o' ijaza=reward.10 Jathili, etc.: vide BUp1'a,p.87,n.1.

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112 roTHE H'fUDY OF When Alihadspokenthusthekingwas ashamed,andsaid,'Ali,myson, bear withnleandforgiveallyouhavehadto undergoatmyhands;andnowonethingiscertainthischildofminemustbeyourwife.'Ali answered,'No;shemustbemybrother'swife.' And thekingdidnotdisputethematter,butgave his consent,andMuhamadmarriedher.AndAliobtainedthepostofvizier,forthekingabdicatedandMuhamadgaveithim.ThusdidAliobtainthepostof vizier;butashedidnotwantit,he wentawayandinformed his father ofallthathadbefallenthem.Andhisfatherin reply said,'Well,myson,foryourpartGodhas helpedyoutogreatclevernessandkindness ;andasformeIgiveyoua kingdom suchasyourbrotherhasobtained.' So hisfat he!' abdicatedandAlimountedthethrone.Thatisall. Thusruns thestory.

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KI-S"VAHILT ANDNOTES 113 .Ali aliposemahayomfalmeakataha-yari,!akajibu,,EwemwananguweAli nisamehe kwahaya,usitahamiliyotcyaliyokupatakwangu, na sasahuyumtotowangu inaku bidi2kuwamkeo.' Aliakajibu,.,Shotiawemkewanduguyangu.'Mfalme asikinzane3akaridhiaakamwoza Muhamad.Aliakapatauwazirisababumfalme alijuzuluakampaMuhamad,ndipo Alialipopatauwaziri asitake,akendakwaoakampahabaribabayakekamayaliyowopataBabayakeakajibu,'Ewemwananguulijaliwakupataakili na fathiliyako, namimi, 1nakupaufalme karnaalivyopatamkubwawako.BabayakeakajuzuluufalmeakapataAli. Maneno yahadithihii .nikama_haya S Bas.1akatahayari:tobeashamed=kuonahaya.-H. 2 inakubidi:vide supra,p.88,n.4. :J asikinzane:'withoutdisputing,' vide supra,p.107,n.9,ulcinei. yako,namimi.'For your part...for mine.'5 This story havinglittlepointasitstands, inclines metobelievethatit is onlyjustsomuchasthe'narrator'rememberedofanoldArabstory.Howeveritisnotinsertedhereforitsmeritsasa butforitsidiomaticlanguage.It is impossible in the notestodo1I1Orethandescribeandattempttoexplainthemoredifficultidiomsandtodrawthe student's attentionto others. Bycarefulperusalofthewhole, little' turns' and phraseswil\becomeimpresseduponthemind.Unconunonwordsandwords that Ihavenotfound. inthedictionariesareobserved,thetranslationsbeinginall casestheresultofexplanationsofthenarrator.

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EnigmasandA phorismswithExplanations as gi\7en bv "r a-Swahili

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MAFUl\IBO (APHORISMS)Dialect. ojl(i-Jiz'I:rat (Pe1nba).(1)M piga lakuanehncnsjamaziu:a. Mpiga lapililt1lit'lOrt akambiu,Mpiga la. tutu.huonquliuia.,Forafirstoffencenothing is said;fora secondthe offender is calledandwarned. If he offends nthirdtimehe xtands manifest (abadman).' mtenda.Kuonquliuia, tobehatched,also as here'tobe distinguished from,' Le.here'tobe distin guished from (others) aR beinga bad man.'(2) MWltmba nu uiakohukutuma'kamusimbie.,Who chides YOU1' servant orders you toreprovehim'(i.e.Ifyousaysomething toA.'sseivantor friendyouaretacitlyimplyingthatA.oughttohavesaidthesame). This was explained byanotherashavinga meaningakintothatofNo.17(secondexplanation),in which casewemayrender,'Whotells yourservant tells you,'i.e.ifyouwantsomething from Rome oneanddaren'taskhim,askhisservant.Boththeseexplanationsareunsatisfactory. Others did notknowtheproverbatall.(3)Zimwelikujualo halikuli likakuisha,'Aqhoul thatknowsyou won'teat you 11/)III/t, gether,'Le.Howeverbadamanishewillabate SOllH' whatofhis wickedness in dealingwithanacquaintance. was saidtomebya Swahili who was anxiousthatI personally shouldtryacivilcasein which hewasthedefendant!)Anotherexplained itas,'Youmustknow amanbefore you ask afavourofhim,don'taskafavourofstrangers.'117

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IIR AIDSTOTHESTUDYOFKI-SWAHILI(4)Nyonge dude.Apoorman is a merenothing!I have alsoheardthisasMu,sikini nyonge.(5)Ushikaposh.ikamar.a, When youholdhold tight.'(Ni mgenialiyetokapahalipawatuwampendao,akakaribishwasanainafaakukaa,Le.Whenagreatfriendhasgoneawayandnotbeenseenbythosewho lovehimfora longtime,andthenappearsorismetsomewhere,whenyou, asyouwouldnaturallydo, welcomehimverygladly, heshouldtakecarenottogoawayagain.) ,Hold fast toyourhappinesswhileyouhavegotit.'Cf. also Shulcuru. ulicho nacho,'Be tha?'.,k/,ulfor ioluu youhavegot.'Cf.Halfaloafis better th.annobread.(6)Mtipuieke haujengi. Asolitarytreebuilds n.ot.(Amanbyhimself',withouttheassistance ofothers,canaccomplishverylittle.)Thisalsoappearsas'Mtupwekehajengi.'Cf.'Twoheads arebetter than one,'and'Seeksafetyinnumbers.'(7)Wambayendiyekumbe siye. Calling amangood doesn'tmakehimso;lit.,Whomyousay(isgood)yetwhy is itnothe(who isgood) ?' (Amancanalwayschange: because youthinkhim good heisnotnecessarily so, Le.'Noonecanreallytell ifamanis good ornot.') (8) Unqekanqani cJdr.-iya qoe.(In Mombasa Unqakaanq,etc.),Whenyou would fryIamunderthe fryingpan.'(Thisisamannerof telling some onethatalthoughyousaidnothingyouarequiteawareofwhathewas reallythinkinginhisownheart.).(9)MkubwampokeemziJomuncho yeyehukupokea jambo. 'Striveto'help superim'swho can themeeloeshelq: yoU'; lit.'Takeawayaburdenfrom agreatman-intheendhewilltakeawaya weight from "your shoulders.'ExplainedbyaMombasaSwahili, 'Uta-

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ENIGMAR AND ]H) ka poenamkulnoaanatukuakitu. kitwani kuxikeya/an kumnya-nganya utukueuieicemdogo,nae,keehoukipatikana ni jambo,ataknupokea,(10) Mvu'nja pao,napaleo hukuvunjia. Who jouls hisown nestwillfoul YOU1'of01'you too'(ifhegetsachance).(Cf.'It.isanillbirdthatfoulsits nest,)'( 11 ) Rada ziki[ara j1:, ,Alter the storm. (J. calm.';lit. After straitspeace.' Cf. 'Evcrycloudhasa silverlining.'(12)Wangilnurmlriux:wale. Ma 'ny aretoldto eat,' Le,' one mandoesn't maken. feast.' Cf.'Ono swallow doesn'tmake a summer;'TheMombasaversionseemsmorelikely, viz.,Wangihuamhiwa'wale'tmojahuambiioa'yule').'Manyarereferredtoas'they'-(oneis referredtoas ,he'), which isadelicatewayofsayingagain, 'Seeksafetyinnumbers.'Thedifference ofinterpretationrestsof course onwhetherwetake'wale'aswa-le, pers. pI. pres.subj.ofku-la,'toeat,'oraswale=Demon.pron.'Those men' (referred to), pI.of' 'thatman'(referred to). (l:l) Mkonommojc:hauinuulichau:a.'Onehandcan'tcrack (J, louse.'(Yourequiretocrackitbetweenthethumbnailsofbothhands.) Cf. No.6,meaningid. .(14)Lamnyongehaliwi.,Apoorman'suri.hee donotC01ne to pass, III wever'fullofschemes-hisbudgetmaybe.'This appearsagain asChanyongehaliliun; 'Apoorman's food isnoteatenbyothers.'Cf.Juvenal,'CantabitvaCl1UScoramlatroneviator.'InMombasaitisknownas'Ohamnyongehachendijoshi, 'i.e.(Theboat)ofapoormancannot(afford to)gowithalist(oritwill Kink), i.e. a poormanmustbecircumspectorhewillgetintotrouble.

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120 .AIDS .TOTI-fE STUDY OF I{I-H\VAlIILI (Hi).Jf8ibahatihnuahatishi., AnunluckyJuancan'ttryhisluck.'(16)Kazimbi si uichezonucema,, Better baduiorkthangoodplay.''Mudhalikufanyakazivibayaipatayopesakulikokuchezavizuri.'Theexplanation is aMombasaoneand is a littledifficult togetoutoftheKi-Swahili.(17)Kianuciliulishuxi unoemao.Mui ==n1baya;lit. 'That 0/ the badifedby the good.'(One issure togetsomebadevenfrom agood man.)ButaMombasaSwahili explainsthus, "Kituchambuyawakohukipatakwamzuriwake,'Le.Ifyour ClUHllYhas somethingyouwantthe wayto get itis through a mutualfriend whowill ask himforit.(18)Kitakojanga.Cf.'Rusticusexpectat...dumdefluatamnis'Horace,Satire,'Sittingdown(doingnothing) is loss.' jrtnga, lit.=='dimness.' (19} Ukionavyeleavyaundwa.,Boatsmustbebuiltbeforetheyswim.'(InMombasavyaolea);lit. Ifyousee (boats) floatingtheyaremade (to dosoby work).'If-you see amaneatingfoodyouknowhehasworked so as togetmoneytobuythatfood,'.i.e.'Everything has acauseand is notchance.'Thisissomethingtosaytolazypeople to encouragethemto work.(ShaabanbinMuhamad'sexplanation.)Wemaythereforeperhapsrender'Thereisno smokewithoutafire.' (20)Riziki ya 1uja imkononimua "raja. ,Oneman'sfood is "in thehandsof e'fe1yone.' (Ifoneman is stingyenoughto refuseyoufooditdoesn'tmatter,youcangetit elsewhere.)(21)Mwenyinguvusimwenzio,usicheze nahakimuujapokuwamloto;lit.'Apcaoeriulmanisnocompanion:don't 1)[(1.:'/ witha judge evenifheisachild.'(Everyoneshouldrememberhispositionandnottryand

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RNTCMAR AND APTfORTRl\'[R 121 liveuptothestandard'of his superiors. Don'ttakeupon yourself more than yourpositionentitlesyou.)(Cf.Aesop's fable ofthebronze andearthenware jars.)(22)Hiyarihushinda utUUUVQ. 'Choiceisbeuer compulsion.' (2a) Mcltama,agohanyei;lit.'Who is changingcampdoesnotcommitanuisance.'(Don't do ill just beforeleavingaplace:youmayreturnt.here.)Ku-nyea; IH.. to" easeoneself.'(24) Mkulirna lazimalnikanoani jernhe. ,An ag1'icultl1/rist issureto be cutwitha spade?(Cf.Ifyouplaywithfireyouwill he burnt.) CL fableof pitcher'andwell.(2)) Fitina hU1JU kuxinia:kulikomclunoi. 'Slander killmore than(J, sorcerer.'(If.'Thetongueismightierthanthe sword.'(2H) uemahutuzu :a,,Theskilled player it: reioarded;'Cf.'Thelabourer is worthyofhishire.'"Palmamquimeruitferat.'(27)M fanya mernahalipwimema.,Goodisnot (always)reworded:' (2R) Ukileamuiemanamuiutamlea,,Who bring;;upa. goodman brings 'lIpalso (f.bad {beoause every' man is bothgood and had).(29)Likuvigaloliulicni.,You can't" eee what swampsyou.'ExplainedinKi-Mvita,"Akut.iliaefitenakwamfanyiar-kazihumjui,' Le. usingkuviga ==-= kuonea=Y 011 (';1/1tellwhereslandercomes from.(30)Mzikapembendiyeazuaue. ,Who buries thetuskcan dig itU1).'(Theonewhoknowsa .secret istheonewhocandisclose it.)CL,Thosethathidecanfind.'(31)Mwana mtu'lni8hi mwema hula, kiakwenokiamu ieneiu'e.,Agood childeatshis oumfood andthat of hisCO'lU-

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122 AIDR TOTHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILIpa.nion.'(Agoodservantgetsrewardedattheexpenseofbadones.)1(32)Vjimotohwpembuiakuancha ya ulimi.'Hotbroth it? tastedwiththetipofthe tongue.'(Powerfulpersonsmust, beapproachedwithcaution.)Cf.'Who s:ups withthedevilmusthavea 101?-g spoon.'(33) Mjachwehujet tena.(InKi-Mvita'mjaleo'...==,who comesto-day.'...etc.),Whocomes in secretcomes aqain;' (Once a thiefalwaysa thief.)(34) M'nya,1n,(I,vn niche,(InKi-Mvita mnyam,azi.) ,Fear (I. silentperson..' Cf.'Stillwaters run deep:' (35)A siyeshinr/-It'a'sirnsl",hula.np. ,It i8 no 'Usearguing with one who 'Won'tbe convinced.' Cf.' A WOI1Ul,l1convincedagainst herwill....'etc.(36)Mwenyindani si mwenzio.,Amanwho keeps thing8inhisheart 'isno friend. Cf.No.34meaningid.(37).Panapokulcu.hapamwagwimchele.(InKi-Mvita'ha-pamwawi.')-'Thefowlrun is noplace '1.vherein to spill rice.'(Youshouldbecarefulwhatyousaywhen manyare present.) (38) Kiburisimaunquxma,,Prideisnotthe sign of (J, qentleman;'(39) Ve1na haoiozi,'Good rot.': not.'(Onedoes'notforgetgood.)(Whenone"getsintotroubleonerememberswithregretthegoodthatwentbefore.)(40)Lirhalopitasi ndwele. Thereiano biuernees inwhatispast.'Cf.'Timecureswounds.'-'What's done isdone.'1 Taylorhas thiswithout"maoema, 'and makes it'Achildsenton aner.ra.nd eatshisownfoodandhiscompanions'.'-H.

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ENIGMASANDAPHORISMS 12:l (43)(41)Asiyekuj'llahakuthamini.,Noonegoessurets, f01what heisnot 8'l-4-1'e about.'(Don'tbuyapigina poke.) A Mombasa Swahilitakeskuthamini=tovalue,andsothemeaning is,, Ifamandoesn'tknowyouhewon't give you a good price foryourwares.'(42)Mtendavemahutendea moyowe. ,Agoodman does goodfromh.io heart' (not because ofrewardhutbecause it is good).Menopembe ltayanyirnwi mcheshi,,Agrin rJUty portendgood 01' euil ';lit.'Teethandtusksarenot forbidden laughter.'(Laughterdoesn'tmeananything:itmaybeofmirthorofbitterness:ifyou scold a pel'ROn andhe laughs, laugh also:teeth are onlyliketusks-i-meanttohe seen. Anyonenlaylaugh.)(44)Lebekasiutumuiu..'Torespectfullyansuier it: no sign of servitude.'Lebeka!istheanswer ofamanwhen calledbyhis superior.(45)Ohoka-chokahuvunjakikao.,Muchtalkspoil themeeting.'Cf.,rroomanycooks spoilthebroth.' .(4H) NgomaikiV'ltmamunehoue hsipaeuku,,Ifadrum gives muchsoundin the end itwill burst.'Cf.'Apitcher goes often tothewellhutisbrokenatlast,'(47)Msemapuieke hakosi.,Whotalkstohimselfis never wrong.'(AllYOIl(' canlaydownthelawif there isnooneto refute.)Anotherinterpretsas='Amanwho reasons with himself inprivatemakes no mistakes.'(48)M 'nyongehalali;masikinihachoki. ,Aweakmansleeps not,apoormanisnottired'(becausetheyhaven'ttheopportunity: 'beggars can'tbe choosers '). -

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124 AIDR TO TI-TRRTUDY OFKI-R'VAIITLT(49)J.l;[situ mkulnra hwulii komba,"The is notheardi,u,the[crest. '(The voiceof an insignificantperson does notfindits way totheoarofthegreat.)(50)Lakufahalieikmoi, Who'loill diewill';lit.'Thewordofdeathisnotheard.'(Anaphorismtosayto a personwho refuses to listen to good advice.) (fit) Koudo Jja. nduq hwng'l:1: mkando,'A strange'l' doesnotmia:himsel]Ul)in f(unily diepute.' Cf.' Never'interferebetweenhusband and wife.' (fi2)jlf.-lOenyeHh1:biJU/.1njui1nll'Cnyenjaa. 'Alullnunieau'!belieneother/0be 1'.1n.pfy.'(;')3)Tlda :nrlao liucheleumnjiani."Daum.isdelayed(only) on the road.'(Ifthepresentistroublesomeyoumay know itwillclearlippresently.)(Cf.Everycloudhas asilver lining.) (!l4) Hupiqaoliulcuiunza.,Whohits youteachesYO'lI.' (Cf.Sparethe rod andspoilthechild.) This wasexplainedbyaMombasaSwahili differently, viz. Akupigaeakufunzakupigana,Who hits youfirstteachesyoutofight.'(55) Wap'iga11{J'IJ,1ni11 kutaunaumizo.mkouo.,flita wallandyou hurt yo'll?'Cf.' It, is hardtokick agai nstthe pricks.'(;")(i)l lf:iidwrnlJe u -ala' uta ::;i1n1Jigani. (KI-Mvita,' si'ln'll'ani.') ,Don'tfightaman who lues no bow01' arrcu:, Cf. ,Don'thitamanwhen he 's, down. (;37) Mwangaza inbili'mmojahU1nponya. ,Wholooks attwoonesaveshim'(iftheother fails him).Cf.having'twostringstoonebow.'Another,however,gavethisdifferently Mwangas(l. mbilimojahumponyoka,'Whotakestwoonefalls away fromhim.'Cf.'Who sits ontwostoolsfalleth totheground.'

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ENIGMAS AND APlrOJUH,MH125 (KI-l\IvI'1'A)(58) W((,. mbililuivaimoja:rnjauiasiurahacumbuki. : Whohast woqarmentsdoes not uieur one.''Aresourcejul rnanisnotworried'Sitara,cf.v.kusiti1'i,toextricateoneself from difficulties.Againcf.'twostringstothebow.' (;1U) Akuuoekaendiyeakutuae. :The manto remove((.burden.[rom. YON. is the one who im-posed it. (60) Wazing((,tia saanakiuzioni.'Thefishinthet 'rapbeginto think (said tosomeonewhohasbeen'caught' ;hemustnowthinkofaway out ofthedifficultyintowhichhehasalready. fallen.)(61)'I'issiamkononibora kulikolcuminenda,uje., 'Nineinthehandisbeuerthanten;goawayandcomeagain(anotherday).'Cf.'Abirdinthe handis worthtwointhebush." IZIH.AT)(U2)ftl.."itca!c'lceanaM-ngu. No onei8friendless iohen.there 1:.,; God,' lJ18i-'U'((, kice;lit. The without-his,' Le.'Howhoiswithout (what hecan call) his hasGod.'((l3)l lfnwikini luinairnru,'Abeqqashouldnot covet.'(Because hehas 110chanceofobtainingwhathe desires.) Cf.Beggarscan'tbe choosers.(64),Wangiuxspe usipouxupa lvu uoalia mlcouo '1('(( o, ''A crowd itnotgivenwilltake';lit. tomany:ifyoudon'tgivetothem,theytakewiththeirownhand.Almost='Mightisright.'(65)"Kuinamakondikolcuinukako,', Wlte1'e one [all one also rises';lit. 'To bendin aplaceistoriseupinthatplace,'i.e.Ifyouhavemisfortuneinaplaceyouwill(ifyouwait) alsohavegoodfortuneinthatsameplace.Almost e'Every'

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12(i TO THE srunv OFKI-HVvAI-iILI thing comestohimwho waits,' or'Itis a long lane thathasnoturning.'(66)Mtamaukimioaika huonekana 1JUnje; lit.'Ifmillet is spilt grains are visible.'Cf.'There isno smokewithoutafire.'(67)Liha'J'ibikalo hufanyU'a. ,Whatisbrokenisbest mended ";lit.'Whathas been spoilt isputto rights.'(Cf.'Itis never toolatetomend.'}ENIGMAS(KI-:M:VITA)(1)Apopularkindof riddle istheKinyume,whichismadeby alteringtheorder ofthelettersofawordthus:MbarakitapecheuwajukalikitonasaKitambaracheupejuwalikitokasana,A whitecloth:whatdoesonemeanby a whitecloth?One meansthateverythinglooksbrightandwhite becausethesunis shining so brightly.' (2)Whatdoesthefollowingmean?-Tambuu;popoo ;tumbaku;tokaa;katu.Thenaturalreply would bethatthisisa list ofthearticles ofwhichuqhaibu,orbetelchewingmix ,ture,consist.Butthecorrect solution is onomato paeic.Tambuu=Ntampiga:'Iwillhityou.'Popoo=.whack-whack.Tumbaku=mtumbawangu:'mysweetheart.Tokaa=ntakaa:'Ishall sitstillthen,'shereplies.Kaiu=kaatu:'All right, sit still,'saystheother.(3)'TAMBO'(KI-MVITA)Miminanya1nauxinqu. wCiwili, namzigo mmo]. Nimeleta bandarini, na bandarini panakidou.kidogo,uakidauhiki. chaweza kungiawatuwawili,hakingiiwatuwatatu ,. nanyamawale-mmojanimbuzi-nammojanitui -no, mmojanimzigowanyasi,. '1UJ, ndaniya "kidau kile yuko mwenyewe avushayemmoja.Sacanataka kucueha t'Ui acile mh'Uzi, namb'Uziasilenyasi, ,}UJ, hilidau Iiuinqiauiatu.uxncili, Tutavushanamnagani?

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ENIGMASAND APHORISMS127'l'utakapoansa lcuoushatui,mb 'uziatakulanyasi.Tutakapoatiza kuoushanyasilazima atakula.mbuzi.Sasatutaoushanamna gani? (Iandmytwo animalsandoneload. Ihavebrought" themtothejetty,andatthejettyisa. smallboat.Nowthissmallboatwillholdtwo,butwon'thold three. Mytwoanimals area leopardanda goat,andlily load isa load ofgrass. There isalreadyoneman,the'ferryman and owner oftheboat,inside.NowIwantto ferry acrosstheleopardwithoutiteatingthegoat,andthegoatwithoutiteatingthegrass.How shall wedoit Ifwestartby ferrying acrosstheleopard,thegoatwilleatthegrass. Ifwestartby ferrying acrossthegrass,theleopardwill certainlyeatthegoat. Howthenshall we do'it nKwanza iutaoushambuzitukamuieke ngambo. Kisha tU'fudi tupakie mzigowanyasitu.peleke ;gambo kulikona mbuzi.Kishawekamziqowanyasitumpakie tera.mbuzitumrudishe ngambo hiitulipotoka, tumuiekembv.zitupakie tuitumpelekee ngambo kulikona nyasi.Kishatumuiatekuleturuditupakiemb'Uzitena, tukafika ngambo ium.pemwenyewe vitu vyakesolama.(Firstwe shall take. acrossthegoatanddeposit him upontheoppositebank.Thenletusreturnandtakethebundle of grassandputthatacross onthesidewherethegoatalreadyis. After depositingtheload of .grass,letusshipthegoatagainandputhimacrosstotheside whence westarted,andthenshiptheleopardandtakehim across tothesidewherethe grass is. Then wewillIeavehimthereandreturnagain forthegoat second time,and10,wehavereachedtheotherside-andnowtogivetheowner his possessions safeandsound!)TAMBO Yupo mgonjwa 'ndani yamji,anauquasikunying 'i. Wa._ meku ja wagangakumjanyiadaioanakulla mganga asema hawezikupoaila ipatikanendimuyakali. ,Nawagangauometimiakuminatanona kulla mmojaameleu.jakwa ndia yakembali hakuna aliyejua yakuwakamakuna muenzanqu,Nakulla mmoja asema asharti

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: \IDH110 'rJ-fBH'fUDYOFKI-H\VAHILT ipatikanendimu.moja ya kali.N((.kaiik 1nji ule huknuui ndiln'U--iko ndinuimoja.No.mmdimuuleunajengewalcutalauuiuie,uabadayakutaunatimbiuxihandaki, 1Utkutahilihalinamlanqo, 'Ita ilehandakihapanapalcu-pitiuxi, 11,((,1nwenyi ndinuimakaziyo,keni ju'U yammdimu.Saea tuta fo,nya. shaurigo,nitu-patendimumoja,no, mU'enyi ndimu ni Jini-ltatakilcuonamtu,icala hauiezi lcusema 'I':Ja. miu.(Here is asickmaninthevillage-hehasbeen illformanydays.Doctorshavecome tophysichimandeverydoctorsayit is impossible forhimtorecoverunless asourlime is obtained.Nowthe doctors havenumberedfifteen and eachonehascomehisownroadfromadistance,noristhereonethat knows that a fellow-doctorhascome.Yeteachofthemsaysthatitisessentialthatasourlime be Nowinthewholetownthereare no limesexceptone,andthatlimetreehashadastonewallbuiltroundit,andinsidethewalltherehas.beendugatrench,andthewall hasno opening,andthetrenchhasnoplacewhereitcanhe passed,andtheownerofthelime has his dwelling on thetopofthelime tree.Whatnow shall we devise inordertoobtain this oneIime,whentheownerthereofisa ,j in,whowillneither sec anyono ,norcanhe speak toanyone? /)((,80. mini "niacluikua iin'e lunqu. 11Wj((. uiende "ala pale kariin: nakuta nirr/,'wite rnwenyendimu.Akiqeukalcunite Z(UfW, nta.rnpiga nu lile jiwe.Kishakumqnqa lilejitce litaanquka,nayeyeashuonautunyu,nakuletiniItawezikushuka -baHi-((,ta:ni1Jiy((. uanini?Atatukundimni ((,krtnilJiga nrtyo. (Now Ishalltakeastoneofmineandgotoaspotnearthewallandcallontheownerofthelime.Whenheturnsto lookatme Ishallhithimwiththestone.Thestoneafterhittinghimwillfalltotheground,andbythenhewillhavefeltannoyed,yethe cannot. godownbelow. "Tell-what willhehitme with? Hewilltakethelime and hitmewiththat!)

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ENIGMASANDAPHORISMS129KITENDAWILI(KI-JIZRAT).(1)Kiiakifanana. (What two things resemble oneanother 1) Ans.(1):Maziwana t'Ui la nazi(humanandcoconut milk).Ans.(2):Mbeyuza pa'JXl,i napilipilimanqa.(Papawseedsandblack peppercorns).(2)Lipa-po; hsdioni?(Itistherebut you seeit not.)Ans.:Juouli(your big shadow).(3)IIango lijuoiikxihanqo: jihango lir.afunikanini? (Ahiddenthingis coveredwitha hidden thing,butwhatcoversthebigger hiddenthing 1) Ans.: Nazi,a coconut (thefruitis eovered bytheshellandtheshellbythehusk-butwhatcoversthehusk 1) (4)Mtimkubwamajanimawili(abig tree with twoleaves).Ans.:Mwilina mashikio.(Thebodywithits ears.)(5)Namwita huyu, wewe wajianini?(Icalled thisone;whyareyou coming 1) Ans.: Mwenyekwendachoonilazimamikojohuja. (6)Mtotowanguanyeleambavani.(Mychildeaseshimself fromtheribs.)Ans. :Jiwe la kusagia mtama(astonefor grindingmillet).Two circular stones revolvetheone upontheother:thegroundcornoozesfromin betweenthem: hence thejest.(7)K itendawili, kitanda, kitandili rnaliani apitay e/ 1IfJIItandahatanya1nawambioni.(Thenetis spread-is spreadoutontheplain.Itstops whoever evenaswift beast.)Ans.: Bahari. (Kitendawili == atrap,anet-trap,a riddle.)KITENDAWILI(KI-MvITA)(1)Junilinajijunika utaji.(Thelargebirdis coveredinitshood.) x

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iaoAIDS,TOTHESTUDY KI-SWAHILI Ans. : Tanga la Jehazi linatwekwa.. (The vessel's sailisset.)(2).Asikariwangu hamtuma harudi itkipaut uialaakikoso .(My soldier whensentonanerrand does notreturnwhetherornohe accomplishes hismission.)Ans..Raeaei(a bullet). '(3)N'namke wU'ngu, huzaa waanahamsh.in kiieha hula. (1havea woman who bears fifty childrenandthendies.)Ans.:Mba(abananatree).(4)Kitangakinalcunazi1lakinihazita/uniki.(There isfruitinthegardenbutitisnoteaten.)Ans.:Nyota(the stars).(5)Jungu kuu na'biakniu.(abigpotwith abiglid).Ans.:dunia na mbing'lt (earth an-d heaven).(6)N'mamwana wangu, mwakaIiuu. ni wa ha1nshin" uaehawezi kusimama,(1haveachild:thisishis fiftiethyearandyethecannotstandup.)Ans.:Mku/u(a chain).(7)Mtumwa wanguatumikausikunamtana.(Myservantisatworkdayandnight).Ans.:Saa(a watch).(8)N akwenda mbali hata nikarudi nasnuxnnhiamanianitalcuenaehakaiai.(1go afar,andwhenLreturnI tellmymothertoholdme,andshe refuses not.)Ans.:K itanda(a bedstead).(9)Watumwa wangu wendatu, hauxirudi, nauienduko sijui. (Myservantsare forevergoing:theyreturnnot:norknow1 whitherthey go.,) Ana. : .Maji ya. mto {the waters ofa river).(10)T'uko ndiuni uxitu.wawili, hakuna amuxunlruu:mtoeneitoe tupurnzike.(Wearetwoon a road:nordoesone say totheother,'Let us rest').Ans. .. Mtunakivalichake(amanandhis shadow).1Kunazi=thewild berries ofthe'waita-bit'thorn;verybitterwhen green,butlikedbychildren.s--H,

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AND APHORISlVIH (11)Kamba yang 'u mrejhaiwezikujungakitu,(Longis mystringyetitcannottieanythingup.)Ans.:Ndia(a road).(12)Watotowanguwatatu:akiondokammoja, wctwili hawatumiki.(Mychildren arethree:ifonegoesawaytheothertwoarenouse.)Ans.:Maweya jiko(cooking stones:-thesearethreeinnumber: if oneis removedthepotwillnotbalance).(13) Watoto wangu wanne:akiondokammojauiatatu.hauatumiki.(My children arefour:ifonegoesawaytheotherthreeareofnouse.) An.s. :Maguu yd kitanda(thelegsofa bedstead).(14) Nyurnba yanguina' milangomingi.(Myhouse hasmanydoors.) A 'ns.: Erna (alobstertrap[which is rushwork]withlarge spaces.)(15) Ny'wtnuayang'Ul kulnoakiqu zo n ,i kimoja,(Myhouseis largeandhasbutonepole.)Ans.: Uiogaorkioga (amushroom),(16) H'UIYu abandika rut abandua?(Oneputsonandtheothertakesoff.)Ans.: Ma 'g'lt'ltmawili (the twolegs).(17) Xi/,ung'u chamtotokinajaachakula tele.(Alittlepartofa child isfullof lots offood.) .Ans.:Meno(itsteeth).(18)Jinola 8ultani latekesha dnmia.(Thesultan'stoothmakestheworld laugh.)Ans.:Mwezi(themoon).(19)N atoka kitopetopeni(1camefromamoistmuddyplace).Nakwendakitope topeni(1wenttoa moist place).Napatamajinikaauoa(1gotwaterandIdrank).Ans.:Nalikuieammazi ,nikapatadaju,nikanwa.(1 climbed a coconuttree-IgotanutandIdrank[its milk].)1 Ku bandika-kubtmdua=toapplyandtakeoff(ofaplasterorthelike).

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(20) Vu-u-u-u-u-pu,Ans,11 Nalipata usingizi nikoonqulea.tine.(Igotsleepyandfelltotheground.) (The Hound ofthiswordis supposed torepresenttheanswer,thoughit is difficult toseehowanyonecould beexpectedto guessit.)(21) Pe1'-1'-1'-1'-1'-1'-1'-1 '-1'-1' .,hata, Ans,: Thesoundis supposed to conveythatIfell asleepanddreamedofanotherplace alongway off,andthensuddenlywokeup!Otherssayit means, utelezi,slipperiness-representingafoot slipping inthemud.(22)Banyani anapigu ubinda, (The Hinduadjustshisloincloth.)Ans.: Sindano nuuzi,needleandthread(becausetheHinduthreadsthecloththrough his legs and fastens itupbehindhim).(23)Nipapa hunioni,(Iamtherebutyoudon'tseeHIe.)Ans,:Kishogo(thenapeoftheneck),

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IVMagicinPetllba

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SPIRIT-DANCE(Bya sceptic.)Thefollowingistheorigin of witch doctors, who exorcise spirits. Ifithappensthatamanorawomanorayouthisseizedwithfever andthe fever is obviously increasing and combined withanotherailment,whetheroftheheadorthestomach, orbeitvertigo--well-theoldrelationsofthepatientbetakethemselves tothewitch-doctor, who consults his oracleand uttershis lies. Sometimes hesays the patientis possessed ofaSpiritoraJinnofthesea. Theoldmen questionthewitch-doctor,'Doyouthink this Jinnis likely todepart l' Thewitch-doctor, ifheis hi need. of money, willsay,'Iseenosignsofitsdeparting,'Hewhohasbroughtthesickmanasks him,'Whatshouldonedo l' Thewitchdoctorreplies,'TheJinnmustbegothold of.'Theoldmenask,'Howcanthisbedone ,Thewitch-doctoragaincasts his lots, and ashedoessoheuttersthese words,'0 oracle, divine formeInytrulydivinenotfalsely.' Andthenhe tellstherelations ofthesick man, 'TheJinn is a powerful one,andtheailmentisofthehead,andifyouwishyourchild torise up againfrom his bed, fetch me water-lilies ofthreekinds-awhitewaterlily,ablackone,andared.Andwhenyouhavegot these getabudofpandanusflower,andloavesmadeofthreekinds of grain,anda coverlet ofwhitematting.NowthislattertheSwahilicall'utanqa 'orcarpet,anditisonthisthatthepatientistolie.Whentheyhaveobtainedthesenecessariestheysaytothewitch-doctor,'Whatyoudemandedwehavebrought.'Andthewitch-doctor answers,'Bringthemalongtogetherwiththesick -man.'Sothesickman is brought,whereafterthedoctor says, 'Iwanta dollar forthecall-money.' Heis given a dollar.Afterreceivingthishe says, 'This is thedollar ofthecallmoney:Iwantmy"portions"as agreed upon.' Andthe sick Juan's friends, ifithetenrupees or eight, agree. After theagreement the witch-doctor becomes 'inspired,'

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NGOMAYA"PEPO.lAwaliya-wagangawalemao pepo,hutukiamtumwanamumeaomwanamkeaokijanahungiwa ni homa, akibainikananahomainazidi,ikachanganyikananamarazimangine,kamani kichwa aonitumboaokisunzi-basi-wazeewakehnendakwa mganga,akapigabau;"mgangahutoaurongo wakwe, penginehusemakanasubiwanipepo,aoJinibahari. Wazee humwuliza mganga,'WaonajeJinihuyuaweza.kuondoka mgangaakiwaatakapesa husema'sionidalili yakuondoka.'Mwenyi mgonjwa humwuliza'hufanyaje Mgangahusema'sh6tiapatikaneyule -Iini.' Wazee huuliza,'hupatikananammagani?'Mgangaakapigatenabau,kisha maneno husemakatikakupigabau,'EweRamliwenibainiahakiusibaine batili.' Akifikahapohuwambiawenyewe wale wenyi mgonjwa, 'Jinihuynnimkubwanamaraziyeniya kichwa.Sasakamamwatakamtotowenu ainukienipatianima-yunginamnatatu-yungijeupena[eusinajekundu-mukiishapatahivyomupatetumbayamkadinamikateya mibeyutatu,nafumbayamkekamweupe.' Na wagangahuita'utanga'ndioatakaolaliayule mgonjwa. Mwenyewehutafutakamaalivyosema mganga.Wakiishapatahumwitamgangawakamjibu,'Vituulivyosematunapata.'Mgangahujibu,, Mletenimgonjwapamojanavitu.'Mgonjwa hupelekwa. Nahuyumgonjwaakiisha fikakwa mganga,mgangahusema,"Natakariale ya mwito.'Hupewariale, Akiishapatariale huulizatena,' Riale hiini mwito,nataka"maiumqu. kamawatakavyopatana.Nawale wenyi mgonjwa.kamanirupiakumi. aonanehusikizana. Wakiisha p:ll : 111 :\ 1VideKrapfunder.'punga.'Icameacrossthisaccountaftercollectingtheabove.2akapiga bau,i.e.,heconsultsthewitch-doctors'guidethe FU1"tt kani.'Thespiritisdiscernedaccordingtothe hour atwhichhisrelationsbringthenewsofthesickmantothedoctor;e.g.iftheycomeat7a.m,onWednesdayitis a Jinn.ThehoursandtheircorrespondingPepoaresaidtobeallwritteninthisbook. 136

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136AIDSTOTHE OF KI-SW AI-IILIDuring his inspiration hecallsthesick man,andplaces him uponthewhitemat,andhe brings aplateandputsit beforethesick man,andontheplatehe placesthewater lilies,andthebudof the pandanusflower,andsweet smelling grass he.also places thereon. Andthereisacertaintreecalled .'mnyunyori,'theFlaccidtree(whose leaves)healsoputsthereintheplate. And incense he bringsanda lighted censer,andheassemblestogetheralltherelations ofthesickmanandallhisown.All being presentthewitch-doctor chants,andthose whoarepresentanswerandclaptheirhands. Nowallthisis done forthebenefitofthesickman.After clappingtheirhandsandchantingthetunesoftheJinnandtheSpirits, youwill notice signsof trembling inthesick person,andsignsof shedding tears,andthose who know saythatthese arethesignsoftheSpiritmountingtothehead.Thenitisthatthedoctorredoubles hisnoiseandclappinguntiltheSpirithas properly ascendedintothehead.Thenheasks,'ChildoftheSpirit,whatdostthoudesire AndtheSpiritwill answer,'Iwant Et chairandmy feast.'Thedoctorasks,'Whatisyourfeast?'The Spirit answers according toits inclinations, whether agoatoranoxorafowl.Now these animals areofthreekinds;for example, ared goat, a white one, 'Or ablack:sometimes a parti-coloured oneis desired. Afterthisutterancethedoctorsays tothepatient'srelations, 'DoyouhearwhattheSpirit says?' Thentheyagree. After wardsthedoctor speaks,'ChildoftheSpirit, wehaveagreed,andwilldoforyouallthatyouwish;butthereisonethingthatwewantinreturn,and that isthatthispatientshall recover,andwhenhehas recovered wewillgiveyouyourfeastanddance;andasforyourcompanionspiritseveryonewhoofoldhashadaspiritinhis head, wewill invitethemalltoyourfeast onthatday.'1hupagawa.Themethodbywhichhebecomesinspiredistosniffsome'ubani'(incense)whichhaspreviouslybeenputin a ,kietezo'(censer).The scent inspireshim,butitisnecessary that hehavea'Pepo'ofhisown.2kiti,achair,i.e.toput the articlesofsorceryon.Butthere seems tobesomesubtlemeaningin theword, forlater(videinfra)

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MAGICINPEMBA 1:37 mganga hupagawa;! akiishapagawaakamwitamwele,akamwekapenyimkekamweupe,akaletachano, akakiweka mbeleya mgonjwa,akatiamayunginaHetumbaya mkadi, na mrihanipiahutia.Ukonamtimmojatena,jina lakehuitwa'mnyunyori'piahutiahumundaniya chano,akaletaubanina kietezo kia moto,akawakushanyawalejamaazake mgonjwa, najamaazake mganga, wote waka huzuria. Mganga akaimba, walewaliopo huitikia, wakipiga kofi,namambohayo' afanyiwa mgonjwa. Wakiisha kupiga kofinakuimbanyimbo za-Iiniao Pepo, yule mgonjwautaonadalili yakutetemeka,nakutokamachozi,watuwajuaohujuahiinidaliliya Pepokupandakichwani. Ndipo mganga azidipo kupiga kelele,na kupiga kofihat a akapandasawa sawandaniya kichwa. Mganga huuliza,'Ewemwanawa Pepo wewatakanini' Pepo husema,'nataka"kiti,"2nakaramuyangu.'Mganga huuliza,'Karamuyakonini l' Pepo husemakamaatakalo,kamani mbuzi, aoni ngombe, ao kuku. Nanyamahaohuwanamnatatu,ni mbuzi mwekundu ao mweupe aomweusi, penginehutukiakutakambuzi kijivu jivu. Akiishasamahayo na mganga husema.Huwambiawenyewe walewenyi mgonjwa,'Munasikiamaneno yaPepo Nawenyewe hukubaIi.Kishamganga husema, ,Ewemwanawa Pepotunakubali,kulla unalopendatutakufanyia, nasisitwatakanenomoja-nenotutakalohuyumgonjwa akiishapoatutakupakaramuyako na ngoma, nawenziowa Pepo kulla aliye kichwani zamanitutamwitasikuhiyoyakaramuyako.'Nayulepepo husema,'Hamunidariganyi Mganga hujibu,'Nakuambiakweli,kamahusadikihuyu" kiti "1chako, akipoa leohivi,utapataleokaramu.'Wakaadianakamawatakavyopatanamgunga nayule Pepo. Akiisha Pepohutokandaniyakichw I. ; i 'lmgonjwa. Mganga hujibu,'Tafutanimafungu yangllnip.ukufanyakazi.' Nawalewenyewe washafurahi ,"akipn.ta ,kiti,'a chair, isthenameusedtodesignatethesickpersonhimselfafterthattheSpirithasmountedtohishead.3washafu1ahi. This tenseshould be noted.Shahasnow become atenseinfix.Itisof course foruiamelcuisha jurahi, and ,sha 'beingpartofthewordkuishahasthatsignificance.Another

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l:lR AIDS TO THERTUDYOFKI-RWAHILT The Spirit says,'Youarenotdeceiving me Thedoctoranswers,'Ispeaktrue-ifyoudonotbelieveItellyouthatifthis"kiti"recovers to-day,to-daywill you haveyourfeast.' Sotheyagree onadate,according towhat the doctor arrangeswiththeSpirit. AfterthattheSpiritemergesfromtheheadofthepatient,andthedoctorsays, ,Fetchmemy"portions"sothatImaydomy work.' Now arethepatient'srelations overjoyed,andifhe gets bettertheywait for threeortendays,andifheis obviously recovering fromhisdisease search ismadeforthearticles agreeduponwiththeSpirit. Beita goat,itis brought, or beitafowloranox. After bringingthegiftstheysaytothewitch-doctor,'Wehavecomewithourpresents.' The doctor receivesthemandlooksforhisdrumandhiswandandalltheotherappurtenancesofhismagic..[Nowsome spirits are spirits ofthesea,othersareof sorcery.Theydwellinthedense forests, orin large trees (especiallythebaobab), orin loftymountains-andwherethereare graveseverykindare found.] Afterthisthedoctorfinds other persons whohavehadspirits expelled beforeandbringsthemall together. Now these people are given a feast-foodatall hours. dayandnight,andthefoodbydaysome Swahili call'vishuka'or'thefoodofthehungry,"andthefoodbynightsome Swahili call' '01'thefoodof sleep time.Whenthey are assembledthepatient is called asbeforeandtheyplacehim uponthe'utanqa 'ormattingcoverlet,andthereis much clappingandwarblingandsing ingforthespace ofthreeor seven days. Ifanyonenodshisheadabout,or sheds tears.ormuttersincoherently,thewitchdoctorknows that heisnohumanbeingbuta Spirit.Drums" arebeatenandsongs sung as before,huttheefforts are redoubled. The Spirit comes as before and thedoctor addresses it.'This dance isyourfeast whichwe promised younow-howmanydaysofitdoyou desire?' TheSpiritunswershowmanydaysitwouldlike-tenpossibly-butthe correc:t amountisseven.Nowallthetimethecommoninstance of a verbbecomingatenseprefixis'taka,'(t.o)want,foundinsuchcompounds as atakapolcuienda,'whenhewanted to go,'

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MAGICINPEMRA 13!) hujambohukaamudawa sikutatuao kumi,akibainikanamaraziyalekupoa, vitukamawalivyopatananaPepo-iwaponimbuzihuletwa, aokuku,ao ngombe. Wa kiishaletahumwambiamganga,"Tunakuwaponavituvyako.'Mganga hupokea,akatafutangomana'eheo'1nakullakitukifaakiokatikauganga. NaPepohaowen ginehuwaPepowa'Tari,'2wengineniwa uganga,hukaakatikamwitumkubwa,aomitimikubwa(haswambuyu)ao vilima vikubwa,panginehuwapanapomakaburikullanamna.AkiishahayomgangaatatafutawatuwenyiPepowaliopungwa zamani,awakushanyewote.Nawatuhawahupewakaramuchakulakullawakatimchana IUt usiku ;chakulachamchanaWasawahili wanginehuita 'vishuka, ';chakulaoha usiku Wasawahili wanginehuita'kijio.'Wakiishakutanahuitwavilevile mgonjwa, aka", wekwajuuya'uianga,'akapigiwa kofina vigelegele nanyimbomudawa sikutatuaosabaa,Iwapo ajisuka, nakutokwani machozi nakubabaika,yulemgangahujuahuyusi bin-Adamu, ni Pepo.Hupigwangomananyimbokamazamani, nashimezaidiya kwanza.Pepohujavile vilekamakwanza. Mganga humwuliza,'Ngomahiinikaramuyakotuliopanamiadi, na.sasawatakasikungapi ,Pepohusemasikuatakazokamanikumi, lakinikawaidani sikusabaa.Nazamaniakipigiwangomahiyonawen ziwehnwapo, ndiowenziwe watiao shime' na kucheza naye. Hiku yasabaaikitimia, ingangahumwambiaPepo,H. adds tothisnote,'Ihavealwaysheardthe'n'inthis=uxmehaforwanakwisha(furahi)-haveneverthoughtofrunningthetwoverbsasone,buthavesuppliedtheinfin.mark'ku 'with[urah:ManyEuropeansknowingthisconstructionplavf'ull,itinEnglish,e.g."Hehas finished todie,"anshakuja,'Ihavenoticedthe'n'inKi-Mvitabutnotinvariably, hutUH 'teller ofthisstoryrejecteditwhenquestioned.1Cheolit.means'rank'or'poition.'Theimplement. isabarofiron, brass orivory.Itisafamilyheirloomonlytobepossessedby'initiates.'Boththesickmanandthe'mganga'holdit,andbythismeansthe ''1nganga 'issaidtobeabletocommunicatewiththe'Pepo.'Bythismeans also10Rt articlesareRaidtobefound. 2 'I'ari, vide Krapf=' a drum,'butmy informant.tpHsPlO itis here =Baha1"i,

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1AIDR TOTHE RTlTDYOFKI-R'VATfILT danceisgoingontheSpirit'scompanionsarepresentindeeditistheywho so vigorously dancewithit.Whentheseventhdayhascomethewitch-doctorsaystotheSpirit,'Greetings!tellusthyname.'Thereisacustominthiswretched sorcery to splittheSpirit'stongue,butit is notsplitwithaknife-'tisa lyingtrickof sorcery only, Nowonthis day of tongue-splittingthereisadanceanda feast whichalltheSpiritsattend.Ifthereisagoatitis slaughtered forthefeast oftheotherSpirits-itisa different feast fromthatofthepatient.Afterthisthedoctorsays,'Givetheblessing, 0Spirit.'TheSpiritblessesthem and uttersitsnameandtheplace whence itcame,whetherfromthebaobabtree, ortheriver, orthesea even, itsaysso. After sayingthisthereisthedayof'beingbroughtoutside,'andonthisdaycomenumberspossessed of Spirits,andotherstherearethatcomeasspectatorsoftheSpirit dance.Thedoctorgrasps his wand-s-and hiswandcanonlybegraspedin a particularmanner,andiftherebea Spirit whichisa'Finder'acutismade(onhim possessed ofit). Afterthisthereisanotherfeast for thespectators.Andonthisdayorasubsequentonethedoctor'sportionsarepaid as agreeduponwiththepatient'srelations.Thenthereisadayforthedoctors tolay prohibitions ontheSpirits.Andthisdayisthe27th of '1\1 werisho.' Well,everydoctorcallshis accomplicesandwhentheyhavecome a feast ismadeforthemandmedicine giventhemtodrinkandtobathein. AfterthisthedoctorssaytotheirSpirits, This isyourfeast, forthismonthwewanttoprohibityoufrom enteringintothe head.Thentheyare'first servedwiththemedicine,andthedoctors callthismedicine 'vue'or smoke. Nowthis'cue is; vumbani 'grassand'Mrihanipate'grass. Afterthistheyare givenanothermedicine wherewith tocense,andthisiscalled bythewitch-doctors"majusho'or'muchsmoke.' Nowthis' mafusho 'isofallkinds-thereis'mafusho'ofassesdungandeat'shairthatthewitch-doctors use. Afterthisthereisa day,'the Festival of theNpirit,'and 1hwpasuaulimi,ametaphormeaningto teach themto speak only.

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: MAGIC IN PEl\JIBA ,Toasalamuutupejinalako.'Wanakawaidayaoyakigangahupasuaulimi.'Pepo, wala sikupasuakwa kisu,ni urongo wa kigangatu.Na siku hiyoyakupasuaulimi Pepo,hupigwangoma, hula, kiafa yaPepohukutana,ikiwa mbuzi huchinjwakaramuyawalePepowangine-mbalihuyumgonjwa. Akiishahayomganga'husema.'EwePepoletesalamu.'Pepohutoasalaamuakatajajinalake, namahaliatokapokamanikatikambuyuaomtoni810baharinipiahusema. Akiisha sema hivyopanasikuyakutolewanje,nasikuhiyohujawatuwangi wanao Pepo, na wangi wajaokutezamangomaya Pepo. Mgangahushika'cheo,na'cheo'hiyo haishikwi elakwanamnamoja, iwePeponi mchomozi2kanapasuliwachale." Yakiishahayopanakaramunyingine yawatuwaliokujatezamaPepo,Na 'mafungu yamgangahutolewasikuhiyo810nyinginewatakayopatanamgangana wenyimtotomgonjwa.Sasapanasikuya waganga yakufungaPepowaoNa siku hiyohuwanimwezi asherin nasabaa'Mwerisko.'4Basikullamgangahuwetawatejewao.Wakiishakujahufanyiwakaramunamadawayakunywanakuoga, wakiisha fanyiwa hivyo,wagangahusemanaPepowao"Karamuhiiniyenunyinyikwakuwamwezihuutwatakawafunga-musipa'ndendaniya vichwa.Wakiishahivyokwanzahupewahiyo dawa, najinaladawahiyo wagangahuita'vue.'Nahilo'vue'nimajaniyavumbani,namajaniyaIMrihanipate.'Wakiisha pewa hilo,hupewanadawanyingine ya kujifukiza, nadawahiyo wenyewe wagangahuita, majusho,'Na'rnafusho'hayoni kullanamna-yako"majusho 'yamaviyapunda,na nyele zapakawagangahutumia.Yakiishahayokunanasikuya sikukuuya Pepo hiyosikukuunimwish.owaRamadhani."Hukushany.u .2mclioniozi, i.e.onewhichcanfindlost articles. 3kanapasuliwachale. Chale isa'cut'or scar.Thedoctormakesaslightincision inthepatient'sfleshwith a. knife and rubsinsome'medicine,'afterwhichthepatient'cansmelloutthingslikeadog.' 4 Mwerisho, i.e. Shaaban orthe11thmonth:themonthprecedingRamadhan.5Itisinterestingtonotetheinfluence ofIslamonanoldcustom.JustbeforethefastofRamadhanthey, junga 'thespirits. Now

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142 TOTHE STUDY OF KI-S\VAHILIthis festival isatthe end ofRamadhan.The accomplices assembleandmake afeast.Andtheyhaveanameoftheirownforthisfeast,'kiano'orthePlate.Andonthiskianosome make cakesandbakedbreadandroastedbread-allkinds. Whentheyareall there, sixortenasthecasemaybe,theytakethese dainties totheirwitch doctor. AndontheirarrivaltheSpirits rise,everyonebends' hisknees,and the doctor comesandtakesholdoftheheadofeachofhis accomplicesandtakesthedaintiesandsummons hisfellow -doctors,andtheyconsumetheirgifts.Andaftereatingthemthewitch-doctor forwhomthiswasdonegivesa feastanda dance andagoat;andif heisrich enough hegivesanoxtohis accomplices fortheirfestival. Afterthistherearenomoreprohibitions-everySpirit risestotheheadwhensoeveritlikes;butifitisseentobeRamadhan,theyare forbidden ashere' described. Now allthisinformation Imanagedto get fromthewitch-doctors-suchiswhatIhavetosayaboutthewitch-doctors who exorcisetheirSpirits.ku-Iunga=to shut istheword usedby Swahili for'tofast.'OntheIdior festivalwhenthefastendstheSpiritsareno longer,funga'd'and a feastis held.

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MAGICINPEMBA143wateje,wakafanyakaramu.Nahiyokaramuwenyewe wan a [inalao huita'kiano'-nakiano hikiowengine hufanyizavitumbuanamikateya kusonga, na mikate yagae-kullanamna.Wakiisha timizakamaniwatusitaaonikumiwakaehukua,wakendazaohadikwa mganga wao. Na wakifika wote,hupandaPepo, kullamtuhupindama gote,akajamgangaakashikakichwa kulla mteje, mgangaakapokeavitu,akawetawaganga wenziwe, wakalavituvyao. Wakiishakulanayule mganga mwenyi kufanyiwa hayo,hutupakaramuna ngoma nambuzi,ajipatayehutoangombeakawapawateje wakesiku kuu. .Kishahayohawanamikotena-kullaPepo sikuatakayohupandandaniya kichwa, lakini ikibainikanaRamadhani,hufungwakamahivyo-Namaneno hayo nilipata kusikia kwawaganga-ndiyohabariya waganga wanaopungaPepo wao.

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144 AIDSTOTHE OF }{I-S'VAHILITHEWITCHES'SABBATH.Theorigmof witchcraft isa witches'Sabbath.Theymeeton Wednesday orSaturdayatt'welve midnight.Theyareseenonnootherday,norisanotherdayofanyusetothem.Andifthemeeting isalongwayofftheycan flytoit, but everyonemustreturntohishomeatdawn.Anyonewhoseesthemreturningwillnotrecover. Atthemeetingsthey wear no clothes ..Whentheyrequire a victim,theyarrange a ineeting, whenthey tothebrotheroftheprospective victim,'Itisyourturntosupplyus, giveusanox.'Nowby,ox'theymeanahumanbeing. Hereplies,'Whodoyouwant The wizards say,'Wewantyourbrother';or possibly hiswifetheywillwant.,Iamready,'hetellsthem,andadateis decided upon.Whenthetimeisuptheyassemble asbefore,andtheplaceof meetingmustbeoneoftwoplaces-eitheramongthegraves whichtheSwahilicall' Mava 'ortheCemetery, orelseinan open place whichtheSwahiliterm'Uchanjaa'or plain.Whenallare collectedtheremaybeasmanyasthreethousand.Theysaytothevictim'sbrother,'Hereweare,supplyus.' Hesays,'WaitandIwill fetchhim.'Hestartsoff withtwo-orthreeattendant'familial's'andtheygotogethertothehouseofthemanwhois destined tobebewitched;heis called byhisnameandanswers. Hegetsupasifhewereasleep,andheisquiteunconscious.Butifheisastrongmanwhen asked,'Whoareyou ,he will answer,'Goaway,youwillnotgetme';butifheisnotstrong hewillgowiththemtotheassembly. Thereonthemanwhohas'supplied' him says totheother, 'Hereisyourox.'Andthewizardssaytohim,'Letuscom mence.' The victim'sbrotherthencommences tohithim. Nowtheirsticks are bones oflegs-whichtheSwahili call,miundi'orshinbones.Whenhehas finishedhittinghimallhis comrades do likewise;theybelabour hishead1chomqo.ThereisacommonSwahilicustom,viz.,thattwomenagreethatoneshallreceivethewages ofbothforonemonth and thattheothershall receivethewages ofbothforthenext.Thisiscalled'chango.'H.mentions'tango'(Ki-Mvita)=acontribution,levy, and itsverb ku-tangiza-to make a collection.

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MAGIC INPEMBAKIKOAKIAWACHAWI 145 Asiliya uchawi nikikoakiawachawi. Na siku ya kikao niJumaa'nneaoJumaamosikwasaasitaza usiku, Siku nyinginehawatumii,wala hawaonekani, Na ikiwa mbalisanahuruka,nazamani 4rlifajiri hurudikillamtukwake ; iwapokunawaonawakirudi huponi. Na kikoani wachawihawananguo.Zamaniwaldtakamtu,humtoakikao,hutokeanduguyakealiye mchawi akaarnbiwa,'Sasachango1ni kwako,tupe ngonlbe.2 Basiyule ngombe nimtu.Hujibu,'Mwatakanani?'Wale wachawi husema,'Twatakanduguyako,'aomkepiahutaka.Hlunwambia'Tayari,'wakapanamiadi. Sikuikitimiahukutanikavilevile,namahaliwakutanaponimahalipawili, kwanza nipenyimakaburiWasawahilihuita,'Mava.'3Wakikosahapohukaakatikamboga, Wasawahilihuita'uchanjaa'4wakiisha timia, hesabu yaonialifutatu.Humwambia, Tunakuwapohayatupe.'Husema' ngojaninikamchukue.Huondokayeye namasheitani 5 mawiliaomatatu,wakafuatanahadinyumbanikwa yulemtuatakayerogwa,huitwakwajinalake,huitika,kamayu usingizini huondoka,hanafahamu,"aokamanayenihodarihuulizwa'nani ? 'hujibu'Hainunipate,rudini, 'la' si hufuatahatakikoani. Yule mwenyikutoahujibu,'Ngombeyenuhii. Wale wachawihusemanao,'Tuanzie.' Yulenduguyakehuanzakumpiga;nafimbozaonimifupayamiguungom6e. Thevictimisreferredto as the"ox.' This \\ 'i1 .11'(I ..Sabbat.his said tohaveexistedinPembabeforethe Al'
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146 AIDSro THE STUDY OF KI-SWAHILIuntilallthebonesare broken inside.Yettheinjuries arenotvisibletoanyoneexceptthewizards-andthereason ofthisisthattheirsticksareenchanted. Afterthistheysendhimbacktohis home-s-and allthewhileheis beingreturnedhe is unconscious. On reaching hishomehefeels 6l1-it may.beinthehead01'itmaybeinthestomach-butwhereveritisthewizards arethecauseofit. Ifhehasanotherbrotherthebrotherwillgotothewitch doctorandsay,'Comeandseemybrotherwhois sick.' Sothewitch-doctor goes,andwhenheseesthepatient,he knowsatoncethatitisthewizards whohavedonethisthing. Ifheseesthatthevictim is likely to recover he asks forhis reward,butif otherwise, hesays,'Iamgoingawayandwillreturnto-morrow.' After leaving hegoestothewizards' meetinganddemandstheman'slife.Butbefore he goeshetakescakesandbreadandcuttlefish-forsuchisthecustom whendealing.withwizards. Hegoeswithoutclothes on,andsays to the-wizards, 'Ihavecometoyou.'Theyaskhim,'Whatdoyouwant l' The witch-doctor says,'IwishtogoandhealSoandSo,andIcannotdosowithoutyourleave, because heis.inyourpower.' Iftheyareforgrantinghis requesttheysaytohim,'Giveusourdue.'Now this dueisabigone;inthefirst placeitisanox,andasmuchriceastheywant,possiblytwentyorthirtybags-andcakestoo, possiblytento fifteenbasketsfull. Aftergettinghis answerthewitch-doctorreturnstothesickmanandtellshimwhatthewizardsdemand.If he hasabrotherwhoisable,he pays it.Whenhehasreceived itthewitch-doctor repairs tothewizard'sandonarrivalsays,'Ihavebroughtthethings which youde-1miundi:shin-bones.2hutebanya. They' doctor'theseclubsoftheir'sinsuch e'. waythatalthoughthebonesoftheskullarebroken thedanger isnotvisible theeyeofordinarymortals.Itisonlythe' rnganua ,'

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MAGIUIN PEMBA147Wasawahilihuita'miundi.'1Akiisha pigayeye,namwen ziwehumpigawote-hupigakichwahatamifupa ikavunjikayotendani, wala haijulikani niwatuwengine elawao wachawi,sababufirnbozao hutebanya.s Wakiisha hum rudisha, naukatiwakimrudishahanafahamu. Akifika kwakehuonaugonjwa,kamani kichwa aonitumbo,lakinisebabuyakeni wachawi.Iwapoananduguzake mwinginehuendakwa mganga,'Twendeka-tezamenduguyangumgonjwa.' Mganga. huenda, akimwonahujuahawani wachawi waliotenda vitendo hivi. Akiona awezakuponahutakaujira wake,aohaponihusema,'Nendazangu, keshontakuja.'Akiondoka hapohuendakikaoni3kwa wachawi,akamtaka.Naatakapokwendahuchukuavitumbuanamikatenapweza-ndizoadaza wachawi.Huendahananguo, husema na wachawi,'Nimekujakwenu.' Huuliza wachawi,'Watakanini 1 Yulemgangahusema,'NatakakwendakumgangaFulani,namimisiwezikumgangaela muniperuhusasababunimtuwenu.'Kamawatampahumwambia,'Tupehakiyetu.'Nahakihiyonikubwa;kwanza ni ngombe, na mchelekamawatakao;kamani gunia asherini aoni the lathini, navitumbuavilevilekamani kapokumiao kumi natano.Akiisha jibiwahurudi.mganga,akendakwayule mgonjwaakamwambiakamawalivyotaka wachawi.Iwaponduguyenimwezahutoa.Ikiwaametoahupewa yule mganga, mgangaakachukuahadikwa wachawi. Akiisha fika husema,'Hivyomulivyonambia nimeleta.' Wachawi hujibu,'Tunakubali.'Na mganga husema, ,Ni dawa ganiitakayomfaa l' 'Wachawi hujibu, ,Wewe mgangautajua.'Namgangahusema,'Kamamunakubalikubalini yotothe' white magician,'whocanIdentifytheworkofthe'mcl.'blackmagician.'3kikaoni.Thewizardsattheirmeetingaresaidtobe invisible, andthe'mganga'toseethemmusttakeoffhis clothes.This' is thereasonwhythe'wachawi'arenottobedetectedinevery-daylife.Theyarevisible tothe'mganga,'butheismadeto"kulaa/mini'notto disclosetheiridentity.Atanyrateifhedidsohis 'uyanga' wouldbeofnouseinthefuturebecausetheywouldhavenothingtodowithhim.Iamtoldthat'wizards'in every-day life affectblackclothes.

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148AIDSTOTHESTUDY OF KI-SWAHILImanded.' And they reply,' 'Weare agreeable.'Andthewitch-doctor says,'Whatmedicine willsuit him?' Andthewizards reply,'Youarethewitch-doctor,yououghtto know.'Thenthedoctorsays,'Itisnogood agreeing unlessyouagreeentirelyandgivemesomephiltreandtreatmentfor.him.Thentheytell him,'Makehimvomit.',Andwhat then? saysthedoctor.'Anythingyoulike,' they answer. Sothedoctorreturnstothesickmanandbrings hismedicinewithhim.Nowthefirstof these medicines is called 'vuo,'andit:growsbytheseashore, or elseinthecemetery,and another medicine istobe found inthebook ofBlackMagic whichtheSwahili call'Babu.'Hemakesmedicine forhim,andifitbenothisfatetodie hegetswell;orifthewizards have refused tocometotermswiththewitch-doctortheysaytohim,'Ifyouarereally awitch-doctor-well,prescribe-e-wedon'twantto,anddonotmeddle inthismatter.Thismanisneitherbrotherorfatherofyours-whyallthis feeling? Goyourwayandmindyourownbusiness!'Butsome witch doctors are able togetthebetterof wizards,butonlythosewhoselothasbeentostudymuch, and whocansummonfamilial's to conversewiththem.

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INPEMRA 149 munipesadaka1nadawaya kumfanyizia.'Humwambia'Mtapishe.'Mganga husema,'Nikiishahayo hufanyaje 1 ' Wachawi humwambia, 'Kamaupendavyo.' Mgangahurudihatakwa mgonjwa,akaehukuadawa zake. Dawa ya kwanzahuitwa 2na'vuo'hilohuota3karibuya. pwani aondaniya'mava,'nadawanyingine zimokatikachuocha uganga. Wasawahilihuita'babu.'4Humfanyiadawa,kamahakujaliwa kufa,hupona;aokamawachawihawakukubalimaneno ya mganga humwambia mganga. ,Kamawewe mgangakweli-basi-kafanyedawa,hatutakiwalausingie maneno hayo,mtuhuyusi ndugu yako wala sibabayako, waona uchungu wanininendana shughuliyako.'Wagangawenginewaweza kuwashinda wachawi, nawalewawezao kuwashinda niwale waliojaliwa kusoma sana, wenyekuwaitamasheitani 5 kusema nao.1Sadaka,videKrapf..Heret.hebesttranslationis'philt1'e.'2Vuo,madeofthemixedleavesandrootsoftwo trees called, NI pacha'and'Mwenyikanguu.'.3Thevariousmeaningsoftheverbku-otaarcworthremembering.(1)tospringoutoftheground(as here). (2)todream.(3)towarmoneselfatafire'niotemotoni'=Letmewarmmyselfatthefire. (4)to roast meat(withoutfat)onastick..4Babu.(Theancestor?)anameofoneofthebooksofBlackMagic.Other books areM jm'abati andSheme-l-maarija.AnothertellsmeBabu=chapter(presumablyfromtheArabic).OrthodoxMuhammadansareforbiddentoreadthesebooks.6BothblackandwhitemagiciansarecondemnedbytheMuhammadansbuttheydonotscrupletomakeuseofthem.These'witches'Sabbaths'are said tohavebeenhelduntilquiterecenttimesbutaresono longer.

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1;)0ATnR TO TIlERTUn"Y OF KT-FnVAHTLT FOURCHARMSWHEREBYTO CAUSEEVILTOANENEMYOnecharmis earth takenfromthefootprintofthemanwhoistobe bewitched'. Nowsome, whentheyhaveobtainedthistakesomemoreoftheearthandmingleitwiththeroots ofacertaintree. Thistreeis called 'Miru:'Havingdonethishe buriesthemixtureina grave, whereuponheuttershisspellsatthehourandtimethatseems fittohimashewills. Sometimesthis is successful,butifthemanfindsthathe has notaffected hisvictimhe collects hisspittleorhishairandmixes thesewithapiece of cloth fromashroudandwaterofburialablutions.Takingthiswithhim,hegoesto wherethereisabig tree. Nowthistreeis calledthe'Destroyerof. Pity'and blossoms withredflowers;thereheuttershisplaint,'0"DestroyerofPity,"Ilaybefore youmyplaintagainstSuch anone-bythishour.andbythePlanetsofthishour, ifitisthehourofKamariIlaymyplaintbeforeyou;ifitis 'thehourof Shemshi Ilaymyplaintbeforeyou-givejudgementfor meagainstSuch anone.'Aftersayingthishestripshim self naked andreturnstohisown place.Ifthespell works, oneoftwothingswillhappenbeforetenorevenfivedaysthebewitched onewillclimbatreeandfalldown,orhewill belostandstaynotinthattown:orelsehewillbecrushedbythemightof the Powersthatbeandbe imprisoned or executed. Ifneitherofthesespellstouchhimheseeksfor amanwhoishisenemy'sfriend,andgiveshimafee,andsaystohim,'Thereis something IwantfromyouagainstSuch anone.Andthefriend asks him,'WhatthingI,Andthewizard replies ; 'Itisa secret.'Thefriend will say, ,Tellmewhatisthissecretthing.' Then thebadonewill say,'Iwantsome grime fromSuchanone'sbodyorelse oneofhisgarments.Nowifthisfriendisatrueonehe willrefuse,butifheisnothewill say,'Thisisaneasymatter;I aJU Such anone 's friendandcancertainlyobtainit.'Hethengoesstealthilyuntilhegetswhat.iswanted,whereupon he sends ittotheother.Andthebadonetakesitandmixes it with drugs. Sometimes hewillgoandplacethecharmbyariverwherehe knows Suchanoneis coming,

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l\IAGTC INPEMBASIHIRI151Sahirimojanimchangawaunyayowa.mtualiyetakarogwa. Akiishapatahuchukuamwengine,huchanganyanamiziziwamti.Namtihuuhuitwa 'Mvir-u.' Kishahuzikandaniyakaburi;kishahusemamanenoyakeatakayosaazakenasikuzake.Kamaalivyoniulia. PenginehusibuKamaakionahakumpatahuchukuamateao nywele,akachanganyanakitambaakiasandanamaji"yaufuo. Akiishachukuahivyohuendanavyopenyimtimkubwa,namtihuo'huitwa'Mvunja buruma,'hutendamauamekundu,hushitaki,'EweMvunjahurumanaku Rh itakiaFulanikwasaahiina manazili yasaahii,kamaniKamari1namshitakia,kamani Shemshi1namshitakia,munihukumunaFulani.Kishakusemahivyohuwatuputupu,hurudiakendazake.Iwapoimesibu haitimizisikukumiwalatanomambomawili,yulemwenyikurogwahupandamtiakaanguka, 8JO hupoteaasikaemjiuleaohusubiwaninguvuza ufalme ldfungo aokuuawa.Asipompatakwa sihiri hizohutafutamtualiye rafikiye,akampaijara,akarnwambia,'NatakakitujuuyaFulaninayulehuuliza, 'Kitugani ?' Yulemchawihusema,'Kituhicho nisiri.'Nayulehumwambia,'Nambianisirigani 'Yulembayahusema,'Kwanzani nongo 2 zaFulaniaonguoyake.'Kamayulerafikiye nimwemahukataa,kamasimwemahumwarnbia,'Hiloneno dogo miminaFulanini rafikiyangu,lazimakupata.Huendakwahadaahataakapata.Akiishapatahumpelekea,nayulembayahuchukua,akatianadawapamoja,PenginehuendakuwekasihirimtonianapojuamtohuuFulaniyuwaja,ao asipowekahapohuwekanjianiapitapo:nanjiahizonitatundipopaikwaposihiri.Ikiwaamepitayulemtumwenyikurogwapenginehusibu;'ikimsibaupesi ni wazimu,kamahaku-1Shemsh .iandKamariarenamesofstars:thelatter'comesoutat12midnight.' The former isnot,asmightbe supposed fromtheArabic, 'the sun'orthelatterthe'moon.' 2nongo:the dirt. whichcomes offwhena pa.rt ofthebody is violentlyrubbedwiththehand; an exact equivalentoftheMalay'daki.'

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V>2AIDS TOTIlE OFKI-R'VAJIILIorifnottherehewill placeitontheroadwhere hepasses:atthemeeting ofthreeroads,thatis wherethecharmis placed. Ifthemanwhoistobe bewitched passes some timesthespellwillact:ifitdoes,hewillshortlybecome amadman;butifheisnotaffectedthewizard will say,'Thereisnothingthatcan affectthisman.'Butifhishateforhimisverygreathewill searchoutaMasterandpayhimhisdueandtell himwhathewants,andtheMaster willsay,'Whatisityouwish Andtheotherwilltellhimhis desire.But 801ne oftheMasters willnotkilla man-s-theyareafraidofsin r hutthisone,ifhebe daring, will Hay, 'Bringa pigeon.' Havinggotithewill write acharmfromthebookof wisdom ofWhiteMagic, 'and having written, hewilltieitroundthe pigeon's neckandthepigeon'snamewillbechangedanditwillhe called bythenameofthemanwhoistobe bewitched.Andhewills,'0Suchanone,Imakemyprayerbefore Godandthishour,andtheplanetsofthismonth,theplanetsofthebeginning ofthe month, andtheplanets of themiddle ofthemonth,andtheplanetsoftheendofthemonth: beforetheplanetsofthebeginning oftheyear,andthoseofthemiddle oftheyear,andthoseoftheendoftheyear;andbeforetheplanetsofthebeginning ofday,andofthemiddle ofdayandoftheendofday.'Afterthatthebirdisletfly.Andifthespell worksthevictimwillbeutterlylostandneverreturntohisown. again,Andthis iR true,for such anactwas done tome.1

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MAcrc IN PRMRA patikanayulemchawihusema,'Mtuhuyuhanalitakalompata.'Ikiwakanamchukiasanahutafutamwalimu,akatoahaki,akamwambiamanenoyakekamaatakayo.Mwalimuhusema,'Watakaje Na yulehusemakamaapendavyo.Walimuwengine hawawezikuuamtu,huogopazambiyule,kamanijahilihuwambia,'Letenjiwa,'akiishapatahuandikatalasimulakatikachuokiailimuyauganga. Akiishaandikahumfunganjiwakatikatiyashingo.Nayulenjiwahugeuzwa,akaitwajinalayulemtuarogwaye. Akanuilia,'Ewe-FulaninaombakwaMngunasaahizinamanazili yamwezihuu,awali yamwezi,na manazili ya katikatiyamwezi,na manazili ya mwisho wamwezi,na manaziliyaawali yamwaka,nakatikatiyamwaka,na mwisho wamwaka,na manazili ya awali ya siku, nakatikatiyasiku, na mwisho wasikn.'Akiishahurushwa.lwapoimesibuhupoteakabisa,harudikwaokabisa.Nahayoni kwelimiminimefanyizwakamahayo.1MyinformanttellsmethatSharifHasanbinSaidAloiwasthesonofSharifSaidAloibinAhmadandhismotherMwanaishabintiSaidAliSharifu.Hisparentsdiedand left. himmuchpropertyinPelnba-3,OOO '.i.l1ikiralu' (clove-trees), to say nothingofmanycoconuttrees.OnthedeathofhisparentshisuncleSharifSaidAhmadbinAli,whocovetedtheproperty, cast thisspelluponhim. AI;) aresulthefelt'mad'andwanderedtothewharf,entered a Jehazi(dhau)andwenttoZanzibarandthencebysteamertoMombasa.AfterstayingatMombasathreedayshegotintoanothersteamerwithoutinquiringwhereit was going.'WhenIcametomysenses,' hecontinued,'IfoundmyselfatBaghdad.NordidIwritetomyagentinPembaforfourmonths,whenItoldhimwhereIwas.Myrelationscameandfetchedme.EvennowIdarenotstayinPembaorliveon my property,butI occasionallygetsomemoneysent.'Thereisnodoubtthatsympatheticmagicisagreatpowcrifonlyitisbelievedin.Myinformant is notof a speciallycredulouscharacter as is shownbyhis att.itude towardstheSpirit-dance.

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1114ATDR TOTITE RTUDYOFKT-R'VAfTTT/CHARlVI TOOBTAINAWISHFROMARICHMAN,AKING,ORAWOMAN Here isanothercharm. Ifyouwishto gainyourdesire fromarichman,aking,ora woman,thereisa certaintreewhichtheycall'Mviza 'orthe'guardian. Nowthis.treegrowsinstonyplaces orin desertedplantations.Whenthe sun shinesallleaves wither up,butthistreedoesnotwither ----itis always green. Amanwillgoand.sprinkle onit salt. orrice.Thenhemutterstoit,'0Guardian, who(lostmarthe sun andtherainandthelion,andeverythingthathathmightthoudostmar. Mayst thoumarSuch anoneinallthatI desire.'Thenhetakes some oftheleavesandplacestheminhismouthandgoes his way.If hismissionbeto borrow froma rich manheobtainshis wish,ifheisgoingtoa lawsuit he wins hiscase,ifhe goes withthedesireofmarryingawife he gets her even ifthewoman be unwilling. AndthisIbelieve because it was done for mebyamanwhoknows charms, sothatIgotthewifewhomIhavewithmenow,Andhowwasthat 1 -BecausewhenIwantedhertherewasanothermanwhohadpaid'thedowry in order tomarryher.AndwhenI sawherIwantedher.Butshe answered me,'Iamnotmarriageable, forthereisanotherman.'Butmy friend, who was skilled in charms, said,'To-morrowyou shall marryher.' AndIsaid,'Youdonotspeaktruly,howcanImarrywhenthe woman is unwilling l' Andheanswerelme, 'Wait andto-morrow youwill sec.' Sowe slept. Andthenextdayhecame bringingtheleaves ofthistreeandsaid,'Puttheminyour mouth, andgotoherhouse,andsaywhatyou.will.'SoI tried. Andit happenedthatthewomanhadno answer formebutto consent. SoI married her.ThenI asked my friend,'Tellmeofthattree,whatkindofa-treeit is.'Andhetoldmeitsnamehutdidnotshowittome. ThischarmI-learnedfrom Muhamadi bin Hamisi.

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15!) SIHIRIYAKUPATAHAJAKWATAJIRIAOKWAMFALMEAOKWAMWANAMKEIkonasihirimoja.Iwapowatakahajakwatajiriaokwamfalmeaokwamwanamkeukomtimmoja huita'-Mviza.'Namtihuohuotakatikamaweaokatikashambalisilolimwatena;jualikitokamajaniyotehukauka,lakinihuohaukauki,kullasikuhunawiri.Huendamtuhuchukuachumviao mcheleakaumwagia,akiishahunuilia, ,EweMviza11vizaejuanamynanasimba,1nakullamwenyinguvuwewehumviza,naminapendaumvizeFulanikwakullanalotaka.'Akiishahayohuchukuamajaniyakcakatiakanwani,akenda;kamayuwendakwatajirikukopa,hupata,kamayuwendakatikadauwahushinda,kamaendatakamkehumwoa;ijapokuwamkehataki,hupata.Nahayomiminilisadikikwakuwanilifanyiziwa nimtuajuaesihirihatanikapatamkeniliyenayesasa.Sababunilipomtakakulikuwanamtumwingine,amekuishatoa'muhari'Hikumwoa.Miminilipomwonanikamtaka.Akanijibu,'Siwezikuolewasababuyupomumemwingine.''Nnarafikiyangumwenyikujuasihiri,akanijibu,'Keshoutamwoa.'Nikamwambia,'Umrongontaoaje,namkehataki ? Akanijibu,'Ngojakesho.'Tukalala.Asubuhiakajanamtihuoakanambia,'Tiamdomoni,wendehadikwake,usemeupendayo.'Nikajaribu,'Ikawahakuwananenolakunijibumwanamkeelakurithia.Nikamwoa.Kishanikamwulizarafikiyangu,'Habariyamtiule,nimtigani 'Akanambiajinalakelakinihakunionesha.Sihiri hionimeonakwaMuharnadibinHamisi.1Simba.It is. saidthatifyouburnthewoodof this treenosavage beasts willcomenear.

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l!)fi AIDR TO TIlERTUDY OF KI-R'VAIlILI CHARl\IS TO CAUSETHESEPARATIONOFHlTSBANDANDWIFEOnemustfindtheeggofablackhen,andonitmustbewrittenacharmfromthebookofWhiteMagic.Andarootfromthetreecalled'BuzzingBee'ismixedwithit.Now he witch-doctors changethenameofthistreeandcallit,'TheBenderoverall.' Onemusttakethesetwothingstogetherandburythematthedoorofthehouse ofthetwain-manandwife-whoaretobebewitched,andthismustbedonewhenday,planetsandhourare pro pitious. IfthespellactstheJuanwill leave hiswife uncon sciously.Butifhe fails totouchhimwiththischarmhemust find theeggofaredhen,anditmustbe its first egg,andfindacertaintreecalled"Msasa;'thoughthewitchdoctorscallitbyanother name, andthatnameinthemagic is 'The Deriderofwomen,'alsoanothertreecalledThe'Jinnscarer,'andhemustobtain the spittleofthemanandwomanwhoaretobe bewitched.Whenhehasobtainedthespittlehegetssandfromtheirfootprintsandmixesthemalltogether,andburiesthecharminthemiddleoftheopenspace beforethedooroftheirhouse, orhe buries itinthegraveofanyonesoever.Andwhen he buriesithe wills 'Almightyone IamburyingtheloveofSuchanone, son of Such an one, andtheloveofSuchanone,daughterofSuchanone.Andhefurtherprays,'Almightyone,Icausetheirloveto'dieevenashediedwholiesin this grave.IpraythattheloveofSuchanone,sonof Such anoneandSuchanone,daughterofSuchanone,maydieevenasbothAdamandEvediddietooneanother,andthisIprayintheblessednameofGod,theBooks ofMoses,theGospels,thePsalmsandtheFurukani.'Afterthishedeparts,andifthespellactstheyleave one anotherthatveryday;theyleaveoneanotherwithoutcause-asitwereinsleep-unconsciously.Andthereisanotherspellthatcanbeputona woman, ifitiswantedtotakeawayherluck, ortopreventamanobtaining a wifeorasweetheartallhisdays;Of,ifawoman,to prevent. herhavingahusbandora lover.Youtakesomeofhishairandthe paring ofthenails ofbothhandsandfeet,and

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MAGICIN PElVIBAt-;IHIRI YAKUWACHISHAMKENAMUMEWE]57Hutafutayaii lakukumweusi,huandikwatalasimulakatikachuochauganga. Namiziziwa'Mvuma ny1.lki huchanganyapamoja,namtihuo waganga hugeuzajinawakauita'Mnamiakumbweni.'1Huchukuapamoja,ika zikwa mlangoni kwaowatuwawilimkena mumewe waliotakarogwa kwasikuna manazili yaonasaanjema.Ikisibumumehumwachamkewe bilakufahamu,aokamahakumpatakwa sihiri hiohutafutayaii lakukumwekundu, na yaiihiloshotila kwanza,akatafutanamtimmojahuitwa, J.lfsasa,'2 lakini wagangahuitajinalingine, najinalakelauganga '1.l{cheka u xmaicake, ,namtimmojatenahuitwa'MwingaJinni,'.akatafutemateyamkenayamumewarogwao. Akiishapatamatehupatanamchangawaunyayohuchanganya,akavizikaka.tikati yauwanjawanyumbayao,ao huzikakatikatiyakaburiyo yote.Ukatiakizika hunuilia,'YarabinazikamahabayaFulanibinFulaninaFulanibintiFulani,akaombatena,'Yarabinafarikishamahabaalivyofariki mwenyikaburihii,naombaitafarikimahabayaFulanibin.FulaninaFulanibintiFulanikamaalivyofarikianaAdamunaHawakwabarakayaMngu,nabarakayaTaureti,naInjilinaZaburinaFurukani.'Akiishahayohuondoka. Iwapo imesibuhuwachanasikuileile,walahapawinasababuya kugomba,hawachanatuburekamawalio usingizini hilafahamu.Ikona sihiritenayakufanyiwamwanamke.Iwapoatakaondolewabahati;aomwanamumeasipatemwanamkewalamchumbaumuriwake;naikiwanimwanamkeasipatemumewala hawa.Huchukuliwanywele zakenakuchazakemikononi na miguuni, namateyake,na nongo zake, najinalake3najinalamamayakenajina1 J.1tJ namiakumbweni.AMombasaSwahili tells methatthisisatreewhoseleavesfollowthedirectionoftheSlUlonitscourseakindofsensitiveplantapparently.2Msasa:asmalltreeonthecoastfromwhichtheSwahiliarefondofmakingwalking-sticks'(bakora ').H.saysthathedoesnotknowofthistreebeingusedformakingwalking-sticks,butknowsthatitsleavesareusedassand-papertosmooththe'bakora,'andhashimself used themforthispurpose.3Notethefamiliarideathatthenameisan essentialpartof the personwhoownsit.

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158AIDSTO r:rHE STUDY OF hisspittleand the dirtfromhis skin,andhis name,andthenameofhismotherandthenameofhisfather:adayandhourare chosenandacharmiswrittenfromthatbook of magic,the'Mjarauati.'Andafterall these personal belongings which have beenobtainedare mixedwiththecharmandaretakentowherethereisa' Blasted One.' Nowthisblastedoneisatree-averylargetree-atreeofmanyyears-whoseleaves are withered ,andwhosebarkhascomeoff,andwhichis split in the middleandwhoseshell only remains-s-this is .the'BlastedOne.' Andaftergoing with these tothefootoftheblastedone he'wills,'0Blasted One,Ilay111yplaintagainst Such an one,daughterof f-;uchan one(if she bea woman).Butifhe beamanthatsorcerer whowouldenchanthimsays,'Oh, Blasted One,IlaymyplaintagainstSuchanone,sonofSuchanone,Godmakehisfatethathebesolitary-thathebenotloved by womangreatorsmall,justasthou,0 -BlastedOne,hastbeen deserted bythewinged birds who onetimeperched amongthybranches,andSuchanone,daughterof Such anone-letherpathbecrossed bynomanwhosoever,greatorsmall,lether'pathbenotcrossed by neighbour,strangerorfriend-justasthyluck has deserted thee, 0BlastedOne-so 111 aySuchanonefindnoluck-intheblessed name of this year andthatwhichisto come,' And as he wills thishewear s no clothes.Thenhe buriesthecharmandasbeforesays,'Iburytheluckandhappiness ofSuchan one, sonof Such anone,or Such anone,daughterofSuchan one.' Ifthespellactsshe,ifshebea woman, all herdayswillgetnohusbandorfriend;ifhebeamanhe willgetnowifeor sweetheartuntilthe-dayofhisdeath.AndthisspellIknow wascastuponmycousin. Such washer fate fromyouthtofullage. "When those whose business itwas recognized -that thiswastheresult ofa spellanditwascounteractedbythewitch-doctor sothatshegotahusband-bythenshewasfullof years. Andthename ofthemanwho bewitchedherwastheWisemanJafar,andthename ofthe woman was Mariam ,daughterofSaidAhmadSharifu.

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MAGICIN PBMBA15B lababayake,ikatafutwasikuyakenasaayake,ikaandikwatalasimulakatikachuochauganga'Mia1abati.' Na hivyovituvyakevyotevilivyopatikanandaniyamwiliwakehuchanganywapamojanatalasimu,vikachukuliwahadipanapo. 'kunge, ,nahiyo'.kunge 'nimtiuliomkubwasana,uliopatamiakamingi,ukakaukamajani,ukatokanamagozi,ukakatikakatikati,ukabakisiki-basi-huohuitwa,kumqe:'Akiishakwendallavyochilli ya kunge hunuilia, 'Ewe"kunge 'l namshitakiFulanibintiFulani,'ikiwani mwa narnke.Iwaponamwanamumehusemayulemchawiarogaye.'Ewe"kunge"namshitukiFulanibinFulaniMngun'amjalieFulaniawe peke yakeasipendwenimkemkubwanamdogokamawewe "ku'nG"e "ulivyokataliwanindegewamubawawaliowakituandaniyamajaniyako,naFulanibintiFulaniasipitiwe nimumemkubwawalamdogo yoyote,asipit.iwe nijiraniwalamgeniwalarafiki,Fulaniiondokebahatiyakekamailivyoondokabahatiyakowewe" kunqe,"naFulaniakoshekabisabahati,kwabarakayamwakahuunaujao.'Naukatiakinuiliahuwatupu-tupu.Akiishahayohuzika,husemavilevile,"NazikabahatinasuudiyaFulanibinFulaniaoFulanibintiFulani.'Iwapoirnesibuumuriwake,kamanimkehapatimumewalarafiki,kamarrimumehapatimkewalamchumbahadikufakwake.Nahayonimeonaalifanyiwamtotowababayangumdogo. Alifanyiwakamahayotangukijanahataakawamzee,Walipojuawenyewe1ni sihiriakagangwa,akapatamumeamekuwamtumzimanajinalakealiyemrogaaitwa"MwalimuJafari,,najinalamwanamkcJdariamubintiSaidiAhmadSharifu,1Wenyewe .;lit."themselves.'Itis difficult to translate thisusefulword.It means hereandfrequentlyelsewhere, 'Thosewhose business itwas'or'relations.'Printedin Enrland byButler Tannor,Selwood Printinll Works, F't0Jll'.